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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

An experimental investigation of the surface tension of seawater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface tension of seawater was measured for absolute salinities S = (20.01, 35.18, 40.49, 79.39, 121.54) g/kg across a temperature range of T = (0 - 90)°C at atmospheric pressure using the Wilhelmy plate method. The ...

Nayar, Kishor Govind

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Surface electromagnetic wave equations in a warm magnetized quantum plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based on the single-fluid plasma model, a theoretical investigation of surface electromagnetic waves in a warm quantum magnetized inhomogeneous plasma is presented. The surface electromagnetic waves are assumed to propagate on the plane between a vacuum and a warm quantum magnetized plasma. The quantum magnetohydrodynamic model includes quantum diffraction effect (Bohm potential), and quantum statistical pressure is used to derive the new dispersion relation of surface electromagnetic waves. And the general dispersion relation is analyzed in some special cases of interest. It is shown that surface plasma oscillations can be propagated due to quantum effects, and the propagation velocity is enhanced. Furthermore, the external magnetic field has a significant effect on surface wave's dispersion equation. Our work should be of a useful tool for investigating the physical characteristic of surface waves and physical properties of the bounded quantum plasmas.

Li, Chunhua; Yang, Weihong [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei (China); Wu, Zhengwei, E-mail: wuzw@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Center of Low Temperature Plasma Application, Yunnan Aerospace Industry Company, Kunming, 650229 Yunnan (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

3

Role of surface finishing on pitting corrosion of a duplex stainless steel in seawater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Localized corrosion of duplex UNS S32550 stainless steel in seawater was investigated in the laboratory and in field trials for several surface finish conditions: polished, ground, and sandblasted. Electrochemical data obtained by polarization curves showed that the smoother, polished surface had better characteristics (higher pitting and protection potentials) than the ground or sandblasted surfaces. However, despite its high degree of roughness, the sandblasted surface was the most resistant in field conditions, exhibiting the lowest number of sites attacked. Internal compressive stresses created by sandblasting seem also to have an unsensitizing effect on sensitized zones that exist in cast steel (due to repairs of mold defects), reducing its susceptibility to microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Such stresses are not generated in polished or ground surfaces, and localized MIC attack can occur.

Salah-Rousset, N.B.; Chaouachi, M.A. [ENIT, Tunis (Tunisia). Lab. of Metallurgy and Materials; Chellouf, A. [STEG, Tunis (Tunisia)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Why are climate models reproducing the observed global surface warming so well?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Why are climate models reproducing the observed global surface warming so well? Reto Knutti1 global surface warming so well?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L18704, doi:10.1029/ 2008GL034932. 1 models reproduce the observed surface warming better than one would expect given the uncertainties

Fischlin, Andreas

5

The Effect of Diurnal Sea Surface Temperature Warming on Climatological Air–Sea Fluxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diurnal sea surface warming affects the fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and upwelling longwave radiation. Diurnal warming most typically reaches maximum values of 3°C, although very localized events may reach 7°–8°C. ...

Clayson, Carol Anne

6

Estimated solar contribution to the global surface warming using the ACRIM TSI satellite composite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimated solar contribution to the global surface warming using the ACRIM TSI satellite composite decomposition methodology, the solar signature on global surface temperature data using the ACRIM total solar minima during solar cycles 21­23 (1980­2002). We estimate that the ACRIM upward trend might have

Scafetta, Nicola

7

What Global Warming Looks Like The July 2010 global map of surface temperature anomalies (Figure 1), relative to the average  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

What Global Warming Looks Like The July 2010 global map of surface temperature anomalies (Figure 1 anomalies an example of what we can expect global warming to look like? Maps of temperature anomalies, such as Figure 1, are useful for helping people understand the role of global warming in extreme events

8

The depth of the tropical Pacific Ocean's warm surface layer shrank during the last three  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The depth of the tropical Pacific Ocean's warm surface layer shrank during the last three decades Pacific Ocean, off an island in Palau. They analysed the ratio of nitrogen and carbon isotopes.1029/2010GL044867 (2010) OceanOgraphy Cold water rising in the Pacific DrUg DeVeLOpMenT Worm surgery on a chip

Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

9

Mechanisms of Remote Tropical Surface Warming during El Nio JOHN C. H. CHIANG AND BENJAMIN R. LINTNER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature) for the remote tropical surface warming. Over the remote oceans, latent heat flux acting throughMechanisms of Remote Tropical Surface Warming during El Niño JOHN C. H. CHIANG AND BENJAMIN R.10) simulations of the 1997/98 El Niño that the observed "remote" (i.e., outside the Pacific) tropical land

Lintner, Benjamin Richard

10

Characterizing Surface Temperature and Clarity of Kuwait's Seawaters Using Remotely Sensed Measurements and GIS Analyses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kuwait sea surface temperature (SST) and water clarity are important water characteristics that influence the entire Kuwait coastal ecosystem. The aim of this project was to study the spatial and temporal distributions of ...

Alsahli, Mohammad M. M.

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

11

Nature/Culture/Seawater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This essay considers seawater as a substance and symbol in anthropological and social theory. Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place with respect to anthropological categories of nature and culture. Seawater as nature ...

Helmreich, Stefan

12

Reply to comment by J. L. Lean on ``Estimated solar contribution to the global surface warming using the ACRIM TSI satellite composite''  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reply to comment by J. L. Lean on ``Estimated solar contribution to the global surface warming contributed at least 10­30% of the 0.40 ± 0.04 K global surface warming) depends crucially on the adoption, because it lacks any upward trend between solar cycles 21­23, the solar contribution to the global warming

Scafetta, Nicola

13

The Transient Circulation Response to Radiative Forcings and Sea Surface Warming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tropospheric circulation shifts have strong potential to impact surface climate. But the magnitude of these shifts in a changing climate, and the attending regional hydrological changes, are difficult to project. Part of this difficulty arises from our lack of understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the circulation shifts themselves. In order to better delineate circulation shifts and their respective causes, we decompose the circulation response into (1) the "direct" response to radiative forcings themselves, and (2) the "indirect" response to changing sea surface temperatures. Using ensembles of 90-day climate model simulations with immediate switch-on forcings, including perturbed greenhouse gas concentrations, stratospheric ozone concentrations, and sea surface temperatures, we document the direct and indirect transient responses of the zonal mean general circulation, and investigate the roles of previously proposed mechanisms in shifting the midlatitude jet. We find that both the direct and indirect wind responses often begin in the lower stratosphere. Changes in midlatitude eddies are ubiquitous and synchronous with the midlatitude zonal wind response. Shifts in the critical latitude of wave absorption on either flank of the jet are not indicted as primary factors for the poleward shifting jet, although we see some evidence for increasing equatorward wave reflection over the southern hemisphere in response to sea surface warming. Mechanisms for the northern hemisphere jet shift are less clear.

Staten, Paul; Reichler, Thomas; Lu, Jian

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

14

Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? A new effect may exist  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Whether natural factors could interpret the rise of the Earth's surface temperature is still controversial. Though numerous recent researches have reported apparent correlations between solar activity and the Earth's climate, solar activity has encountered a big problem when describing the rapid global warming after 1970s. Our investigation shows the good positive correlations between the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and the Earth's surface temperature both in temporal and spatial variations by analyzing the global surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and global surface temperature data from 1980-1999. The rise of CO$_2$ cannot interpret the good positive correlations, and we could even get an opposite result to the good correlations when employing the rise of CO$_2$ to describe the relation between them. Based on the good positive correlations, we suggest a new effect, named "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect, which can interpret how the Sun influences the Earth's surfac...

Chen, Jilong; Zhao, Juan; Zheng, Yujun

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Uranium from seawater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel process for recovering uranium from seawater is proposed and some of the critical technical parameters are evaluated. The process, in summary, consists of two different options for contacting adsorbant pellets with seawater without pumping the seawater. It is expected that this will reduce the mass handling requirements, compared to pumped seawater systems, by a factor of approximately 10/sup 5/, which should also result in a large reduction in initial capital investment. Activated carbon, possibly in combination with a small amount of dissolved titanium hydroxide, is expected to be the preferred adsorbant material instead of the commonly assumed titanium hydroxide alone. The activated carbon, after exposure to seawater, can be stripped of uranium with an appropriate eluant (probably an acid) or can be burned for its heating value (possible in a power plant) leaving the uranium further enriched in its ash. The uranium, representing about 1% of the ash, is then a rich ore and would be recovered in a conventional manner. Experimental results have indicated that activated carbon, acting alone, is not adequately effective in adsorbing the uranium from seawater. We measured partition coefficients (concentration ratios) of approximately 10/sup 3/ in seawater instead of the reported values of 10/sup 5/. However, preliminary tests carried out in fresh water show considerable promise for an extraction system that uses a combination of dissolved titanium hydroxide (in minute amounts) which forms an insoluble compound with the uranyl ion, and the insoluble compound then being sorbed out on activated carbon. Such a system showed partition coefficients in excess of 10/sup 5/ in fresh water. However, the system was not tested in seawater.

Gregg, D.; Folkendt, M.

1982-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

16

Prevention of biofouling in seawater desalination via initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biofouling, the undesirable settlement and growth of organisms, occurs immediately when a clean surface is immersed in natural seawater. It is a universal problem and the bottleneck for seawater desalination, which reduces ...

Yang, Rong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Eos, Vol. 87, No. 44, 31 October 2006 The recent warming of Earth's surface is  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is expected to increase linearly with depth with a geothermal gradi- ent determined by the subsurface thermal, subsurface temperature will depart from the linear dis- tribution.A progressive cooling at the surface://www.geo.lsa.umich/ climate).The database has been compiled as an archive of geothermal signatures of climate change

Huang, Shaopeng

18

Global Warming: Is There Still Time to Avoid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global Warming: Is There Still Time to Avoid Disastrous Human -Made Climate Change? i.e. Have We simulations. (B) Simulated and observed surface temperature change. #12;21st Century Global Warming Climate) Simulated Global Warming Warming

Hansen, James E.

19

A KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY STRATEGY FOR RELATING SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES TO FREQUENCIES OF TROPICAL STORMS AND GENERATING PREDICTIONS OF HURRICANES UNDER 21ST-CENTURY GLOBAL WARMING SCENARIOS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The connections among greenhouse-gas emissions scenarios, global warming, and frequencies of hurricanes or tropical cyclones are among the least understood in climate science but among the most fiercely debated in the context of adaptation decisions or mitigation policies. Here we show that a knowledge discovery strategy, which leverages observations and climate model simulations, offers the promise of developing credible projections of tropical cyclones based on sea surface temperatures (SST) in a warming environment. While this study motivates the development of new methodologies in statistics and data mining, the ability to solve challenging climate science problems with innovative combinations of traditional and state-of-the-art methods is demonstrated. Here we develop new insights, albeit in a proof-of-concept sense, on the relationship between sea surface temperatures and hurricane frequencies, and generate the most likely projections with uncertainty bounds for storm counts in the 21st-century warming environment based in turn on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Our preliminary insights point to the benefits that can be achieved for climate science and impacts analysis, as well as adaptation and mitigation policies, by a solution strategy that remains tailored to the climate domain and complements physics-based climate model simulations with a combination of existing and new computational and data science approaches.

Race, Caitlin [University of Minnesota; Steinbach, Michael [University of Minnesota; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL; Semazzi, Fred [North Carolina State University; Kumar, Vipin [University of Minnesota

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Seawater degradation of polymeric composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SEAWATER DEGRADATION OF POLYMERIC COMPOSITES A Thesis by TIMOTHY SEAN GRANT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major... Subject: Mechanical Engineering SEAWATER DEGRADATION OF POLYMERIC COMPOSITES A Thesis by TIMOTHY SEAN GRANT Approved as to style and content by: Walter L. Bradley (Chair of mmittee) lan Letton (Member) arry ogan (Member) r John Whitcomb...

Grant, Timothy Sean

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Uranium from Seawater Program Review; Fuel Resources Uranium from Seawater Program DOE Office of Nuclear Energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For nuclear energy to remain sustainable in the United States, economically viable sources of uranium beyond terrestrial ores must be developed. The goal of this program is to develop advanced adsorbents that can extract uranium from seawater at twice the capacity of the best adsorbent developed by researchers at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1.5 mg U/g adsorbent. A multidisciplinary team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the University of Texas at Austin was assembled to address this challenging problem. Polymeric adsorbents, based on the radiation grafting of acrylonitrile and methacrylic acid onto high surface-area polyethylene fibers followed by conversion of the nitriles to amidoximes, have been developed. These poly(acrylamidoxime-co-methacrylic acid) fibers showed uranium adsorption capacities for the extraction of uranium from seawater that exceed 3 mg U/g adsorbent in testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Marine Sciences Laboratory. The essence of this novel technology lies in the unique high surface-area trunk material that considerably increases the grafting yield of functional groups without compromising its mechanical properties. This technology received an R&D100 Award in 2012. In addition, high surface area nanomaterial adsorbents are under development with the goal of increasing uranium adsorption capacity by taking advantage of the high surface areas and tunable porosity of carbon-based nanomaterials. Simultaneously, de novo structure-based computational design methods are being used to design more selective and stable ligands and the most promising candidates are being synthesized, tested and evaluated for incorporation onto a support matrix. Fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic studies are being carried out to improve the adsorption efficiency, the selectivity of uranium over other metals, and the stability of the adsorbents. Understanding the rate-limiting step of uranium uptake from seawater is also essential in designing an effective uranium recovery system. Finally, economic analyses have been used to guide these studies and highlight what parameters, such as capacity, recyclability, and stability, have the largest impact on the cost of extraction of uranium from seawater. Initially, the cost estimates by the JAEA for extraction of uranium from seawater with braided polymeric fibers functionalized with amidoxime ligands were evaluated and updated. The economic analyses were subsequently updated to reflect the results of this project while providing insight for cost reductions in the adsorbent development through “cradle-to-grave” case studies for the extraction process. This report highlights the progress made over the last three years on the design, synthesis, and testing of new materials to extract uranium for seawater. This report is organized into sections that highlight the major research activities in this project: (1) Chelate Design and Modeling, (2) Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Structure, (3) Advanced Polymeric Adsorbents by Radiation Induced Grafting, (4) Advanced Nanomaterial Adsorbents, (5) Adsorbent Screening and Modeling, (6) Marine Testing, and (7) Cost and Energy Assessment. At the end of each section, future research directions are briefly discussed to highlight the challenges that still remain to reduce the cost of extractions of uranium for seawater. Finally, contributions from the Nuclear Energy University Programs (NEUP), which complement this research program, are included at the end of this report.

none,

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

global warming's six indias  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

Haller, Gary L.

23

Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? (II) ----Ozone layer depth reconstruction via HEWV effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is suggested by Chen {\\it et al.} that the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance ($280-400$ nm) could influence the Earth's surface temperature variation by "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect. In this manuscript, we reconstruct the developing history of the ozone layer depth variation from 1860 to 2011 based on the HEWV effect. It is shown that the reconstructed ozone layer depth variation correlates with the observational variation from 1958 to 2005 very well ($R=0.8422$, $P>99.9\\%$). From this reconstruction, we may limit the spectra band of the surface Ultraviolet irradiance referred in HEWV effect to Ultraviolet B ($280-320$ nm).

Chen, Jilong; Zheng, Yujun

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Is the basinwide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean related to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming? Chunzai Wang1 and Shenfu Dong1,2 Received 31 January 2010 is controversial. Some studies argued that the warming is due to global warming in association with the secular sea surface temperature. Here we show that both global warming and AMO variability make a contribution

Wang, Chunzai

25

Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues Megan Mc of these changes. Some scientists believe that global warming and increased sea surface temperatures are to blame, global warming and increased sea surface temperatures do appear to have influenced hurricane frequency

Kareem, Ahsan

26

Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes Chunzai Wang1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes Chunzai Wang1 and Sang-Ki Lee2 Received 18] A secular warming of sea surface temperature occurs almost everywhere over the global ocean. Here we use observational data to show that global warming of the sea surface is associated with a secular increase

Wang, Chunzai

27

Sequestering Uranium from Seawater: Binding Strength and Modes...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sequestering Uranium from Seawater: Binding Strength and Modes of Uranyl Complexes with Glutarimidedioxime Sequestering Uranium from Seawater: Binding Strength and Modes of Uranyl...

28

Automated nutrient analyses in seawater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming Martin Wild,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming Martin Wild,1 Atsumu Ohmura,1 and Knut February 2007. [1] Speculations on the impact of variations in surface solar radiation on global warming was responsible for the observed warming. To disentangle surface solar and greenhouse influences on global warming

Fischlin, Andreas

30

QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING „IS IT REAL? „IS IT IMPORTANT? „WHAT IS IT DUE TO? „HOW MUCH MORE in the atmosphere, giving Earth its temperate climate. Global Atmosphere, Global Warming GLOBAL TEMPERATURE TREND�t a cure for global warming! Aerosols only last a short while in the atmosphere, they would have

31

Preparation of Pt deposited nanotubular TiO{sub 2} as cathodes for enhanced photoelectrochemical hydrogen production using seawater electrolytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to develop effective cathodes to increase the production of hydrogen and use the seawater, an abundant resource in the earth as the electrolyte in photoelectrochemical systems. In order to fabricate the Pt/TiO{sub 2} cathodes, various contents of the Pt precursor (0-0.4 wt%) deposited by the electrodeposition method were used. On the basis of the hydrogen evolution rate, 0.2 wt% Pt/TiO{sub 2} was observed to exhibit the best performance among the various Pt/TiO{sub 2} cathodes with the natural seawater and two concentrated seawater electrolytes obtained from single (nanofiltration) and combined membrane (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) processes. The surface characterizations exhibited that crystal structures and morphological properties of Pt and TiO{sub 2} found the results of XRD pattern and SEM/TEM images, respectively. - Graphical abstract: On the basis of photoelectrochemical hydrogen production, 0.2 wt% Pt/TiO{sub 2} was observed to exhibit the best performance among the various Pt/TIO{sub 2} cathodes with natural seawater. In comparison of hydrogen evolution rate with various seawater electrolytes, 0.2 wt% Pt/TiO{sub 2} was found to show the better performance as cathode with the concentrated seawater electrolytes obtained from membrane. Highlights: > Pt deposited TiO{sub 2} electrodes are used as cathode in PEC H{sub 2} production. > Natural and concentrated seawater by membranes are used as electrolytes in PEC. > Pt/TiO{sub 2} shows a good performance as cathode with seawater electrolytes. > H{sub 2} evolution rate increases with more concentrated seawater electrolyte. > Highly saline seawater is useful resource for H{sub 2} production.

Nam, Wonsik [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Energy Research Center, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Korea University of Technology and Education, Department of Applied Chemical Engineering, 1800 Chungjeollo, Byeongcheon-myun, Chungnam 330-708 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seichang [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Energy Research Center, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Hyunku [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Energy Research Center, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jaekyung, E-mail: jyoon@kier.re.kr [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Energy Research Center, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

RAPID DETERMINATION OF RADIOSTRONTIUM IN SEAWATER SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new method for the determination of radiostrontium in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of strontium and yttrium isotopes in seawater samples for measurement. The new SRNL method employs a novel and effective pre-concentration step that utilizes a blend of calcium phosphate with iron hydroxide to collect both strontium and yttrium rapidly from the seawater matrix with enhanced chemical yields. The pre-concentration steps, in combination with rapid Sr Resin and DGA Resin cartridge separation options using vacuum box technology, allow seawater samples up to 10 liters to be analyzed. The total {sup 89}Sr + {sup 90}Sr activity may be determined by gas flow proportional counting and recounted after ingrowth of {sup 90}Y to differentiate {sup 89}Sr from {sup 90}Sr. Gas flow proportional counting provides a lower method detection limit than liquid scintillation or Cerenkov counting and allows simultaneous counting of samples. Simultaneous counting allows for longer count times and lower method detection limits without handling very large aliquots of seawater. Seawater samples up to 6 liters may be analyzed using Sr Resin for {sup 89}Sr and {sup 90}Sr with a Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) of 1-10 mBq/L, depending on count times. Seawater samples up to 10 liters may be analyzed for {sup 90}Sr using a DGA Resin method via collection and purification of {sup 90}Y only. If {sup 89}Sr and other fission products are present, then {sup 91}Y (beta energy 1.55 MeV, 58.5 day half-life) is also likely to be present. {sup 91}Y interferes with attempts to collect {sup 90}Y directly from the seawater sample without initial purification of Sr isotopes first and {sup 90}Y ingrowth. The DGA Resin option can be used to determine {sup 90}Sr, and if {sup 91}Y is also present, an ingrowth option with using DGA Resin again to collect {sup 90}Y can be performed. An MDA for {sup 90}Sr of <1 mBq/L for an 8 hour count may be obtained using 10 liter seawater sample aliquots.

Maxwell, S.

2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

33

Seawater Enhances the Corrosion of Nuclear Fuel Rods | Photosynthetic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Seawater Enhances the Corrosion of Nuclear Fuel Rods April 19, 2012 Seawater Enhances the Corrosion of Nuclear Fuel Rods PARC Post Doc Anne-Marie Carey is featured in DOE Frontiers...

34

Discriminating robust and non-robust atmospheric circulation responses to global warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Discriminating robust and non-robust atmospheric circulation responses to global warming Michael response to global warming in a set of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) is investigated. The global-warmed climate is forced by a global pattern of warmed ocean surface temperatures

35

Global Warming Observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global Warming Observations: 1. Global temperature has been gradually rising in recent years #15 in range 8000 12000 nm { CFC's, methane and N 2 O important for global warming even though concentra- tions in concentration of \\greenhouse gases" like CO 2 What determines global temperature? Energy budget of earth: 1

Schofield, Jeremy

36

Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011 LawrenceE C H N I C A LMn4Ca

37

Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011 LawrenceE C H N I C A LMn4CaLearning from Roman

38

Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011 LawrenceE C H N I C A LMn4CaLearning from

39

Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011 LawrenceE C H N I C A LMn4CaLearning

40

Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011 LawrenceE C H N I C A LMn4CaLearningLearning

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011 LawrenceE C H N I C A

42

Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geochemical environments, fates, and effects are modeled for methane released into seawater by the decomposition of climate-sensitive clathrates. A contemporary global background cycle is first constructed, within the framework of the Parallel Ocean Program. Input from organics in the upper thermocline is related to oxygen levels, and microbial consumption is parameterized from available rate measurements. Seepage into bottom layers is then superimposed, representing typical seabed fluid flow. The resulting CH{sub 4} distribution is validated against surface saturation ratios, vertical sections, and slope plume studies. Injections of clathrate-derived methane are explored by distributing a small number of point sources around the Arctic continental shelf, where stocks are extensive and susceptible to instability during the first few decades of global warming. Isolated bottom cells are assigned dissolved gas fluxes from porous-media simulation. Given the present bulk removal pattern, methane does not penetrate far from emission sites. Accumulated effects, however, spread to the regional scale following the modeled current system. Both hypoxification and acidification are documented. Sensitivity studies illustrate a potential for material restrictions to broaden the perturbations, since methanotrophic consumers require nutrients and trace metals. When such factors are considered, methane buildup within the Arctic basin is enhanced. However, freshened polar surface waters act as a barrier to atmospheric transfer, diverting products into the deep return flow. Uncertainties in the logic and calculations are enumerated including those inherent in high-latitude clathrate abundance, buoyant effluent rise through the column, representation of the general circulation, and bacterial growth kinetics.

Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Moridis, G.J.; Cameron-Smith, P.J.

2011-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

43

Crevice and pitting corrosion behavior of stainless steels in seawater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pitting and crevice corrosion tests in natural seawater were performed on a series of stainless steels (i.e., S31603, N08904, S32304, S31803, S32520, N08925 and S31266) in order to determine their resistance to these types of localized corrosion. Open circuit potential (OCP) measurements for these alloys show for short exposure times an ennoblement in the OCP. After a certain time, occasional fall and rise in the OCP values was observed, which can be related to nucleation and repassivation of pits and/or crevices on the metal surface. Analysis of the electrochemical behavior and microscopic observations shows that only S31603 and S32304 alloys were susceptible to crevice and pitting corrosion, whereas the remaining alloys exhibited good resistance. Pitting potentials determined by the potentiodynamic technique also show S3 1603 and S32304 are susceptible to pitting corrosion under the experimental conditions used in this work.

Zaragoza-Ayala, A.E.; Orozco-Cruz, R. [Univ. Autonoma de Campeche (Mexico). Programa de Corrosion del Golfo de Mexico

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Cows Causing Global Warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Broadcast Transcript: Remember when President Reagan blamed trees for air pollution? Well now the Japanese are blaming cows for global warming. Apparently, the methane emissions from burping cows account for 5% of all global greenhouse gases. Simple...

Hacker, Randi

2008-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

45

Global warming elucidated  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The meaning of global warming and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global warming. Global warming causes extreme events and bad weather in the near term. In the long term it may cause the earth to transition to another equilibrium state through many oscillation in climatic patterns. The magnitudes of these oscillations could easily exceed the difference between the end points. The author further explains why many no longer fully understands the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these oscillations, and the absorptive properties of clouds. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to global warming, and further predicts public health risks as the earth transitions to another equilibrium state in its young history.

Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Original article Predicted global warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Predicted global warming and Douglas-fir chilling requirements DD McCreary1 DP to predicted global warming. Douglas-fir / chilling / global warming / bud burst / reforestation Résumé offer evidence that mean global warming of 3-4 °C could occur within the next century, particularly

Boyer, Edmond

47

Radionuclides in sediments and seawater at Rongelap Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present concentrations and distributions of long-lived, man-made radionuclides in Rongelap Atoll lagoon surface sediments, based on samples collected and analyzed in this report. The radionuclides were associated with debris generated with the 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test at Bikini Atoll. Presently, only {sup 90}Sr and the transuranic radionuclides are found associated with the surface sediments in any quantity. Other radionuclides, including {sup 60}Co and {sup 137} Cs, are virtually absent and have either decayed or migrated from the deposits to the overlying seawater. Present inventories of {sup 241}Am and {sup 249+240}Pu in the surface layer at Rongelap are estimated to be 3% of the respective inventories in surface sediments from Bikini Atoll. There is a continuous slow release of the transuranics from the sediments back to the water column. The inventories will only slowly change with time unless the chemical-physical processes that now regulate this release to the water column are changed or altered.

Noshkin, V.E.; Robison, W.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Long range global warming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth`s steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth`s temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic.

Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Platteville, WI (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

49

Corrosion of barrier materials in seawater environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A brief review has been carried out on the performance of barrier materials for low-level radioactive wastes in seawater environments. The environments include those for shallower coastal waters as well as the deep ocean (down to 3800 m). The review is mainly focused on metallic materials since they are the most common for seawater service and they have the largest data base. Information from the literature is usually pertinent to shallower coastal locations, but there is a valuable source of corrosion data obtained from several studies of metallic specimens exposed to ocean-bed conditions. In addition, the corrosion of carbon steel barriers has been evaluated for actual waste containers that were retrieved from previously-used disposal sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Of the metallic materials studied, carbon steel showed the least corrosion resistance. Failure by non-uniform attack in a typical waste container could occur in as little as 25 y in some ocean environments ` Penetration by local attack, such as pitting and crevice corrosion resistance was also observed for more expensive materials such as low-alloy steels, stainless steels, titanium alloys, zirconium alloys, copper alloys, nickel alloys, aluminum alloys, and lead alloys.

Heiser, J.H.; Soo, P.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Seawater Air Conditioning for Downtown Engineering Project Manager  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seawater Air Conditioning for Downtown Honolulu Scott Higa Engineering Project Manager Honolulu Seawater Air Conditioning, LLC Abstract As a tropical island state, Hawaii has a year-round demand for air conditioning. Conventional air conditioning systems are energy intensive and represent close to 50 percent

Frandsen, Jannette B.

51

Lithium Isotope History of Cenozoic Seawater: Changes in Silicate Weathering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lithium Isotope History of Cenozoic Seawater: Changes in Silicate Weathering and Reverse Weathering 70 Ma · Overview of the Marine Lithium Cycle · Analytical Challenges · 68 Million Year Seawater Lithium Isotope Record (Forams) · Interpretation Standard: NIST L-SVEC Li (SRM 8545) #12;100 Ma Climate

Paytan, Adina

52

Analysis of Proper Depth for Gaining Seawater Heat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and seawater temperatures near the city. · It is impossible to get deep sea water for Busan area, since Kim (Dongeui University) · Ki-Chang Chang (Korea Institute of Energy Research) #12;1. Introduction · Use of heat from seawater could be different from the weather conditions of a coastal city

53

Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming in global temperatures between 5 and 6o C. Although he was aware that his, these were negligible: global fossil fuel consumption was less than a twentieth

Lovejoy, Shaun

54

global warming's six americas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vehicles & Solar Panels 23 Regulating CO2 as a Pollutant 24 A 20 Percent National Renewable Energy Standard the spring and fall of 2012. Perceived Benefits and Costs of Reducing Fossil Fuel Use and Global Warming Introduction 5 The Six Americas Audience Segments 6 Changes in the Size of Segments 7 Perceived Benefits

Haller, Gary L.

55

Coral skeleton P/Ca proxy for seawater phosphate: Multi-colony calibration with a contemporaneous seawater phosphate record  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coral skeleton P/Ca proxy for seawater phosphate: Multi-colony calibration with a contemporaneous physics, and primary production in the past. Previous work showed that coralline P/Ca, a novel seawater calibration of the new proxy, were lacking. Here we present further development of the P/Ca proxy in Porites

Grottoli, Andréa G.

56

Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation Ann E. Carlson*2008]HEAT WAVES, GLOBAL WARMING, AND MITIGATION 175 stroke2001). 2008]HEAT WAVES, GLOBAL WARMING, AND MITIGATION 177

Carlson, Ann E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Global Warming, endogenous risk and irreversibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The economics of global warming, Institute for InternationalEconomic Models of Global Warming, Cambridge, Mass. MITstochastic losses from global warming, Risk Analysis 16(2):

Fisher, Anthony C.; Narain, Urvashi

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature12156 Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature12156 Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch William W. L changes in sea surface temperature5 . This study shows that ocean warming has already affected global. Cheung1 , Reg Watson2 & Daniel Pauly3 Marine fishes and invertebrates respond to ocean warming through

Pauly, Daniel

59

Sensitivities of zonal mean atmospheric circulation to SST warming in an aquaplanet model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

] What causes these circulation changes is not fully understood. Since global warming and El Niño, storm tracks, or the boundaries of Hadley cell circulations under global warming [e.g., Yin, 2005 and the latitude of surface westerlies in response to El Niño versus global warming [Lu et al., 2008; Chen et al

Chen, Gang

60

Energy balance for uranium recovery from seawater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energy return on investment (EROI) of an energy resource is the ratio of the energy it ultimately produces to the energy used to recover it. EROI is a key viability measure for a new recovery technology, particularly in its early stages of development when financial cost assessment would be premature or highly uncertain. This paper estimates the EROI of uranium recovery from seawater via a braid adsorbent technology. In this paper, the energy cost of obtaining uranium from seawater is assessed by breaking the production chain into three processes: adsorbent production, adsorbent deployment and mooring, and uranium elution and purification. Both direct and embodied energy inputs are considered. Direct energy is the energy used by the processes themselves, while embodied energy is used to fabricate their material, equipment or chemical inputs. If the uranium is used in a once-through fuel cycle, the braid adsorbent technology EROI ranges from 12 to 27, depending on still-uncertain performance and system design parameters. It is highly sensitive to the adsorbent capacity in grams of U captured per kg of adsorbent as well as to potential economies in chemical use. This compares to an EROI of ca. 300 for contemporary terrestrial mining. It is important to note that these figures only consider the mineral extraction step in the fuel cycle. At a reference performance level of 2.76 g U recovered per kg adsorbent immersed, the largest energy consumers are the chemicals used in adsorbent production (63%), anchor chain mooring system fabrication and operations (17%), and unit processes in the adsorbent production step (12%). (authors)

Schneider, E.; Lindner, H. [The University of Texas, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Global Warming: Connecting the Dots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global Warming: Connecting the Dots from Causes to Solutions* Jim Hansen 26 February 2007 National://www.columbia.edu/~jeh1/worldwatch_nov2006.pdf) 5. Communicating dangers and opportunities in global warming, Amer-16, 2006. (http://pubs.giss.nasa.gov/docs/2006/2006_Hansen.pdf) 8. Global warming: Connecting the dots from

Hansen, James E.

62

4, 10591092, 2007 Global warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BGD 4, 1059­1092, 2007 Global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehuger et al. Title Page Predicting the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehuger, B. Gabrielle, E. Larmanou, P. Laville Correspondence to: S. Lehuger (simon.lehuger@grignon.inra.fr) 1059 #12;BGD 4, 1059­1092, 2007 Global warming

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

63

E-Print Network 3.0 - air warming system Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

inside. Analogously... , but through a different physical process, the Earth's greenhouse effect warms the surface of the planet... intensified the natural greenhouse effect,...

64

Recovering oil by injecting ammoniated and nitrited seawater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A waterflood process is described for recovering oil from a subterranean reservoir in a location in which seawater is economically available, comprising: incorporating within the seawater, at least prior to its injection into the reservoir, ammonia or ammonia-yielding material to raise the pH to near 9.5, plus enough nitrite ion-containing or ion-yielding material to increase the oil displacing capability of the ammoniated seawater without causing an undesirable increase of the rate of growth of sessile bacteria; and injecting the ammoniated and nitrited seawater into the reservoir to displace the reservoir fluid at substantially the natural reservoir temperature toward a production location from which oil is recovered.

Schutt, H.U.

1986-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

65

Prospects for the recovery of uranium from seawater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A computer program entitled URPE (Uranium Recovery Performance and Economics) has been developed to simulate the engineering performance and provide an economic analysis O of a plant recovering uranium from seawater. The ...

Best, F. R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Systems studies on the extraction of uranium from seawater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report summarizes the work done at MIT during FY 1981 on the overall system design of a uranium-from-seawater facility. It consists of a sequence of seven major chapters, each of which was originally prepared as a ...

Driscoll, Michael J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Seawater batteries for the Luna 27  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On 20 January 1996, the first installation of seawater batteries (SWBs) on a live subsea well was successfully completed on the Luna 27 well in 591 ft of water in the Ionian Sea. The SWB pack is composed of six cells, each measuring 3.3 ft in diameter by 6.6 ft high, and is designed to provide all the electrical energy required by the autonomous control system for the well. The only operations required in the future will be periodic replacement of the anodes by use of a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) every 3 to 5 years. This application of the SWBs is a part of the continuing research by Agip SpA in the area of autonomous control that began with the subsea-wells autonomous-control system (SWACS) project. This project began in 1982 and culminated with the installation of a SWACS prototype in December 1987 on the Luna 27 gas well offshore Crotone and 2.5 miles form the Luna A platform. Notwithstanding the 5-year predicted life, the system was still operating in 1996 without any noticeable problems.

NONE

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

ARM - Global Warming  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcal Documentation(AVIRIS) ProductsAirborneOctober 11, 2011 [FacilityIndiaGVAX News Ganges ValleyExpertsWarming

69

Measurement of volume resistivity/conductivity of metallic alloy in inhibited seawater by optical interferometry techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical interferometry techniques were used for the first time to measure the volume resistivity/conductivity of carbon steel samples in seawater with different concentrations of a corrosion inhibitor. In this investigation, the real-time holographic interferometry was carried out to measure the thickness of anodic dissolved layer or the total thickness, U{sub total}, of formed oxide layer of carbon steel samples during the alternating current (ac) impedance of the samples in blank seawater and in 5-20 ppm TROS C-70 inhibited seawater, respectively. In addition, a mathematical model was derived in order to correlate between the ac impedance (resistance) and the surface (orthogonal) displacement of the surface of the samples in solutions. In other words, a proportionality constant [resistivity ({rho}) or conductivity ({sigma})= 1/{rho}] between the determined ac impedance [by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique] and the orthogonal displacement (by the optical interferometry techniques) was obtained. The value of the resistivity of the carbon steel sample in the blank seawater was found similar to the value of the resistivity of the carbon steel sample air, around 1 x 10{sup -5}{Omega} cm. On the contrary, the measured values of the resistivity of the carbon steel samples were 1.85 x 10{sup 7}, 3.35 x 10{sup 7}, and 1.7 x 10{sup 7}{Omega} cm in 5, 10, and 20 ppm TROS C-70 inhibited seawater solutions, respectively. Furthermore, the determined value range of {rho} of the formed oxide layers, from 1.7 x 10{sup 7} to 3.35 x 10{sup 7}{Omega} cm, is found in a reasonable agreement with the one found in literature for the Fe oxide-hydroxides, i.e., goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) and for the lepidocrocite ({gamma}-FeOOH), 1 x 10{sup 9}{Omega} cm. The {rho} value of the Fe oxide-hydroxides, 1 x 10{sup 9}{Omega} cm, was found slightly higher than the {rho} value range of the formed oxide layer of the present study. This is because the former value was determined by a dc method rather than by an electromagnetic method, i.e., holographic interferometry with applications of EIS, i.e., ac method. As a result, erroneous measurements were recorded due to the introduction of heat to Fe oxide-hydroxides.

Habib, K. [Materials Science Laboratory, Department of Advanced Systems KISR, P.O. Box 24885, SAFAT 13109 (Kuwait)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surfaces is a collection of four individual essays which focus on the characteristics and tactile qualities of surfaces within a variety of perceived landscapes. Each essay concentrates on a unique surface theme and purpose; ...

DeMaio, Ernest Vincent, 1964-

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Fate of corrosion products released from stainless steel in marine sediments and seawater. Part 1. Northeast Pacific pelagic red clay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To provide information useful for determining the biogeochemical cycling of corrosion products in the benthic boundary layer of the deep ocean, neutron-activated stainless steel was exposed to seawater and to Northeast Pacific red clay under aerobic and non-oxygenated conditions. This report describes the trace metal geochemistry of the sediment and the chemical speciation of the corrosion products. The sediments generally consisted of reddish-brown clay at the surface grading to a dark-brown transition zone below which mottled olive-gray clay prevailed. Neutron-irradiated 347 stainless steel specimens were exposed to seawater and sediment slurry under aerobic and non-oxygenated conditions for 108 days. The presence of aerated sediment more than doubled the amount of corrosion products released compared to aerated seawater and non-oxygenated sediment treatments. The distribution of /sup 60/Co released from the stainless steel exposed to aerated seawater show that almost 70% of /sup 60/Co activity became associated with suspended particulate matter. No detectable /sup 60/Co activity was present in the soluble, readily dissolved, or inorganic or weakly complexed fractions of aerated sediment which had been used to treat neutron-activated stainless steel. Almost 50% of the /sup 60/Co activity was extracted in the combined soluble, easily dissolved, adsorbed, and organically complexed fractions from the non-oxygenated sediment treatment indicating that this much of the corrosion products may be initially released in ionic form.

Schmidt, R.L.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Upper ocean heat and freshwater budgets in the eastern Pacific warm Hemantha W. Wijesekera,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that anticyclonic eddies, which form near the Central American coast, may carry anomalously warm sea surface, and penetrative solar radiation were all significant components of the heat budget with a net surface cooling

Pierce, Stephen

73

Molecular Architecture for Polyphosphazene Electrolytes for Seawater Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, a series of polyphosphazenes were designed to function as water resistant, yet ionically conductive membranes for application to lithium/seawater batteries. In membranes of this nature, various molecular architectures are possible and representatives from each possible type were chosen. These polymers were synthesized and their performance as solid polymer electrolytes was evaluated in terms of both lithium ion conductivity and water permeability. The impact that this molecular architecture has on total performance of the membranes for seawater batteries is discussed. Further implications of this molecular architecture on the mechanisms of lithium ion transport through polyphosphazenes are also discussed.

Mason K. Harrup; Mason K. Harrup; Thomas A. Luther; Christopher J. Orme; Eric S. Peterson

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Computer modeling of the global warming effect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The state of knowledge of global warming will be presented and two aspects examined: observational evidence and a review of the state of computer modeling of climate change due to anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gases. Observational evidence, indeed, shows global warming, but it is difficult to prove that the changes are unequivocally due to the greenhouse-gas effect. Although observational measurements of global warming are subject to ``correction,`` researchers are showing consistent patterns in their interpretation of the data. Since the 1960s, climate scientists have been making their computer models of the climate system more realistic. Models started as atmospheric models and, through the addition of oceans, surface hydrology, and sea-ice components, they then became climate-system models. Because of computer limitations and the limited understanding of the degree of interaction of the various components, present models require substantial simplification. Nevertheless, in their present state of development climate models can reproduce most of the observed large-scale features of the real system, such as wind, temperature, precipitation, ocean current, and sea-ice distribution. The use of supercomputers to advance the spatial resolution and realism of earth-system models will also be discussed.

Washington, W.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

75

Strontium isotopic variations of Neoproterozoic seawater: Implications for crustal evolution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors report high precision Sr isotopic data on carbonates from the Neoproterozoic Shaler Group, Victoria Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Samples with low {sup 87}Rb/{sup 86}Sr ratios (<0.01) were selected for Sr isotopic analysis. {delta}{sup 18}O, Mn, Ca, Mg, and Sr data were used to recognize altered samples. The altered samples are characterized by high Mn/Sr ({ge}2) and variable {delta}{sup 18}O; most are dolomites. The data indicate that between ca. 790-850 Ma the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of seawater varied between 0.70676 and 0.70561. The samples show smooth and systematic variation, with the lowest {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr value of 0.70561 at ca. 830 Ma. The low {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of carbonates from the lower parts of the section is similar to a value reported for one sample from the Adrar of Mauritania ({approx}900 Ma), West African Craton. Isotopic ratios from the upper part of the Shaler section are identical to values from the lower part of the Neoproterozoic Akademikerbreen Group, Spitsbergen. Although a paucity of absolute age determinations hinders attempts at the precise correlation of Neoproterozoic successions, it is possible to draw a broad outline of the Sr isotopic composition of seawater for this period. Data from this study and the literature are used to construct a curve of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of Neoproterozoic seawater. The Sr isotope composition of seawater reflects primarily the balance between continental Sr input through river input and mantle input via hydrothermal circulation of seawater through mid-ocean ridges. Coupling of Nd and Sr isotopic systems allows the authors to model changes in seafloor spreading rates (or hydrothermal flux) and continental erosion. The Sr hydrothermal flux and the erosion rate (relative to present-day value) are modeled for the period 500-900 Ma.

Asmerom, Y.; Jacobsen, S.B.; Knoll, A.H.; Butterfield, N.J. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Swett, K. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHEM 001A Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate" Global warming is one of the most contentious issues of our time. There is an ongoing debate about whether global warming is caused by human activity.S., and because the scientific evidence used to determine if global warming is man-made is so difficult

Reed, Christopher A.

77

PRINT ONLY: GLOBAL WARMING Alexeev V. A.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PRINT ONLY: GLOBAL WARMING Alexeev V. A. Global Warming: 0.6°C or Less? [#1035] The peculiarities of global warming on the Earth during the last century are discussed. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII (2007) full818.pdf #12;GLOBAL WARMING: 0.6 OR LESS? V.A.Alexeev; Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry

Rathbun, Julie A.

78

Impact of Convective Organization on the Response of Tropical Precipitation Extremes to Warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impact of Convective Organization on the Response of Tropical Precipitation Extremes to Warming extremes to warming in organized convection is ex- amined using a cloud-resolving model. Vertical shear, the fractional increase of precipitation extremes is similar to that of surface water vapor, which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

79

Development of Novel Sorbents for Uranium Extraction from Seawater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the uranium resource in terrestrial ores is limited, it is difficult to ensure a long-term sustainable nuclear energy technology. The oceans contain approximately 4.5 billion tons of uranium, which is one thousand times the amount of uranium in terrestrial ores. Development of technologies to recover the uranium from seawater would greatly improve the uranium resource availability, sustaining the fuel supply for nuclear energy. Several methods have been previously evaluated including solvent extraction, ion exchange, flotation, biomass collection, and adsorption; however, none have been found to be suitable for reasons such as cost effectiveness, long term stability, and selectivity. Recent research has focused on the amidoxime functional group as a promising candidate for uranium sorption. Polymer beads and fibers have been functionalized with amidoxime functional groups, and uranium adsorption capacities as high as 1.5 g U/kg adsorbent have recently been reported with these types of materials. As uranium concentration in seawater is only ~3 ppb, great improvements to uranium collection systems must be made in order to make uranium extraction from seawater economically feasible. This proposed research intends to develop transformative technologies for economic uranium extraction from seawater. The Lin group will design advanced porous supports by taking advantage of recent breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology and incorporate high densities of well-designed chelators into such nanoporous supports to allow selective and efficient binding of uranyl ions from seawater. Several classes of nanoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs), meta-organic frameworks (MOFs), and covalent-organic frameworks (COFs), will be synthesized. Selective uranium-binding liagnds such as amidoxime will be incorporated into the nanoporous materials to afford a new generation of sorbent materials that will be evaluated for their uranium extraction efficiency. The initial testing of these materials for uranium binding will be carried out in the Lin group, but more detailed sorption studies will be carried out by Dr. Taylor-Pashow of Savannah River National Laboratory in order to obtain quantitative uranyl sorption selectivity and kinetics data for the proposed materials. The proposed nanostructured sorbent materials are expected to have higher binding capacities, enhanced extraction kinetics, optimal stripping efficiency for uranyl ions, and enhanced mechanical and chemical stabilities. This transformative research will significantly impact uranium extraction from seawater as well as benefit DOE’s efforts on environmental remediation by developing new materials and providing knowledge for enriching and sequestering ultralow concentrations of other metals.

Lin, Wenbin; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn

2014-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

80

Cosmic Rays and Global Warming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.

Sloan, T. [Physics Department, University of Lancaster, Lancaster, UK (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A. W. [Physics Department, Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom)

2008-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Cosmic Rays and Global Warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has been claimed by others that observed temporal correlations of terrestrial cloud cover with `the cosmic ray intensity' are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim to look for evidence to corroborate it. So far we have not found any and so our tentative conclusions are to doubt it. Such correlations as appear are more likely to be due to the small variations in solar irradiance, which, of course, correlate with cosmic rays. We estimate that less than 15% of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 35 years is due to this cause.

T. Sloan; A W Wolfendale

2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

82

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per square meter about it.But nobody does anything about it. ­ Mark Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we

Schwartz, Stephen E.

83

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz September 22, 2004 http://www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve/schwartz.html #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL does anything about it. ­ Mark Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we ARE doing something

Schwartz, Stephen E.

84

An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing (revised version) K. Miyazaki E that the anthropogenic global warming is severely limited because the Earth is a water planet. 1 Introduction Now,2,3] on this anthropogenic global warming (AGW) is essentially based on the results of elaborate and enormous computer

85

Global Warming: The Threat to the Planet*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global Warming: The Threat to the Planet* Jim Hansen 17 April 2007 2007 Leo Szilard Lecture. Graham Red Squirrel #12;Survival of Species 1. "Business-as-Usual" Scenario - Global Warming ~ 3ÂșC - Likely Extinctions ~ 50 percent 2. "Alternative" Scenario - Global Warming ~ 1ÂșC - Likely Extinctions

Hansen, James E.

86

An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro that the climate sensitivity never exceeds 6 C. Consequently, the anthropogenic global warming is severely limited be calculated in simple terms. Global warming is like that." However, there will be not a few physicists who do

87

The Global Warming Debate: A July Hottest Month on Record in U.S.--Warming and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Global Warming Debate: A Case Study July Hottest Month on Record in U.S.--Warming and Drought was the hottest month on record in the United States, perhaps due to a combination of global warming the fact that there is more than just natural variability playing a role: Global warming from human

Reed, Christopher A.

88

Hydrological consequences of global warming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

Miller, Norman L.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Preparation of most promising braided and/or textile-based adsorbents for seawater testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress Report...Prepare the most promising braided and/or textile-based adsorbents for seawater testing. M3FT-14OR0310012

Janke, Chris [ORNL] [ORNL; Sadananda, Das [ORNL] [ORNL; Mayes, Richard [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

90

Recent International R&D Activities in the Extraction of Uranium from Seawater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Uranium and Rare Earth Elements Using Biomass of Algae, Bioinorganic ChemistryRecovery of uranium from sea water. Chemistry & Industry (uranium recovery from seawater. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry

Rao, Linfeng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

ARM - What Causes Global Warming?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAre the Effects of Global Warming? Outreach Home Room

92

ARM - What is Global Warming?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAre the Effects of Global Warming? Outreach Home Outreach Homeis

93

ARM - What is Global Warming?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAre the Effects of Global Warming? Outreach Home Outreach Homeisis

94

Innovative Elution Processes for Recovering Uranium from Seawater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Utilizing amidoxime-based polymer sorbents for extraction of uranium from seawater has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Uranium collected in the sorbent is recovered typically by elution with an acid. One drawback of acid elution is deterioration of the sorbent which is a significant factor that limits the economic competitiveness of the amidoxime-based sorbent systems for sequestering uranium from seawater. Developing innovative elution processes to improve efficiency and to minimize loss of sorbent capacity become essential in order to make this technology economically feasible for large-scale industrial applications. This project has evaluated several elution processes including acid elution, carbonate elution, and supercritical fluid elution for recovering uranium from amidoxime-based polymer sorbents. The elution efficiency, durability and sorbent regeneration for repeated uranium adsorption- desorption cycles in simulated seawater have been studied. Spectroscopic techniques are used to evaluate chemical nature of the sorbent before and after elution. A sodium carbonate-hydrogen peroxide elution process for effective removal of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is developed. The cause of this sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide synergistic leaching of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is attributed to the formation of an extremely stable uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex. The efficiency of uranium elution by the carbonate-hydrogen peroxide method is comparable to that of the hydrochloric acid elution but damage to the sorbent material is much less for the former. The carbonate- hydrogen peroxide elution also does not need any elaborate step to regenerate the sorbent as those required for hydrochloric acid leaching. Several CO2-soluble ligands have been tested for extraction of uranium from the sorbent in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. A mixture of hexafluoroacetylacetone and tri-n-butylphosphate shows the best result but uranium removal from the sorbent reaches only 80% after 10 hours of leaching. Some information regarding coordination of vanadium with amidoxime molecules and elution of vanadium from amidoxime- based sorbents is also given in the report.

Wai, Chien; Tian, Guoxin; Janke, Christopher

2014-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

95

Iron speciation and its biological availability in seawater: A workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This workshop brought together marine chemists with expertise in iron chemistry and biologists with expertise in the role of iron in phytoplankton production to discuss controversies regarding the role of iron in oceanic primary productivity and global climatic change. A new paradigm for marine iron biogeochemistry was generated. The five major new items within this paradigm included (1) the nature of iron inputs to the sea, (2) chemical speciation of iron in seawater, (3) relationships between iron chemistry and marine microbial community dynamics, (4) adaptations of marine microbes to iron input, and (5) ecological and biogeochemical implications of changes in iron supply to the sea.

Wells, M.L.; Bruland, K.W.

1995-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

96

How Seawater Can Power the World | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinement plasmas inPortalAllBPA addresses EMF BNitricHow Seawater

97

A possible relationship between Global Warming and Lightning Activity in India during the period 1998-2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lightning activity on a global scale has been studied season wise using satellite data for the period from 1998 to 2009. Lightning activity shows an increasing trend during the period of study which is highly correlated with atmospheric warming. A similar increasing trend of lightning activity is observed in the Indian region during the pre-monsoon season which is correlated with global lightning trends and warming trends of surface temperature in India. Key words: Global warming, lightning activity, Solar cycle changes

Felix Pereira B.; Priyadarsini G.; T. E. Girish

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

Cores and cusps in warm dark matter halos  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The apparent presence of large core radii in Low Surface Brightness galaxies has been claimed as evidence in favor of warm dark matter. Here we show that WDM halos do not have cores that are large fractions of the halo size: typically, r{sub core}/r{sub 200}?<10{sup ?3}. This suggests an astrophysical origin for the large cores observed in these galaxies, as has been argued by other authors.

Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco [IFIC, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, E-46071, Valencia (Spain); Dalal, Neal, E-mail: villa@ific.uv.es, E-mail: neal@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON, M5S3H8 (Canada)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

100 LPW 800 Lm Warm White LED  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An illumination grade warm white (WW) LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2800 K and 3500K and capable of producing 800 lm output at 100 lm/W, has been developed in this program. The high power WW LED is an ideal source for use as replacement for incandescent, and Halogen reflector and general purpose lamps of similar lumen value. Over the two year period, we have made following accomplishments: developed a high power warm white LED product and made over 50% improvements in light output and efficacy. The new high power WW LED product is a die on ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 1x1 mm{sup 2} InGaN pump dice flip chip attached to a ceramic submount in 2x2 array, covered by warm white phosphor ceramic platelets called Lumiramicâ?ą and an overmolded silicone lens encapsulating the LED array. The performance goal was achieved through breakthroughs in following key areas: (1) High efficiency pump LED development through pump LED active region design and epi growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs). (2) Increase in injection efficiency (IE) represented by reduction in forward voltage (V{sub f}) through the improvement of the silver-based p-contact and a reduction in spreading resistance. The injection efficiency was increased from 80% at the start of the program to 96% at the end of the program at 700 mA/mm{sup 2}. (3) Improvement in thermal design as represented by reduction in thermal resistance from junction to case, through improvement of the die to submount connection in the thin film flip chip (TFFC) LED and choosing the submount material of high thermal conductivity. A thermal resistance of 1.72 K/W was demonstrated for the high power LED package. (4) Improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN die level and package level optical extraction efficiency improvement. (5) Improvement in phosphor system efficiency by improving the lumen equivalent (LE) and phosphor package efficiency (PPE) through improvement in phosphor-package interactions. Another achievement in the development of the phosphor integration technology is the demonstration of tight color control. The high power WW LED product developed has been proven to have good reliability. The manufacturing of the product will be done in Philips Lumiledsâ?? LUXEON Rebel production line which has produced billions of high power LEDs. The first high power WW LED product will be released to the market in 2011.

Decai Sun

2010-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

100

Global warming and global dioxide emission: An empirical study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the dynamic relationship between global surface temperature (global warming) and global carbon dioxide emission (CO{sub 2}) is modelled and analyzed by causality and spectral analysis in the time domain and frequency domain, respectively. Historical data of global CO{sub 2} emission and global surface temperature anomalies over 129 years from 1860-1988 are used in this study. The causal relationship between the two phenomena is first examined using the Sim and Granger causality test in the time domain after the data series are filtered by ARIMA models. The Granger causal relationship is further scrutinized and confirmed by cross-spectral and multichannel spectral analysis in the frequency domain. The evidence found from both analyses proves that there is a positive causal relationship between the two variables. The time domain analysis suggests that Granger causality exists between global surface temperature and global CO{sub 2} emission. Further, CO{sub 2} emission causes the change in temperature. The conclusions are further confirmed by the frequency domain analysis, which indicates that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission causes climate warming because a high coherence exists between the two variables. Furthermore, it is proved that climate changes happen after an increase in CO{sub 2} emission, which confirms that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission does cause global warming. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Linyan Sun [Xian Jiaotong Univ., Shaanxi (China); Wang, M. [Saint Mary`s Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

DDT RESIDUES IN SEAWATER AND PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE CALIFORNIA CURRENT SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DDT RESIDUES IN SEAWATER AND PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE CALIFORNIA CURRENT SYSTEM JAMES L. COX in the California current system were analyzed for DDT residues. DDT residue concentrations in whole seawater are discussed in relation to mechanisms of land-sea DDT residue transfer. DDT residue concentrations

102

Extracting CO2 from seawater: Climate change mitigation and renewable liquid fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extracting CO2 from seawater: Climate change mitigation and renewable liquid fuel Matthew Eisaman and their impact · Technology: Extracting CO2 from seawater · Application: Renewable liquid fuel #12;Outline: Renewable liquid fuel #12;The data on atmospheric CO2 2000 years ago http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/co2

Homes, Christopher C.

103

ARM - What Causes Global Warming?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAre the Effects of Global Warming? Outreach Home RoomThinkersWhat

104

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 29 JANUARY 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1353 Enhanced warming over the global subtropical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

surface ocean warming rate over the path of these currents is two to three times faster than the globalLETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 29 JANUARY 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1353 Enhanced warming over the global subtropical western boundary currents Lixin Wu1 *, Wenju Cai2 , Liping Zhang1 , Hisashi Nakamura3

Qiu, Bo

105

Role of AirSea Interaction in the Long Persistence of El Nin~oInduced North Indian Ocean Warming*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Walker circulation adjustments, causing a sustained SST warming in the tropical southwest IO (SWIO) where in the equatorial Pacific with pro- found influences on the global climate. For example, El Nin~o causes sea surfaceRole of Air­Sea Interaction in the Long Persistence of El Nin~o­Induced North Indian Ocean Warming

Xie, Shang-Ping

106

Effects of warming on the structure and function of a boreal black spruce forest  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A strong argument can be made that there is a greater need to study the effect of warming on boreal forests more than on any other terrestrial biome. Boreal forests, the second largest forest biome, are predicted to experience the greatest warming of any forest biome in the world, but a process-based understanding of how warming will affect the structure and function of this economically and ecologically important forest biome is lacking. The effects of warming on species composition, canopy structure and biogeochemical cycles are likely to be complex; elucidating the underlying mechanisms will require long-term whole-ecosystem manipulation to capture all the complex feedbacks (Shaver et al. 2000, Rustad et al. 2001, Stromgren 2001). The DOE Program for Ecosystem Research funded a three year project (2002-2005) to use replicated heated chambers on soil warming plots in northern Manitoba to examine the direct effects of whole-ecosystem warming. We are nearing completion of our first growing season of measurements (fall 2004). In spite of the unforeseen difficulty of installing the heating cable, our heating and irrigation systems worked extremely well, maintaining environmental conditions within 5-10% of the specified design 99% of the time. Preliminary data from these systems, all designed and built by our laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, support our overall hypothesis that warming will increase the carbon sink strength of upland boreal black spruce forests. I request an additional three years of funding to continue addressing the original objectives: (1) Examine the effect of warming on phenology of overstory, understory and bryophyte strata. Sap flux systems and dendrometer bands, monitored by data loggers, will be used to quantify changes in phenology and water use. (2) Quantify the effects of warming on nitrogen and water use by overstory, understory and bryophytes. (3) Compare effects of warming on autotrophic respiration and above- and belowground net primary production (NPP) budgets. Autotrophic respiration budgets will be constructed using chamber measurements for each tissue and NPP and standard allometry techniques (Gower et al. 1999). (4) Compare microbial and root dynamics, and net soil surface CO2 flux, of control and warmed soils to identify causes that may explain the hypothesized minimal effect of soil warming on soil surface CO2 flux. Fine root production and turnover will be quantified using minirhizotrons, and microbial dynamics will be determined using laboratory mineralization incubations. Soil surface CO2 flux will be measured using automated soil surface CO2 flux systems and portable CO2 analyzers. The proposed study builds on the existing research programs Gower has in northern Manitoba and would not be possible without in-kind services and financial support from Manitoba Hydro and University of Wisconsin.

Stith T.Gower

2010-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

107

Soil degradation, global warming and climate impacts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will demonstrate one methodology for assessing the potential large-scale impacts of soil degradation on African climates and water resources. In addition it will compare and contrast these impacts to those expected from global warming and compare impacts for differ...- ent watershed regions on the continent. 2. METHODS In order to make a similar comparison between pro- jected climate change scenarios due to global warming © Inter-Research 2001 *E-mail: feddema@ku.edu Soil degradation, global warming and climate...

Feddema, Johannes J.; Freire, Sergio Carneiro

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aspects of atmospheric methane, Global Biogeochem. Cycles 2,Budeus, Fate of vent derived methane in seawater above theHanfland, Pathways of methane in seawater: Plume spreading

Elliott, S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation Ann E. Carlson*II. HEAT WAVE DEFINITIONS .. A . HCHANGE AND HEAT WAVES .. CLIMATE III. IV. HEAT

Carlson, Ann E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Nuclear energy output slows as climate warms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the US government say the window is closing for actions to avert the worst effects of warming.

Kramer, David

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Background: Global Warming, 2009 1. Unequivocally, the climate is warming. Natural systems are affected.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Background: Global Warming, 2009 1. Unequivocally, the climate is warming. Natural systems are affected. 2. Very likely (>90% certainty), humans are causing most of the warming. 3. No single technology are very likely to impose net annual costs, which will increase over time as global temperatures increase

Minnesota, University of

112

Role of anomalous warm gulf waters in the intensification of Hurricane Menas Kafatos,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coincident with the distribution of warm waters or high sea surface temperature (SST). High SST values Donglian Sun,1 Ritesh Gautam,1 Zafer Boybeyi,1 Ruixin Yang,1 and Guido Cervone1 Received 18 April 2006 the Gulf States, especially Hurricane Katrina. Remarkable similarities between sea surface temperature

Sun, Donglian

113

The Science of Global Warming Energy Balance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Science of Global Warming ·Energy Balance ·Feedback Loops Global Warming can be understood complexities ·Introduce a Simple Model of Energy Balance ·Understand the Vocabulary ·Point out some units of energy input from the Sun = Temperature: 5.3 oC Greenhouse Effect 101: A Balance is Achieved

Blais, Brian

114

Global warming, insurance losses and financial industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global warming in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global warming. How global warming can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global warming that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.

Low, N.C. [UOB Life Assurance Limited, Singapore (Singapore)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

115

The Impact of Global Warming and Air Pollution on Patient Visits in the Emergency Department  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review The Impact sf Global Warming and 1 Air pollution onair pollution problems and global warming will effect thesites in the human body. Global Warming Global warming goes

Derlet, Robert W

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE May 2014 #12;What's In A Name? Global Warming vs. Climate Change 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE NATIONAL SURVEY STUDY 2: GLOBAL WARMING VS. CLIMATE CHANGE............................ 10 Is global

Haller, Gary L.

117

Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials of perfluorocarbons: Comparison. (1995) and combined with atmospheric lifetimes from the literature to determine global warming

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

118

Recent International R&D Activities in the Extraction of Uranium from Seawater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

41. H. G. Bals, Uranium extraction from seawater. INIS.Report (1976), (INIS-mf-3844), 149 pp.From: INIS Atomindex 1977, 8(20), Abstr. No. 334731. 42. K.

Rao, Linfeng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

A numerical analysis of condenser performance of a seawater desalination system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents the numerical analysis of three type condensers for desalination of seawater system. The condensers that were analyzed were a finned tube condenser that was built in Malaysia desalination plant, a ...

Mohamed, Hassan, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

E-Print Network 3.0 - adapted seawater microbiota Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sydowii, a Summary: seawater and inoculated on KMV ((glucose (1 g l1 ), gelatin hydro- lysate (1 g l1 ), yeast extract (0.1 g... in fifteen 250 ml flasks containing...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

The influence of alkalilnity and pco2 on caco3 nucleation from variable composition phanerozoic seawater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There is strong evidence that variations in seawater chemistry occurred during the Phanerozoic Eon. Of particular importance are the changes in the Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio because they have been attributed to the oscillations between “calcite...

Lee, Janie Anne

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

The Development of a Synthesis Approach for Optimal Design of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work introduces a systematic seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membrane network synthesis approach, based on the coordinated use of process superstructure representations and global optimization. The approach makes use of superstructure...

Alnouri, Sabla

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

123

Rapid extraction of dissolved inorganic carbon from seawater and groundwater samples for radiocarbon dating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The focus of this thesis is the design and development of a system for rapid extraction of dissolved inorganic carbon from seawater and groundwater samples for radiocarbon dating. The Rapid Extraction of Dissolved Inorganic ...

Gospodinova, Kalina Doneva

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Proceedings of a topical meeting on the recovery of uranium from seawater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report is the proceedings of a topical meeting on the recovery of uranium from seawater, held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology on December 1-2, 1980. The meeting was sponsored by the United States Department ...

Driscoll, Michael J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Acidizing Dolomite Reservoirs Using HCL Acid Prepared with Seawater: Problems and Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with seawater and no scale inhibitors. Scale inhibitors were also tested for effectiveness in reducing calcium sulfate scale during acidizing. Static jar tests of three phosphonate-based, two sulphonated polymer-based, and one polyacrylic-based scale...

Arensman, Dennis G

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

126

Silicate electrochemical measurements in seawater: Chemical and analytical aspects towards a reagentless sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Silicate electrochemical measurements in seawater: Chemical and analytical aspects towards Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex, France Keywords: Molybdenum Silicate Reagentless developed a semi-autonomous method to detect silicate in aqueous samples. Molybdenum oxidation was used

Mailhes, Corinne

127

Delayed neutron assay to test sorbers for uranium-from-seawater applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Delayed Fission Neutron (DFN) assay has been applied to the measurement of uranium content in sorbers exposed to natural seawater for the purpose of evaluating advanced ion exchange resins. DFN assay was found to be ...

Nitta, Cynthia K.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Determination of thorium in seawater by neutron activation analysis and mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recent development of neutron activation analysis and mass spectrometric methods for the determination of /sup 232/Th in seawater has made possible rapid sampling and analysis of this long-lived, non-radiogenic thorium isotope on small-volume samples. The marine geochemical utility of /sup 232/Th, whose concentration in seawater is extremely low, warrants the development of these sensitive techniques. The analytical methods and some results are presented and discussed in this article. 24 refs., 3 figs.

Huh, Chih-An

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Process integration techniques for optimizing seawater cooling sytems and biocide discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Maximize seawater temperature span while avoiding thermal pollution Calculate revised biocide amount Does biocide discharge in effluent seawater meet regulations? Screen candidates and add biocide- removal unit(s) to meet regulations Regulations met Yes... by process cold streams Residual heat Most negative Residual heat Fig. 4.4 General Cascade Diagram 33 Interval 1Heat added by process hot streams Heat removed by process cold streams Revised residual heat Interval 2Heat added by process...

BinMahfouz, Abdullah S.

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

130

An experimental investigation of high-temperature interactions between seawater and rhyolite, andesite, basalt and peridotite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SEAWATER AND RHYOLITE, ANDESITE, BASALT AND PERIDOTITE A Thesis by GARY WAYNE CHANDLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in Partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979 Major Subject: Geology AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SEAWATER AND RHYOLITE, ANDESITE, BASALT AND PERIDOTITE A Thesis by GARY WAYNE CHANDLER Approved...

Chandler, Gary Wayne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

131

Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehab. Space Heating Low...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehab. Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute...

132

Secretary Moniz Warms Up For Earth Day Pitch | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Warms Up For Earth Day Pitch Secretary Moniz Warms Up For Earth Day Pitch Addthis Speakers Secretary Ernest Moniz Duration :32...

133

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies...

134

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Research & Development Roadmap: Next-Generation Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Next Generation Low-Global...

135

Cloudy Skies: Assessing Public Understanding of Global Warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surveys show most Americans believe global warming is real. But many advocate delaying action until there is more evidence that warming is harmful. The stock and ...

Sterman, John

2002-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

136

Cloudy Skies: Assessing Public Understanding of Global Warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surveys show most Americans believe global warming is real. But many advocate delaying action until there is more evidence that warming is harmful. The stock and ...

Sterman, John

2003-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

137

Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First Comparisong Using External Costs on Urban Buses Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First...

138

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Lead Performer: National Institute of...

139

aarhus warm ebis: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

including variations in solar output and cosmic ray intensity. Agw Anthropogenic; Global Warming 138 Global Warming: Connecting the Dots Multidisciplinary Databases and...

140

Modeling Warm Dense Matter Experiments  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Center (NERSC) at LBNL and has been shown to scale well to thousands of CPUs. New surface tension models that are being implemented and applied to WDM experiments. Some of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Sheet metal stamping die design for warm forming  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In metal stamping dies, by taking advantage of improved material flow by selectively warming the die, flat sections of the die can contribute to the flow of material throughout the workpiece. Local surface heating can be accomplished by placing a heating block in the die. Distribution of heating at the flat lower train central regions outside of the bend region allows a softer flow at a lower stress to enable material flow into the thinner, higher strain areas at the bend/s. The heating block is inserted into the die and is powered by a power supply.

Ghosh, Amit K. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

142

Sandia National Laboratories: warm white LED  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

warm white LED Sandia Develops a Synthesis of Quantum Dots that Increases the Quantum Yield to 95.5% On May 23, 2013, in Energy, Energy Efficiency, Materials Science, News, News &...

143

Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a plasma. Therefore, to probe a warm dense state undergoing a nonreversible process, an ultrafast technique faster than the ALS pulse duration (70 ps) and a single-shot...

144

Global Warming Effects on Us Hurricane Damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

While many studies of the effects of global warming on hurricanes predict an increase in various metrics of Atlantic basin-wide activity, it is less clear that this signal will emerge from background noise in measures of ...

Emanuel, Kerry Andrew

145

atmospheric pressure surface: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

K. 27 Ch4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances Geosciences Websites Summary: Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Warming Atmosphere absorbs heat energy A real greenhouse traps...

146

Uptake of uranium from seawater by amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbent marine testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amidoxime-based polymer adsorbents in the form of functionalized fibers were prepared at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and screened in laboratory experiments, in terms of uranium uptake capacity, using spiked uranium solution and seawater samples. Batch laboratory experiments conducted with 5-gallon seawater tanks provided equilibrium information. Based on results from 5-gallon experiments, the best adsorbent was selected for field-testing of uranium adsorption from seawater. Flow-through column tests have been performed at different marine sites to investigate the uranium uptake rate and equilibrium capacity under diverse biogeochemistry. The maximum amount of uranium uptake from seawater tests at Sequim, WA, was 3.3 mg U/g adsorbent after eight weeks of contact of the adsorbent with seawater. This amount was three times higher than the maximum adsorption capacity achieved in this study by a leading adsorbent developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), which was 1.1 mg U/g adsorbent at equilibrium. The initial uranium uptake rate of the ORNL adsorbent was 2.6 times higher than that of the JAEA adsorbent under similar conditions. A mathematical model derived from the mass balance of uranium was employed to describe the data. (authors)

Tsouris, C.; Kim, J.; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, R.; Hexel, C.; Sostre Gonzalez, F.; Janke, C.; Dai, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TE 37831-618 (United States); Gill, G.; Kuo, L.J.; Wood, J.; Choe, K.Y. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States); Pourmand, A.; D'Alessandro, E. [Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami (United States); Buesseler, K.; Pike, S. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Global Sea Level Stabilization-Sand Dune Fixation: A Solar-powered Sahara Seawater Textile Pipeline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Could anthropogenic saturation with pumped seawater of the porous ground of active sand dune fields in major deserts (e.g., the westernmost Sahara) cause a beneficial reduction of global sea level? Seawater extraction from the ocean, and its deposition on deserted sand dune fields in Mauritania and elsewhere via a Solar-powered Seawater Textile Pipeline (SSTP) can thwart the postulated future global sea level. Thus, Macro-engineering offers an additional cure for anticipated coastal change, driven by global sea level rise, that could supplement, or substitute for (1) stabilizing the shoreline with costly defensive public works (armoring macroprojects) and (2) permanent retreat from the existing shoreline (real and capital property abandonment). We propose Macro-engineering use tactical technologies that sculpt and vegetate barren near-coast sand dune fields with seawater, seawater that would otherwise, as commonly postulated, enlarge Earth seascape area! Our Macro-engineering speculation blends eremology with hydrogeology and some hydromancy. We estimate its cost at 1 billion dollars - about 0.01 per sent of the USA 2007 Gross Domestic Product.

Viorel Badescu; Richard B. Cathcart; Alexander A. Bolonkin

2007-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

148

Internal cathodic protection of seawater piping system by the use of the RCP method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the early eighties high alloyed stainless steels like austenitic steels with about 6% molybdenum (called 6Mo-steel) and duplex stainless steels with 25% Cr (called super duplex) have been widely used in seawater systems in connection with oil- and gas production. During the last ten years high alloyed stainless steels with 6% molybdenum (6Mo) or 25%Cr (super duplex) have been the most popular materials for seawater systems on offshore installations in the North Sea. The basis for this material selection was to obtain maintenance free systems with long lifetime. However, practical experience has shown that corrosion failures can occur. This paper presents a simple and economical method to avoid corrosion problems internally in piping systems transporting chlorinated seawater. The method is called RCP--Resistor controlled Cathodic Protection. Principles of the method including protection potential, current density requirements and anode design in addition to different practical applications are described.

Johnsen, R.; Gartland, P.O.; Valen, S. [CorrOcean as, Trondheim (Norway); Drugli, J.M. [SINTEF Corrosion Centre, Trondheim (Norway)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Model of calcareous deposit formation on cathodically protected steel in seawater: improvements and extensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

( ? ) g dm3 mol . dme conuersion factor ( ) g. cms (20) 16 Concentration of Major iona in Seawater of Various Salinitles . 1. 6 20- CII ' 15 oO j. :zto f o L o 0 . 0--- X -??)???&X e3-- X X X ? X- 10 20 30 40 Salinity('lg O s. 'o . 12 ~g... e of + 0 0. 6 o~ ox MCI ? tt ? Nt+ /~a- / ? + ? h/g+ ) ? o ? Ca2+ f ? x ? HXB. Fi8trre 6: Concentration of Major Iona in Seawater of Various Salinities and) At ? ? 49. 641 Ag = 67. 460 As ? 21. 028 Bt = ? 0. 077314 B2 = 0. 046580 Bs...

Blackburne, Patricia Nicole

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

150

Adsorbent materials development and testing for the extraction of uranium from seawater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The extraction of uranium from seawater has been the focus of a research project for the U.S. Department of Energy to develop amidoxime functional group adsorbents using radiation-induced graphing on polymer-based fiber materials and subsequent chemical conversion of the radical sites to form the desired adsorbent material. Materials with promising uranium adsorption capacities were prepared through a series of parametric studies on radiation dose, time, temperature, graphing solutions, and properties of the base polymer materials. A laboratory screening protocol was developed to determine the uranium adsorption capacity to identify the most promising candidate materials for seawater testing. (authors)

Felker, L.K.; Dai, S.; Hay, B.P.; Janke, C.J.; Mayes, R.T.; Sun, X.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 37831-6384 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Skeletal P/Ca tracks upwelling in Gulf of Panama coral: Evidence for a new seawater phosphate proxy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Skeletal P/Ca tracks upwelling in Gulf of PanamaÂŽ coral: Evidence for a new seawater phosphate results that reveal annual cycles of P/Ca in a 4-year record from the scleractinian coral Pavona gigantea (mean P/Ca = 118 mmol molĂ?1 ). The P/Ca cycles track variations in past seawater phosphate concentration

Grottoli, Andréa G.

152

Warm inflationary model in loop quantum cosmology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A warm inflationary universe model in loop quantum cosmology is studied. In general we discuss the condition of inflation in this framework. By using a chaotic potential, V({phi}){proportional_to}{phi}{sup 2}, we develop a model where the dissipation coefficient {Gamma}={Gamma}{sub 0}=constant. We use recent astronomical observations for constraining the parameters appearing in our model.

Herrera, Ramon [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

Why hasn't earth warmed as much as expected?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The observed increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST) over the industrial era is less than 40% of that expected from observed increases in long-lived greenhouse gases together with the best-estimate equilibrium climate sensitivity given by the 2007 Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Possible reasons for this warming discrepancy are systematically examined here. The warming discrepancy is found to be due mainly to some combination of two factors: the IPCC best estimate of climate sensitivity being too high and/or the greenhouse gas forcing being partially offset by forcing by increased concentrations of atmospheric aerosols; the increase in global heat content due to thermal disequilibrium accounts for less than 25% of the discrepancy, and cooling by natural temperature variation can account for only about 15%. Current uncertainty in climate sensitivity is shown to preclude determining the amount of future fossil fuel CO2 emissions that would be compatible with any chosen maximum allowable increase in GMST; even the sign of such allowable future emissions is unconstrained. Resolving this situation by empirical determination of Earth’s climate sensitivity from the historical record over the industrial period or through use of climate models whose accuracy is evaluated by their performance over this period is shown to require substantial reduction in the uncertainty of aerosol forcing over this period.

Schwartz, S.E.; Charlson, R.; Kahn, R.; Ogren, J.; Rodhe, H.

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions, 2nd ed.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, andZ. Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, andAir Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and

Laberge, Yves

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Is the Ozone Depletion Regime a Model for an Emerging Regime on Global Warming?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the for- mation of a global warming regime produces a highlydepletion and the global warming regimes was recognized byan Emerging Regime on Global Warming? by Winfried Lang I.

Lang, Winfried

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Editorial – The Global Warming Fight is “Bringing Sexy Back,” Are You Ready?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2006, September 25). Is global warming raising a tempest?or her behavior towards global warming in 2007. *Timberlake,Editorial: The Global Warming Fight is “Bringing Sexy

Jankowska, Marta Maja

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Measurement of lithium isotope ratios by quadrupole-ICP-MS: application to seawater and natural carbonates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurement of lithium isotope ratios by quadrupole-ICP-MS: application to seawater and natural method for lithium isotope ratio (7 Li/6 Li) determinations with low total lithium consumption ( lithium from all matrix elements using small volume resin (2 ml/3.4 meq AG 50W-X8) and low volume elution

Weston, Ken

158

Pitting corrosion control using regenerative biolms on aluminium 2024 in articial seawater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pitting corrosion control using regenerative bioÂźlms on aluminium 2024 in artiÂźcial seawater D, CT 06269-3222, USA b Corrosion and Environment Eects Laboratory (CEEL), Department of Materials polyglutamate or polyaspartate, an additional small increase in corrosion inhibition occurred. Corrosion control

Wood, Thomas K.

159

Corrosion of aluminum alloy 2024 belonging to the 1930s in seawater environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

seawater, conserve it, and display it in its museum, as part of their rich heritage. The objective was to study the aluminum alloy used on the aircraft for its chemical and mechanical properties, suggest the corrosion mechanism of aluminum alloy 2024...

Gujarathi, Kedar Kanayalal

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

160

Z .Marine Chemistry 67 1999 3342 Differences in seawater particulate organic carbon concentration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the organic carbon retained by a glass-fiber filter against the volume filtered. The interceptZ .Marine Chemistry 67 1999 33­42 Differences in seawater particulate organic carbon concentration August 1998; accepted 11 May 1999 Abstract Z . Z . ZParticulate organic carbon POC data collected

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Thorium speciation in seawater P.H. Santschi a,*, J.W. Murray b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thorium speciation in seawater P.H. Santschi a,*, J.W. Murray b , M. Baskaran c , C.R. Benitez October 2005 Available online 7 February 2006 Abstract Since the 1960s, thorium isotopes occupy a special of these applications are possible with little knowledge of the dissolved chemical properties of thorium, other than its

Murray, James W.

162

Calcium Sulfate Formation and Mitigation when Seawater was Used to Prepare HCl-Based Acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with sulfate ion in seawater (greater than 3000 ppm) and calcium sulfate will precipitate once it exceeds its critical scaling tendency. A few studies have provided evidence for this problem and how to address this problem has not been fully examined. Core...

He, Jia

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

163

Optimal Scheduling for Biocide and Heat Exchangers Maintenance Towards Environmentally Friendly Seawater Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FOR SEAWATER-COOLED POWER AND DESALINATION PLANTS....................................................... 127 5.1 Overview .............................................................................................. 127 5.2 Introduction... 5.2 Representation of a Once-Thorough Cooling System................................ 141 5.3 An Overall Representation of the Power/Desalination Plant ..................... 152 5.4 The Cooling System for the Case Study...

Binmahfouz, Abdullah

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

164

Preservation of seawater Sr and Nd isotopes in fossil sh teeth: bad news and good news  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system, our Nd concentration data, combined with published isotopic and rare earth element data, suggest on the global seawater Sr isotope curve. For Sites 1090, 757, and 807 Sr isotopic values of the pore fluids Nd isotopic compositions from the time of deposition. Ă? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Martin, Ellen

165

Comparing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Policies dealing with global warming require a measure of the effects of the emissions of greenhouse gases that create different magnitudes of instantaneous radiative forcing and have different lifetimes. The Global Warming ...

Eckaus, Richard S.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects by Richard J: _______________________________________ Date #12;California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects Richard J, 2006 #12;#12;ABSTRACT California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming

Kammen, Daniel M.

167

The Once and Future Warm Earth: A Paleoceanographic View  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Once and Future Warm Earth: A Paleoceanographic View Dr. Ted C. Moore, Jr., University of Michigan Predictions of climatic warming in the near future, if true, will approximate the very warm--and ended. In the early and mid Eocene the Arctic Ocean was ice-free and subtropical flora and fauna were

Sukop, Mike

168

Genetic shift in photoperiodic response correlated with global warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Genetic shift in photoperiodic response correlated with global warming William E. Bradshaw observed in insects, birds, amphibians, and plants associated with global warm- ing during the latter half- tent with an adaptive evolutionary response to recent global warming. The latter half of the 20th

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

169

Global warming and body mass decline in Israeli passerine birds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global warming and body mass decline in Israeli passerine birds Yoram Yom-Tov Department of Zoology,Tel Aviv University,Tel Aviv 69978, Israel ( yomtov@post.tau.ac.il) Global warming may aÂĄect the physiology in body mass and tarsus length are due to global warming and also in accordance with Bergmann's rule

Yom-Tov, Yoram

170

Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming Bert W. Rust  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming Bert W. Rust Reprinted from the CD Rust, B. W. (2003) "Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming," Computing Science and Statistics, 35, 263-277. ­ or ­ Rust, B. W. (2003) "Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming," Computing Science and Statistics, 35

Rust, Bert W.

171

Communicating Dangers and Opportunities in Global Warming 13 December Draft  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Communicating Dangers and Opportunities in Global Warming 13 December Draft James Hansen American: "Subversion of Public Affairs Chart 7: The Global Warming Story C. Tenets of a Democracy: "An Informed Public, not as a spokesman for NASA There is a huge gap between what is understood about global warming and what is known

Hansen, James E.

172

Observationally based assessment of polar amplification of global warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Observationally based assessment of polar amplification of global warming Igor V. Polyakov,1) are similar, and do not support the predicted polar amplification of global warming. The possible moderating amplification of global warming. Intrinsic arctic variability obscures long-term changes, limiting our ability

Bhatt, Uma

173

GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial Beyond its objective basis in natural science, understanding, discussion, and res- olution of the policy issue labeled "global warming the global warming problem. In public discussion, natu- ral scientists tend to frame the issue through

Todorov, Alex

174

Global Warming 20 Years Later: Tipping Points Near  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global Warming 20 Years Later: Tipping Points Near Jim Hansen 23 June 2008 National Press Club, and House Select Committee on Energy Independence & Global Warming Washington, DC #12;1988 Testimony Has Big Effects Did Not Emphasize That Global Warming Enhances Both Extremes of Water Cycle - More

Hansen, James E.

175

The Logic of Global Warming A bitter pill  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Logic of Global Warming A bitter pill Vaughan Pratt Stanford University June 23, 2011 Vaughan PrattStanford University () The Logic of Global WarmingA bitter pill June 23, 2011 1 / 1 What is climate population growth. 2. Accumulation of hazardous materials: lead, mercury, CFCs, . . . 3. Global warming

Pratt, Vaughan

176

Strategies to Address Global Warming Is Sundance Kid a Criminal?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strategies to Address Global Warming & Is Sundance Kid a Criminal? Jim Hansen In my opinion, it is still feasible to solve the global warming problem before we pass tipping points that would guarantee ppm yields global warming about 2°C (3.6°F) above the preindustrial level. Such a level of atmospheric

Hansen, James E.

177

Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear" Bert W. Rust Mathematical- tioned the connection between global warming and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide by pointing out of these plots to global warming have spilled over to the real world, inviting both praise [4, 17] and scorn [15

Rust, Bert W.

178

Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials of newly.mdpi.com/journal/atmosphere Article Infrared Absorption Spectra, Radiative Efficiencies, and Global Warming Potentials of Newly of 600­1730 cm-1 . These spectra are then used to calculate the radiative efficiencies and global warming

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

179

Measuring evolutionary responses to global warming: cautionary lessons from Drosophila  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measuring evolutionary responses to global warming: cautionary lessons from Drosophila FRANCISCO. Understanding evolutionary responses to global climate warming can be daunt- ingly complex. But, primarily of the magnitude of long-term responses to global warming; standardising by equivalent seasonal tem- perature

Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

180

Possible global warming futures Minh Ha-Duong  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Possible global warming futures Minh Ha-Duong Minh.Ha.Duong@cmu.edu CNRS, France HDGC, Carnegie Mellon Possible global warming futures ­ p.1/36 #12;SRES: Forecasts or scenarios? +5.5 C in 2100 the controversy using imprecise probabilities, a more general information theory. . . Possible global warming

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related compounds 7A=E472C43AD.A0794E 0794E:CA27C725 AD383CADE64E7 #12;1 Global Warming Potentials and Radiative of REs and global39 warming potentials (GWPs) for these compounds, mostly employing atmospheric lifetimes

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

182

The global warming signal is the average of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, uncertainty in the isopycnal diffusivity causes uncertainty of up to 50% in the global warming signalThe global warming signal is the average of years 70-80 in the increasing CO2 run minus the average represent significant uncertainty in the global warming signal (Fig. 5). The differences at high latitudes

Jones, Peter JS

183

Global warming, bad weather, insurance losses and the global economy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. The impact on the insurance industry is described. Why global warming in the near term causes very bad weather is explained. The continuing trend of very bad weather and the future impact on the insurance industry is explored. How very bad weather can affect the global financial market is explained. Taking a historical view of the development of the modern economy, the authors describe in the near term the impact of global warming on the global economy. The long term impact of global warming on the global economy and the human race is explored. Opportunities presented by global warming are described.

Low, N.C. [UOB Life Assurance Ltd., Singapore (Singapore); Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Corrosion of Bare and Coated Al 5052-H3 and Al 6061-T6 in Seawater Work sponsored by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Corrosion of Bare and Coated Al 5052-H3 and Al 6061-T6 in Seawater Work sponsored by: US and Kentaro Kusada Hawaii Corrosion Laboratory Department of Mechanical Engineering College of Engineering

185

Experimentation and application of directional solvent extraction for desalination of seawater and shale gas 'frac' flowback water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A recently demonstrated directional solvent technique for desalination of water has been tested for desalting seawater and shale gas 'frac' flowback water. The premise behind directional solvent extraction is that when ...

Kleinguetl, Kevin (Kevin G.)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Chemical exchange between seawater and nonstoichiometric dolomite: an experimental investigation in a flow-through system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the composition of the pore fluid to be monitored as reactions occur. Average flow rates are contmlled by the volume of fluid sample removed and the time interval between samples. Cylindrical cores (4. 5 cm O. D. x 10. 2 cm) or chips of Burlington... time. The seawater evolved primarily by losing Mg and gaining Ca; however, examination of the solids by X-ray diffraction, mass spectrometry, and cathodoluminescence petrography could not detect the changes in the solid. Dissolution...

Richards, Jennifer Ann

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Recent International R&D Activities in the Extraction of Uranium from Seawater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A literature survey has been conducted to collect information on the International R&D activities in the extraction of uranium from seawater for the period from the 1960s till the year of 2010. The reported activities, on both the laboratory scale bench experiments and the large scale marine experiments, were summarized by country/region in this report. Among all countries where such activities have been reported, Japan has carried out the most advanced large scale marine experiments with the amidoxime-based system, and achieved the collection efficiency (1.5 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 30 days soaking in the ocean) that could justify the development of industrial scale marine systems to produce uranium from seawater at the price competitive with those from conventional uranium resources. R&D opportunities are discussed for improving the system performance (selectivity for uranium, loading capacity, chemical stability and mechanical durability in the sorption-elution cycle, and sorption kinetics) and making the collection of uranium from seawater more economically competitive.

Rao, Linfeng

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

Ardakanian, Reza

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Storing images in warm atomic vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reversible and coherent storage of light in atomic medium is a key-stone of future quantum information applications. In this work, arbitrary two-dimensional images are slowed and stored in warm atomic vapor for up to 30 $\\mu$s, utilizing electromagnetically induced transparency. Both the intensity and the phase patterns of the optical field are maintained. The main limitation on the storage resolution and duration is found to be the diffusion of atoms. A techniqueanalogous to phase-shift lithography is employed to diminish the effect of diffusion on the visibility of the reconstructed image.

M. Shuker; O. Firstenberg; R. Pugatch; A. Ron; N. Davidson

2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

190

Long-term soil warming and Carbon Cycle Feedbacks to the Climate System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of the proposed research was to quantify and explain the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem. The research was done at an established soil warming experiment at the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts – Barre Woods site established in 2001. In the field, a series of plant and soil measurements were made to quantify changes in C storage in the ecosystem and to provide insights into the possible relationships between C-storage changes and nitrogen (N) cycling changes in the warmed plots. Field measurements included: 1) annual woody increment; 2) litterfall; 3) carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from the soil surface; 4) root biomass and respiration; 5) microbial biomass; and 6) net N mineralization and net nitrification rates. This research was designed to increase our understanding of how global warming will affect the capacity of temperate forest ecosystems to store C. The work explored how soil warming changes the interactions between the C and N cycles, and how these changes affect land-atmosphere feedbacks. This core research question framed the project – What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem? A second critical question was addressed in this research – What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5{degrees}C soil temperature increase on nitrogen (N) cycling in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem?

Melillo, Jerry M.

2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

191

Global warming and its implications for conservation. 3. How does it work? Part two: atmospheric science and the layer model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that energy comes in from the sun and shines back out to space as IR. The main points are: 1. The outflow of IR energy from a planet must balance heating from the sun. 2. The planet accomplishes this balance warms the surface of the planet as it moves toward an equilibrium of energy fluxes in and out. The layer

Creel, Scott

192

Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related compounds4599857392 CentAUR #7326E125C47E3E3C7E=472B43!E.E07D4 07D4:BE27B725CE9393BE647 #12;GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIALS. In addition, we provide a comprehensive and self-consistent set of new calculations of REs and global warming

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

193

Warm Springs State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

194

Progress toward Biomass and Coal-Derived Syngas Warm Cleanup...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Progress toward Biomass and Coal-Derived Syngas Warm Cleanup: Proof-of-Concept Process Demonstration of Multicontaminant Removal Progress toward Biomass and Coal-Derived Syngas...

195

Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

climate assessment models treat fire emissions as a mixture of pure soot and organic carbon aerosols that offset the respective warming and cooling effects of one another on...

196

Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

197

Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

E. JOUBERT & G.PLASSAT, August 2004 Pollutants Emissions Global warming Potential Effect First Comparison using External Costs on Urban Buses Gabriel PLASSAT, ADEME French Agency...

198

Optimization of High-Volume Warm Forming for Lightweight Sheet...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of High-Volume Warm Forming for Lightweight Sheet Alloys 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

199

Study of the effects of interleakage of ammonia and seawater on corrosion and scaling of candidate materials for OTEC heat exchngers. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessment has been made on the effect of small concentrations of ammonia in seawater and varying concentrations of seawater in anhydrous ammonia upon corrosion and scaling of candidate OTEC heat exchanger materials - A1-5052, Alclad 3003, copper alloys 706, 715 and 722, AL-6X stainless steel and CP titanium. Results are presented. AL-6X stainless steel and CP titanium showed exceptional corrosion resistance to all test environments. Alclad alloy 3003 showed satisfactory performance in seawater and seawater plus ammonia environments. Only minimal pitting was observed and this was limited to the sacrificial cladding in seawater plus ammonia only. Cladding alloy 7072 showed unacceptable corrosion resistance in anhydrous ammonia containing low seawater concentrations. Al-5052 tubes showed unsatisfactory corrosion behavior in the presence of seawater flow with ammonia interleakage. Copper alloys considered showed unacceptable corrosion resistance in all seawater environments containing ammonia. Low pressure differentials between seawater and anhydrous ammonia in the tube testing unit resulted in scaling and moderately efficient plug seal formation at the artificial leak sites of the tubes. It is recommended that Alclad 3003, CP titanium and AL-6X stainless steel tubes be assessed for suitability in the presence of probable OTEC cleaning systems.

Grimes, W D; Schrieber, C F; Manning, J A

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

When Weather Warms, Water Wises Control No. #2281  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In the next century, the most important result of this global warming will be the melting of the polar ice caps and the associated rise in sea levels. We develop a model for global climate change, with both . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 7 Effect of global warming on the state of Florida 14 7.1 Previously conjectured effects

Morrow, James A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

f4: Facebook's Warm BLOB Storage System Subramanian Muralidhar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

f4: Facebook's Warm BLOB Storage System Subramanian Muralidhar , Wyatt Lloyd , Sabyasachi Roy , Sanjeev Kumar Facebook Inc., University of Southern California, Princeton University Abstract Facebook, and datacenter failures; and provides sufficient throughput for warm BLOBs. 1. Introduction As Facebook has grown

Govindan, Ramesh

202

The Apollo Alliance: How Global Warming Can Save  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Apollo Alliance: How Global Warming Can Save Democracy Joel Rogers UW-Madison, COWS, JR Commons. #12;I really wonder about power point sometimes #12;Global warming and Apollo #12;The end (orange) in recent years. Source: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment #12;Global Climate Disruption · Carbon

Sheridan, Jennifer

203

Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne Myles R. Allen1 emission pathways. We find that the peak warming caused by a given cumulative carbon dioxide emission of emissions or peak emission rate). Hence policy targets based on limiting cumulative emissions of carbon

Fischlin, Andreas

204

ice-surface lowering or some regional climate change induced by ice-surface lowering. If attributed solely to a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ice-surface lowering or some regional climate change induced by ice-surface lowering. If attributed solely to a change in ice-surface elevation, the 3° to 4°C warming at Siple Dome (16) would indicate 500 to 650 m of ice-surface lowering, assuming a free atmospheric lapse rate of 6°C per 1000 m

Flint-Garcia, Sherry

205

Warming systems prolong steam-turbine life, accelerate startup  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cycling capability is one of the top challenges in the design, operation, and maintenance of today's powerplants. This article describes how permanent warming systems can be a powerful ally in meeting this challenge, particularly for aging steam turbines. The warming system is typically used to hold steam-turbine shell temperatures during short shutdowns (up to about three days), or to pre-warm shells after longer shut-downs. Permanent warming systems elevate metal temperature above 500 F, distinguishing them from heat tracing systems that operate at much lower temperatures for freeze protection or viscosity control. Permanent warming systems can reduced steam-turbine damage during both startup heating and off-line cooling, and can reduce plant startup time.

Swanekamp, R.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Global Warming: What It Is What Is Controversial About It and What We Might Do in Response to It  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

along coasts. If global warming occurs, many environmentalSee, eg. , S. SCHNEIDER, GLOBAL WARMING: ARE WE ENTERING THETRANSITION (1989); Roberts, Global Warming: Blaming The Sun,

Botkin, Daniel B.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Will U.S. Agriculture Really Benefit from Global Warming? Accounting for Irrigation in the Hedonic Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Really Benefit from Global Warming? Accounting forR. , “The Impact of Global Warming on Agriculture: Comment,”371–411. , “The Impact of Global Warming on Agriculture: A

Schlenker, Wolfram; Hanemann, W. Michael; Fisher, Anthony C.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Review: The Global Warming Reader: A Century of Writing About Climate Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review: The Global Warming Reader: A Century of WritingMcKibben, Bill, ed. The Global Warming Reader: A Century ofrecord of no action on global warming. Those who have done

Anderson, Byron P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Review: Behind the Curve: Science and the Politics of Global Warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

realities of global warming history and contemporary climatemoral discussions about global warming at home that gives meScience and the Politics of Global Warming By Joshua P. Howe

Miller, Ryder W.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Global warming from chlorofluorocarbons and their alternatives: Time scales of chemistry and climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and their replacements on global warming. Nature Hansen J. ,gas emissions to global warming. Nature London Amendment toNature 315, 649-652, Global warming time scales WMO (World

Ko, Malcolm K.W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Molnar, Gyula; Prather, Michael J

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

130 LPW 1000 Lm Warm White LED for Illumination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An illumination-grade warm-white LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2700 and 3500 K and capable of producing 1000 lm output at over 130 lm/W at room temperature, has been developed in this program. The high-power warm-white LED is an ideal source for use in indoor and outdoor lighting applications. Over the two year period, we have made the following accomplishments: • Developed a low-cost high-power white LED package and commercialized a series of products with CCT ranging from 2700 to 5700 K under the product name LUXEON M; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 124.8 lm/W at a flux of 1023 lm, CCT of 3435 K and color rendering index (CRI) over 80 at room temperature in the productized package; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 133.1 lm/W at a flux of 1015 lm, CCT of 3475 K and CRI over 80 at room temperature in an R&D package. The new high-power LED package is a die-on-ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 2 mm2 InGaN pump dice, flip-chip attached to a ceramic submount in a 2x2 array configuration. The submount design utilizes a design approach that combines a high-thermal- conductivity ceramic core for die attach and a low-cost and low-thermal-conductivity ceramic frame for mechanical support and as optical lens carrier. The LED package has a thermal resistance of less than 1.25 K/W. The white LED fabrication also adopts a new batch level (instead of die-by-die) phosphor deposition process with precision layer thickness and composition control, which provides not only tight color control, but also low cost. The efficacy performance goal was achieved through the progress in following key areas: (1) high-efficiency royal blue pump LED development through active region design and epitaxial growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs); (2) improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN-die-level and package-level optical extraction efficiency; and (3) improvement in phosphor system efficiency by improving the lumen equivalent (LE) and phosphor package efficiency (PPE) through improvement in phosphor-package interactions. The high-power warm-white LED product developed has been proven to have good reliability through extensive reliability tests. The new kilo-lumen package has been commercialized under the product name LUXEON M. As of the end of the program, the LUXEON M product has been released in the following CCT/CRI combinations: 3000K/70, 4000K/70, 5000K/70, 5700K/70, 2700K/80, 3000K/80 and 4000K/80. LM-80 tests for the products with CCTs of 4000 K and higher have reached 8500 hours, and per IESNA TM-21-11 have established an L70 lumen maintenance value of >51,000 hours at A drive current and up to 120 °C board temperature.

Soer, Wouter

2012-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

212

The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the most complete data sets describing tropical convection ever collected will result from the upcoming Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in the area around Darwin, Northern Australia in January and February 2006. The aims of the experiment, which will be operated in conjunction with the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin, will be to examine convective cloud systems from their initial stages through to the decay of the cirrus generated and to measure their impact on the environment. The experiment will include an unprecedented network of ground-based observations (soundings, active and passive remote sensors) combined with low, mid and high altitude aircraft for in-situ and remote sensing measurements. A crucial outcome of the experiment will be a data set suitable to provide the forcing and evaluation data required by cloud resolving and single column models as well as global climate models (GCMs) with the aim to contribute to parameterization development. This data set will provide the necessary link between the observed cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a large multi-agency experiment including substantial contributions from the United States DOE ARM program, ARM-UAV program, NASA, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, EU programs and many universities.

May, Peter T.; Mather, James H.; Vaughan, Geraint; Jakob, Christian; McFarquhar, Greg; Bower, Keith; Mace, Gerald G.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Halo Formation in Warm Dark Matter Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Discrepancies have emerged between the predictions of standard cold dark matter (CDM) theory and observations of clustering on sub-galactic scales. Warm dark matter (WDM) is a simple modification of CDM in which the dark matter particles have initial velocities due either to their having decoupled as thermal relics, or having been formed via non-equilibrium decay. We investigate the nonlinear gravitational clustering of WDM with a high resolution N-body code, and identify a number of distinctive observational signatures. Relative to CDM, halo concentrations and core densities are lowered, core radii are increased, and large halos emerge with far fewer low mass satellites. The number of small halos is suppressed, and those present are formed by `top down' fragmentation of caustics, as part of a `cosmic web' connecting massive halos. Few small halos form outside this web. If we identify small halos with dwarf galaxies, their number, spatial distribution, and formation epoch appear in better agreement with the observations for WDM than they are for CDM.

Paul Bode; Jeremiah P. Ostriker; Neil Turok

2001-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

214

Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions, 2nd ed.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science,Jacobson, Mark Z. Air Pollution and Global Warming: History,and hazards related to pollution, Professor Mark Z. Jacobson

Laberge, Yves

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Removal of Sea Salt Hydrate Water from Seawater-Derived Samples by Dehydration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

groups by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy because it absorbs at the same infrared and then heating in warm, dry air (70 °C) is evaluated and compared to other methods, including spectral absorption peak height by 24 h of heating at atmospheric pressure. The heating method was also applied

Russell, Lynn

216

A sensitivity study of the thermodynamic environment on GFDL model hurricane intensity: Implications for global warming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, the effect of thermodynamic environmental changes on hurricane intensity is extensively investigated with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory hurricane model for a suite of experiments with different initial upper-tropospheric temperature anomalies up to {+-}4 C and sea surface temperatures ranging from 26 to 31 C given the same relative humidity profile. The results indicate that stabilization in the environmental atmosphere and sea surface temperature (SST) increase cause opposing effects on hurricane intensity. The offsetting relationship between the effects of atmospheric stability increase (decrease) and SST increase (decrease) is monotonic and systematic in the parameter space. This implies that hurricane intensity increase due to a possible global warming associated with increased CO{sub 2} is considerably smaller than that expected from warming of the oceanic waters alone. The results also indicate that the intensity of stronger (weaker) hurricanes is more (less) sensitive to atmospheric stability and SST changes. The model-attained hurricane intensity is found to be well correlated with the maximum surface evaporation and the large-scale environmental convective available potential energy. The model-attained hurricane intensity if highly correlated with the energy available from wet-adiabatic ascent near the eyewall relative to a reference sounding in the undisturbed environment for all the experiments. Coupled hurricane-ocean experiments show that hurricane intensity becomes less sensitive to atmospheric stability and SST changes since the ocean coupling causes larger (smaller) intensity reduction for stronger (weaker) hurricanes. This implies less increase of hurricane intensity related to a possible global warming due to increased CO{sub 2}.

Shen, W.; Tuleya, R.E.; Ginis, I.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Probing warm dense lithium by inelastic X-ray scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of warm dense matter states has practical applications for controlled thermonuclear fusion, where, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX, UK 4 Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics

Loss, Daniel

218

The variability of warm absorbers in Active Galactic Nuclei  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents three studies of warm (photoionized) absorber variability in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) using high-resolution X-ray spectra provided by the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). The first ...

Gibson, Robert R. (Robert Ross)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Thomson Scattering from Warm Dense Matter W. R. Johnson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thomson Scattering from Warm Dense Matter W. R. Johnson University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame in cell method. Email addresses: johnson@nd.edu (W. R. Johnson), nilsen1@llnl.gov (J. Nilsen), ktcheng

Johnson, Walter R.

220

Rising Sea Levels Due to Global Warming Are Unstoppable  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Levels Due to Global Warming Are Unstoppable Mitigation can slow down but not prevent sea level rise for centuries to come August 5, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, Lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Observing Warm Clouds in 3D Using ARM Scanning Cloud  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Observing Warm Clouds in 3D Using ARM Scanning Cloud Radars and a Novel Ensemble Method For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.gov...

222

The Climate Policy Narrative for a Dangerously Warming World  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is time to acknowledge that global average temperatures will likely rise above the 2 C policy target and consider how that deeply troubling prospect should affect priorities for communicating and managing the risks of a dangerously warming climate.

Sanford, Todd [Union of Concerned Scientists] [Union of Concerned Scientists; Frumhoff, Peter [Union of Concerned Scientists] [Union of Concerned Scientists; Luers, Amy [Skoll Global Threats Fund] [Skoll Global Threats Fund; Gulledge, Jay [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

St. Augustinegrass Warm-season turfgrass. Prefers full sun, but  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

St. Augustinegrass Warm-season turfgrass. Prefers full sun, but has a high tolerance for shade-season grass. It does best in full sun and high temperatures. Goes dormant and turns brown in winter. Very

Ishida, Yuko

224

Control optimization of the cryoplant warm compressor station for EAST  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cryogenic control system for EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) was designed based on DeltaV DCS of Emerson Corporation. The automatic control of the cryoplant warm compressors has been implemented. However, with ever-degrading performance of critical equipment, the cryoplant operation in the partial design conditions makes the control system fluctuate and unstable. In this paper, the warm compressor control system was optimized to eliminate the pressure oscillation based on the expert PID theory.

Zhuang, M.; Hu, L. B.; Zhou, Z. W.; Xia, G. H. [Cryogenic Engineering Division, Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O.Box 1126,Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

225

Bioaccumulation of essential metals (Co, Mn and Zn) in the king scallop Pecten maximus: seawater, food and sediment exposures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, food and sediment exposures Marc Metiana,b , Michel Warnaua* , Laetitia HĂ©douina,b , Paco Bustamanteb-feeding mollusks living in soft sediments, the uptake and depuration kinetics of three elements (Co, Mn and Zn) were investigated in the king scallop Pecten maximus exposed via seawater, food, or sediment, using

Boyer, Edmond

226

Routine and Active Metabolic Rates of Migrating Adult Wild Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka Walbaum) in Seawater and Freshwater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in freshwater at all swimming speeds except those approaching critical swimming speed. Dur- ing a 45-min- water. When fish performed a second swim test, active meta- bolic rates again remained 28%­81% higher for fish in seawater except at the critical swimming speed. Despite their differences in metabolic rates

Farrell, Anthony P.

227

Determining the effect of seawater on the interfacial shear strength of fiber reinforced epoxies using the single fiber fragmentation test  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of fiber reinforced polymer composite materials. The single fiber fragmentation test (SFFT) and Kelly-Tyson shear lag analysis were used to evaluate the effect of seawater on the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy composite...

Pratt, Barbara Ann

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

B4WARMED: Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger Principal Investigator: Peter Reich (Regents Professor)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

composition by experimentallywarming forest plots (with infrared lamps and soil heating cables of warming treatment and Infrared lamps used in experiment (Bruce Kimball ARS,USDA) Our central hypothesis

Amin, S. Massoud

229

A transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo and cloud radiative forcing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo surface and sea-ice energy budgets were measured near 87.5°N during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study regimes, characterized by varying cloud, thermody- namic and solar properties. An initial warm, melt

Brooks, Ian M.

230

SOME CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Arizona #12;Weiss and Overpeck, University of Arizona #12;MELTING OF GREENLAND ICE CAP Satellite Complete melt of the Greenland ice sheet would raise the level of the global ocean 7 meters. #12 thousand years Polar ice cores #12;GREENHOUSE GAS FORCING AND CHANGE IN GLOBAL MEAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE

Schwartz, Stephen E.

231

Game Theory and Global Warming Steve Schecter (North Carolina State University)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Game Theory and Global Warming Steve Schecter (North Carolina State University) Mary Lou Zeeman global warming game It's time to negotiate a new treaty to stop global warming. · Player 1: Governments, Brazil, Mexico, . . . ). Situation: · An investment of $2 trillion is needed to stop global warming

Schecter, Stephen

232

KNMI PR 2003-05, revised On the relationship between global warming,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

KNMI PR 2003-05, revised On the relationship between global warming, local warming. This is supported by the spatial homogeneity of global warming during the twentieth century, the lack of seasonality century. This study addresses the statistical relationships of this rise to global warming (IPCC, 2001

Haak, Hein

233

Predicting the fate of a living fossil: how will global warming affect sex determination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predicting the fate of a living fossil: how will global warming affect sex determination, an unlikely response to global warming, as many oviparous species are nesting earlier as the climate warms. Keywords: climate change; global warming; temperature-dependent sex determination; reptile; Sphenodon 1

Sheridan, Jennifer

234

Increased Climate Variability Is More Visible Than Global Warming: A General  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increased Climate Variability Is More Visible Than Global Warming: A General System@utep.edu Abstract While global warming is a statistically confirmed long-term phenomenon, its most visible than the global warming itself. 1 Formulation of the Problem What is global warming. The term "global

Kreinovich, Vladik

235

Predicting and mitigating the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predicting and mitigating the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehugera 1 , B and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) con-2 tributing to the global warming potential (GWP to design productive16 agro-ecosystems with low global warming impact.17 Keywords18 Global warming potential

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

236

Joint CO2 and CH4 accountability for global warming Kirk R. Smitha,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the causes of global warming, because the amount of global warming occurring at any time is ac- tually dueJoint CO2 and CH4 accountability for global warming Kirk R. Smitha,1,2 , Manish A. Desaia,1 for global warming is its current annual emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs)*. The second most common

Silver, Whendee

237

Preparation of High Purity, High Molecular-Weight Chitin from Ionic Liquids for Use as an Adsorbate for the Extraction of Uranium from Seawater (Workscope MS-FC: Fuel Cycle R&D)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ensuring a domestic supply of uranium is a key issue facing the wider implementation of nuclear power. Uranium is mostly mined in Kazakhstan, Australia, and Canada, and there are few high-grade uranium reserves left worldwide. Therefore, one of the most appealing potential sources of uranium is the vast quantity dissolved in the oceans (estimated to be 4.4 billion tons worldwide). There have been research efforts centered on finding a means to extract uranium from seawater for decades, but so far none have resulted in an economically viable product, due in part to the fact that the materials that have been successfully demonstrated to date are too costly (in terms of money and energy) to produce on the necessary scale. Ionic Liquids (salts which melt below 100{degrees}C) can completely dissolve raw crustacean shells, leading to recovery of a high purity, high molecular weight chitin powder and to fibers and films which can be spun directly from the extract solution suggesting that continuous processing might be feasible. The work proposed here will utilize the unprecedented control this makes possible over the chitin fiber a) to prepare electrospun nanofibers of very high surface area and in specific architectures, b) to modify the fiber surfaces chemically with selective extractant capacity, and c) to demonstrate their utility in the direct extraction and recovery of uranium from seawater. This approach will 1) provide direct extraction of chitin from shellfish waste thus saving energy over the current industrial process for obtaining chitin; 2) allow continuous processing of nanofibers for very high surface area fibers in an economical operation; 3) provide a unique high molecular weight chitin not available from the current industrial process leading to stronger, more durable fibers; and 4) allow easy chemical modification of the large surface areas of the fibers for appending uranyl selective functionality providing selectivity and ease of stripping. The resulting sorbent should prove economically feasible, as well as providing an overall net energy gain.

Rogers, Robin

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

238

Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 140: 139150, January 2014 A The role of latent heating in warm frontogenesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2014 A The role of latent heating in warm frontogenesis Adele L. Igel* and Susan C. van den Heever.igel@colostate.edu The role of latent heating from individual cloud processes associated with one part of a springtime droplet nucleation are the largest sources of latent heat along the frontal surface and together produce

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

239

Warm Cores around Regions of Low-Mass Star Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Warm cores (or hot corinos) around low-mass protostellar objects show a rich chemistry with strong spatial variations. This chemistry is generally attributed to the sublimation of icy mantles on dust grains initiated by the warming effect of the stellar radiation. We have used a model of the chemistry in warm cores in which the sublimation process is based on extensive laboratory data; these data indicate that sublimation from mixed ices occurs in several well-defined temperature bands. We have determined the position of these bands for the slow warming by a solar-mass star. The resulting chemistry is dominated by the sublimation process and by subsequent gas-phase reactions; strong spatial and temporal variations in certain molecular species are found to occur, and our results are, in general, consistent with observational results for the well-studied source IRAS 16293-2422. The model used is similar to one that describes the chemistry of hot cores. We infer that the chemistry of both hot cores and warm core...

Awad, Zainab; Collings, Mark P; Williams, David A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Measurements of Plutonium in Sediment and Seawater from the Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the summer 2000, I was given the opportunity to work for about three months as a technical trainee at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, or LLNL as I will refer to it hereafter. University of California runs this Department of Energy laboratory, which is located 70 km east of San Francisco, in the small city of Livermore. This master thesis in Radioecology is based on the work I did here. LLNL, as a second U.S.-facility for development of nuclear weapons, was built in Livermore in the beginning of the 1950's (Los Alamos in New Mexico was the other one). It has since then also become a 'science center' for a number of areas like magnetic and laser fusion energy, non-nuclear energy, biomedicine, and environmental science. The Laboratory's mission has changed over the years to meet new national needs. The following two statements were found on the homepage of LLNL (http://www.llnl.gov), at 2001-03-05, where also information about the laboratory and the scientific projects that takes place there, can be found. 'Our primary mission is to ensure that the nation's nuclear weapons remain safe, secure, and reliable and to prevent the spread and use of nuclear weapons worldwide'. 'Our goal is to apply the best science and technology to enhance the security and well-being of the nation and to make the world a safer place.' The Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology group at the Health and Ecological Assessments division employed me, and I also worked to some extent with the Centre for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) group. The work I did at LLNL can be divided into two parts. In the first part Plutonium (Pu) measurements in sediments from the Rongelap atoll in Marshall Islands, using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) were done. The method for measuring these kinds of samples is well understood at LLNL since soil samples have been measured with AMS for Pu in the past. Therefore it was the results that were of main interest and not the technique. The second part was to take advantage of AMS's very high sensitivity by measure the Pu-concentrations in small volumes (0.04-1 L) of seawater. The technique for using AMS at Pu-measurements in seawater is relatively new and the main task for me was to find out a method that could work in practice. The area where the sediment samples and the water samples were collected are high above background levels for many radionuclides, including Pu, because of the detonation of the nuclear bomb code-named Castle Bravo, in 1954.

Leisvik, M; Hamilton, T

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Air oxidation and seawater corrosion of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A program is currently under way at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to develop the data and technology needed to permit the licensing of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ as a radioisotope heat source fuel for terrestrial applications. The WESF /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ storage capsule consists of a Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule (2 in. I.D. x 19 in. long) and a 316L stainless steel outer capsule (2-3/8 in. I.D. x 20 in. long). Preliminary experimental tests and theoretical calculations show that the WESF storage capsule is incapable of meeting current licensing requirements for heat sources that are to be used for terrestrial applications. Therefore, the DOE decision was to develop a new heat source design that would retain the existing WESF Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule and replace the current WESF outer capsule with a new outer capsule capable of meeting current licensing requirements. Based on a number of factors, Hastelloy S was selected as the outer capsule material. Hastelloy C-4 was selected as a backup material in case the Hastelloy S had to be rejected for any reason. This report summarizes the results of studies carried out to determine the effects of both air oxidation at heat source operating temperatures and seawater corrosion on the tensile properties of the outer capsule materials.

Fullam, H.T.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Q&A on "Impacts of Wind Farms on Land Surface Temperature" Published by Nature Climate Change on April 29, 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Q&A on "Impacts of Wind Farms on Land Surface Temperature" Published by Nature Climate Change? This study presents the first observational evidence of wind farm impacts on land surface temperature downwind of wind farms. Why do the operating wind turbines warm nighttime temperature? This warming effect

Zhou, Liming

243

American Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida, Maine, and Massachusetts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 American Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida, Maine warming has been happening · What might have caused global warming · Whether global warming

Ford, Andrew

244

Development of cold seawater air conditioning systems for application as a demand side management tool for Hawaii and other subtropical climates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of the proximity to deep cold seawater for many coastal regions in Hawaii and the high demand for air conditioning in large buildings, seawater air conditioning (SWAC) is a major potential sustainable energy resource for Hawaii and other subtropical regions of the world. The basic concept of seawater air conditioning is the use deep cold seawater to cool the chilled water in one or more air conditioned buildings as opposed to using energy intensive refrigeration systems. The economic viability of the seawater air conditioning is determined by comparing the construction and operating costs of the seawater supply system to the construction and operating costs of conventional air conditioning systems. The State of Hawaii commissioned an analysis to identify the technical and economic opportunities and limitations in the use of SWAC in Hawaii. The result of this work is a feasibility analysis of SWAC systems in the state and the potential associated energy savings. The study looked at the prospects of installing such a system at a major new resort development on Oahu called West Beach.

Kaya, M.H. [State of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

From the warm magnetized atomic medium to molecular clouds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

{It has recently been proposed that giant molecular complexes form at the sites where streams of diffuse warm atomic gas collide at transonic velocities.} {We study the global statistics of molecular clouds formed by large scale colliding flows of warm neutral atomic interstellar gas under ideal MHD conditions. The flows deliver material as well as kinetic energy and trigger thermal instability leading eventually to gravitational collapse.} {We perform adaptive mesh refinement MHD simulations which, for the first time in this context, treat self-consistently cooling and self-gravity.} {The clouds formed in the simulations develop a highly inhomogeneous density and temperature structure, with cold dense filaments and clumps condensing from converging flows of warm atomic gas. In the clouds, the column density probability density distribution (PDF) peaks at $\\sim 2 \\times 10^{21} \\psc$ and decays rapidly at higher values; the magnetic intensity correlates weakly with density from $n \\sim 0.1$ to $10^4 \\pcc$, and then varies roughly as $n^{1/2}$ for higher densities.} {The global statistical properties of such molecular clouds are reasonably consistent with observational determinations. Our numerical simulations suggest that molecular clouds formed by the moderately supersonic collision of warm atomic gas streams.}

P. Hennebelle; R. Banerjee; E. Vazquez-Semadeni; R. Klessen; E. Audit

2008-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

246

Non-linear Langmuir waves in a warm quantum plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A non-linear differential equation describing the Langmuir waves in a warm quantum electron-ion plasma has been derived. Its numerical solutions of the equation show that ordinary electronic oscillations, similar to the classical oscillations, occur along with small-scale quantum Langmuir oscillations induced by the Bohm quantum force.

Dubinov, Alexander E., E-mail: dubinov-ae@yandex.ru; Kitaev, Ilya N. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center—All-Russia Scientific and Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF), 37 Mira Ave., Nizhny Novgorod region, Sarov 607188 (Russian Federation); Sarov State Institute of Physics and Technology (SarFTI), National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 607186 Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region (Russian Federation)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Fishing for an Analogy to Global Warming William Menke  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fishing for an Analogy to Global Warming William Menke That our beloved Wilson Lake once harbored and smaller fish. Any sort of unfavorable weather conditions could reduce the supply of food, which in turn, but whether the salt has affected the fish is hotly debated. Some environmentalists say that increased

Menke, William

248

The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming Anders Levermanna,b,1 , Peter U. Clarkc Board June 13, 2013 (received for review November 7, 2012) Global mean sea level has been steadily for different levels of global mean temperature increase above preindustrial levels. Although sea- level rise

Marzeion, Ben

249

Sweet potatoes are a warm-weather vegetable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sweet potatoes are a warm- weather vegetable related to the morning glory family.Although Louisiana sweet potatoes are often referred to as yams, they truly are sweet potatoes. The Louisiana producers began calling the orange-fleshed sweet potatoes grown in Louisiana"yams" to distinguish them from

250

ORIGINAL PAPER Global warming impact on the dominant precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is then used to simulate the changes due to global warming over the twenty-first century. The regional climate to potentially negative impacts of climate change while decreasing the likelihood of successful region-wide adaptation strategies emerging. While much of the region has a Mediterranean-type climate, the region spans

Evans, Jason

251

Global warming and Arctic climate. Raymond S. Bradley  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global warming and Arctic climate. Raymond S. Bradley Climate System Research Center University of Massachusetts Amherst #12;How have global temperatures changed & why? 1. Average instrumental records from around the world; express all as anomalies from 1961-90 average #12;#12;Overall trend is upward ("global

Mountziaris, T. J.

252

Origins of the extremely warm European fall of 2006  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Origins of the extremely warm European fall of 2006 Julien Cattiaux R. Vautard, P. Yiou LSCE ­ IPSL France European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2009 CL1 Session: Climate Extremes and Impacts. #12.Cattiauxetal.,OriginsoftheextremelywarmEuropeanfallof2006 European temperatures and atmospheric circulation #12;The best correlation is found for the V-Wind

Ribes, Aurélien

253

Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

254

Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of...

255

Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Magnesium...

256

E-Print Network 3.0 - americas warm water Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

warm water Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: americas warm water Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Ch.8 Weather Weather and Climate...

257

The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillage management is only realized when practised in the long term  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillageNT adoption reduces the net global warming potential (GWP)soil for purposes of global warming mitigation. Our results

Six, J; Ogle, S M; Breidt, F J; Conant, R T; Mosier, A R; Paustian, K

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

The Impact of Global Warming on U.S. Agriculture: An Econometric Analysis of Optimal Growing Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Really Bene?t From Global Warming? Accounting for IrrigationR. , The Economics of Global Warming, Washington, D.C. :1992. , “The Impact of Global Warming on Agriculture:

Schlenker, Wolfram; Hanemann, W. Michael; Fisher, Anthony C.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Is global warming just a giant natural fluctuation? When estimating voter's intentions, pollsters know that statements like "40%  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Is global warming just a giant natural fluctuation? When estimating voter theory. So what about global warming? Shouldn't we apply the same warming since the mid-20th century" (IPCC, Assessment Report 5, AR5), then surely

Lovejoy, Shaun

260

Operational feasibility of underwater Stirling engine systems using oxygen-seawater extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The exploration of the oceans whether for societal, commercial, scientific or military reasons requires efficient and cost effective underwater vehicles. In turn, these vessels require efficient means of producing on board power for the propulsion and hotel load requirements of long endurance missions. The Stirling engine, because of its inherent closed-cycle operation, has long been an attractive candidate for underwater use and now has proved its reliability and maintainability in the arduous environment of a naval submarine application. More recently the Stirling has been considered for use in small long endurance unmanned underwater vessels (UUVs). However, with these type of vehicles the need to carry an on board oxygen supply in a very confined space has presented a number of design problems. The concept of using multi-stage vehicles with disposable energy pods has been explored and appears attractive although a major change in submarine design philosophy will be required if such vehicles are to launched from submarines. Another approach is to use a more space efficient source of oxygen. As seawater contains dissolved oxygen then if this source could be utilized to meet all or at least part of the engine`s need than a major design problem could be overcome. In this paper the findings of an initial study into the use of membranes or artificial gill techniques to provide oxygen for a Stirling powered DARPA type vehicle are presented. It has been found that only in certain sea areas is the concept of oxygen extraction feasible for use with power systems. Even in situations where there are sufficient levels of dissolved oxygen the gill system approach appears to have limited utility for UUV applications and a number of practical problems still need to be addressed.

Potter, I.J.; Reader, G.T. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

How strong is carbon cycle-climate feedback under global warming?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and physical climate system in a global warming scenario is studied using an Earth system model including

Maryland at College Park, University of

262

Rapid and extensive warming following cessation of1 solar radiation management2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and sustained warming over land occurs17 that is well outside 20th century climate variability bounds. Global controlled by background GHG levels. Thus, a risk of22 abrupt and dangerous warming is inherent to the large aerosol34 layer could effectively curb global warming. In order to stabilize global climate near35 present

Battisti, David

263

Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 6C  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 6C Malte Meinshausen1. Frame6,7 & Myles R. Allen7 More than 100 countries have adopted a global warming limit of 2 6C or below levels in 2050 are robust indicators of the probability that twenty-first century warming will not exceed

Imamoglu, Atac

264

How Does the Eye Warm? Part II: Sensitivity to Vertical Wind Shear and a Trajectory Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

How Does the Eye Warm? Part II: Sensitivity to Vertical Wind Shear and a Trajectory Analysis DANIEL of vertical wind shear on the structure of warming and descent in the eye; results are compared with the no environment, time-averaged eye descent is maximized at 12­13-km height. Warming is not generally maximized

265

Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

global warm- ing, with the world ocean as the primary reservoir for energy accumulation (1). In turn posi- tive, OLR recovers within merely several decades, and any subse- quent global energy accumulation warming is likely caused by enhanced ASR. global warming | climate feedbacks | energy accumulation Global

Battisti, David

266

Can ozone depletion and global warming interact to produce rapid climate change?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Can ozone depletion and global warming interact to produce rapid climate change? Dennis L. Hartmann of Climate Change (IPCC) assess- ment of the status of global warming, which reported that winter stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse warming are possible. These interactions may be responsible

Limpasuvan, Varavut

267

DO GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE REPRESENT A SERIOUS THREAT TO OUR WELFARE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DO GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE REPRESENT A SERIOUS THREAT TO OUR WELFARE AND ENVIRONMENT? By Michael E. Mann I. Introduction The subjects of "global warming" and "climate change" have become parts of both the popular lexicon and the public discourse. Discussions of global warming often evoke passionate

268

16 APRIL 2004 VOL 304 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org388 Future Global Warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

16 APRIL 2004 VOL 304 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org388 Future Global Warming Scenarios INA STUDY the short-term consequences of global warming. This scenario, which predicts a shutdown of the Atlantic, if global warming were to cause a repeat of such an abrupt change, the consequences would be akin to those

Gazzaniga, Michael

269

Influence of weather and global warming in chloride ingress into concrete: a stochastic approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of weather and global warming in chloride ingress into concrete: a stochastic approach E the influence of weather conditions and global warming on chloride ingress into concrete. The assessment including seasonal variations and global warming is also proposed in this work. Three scenarios of global

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

270

Role of global warming on the statistics of record-breaking temperatures S. Redner1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Role of global warming on the statistics of record-breaking temperatures S. Redner1, * and Mark R in Philadelphia, as a function of the number of years of observation. We then consider the case of global warming question arises: is global warming the cause of such heat waves or are they merely statistical fluctuations

Redner, Sidney

271

Needed: A Realistic Strategy for Global Warming Henry D. Jacoby, Ronald G. Prinn and Richard Schmalensee  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Needed: A Realistic Strategy for Global Warming Henry D. Jacoby, Ronald G. Prinn and Richard of this issue. One day we hear that all responsible scientists agree that global warming is a dagger be slashed immediately to save our planet. The next day we're told that global warming is the illegitimate

272

The Threat to the Planet* Dark & Bright Sides of Global Warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Threat to the Planet* Dark & Bright Sides of Global Warming Jim Hansen 3 October 2007 presented provides most important information on global warming. Recorded human history occurs within the Holocene for these large climate change is perturbations of Earth's orbit. #12;Continental Drift Fig. 1 "Global Warming

Hansen, James E.

273

Response of the Zonal Mean Atmospheric Circulation to El Nio versus Global Warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Response of the Zonal Mean Atmospheric Circulation to El Niño versus Global Warming JIAN LU Pacific. The hydrological impacts of global warming also exhibit distinct patterns over the subtropics response to global warming: 1) The increase in static stability of the subtropical and midlatitude

Chen, Gang

274

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature09407 Global metabolic impacts of recent climate warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature09407 Global metabolic impacts of recent climate warming Michael E. Dillon and projected climate warming2,13,14 . Global warming is probably having profound and diverse effects phenology3,4 , community interactions5 , genetics3,6 and extinctions7 have been attributed to recent global

Huey, Raymond B.

275

Global Warming Twenty Years Later: Tipping Points Near James Hansen1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global Warming Twenty Years Later: Tipping Points Near James Hansen1 My presentation today is exactly 20 years after my 23 June 1988 testimony to Congress, which alerted the public that global warming has developed between what is understood about global warming by the relevant scientific community

Hansen, James E.

276

Global warming shifts Pacific tropical cyclone location MinHo Kwon,1,3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global warming shifts Pacific tropical cyclone location Tim Li,1 MinHo Kwon,1,3 Ming Zhao,3 Jong) is used to investigate the change of tropical cyclone frequency in the North Pacific under global warming, and W. Yu (2010), Global warming shifts Pacific tropical cyclone location, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L

Li, Tim

277

VIRGINIA CENTER FOR COAL & ENERGY RESEARCH WINTER 1998-99 / VOL. XVIII, NO. 1 Global Warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VIRGINIA CENTER FOR COAL & ENERGY RESEARCH WINTER 1998-99 / VOL. XVIII, NO. 1 Global Warming Our over global warming continue, becoming more strident again as differing models predict widely varying, following the warmth of 1998, here are our two cents worth on global warming, written in the knowledge

278

What should we do about the dangers posed by global warming? Judging by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

What should we do about the dangers posed by global warming? Judging by the collective actions rainandozonedepletioninanattempt toconfusethepublicaboutthescience of global warming and delay regula- tion of greenhouse of Engineering,itdiffersfromtheothers in its attitude towards those who deny the reality of global warming, or hu

Robock, Alan

279

Report narrows down impact of global warming People will soon be able to find out how  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Report narrows down impact of global warming People will soon be able to find out how vulnerable their own local area is to global warming, thanks to a new report led by UEA. STARDEX, a European Union is taken to reduce human-induced global warming. "Although more research is needed to increase our

Feigon, Brooke

280

Journal of Mammalogy, 84(2):354368, 2003 MAMMALIAN RESPONSE TO GLOBAL WARMING ON VARIED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

354 Journal of Mammalogy, 84(2):354­368, 2003 MAMMALIAN RESPONSE TO GLOBAL WARMING ON VARIED how Rocky Mountain mam- malian communities changed during past global warming events characterized not) in different ways. Nevertheless, examination of past global warming episodes suggested

California at Berkeley, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Can Oceanic Freshwater Flux Amplify Global Warming? LIPING ZHANG AND LIXIN WU  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Can Oceanic Freshwater Flux Amplify Global Warming? LIPING ZHANG AND LIXIN WU Physical Oceanography in global warming are studied using simulations of a climate model in which the freshwater flux changes that the warm climate leads to an acceleration of the global water cycle, which causes freshening in the high

282

Detection-attribution of global warming at the regional scale: How to deal with precipitation variability?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Detection-attribution of global warming at the regional scale: How to deal with precipitation record over recent decades. Citation: Douville, H. (2006), Detection-attribution of global warming at recent climate scenarios, Douville et al. [2005] showed that the precipitation response to global warming

Ribes, Aurélien

283

Global warming, Bergmann's rule and body mass are they related? The chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) case  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global warming, Bergmann's rule and body mass ± are they related? The chukar partridge (Alectoris of chukar partridges Alectoris chukar has changed as a result of global warming. Body mass showed warming, Israel INTRODUCTION Recent global environmental changes are providing scientists

Yom-Tov, Yoram

284

Mechanisms for Tropical Tropospheric Circulation Change in Response to Global Warming*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanisms for Tropical Tropospheric Circulation Change in Response to Global Warming* JIAN MA change in global warming is studied by comparing the response of an atmospheric general circulation model globally in response to SST warming. A diagnostic framework is developed based on a linear baroclinic model

Xie, Shang-Ping

285

A SLIPPERY SLOPE: HOW MUCH GLOBAL WARMING CONSTITUTES "DANGEROUS ANTHROPOGENIC INTERFERENCE"?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A SLIPPERY SLOPE: HOW MUCH GLOBAL WARMING CONSTITUTES "DANGEROUS ANTHROPOGENIC INTERFERENCE on the global warming that can be tolerated without risking dangerous anthropogenic interference with climate. I" mainly as a metaphor for the danger posed by global warming. So I changed "Hell" to "disaster." What

Hansen, James E.

286

Thursday, November 13 2014 Global warming could increase U.S.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thursday, November 13 2014 Ad Wonkblog Global warming could increase U.S. lightning strikes by 50, a team of researchers deliver an alarming prediction: A global warming world will see a major increase affect lightning. The upshot was that while precipitation may increase in some areas under global warming

Romps, David M.

287

WARMING TRENDS IN THE TAHOE HAPPY HOUR WITH ROBERT COATS, PH.D.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the causes of global warming lie at the national and international level, addressing the consequencesWARMING TRENDS IN THE TAHOE BASIN HAPPY HOUR WITH ROBERT COATS, PH.D. (HYDROIKOS LTD.) Date scientists agree that the earth's atmosphere and oceans are warming and the consequences will fall somewhere

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

288

Discussion on common errors in analyzing sea level accelerations, solar trends and global warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Errors in applying regression models and wavelet filters used to analyze geophysical signals are discussed: (1) multidecadal natural oscillations (e.g. the quasi 60-year Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)) need to be taken into account for properly quantifying anomalous accelerations in tide gauge records such as in New York City; (2) uncertainties and multicollinearity among climate forcing functions prevent a proper evaluation of the solar contribution to the 20th century global surface temperature warming using overloaded linear regression models during the 1900-2000 period alone; (3) when periodic wavelet filters, which require that a record is pre-processed with a reflection methodology, are improperly applied to decompose non-stationary solar and climatic time series, Gibbs boundary artifacts emerge yielding misleading physical interpretations. By correcting these errors and using optimized regression models that reduce multico...

Scafetta, Nicola

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Constraints on warm dark matter from weak lensing in anomalous quadruple lenses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the weak lensing effect by line-of-sight structures with a surface mass density of solar mass/arcsec^2 in QSO-galaxy quadruple lens systems. Using high-resolution N-body simulations in warm dark matter (WDM) models and observed four quadruple lenses that show anomalies in the flux ratios, we obtain constraints on the mass of thermal WDM, m_WDM>= 1.3keV(95%CL), which is consistent with those from Lyman-$\\alpha$ forests and the number counts of high-redshift galaxies at z>4. Our results show that WDM with a free-streaming comoving wavenumber k_{fs} <= 27 h/Mpc is disfavored as the major component of cosmological density at redshifts 0.5 <~ z <~ 4.

Kaiki Taro Inoue; Ryuichi Takahashi; Tomo Takahashi; Tomoaki Ishiyama

2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

290

COSMIC RAY HEATING OF THE WARM IONIZED MEDIUM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observations of line ratios in the Milky Way's warm ionized medium suggest that photoionization is not the only heating mechanism present. For the additional heating to explain the discrepancy, it would have to have a weaker dependence on the gas density than the cooling rate, {Lambda}n{sub e}{sup 2}. Reynolds et al. suggested turbulent dissipation or magnetic field reconnection as possible heating sources. We investigate here the viability of MHD-wave mediated cosmic ray heating as a supplemental heating source. This heating rate depends on the gas density only through its linear dependence on the Alfven speed, which goes as n{sub e}{sup -1/2}. We show that, scaled to appropriate values of cosmic ray energy density, cosmic ray heating can be significant. Furthermore, this heating is stable to perturbations. These results should also apply to warm ionized gas in other galaxies.

Wiener, Joshua; Peng Oh, S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Zweibel, Ellen G. [Departments of Astronomy and Physics, and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)] [Departments of Astronomy and Physics, and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

291

A General Systems Theory for Rain Formation in Warm Clouds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A cumulus cloud model which can explain the observed characteristics of warm rain formation in monsoon clouds is presented. The model is based on classical statistical physical concepts and satisfies the principle of maximum entropy production. Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal fluctuations that are ubiquitous to all dynamical systems in nature, such as physical, chemical, social, etc and are characterized by inverse power law form for power (eddy energy) spectrum signifying long-range space-time correlations. A general systems theory model for atmospheric flows developed by the author is based on the concept that the large eddy energy is the integrated mean of enclosed turbulent (small scale) eddies. This model gives scale-free universal governing equations for cloud growth processes. The model predicted cloud parameters are in agreement with reported observations, in particular, the cloud dropsize distribution. Rain formation can occur in warm clouds within 30minutes lifetime under favourable conditions of moisture supply in the environment.

A. M. Selvam

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

41JUNE 2005AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY | (not shown). This warm,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

41JUNE 2005AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY | (not shown). This warm, southerly flow accelerates to intense solar radiation, which lead to an early onset of melt. Therefore, an early and pro- longed meltW South 2004 (1), 2003 (2) Egedesminde 68.7ÂșN, 52.8ÂșW Central west 2004 (2), 2003 (1) Tasiilaq 65.6ÂșN, 37

Box, Jason E.

293

Gametogenesis of the warm water coral Astrangia astreiformis (Anthozoa: Scleractinia)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 19g6 Major Subject: Zoology GAMETOGENESIS OF THE WARM WATER CORAL ASTRANGIA ASTREIFORMIS (ANTHOZOA: SCLERACTINIA) A Thesis by LAUREN 3EAN ST. PIERRE Approved as to style and content by: ary K. Wicksten Chair of Committee... Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Mary K. Wicksten ~At t f (?th: I t ) h tyy (non-reef building) coral naturally occurring with and without symbiotic zooxanthellae (endosymbiotic dfnoflagellates). It has a recorded range from Massachusetts, along...

St. Pierre, Lauren Jean

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Are You Keeping Warm This Winter? | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehiclesTankless orA BRIEFApril 2015 Project Dashboard AprilKeeping Warm

295

ARM - What Are the Effects of Global Warming?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAre the Effects of Global Warming? Outreach Home Room News

296

ARM - What Are the Effects of Global Warming?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAre the Effects of Global Warming? Outreach Home Room News

297

ARM - What Will Happen as a Result of Global Warming?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAre the Effects of Global Warming? Outreach Home

298

Warm inflation in the presence of magnetic fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the effects of primordial magnetic fields on the inflationary potential in the context of a warm inflation scenario. The model, based on global supersymmetry with a new-inflation-type potential and a coupling between the inflaton and a heavy intermediate superfield, is already known to preserve the flatness required for slow-roll conditions even after including thermal contributions. Here we show that the magnetic field makes the potential even flatter, retarding the transition and rendering it smoother.

Gabriella Piccinelli; Angel Sanchez; Alejandro Ayala; Ana Julia Mizher

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

299

Ashton Warm Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCT BiomassArnprior, Ontario: Energy ResourcesAshtabulaAshton Warm

300

The effect of freezing on the sulfate-chloride and density-chloride ratios of sea-water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the sulphate-chloride ratio would be expected to have a corresponi- ingly larger effect, on density than would one of the less abundant iona. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Evidence for Sulphate Enricl ment in Ice The sulphate-chloride ratio was studied... as early as 1907 vhen Ringer performed laboratory freezing experiments vith sea-vater in which he cooled sea-water until solid salts began to freeze out. of solution. l Portions of the ice and the brine below the ice vere collected and analyzed...

Burkhalter, Albert Charles

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

The solubility of fish-produced high magnesium calcite in seawater Ryan J. Woosley,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

calcite as part of the physiological mechanisms responsible for maintaining salt and water balance. This material is soluble in near surface waters, contributing to the input of carbonate to surface ocean waters is taken as 1 and is thus left out of equation (2). We assume that the activity of the mixed solid is also

Grosell, Martin

302

Influence of the thermophoresis on aerosol deposition on warm urban surfaces P. Roupsard1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.roupsard@irsn.fr In the case of an accidental or chronic atmospheric pollution by a nuclear plant, aerosols' deposition in the radioactive plume on urban areas with the smallest uncertainties. In this case, deposition must be determined locally in urban canopy. In dry atmospheric conditions, transfer coefficients are defined by the dry

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

303

How Does the Eye Warm? Part I: A Potential Temperature Budget Analysis of an Idealized Tropical Cyclone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

How Does the Eye Warm? Part I: A Potential Temperature Budget Analysis of an Idealized Tropical In this first part of a two-part study, the mechanisms that accomplish the warming in the eye of tropical contributing to warming the eye. However, for a substantial portion of RI, the region of most rapid warming

304

Climate Change over the Equatorial Indo-Pacific in Global Warming* CHIE IHARA, YOCHANAN KUSHNIR, AND MARK A. CANE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Climate Change over the Equatorial Indo-Pacific in Global Warming* CHIE IHARA, YOCHANAN KUSHNIR to global warming is investigated using model outputs submitted to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate equatorial Indian Ocean warm more than the SSTs in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean under global warming

305

Measurements of gas sorption from seawater and the influence of gas release on open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) system performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technical community has questioned the validity and cost-effectiveness of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems because of the unknown effect of noncondensable gas on heat exchanger performance and the power needed to run vacuum equipment to remove this gas. To date, studies of seawater gas desorption have not been prototypical for system level analysis. This study gives preliminary gas desorption data on a vertical spout, direct contact evaporator and multiple condenser geometries. Results indicate that dissolved gas can be substantially removed before the seawater enters the heat exchange process, reducing the uncertainty and effect of inert gas on heat exchanger performance.

Penney, T.R.; Althof, J.A.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. In older homes in warm-humid climates, cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and some winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and avoids adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.

Rudd, A.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

FINAL REPORT WIND POWER WARM SPRINGS RESERVATION TRIBAL LANDS DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FG36-07GO17077 SUBMITTED BY WARM SPRINGS POWER & WATER ENTERPRISES A CORPORATE ENTITY OF THE CONFEDERATED TRIBES OF WARM SPRINGS WARM SPRINGS, OREGON  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wind Generation Feasibility Warm Springs Power and Water Enterprises (WSPWE) is a corporate entity owned by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, located in central Oregon. The organization is responsible for managing electrical power generation facilities on tribal lands and, as part of its charter, has the responsibility to evaluate and develop renewable energy resources for the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs. WSPWE recently completed a multi-year-year wind resource assessment of tribal lands, beginning with the installation of wind monitoring towers on the Mutton Mountains site in 2003, and collection of on-site wind data is ongoing. The study identified the Mutton Mountain site on the northeastern edge of the reservation as a site with sufficient wind resources to support a commercial power project estimated to generate over 226,000 MWh per year. Initial estimates indicate that the first phase of the project would be approximately 79.5 MW of installed capacity. This Phase 2 study expands and builds on the previously conducted Phase 1 Wind Resource Assessment, dated June 30, 2007. In order to fully assess the economic benefits that may accrue to the Tribes through wind energy development at Mutton Mountain, a planning-level opinion of probable cost was performed to define the costs associated with key design and construction aspects of the proposed project. This report defines the Mutton Mountain project costs and economics in sufficient detail to allow the Tribes to either build the project themselves or contract with a developer under the most favorable terms possible for the Tribes.

Jim Manion; Michael Lofting; Wil Sando; Emily Leslie; Randy Goff

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

308

KeV Warm Dark Matter and Composite Neutrinos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elementary keV sterile Dirac neutrinos can be a natural ingredient of the composite neutrino scenario. For a certain class of composite neutrino theories, these sterile neutrinos naturally have the appropriate mixing angles to be resonantly produced warm dark matter (WDM). Alternatively, we show these sterile neutrinos can be WDM produced by an entropy-diluted thermal freeze-out, with the necessary entropy production arising not from an out-of-equilibrium decay, but rather from the confinement of the composite neutrino sector, provided there is sufficient supercooling.

Dean J Robinson; Yuhsin Tsai

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

309

Brooks Warm Springs Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin: EnergyBoston Areais a village in CookEnergy Information Warm Springs

310

The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment: Overview  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2 andThe MolecularPlaceThe AnTheforThe Tropical Warm

311

Persisting cold extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analyses of climate model simulations and observations reveal that extreme cold events are likely to persist across each land-continent even under 21st-century warming scenarios. The grid-based intensity, duration and frequency of cold extreme events are calculated annually through three indices: the coldest annual consecutive three-day average of daily maximum temperature, the annual maximum of consecutive frost days, and the total number of frost days. Nine global climate models forced with a moderate greenhouse-gas emissions scenario compares the indices over 2091 2100 versus 1991 2000. The credibility of model-simulated cold extremes is evaluated through both bias scores relative to reanalysis data in the past and multi-model agreement in the future. The number of times the value of each annual index in 2091 2100 exceeds the decadal average of the corresponding index in 1991 2000 is counted. The results indicate that intensity and duration of grid-based cold extremes, when viewed as a global total, will often be as severe as current typical conditions in many regions, but the corresponding frequency does not show this persistence. While the models agree on the projected persistence of cold extremes in terms of global counts, regionally, inter-model variability and disparity in model performance tends to dominate. Our findings suggest that, despite a general warming trend, regional preparedness for extreme cold events cannot be compromised even towards the end of the century.

Kodra, Evan A [ORNL; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Surface Soil  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal...

313

Biological control of Cl/Br and low sulfate concentration in a 3.5-Gyr-old seawater from North Pole, Western Australia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of early life. Insights into the composition of Archaean seawater and hydrothermal fluids can be obtained by direct analysis of fluid inclusions preserved in Archaean sediments and hydrothermal systems. Here, we investigated a suite of well-preserved intrapillow quartz­carbonate pods that formed during oceanic

Rey, Patrice F.

314

Northeastern Geology & Environmental Sciences, v. 30, no. 4, 2008, p. 330-343. STABLE ISOTOPE SIGNATURE OF MIDDLE DEVONIAN SEAWATER FROM HAMILTON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SIGNATURE OF MIDDLE DEVONIAN SEAWATER FROM HAMILTON GROUP BRACHIOPODS, CENTRAL NEW YORK STATE Bruce Selleck and Drew Koff Department of Geology, 13 Oak Drive, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346; bselleck the Middle Devonian Hamilton Group of Central New York State. The sample set includes multiple specimens

Soja, Constance M.

315

Resolving discrepancies between hydraulic and chemical calibration data for seawater intrusion groundwater flow models by considering climate-driven sea level change.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Groundwater models of seawater intrusion environments can be calibrated using both hydraulic and chemical information. The possible impact of the long-term transient process of sea level change is difficult to identify, but important to accurate simulation of present conditions. The response times of the pressure and chemical fields to major fluctuations in sea level change are investigated

J. Chapman; A. Hassan; K. Pohlmann

2001-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

316

Development of a Kelp-type Structure Module in a Coastal Ocean Model to Assess the Hydrodynamic Impact of Seawater Uranium Extraction Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years, with the rapid growth of global energy demand, the interest in extracting uranium from seawater for nuclear energy has been renewed. While extracting seawater uranium is not yet commercially viable, it serves as a “backstop” to the conventional uranium resources and provides an essentially unlimited supply of uranium resource. With recent advances in seawater uranium extraction technology, extracting uranium from seawater could be economically feasible when the extraction devices are deployed at a large scale (e.g., several hundred km2). There is concern however that the large scale deployment of adsorbent farms could result in potential impacts to the hydrodynamic flow field in an oceanic setting. In this study, a kelp-type structure module was incorporated into a coastal ocean model to simulate the blockage effect of uranium extraction devices on the flow field. The module was quantitatively validated against laboratory flume experiments for both velocity and turbulence profiles. The model-data comparison showed an overall good agreement and validated the approach of applying the model to assess the potential hydrodynamic impact of uranium extraction devices or other underwater structures in coastal oceans.

Wang, Taiping; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Long, Wen; Gill, Gary A.

2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

317

The effect of tungsten and molybdenum additions on the cavitation corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel (DSS) in seawater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cavitation corrosion studies were conducted on two duplex stainless steel (DSS) specimens of which one was containing tungsten and more molybdenum than the other. Experiments were conducted in seawater using an ultrasonically-induced cavitation facilities. The rate of mass-loss, free corrosion potential, and microscopic examinations were compared for the two alloys in the presence and absence of cavitation. There was negligible mass loss for the two alloys under stagnant conditions. However, some differences were observed between the two alloys with respect to mass-loss, corrosion potential and morphology of attacked areas. The alloy containing tungsten and mover molybdenum experienced more loss in weight regardless of their more noble corrosion potential during cavitation. This difference in behavior was explained in terms of the effect of the alloying elements on the microstructure of the alloys and their susceptibility to absorb the impact energy of cavitation.

Al-Hashem, A.; Abdullah, A.; Shalaby, H.M. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). Materials Application Dept.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

318

Warm Water Oxidation Verification - Scoping and Stirred Reactor Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scoping tests to evaluate the effects of agitation and pH adjustment on simulant sludge agglomeration and uranium metal oxidation at {approx}95 C were performed under Test Instructions(a,b) and as per sections 5.1 and 5.2 of this Test Plan prepared by AREVA. (c) The thermal testing occurred during the week of October 4-9, 2010. The results are reported here. For this testing, two uranium-containing simulant sludge types were evaluated: (1) a full uranium-containing K West (KW) container sludge simulant consisting of nine predominant sludge components; (2) a 50:50 uranium-mole basis mixture of uraninite [U(IV)] and metaschoepite [U(VI)]. This scoping study was conducted in support of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Phase 2 technology evaluation for the treatment and packaging of K-Basin sludge. The STP is managed by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) for the U.S. Department of Energy. Warm water ({approx}95 C) oxidation of sludge, followed by immobilization, has been proposed by AREVA and is one of the alternative flowsheets being considered to convert uranium metal to UO{sub 2} and eliminate H{sub 2} generation during final sludge disposition. Preliminary assessments of warm water oxidation have been conducted, and several issues have been identified that can best be evaluated through laboratory testing. The scoping evaluation documented here was specifically focused on the issue of the potential formation of high strength sludge agglomerates at the proposed 95 C process operating temperature. Prior hydrothermal tests conducted at 185 C produced significant physiochemical changes to genuine sludge, including the formation of monolithic concretions/agglomerates that exhibited shear strengths in excess of 100 kPa (Delegard et al. 2007).

Braley, Jenifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

319

Constructing warm inflationary model in brane-antibrane system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recently, various observational data predict a possibility that inflation may naturally occur in a warm region. In this scenario, radiation is produced during the inflation epoch and reheating is avoided. The main question arises that what is the origin of warm inflation in 4D universe? We answer to this question in brane-antibrane system. We propose a model that allows all cosmological parameters like the scale factor a, the Hubble parameter H and phantom energy density depend on the equation of state parameter in transverse dimension between two branes. Thus, an enhancement in these parameters can be a signature of some evolutions in extra dimension. In our model, the expansion of 4D universe is controlled by the separation distance between branes and evolves from non-phantom phase to phantom one. Consequently, phantom-dominated era of the universe accelerates and ends up in big-rip singularity. Also, we show that as the tachyon potential increases, the effect of interaction between branes on the 4D universe expansion becomes systematically more effective, because at higher energies there exists more channels for flowing energy from extra dimension to other four dimensions. Finally, we test our model against WMAP and Planck data and obtain the ripping time. According to experimental data, $N\\simeq 50$ case leads to $n_{s}\\simeq 0.96$, where \\emph{N} and $n_{s}$ are the number e-folds and the spectral index respectively. This standard case may be found in $0.01 occurs is $t_{rip}=33(Gyr)$.

M. R. Setare; A. Sepehri; V. Kamali

2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

320

Upward Shift of the Atmospheric General Circulation under Global Warming: Theory and Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, including upward shifts in the ver- tical velocities and distributions of cloud water and ice as the seaUpward Shift of the Atmospheric General Circulation under Global Warming: Theory and Simulations circulation of the atmosphere shift upward in response to warming in simu- lations of climate change with both

O'Gorman, Paul

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The Effects of Three-Dimensional Canopy Management on Overseeded Warm-Season Fairway Turf  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as a sustainable warm-season turfgrass but a lack of cultural management data has hindered its acceptance. FineThe Effects of Three-Dimensional Canopy Management on Overseeded Warm-Season Fairway Turf Scientist: Kurt Steinke, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences Funding: $7,000 The objectives are to 1) discover

322

Warming may create substantial water supply shortages in the Colorado River basin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Warming may create substantial water supply shortages in the Colorado River basin Gregory J. Mc (2007), Warming may create substantial water supply shortages in the Colorado River basin, Geophys. Res; published 27 November 2007. [1] The high demand for water, the recent multiyear drought (1999

323

Climate Change: Sources of Warming in the Late 20th Century  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The role of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, volcanic and other aerosols, as well as the extraordinary solar activity of the late 20th century are discussed in the context of the warming since the mid-1970s. Much of that warming is found to be due to natural causes.

Gerald E. Marsh

2009-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

324

Warm photoionized plasmas created by soft-x-ray laser irradiation of solid targets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Warm photoionized plasmas created by soft-x-ray laser irradiation of solid targets Mark Berrill,1); published April 7, 2008 We report the study of warm plasmas created by soft-x-ray laser irradiation of solid that in contrast to plasmas created by optical lasers the plasma properties are largely determined

Rocca, Jorge J.

325

ICE SHEETS, GLOBAL WARMING, AND ARTICLE 2 OF THE UNFCCC An Editorial Essay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such rapid-loss mechanisms, models cannot produce a stable ice sheet above some local warming thresholdICE SHEETS, GLOBAL WARMING, AND ARTICLE 2 OF THE UNFCCC An Editorial Essay 1. Introduction Rapid disintegration of the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) was cited decades ago as a potentially severe consequence

Oppenheimer, Michael

326

Teaching Energy Balance using Round Numbers: A Quantitative Approach to the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Teaching Energy Balance using Round Numbers: A Quantitative Approach to the Greenhouse Effect, 2003 Abstract The idea of energy balance used to explain the greenhouse effect and global warming and astronomy curricula. The idea of energy balance is used to explain the greenhouse effect and global warming

Blais, Brian

327

Entropy Shows that Global Warming Should Cause Increased Variability in the Weather  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elementary physical reasoning seems to leave it inevitable that global warming would increase the variability of the weather. The first two terms in an approximation to the global entropy are used to show that global warming has increased the free energy available to drive the weather, and that the variance of the weather should increase correspondingly.

John Michael Williams

2001-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

328

A Vast Machine Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Vast Machine Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming Paul N. Edwards models, climate data, and the politics of global warming / Paul N. Edwards. p. cm. Includes. Climatology--History. 3. Meteorology--History. 4. Climatology--Technological innovation. 5. Global temperature

329

Acclimatization of soil respiration to warming in a tall grass prairie  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to climatic warming2±4 . The feedback mechanism is usually based on the assumption that observed sensitivity feedbacks into the climatic system. Climatic warming, on one hand, potentially stimulates nutrient) since 21 November 1999 to study respiratory sensitivity to climate change. We also used clipping

330

Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1 and John T. Fasullo1 from an energy budget standpoint comes from increases in absorbed solar radiation that stem directly. T. Fasullo (2009), Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation, Geophys. Res. Lett

Fasullo, John

331

The warming climate could put food supplies at risk over the next decade or two.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

change. The results suggest that with climate warming, the risk of losing 10% or more of the global wheat by 20 times, to a 1 in 10 chance. Environ. Res. Lett. 9, 074003 (2014) AGRICULTURE Global warming could, has a buried ocean that is saltier than many seas on Earth. Titan, with its thick atmosphere

Floeter, Sergio Ricardo

332

The robust dynamical contribution to precipitation extremes in idealized warming simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The robust dynamical contribution to precipitation extremes in idealized warming simulations across shift under climate warming on the distribution of precipitation extremes and the associated sensitivity in the frequency of the most extreme categories of the precipitation events at the poleward side of the midlatitude

Chen, Gang

333

Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Air Temperature Variability: 18402007* JASON E. BOX  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Air Temperature Variability: 1840­2007* JASON E. BOX Byrd Polar, seasonal, and annual mean Greenland ice sheet near- surface air temperatures. Independent observations Greenland in autumn and southern Greenland in winter. Spring trends marked the 1920s warming onset, while

Howat, Ian M.

334

Changes in Cloud Cover and Cloud Types Over the Ocean from Surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

atmosphere) #12;Clouds, Radiation, and SST Low Clouds - Cool the ocean surface High Clouds - WarmingChanges in Cloud Cover and Cloud Types Over the Ocean from Surface Observations, 1954-2008 Ryan Eastman Stephen G. Warren Carole J. Hahn #12;Clouds Over the Ocean The ocean is cloudy, more-so than land

Hochberg, Michael

335

Phenomenological solar contribution to the 19002000 global surface N. Scafetta1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Phenomenological solar contribution to the 1900­2000 global surface warming N. Scafetta1 and B. J 2006. [1] We study the role of solar forcing on global surface temperature during four periods on four scale-dependent empirical climate sensitive parameters to solar variations. We use two alternative

Scafetta, Nicola

336

Constraints on warm dark matter from weak lensing in anomalous quadruple lenses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the weak lensing effect by line-of-sight structures with a surface mass density of solar mass/arcsec^2 in QSO-galaxy quadruple lens systems. Using high-resolution N-body simulations in warm dark matter (WDM) models and observed four quadruple lenses that show anomalies in the flux ratios, we obtain constraints on the mass of thermal WDM, m_WDM>= 1.3keV(95%CL) assuming that the density of the primary lens is described by a singular isothermal ellipsoid (SIE). The obtained constraint is consistent with those from Lyman-$\\alpha$ forests and the number counts of high-redshift galaxies at z>4. Our results show that WDM with a free-streaming comoving wavenumber k_{fs} <= 27 h/Mpc is disfavored as the major component of cosmological density at redshifts 0.5 <~ z <~ 4 provided that the SIE models describe the gravitational potentials of the primary lenses correctly.

Kaiki Taro Inoue; Ryuichi Takahashi; Tomo Takahashi; Tomoaki Ishiyama

2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

337

Illusory Sense of Human Touch from a Warm and Soft Artificial Hand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To touch and be touched are vital to human development, well being, and relationships. However, to those who have lost their arms and hands due to accident or war, touching becomes a serious concern that often leads to psychosocial issues and social stigma. In this paper, we demonstrate that the touch from a warm and soft rubber hand can be perceived by another person as if the touch were coming from a human hand. We describe a three step process toward this goal. First, we made participants select artificial skin samples according to their preferred warmth and softness characteristics. At room temperature, the preferred warmth was found to be 28.4 deg C at the skin surface of a soft silicone rubber material that has a Shore durometer value of 30 at the OO scale. Second, we developed a process to create a rubber hand replica of a human hand. To compare the skin softness of a human hand and artificial hands, a robotic indenter was employed to produce a softness map by recording the displacement data when const...

Cabibihan, John-John; Srinivasa, Yeshwin Mysore; Chan, Mark Aaron; Muruganantham, Arrchana

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Establishment of warm-season native grasses and forbs on drastically disturbed lands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Establishment of warm-season native grasses and forbs (WSNGs) has been viewed by landowners, agronomists, natural resource managers and reclamation specialists as being too expensive and difficult, especially for reclamation, which requires early stand closure and erosion control. Natural resource managers have learned a great deal about establishing WSNGs since the implementation of the 1985 Farm Bill`s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Reclamation specialists must begin to use this information to improve reclamation success. Quality control of seed equipment and planting methods has been proven to be the crucial first step in successful establishment. Seedling germination, growth and development of WSNGs are different from that of introduced cool-season grasses and legumes. Specialized seed drills and spring planting periods are essential. Because shoot growth lags far behind root growth the first two seasons, WSNGs often are rejected for reclamation use. Usually, the rejection is based on preconceived notions that bare ground will erode and on reclamation specialists` desire for a closed, uniform, grassy lawn. WSNG`s extensive root systems inhibit rill and gully erosion by the fall of the first season. Planting a weakly competitive, short-lived nurse crop such as perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) at low rates with the WSNG mixture can reduce first-season sheet and rill erosion problems and give an appearance of a closed stand. Benefits of WSNGs in soil building and their acid-tolerance make them ideal species for reclamation of drastically disturbed lands. WSNGs and forbs enhance wildlife habitat and promote natural succession and the invasion of the reclamation site by other native species, particularly hardwood trees, increasing diversity and integrating the site into the local ecosystem. This is perhaps their most important attribute. Most alien grasses and legumes inhibit natural succession, slowing the development of a stable mine soil ecosystem. This paper outlines one successful methodology to establish warm-season grasses and forbs on abandoned mine lands in Missouri. The methodology can be successfully adapted for reclamation of all drastically disturbed lands including Title V lands under the Surface Mining Control Reclamation Act of 1977 (PL95-87) to promote ecosystem diversity and stability.

Miller, S. [Missouri Dept. of Natural Resources, Jefferson City, MO (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

339

The effects of total dissolved gas on chum salmon fry survival, growth, gas bubble disease, and seawater tolerance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta alevin developing in gravel habitats downstream of Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are exposed to elevated levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) when water is spilled at the dam to move migrating salmon smolts downstream to the Pacific Ocean. Current water quality criteria for the management of dissolved gas in dam tailwaters were developed primarily to protect salmonid smolts and are assumed to be protective of alevin if adequate depth compensation is provided. We studied whether chum salmon alevin exposed to six levels of dissolved gas ranging from 100% to 130% TDG at three development periods between hatch and emergence (hereafter early, middle, and late stage) suffered differential mortality, growth, gas bubble disease, or seawater tolerance. Each life stage was exposed for 50 d (early stage), 29 d (middle stage), or 16 d (late stage) beginning at 13, 34, and 37 d post-hatch, respectively, through 50% emergence. The mortality for all stages from exposure to emergence was estimated to be 8% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 4% to 12%) when dissolved gas levels were between 100% and 117% TDG. Mortality significantly increased as dissolved gas levels rose above 117% TDG,; with the lethal concentration that produced 50% mortality (LC50 ) was estimated to be 128.7% TDG (95% CI of 127.2% to 130.2% TDG) in the early and middle stages. By contrast, there was no evidence that dissolved gas level significantly affected growth in any life stage except that the mean wet weight at emergence of early stage fish exposed to 130% TDG was significantly less than the modeled growth of unexposed fish. The proportion of fish afflicted with gas bubble disease increased with increasing gas concentrations and occurred most commonly in the nares and gastrointestinal tract. Early stage fish exhibited higher ratios of filament to lamellar gill chloride cells than late stage fish, and these ratios increased and decreased for early and late stage fish, respectively, as gas levels increased; however, there were no significant differences in mortality between life stages after 96 h in seawater. The study results suggest that current water quality guidelines for the management of dissolved gas appear to offer a conservative level of protection to chum salmon alevin incubating in gravel habitat downstream of Bonneville Dam.

Geist, David R.; Linley, Timothy J.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Deng, Zhiqun

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 25 MARCH 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1430 Broad range of 2050 warming from an  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

assessments. From our simulations, we conclude that warming by the mid- dle of the twenty-first century

342

Long-term experimental warming reduces soil nematode populations in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

warming is expected to increase snow and glacial melt, resulting in higher stream discharge, rising lake levels, and an increase in areas of moist soil, but the potential influence of warming and associated changes in hydrology on the soil ecosystem is poorly understood. To examine the effects of soil warming

Wall, Diana

343

Role of global warming on the statistics of recordbreaking temperatures S. Redner 1, * and Mark R. Petersen 2,+  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Role of global warming on the statistics of record­breaking temperatures S. Redner 1, * and Mark R of global warming, where the mean temperature systematically in­ creases with time. Over the 126­year time question arises: is global warming the cause of such heat waves or are they merely statistical fluctuations

Redner, Sidney

344

Scientist warns against overselling climate change Climate change forecasters should admit that they cannot predict how global warming will affect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that they cannot predict how global warming will affect individual countries, a leading physicist has said-of-deaths-from-ozone-predicted.html) Antarctic sea floor gives clues about effects of future global warming (/earth/environment/climatechange /5279223/Antarctic-sea-floor-gives-clues-about-affects-of-future-global-warming.html) The Vanishing Face

Stevenson, Paul

345

Response and impact of equatorial ocean dynamics and tropical instability waves in the tropical Atlantic under global warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atlantic under global warming: A regional coupled downscaling study Hyodae Seo1,2 and ShangPing Xie1. Under global warming, both global and regional models exhibit an increased (decreased) rainfall thermal stratification is suggested to be more important under global warming. The strengthened upwelling

Xie, Shang-Ping

346

A ten-year decrease in plant species richness on a neotropical inselberg:1 detrimental effects of global warming?2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of global warming?2 3 EMILE FONTY*, CORINNE SARTHOU, DENIS LARPIN§ and JEAN-FRAN�OIS4 PONGE*1 5 6 *Muséum 15 Keywords: aridity, biodiversity loss, global warming, low forest, plant communities, tropical16 probable cause of the observed species disappearance is global warming, which severely28 affected northern

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

347

WHAT TO DO ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE? Slowing the rate of carbon burning won't stop global warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WHAT TO DO ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE? #12;Slowing the rate of carbon burning won't stop global warming: most CO2 stays in the air over a century, though individual molecules come and go. Global warming. But we need to research it -- starting now. If global warming gets bad, public opinion may suddently flip

Baez, John

348

An Occam's razor view of the lead-lag dispute in global warming Tadeusz J. Ulrych1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 An Occam's razor view of the lead-lag dispute in global warming Tadeusz J. Ulrych1 and Allan D to the solar flux) which is responsible for the undeniable global warming. For example, "The observation-correlation=non- causality' statement is bogus. The Lead-Lag Dispute in Global Warming An excellent example of the debate

Woodbury, Allan D.

349

"Global warming and global cooling are physical phenomenon. But the battle over these real or presumed developments is a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"Global warming and global cooling are physical phenomenon. But the battle over these real of catastrophic global warming the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people" What is climate change we have ever seen" What is climate change? Lord Nicholas Stern, October 2006 #12;"Global warming

Baez, John

350

In Proceedings of the 76th American Meteorological SocietyMeetings,January 1996. STUDENT CONFERENCEON GLOBAL WARMING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONFERENCEON GLOBAL WARMING: A COLLABORATIVENETWORK-SUPPORTED ECOLOGICALLYHlERARCHIC GEOSCIENCES CURRICULUM Schoolof Education and SocialPolicy Evanston, Illinois 60208 1. INTRODUCTION A five week global warming. WHY GLOBALWARMING? The controversyaround global warming has been growing over the past few decades

Boyer, Edmond

351

Determining the effect of seawater on the interfacial strength of an interlayer E-glass-graphite/epoxy composite using observations of transverse cracking made in-situ in an environmental SEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the interfacial strength (normal to the fiber) of an interlayer hybrid composite which has been exposed to seawater for two different lengths of time. Specimens were tested in transverse tension in an environmental scanning electron microscope. The specimens were...

Wood, Catherine Ann

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduce its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere. This process of 'negative radiative forcing' can help counter the effects of global warming. In addition, cool roofs reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win-win-win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Rosenfeld, Arthur; Elliot, Matthew

2009-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

353

Dielectric recombination and stability of warm gas in AGN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High resolution ultraviolet and X-ray spectra show that material outflow occur from the close neighbourhoods of super-massive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN). The absorption features seen in the high resolution soft X-ray spectra is attributed to gas which is conventionally termed as the warm absorber (WA) and often the thermal equilibrium (stability) curve is used as a theoretical tool to offer insights into the nature of the WA. The shape of the stability curve is determined by factors like the spectral energy distribution of the ionizing flux and the chemical composition of the absorbing gas. We found that the stability curves obtained under the same set of assumptions for the prevalent physical conditions in the AGN environment, but using recently derived dielectronic recombination rates, give significantly different results from what is predicted with older atomic data. The variations in phase space region of the stability curves corresponding to WAs, lead to different physical predictions. The results obtained with the current dielectronic recombination rate coefficients are more reliable because the WA models along the stability curve have computed, updated coefficient values.

Chakravorty, Susmita; Kembhavi, Ajit K.; Elvis, Martin; Ferland, Gary; Badnell, N. R. [Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); IUCAA, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

354

FORMATION OF ORGANIC MOLECULES AND WATER IN WARM DISK ATMOSPHERES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observations from Spitzer and ground-based infrared spectroscopy reveal significant diversity in the molecular emission from the inner few AU of T Tauri disks. We explore theoretically the possible origin of this diversity by expanding on our earlier thermal-chemical model of disk atmospheres. We consider how variations in grain settling, X-ray irradiation, accretion-related mechanical heating, and the oxygen-to-carbon ratio can affect the thermal and chemical properties of the atmosphere at 0.25-40 AU. We find that these model parameters can account for many properties of the detected molecular emission. The column density of the warm (200-2000 K) molecular atmosphere is sensitive to grain settling and the efficiency of accretion-related heating, which may account, at least in part, for the large range in molecular emission fluxes that have been observed. The dependence of the atmospheric properties on the model parameters may also help to explain trends that have been reported in the literature between molecular emission strength and mid-infrared color, stellar accretion rate, and disk mass. We discuss whether some of the differences between our model results and the observations (e.g., for water) indicate a role for vertical transport and freezeout in the disk midplane. We also discuss how planetesimal formation in the outer disk (beyond the snowline) may imprint a chemical signature on the inner few AU of the disk and speculate on possible observational tracers of this process.

Najita, Joan R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Adamkovics, Mate; Glassgold, Alfred E. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

355

Transitional solar dynamics, cosmic rays and global warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar activity is studied using a cluster analysis of the time-fluctuations of the sunspot number. It is shown that in an Historic period the high activity components of the solar cycles exhibit strong clustering, whereas in a Modern period (last seven solar cycles: 1933-2007) they exhibit a white-noise (non-)clustering behavior. Using this observation it is shown that in the Historic period, emergence of the sunspots in the solar photosphere was strongly dominated by turbulent photospheric convection. In the Modern period, this domination was broken by a new more active dynamics of the inner layers of the convection zone. Then, it is shown that the dramatic change of the sun dynamics at the transitional period (between the Historic and Modern periods, solar cycle 1933-1944yy) had a clear detectable impact on Earth climate. A scenario of a chain of transitions in the solar convective zone is suggested in order to explain the observations, and a forecast for the global warming is suggested on the basis of this scenario. A relation between the recent transitions and solar long-period chaotic dynamics has been found. Contribution of the galactic turbulence (due to galactic cosmic rays) has been discussed. These results are also considered in a content of chaotic climate dynamics at millennial timescales.

A. Bershadskii

2009-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

356

Equilibration processes in the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) is thought to contribute about 40-50 % to the baryonic budget at the present evolution stage of the universe. The observed large scale structure is likely to be due to gravitational growth of density fluctuations in the post-inflation era. The evolving cosmic web is governed by non-linear gravitational growth of the initially weak density fluctuations in the dark energy dominated cosmology. Non-linear structure formation, accretion and merging processes, star forming and AGN activity produce gas shocks in the WHIM. Shock waves are converting a fraction of the gravitation power to thermal and non-thermal emission of baryonic/leptonic matter. They provide the most likely way to power the luminous matter in the WHIM. The plasma shocks in the WHIM are expected to be collisionless. Collisionless shocks produce a highly non-equilibrium state with anisotropic temperatures and a large differences in ion and electron temperatures. We discuss the ion and electron heating by the collisionless shocks and then review the plasma processes responsible for the Coulomb equilibration and collisional ionisation equilibrium of oxygen ions in the WHIM. MHD-turbulence produced by the strong collisionless shocks could provide a sizeable non-thermal contribution to the observed Doppler parameter of the UV line spectra of the WHIM.

A. M. Bykov; F. B. S. Paerels; V. Petrosian

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

357

Top-Down Fragmentation of a Warm Dark Matter Filament  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the first high-resolution n-body simulations of the fragmentation of dark matter filaments. Such fragmentation occurs in top-down scenarios of structure formation, when the dark matter is warm instead of cold. In a previous paper (Knebe et al. 2002, hereafter Paper I), we showed that WDM differs from the standard Cold Dark Matter (CDM) mainly in the formation history and large-scale distribution of low-mass haloes, which form later and tend to be more clustered in WDM than in CDM universes, tracing more closely the filamentary structures of the cosmic web. Therefore, we focus our computational effort in this paper on one particular filament extracted from a WDM cosmological simulation and compare in detail its evolution to that of the same CDM filament. We find that the mass distribution of the halos forming via fragmentation within the filament is broadly peaked around a Jeans mass of a few 10^9 Msun, corresponding to a gravitational instability of smooth regions with an overdensity contrast around 10 at these redshifts. Our results confirm that WDM filaments fragment and form gravitationally bound haloes in a top-down fashion, whereas CDM filaments are built bottom-up, thus demonstrating the impact of the nature of the dark matter on dwarf galaxy properties.

Alexander Knebe; Julien Devriendt; Brad Gibson; Joseph Silk

2003-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

358

The effect of global warming on U.S. agriculture and its variability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of global warming. The U. S. is the biggest net cereal exporter with over one-half of the cereal export market. The impact of global warming on U. S. agricultural production could significantly influence future world food markets. Thus, case studies on U...: the economic impacts generated by the stochastic model are the same as those obtained by its deterministic equivalent. 3. If the hypothesis is rejected, to identify the importance of risk in economic assessment of global warming on U. S. agriculture...

He, Qifen

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

A GIS COST MODEL TO ASSESS THE AVAILABILITY OF FRESHWATER, SEAWATER, AND SALINE GROUNDWATER FOR ALGAL BIOFUEL PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key advantage of using microalgae for biofuel production is the ability of some algal strains to thrive in waters unsuitable for conventional crop irrigation such as saline groundwater or seawater. Nonetheless, the availability of sustainable water supplies will provide significant challenges for scale-up and development of algal biofuels. We conduct a limited techno-economic assessment based on the availability of freshwater, saline groundwater, and seawater for use in open pond algae cultivation systems. We explore water issues through GIS-based models of algae biofuel production, freshwater supply, and cost models for supplying seawater and saline groundwater. We estimate that combined, within the coterminous US these resources can support production on the order of 9.46E+7 m3 yr-1 (25 billion gallons yr-1) of renewable biodiesel. Achievement of larger targets requires the utilization of less water efficient sites and relatively expensive saline waters. Geographically, water availability is most favorable for the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida peninsula, where evaporation relative to precipitation is moderate and various saline waters are economically available. As a whole, barren and scrub lands of the southwestern US have limited freshwater supplies so accurate assessment of alternative waters is critical.

Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Planetary boundary layer depth in Global climate models induced biases in surface climatology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Earth has warmed in the last century with the most rapid warming occurring near the surface in the arctic. This enhanced surface warming in the Arctic is partly because the extra heat is trapped in a thin layer of air near the surface due to the persistent stable-stratification found in this region. The warming of the surface air due to the extra heat depends upon the amount of turbulent mixing in the atmosphere, which is described by the depth of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In this way the depth of the ABL determines the effective response of the surface air temperature to perturbations in the climate forcing. The ABL depth can vary from tens of meters to a few kilometers which presents a challenge for global climate models which cannot resolve the shallower layers. Here we show that the uncertainties in the depth of the ABL can explain up to 60 percent of the difference between the simulated and observed surface air temperature trends and 50 percent of the difference in temperature variability...

Davy, Richard

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

IC5063: AGN driven outflow of warm and cold gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present new ATCA 17- and 24-GHz radio images and ESO-NTT optical spectra of the radio-loud Seyfert galaxy IC5063, the first galaxy in which a fast (~ 600 km/s) outflow of neutral hydrogen was discovered. The new radio data confirm the triple radio structure with a central core and two resolved radio lobes. This implies that the previously detected fast outflow of neutral gas is occurring off-nucleus, near a radio lobe about 0.5 kpc from the core. The ionised gas shows complex kinematics in the region co-spatial with the radio emission. Broad and blueshifted (~ 500 km/s) emission is observed in the region of the radio lobe, at the same location as the blueshifted HI absorption. The velocity of the ionised outflow is similar to the one found in HI. The first order correspondence between the radio and optical properties suggests that the outflow is driven by the interaction between the radio jet and the ISM. Despite the high outflow velocities, no evidence is found for the ionisation of the gas being due to fast shocks in the region of the outflow, indicating that photoionisation from the AGN is likely to be the dominant ionisation mechanism. The outflow rate of the warm (ionised) gas is small compared to that of the cold gas. The mass outflow rate associated with the HI is in the same range as for ``mild'' starburst-driven superwinds in ULIRGs. However, in IC5063, the AGN-driven outflow appears to be limited to the inner kpc region of the galaxy. The kinetic power associated with the HI outflow is a small fraction (a few x 10^-4) of the Eddington luminosity of the galaxy but is a significant fraction (~ 0.1) of the nuclear bolometric luminosity. In IC5063, the outflows may have sufficient kinetic power to have a significant impact on the evolution of the ISM in the host galaxy.

R. Morganti; J. Holt; L. Saripalli; T. A. Oosterloo; C. N. Tadhunter

2007-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

362

Geographic variation in vulnerability to climate warming in a tropical Caribbean lizard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Geographic variation in vulnerability to climate warming in a tropical Caribbean lizard Alex R temperatures (Tb) of the tropical Caribbean lizard Anolis cristatellus at nine sites representing two habitat

Leal, Manuel S.

363

Intensification of precipitation extremes with warming in a cloud resolving model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A cloud-resolving model is used to investigate the effect of warming on high percentiles of precipitation (precipitation extremes) in the idealized setting of radiative-convective equilibrium. While this idealized setting ...

Muller, Caroline

364

The potential role of stratospheric ozone in the stratosphere-ionosphere coupling during stratospheric warmings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The recent discovery of large ionospheric disturbances associated with sudden stratospheric warmings (SSW) has challenged the current understanding of mechanisms coupling the stratosphere and ionosphere. Non-linear interaction ...

Goncharenko, Larisa

365

Statistical factors to qualify the superconducting magnets for the SSC based on warm/cold correlations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

All of the SSC production magnets will be measured at room temperature (warm), but only a fraction of these will be measured at liquid helium temperature (cold). The fractional information will then be analyzed to determine warm acceptance criteria for the field quality of the SSC magnets. Regarding predictors of the field quality based on partial information, there are several observations and studies based on the warm/cold correlation. A different facet of the acceptance test is production control, which interprets the warm/cold correlation to adjust the process parameters. For these applications, we are evaluating statistical techniques relying on asymptotic estimators of the systematic errors and random errors, and their respective confidence intervals. The estimators are useful to qualify the population magnets based on a subset of sample magnets. We present the status of our work, including: (i) a recapitulation of analytic formulas, (ii) a justification based on HERA magnet experience, and (iii) a practical interpretation of these estimators.

Kim, K.; Devred, A.; Coles, M.; Tompkins, J.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Comment on 'Discussions on common errors in analyzing sea level accelerations, solar trends and global warming'  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comment on Scafetta, Nicola. 'Discussion on Common Errors in Analyzing Sea Level Accelerations, Solar Trends and Global Warming.' arXiv:1305.2812 (May 13, 2013a). doi:10.5194/prp-1-37-2013.

Benestad, R E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Effect of Warming and Precipitation Distribution on Soil Respiration and Mycorrhizal Abundance in Post Oak Savannah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Projected climate change may alter soil carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from terrestrial ecosystems; yet disentangling effect of plant species from climate drivers remains a key challenge. We explored the effects of the dominant plant species, warming...

Cartmill, Andrew David

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

368

Simulated Impacts of Global Warming on Building Thermal Loads Throughout the 21st Century  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA) handptright GISS ? Goddard Institute for Space Studies (NASA) handptright NCDC ? National Climate Data Center handptright NOAA ? National Oceanic & Atmospheric Association. Global warming web sites NOAA (National Oceanic...

Degelman, L.

369

GR Focus Review Impacts of global warming on Permo-Triassic terrestrial ecosystems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with long-term aridification and short-term bursts of warming and acid rain. Wildfires at the Permo have succumbed primarily to acid rain, mass wasting, and aridification. Plants may have been more

Benton, Michael

370

American exceptionalism? Similarities and differences in national attitudes toward energy policy and global warming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite sharp differences in government policy, the views of the U.S. public on energy and global warming are remarkably similar to those in Sweden, Britain, and Japan. Americans do exhibit some differences, placing lower priority on the environment and global warming, and with fewer believing that 'global warming has been established as a serious problem and immediate action is necessary'. There also remains a small hard core of skeptics (<10%) who do not believe in the science of climate change and the need for action, a group that is much smaller in the other countries surveyed. The similarities are, however, pervasive. Similar preferences are manifest across a wide range of technology and fuel choices, in support of renewables, in research priorities, in a basic understanding of which technologies produce or reduce carbon dioxide (or misunderstandings in the case of nuclear power), and in willingness to pay for solving global warming. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

D.M. Reiner; T.E. Curry; M.A. de Figueiredo; H.J. Herzog; S.D. Ansolabehere; K. Itaoka; F. Johnsson; M. Odenberger [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Judge Business School

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Collective guilt for harming future ingroup members: The case of American identity and global warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

members on willingness to engage in behaviors that mitigate global warming. An experimental study extended these results by showing similar effects for actual behavior and pro-environmental attitudes. A final experiment extended the other studies...

Ferguson, Mark Allen

2008-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

372

abiotic-stress resistant warm: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Zeolite on the Decomposition Resistance of Organic Matter in Tropical Soils under Global Warming CiteSeer Summary: AbstractGlobal temperature had increased by about 0.5 o...

373

Upward Shift of the Atmospheric General Circulation under Global Warming: Theory and Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many features of the general circulation of the atmosphere shift upward in response to warming in simulations of climate change with both general circulation models (GCMs) and cloud-system-resolving models. The importance ...

Singh, Martin Simran

374

Global warming, energy efficiency and the role of the built environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis attempts to explore the relationships between the Buildings Sector, energy efficiency and global warming. Through a qualitative analysis the author illustrates the connection between these three areas and shows ...

DiBona, Donna K

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Energy and environmental policy and electric utilities' choice under uncertain global warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The paper reviews and discusses uncertainty about global warming science, impact on society. It also discusses what assumptions have been made and how appropriate the assumptions in scenarios have been for estimating global ...

Takahashi, Masaki

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

A Warm-Start Approach for Large-Scale Stochastic Linear Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aug 29, 2006 ... A Warm-Start Approach for Large-Scale Stochastic Linear Programs ... so that it can be seen as a structure-exploiting initial point generator.

Marco Colombo

2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

377

Impact of graphite gasket/duplex stainless steel couples on crevice chemistry and the likelihood of crevice attack in seawater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crevice corrosion in seawater usually is assumed to be induced by attainment of a critical solution chemistry. Electrochemical polarization measurements were made on a graphite laminate gasket and a super-duplex stainless steel (DSS) in deaerated 1M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution over a range of pH. The open-circuit potential of the graphite was significantly more noble than that of the DSS, and the kinetics of the hydrogen ion reduction were greater at potentials more positive than {approximately} 0.0 V{sub SCE}. Data were used as input to a model of crevice chemistry, and predictions were made for potentials up to 0.4 V{sub SCE}. For crevices of parallel plates of DSS-DSS and DSS-plastic, the usual acidic conditions were predicted. However, for a DSS-graphite combination, there was no significant decrease in pH. The latter was a consequence of the enhanced kinetics for cathodic reduction of hydrogen ions and water on the graphite which, when confined within the crevice, opposed the fall in pH associated with the metal-ion hydrolysis process. The predictions suggested that coupling to graphite, contained within the crevice, may act to prevent crevice corrosion initiation in contrast to the usual perception of behavior when coupling to more noble materials. In practice, there have been significant crevice corrosion failures of DSS associated with graphite gaskets. However, in all cases, the failures were in chlorinated systems for which corrosion potentials are particularly high and beyond the range for which a benefit from graphite could be anticipated.

Turnbull, A. [National Physical Lab., Middlesex (United Kingdom). Centre for Materials Measurement and Technology

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Intense Ion Beam for Warm Dense Matter Physics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is exploring the physical limits of compression and focusing of ion beams for heating material to warm dense matter (WDM) and fusion ignition conditions. The NDCX is a beam transport experiment with several components at a scale comparable to an inertial fusion energy driver. The NDCX is an accelerator which consists of a low-emittance ion source, high-current injector, solenoid matching section, induction bunching module, beam neutralization section, and final focusing system. The principal objectives of the experiment are to control the beam envelope, demonstrate effective neutralization of the beam space-charge, control the velocity tilt on the beam, and understand defocusing effects, field imperfections, and limitations on peak intensity such as emittance and aberrations. Target heating experiments with space-charge dominated ion beams require simultaneous longitudinal bunching and transverse focusing. A four-solenoid lattice is used to tune the beam envelope to the necessary focusing conditions before entering the induction bunching module. The induction bunching module provides a head-to-tail velocity ramp necessary to achieve peak axial compression at the desired focal plane. Downstream of the induction gap a plasma column neutralizes the beam space charge so only emittance limits the focused beam intensity. We present results of beam transport through a solenoid matching section and simultaneous focusing of a singly charged K{sup +} ion bunch at an ion energy of 0.3 MeV. The results include a qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results after the solenoid matching section, which include time resolved current density, transverse distributions, and phase-space of the beam at different diagnostic planes. Electron cloud and gas measurements in the solenoid lattice and in the vicinity of intercepting diagnostics are also presented. Finally, comparisons of improved experimental and calculated axial focus (> 100 x axial compression, < 2 ns pulses) and higher peak energy deposition on target are also presented. These achievements demonstrate the capabilities for near term target heating experiments to T{sub e} {approx} 0.1 eV and for future ion accelerators to heat targets to T{sub e} > 1 eV.

Coleman, Joshua Eugene

2008-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

379

Programmable surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Robotic vehicles walk on legs, roll on wheels, are pulled by tracks, pushed by propellers, lifted by wings, and steered by rudders. All of these systems share the common character of momentum transport across their surfaces. ...

Sun, Amy (Amy Teh-Yu)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Warming of Global Abyssal and Deep Southern Ocean Waters between the 1990s and 2000s: Contributions to Global Heat and Sea Level Rise Budgets*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Warming of Global Abyssal and Deep Southern Ocean Waters between the 1990s and 2000s: Contributions of recent warming of these regions in global heat and sea level budgets. The authors 1) compute warming produces a 0.053 (60.017) mm yr21 increase in global average sea level and the deep warming south

Johnson, Gregory C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

What causes the excessive response of clear-sky greenhouse effect to El Nin~o warming in Community Atmosphere Models?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

What causes the excessive response of clear-sky greenhouse effect to El Nin~o warming in Community.-Z. Sun (2008), What causes the excessive response of clear-sky greenhouse effect to El Nin~o warming for global warming because the latter may have a different spatial pattern of warming [e.g., Sun and Held

Sun, Dezheng

382

The Science and Ethics of Global warming Global warming has become one of the central political and scientific issues of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the atmosphere is to reduce the efficiency with which the earth's surface radiates away the energy it absorbs of the physical processes that govern global climate and the far reaching potential ecological impacts well established (those seeking further information might start by reading the 2001 summary report

Kirk-Davidoff, Daniel

383

Global warming and end-use efficiency implications of replacing CFCs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The direct contribution of CFCs to calculated global warming has been recognized for some time. As a result of the international agreement to phase out CFCs due to stratospheric ozone and the ensuing search for suitable alternatives, there has recently been increased attention on the DIRECT global warming potential (GWP) of the fluorocarbon alternatives as greenhouse gases. However, to date there has been little focus on the INDIRECT global warming effect arising from end-use efficiency changes and associated CO{sub 2} emissions. A study being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) addresses this combined or total global warming impact of viable options to replace CFCs in their major energy-related applications. This paper reviews selected results for air-conditioning, refrigeration, and heat pump applications. The analysis indicates that the CFC user industries have made substantial progress in approaching near-equal energy efficiency with the HCFC/HFC alternative refrigerants. The findings also bring into question the relative importance of the DIRECT (chemical-related) effect in many applications. Replacing CFCs is an important step in reducing the total global warming impact, and at present the HCFC and HFCS appear to offer the best efficiency and lowest total impact of options available in the relatively short time period required for the transition away from CFCs.

Fairchild, P.D.; Fischer, S.K.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

384

The downward in?uence of stratospheric sudden warmings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

repeated annual cycle sea-surface temperatures and sea-ice (collectively,150 SSTs). The greenhouse gases and SSTs are held fixed at levels representative of 1990, and151 a climatological ozone field is specified, all as described in the ’DYN... . Secondly, a substantial cooling is produced over Northern Europe483 and Siberia which is of the order of 2K in the 30 days following the stratospheric events in484 both ERA-Interim and January of the CMAM nudged runs but reaches 4K in February of485...

Hitchcock, Peter; Simpson, Isla R.

2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

385

Warm Weather and the Daily Commute | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500IIVasudhaSurface.Laboratory30,WP-07 powerWalterThis

386

An Inconvenient Truth. The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book is published to tie in with a documentary film of the same name. Both the book and film were inspired by a series of multimedia presentations on global warming that the author created and delivers to groups around the world. With this book, Gore, brings together leading-edge research from top scientists around the world; photographs, charts, and other illustrations; and personal anecdotes and observations to document the fast pace and wide scope of global warming. He presents, with alarming clarity and conclusiveness, and with humor, too, that the fact of global warming is not in question and that its consequences for the world we live in will be disastrous if left unchecked.

Gore, Al

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

387

Energy and global warming impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global warming. A Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the environmental affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of environmental impact because it is not based solely on the global warming potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the environmental benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global warming impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial environmental benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global warming potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

AiR surface: AiR surface 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AiR surface: 1 PDA AiR surface 1 1: AiR surface () () 2 [1] [2] 3 AiR surface AiR surface surface surface surface 3.1 surface [3]( 3 ) surface 3.2 surface surface AiR surface 4 AiR surface surface AiR surface: Virtual Touch Panel

Tanaka, Jiro

389

Direct determination of dissolved cobalt and nickel in seawater by differential pulse cathodic stripping voltametry preceded by adsorptive collection of cyclohexane-1,2-dione dioxime complexes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A highly sensitive voltametric technique was developed for the direct determination of cobalt and nickel in seawater at picomolar and nanomolar concentrations, respectively. Cyclohexane-1,2-dione dioxime (nioxime) complexes of Co(II) and Ni(II) were concentrated from 10 mL of sample onto a hanging mercury drop electrode by controlled adsorption and the current resulting from reduction of Co(II) and Ni(II) was measured by differential pulse cathodic stripping voltametry. Detailed experiments were conducted to determine the optimal ligand type and concentration, buffer type and concentration, pH, and adsorption potential. Maximum sensitivity was obtained by using a nioxime concentration of 1 x 10/sup -4/ m, a HEPES buffer concentration of 0.03 m, a solution pH of 7.6, and an adsorption potential of -0.6 V. Replicate analyses of seawater reference materials yielded excellent agreement with certified values. Analytical precision for Co and Ni at coastal and open ocean concentrations was approximately +/-5% relative standard deviation. Detection limits for Co and Ni depend upon reagent blanks and are 6 pM and 0.45 nM, respectively, for 15-min adsorption periods.

Donat, J.R.; Bruland, K.W.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Warm Bias and Parameterization of Boundary Upwelling in Ocean Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been demonstrated that Eastern Boundary Currents (EBC) are a baroclinic intensification of the interior circulation of the ocean due to the emergence of mesoscale eddies in response to the sharp buoyancy gradients driven by the wind-stress and the thermal surface forcing. The eddies accomplish the heat and salt transport necessary to insure that the subsurface flow is adiabatic, compensating for the heat and salt transport effected by the mean currents. The EBC thus generated occurs on a cross-shore scale of order 20-100 km, and thus this scale needs to be resolved in climate models in order to capture the meridional transport by the EBC. Our result indicate that changes in the near shore currents on the oceanic eastern boundaries are linked not just to local forcing, such as coastal changes in the winds, but depend on the basin-wide circulation as well.

Cessi, Paola; Wolfe, Christopher

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

391

Response of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets to Multi-Millennial Greenhouse Warming in the Earth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Response of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets to Multi-Millennial Greenhouse Warming of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to sustained multi-millennial greenhouse warming. Use was made of fully polar regions. This leads to an almost complete disintegration of the Greenland ice sheet after 3

Goelzer, Heiko

392

Warming of the arctic ice-ocean system is faster than the global average since the 1960s  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, downward longwave radiation, and therefore net heat flux. The faster warming of the arctic ice­ocean systemWarming of the arctic ice-ocean system is faster than the global average since the 1960s Jinlun Zhang Polar Science Center, Applied Physics Laboratory, College of Ocean and Fishery Sciences

Zhang, Jinlun

393

Long-term effects of soil warming on labile carbon availability and microbial community respiration and composition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a positive feedback loop if this carbon were to enter the atmosphere. Much of the carbon that entersLong-term effects of soil warming on labile carbon availability and microbial community respiration of warming on the microbial community and soil organic carbon pool. Soils were incubated at various

Vallino, Joseph J.

394

The instrumental record goes back to about 1850. A few areas of the globe have not warmed in recent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the historical rise in temperatures. #12;Are there other indicators of the warming? Global sea level has risen of land and other factors. Global sea levels have risen about 20cm over the past 100 years ­ a rateThe instrumental record goes back to about 1850. A few areas of the globe have not warmed in recent

Allan, Richard P.

395

AVIAN NESTING DENSITY AND SUCCESS IN ALFALFA, COOL SEASON CRP, AND WARM SEASON CRP PLANTINGS IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AVIAN NESTING DENSITY AND SUCCESS IN ALFALFA, COOL SEASON CRP, AND WARM SEASON CRP PLANTINGS;II AVIAN NESTING DENSITY AND SUCCESS IN ALFALFA, COOL SEASON CRP, AND WARM SEASON CRP PLANTINGS not have been completed. For those that allowed us to trample their alfalfa before it was cut, thank you

396

Spatial patterns of warming off Western Australia during the 2011 Ningaloo Nio: Quantifying impacts of remote and local forcing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial patterns of warming off Western Australia during the 2011 Ningaloo Nińo: Quantifying and Atmosphere Flagship, Floreat, Western Australia, Australia a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 24 occurred in which a marine heat wave led to extreme warming of Western Australia's coastal waters. The sea

Feng, Ming

397

Global warming and wintering in Dippers Degree project in Biology, 15hp (15 ETCS), 2014-2015  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global warming and wintering in Dippers Degree project in Biology, 15hp (15 ETCS), 2014-2015 Aim: Investigate changes in wintering ecology of the dipper over a period of 35 years in the light of global warming. Dippers overwinter in streams and they arrive to their overwintering grounds in late fall

Uppsala Universitet

398

Tropical Cyclone Changes in the Western North Pacific in a Global Warming Scenario MARKUS STOWASSER, YUQING WANG, AND KEVIN HAMILTON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tropical Cyclone Changes in the Western North Pacific in a Global Warming Scenario MARKUS STOWASSER The influence of global warming on the climatology of tropical cyclones in the western North Pacific basin Model version 2 (CCSM2) coupled global climate model. The regional model is first tested in 10 yr

Wang, Yuqing

399

WARM EXTENDED DENSE GAS AT THE HEART OF A COLD COLLAPSING DENSE CORE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to investigate when and how the birth of a protostellar core occurs, we made survey observations of four well-studied dense cores in the Taurus molecular cloud using CO transitions in submillimeter bands. We report here the detection of unexpectedly warm (approx30-70 K), extended (radius of approx2400 AU), dense (a few times 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}) gas at the heart of one of the dense cores, L1521F (MC27), within the cold dynamically collapsing components. We argue that the detected warm, extended, dense gas may originate from shock regions caused by collisions between the dynamically collapsing components and outflowing/rotating components within the dense core. We propose a new stage of star formation, 'warm-in-cold core stage (WICCS)', i.e., the cold collapsing envelope encases the warm extended dense gas at the center due to the formation of a protostellar core. WICCS would constitute a missing link in evolution between a cold quiescent starless core and a young protostar in class 0 stage that has a large-scale bipolar outflow.

Shinnaga, Hiroko; Phillips, Thomas G. [California Institute of Technology Submillimeter Observatory (CSO), 111 Nowelo Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Furuya, Ray S. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kitamura, Yoshimi, E-mail: shinnaga@submm.caltech.ed, E-mail: tgp@submm.caltech.ed, E-mail: rsf@subaru.naoj.or, E-mail: kitamura@isas.jaxa.j [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan)

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Atlantic warm pool, Caribbean low-level jet, and their potential impact on Atlantic hurricanes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atlantic warm pool, Caribbean low-level jet, and their potential impact on Atlantic hurricanes than 28.5°C) that appears in the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, and the western tropical North the tropical North Atlantic into the Caribbean Sea where the flow intensifies forming the Caribbean Low

Wang, Chunzai

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Geoengineering of climate warming TR 2:55-4:10 Bradfield 1102  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Geoengineering of climate warming TR 2:55-4:10 Bradfield 1102 Prerequisites: Math 1920 Geoengineering: the deliberate large-scale manipulation of the planetary environment to counteract anthropogenic strategies to geoengineer the climate (e.g., using balloon technology to emit reflecting sulfate aerosols

Mahowald, Natalie

402

JUNE 11, 2012, 5:36 PM Warming Will Unlock Carbon in Forests, Study Warns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

another feedback loop that may be accelerating the loss of carbon dioxide from the topsoil of forestsJUNE 11, 2012, 5:36 PM Warming Will Unlock Carbon in Forests, Study Warns By FELICITY BARRINGER of such a feedback loop involves the melting of sea ice in the Arctic. The ice reflects solar radiation back

403

Carbon Cycle Discussion After the warm-up quiz, discuss the carbon cycle.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Cycle Discussion After the warm-up quiz, discuss the carbon cycle. Carbon is one is without carbon. Where else is carbon on our Earth? In rocks, living organisms, the atmosphere, oceans Does carbon stay in one place? What processes include moving carbon? Introduce residence time: How long does

Carrington, Emily

404

Warmly Debated: The Little Ice Age and the Construction of Historical Climatic Regimes, 1650-1950  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age are the two most commonly referenced and discussed of such regimes. This thesis examines the theories and debates that preceded and surrounded the formal definition of the Little Ice Age as an historic period...

Gilson, Christopher R.

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

405

Triple-picket warm plastic-shell implosions on OMEGA P. B. Radha,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Triple-picket warm plastic-shell implosions on OMEGA P. B. Radha,1 C. Stoeckl,1 V. N. Goncharov,1 J-gas-filled plastic shells are imploded by direct irradiation from the OMEGA laser T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun

406

Prolonged suppression of ecosystem carbon dioxide uptake after an anomalously warm year  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, such as temperature anomalies, on NEE and carbon sequestration of ecosystems at interannual timescales have beenLETTERS Prolonged suppression of ecosystem carbon dioxide uptake after an anomalously warm year , Yiqi Luo5 & David S. Schimel6 Terrestrial ecosystems control carbon dioxide fluxes to and from

Cai, Long

407

FIELD PERFORMANCE AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF WARM MIX ASPHALT PRODUCED WITH RUBBERIZED BITUMEN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FIELD PERFORMANCE AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF WARM MIX ASPHALT PRODUCED WITH RUBBERIZED BITUMEN of rubberized bitumen has been spread out mainly due to environmental aspects, but high mixing and compaction temperatures are necessary due to the higher viscosity of this bitumen. A WMA mixture (using a surfactant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

408

Sulfur-induced greenhouse warming on early Mars Sarah Stewart Johnson,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and 500 mbar CO2 with varying abundances of H2O and sulfur volatiles (H2S and SO2 mixing ratios of 10Ă?3Sulfur-induced greenhouse warming on early Mars Sarah Stewart Johnson,1 Michael A. Mischna,2 melting model, we obtain a high sulfur solubility, approximately 1400 ppm, in Martian mantle melts. We

Zuber, Maria

409

Warming and Freshening in the Abyssal Southeastern Indian Ocean* GREGORY C. JOHNSON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Warming and Freshening in the Abyssal Southeastern Indian Ocean* GREGORY C. JOHNSON NOAA. Johnson, NOAA/ Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Bldg. 3, Seattle, WA 98115. E-mail: gregory.c.johnson@noaa.gov 15 OCTOBER 2008 J O H N S O N E T A L . 5351 DOI: 10

Johnson, Gregory C.

410

Recent Bottom Water Warming in the Pacific Ocean* GREGORY C. JOHNSON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent Bottom Water Warming in the Pacific Ocean* GREGORY C. JOHNSON NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory Contribution Number 3037. Corresponding author address: Gregory C. Johnson, NOAA-mail: gregory.c.johnson@noaa.gov 1 NOVEMBER 2007 J O H N S O N E T A L . 5365 DOI: 10.1175/2007JCLI1879.1 © 2007

Johnson, Gregory C.

411

Climate Warming and Adaptability of High-Elevation Hydropower Generation in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Climate Warming and Adaptability of High-Elevation Hydropower Generation in California Kaveh Madani's high-elevation hydropower system is composed of more than 150 power plants. Most of the associated to winter, the adaptability of high-elevation hydropower system to new climatic conditions is in question

Keller, Arturo A.

412

Ice-shelf collapse from subsurface warming as a trigger for Heinrich events  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Antarctica, the resulting ice-shelf loss and attendant HSIS acceleration would produce a Heinrich eventIce-shelf collapse from subsurface warming as a trigger for Heinrich events Shaun A. Marcotta,1-discharge events from the Hudson Strait Ice Stream (HSIS) of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, referred to as Heinrich

Schmittner, Andreas

413

A MEDIEVAL WARM PERIOD l)13 C RECORD FROM THE GAURA CU MUSCA CAVE, SW ROMANIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A MEDIEVAL WARM PERIOD l)13 C RECORD FROM THE GAURA CU MUSCA CAVE, SW ROMANIA Bogdan P. ONAC1 · 2, Romania (2) School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES 107, Tampa, FL and Romania. B. Geological map of the region {modified fromlancu et al., 1995). The mapof the Gaura cu Musca

Forray, Ferenc

414

Global Warming Effects on U.S. Hurricane Damage KERRY EMANUEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that probability density distributions of aggregate damage become appreciably separated from those of the control have a substantial influence on trop- ical cyclone activity around the world. Global warming generally increases the thermodynamic potential for tropical cyclones (Emanuel 1987), while changing at- mospheric

Entekhabi, Dara

415

Sensitivity of Vatnajokull ice cap hydrology and dynamics to climate warming over the next 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and is the largest nonpolar ice cap in Europe. Because it is temperate (isothermal at the melting point) and storesSensitivity of Vatnajoškull ice cap hydrology and dynamics to climate warming over the next 2] The sensitivity of Vatnajoškull ice cap to future climate change is examined using spatially distributed coupled

Flowers, Gwenn

416

Warming of the Indian Ocean threatens eastern and southern African food security but could be mitigated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Warming of the Indian Ocean threatens eastern and southern African food security but could Resources Observation and Science, SD 57198-0001; ¶Science Systems and Applications, Code 614.4, National goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation have identified

417

Equilibration of a warm pumped lens on a -plane. Timour Radko, John Marshall  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Equilibration of a warm pumped lens on a -plane. Timour Radko, John Marshall Department of Earth of the baroclinic instability of a large-scale current. In a recent paper (briefly re- viewed in Sec. 2) Marshall et to the -plane. A fundamental differ- ence between Marshall's et al. (2002) study and the present one is that now

Marshall, John

418

Increase of global monsoon area and precipitation under global warming: A robust signal?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and the global monsoon total precipitation (GMP) have increased during 1979­2008 [Hsu et al., 2011; Wang et alIncrease of global monsoon area and precipitation under global warming: A robust signal? Pang of people around the world. The global monsoon precipitation had an increasing trend over the past three

Li, Tim

419

1 Potential impacts of Asian carbon aerosols on future US warming 2 Haiyan Teng,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-ocean fully coupled 6 climate model to investigate possible remote impacts of 7 Asian carbonaceous aerosols effect of aerosols is included) over Asia induces 15 tropospheric heating anomalies that force large.4 C warming over the eastern 18 US during winter and over most of the US during summer. 19 Such remote

420

September Arctic sea ice predicted to disappear near 2 warming above present  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

September Arctic sea ice predicted to disappear near 2 C global warming above present Irina; published 24 March 2012. [1] The decline of Arctic sea ice is one of the most visible signs of climate change over the past several decades. Arctic sea ice area shows large interannual variability due

Fischlin, Andreas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

IMPLICATIONS OF CO, GLOBAL WARMING O N GREAT LAKES ICE COVER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IMPLICATIONS OF CO, GLOBAL WARMING O N GREAT LAKES ICE COVER RAYMOND A. ASSEL US. Department to project daily mean basin ice cover and annual ice cover duration for Lakes Superior and Erie. Models were), and the Oregon State University (OSU)general circulationmodels. Ice cover estimateswere made for the West

422

Confirmation of X-ray Absorption by Warm-hot Intergalactic Medium in the Sculptor Wall  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a previous paper, we reported a 3? detection of an absorption line from the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) using the Chandra and XMM X-ray grating spectra of the blazar H2356-309, the sight line of which intercepts ...

Fang, Taotao

423

Earth's Energy Out of Balance: The Smoking Gun for Global Warming April, 2005  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

evaluated the energy imbalance using precise measurements of ocean temperature obtained by ocean floatsEarth's Energy Out of Balance: The Smoking Gun for Global Warming April, 2005 Scientists at Columbia University, NASA, and the Department of Energy have found that the Earth is out of energy balance

Hansen, James E.

424

Persisting cold extremes under 21stcentury warming scenarios Evan Kodra,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Persisting cold extremes under 21stcentury warming scenarios Evan Kodra,1,2 Karsten Steinhaeuser,1 27 April 2011. [1] Analyses of climate model simulations and observations reveal that extreme cold. The gridbased intensity, duration and frequency of cold extreme events are calculated annually through three

Minnesota, University of

425

Response of precipitation extremes to idealized global warming in an aqua-planet climate model: Towards robust projection across different horizontal resolutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current climate models produce quite heterogeneous projections for the responses of precipitation extremes to future climate change. To help understand the range of projections from multimodel ensembles, a series of idealized 'aquaplanet' Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) runs have been performed with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM3. These runs have been analysed to identify the effects of horizontal resolution on precipitation extreme projections under two simple global warming scenarios. We adopt the aquaplanet framework for our simulations to remove any sensitivity to the spatial resolution of external inputs and to focus on the roles of model physics and dynamics. Results show that a uniform increase of sea surface temperature (SST) and an increase of low-to-high latitude SST gradient both lead to increase of precipitation and precipitation extremes for most latitudes. The perturbed SSTs generally have stronger impacts on precipitation extremes than on mean precipitation. Horizontal model resolution strongly affects the global warming signals in the extreme precipitation in tropical and subtropical regions but not in high latitude regions. This study illustrates that the effects of horizontal resolution have to be taken into account to develop more robust projections of precipitation extremes.

Li, F.; Collins, W.D.; Wehner, M.F.; Williamson, D.L.; Olson, J.G.

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

Bounding the marginal cost of producing potable water including the use of seawater desalinization as a backstop potable water production technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The analysis presented in this technical report should allow for the creation of high, medium, and low cost potable water prices for GCAM. Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) based desalinization should act as a backstop for the cost of producing potable water (i.e., the literature seems clear that SWRO should establish an upper bound for the plant gate cost of producing potable water). Transporting water over significant distances and having to lift water to higher elevations to reach end-users can also have a significant impact on the cost of producing water. The three potable fresh water scenarios describe in this technical report are: low cost water scenario ($0.10/m3); medium water cost scenario ($1.00/m3); and high water cost scenario ($2.50/m3).

Dooley, James J.

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Accounting for global-mean warming and scaling uncertainties in climate change impact studies Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11(3), 12071226, 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accounting for global-mean warming and scaling uncertainties in climate change impact studies 1207(s) 2007. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. Accounting for global-mean warming from a few regional climate model runs are scaled, based on different global-mean warming projections

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

428

Global warming: it's not only size that matters This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global warming: it's not only size that matters This article has been downloaded from IOPscience.1088/1748-9326/6/3/031002 PERSPECTIVE Global warming: it's not only size that matters Gabriele C Hegerl School of Geosciences to global warming. However, Mahlstein et al (2011) point out that the signal of climate change is emerging

429

JY Tsao Some Simple Physics of Global Warming 2008 April Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JY Tsao · Some Simple Physics of Global Warming · 2008 April Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory Sciences Center Sandia National Laboratories Some Simple Physics of Global Warming · I'm Jeff Tsao. I and on had the opportunity to delve into global warming issues, and I'm happy to be able to share a little

430

Probability distributions for regional climate change from uncertain global mean warming and uncertain scaling relationship Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11(3), 10971114, 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Probability distributions for regional climate change from uncertain global mean warming of probability distributions for regional climate change from uncertain global mean warming and an uncertain/precipitation per degree global mean warming. Each scaling variable is assumed to be normally distributed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

431

Analyzing the time-course variation of apple and pear tree dates of flowering1 stages in the global warming context2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the global warming context2 3 Yann Guédon (1) and Jean Michel Legave (2)* 4 5 (1) CIRAD, UMR DAP and INRIA the relationship between flowering advances in fruit trees and19 global warming. After an exploratory analysis;2 to consider the flowering advances in apple and pear trees as impacts of global warming. The26 suddenness

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

432

Global Warming What is Climate? Ocean's Role in Climate Change Uncertainty Quantification, the Next Frontier The Role Played by Oceans in Climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global Warming What is Climate? Ocean's Role in Climate Change Uncertainty Quantification, the Next Department University of Arizona October 11, 2008 #12;Global Warming What is Climate? Ocean's Role in Climate, Undergraduate Students: 2. UQGQG #12;Global Warming What is Climate? Ocean's Role in Climate Change Uncertainty

Restrepo, Juan M.

433

Development of Advanced Manufacturing Methods for Warm White LEDs for General Lighting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

GE Lighting Solutions will develop precise and efficient manufacturing techniques for the “remote phosphor” platform of warm-white LED products. In volume, this will be demonstrated to drive significant materials, labor and capital productivity to achieve a maximum possible 53% reduction in overall cost. In addition, the typical total color variation for these white LEDs in production will be well within the ANSI bins and as low as a 4-step MacAdam ellipse centered on the black body curve. Achievement of both of these objectives will be demonstrated while meeting a performance target of > 75 lm/W for a warm-white LED and a reliability target of <30% lumen drop / <2-step MacAdam ellipse shift, estimated over 50,000 hrs.

Deshpande, Anirudha; Kolodin, Boris; Jacob, Cherian; Chowdhury, Ashfaqul; Kuenzler, Glenn; Sater, Karen; Aesram, Danny; Glaettli, Steven; Gallagher, Brian; Langer, Paul; Setlur, Anant; Beers, Bill

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

434

Ponderomotive self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in warm collisional plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The propagation characteristics of a Gaussian laser beam through warm collisional plasma are investigated by considering the ponderomotive force nonlinearity and the complex eikonal function. By introducing the dielectric permittivity of warm unmagnetized plasma and using the WKB and paraxial ray approximations, the coupled differential equations defining the variations of laser beam parameters are obtained and solved numerically. Effects of laser and plasma parameters such as the collision frequency, the initial laser intensity and its spot size on the beam width parameter and the axis laser intensity distribution are analyzed. It is shown that, self-focusing of the laser beam takes place faster by increasing the collision frequency and initial laser spot size and then after some distance propagation the laser beam abruptly loses its initial diameter and vastly diverges. Furthermore, the modified electron density distribution is obtained and the collision frequency effect on this distribution is studied.

Jafari Milani, M. R., E-mail: mrj.milani@gmail.com [Plasma Physics Research School, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknam, A. R., E-mail: a-niknam@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farahbod, A. H. [Plasma Physics Research School, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Hydrologic sensitivities of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River basin, California, to global warming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrologic sensitivities of four medium-sized mountainous catchments in the Sacramento and San Joaquin River basins to long-term global warming were analyzed. The hydrologic response of these catchments, all of which are dominated by spring snowmelt runoff, were simulated by the coupling of the snowmelt and the soil moisture accounting models of the U.S. National Weather Service River Forecast System. In all four catchments the global warming pattern, which was indexed to CO{sub 2} doubling scenarios simulated by three (global) general circulation models, produced a major seasonal shift in the snow accumulation pattern. Under the alternative climate scenarios more winter precipitation fell as rain instead of snow, and winter runoff increased while spring snowmelt runoff decreased. In addition, large increases in the annual flood maxima were simulated, primarily due to an increase in rain-on-snow events, with the time of occurrence of many large floods shifting from spring to winter.

Lettenmaier, D.P. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA)); Gan, Thian Yew (Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Nonplanar ion-acoustic solitary waves with superthermal electrons in warm plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we consider an unmagnetized plasma consisting of warm adiabatic ions, superthermal electrons, and thermal positrons. Nonlinear cylindrical and spherical modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations are derived for ion acoustic waves by using reductive perturbation technique. It is observed that an increasing positron concentration decreases the amplitude of the waves. Furthermore, the effects of the superthermal parameter (k) on the ion acoustic waves are found.

Eslami, Parvin [Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mottaghizadeh, Marzieh [Department of Physics, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pakzad, Hamid Reza [Department of Physics, Bojnourd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

Battery self-warming mechanism using the inverter and the battery main disconnect circuitry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus connected to an energy storage device for powering an electric motor and optionally providing a warming function for the energy storage device is disclosed. The apparatus includes a circuit connected to the electric motor and the energy storage device for generating a current. The apparatus also includes a switching device operably associated with the circuit for selectively directing the current to one of the electric motor and the energy storage device.

Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

438

ARM - What is the ARM Climate Research Facility Doing About Global Warming?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAre the Effects of Global Warming? Outreach Home Outreach

439

Estimating present climate in a warming world: a model-based approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Weather services base their operational definitions of 'present' climate on past observations, using a 30-year normal period such as 1961-1990 or 1971-2000. In a world with ongoing global warming, however, past data give a biased estimate of the actual present-day climate. Here we propose to correct this bias with a 'delta change' method, in which model-simulated climate changes and observed global mean temperature changes are used to extrapolate past observations forward in time, to make them representative of present or future climate conditions. In a hindcast test for the years 1991-2002, the method works well for temperature, with a clear improvement in verification statistics compared to the case in which the hindcast is formed directly from the observations for 1961-1990. However, no improvement is found for precipitation, for which the signal-to-noise ratio between expected anthropogenic changes and interannual variability is much lower than for temperature. An application of the method to the present (around the year 2007) climate suggests that, as a geographical average over land areas excluding Antarctica, 8-9 months per year and 8-9 years per decade can be expected to be warmer than the median for 1971-2000. Along with the overall warming, a substantial increase in the frequency of warm extremes at the expense of cold extremes of monthly-to-annual temperature is expected.

Raeisaenen, J.; Ruokolainen, L. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Division of Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysics

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

440

A historical perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: • Five scenarios are compared based on different waste management systems from 1970 to 2010. • Technology development for incineration and vehicular exhaust system throughout the time period is considered. • Compared scenarios show continuous improvement regarding environmental performance of waste management system. • Energy and material recovery from waste account for significant savings of Global Warming Potential (GWP) today. • Technology development for incineration has played key role in lowering the GWP during past five decades. - Abstract: The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP{sub 100}), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in environmental performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup ?1} to net saving of 670 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup ?1} of MSWM.

Habib, Komal, E-mail: koh@kbm.sdu.dk [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohr’s Alle 1, 5230 Odense M (Denmark); Schmidt, Jannick H.; Christensen, Per [Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 13, DK-9220 Aalborg OE (Denmark)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of Crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of shapes of crystals are important: (i) growth shape and (ii) equilibrium shape Surface/interface energy surfaces. The joining of two phases creates an interface. (Two orientations of the same crystalline phase

Subramaniam, Anandh

442

A study of lightning activity over the warm pool western Pacific Ocean (TOGA-COARE region) for 1993  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The warm pool western Pacific Ocean is an area of the equatorial tropics characterized by strong and frequent convection, and vigorous lightning activity. However, it has been noted by various researchers that the vast oceanic expanses experience...

Rios, Luis Alberto

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

The distinct behaviors of Pacific and Indian Ocean warm pool properties on seasonal and interannual time scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the tropical Indian and Pacific Ocean regions, Mon. WeatherIndian Ocean and in the Pacific Ocean, J. Ocean Univ. China,KIM ET AL. : PACIFIC AND INDIAN OCEAN WARM POOL Rayner, N.

Kim, Seon Tae; Yu, Jin-Yi; Lu, Mong-Ming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Anvil characteristics as seen by C-POL during the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Tropical Pacific Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) took place in Darwin, Australia in early 2006. C-band radar data from this experiment were used to characterize tropical anvil areal coverage, height, and thickness during...

Frederick, Kaycee Loretta

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

445

The Development of Warm Gas Cleanup Technologies for the Removal of Sulfur Containing Species from Steam Hydrogasification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for biomas-derived syngas. National Renewable EnergyM. Lesemann. RTI/Eastman warm syngas clean-up technology:v the composition of syngas from steam hydrogasification

Luo, Qian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Does the problem of global warming exist at all? Insight from the temperature drift induced by inevitable colored noise  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the present paper we state a problem of the colored noise nonremovability on the climatic 30-year time scale, which essentially changes the angle of view on the known problem of global warming.

Rusov, V D; Eingorn, M V; Zelentsova, T N; Linnik, E P; Beglaryan, M E; Vachev, B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Effects of experimental warming and clipping on metabolic change of microbial community in a US Great Plains tallgrass prairie  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While more and more studies are being conducted on the effects of global warming, little is known regarding the response of metabolic change of whole soil microbial communities to this phenomenon. In this study, functional gene changes at the mRNA level were analyzed by our new developed GeoChip 3.0. Soil samples were taken from a long-term climate warming experiment site, which has been conducted for ~;;8 years at the Kessler Farm Field Laboratory, a 137.6-ha farm located in the Central Redbed Plains, in McClain County, Oklahoma. The experiment uses a paired factorial design with warming as the primary factor nested with clipping as a secondary factor. An infrared heater was used to simulate global warming, and clipping was used to mimic mowing hay. Twelve 2m x 2m plots were divided into six pairs of warmed and control plots. The heater generates a constant output of ~;;100 Watts m-2 to approximately 2 oC increase in soil temperature above the ambient plots, which is at the low range of the projected climate warming by IPCC. Soil whole microbial communities? mRNA was extracted, amplified, labeled and hybridized with our GeoChip 3.0, a functional gene array covering genes involved in N, C, P, and S cycling, metal resistance and contaminant degradation, to examine expressed genes. The results showed that a greater number and higher diversity of genes were expressed under warmed plots compared to control. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of all detected genes showed that the soil microbial communities were clearly altered by warming, with or without clipping. The dissimilarity of the communities based on functional genes was tested and results showed that warming and control communities were significantly different (P<0.05), with or without clipping. Most genes involved in C, N, P and S cycling were expressed at higher levels in warming samples compared to control samples. All of the results demonstrated that the whole microbial communities increase functional gene expression under warming with or without clipping in order to adapt the changed out environment. More detail analysis is underway.

Xie, Jianping; Liu, Xinxing; Liu, Xueduan; Nostrand, Joy D. Van; Deng, Ye; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Qiu, Guanzhou; Zhou, Jizhong

2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

448

Global Warming  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Big Sky LearningGet Assistance GetGiantOn The VergeGlobal Threat1 Global

449

Decay of the Greenland Ice Sheet due to surface-meltwater-induced acceleration of basal sliding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simulations of the Greenland Ice Sheet are carried out with a high-resolution version of the ice-sheet model SICOPOLIS for several global-warming scenarios for the period 1990-2350. In particular, the impact of surface-meltwater-induced acceleration of basal sliding on the stability of the ice sheet is investigated. A parameterization for the acceleration effect is developed for which modelled and measured mass losses of the ice sheet in the early 21st century agree well. The main findings of the simulations are: (i) the ice sheet is generally very susceptible to global warming on time-scales of centuries, (ii) surface-meltwater-induced acceleration of basal sliding leads to a pronounced speed-up of ice streams and outlet glaciers, and (iii) this ice-dynamical effect accelerates the decay of the Greenland Ice Sheet as a whole significantly, but not catastrophically, in the 21st century and beyond.

Greve, Ralf

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Warm-Dense Molecular Gas in the ISM of Starbursts, LIRGs and ULIRGs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The role of star formation in luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies is a hotly debated issue: while it is clear that starbursts play a large role in powering the IR luminosity in these galaxies, the relative importance of possible enshrouded AGNs is unknown. It is therefore important to better understand the role of star forming gas in contributing to the infrared luminosity in IR-bright galaxies. The J=3 level of 12CO lies 33K above ground and has a critical density of ~1.5 X 10^4 cm^-3. The 12CO(J=3-2) line serves as an effective tracer for warm-dense molecular gas heated by active star formation. Here we report on 12CO (J=3-2) observations of 17 starburst spirals, LIRGs and ULIRGs which we obtained with the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope on Mt. Graham, Arizona. Our main results are the following: 1. We find a nearly linear relation between the infrared luminosity and warm-dense molecular gas such that the infrared luminosity increases as the warm-dense molecular gas to the power 0.92; We interpret this to be roughly consistent with the recent results of Gao & Solomon (2004a,b). 2. We find L_IR/M_H2 ratios ranging from ~10 to ~128 L_sun/M_sun using a standard CO-H2 conversion factor of 3 X 10^20 cm^-2 (K km s^-1)^-1. If this conversion factor is ~an order of magnitude less, as suggested in a recent statistical survey (Yao et al. 2003), then 2-3 of our objects may have significant contributions to the L_IR by dust-enshrouded AGNs.

Desika Narayanan; Christopher K. Walker; Christopher E. Groppi

2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

451

Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Parametrization of light nuclei quasiparticle energy shifts and composition of warm and dense nuclear matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Correlations and the formation of bound states (nuclei) are essential for the properties of nuclear matter in equilibrium as well as in nonequilibrium. In a quantum statistical approach, quasiparticle energies are obtained for the light elements that reflect the influence of the medium. We present analytical fits for the quasiparticle energy shifts of light nuclei that can be used in various applications. This is a prerequisite for the investigation of warm and dense matter that reproduces the nuclear statistical equilibrium and virial expansions in the low-density limit as well as relativistic mean field and Brueckner Hartree-Fock approaches near saturation density.

G. Röpke

2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

453

Large amplitude solitary waves in a warm magnetoplasma with kappa distributed electrons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The large amplitude nonlinear ion acoustic solitary wave propagating obliquely to an external magnetic field in a magnetized plasma with kappa distributed electrons and warm ions is investigated through deriving energy-balance-like expression involving a Sagdeev potential. Analytical and numerical calculations of the values of Mach number reveal that both of subsonic and supersonic electrostatic solitary structures can exist in this system. The influence on the soliton characteristics of relevant physical parameters such as the Mach number, the superthermal parameter, the directional cosine, the ratio of ion-to-electron temperature, and the ion gyrofrequency has been investigated.

El-Tantawy, S. A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said 42521 (Egypt); El-Bedwehy, N. A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); Abd El-Razek, H. N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); Mahmood, S. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

454

Reconstruction of spatial patterns of climatic anomalies during the medieval warm period (AD 900-1300)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The workshop will focus on climatic variations during the Medieval Warm Period or Little Climatic Optimum. The nominal time interval assigned to this period is AD 900--1300, but climate information available during the century or two preceding and following this episode is welcome. The aims of the workshop will be to: examine the available evidence for the existence of this episode; assess the spatial and temporal synchronicity of the climatic signals; discuss possible forcing mechanisms; and identify areas and paleoenvironmental records where additional research efforts are needed to improve our knowledge of this period. This document consists of abstracts of eighteen papers presented at the meeting.

Diaz, H.F. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Environmental Research Labs.; Hughes, M.K. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Lab. of Tree-Ring Research

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

455

Detecting Drizzle in Marine Warm Clouds Using Visible, Infrared, and Microwave Satellite Data  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData FilesShape, Density, andagingaboutDrizzle in Marine Warm

456

Warm Forming of Aluminum…AMD 307 | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment ofDepartment of Energy While dry storageMarch|WISCONSINDrewWarm

457

Research & Development Roadmap for Next-Generation Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of Energy fromComments onReply CommentsNext-Generation Low Global Warming

458

Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct, Parent CompanyaUSAMP AMD 602 - High-Volume Warm Forming of

459

Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct, Parent CompanyaUSAMP AMD 602 - High-Volume Warm

460

H.E.A.T. SQUAD WARMS VERMONT UP TO EFFICIENCY | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |EnergyonSupport0.pdf5 OPAM Flash2011-55the Committee onH.E.A.T. SQUAD WARMS VERMONT UP TO

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Warm Bavarian-Style Pretzels 6. Raye's Mustard & Smoked Cheddar Sauce  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of EnergyofProject is onModeling andReportandVDepartmentWarm Bavarian-Style

462

Reduced diurnal temperature range does not change warming impacts on ecosystem carbon balance of Mediterranean grassland mesocosms  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Daily minimum temperature (Tmin) has increased faster than daily maximum temperature (Tmax) in many parts of the world, leading to decreases in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Projections suggest these trends are likely to continue in many regions, particularly northern latitudes and in arid regions. Despite wide speculation that asymmetric warming has different impacts on plant and ecosystem production than equal-night-and-day warming, there has been little direct comparison of these scenarios. Reduced DTR has also been widely misinterpreted as a result of night-only warming, when in fact Tmin occurs near dawn, indicating higher morning as well as night temperatures. We report on the first experiment to examine ecosystem-scale impacts of faster increases in Tmin than Tmax, using precise temperature controls to create realistic diurnal temperature profiles with gradual day-night temperature transitions and elevated early morning as well as night temperatures. Studying a constructed grassland ecosystem containing species native to Oregon, USA, we found the ecosystem lost more carbon at elevated than ambient temperatures, but was unaffected by the 3șC difference in DTR between symmetric warming (constantly ambient +3.5șC) and asymmetric warming (dawn Tmin=ambient +5șC, afternoon Tmax= ambient +2șC). Reducing DTR had no apparent effect on photosynthesis, likely because temperatures were most different in the morning and late afternoon when light was low. Respiration was also similar in both warming treatments, because respiration temperature sensitivity was not sufficient to respond to the limited temperature differences between asymmetric and symmetric warming. We concluded that changes in daily mean temperatures, rather than changes in Tmin/Tmax, were sufficient for predicting ecosystem carbon fluxes in this reconstructed Mediterranean grassland system.

Phillips, Claire L. [TERA; Gregg, Jillian W. [TERA; Wilson, John K. [TERA

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Cooling our communities: A guidebook on tree planting and light-colored surfacing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book is a practical guide that presents the current state of knowledge on potential environmental and economic benefits of strategic landscaping and altering surface colors in our communities. The guidebook, reviews the causes, magnitude, and impacts of increased urban warming, then focuses on actions by citizens and communities that can be undertaken to improve the quality of our homes and towns in cost-effective ways.

Akbari, H.; Davis, S.; Huang, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Dorsano, S. [ed.] [The Bruce Co., (United States); Winnett, S. [ed.] [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Climate Change Div.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

surface science | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

surface science surface science Leads No leads are available at this time. Nonlinear Photoemission Electron Micrographs of Plasmonic Nanoholes in Gold Thin Films. Abstract:...

465

Bull Trout Distribution and Abundance in the Waters on and Bordering the Warm Springs Reservation : 2002 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The range of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Deschutes River basin has decreased from historic levels due to many factors including dam construction, habitat degradation, brook trout introduction and eradication efforts. While the bull trout population appears to be healthy in the Metolius River-Lake Billy Chinook system they have been largely extirpated from the upper Deschutes River (Buchanan et al. 1997). Little was known about bull trout in the lower Deschutes basin until BPA funded project No.9405400 began during 1998. In this progress report we describe the findings to date from this multi-year study aimed at determining the life history, habitat needs and limiting factors of bull trout in the lower Deschutes subbasin. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) relative abundance has been assessed in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek since 1999. In the Warm Springs R. the relative densities of juvenile bull trout and brook trout were .003 fish/m{sup 2} and .001 fish/m{sup 2} respectively during 2002. These densities were the lowest recorded in the Warm Springs River during the period of study. In Shitike Cr. the relative densities of juvenile bull trout and brook trout were .025 fish/m{sup 2} and .01 fish/m{sup 2} respectively during 2002. The utility of using index reaches to monitor trends in juvenile bull trout and brook trout relative abundance in the Warm Springs R. has been assessed since 1999. During 2002 the mean relative densities of juvenile bull trout within the 2.4 km study area was higher than what was observed in four index reaches. However, the mean relative densities of brook trout was slightly higher in the index reaches than what was observed in the 2.4 km study area. Habitat use by both juvenile bull trout and brook trout was determined in the Warm Springs R. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout were most abundant in pools and glides. However pools and glides comprised less than 20% of the available habitat in the study area during 2002. Multiple-pass spawning ground surveys were conducted during late August through October in the Warm Springs R. and Shitike Cr. during 2002. One-hundred and thirteen (113) redds were enumerated in the Warm Springs R. and 204 redds were found in Shitike Cr. The number of redds enumerated in both the Warm Springs R. and Shitike Cr. were the most redds observed since surveys began in 1998. Spatial and temporal distribution in spawning within the Warm Springs R. and Shitike Cr. is discussed. Juvenile emigration has been monitored in Shitike Creek since 1996. A total of 312 juveniles were estimated to have emigrated from Shitike Cr. during the spring, 2002. Adult escapement was monitored in the Warm Springs R. and Shitike Cr. Thirty adults were recorded at the Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery weir during 2002. This was the highest number of spawning adults recorded to date. A weir equipped with an underwater video camera near the spawning grounds was operated in the Warm Springs R. Thirty-one adults were recorded at the weir in day counts. The adult trap in Shitike Cr. was unsuccessful in capturing adult bull trout during 2002 due to damage from a spring high water event. Thermographs were placed throughout Warm Springs R. and Shitike Cr. to monitor water temperatures during bull trout migration, holding and spawning/rearing periods. During 1999-2002 water temperatures ranged from 11.8-15.4 C near the mouths during adult migration; 11.4-14.6 C during pre-spawning holding; and 6.5-8.4 C during adult spawning and juvenile rearing.

Brun, Christopher V.; Dodson, Rebekah

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Historic Trends in U. S. Drought Forcing in a Warming Climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mean North American and world climates have warmed significantly since the beginning of climatologically significant anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases in the 19th Century. It has been suggested that warming may increase the frequency or severity of droughts. We define and study the statistics of an aridity index that describes the precipitation forcing function of a drought, considering drought to be a season with low enough precipitation to be significant for agriculture. Our aridity index is a reciprocal function of the seasonal precipitation, which is more significant for agriculture than mean precipitation. Using NOAA data from sites in 13 diverse climate regimes in the 48 contiguous United States with time series running over the period 1940--1999 but including two data series from 1900 or 1910, and computing their decadal averages, we search for linear trends in their aridity indices. We find no linear trends significant at the $2\\sigma$ level. At five sites $3\\sigma$ upper bounds on any sy...

Muschinski, T

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Warm H2O and OH in the disk around the Herbig star HD 163296  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present observations of far-infrared (50-200 micron) OH and H2O emission of the disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296 obtained with Herschel/PACS in the context of the DIGIT key program. In addition to strong [OI] emission, a number of OH doublets and a few weak highly excited lines of H2O are detected. The presence of warm H2O in this Herbig disk is confirmed by a line stacking analysis, enabled by the full PACS spectral scan, and by lines seen in Spitzer data. The line fluxes are analyzed using an LTE slab model including line opacity. The water column density is 10^14 - 10^15 cm^-2, and the excitation temperature is 200-300 K implying warm gas with a density n > 10^5 cm^-3. For OH we find a column density of 10^14 - 2x10^15 cm^-2 and T_ex ~ 300-500 K. For both species we find an emitting region of r ~ 15-20 AU from the star. We argue that the molecular emission arises from the protoplanetary disk rather than from an outflow. This far-infrared detection of both H2O and OH contrasts with near- and mid-...

Fedele, D; van Dishoeck, E F; Herczeg, G J; Evans, N J; Bouwman, J; Henning, Th; Green, J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Ion-acoustic cnoidal waves in plasmas with warm ions and kappa distributed electrons and positrons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrostatic ion-acoustic periodic (cnoidal) waves and solitons in unmagnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasmas with warm ions and kappa distributed electrons and positrons are investigated. Using the reductive perturbation method, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived with appropriate boundary conditions for periodic waves. The corresponding analytical and various numerical solutions are presented with Sagdeev potential approach. Differences between the results caused by the kappa and Maxwell distributions are emphasized. It is revealed that only hump (compressive) structures of the cnoidal waves and solitons are formed. It is shown that amplitudes of the cnoidal waves and solitons are reduced in an EPI plasma case in comparison with the ordinary electron-ion plasmas. The effects caused by the temperature variations of the warm ions are also discussed. It is obtained that the amplitude of the cnoidal waves and solitons decreases for a kappa distributed (nonthermal) electrons and positrons plasma case in comparison with the Maxwellian distributed (thermal) electrons and positrons EPI plasmas. The existence of kappa distributed particles leads to decreasing of ion-acoustic frequency up to thermal ions frequency.

Kaladze, T. [Department of Physics, Government College University (GCU), Lahore 54000 (Pakistan) [Department of Physics, Government College University (GCU), Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); I.Vekua Institute of Applied Mathematics, Tbilisi State University, 0186 Georgia (United States); Mahmood, S., E-mail: shahzadm100@gmail.com [Theoretical Physics Division (TPD), PINSTECH P.O. Nilore Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics (NCP), Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

469

Relationship between MTBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The relationship between MBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability is investigated by focusing on the transient combustion air-fuel ratio that strongly relates to the combustion state of the engine. As a result, although warm-up driveability of MTBE-free gasoline has a high correlation with 50% distillation temperature (T50) and a high correlation with 100 C distillation volume (E100), the correlation is found to be low when blended with MTBE. Various formulas that improve correlation with peak excess air ratio ({lambda}) by correcting T50 and E100 for the amount of MTBE blended are examined. The formula for which the highest determination coefficient is obtained is proposed as a new driveability index (DI) that can also be applied to MTBE-blended gasoline. In addition, the effect on driveability by gasoline base materials using this new DI also is investigated. The results indicate that the new DI worsen when heavy reformate containing large amounts of aromatics or MTBE, an oxygen-containing compound, is used for the octane improver, leaving the balance of the volatility out of consideration.

Suzawa, Takumi; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Kashiwabara, Kimito [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Fujisawa, Norihiro; Matsubara, Michiro

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

470

Net carbon uptake has increased through warming-induced changes in temperate forest phenology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The timing of phenological events exerts a strong control over ecosystem function and leads to multiple feedbacks to the climate system1. Phenology is inherently sensitive to temperature (though the exact sensitivity is disputed2) and recent warming is reported to have led to earlier spring, later autumn3,4 and increased vegetation activity5,6. Such greening could be expected to enhance ecosystem carbon uptake7,8, though reports also suggest decreased uptake for boreal forests4,9. Here we assess changes in phenology of temperate forests over the eastern US during the past two decades, and quantify the resulting changes in forest carbon storage. We combine long-term ground observations of phenology, satellite indices, and ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide flux measurements, along with 18 terrestrial biosphere models. We observe a strong trend of earlier spring and later autumn. In contrast to previous suggestions4,9 we show that carbon uptake through photosynthesis increased considerably more than carbon release through respiration for both an earlier spring and later autumn. The terrestrial biosphere models tested misrepresent the temperature sensitivity of phenology, and thus the effect on carbon uptake. Our analysis of the temperature-phenology-carbon coupling suggests a current and possible future enhancement of forest carbon uptake due to changes in phenology. This constitutes a negative feedback to climate change, and is serving to slow the rate of warming.

Keenan, Trevor [Harvard University] [Harvard University; Gray, Josh [Boston University] [Boston University; Friedl, Mark [Boston University] [Boston University; Toomey, Michael [Harvard University] [Harvard University; Bohrer, Gil [Ohio State University] [Ohio State University; Hollinger, David [USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station] [USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station; Munger, J. William [Harvard University] [Harvard University; OKeefe, John [Harvard Forest (Harvard University), Massachusetts] [Harvard Forest (Harvard University), Massachusetts; Hans, Schmid [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany] [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany; Wing, Ian [Boston University] [Boston University; Yang, Bai [ORNL] [ORNL; Richardson, Andrew D. [Harvard University] [Harvard University

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Comparison of global warming impacts of automobile air-conditioning concepts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The global warming impacts of conventional vapor compression automobile air conditioning using HFC-134a are compared with the potential impacts of four alternative concepts. Comparisons are made on the basis of total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) which accounts for the effects of refrigerant emissions, energy use to provide comfort cooling, and fuel consumed to transport the weight of the air conditioning system. Under the most favorable assumptions on efficiency and weight, transcritical compression using CO{sub 2} as the refrigerant and adsorption cooling with water and zeolite beds could reduce TEWI by up to 18%rlative to HFC-134a compression air conditioning. Other assumptions on weight and efficiency lead to significant increases in TEWI relative to HFC-134a, and it is impossible to determine which set of assumptios is valid from existing data, Neither Stirling cycle or thermoelectric cooling will reduce TEWI relative to EFC-134a. Brief comments are also made concerning technical barriers that must be overcome for succesful development of the new technologies.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

472

Response of snow-dependent hydrologic extremes to continued global warming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Snow accumulation is critical for water availability in the Northern Hemisphere1,2, raising concern that global warming could have important impacts on natural and human systems in snow-dependent regions1,3. Although regional hydrologic changes have been observed (for example, refs 1,3 5), the time of emergence of extreme changes in snow accumulation and melt remains a key unknown for assessing climate- change impacts3,6,7. We find that the CMIP5 global climate model ensemble exhibits an imminent shift towards low snow years in the Northern Hemisphere, with areas of western North America, northeastern Europe and the Greater Himalaya showing the strongest emergence during the near- termdecadesandat2 Cglobalwarming.Theoccurrenceof extremely low snow years becomes widespread by the late twenty-first century, as do the occurrences of extremely high early-season snowmelt and runoff (implying increasing flood risk), and extremely low late-season snowmelt and runoff (implying increasing water stress). Our results suggest that many snow-dependent regions of the Northern Hemisphere are likely to experience increasing stress from low snow years within the next three decades, and from extreme changes in snow-dominated water resources if global warming exceeds 2 C above the pre-industrial baseline.

Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University; Scherer, Martin [Stanford University; Ashfaq, Moetasim [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Global warming implications of non-fluorocarbon technologies as CFC replacements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many technologies could be developed for use in place of conventional compression systems for refrigeration and air conditioning. Comparisons of the global warming impacts using TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) can be used to identify alternatives that have the potential for lower environmental impacts than electric-driven vapor compression systems using HCFCs and HFCs. Some options, such as secondary heat transfer loops in commercial refrigeration systems to reduce refrigerant charge and emission rates, could be useful in reducing the losses of refrigerants to the atmosphere. Use of ammonia instead of a fluorocarbon in a system with a secondary loop offers only a small potential for decreasing TEWI, and this may not warrant the increased complexity and risks of using ammonia in a retail sales environment. A few technologies, such as adsorption heat pumps, have efficiency levels that show reduced TEWI levels compared to conventional and state of the art compression systems, and further development could lead to an even more favorable comparison. Health and safety risks of the alternative technologies and the materials they employ must also be considered.

Fischer, S.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

474

Energy and global warming impacts of next generation refrigeration and air conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant developments have occurred in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and the application of ammonia and hydrocarbons as refrigerant working fluids since the original TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) report in 1991. System operating and performance data on alternative refrigerants and refrigeration technologies justify and updated evaluation of these new alternative refrigerants and competing technologies in well-characterized applications. Analytical and experimental results are used to show quantitative comparisons between HFCS, HFC blends, hydrocarbons, and ammonia, used as refrigerants. An objective evaluation is presented for commercial and near commercial non-CFC refrigerants/blowing agents and alternative refrigeration technologies. This information is needed for objective and quantitative decisions on policies addressing greenhouse gas emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. The evaluation assesses the energy use and global warming impacts of refrigeration and air conditioning technologies that could be commercialized during the phase out of HCFCS. Quantitative comparison TEWI for two application areas are presented. Opportunities for significant reductions in TEWI are seen with currently known refrigerants through improved maintenance and servicing practices and improved product designs.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Overview of engineering and agricultural design considerations of the Raft River soil-warming and heat-dissipation experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The engineering and agricultural considerations of the Raft River soil-warming and heat-dissipation experiment are presented. The experiment is designed to investigate the thermal characteristics of a subsurface pipe network for cooling power-plant condenser effluent, and crop responses to soil warming in an open-field plot. The subsurface soil-warming system is designed to dissipate approximately 100 kW of heat from circulating, 38/sup 0/C geothermal water. Summer operating conditions in the Raft River area, located on the Intermountain Plateau are emphasized. Design is based on the thermal characteristics of the local soil, the climate of the Raft River Valley, management practices for normal agriculture, and the need for an unheated control plot. The resultant design calls for 38-mm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe in a grid composed of parallel loops, for dissipating heat into a 0.8-hectare experimental plot.

Stanley, N.E.; Engen, I.A.; Yrene, C.S.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

High-Power Warm-White Hybrid LED Package for Illumination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this project, an integrated warm-white hybrid light engine was developed. The hybrid approach involves combining phosphor-converted off-white InGaN LEDs and direct-emitting red AlInGaP LEDs in a single light engine to achieve high efficacy together with high color rendering index. We developed and integrated technology improvements in InGaN and AlInGaP die technology, phosphor technology, package architecture and encapsulation, to realize a hybrid warm-white LED package with an efficacy of 140 lm/W at a correlated color temperature of 3000K and a color rendering index of 90, measured under representative operating conditions. This efficacy is 26% higher than the best warm-white LEDs of similar specification that are commercially available at the end of the project. Since the InGaN- and AlInGaP-based LEDs used in the hybrid engine show different behavior as a function of current and temperature, a control system needs to be in place to ensure a stable color point over all operating conditions. In this project, we developed an electronic control circuit that is fully integrated into the light engine in such a way that the module can simply be driven by a conventional single-channel driver. The integrated control circuit uses a switch-mode boost converter topology to control the LED drive currents based on the temperature and the input current of the light engine. A color control performance of 5 SDCM was demonstrated, and improvement to 3 SDCM is considered well within reach. The combination of high efficacy and ease of integration with existing single-channel drivers is expected to facilitate the adoption of the hybrid technology and accelerate the energy savings associated with solid-state lighting. In the product commercialization plan, downlights and indirect-lit troffers have been selected as the first target applications for this product concept. Fully functional integrated prototypes have been developed for both applications, and the business case evaluation is ongoing as of the end of the project.

Soer, Wouter

2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

477

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN BARNARD'S LOOP, COMPONENTS OF THE ORION-ERIDANUS BUBBLE, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE WARM IONIZED MEDIUM COMPONENT OF THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have supplemented existing spectra of Barnard's Loop with high accuracy spectrophotometry of one new position. Cloudy photoionization models were calculated for a variety of ionization parameters and stellar temperatures and compared with the observations. After testing the procedure with recent observations of M43, we establish that Barnard's Loop is photoionized by four candidate ionizing stars, but agreement between the models and observations is only possible if Barnard's Loop is enhanced in heavy elements by about a factor of 1.4. Barnard's Loop is very similar in properties to the brightest components of the Orion-Eridanus Bubble and the warm ionized medium (WIM). We are able to establish models that bound the range populated in low-ionization color-color diagrams (I([S II])/I(H{alpha}) versus I([N II])/I(H{alpha})) using only a limited range of ionization parameters and stellar temperatures. Previously established variations in the relative abundance of heavy elements render uncertain the most common method of determining electron temperatures for components of the Orion-Eridanus Bubble and the WIM based only on the I([N II])/I(H{alpha}) ratio, although we confirm that the lowest surface brightness components of the WIM are on average of higher electron temperature. The electron temperatures for a few high surface brightness WIM components determined by direct methods are comparable to those of classical bright H II regions. In contrast, the low surface brightness H II regions studied by the Wisconsin H{alpha} Mapper are of lower temperatures than the classical bright H II regions.

O'Dell, C. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Ferland, G. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Porter, R. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Simulational Physics, University of Georgia at Athens, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Van Hoof, P. A. M. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Brussels (Belgium)

2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

478

Warm-viscous inflation model on the brane in the light of BICEP2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the present work warm inflationary universe model with viscous pressure on the brane in high-dissipation regime is studied. We derive a condition which is required for this model to be realizable in slow-roll approximation. We also present analytic expressions for density perturbation and amplitude of tensor perturbation in longitudinal gauge. General expressions of tensor-to-scalar ratio, scalar spectral index and its running are obtained. We develop our model by using chaotic potential, the characteristics of this model are calculated for two specific cases: 1- Dissipative parameter $\\Gamma$ and bulk viscous parameter $\\zeta$ are constant parameters. 2- Dissipative parameter as a function of scalar field $\\phi$ and bulk viscous parameter as a function of radiation-matter mixture energy density $\\rho$. The parameters of the model are restricted by WMAP9, Planck and BICEP2 observational data.

M. R. Setare; V. Kamali

2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

479

Role of Sterile Neutrino Warm Dark Matter in Rhenium and Tritium Beta Decays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sterile neutrinos with mass in the range of one to a few keV are important as extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics and are serious dark matter (DM) candidates. This DM mass scale (warm DM) is in agreement with both cosmological and galactic observations. We study the role of a keV sterile neutrino through its mixing with a light active neutrino in Rhenium 187 and Tritium beta decays. We pinpoint the energy spectrum of the beta particle, 0 Tritium beta spectra and estimate the size of this perturbation by means of the dimensionless ratio R of the sterile neutrino to the active neutrino contributions. We comment on the possibility of searching for sterile neutrino signatures in two experiments which are currently running at present, MARE and KATRIN, focused on the Rhenium 187 and Tritium beta decays respectively.

H. J. de Vega; O. Moreno; E. Moya de Guerra; M. Ramon Medrano; N. Sanchez

2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

480

Warm wave breaking of nonlinear plasma waves with arbitrary phase velocities C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, and B. A. Shadwick  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Warm wave breaking of nonlinear plasma waves with arbitrary phase velocities C. B. Schroeder, E, collisionless plasma is developed to analyze nonlinear plasma waves excited by intense drive beams. The maximum amplitude and wavelength are calculated for nonrelativistic plasma temperatures and arbitrary plasma wave

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm surface seawater" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Coupled greenhouse warming and deep-sea acidification in the middle Steven M. Bohaty,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

concentration records from multiple Deep Sea Drilling Project and Ocean Drilling Program sites for the time and deep waters is estimated during the MECO at the study sites. The interval of peak warming at $40.0 Ma, reflecting a temporary shoaling of the calcite compensation depth. The synchroneity of deep- water

Zachos, James

482

The Ecological Society of America www.frontiersinecology.org Societal concern over global warming and its link to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COMMUNICATIONS Limited potential for terrestrial carbon sequestration to offset fossil-fuel emissions warming and its link to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concen- trations has motivated many- tration of atmospheric carbon (C) in standing biomass or C-depleted agricultural soils through changes

Weiblen, George D

483

October 1986 R. H. Johnson 721 Lower-Tropospheric Warming and Drying in Tropical Mesoscale Convective Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

October 1986 R. H. Johnson 721 Lower-Tropospheric Warming and Drying in Tropical Mesoscale Convective Systems: Implications for the Problem of Cumulus Parameterization By Richard H. Johnson Department beneath the stratiform com- ponents of these systems (Houze, 1977; Zipser, 1977; Johnson and Kriete, 1982

Johnson, Richard H.

484

The world we now live in is confronted with various challenges. Environmental issues caused by global warming, and the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;The world we now live in is confronted with various challenges. Environmental issues caused by global warming, and the intensification of international competition over access to resources, energy by a single nation; rather, each country must work together for global solutions to tackle these environmental

Banbara, Mutsunori

485

Interactive effects of global warming and `global worming' on the initial establishment of native and exotic herbaceous plant species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

modeling allowed us to address possible mechanisms: direct effects of earthworms primarily affected exotic, chemical and physical properties of many ecosystems, yet little is known about their potential interactive, endogeic, epigeic, or all three together) and 4°C warming on soil water content, litter turnover

Weiblen, George D

486

Interactive effects of global warming and `global worming' on the initial establishment of native and exotic herbaceous plant species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

modeling allowed us to address possible mechanisms: direct effects of earthworms primarily affected exotic and physical properties of many ecosystems, yet little is known about their potential interactive effects. We, epigeic, or all three together) and 4°C warming on soil water content, litter turnover and seedling

Minnesota, University of

487

Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

color rendering index Sedat Nizamoglu, Gulis Zengin, and Hilmi Volkan Demira Department of Electrical 2008 Warm-white light emitting diodes with high color rendering indices are required for the widespreadSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized on InGaN/GaN LEDs for high color rendering index. Three sets

Demir, Hilmi Volkan

488

Near-Infrared Constraints on the Presence of Warm Dust at Metal-Rich, Helium Atmosphere White Dwarfs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Here, we present near-infrared spectroscopic observations of 15 helium atmosphere, metal-rich white dwarfs obtained at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. While a connection has been demonstrated between the most highly polluted, hydrogen atmosphere white dwarfs and the presence of warm circumstellar dust and gas, their frequency at the helium atmosphere variety is poorly constrained. None of our targets show excess near-infrared radiation consistent with warm orbiting material. Adding these near-infrared constraints to previous near- and mid-infrared observations, the frequency of warm circumstellar material at metal-bearing white dwarfs is at least 20% for hydrogen-dominated photospheres, but could be less than 5% for those effectively composed of helium alone. The lower occurrence of dust disks around helium atmosphere white dwarfs is consistent with Myr timescales for photospheric metals in massive convection zones. Analyzing the mass distribution of 10 white dwarfs with warm circumstellar material, we search for similar trends between the frequency of disks and the predicted frequency of massive planets around intermediate mass stars, but find the probability that disk-bearing white dwarfs are more massive than average is not significant.

Mukremin Kilic; J. Farihi; Atsuko Nitta; S. K. Leggett

2008-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

489

Postdoctoral Position at North Carolina State University Title: Consequences of urban and global warming for arthropod ecology and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Postdoctoral Position at North Carolina State University Title: Consequences of urban and global warming for arthropod ecology and evolution Description: One postdoctoral position will be available heat islands and global climate change for arthropods of societal or economic importance. The study

Behmer, Spencer T.

490

CO2 Concentration Global warming is a hot topic these days. One of the factors that may explain increases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO2 Concentration Global warming is a hot topic these days. One of the factors that may explain increases in global temperatures is the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Is there a relationship between the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and global temperatures? Data Collection

Carriquiry, Alicia

491

surface chemistry | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

surface chemistry surface chemistry Leads No leads are available at this time. FeSSZ-13 as an NH3-SCR Catalyst: A Reaction Kinetics and FTIRMössbauer Spectroscopic Study....

492

Assessment of boreal forest historical C dynamics in Yukon River Basin: relative roles of warming and fire regime change  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon (C) dynamics of boreal forest ecosystems have substantial implications for efforts to mitigate the rise of atmospheric CO2 and may be substantially influenced by warming and changing wildfire regimes. In this study we applied a large-scale ecosystem model that included dynamics of organic soil horizons and soil organic matter characteristics of multiple pools to assess forest C stock changes of the Yukon River Basin (YRB) in Alaska, USA, and Canada from 1960 through 2006, a period characterized by substantial climate warming and increases in wildfire. The model was calibrated for major forests with data from long-term research sites and evaluated using a forest inventory database. The regional assessment indicates that forest vegetation C storage increased by 46 Tg C, but that total soil C storage did not change appreciably during this period. However, further analysis suggests that C has been continuously lost from the mineral soil horizon since warming began in the 1970s, but has increased in the amorphous organic soil horizon. Based on a factorial experiment, soil C stocks would have increased by 158 Tg C if the YRB had not undergone warming and changes in fire regime. The analysis also identified that warming and changes in fire regime were approximately equivalent in their effects on soil C storage, and interactions between these two suggests that the loss of organic horizon thickness associated with increases in wildfire made deeper soil C stocks more vulnerable to loss via decomposition. Subbasin analyses indicate that C stock changes were primarily sensitive to the fraction of burned forest area within each subbasin and that boreal forest ecosystems in the YRB are currently transitioning from being sinks to sources at ;0.7% annual area burned. We conclude that it is important for international mitigation efforts focused on controlling atmospheric CO2 to consider how climate warming and changes in fire regime may concurrently affect the CO2 sink strength of boreal forests. It is also important for large-scale biogeochemical and earth system models to include organic soil dynamics in applications to assess regional C dynamics of boreal forests responding to warming and changes in fire regime.

Yuan, Fengming [ORNL; Yi, Shuhua [Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS; McGuire, A. David [University of Alaska; Johnson, Kristopher D [University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Liang, Jingjing [University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Harden, Jennifer [USGS, Menlo Park, CA; Kasischke, Eric S. [University of Maryland, College Park; Kurz, Werner [Canadian Forest Service

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION DIJKSTRA, SENGUL, WANG INTRODUCTION LINEAR THEORY MAIN THEOREMS CONCLUDING REMARKS DYNAMIC TRANSITIONS OF SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION H.Dijkstra T. Sengul S. Wang #12;SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION DIJKSTRA, SENGUL, WANG INTRODUCTION LINEAR THEORY MAIN THEOREMS

Wang, Shouhong

494

Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

compound-one with added aluminum and less silicon. The resulting calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate (C-A-S-H) is an exceptionally stable binder. At ALS Beamline 5.3.2, x-ray...

495

Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformationPostdocs spaceLaser The SRS Community

496

Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformationPostdocs spaceLaser The SRS CommunityLearning from Roman

497

Surface cleanliness measurement procedure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Simpsonville, SC); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greenville, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Surface Nanostructuring of Polysulfone Membranes by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Induced Graft Polymerization (APPIGP)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

treatment prior to reverse osmosis membranes. Desalination,desalination with reverse osmosis. Desalination, 2007. 203(composite seawater reverse osmosis membrane. Desalination,

Kim, Soo Min

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

GR via Characteristic Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We reformulate the Einstein equations as equations for families of surfaces on a four-manifold. These surfaces eventually become characteristic surfaces for an Einstein metric (with or without sources). In particular they are formulated in terms of two functions on R4xS2, i.e. the sphere bundle over space-time, - one of the functions playing the role of a conformal factor for a family of associated conformal metrics, the other function describing an S2's worth of surfaces at each space-time point. It is from these families of surfaces themselves that the conformal metric - conformal to an Einstein metric - is constructed; the conformal factor turns them into Einstein metrics. The surfaces are null surfaces with respect to this metric.

Simonetta Frittelli; Carlos Kozameh; Ted Newman

1995-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

500

Coal-Derived Warm Syngas Purification and CO2 Capture-Assisted Methane Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasifier-derived syngas from coal has many applications in the area of catalytic transformation to fuels and chemicals. Raw syngas must be treated to remove a number of impurities that would otherwise poison the synthesis catalysts. Inorganic impurities include alkali salts, chloride, sulfur compounds, heavy metals, ammonia, and various P, As, Sb, and Se- containing compounds. Systems comprising multiple sorbent and catalytic beds have been developed for the removal of impurities from gasified coal using a warm cleanup approach. This approach has the potential to be more economic than the currently available acid gas removal (AGR) approaches and improves upon currently available processes that do not provide the level of impurity removal that is required for catalytic synthesis application. Gasification also lends itself much more readily to the capture of CO2, important in the regulation and control of greenhouse gas emissions. CO2 capture material was developed and in this study was demonstrated to assist in methane production from the purified syngas. Simultaneous CO2 sorption enhances the CO methanation reaction through relaxation of thermodynamic constraint, thus providing economic benefit rather than simply consisting of an add-on cost for carbon capture and release. Molten and pre-molten LiNaKCO3 can promote MgO and MgO-based double salts to capture CO2 with high cycling capacity. A stable cycling CO2 capacity up to 13 mmol/g was demonstrated. This capture material was specifically developed in this study to operate in the same temperature range and therefore integrate effectively with warm gas cleanup and methane synthesis. By combining syngas methanation, water-gas-shift, and CO2 sorption in a single reactor, single pass yield to methane of 99% was demonstrated at 10 bar and 330oC when using a 20 wt% Ni/MgAl2O4 catalyst and a molten-phase promoted MgO-based sorbent. Under model feed conditions both the sorbent and catalyst exhibited favorable stability after multiple test cycles. The cleanup for warm gas cleanup of inorganics was broken down into three major steps: chloride removal, sulfur removal, and the removal for a multitude of trace metal contaminants. Na2CO3 was found to optimally remove chlorides at an operating temperature of 450șC. For sulfur removal two regenerable ZnO beds are used for bulk H2S removal at 450șC (<5 ppm S) and a non-regenerable ZnO bed for H2S polishing at 300șC (<40 ppb S). It was also found that sulfur from COS could be adsorbed (to levels below our detection limit of 40 ppb) in the presence of water that leads to no detectable slip of H2S. Finally, a sorbent material comprising of Cu and Ni was found to be effective in removing trace metal impurities such as AsH3 and PH3 when operating at 300șC. Proof-of-concept of the integrated cleanup process was demonstrated with gasifier-generated syngas produced at the Western Research Institute using Wyoming Decker Coal. When operating with a ~1 SLPM feed, multiple inorganic contaminant removal sorbents and a tar-reforming bed was able to remove the vast majority of contaminants from the raw syngas. A tar-reforming catalyst was employed due to the production of tars generated from the gasifier used in this particular study. It is envisioned that in a real application a commercial scale gasifier operating at a higher temperature would produce lesser amount of tar. Continuous operation of a poison-sensitive copper-based WGS catalyst located downstream from the cleanup steps resulted in successful demonstration. ?

Dagle, Robert A.; King, David L.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Xing, Rong; Spies, Kurt A.; Zhu, Yunhua; Rainbolt, James E.; Li, Liyu; Braunberger, B.

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z