National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for warm moist air

  1. Moist air reaction with excess UF{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reiner, R.H.

    1989-08-01

    The moist air reaction with uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) has been studied at conditions simulating UF{sub 6} hydrolysis during air inleakage in the cascade. In excess UF{sub 6}, the reaction mechanism is more complicated than predicted by the simple gas-phase reaction of one UF{sub 6} molecule with two water molecules to form uranyl fluoride and hydrogen fluoride. The initial UF{sub 6} consumption is significantly greater than predicted, suggesting that a metastable uranium compound is formed during the hydrolysis reaction. This intermediate uranium compound may facilitate uranyl fluoride transport in the cascade.

  2. Definition of Total Energy budget equation in terms of moist-air Enthalpy surface flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty exists concerning the proper formulation of surface heat fluxes, namely the sum of "sensible" and "latent" heat fluxes, and in fact concerning these two fluxes if they are considered as separate fluxes. In fact, eddy flux of moist-air energy must be defined as the eddy transfer of moist-air specific enthalpy ($\\overline{w' h'}$), where the specific enthalpy ($h$) is equal to the internal energy of moist air plus the pressure divided by the density (namely $h = e_{\\rm int} + p/\\rho$). The fundamental issue is to compute this local (specific) moist-air enthalpy ($h$), and in particular to determine absolute reference value of enthalpies for dry air and water vapour $(h_d)_{\\rm ref}$ and $(h_v)_{\\rm ref}$. New results shown in Marquet (QJRMS 2015, arXiv:1401.3125) are based on the Third-law of Thermodynamics and can allow these computations. In this note, this approach is taken to show that Third-law based values of moist-air enthalpy fluxes is the sum of two terms. These two terms are similar to wha...

  3. Overheat Instability in an Ascending Moist Air Flow as a Mechanism of Hurricane Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nechayev, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The universal instability mechanism in an ascending moist air flow is theoretically proposed and analyzed. Its origin comes to the conflict between two processes: the increasing of pressure forcing applied to the boundary layer and the decelerating of the updraft flow due to air heating. It is shown that the intensification of tropical storm with the redistribution of wind velocities, pressure and temperature can result from the reorganization of the dissipative structure which key parameters are the moist air lifting velocity and the temperature of surrounding atmosphere. This reorganization can lead to formation of hurricane eye and inner ring of convection. A transition of the dissipative structure in a new state can occur when the temperature lapse rate in a zone of air lifting reaches certain critical value. The accordance of observational data with the proposed theoretical description is shown.

  4. Warm Air Rises Use food coloring and different temperatures of water to demonstrate that warm air rises.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Cari

    Warm Air Rises Use food coloring and different temperatures of water to demonstrate that warm air of the cold water because warm air (or water) is less dense than cold air (or water). This concept can be seen the bottom floor of a house. Less dense warm air settles on top of cold air when winds are light

  5. Drying rate and temperature profile for superheated steam vacuum drying and moist air drying of softwood lumber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, S.; Dakin, M. [New Zealand Forest Research Inst., Ltd., Rotorua (New Zealand). Mfg. Technologies Portfolio

    1999-07-01

    Two charges of green radiata pine sapwood lumber were dried, ether using superheated steam under vacuum (90 C, 0.2 bar abs.) or conventionally using hot moist air (90/60 C). Due to low density of the drying medium under vacuum, the circulation velocity used was 10 m/s for superheated steam drying and 5.0 m/s for moist air drying, and in both cases, the flow was unidirectional. In drying, stack drying rate and wood temperatures were measured to examine the differences between the superheated steam drying and drying using hot moist air. The experimental results have shown that the stack edge board in superheated steam drying dried faster than in the hot moist air drying. Once again due to the low density of the steam under vacuum, a prolonged maximum temperature drop across load (TDAL) was observed in the superheated steam drying, however, the whole stack dried slower and the final moisture content distribution was more variable than for conventional hot moist air drying.

  6. Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions, 2nd ed.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laberge, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, andZ. Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, andAir Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and

  7. Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions, 2nd ed.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laberge, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science,Canada Jacobson, Mark Z. Air Pollution and Global Warming:His timely book, Air Pollution and Global Warming: History,

  8. The Impact of Global Warming and Air Pollution on Patient Visits in the Emergency Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derlet, Robert W

    2001-01-01

    Review The Impact sf Global Warming and 1 Air pollution onair pollution problems and global warming will effect thesites in the human body. Global Warming Global warming goes

  9. Cast Stone Oxidation Front Evaluation: Preliminary Results For Samples Exposed To Moist Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C. A.; Almond, P. M.

    2013-11-26

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup ?} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup ?}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. The Cr oxidation front (depth to which soluble Cr was detected) for the Cast Stone sample exposed for 68 days to ambient outdoor temperatures and humid air (total age of sample was 131 days) was determined to be about 35 mm below the top sample surface exposed. The Tc oxidation front, depth at which Tc was insoluble, was not determined. Interpretation of the results indicates that the oxidation front is at least 38 mm below the exposed surface. The sample used for this measurement was exposed to ambient laboratory conditions and humid air for 50 days. The total age of the sample was 98 days. Technetium appears to be more easily oxidized than Cr in the Cast Stone matrix. The oxidized forms of Tc and Cr are soluble and therefore leachable. Longer exposure times are required for both the Cr and Tc spiked samples to better interpret the rate of oxidation. Tc spiked subsamples need to be taken further from the exposed surface to better define and interpret the leachable Tc profile. Finally Tc(VII) reduction to Tc(IV) appears to occur relatively fast. Results demonstrated that about 95 percent of the Tc(VII) was reduced to Tc(IV) during the setting and very early stage setting for a Cast Stone sample cured 10 days. Additional testing at longer curing times is required to determine whether additional time is required to reduce 100 % of the Tc(VII) in Cast Stone or whether the Tc loading exceeded the ability of the waste form to reduce 100 % of the Tc(VII). Additional testing is required for samples cured for longer times. Depth discrete subsampling in a nitrogen glove box is also required to determine whether the 5 percent Tc extracted from the subsamples was the result of the sampling process which took place in air. Reduction capacity measurements (per the Angus-Glasser method) performed on depth discrete samples could not be correlated with the amount of chromium or technetium leached from the depth discrete subsamples or with the oxidation front inferred from soluble chromium and technetium (i.e., effective Cr and Tc oxidation fronts). Residual reduction capacity

  10. ISSUANCE 2015-05-01: Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

  11. Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions, 2nd ed.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laberge, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science,Jacobson, Mark Z. Air Pollution and Global Warming: History,and hazards related to pollution, Professor Mark Z. Jacobson

  12. Interaction of Plutonium with Diverse Materials in Moist Air and Nitrogen-Argon Atmospheres at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John M. Haschke; Raymond J. Martinez; Robert E. Pruner II; Barbara Martinez; Thomas H. Allen

    2001-04-01

    Chemical and radiolytic interactions of weapons-grade plutonium with metallic, inorganic, and hydrogenous materials in atmospheres containing moist air-argon mixtures have been characterized at room temperature from pressure-volume-temperature and mass spectrometric measurements of the gas phase. A reaction sequence controlled by kinetics and gas-phase composition is defined by correlating observed and known reaction rates. In all cases, O{sub 2} is eliminated first by the water-catalyzed Pu + O{sub 2} reaction and H{sub 2}O is then consumed by the Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction, producing a gas mixture of N{sub 2}, argon, and H{sub 2}. Hydrogen formed by the reaction of water and concurrent radiolysis of hydrogenous materials either reacts to form PuH{sub 2} or accumulates in the system. Accumulation of H{sub 2} is correlated with the presence of hydrogenous materials in liquid and volatile forms that are readily distributed over the plutonium surface. Areal rates of radiolytic H{sub 2} generation are determined and applied in showing that modest extents of H{sub 2} production are expected for hydrogenous solids if the contact area with plutonium is limited. The unpredictable nature of complex chemical systems is demonstrated by occurrence of the chloride-catalyzed Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction in some tests and hydride-catalyzed nitriding in another.

  13. Addressing Global Warming, Air Pollution Health Damage, and Long-Term Energy Needs Simultaneously

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Addressing Global Warming, Air Pollution Health Damage, and Long-Term Energy Needs Simultaneously information suggest that ethanol is neither clean nor has it been shown that it can slow global warming in the U.S. It will also divert resources from the primary practical solutions to global warming and air

  14. CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.C.; Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1990-03-01

    The objective of the CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System program was the development of an economically viable coal water slurry (CWS) fueled furnace that is competitive with current oil and natural gas systems. During the first phase of the program, a novel state-of-the-art Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation (IRIS) combustor was designed and tested. The second phase of the program focused on evaluating the interaction between the individual components and system design optimization. Testing was conducted on the prototype furnace. This work concentrated on optimizing the combustor configuration to yield high combustion efficiencies and prevent the possible agglomeration of coal within the combustor. Also, a new twin-fluid CWS atomizer was designed and tested. This atomizer employed a supersonic airstream to shear the CWS external to the nozzle and thereby eliminated erosion problems. Also, a new furnace system was designed, constructed, and extensively tested. This furnace, called the third-generation system, served as a basis for a manufacturing prototype and included all the necessary controls needed for automatic operation. In life testing of the third-generation furnace system, the unit operated for 200 hours and burned 1,758 pounds of CWS. This translated into an average input rate throughout the test period of 87,200 Btu/hr. During this period, combustion efficiencies ranged from 98.2 to 99.1 percent, with a noted increase in efficiency with time. This furnace was also tested in a cyclic manner for an additional period of 54 hours to evaluate the effect of thermal transients. During cyclic testing, the furnace went through repeated transient cycles, which included startup on oil, transition to CWS, and cool-down. As part of an economic evaluation the high volume cost of a CWS-fired warm air furnace was determined. 90 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Microclimatic performance of a free-air warming and CO? enrichment experiment in windy Wyoming, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCain, Daniel; Smith, David; Morgan, Jack; Kimball, Bruce A.; Pendall, Elise; Miglietta, Franco; Liang, Wenju

    2015-02-06

    In order to plan for global changing climate experiments are being conducted in many countries, but few have monitored the effects of the climate change treatments (warming, elevated CO?) on the experimental plot microclimate. During three years of an eight year study with year-round feedback-controlled infra-red heater warming (1.5/3.0°C day/night) and growing season free-air CO? enrichment (600 ppm) in the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA, we monitored soil, leaf, canopy-air, above-canopy-air temperatures and relative humidity of control and treated experimental plots and evaluated ecologically important temperature differentials. Leaves were warmed somewhat less than the target settings (1.1 & 1.5°C day/night) but soil was warmed more creating an average that matched the target settings extremely well both during the day and night plus the summer and winter. The site typically has about 50% bare or litter covered soil, therefore soil heat transfer is more critical than in dense canopy ecosystems. The Wyoming site commonly has strong winds (5 ms?¹ average) and significant daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations (as much as 30°C daily) but the warming system was nearly always able to maintain the set temperatures regardless of abiotic variation. The within canopy-air was only slightly warmed and above canopy-air was not warmed by the system, therefore convective warming was minor. Elevated CO? had no direct effect nor interaction with the warming treatment on microclimate. Relative humidity within the plant canopy was only slightly reduced by warming. Soil water content was reduced by warming but increased by elevated CO?. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring the microclimate in manipulative field global change experiments so that critical physiological and ecological conclusions can be determined. Highly variable energy demand fluctuations showed that passive IR heater warming systems will not maintain desired warming for much of the time.

  16. Microclimatic performance of a free-air warming and CO? enrichment experiment in windy Wyoming, USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    LeCain, Daniel; Smith, David; Morgan, Jack; Kimball, Bruce A.; Pendall, Elise; Miglietta, Franco; Liang, Wenju

    2015-02-06

    In order to plan for global changing climate experiments are being conducted in many countries, but few have monitored the effects of the climate change treatments (warming, elevated CO?) on the experimental plot microclimate. During three years of an eight year study with year-round feedback-controlled infra-red heater warming (1.5/3.0°C day/night) and growing season free-air CO? enrichment (600 ppm) in the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA, we monitored soil, leaf, canopy-air, above-canopy-air temperatures and relative humidity of control and treated experimental plots and evaluated ecologically important temperature differentials. Leaves were warmed somewhat less than the target settings (1.1 & 1.5°C day/night)more »but soil was warmed more creating an average that matched the target settings extremely well both during the day and night plus the summer and winter. The site typically has about 50% bare or litter covered soil, therefore soil heat transfer is more critical than in dense canopy ecosystems. The Wyoming site commonly has strong winds (5 ms?¹ average) and significant daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations (as much as 30°C daily) but the warming system was nearly always able to maintain the set temperatures regardless of abiotic variation. The within canopy-air was only slightly warmed and above canopy-air was not warmed by the system, therefore convective warming was minor. Elevated CO? had no direct effect nor interaction with the warming treatment on microclimate. Relative humidity within the plant canopy was only slightly reduced by warming. Soil water content was reduced by warming but increased by elevated CO?. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring the microclimate in manipulative field global change experiments so that critical physiological and ecological conclusions can be determined. Highly variable energy demand fluctuations showed that passive IR heater warming systems will not maintain desired warming for much of the time.« less

  17. Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  18. Radiation effects in moist-air systems and the influence of radiolytic product formation on nuclear waste glass corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Hoh, J.C.; Emery, J.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Wang, L.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1997-07-01

    Ionizing radiation may affect the performance of glass in an unsaturated repository site by interacting with air, water vapor, or liquid water to produce a variety of radiolytic products. Tests were conducted to examine the effects of radiolysis under high gas/liquid ratios. Results indicate that nitrate is the predominant radiolytic product produced following both gamma and alpha radiation exposure, with lesser amounts of nitrite and carboxylic acids. The formation of nitrogen acids during exposure to long-lived, alpha-particle-emitting transuranic elements indicates that these acids may play a role in influencing nuclear waste form reactions in a long-term unsaturated disposal scenario. Experiments were also conducted with samples that simulate the composition of Savannah River Plant nuclear waste glasses. Radiolytic product formation in batch tests (340 m{sup {minus}1}, 90 C) resulted in a small increase in the release rates of many glass components, such as alkali and alkaline earth elements, although silicon and uranium release rates were slightly reduced indicating an overall beneficial effect of radiation on waste form stability. The radiolytic acids increased the rate of ion exchange between the glass and the thin film of condensate, resulting in accelerated corrosion rates for the glass. The paragenetic sequence of alteration phases formed on both the irradiated and nonirradiated glass samples reacted in the vapor hydration tests matches closely with those developed during volcanic glass alteration in naturally occurring saline-alkaline lake systems. This correspondence suggests that the high temperatures used in these tests have not changed the underlying glass reaction mechanism relate to that which controls glass reactions under ambient surficial conditions.

  19. Internal gravity waves in a saturated, moist-neutral atmosphere upstream wave of subsidence in start-up for moist topographic flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muraki, David J.

    Internal gravity waves in a saturated, moist-neutral atmosphere upstream wave of subsidence of subsidence de-saturated, cloud-free air? #12;Desaturation of Cloud-Free, Moist-Neutral Air Primary Cause ( t + Ux ) + x = 0 xx + zz = the upstream propagating wave of subsidence persists . . . #12;A Hierarchy

  20. ISSUANCE 2015-12-17: Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  1. ISSUANCE 2015-12-17: Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

  2. CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.; Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1989-07-01

    During the report period, work continued on the life-cycle testing, optimization and refining of the second-generation furnace assembly, which comprises all the major furnace components: The combustor, heat exchanger, and baghouse, as well as the auxiliary subsystems. The furnace has operated for about 90 hours, and has burned 1,000 pounds of CWS. During testing, the only maintenance that was performed on the system was to clean the bag filters to obtain ash samples for analysts. Concurrent with testing the second-generation furnace, fabrication and assembly of the third-generation furnace was completed, and a life-cycle testing and optimization process for this furnace has started. In contrast to the second-generation furnace, which was designed more as an experimental unit, the third-generation furnace is a stand-alone heating unit Incorporating the standard air handling system, blower, pump, and control box as part of the furnace. During the report period, the third-generation furnace operated for a total of 35 hours, and burned more than 300 pounds of CWS, with average tests lasting 6 hours. During the next quarter, life-cycle testing of the third-generation furnace will continue to identify areas needing further development.

  3. Microclimatic Performance of a Free-Air Warming and CO2 Enrichment Experiment in Windy Wyoming, USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    LeCain, Daniel; Smith, David; Morgan, Jack; Kimball, Bruce A.; Pendall, Elise; Miglietta, Franco; Liang, Wenju

    2015-02-06

    In order to plan for global changing climate experiments are being conducted in many countries, but few have monitored the effects of the climate change treatments (warming, elevated CO2) on the experimental plot microclimate. During three years of an eight year study with year-round feedback-controlled infra-red heater warming (1.5/3.0°C day/night) and growing season free-air CO2 enrichment (600 ppm) in the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA, we monitored soil, leaf, canopy-air, above-canopy-air temperatures and relative humidity of control and treated experimental plots and evaluated ecologically important temperature differentials. Leaves were warmed somewhat less than the target settings (1.1 & 1.5°C day/night)more »but soil was warmed more creating an average that matched the target settings extremely well both during the day and night plus the summer and winter. The site typically has about 50% bare or litter covered soil, therefore soil heat transfer is more critical than in dense canopy ecosystems. The Wyoming site commonly has strong winds (5 ms-1 average) and significant daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations (as much as 30°C daily) but the warming system was nearly always able to maintain the set temperatures regardless of abiotic variation. The within canopy-air was only slightly warmed and above canopy-air was not warmed by the system, therefore convective warming was minor. Elevated CO2 had no direct effect nor interaction with the warming treatment on microclimate. Relative humidity within the plant canopy was only slightly reduced by warming. Soil water content was reduced by warming but increased by elevated CO2. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring the microclimate in manipulative field global change experiments so that critical physiological and ecological conclusions can be determined. Highly variable energy demand fluctuations showed that passive IR heater warming systems will not maintain desired warming for much of the time.« less

  4. Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

    1997-12-01

    International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

  5. Characterization of the solid, airborne materials created when UF/sub 6/ reacts with moist air flowing in single-pass mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickrell, P.W.

    1985-10-01

    A series of experiments has been performed in which UF/sub 6/ was released into flowing air in order to characterize the solid particulate material produced under non-static conditions. In two of the experiments, the aerosol was allowed to stagnate in a static chamber after release and examined further but in the other experiments characterization was done only on material collected a few seconds after release. Transmission electron microscopy and mass measurement by cascaded impactor were used to characterize the aerosol particles which were usually single spheroids with little agglomeration in evidence. The goal of the work is to determine the chemistry and physics of the UF/sub 6/-atmospheric moisture reaction under a variety of conditions so that information about resulting species and product morphologies is available for containment and removal (knockdown) studies as well as for dispersion plume modeling and toxicology studies. This report completes the milestone for reporting the information obtained from releases of UF/sub 6/ into flowing rather than static air. 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Persistent Cold Air Outbreaks over North America in a Warming Climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Yang; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Lu, Jian; Masato, Giacomo

    2015-03-30

    This study examines future changes of cold air outbreaks (CAO) using a multi-model ensemble of global climate simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 as well as regional high resolution climate simulations. In the future, while robust decrease of CAO duration dominates in most regions, the magnitude of decrease over northwestern U.S. is much smaller than the surrounding regions. We identified statistically significant increases in sea level pressure during CAO events centering over Yukon, Alaska, and Gulf of Alaska that advects continental cold air to northwestern U.S., leading to blocking and CAO events. Changes in large scale circulationmore »contribute to about 50% of the enhanced sea level pressure anomaly conducive to CAO in northwestern U.S. in the future. High resolution regional simulations revealed potential contributions of increased existing snowpack to increased CAO in the near future over the Rocky Mountain, southwestern U.S., and Great Lakes areas through surface albedo effects, despite winter mean snow water equivalent decreases in the future. Overall, the multi-model projections emphasize that cold extremes do not completely disappear in a warming climate. Concomitant with the relatively smaller reduction in CAO events in northwestern U.S., the top 5 most extreme CAO events may still occur in the future, and wind chill warning will continue to have societal impacts in that region.« less

  7. Persistent Cold Air Outbreaks over North America in a Warming Climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Yang; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Lu, Jian; Masato, Giacomo

    2015-04-01

    This study examines future changes of cold air outbreaks (CAO) using a multi-model ensemble of global climate simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 as well as regional high resolution climate simulations. In the future, while robust decrease of CAO duration dominates in most regions, the magnitude of decrease over northwestern U.S. is much smaller than the surrounding regions. We identified statistically significant increases in sea level pressure during CAO events centering over Yukon, Alaska, and Gulf of Alaska that advects continental cold air to northwestern U.S., leading to blocking and CAO events. Changes in large scale circulation contribute to about 50% of the enhanced sea level pressure anomaly conducive to CAO in northwestern U.S. in the future. High resolution regional simulations revealed potential contributions of increased existing snowpack to increased CAO in the near future over the Rocky Mountain, southwestern U.S., and Great Lakes areas through surface albedo effects, despite winter mean snow water equivalent decreases in the future. Overall, the multi-model projections emphasize that cold extremes do not completely disappear in a warming climate. Concomitant with the relatively smaller reduction in CAO events in northwestern U.S., the top 5 most extreme CAO events may still occur in the future, and wind chill warning will continue to have societal impacts in that region.

  8. The Effect of Diurnal Sea Surface Temperature Warming on Climatological Air–Sea Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayson, Carol Anne

    Diurnal sea surface warming affects the fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and upwelling longwave radiation. Diurnal warming most typically reaches maximum values of 3°C, although very localized events may reach 7°–8°C. ...

  9. Definition of a moist entropic potential temperature. Application to FIRE-I data flights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    A moist entropy potential temperature -- denoted by ${\\theta}_{s}$ -- is defined analytically in terms of the specific entropy for moist air. The expression for ${\\theta}_{s}$ is valid for a general mixing of dry air, water vapour and possible condensed water species. It verifies the same conservative properties as the moist entropy, even for varying dry air or total water content. The moist formulation for ${\\theta}_{s}$ is equal to the dry formulation $\\theta$ if dry air is considered and it verifies new properties valid for the moist air cases, both saturated or under-saturated ones. Exact and approximate versions of ${\\theta}_{s}$ are evaluated for several Stratocumulus cases, in particular by using the aircraft observations FIRE-I experiment data sets. It appears that there is no (or small) jump in ${\\theta}_{s}$ at the top of the PBL. The mixing in moist entropy is almost complete in the PBL, with the same values observed in the clear air and the cloudy regions, including the very top of the entrainment...

  10. Moist caustic leaching of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowak, Michael A. (Elizabeth, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

  11. Moist synoptic transport of CO2 along the midlatitude storm track

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    into the polar vortex, while cold dry air, low in CO2, that had been transported into the polar vortex earlier by equatorward transport by sinking cold dry air following a "dry air intrusion (DI)" behind cold fronts [CooperMoist synoptic transport of CO2 along the midlatitude storm track N. C. Parazoo,1 A. S. Denning,1 J

  12. Laminar flame speeds of moist syngas mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Apurba K. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Kumar, Kamal; Sung, Chih-Jen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    This work experimentally investigates the effect of the presence of water vapor on the laminar flame speeds of moist syngas/air mixtures using the counterflow twin-flame configuration. The experimental results presented here are for fuel lean syngas mixtures with molar percentage of hydrogen in the hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixture varying from 5% to 100%, for an unburned mixture temperature of 323 K, and under atmospheric pressure. At a given equivalence ratio, the effect of varying amount of water vapor addition on the measured laminar flame speed is demonstrated. The experimental laminar flame speeds are also compared with computed values using chemical kinetic mechanisms reported in the literature. It is found that laminar flame speed varies non-monotonically with addition of water for the carbon monoxide rich mixtures. It first increases with increasing amount of water addition, reaches a maximum value, and then decreases. An integrated reaction path analysis is further conducted to understand the controlling mechanism responsible for the non-monotonic variation in laminar flame speed due to water addition. On the other hand, for higher values of H{sub 2}/CO ratio the laminar flame speed monotonically decreases with increasing water addition. It is shown that the competition between the chemical and thermal effects of water addition leads to the observed response. Furthermore, reaction rate sensitivity analysis as well as binary diffusion coefficient sensitivity analysis are conducted to identify the possible sources of discrepancy between the experimental and predicted values. The sensitivity results indicate that the reaction rate constant of H{sub 2}+OH = H{sub 2}O+H is worth revisiting and refinement of binary diffusion coefficient data of N{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O, N{sub 2}-H{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O pairs can be considered. (author)

  13. Moist Convection and the Thermal Stratification of the Extratropical Troposphere TAPIO SCHNEIDER AND PAUL A. O'GORMAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Gorman, Paul

    Moist Convection and the Thermal Stratification of the Extratropical Troposphere TAPIO SCHNEIDER thermal stratification over a wide range of climates, even in relatively warm climates with small only marginally affects the extratropical thermal stratification in Earth-like and colder climates

  14. Practical ways to abate air and water pollution worldwide including a unique way to significantly curb global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snell, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    This paper points out that in the next 50 years it will largely be the developing countries of the world which will continue to industrialize rapidly and hence pollute the water and air of not only their countries but that this pollution is becoming global (80% of the World's population.) From the author's 25 years of consulting experience in the developing countries, their greatest need is to have available to them low cost, innovative processes for pollution abatement will be neglected and the whole world will suffer immensely. The paper discusses in some detail the type of innovative low cost methods which have successfully been used in the categories of wastewater and solid wastes and names 6 other categories where many others exist. All these innovative methods need to be discovered, listed, and tested for quality and dependability, and then made widely available. Large Environmental Engineering Universities and International Consulting Engineering firms need to be organized to undertake these important tasks. The paper also points out the connection between Global Warming and the Solid waste industry and shows how it can be controlled inexpensively by employing a new, unique, and rapid method of converting municipal refuse into methane and then using that to make electricity. Information given in this paper could lead to a vast reduction in future pollution, with the resulting better global health and at the same time save trillions of dollars.

  15. Responses of soil respiration to elevated CO2, air warming, and changing soil water availability in an old-field grassland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Shiqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Childs, Joanne [ORNL; Weltzin, Jake [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2007-01-01

    Responses of soil respiration to atmospheric and climatic change will have profound impacts on ecosystem and global C cycling in the future. This study was conducted to examine effects on soil respiration of the concurrent driving factors of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, rising temperature, and changing precipitation in a constructed old-field grassland in eastern Tennessee, USA. Model ecosystems of seven old-field species in 12 open-top chambers (4 m in diameter) were treated with two CO2 (ambient and ambient plus 300 ppm) and two temperature (ambient and ambient plus 3 C) levels. Two split plots with each chamber were assigned with high and low soil moisture levels. During the 19-month experimental period from June 2003 to December 2004, higher CO2 concentration and soil water availability significantly increased mean soil respiration by 35.8% and 15.7%, respectively. The effects of air warming on soil respiration varied seasonally from small reductions to significant increases to no response, and there was no significant main effect. In the wet side of elevated CO2 chambers, air warming consistently caused increases in soil respiration, whereas in other three combinations of CO2 and water treatments, warming tended to decrease soil respiration over the growing season but increase it over the winter. There were no interactive effects on soil respiration among any two or three treatment factors irrespective of testing time period. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was reduced by air warming, lower in the wet than the dry side, and not affected by CO2 treatment. Variations of soil respiration responses with soil temperature and soil moisture ranges could be primarily attributable to the seasonal dynamics of plant growth and its responses to the three treatments. Using a conceptual model to interpret the significant relationships of treatment-induced changes in soil respiration with changes in soil temperature and moisture observed in this study, we conclude that elevated CO2, air warming, and changing soil water availability had both direct and indirect effects on soil respiration via changes in the three controlling factors: soil temperature, soil moisture, and C substrate. Our results demonstrate that the response of soil respiration to climatic warming should not be represented in models as a simple temperature response function. A more mechanistic understanding of the direct and indirect impacts of concurrent global change drivers on soil respiration is needed to facilitate the interpretation and projection of ecosystem and global C cycling in response to atmospheric and climate change.

  16. Cows Causing Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi

    2008-08-06

    Broadcast Transcript: Remember when President Reagan blamed trees for air pollution? Well now the Japanese are blaming cows for global warming. Apparently, the methane emissions from burping cows account for 5% of all global greenhouse gases. Simple...

  17. 2015-03-24 Issuance: ASRAC; Notice of Intent to Establish the Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group to Negotiate Potential Energy Conservation Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register Notice of Intent regarding potential Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 24, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  18. Moist multi-scale models for the hurricane embryo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majda, Andrew J. [New York University; Xing, Yulong [ORNL; Mohammadian, Majid [University of Ottawa, Canada

    2010-01-01

    Determining the finite-amplitude preconditioned states in the hurricane embryo, which lead to tropical cyclogenesis, is a central issue in contemporary meteorology. In the embryo there is competition between different preconditioning mechanisms involving hydrodynamics and moist thermodynamics, which can lead to cyclogenesis. Here systematic asymptotic methods from applied mathematics are utilized to develop new simplified moist multi-scale models starting from the moist anelastic equations. Three interesting multi-scale models emerge in the analysis. The balanced mesoscale vortex (BMV) dynamics and the microscale balanced hot tower (BHT) dynamics involve simplified balanced equations without gravity waves for vertical vorticity amplification due to moist heat sources and incorporate nonlinear advective fluxes across scales. The BMV model is the central one for tropical cyclogenesis in the embryo. The moist mesoscale wave (MMW) dynamics involves simplified equations for mesoscale moisture fluctuations, as well as linear hydrostatic waves driven by heat sources from moisture and eddy flux divergences. A simplified cloud physics model for deep convection is introduced here and used to study moist axisymmetric plumes in the BHT model. A simple application in periodic geometry involving the effects of mesoscale vertical shear and moist microscale hot towers on vortex amplification is developed here to illustrate features of the coupled multi-scale models. These results illustrate the use of these models in isolating key mechanisms in the embryo in a simplified content.

  19. Multiscale eddy simulation for moist atmospheric convection: Preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stechmann, Samuel N., E-mail: stechmann@wisc.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

    2014-08-15

    A multiscale computational framework is designed for simulating atmospheric convection and clouds. In this multiscale framework, large eddy simulation (LES) is used to model the coarse scales of 100 m and larger, and a stochastic, one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to represent the fine scales of 100 m and smaller. Coupled and evolving together, these two components provide a multiscale eddy simulation (MES). Through its fine-scale turbulence and moist thermodynamics, MES allows coarse grid cells to be partially cloudy and to encompass cloudy–clear air mixing on scales down to 1 m; in contrast, in typical LES such fine-scale processes are not represented or are parameterized using bulk deterministic closures. To illustrate MES and investigate its multiscale dynamics, a shallow cumulus cloud field is simulated. The fine-scale variability is seen to take a plausible form, with partially cloudy grid cells prominent near cloud edges and cloud top. From earlier theoretical work, this mixing of cloudy and clear air is believed to have an important impact on buoyancy. However, contrary to expectations based on earlier theoretical studies, the mean statistics of the bulk cloud field are essentially the same in MES and LES; possible reasons for this are discussed, including possible limitations in the present formulation of MES. One difference between LES and MES is seen in the coarse-scale turbulent kinetic energy, which appears to grow slowly in time due to incoherent stochastic fluctuations in the buoyancy. This and other considerations suggest the need for some type of spatial and/or temporal filtering to attenuate undersampling of the stochastic fine-scale processes.

  20. Behavior of buoyant moist plumes in turbulent atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamza, Redouane

    1981-01-01

    A widely applicable computational model of buoyant moist plumes in turbulent atmospheres has been constructed. To achieve this a one dimensional Planetary Boundary Layer (P.B.L.) model has been developed to account for ...

  1. CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System. Quarterly report, November 1, 1988--January 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.; Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1989-03-01

    Work continued on life-cycle testing, optimization, and refining of the second-generation furnace assembly as well as the auxiliary subsystems. Emphasis of combustor testing was to determine optimum size and location of air inlets in primary combustion chambers; it was found that using a single air inlet about 70 degrees upsteam from the agglomeration site produces a combustion efficiency of 99.0% while producing no agglomeration. The test of the fouling effect on heat exchanger performance showed a steady decrease in time of the overall heat transfer coefficient. Particle size distribution of fly ash in the baghouse showed 50% of the particles smaller than 11.2 microns.

  2. Warm Humid Climate: Methodology to Study Air Temperature Distribution: Mobile Phones Base Stations as Viable Alternative for Fixed Points 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Araujo, V.; Costa, A.; Labaki, L.

    2006-01-01

    . The summer period, from October to March is characterized by higher temperatures, lower relative humidity and relatively low wind speeds with southeast predominance, presenting small variations in the direction east - northeast. 2 METHODOLOGY...: METHODOLOGY TO STUDY AIR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION: MOBILE PHONES BASE STATIONS AS VIABLE ALTERNATIVE FOR FIXED POINTS Angelina Dias Leão Costa (1); Lucila Labaki (2); Virgínia Araújo (3) (1) and (2) School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban...

  3. Stratospheric Temperatures and Water Loss from Moist Greenhouse Atmospheres of Earth-like Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasting, James F; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3-D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a 'moist greenhouse' explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing 'inverse' climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1-D models.

  4. CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System. Quarterly report, February 1, 1989--April 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.; Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1989-07-01

    During the report period, work continued on the life-cycle testing, optimization and refining of the second-generation furnace assembly, which comprises all the major furnace components: The combustor, heat exchanger, and baghouse, as well as the auxiliary subsystems. The furnace has operated for about 90 hours, and has burned 1,000 pounds of CWS. During testing, the only maintenance that was performed on the system was to clean the bag filters to obtain ash samples for analysts. Concurrent with testing the second-generation furnace, fabrication and assembly of the third-generation furnace was completed, and a life-cycle testing and optimization process for this furnace has started. In contrast to the second-generation furnace, which was designed more as an experimental unit, the third-generation furnace is a stand-alone heating unit Incorporating the standard air handling system, blower, pump, and control box as part of the furnace. During the report period, the third-generation furnace operated for a total of 35 hours, and burned more than 300 pounds of CWS, with average tests lasting 6 hours. During the next quarter, life-cycle testing of the third-generation furnace will continue to identify areas needing further development.

  5. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Callow, Diane Schafer (Albuquerque, NM); Marron, Lisa C. (Albuquerque, NM); Salton, Jonathan R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water. The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

  6. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water (ideally isothermal to a humidity of 1.0, then adiabatic thereafter). The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

  7. Effects of chronic warming and nutrient additions on ecosystem respiration and methane fluxes along a tundra moisture gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadelhoffer, K.; Murray, G.; Giblin, A.; Shaver, G.; Laundre, J.; Johnson, L.; Stanley, A. (Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (United States)); Schimel, J. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States))

    1994-06-01

    We measured ecosystem respiration (ER: or CO[sub 2] flux), methane (CH[sub 4]) fluxes and net ecosystem production (NEP) near Toolik Lake, Alaska to compare effects of temperature, moisture and nutrients on tundra C balances. We measured fluxes using closed chambers in control, warmed and fertilized plots in wet, moist and dry tundra. ER rankings of tundra types differed between years. In 1992 ER was [approximately]70 g C m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1] in wet and moist tundra and was 50% lower in dry tundra. In 1993 ER was >150 g C m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1] in moist tundra and [approximately]55 g C m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1] in wet and dry tundra. CH[sub 4] emissions ranged from 3.5 to 7 g C m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1] in wet and from 0.6 to 2.8 g C m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1] in moist tundra. Dry tundra consumed about 0.1 g CH[sub 4]-C m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1]. In wet tundra ER increased slightly with warming but dramatically with fertilization. Wet tundra NEP increased with fertilization but not with warming. CH[sub 4] emissions from wet tundra increased with warming but decreased with fertilization. Warming and fertilization increased ER but neither treatment affected NEP in moist tundra. CH[sub 4] emissions from moist tundra responded similarly but less dramatically to treatments than did wet tundra CH[sub 4] fluxes. Warming did not affect ER or NEP in dry tundra, fertilization increased both process. Consumption of CH[sub 4] in dry tundra increased with warming but decreased with fertilization.

  8. Role of Indian Ocean warming in the development of Philippine Sea anticyclone during ENSO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watanabe, Masahiro

    Role of Indian Ocean warming in the development of Philippine Sea anticyclone during ENSO Masahiro] The anomalous, low-level anticyclone near the Philippines and suppressed convection over the western Pacific convection over the maritime continent generates the Philippine Sea anticyclone. From a series of the moist

  9. AcceptedArticleThe effect of moist convection on thermally induced mesoscale circulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentine, Pierre

    AcceptedArticleThe effect of moist convection on thermally induced mesoscale circulations Malte of thermally induced mesoscale circulations rests primarily on observations and model studies of dry convection-eddy simulations are used to investigate the effect of moist convection on an idealized mesoscale circulation

  10. Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zénó Farkas

    2011-03-11

    In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

  11. Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farkas, Zénó

    2011-01-01

    In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

  12. Geographic variability in the export of moist static energy and vertical motion profiles in the tropical Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bretherton, Chris

    Geographic variability in the export of moist static energy and vertical motion profiles), Geographic variability in the export of moist static energy and vertical motion profiles in the tropical 31 July 2006; published 9 September 2006. [1] Column-integrated moist static energy (MSE) budgets

  13. Air movement as an energy efficient means toward occupant comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui; Pasut, Wilmer; Zhai, Yongchao; Hoyt, Tyler; Huang, Li

    2013-01-01

    M. and E. Arens E. 1993. Air movement and thermal comfort.1994. Locally controlled air movement preferred in warmR, Bittencourt L. 2010. Air movement acceptability limits

  14. ISSUANCE 2015-05-01: Commercial Package Air Conditioners and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ISSUANCE 2015-05-01: Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings ISSUANCE 2015-05-01: Commercial Package Air...

  15. Moist processes and the quasi-hydrostatic approximation in a mesoscale numerical model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Charles Joseph

    1987-01-01

    MOIST PROCESSES AND THE QUASI-HYDROSTATIC APPROXIMATION IN A MESOSCALE NUMERICAL MODEL A Thesis by CHARLES JOSEPH KENNEDY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987 Major Subject: Meteorology MOIST PROCESSES AND THE QUASI-HYDROSTATIC APPROXIMATION IN A MESOSCALE NUMERICAL MODEL A Thesis by CHARLES JOSEPH KENNEDY Approved as to style and content by: Dusan Djuric (Chair...

  16. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    How does it work? An air conditioner uses energy -- usually electricity -- to transfer heat from the interior of your home to the relatively warm outside environment....

  17. SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE FOR GLOBAL WARMING Stephen E. Schwartz Jefferson's Ferry Public Affairs century. The warmest year of the millennium was 1998. #12;EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING OTHER THAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY The global ocean has warmed significantly since the late 1940s: more than half

  18. A moist aquaplanet variant of the Held–Suarez test for atmospheric model dynamical cores

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thatcher, D. R.; Jablonowski, C.

    2015-09-29

    A moist idealized test case (MITC) for atmospheric model dynamical cores is presented. The MITC is based on the Held–Suarez (HS) test that was developed for dry simulations on a flat Earth and replaces the full physical parameterization package with a Newtonian temperature relaxation and Rayleigh damping of the low-level winds. This new variant of the HS test includes moisture and thereby sheds light on the non-linear dynamics-physics moisture feedbacks without the complexity of full physics parameterization packages. In particular, it adds simplified moist processes to the HS forcing to model large-scale condensation, boundary layer mixing, and the exchange ofmore »latent and sensible heat between the atmospheric surface and an ocean-covered planet. Using a variety of dynamical cores of NCAR's Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), this paper demonstrates that the inclusion of the moist idealized physics package leads to climatic states that closely resemble aquaplanet simulations with complex physical parameterizations. This establishes that the MITC approach generates reasonable atmospheric circulations and can be used for a broad range of scientific investigations. This paper provides examples of two application areas. First, the test case reveals the characteristics of the physics-dynamics coupling technique and reproduces coupling issues seen in full-physics simulations. In particular, it is shown that sudden adjustments of the prognostic fields due to moist physics tendencies can trigger undesirable large-scale gravity waves, which can be remedied by a more gradual application of the physical forcing. Second, the moist idealized test case can be used to intercompare dynamical cores. These examples demonstrate the versatility of the MITC approach and suggestions are made for further application areas. The new moist variant of the HS test can be considered a test case of intermediate complexity.« less

  19. THE WEATHER An unusually persistent and moist weather pattern led to rainfall totals from September 9th -15th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE WEATHER An unusually persistent and moist weather pattern led to rainfall totals from September of an unusually deep, moist flow and a stationary weather pattern that consistently focused that moisture towards weather station (since 1893) set new records for 1-day (9.08"), 2-day (11.52") and 7-day (16.9") totals

  20. Global Warming Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Global Warming Observations: 1. Global temperature has been gradually rising in recent years #15 in range 8000 12000 nm { CFC's, methane and N 2 O important for global warming even though concentra- tions in concentration of \\greenhouse gases" like CO 2 What determines global temperature? Energy budget of earth: 1

  1. Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming University of MiaMi rosenstiel sChool of Marine anD atMospheriC s , organic carbon, and other chemicals that contribute to global warming in a variety of studies. DownCienCe 4600 rickenbacker Causeway Miami, florida 33149 http://www.rsmas.miami.edu the Chemistry of Global

  2. Changes in microclimate induced by experimental warming and clipping in tallgrass prairie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the diurnal air-temperature range. Keywords: climate warming, clipping, infrared heater, soil moisture, solar as the secondary factor. Infrared heater was used in order to simulate climatic warming and clipping to mimic in reduced diurnal air-temperature range. Infrared heaters substantially increased daily maximum (2.5 and 3

  3. GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/ #12;EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING OTHER THAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY The global ocean has warmed latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. #12;MORE EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING OTHER THAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE

  4. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air using a desiccant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Callow, Diane Schafer (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method can be considered as four phases: (1) adsorbing water from air into a desiccant, (2) isolating the water-laden desiccant from the air source, (3) desorbing water as vapor from the desiccant into a chamber, and (4) isolating the desiccant from the chamber, and compressing the vapor in the chamber to form liquid condensate. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. Careful design of the dead volumes and pressure balances can minimize the energy required. The dried air can be exchanged for fresh moist air and the process repeated. An apparatus comprises a first chamber in fluid communication with a desiccant, and having ports to intake moist air and exhaust dried air. The apparatus also comprises a second chamber in fluid communication with the desiccant. The second chamber allows variable internal pressure, and has a port for removal of liquid condensate. Each chamber can be configured to be isolated or in communication with the desiccant. The first chamber can be configured to be isolated or in communication with a course of moist air. Various arrangements of valves, pistons, and chambers are described.

  5. Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    1 Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming in global temperatures between 5 and 6o C. Although he was aware that his, these were negligible: global fossil fuel consumption was less than a twentieth

  6. The Role of Moist Processes in the Intrinsic Predictability of Indian Ocean Cyclones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taraphdar, Sourav; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Zhang, Fuqing; Abhilash, S.; Goswami, B. N.

    2014-07-16

    The role of moist processes and the possibility of error cascade from cloud scale processes affecting the intrinsic predictable time scale of a high resolution convection permitting model within the environment of tropical cyclones (TCs) over the Indian region are investigated. Consistent with past studies of extra-tropical cyclones, it is demonstrated that moist processes play a major role in forecast error growth which may ultimately limit the intrinsic predictability of the TCs. Small errors in the initial conditions may grow rapidly and cascades from smaller scales to the larger scales through strong diabatic heating and nonlinearities associated with moist convection. Results from a suite of twin perturbation experiments for four tropical cyclones suggest that the error growth is significantly higher in cloud permitting simulation at 3.3 km resolutions compared to simulations at 3.3 km and 10 km resolution with parameterized convection. Convective parameterizations with prescribed convective time scales typically longer than the model time step allows the effects of microphysical tendencies to average out so convection responds to a smoother dynamical forcing. Without convective parameterizations, the finer-scale instabilities resolved at 3.3 km resolution and stronger vertical motion that results from the cloud microphysical parameterizations removing super-saturation at each model time step can ultimately feed the error growth in convection permitting simulations. This implies that careful considerations and/or improvements in cloud parameterizations are needed if numerical predictions are to be improved through increased model resolution. Rapid upscale error growth from convective scales may ultimately limit the intrinsic mesoscale predictability of the TCs, which further supports the needs for probabilistic forecasts of these events, even at the mesoscales.

  7. CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING GLOBAL WARMING Stephen E. Schwartz http IS INCREASING Global carbon dioxide concentration over the last thousand years Polar ice cores #12;Mann et al 1000-1850) 1998 THE TEMPERATURE'S RISING #12;GLOBAL ANNUAL TEMPERATURE ANOMALY, 1880-2008 0.8 0.6 0.4 0

  8. Warming of the arctic ice-ocean system is faster than the global average since the 1960s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jinlun

    Warming of the arctic ice-ocean system is faster than the global average since the 1960s Jinlun.203°C. The warming of the world ocean is associated with an increase in global surface air temperature heat flux. Citation: Zhang, J. (2005), Warming of the arctic ice-ocean system is faster than the global

  9. WHAT TO DO ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE? Slowing the rate of carbon burning won't stop global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baez, John

    WHAT TO DO ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE? #12;Slowing the rate of carbon burning won't stop global warming: most CO2 stays in the air over a century, though individual molecules come and go. Global warming. But we need to research it -- starting now. If global warming gets bad, public opinion may suddently flip

  10. Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation Ann E. Carlson*2008]HEAT WAVES, GLOBAL WARMING, AND MITIGATION 175 stroke2001). 2008]HEAT WAVES, GLOBAL WARMING, AND MITIGATION 177

  11. Global Warming, endogenous risk and irreversibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Anthony C.; Narain, Urvashi

    2002-01-01

    The economics of global warming, Institute for InternationalEconomic Models of Global Warming, Cambridge, Mass. MITstochastic losses from global warming, Risk Analysis 16(2):

  12. Global Warming Systemically Caused Hurricane Sandy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakoff, George

    2012-01-01

    Global Warming Systemically Caused Hurricane Sandyby George Lakoff Yes, global warming systemically causedExplain to others why global warming systemically caused the

  13. Global Warming* The Perfect Storm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming* The Perfect Storm Jim Hansen 29 January 2008 Health Implications of Climate Change opinion #12;Perfect Storm, Perfect Disaster 1. Great Inertia of Systems - Ocean: Half of Warming still "In

  14. Forecasting phenology under global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silander Jr., John A.

    Forecasting phenology under global warming Ine´s Iba´n~ez1,*, Richard B. Primack2, Abraham J in phenology. Keywords: climate change; East Asia, global warming; growing season, hierarchical Bayes; plant is shifting, and these shifts have been linked to recent global warming (Parmesan & Yohe 2003; Root et al

  15. INTRODUCTION There is growing recognition that responses to global warming will

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Bryan D.

    3436 INTRODUCTION There is growing recognition that responses to global warming will vary among increase with temperature (Gillooly et al., 2001; Sogard and Spencer, 2004). SUMMARY Global warming poses species (Pörtner et al., 2008; Eliason et al., 2011). With the average global air temperature projected

  16. Global warming from HFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, E.

    1998-11-01

    Using a variety of public sources, a computer model of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant emissions in the UK has been developed. This model has been used to estimate and project emissions in 2010 under three types of scenarios: (1) business as usual; (2) voluntary agreements to reduce refrigerant leakage; and (3) comprehensive regulations to reduce refrigerant leakage. This resulting forecast is that UK emissions of HFC refrigerants in 2010 will account for 2% to 4% of the UK`s 1990 baseline global warming contribution.

  17. Gross Moist Stability and MJO Simulation Skill in Three Full-physics GCMs4 James J. Benedict* and Eric D. Maloney7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sobel, Adam

    overturning circulation per unit of mass transport. GMS provides a measure of the56 efficiency with which enhanced modeling capabilities, and a greater scope and quality of tropical atmospheric measurements,52 our; Neelin and Held 1987). GMS quantifies the moist static energy or moist entropy export55 in a convective

  18. Effects of Moist Froude Number and CAPE on a Conditionally Unstable Flow over a Mesoscale Mountain Ridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shu-Hua

    Effects of Moist Froude Number and CAPE on a Conditionally Unstable Flow over a Mesoscale Mountain- dimensional mountain ridge in order to investigate the propagation and types of cloud precipitation systems unstable flow passing over a two-dimensional mesoscale mountain ridge. The characteristics of these flow

  19. Establish the Commercial Pacakge Air Conditioners and Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    commercial package air conditioners, heat pumps, and commercial warm air furnaces is an action issued by the Department of Energy. Though it is not intended or expected, should any...

  20. AN EVALUATION OF THE VARIABILITY OF AIR MASS CHARACTER BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Scott

    , Delaware ABSTRACT While numerous studies have examined the magnitude of the urban heat island, no large masses show considerably larger urban heat island disparities than the three "moist" air masses locations, the summer urban heat island appears to be strengthening, whereas in winter little to no change

  1. “Multi-temperature” method for high-pressure sorption measurements on moist shales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasparik, Matus; Ghanizadeh, Amin; Gensterblum, Yves; Krooss, Bernhard M.

    2013-08-15

    A simple and effective experimental approach has been developed and tested to study the temperature dependence of high-pressure methane sorption in moist organic-rich shales. This method, denoted as “multi-temperature” (short “multi-T”) method, enables measuring multiple isotherms at varying temperatures in a single run. The measurement of individual sorption isotherms at different temperatures takes place in a closed system ensuring that the moisture content remains constant. The multi-T method was successfully tested for methane sorption on an organic-rich shale sample. Excess sorption isotherms for methane were measured at pressures of up to 25 MPa and at temperatures of 318.1 K, 338.1 K, and 348.1 K on dry and moisture-equilibrated samples. The measured isotherms were parameterized with a 3-parameter Langmuir-based excess sorption function, from which thermodynamic sorption parameters (enthalpy and entropy of adsorption) were obtained. Using these, we show that by taking explicitly into account water vapor as molecular species in the gas phase with temperature-dependent water vapor pressure during the experiment, more meaningful results are obtained with respect to thermodynamical considerations. The proposed method can be applied to any adsorbent system (coals, shales, industrial adsorbents) and any supercritical gas (e.g., CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}) and is particularly suitable for sorption measurements using the manometric (volumetric) method.

  2. Does a dissolution-precipitation mechanism explain concrete creep in moist environments?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isabella Pignatelli; Aditya Kumar; Rouhollah Alizadeh; Yann Le Pape; Mathieu Bauchy; Gaurav Sant

    2015-08-28

    Long-term creep (i.e., deformation under sustained load) is a significant material response that needs to be accounted for in concrete structural design. However, the nature and origin of creep remains poorly understood, and controversial. Here, we propose that concrete creep at RH (relative humidity) > 50%, but fixed moisture-contents (i.e., basic creep), arises from a dissolution-precipitation mechanism, active at nanoscale grain contacts, as is often observed in a geological context, e.g., when rocks are exposed to sustained loads, in moist environments. Based on micro-indentation and vertical scanning interferometry experiments, and molecular dynamics simulations carried out on calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H's), the major binding phase in concrete, of different compositions, we show that creep rates are well correlated to dissolution rates - an observation which supports the dissolution-precipitation mechanism as the origin of concrete creep. C-S-H compositions featuring high resistance to dissolution, and hence creep are identified - analysis of which, using topological constraint theory, indicates that these compositions present limited relaxation modes on account of their optimally connected (i.e., constrained) atomic networks.

  3. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Henry

    2012-01-01

    C: DIRECT LIQUID AND AIR COOLING COMPONENT TCASE FORECASTGRAPHICS Direct Liquid Cooling Thermal Components andThermal Design Margins Air Cooling Thermal Components and

  4. Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Christopher A.

    CHEM 001A Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate" Global warming is one of the most contentious issues of our time. There is an ongoing debate about whether global warming is caused by human activity.S., and because the scientific evidence used to determine if global warming is man-made is so difficult

  5. Global Warming Hole 31 March 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming Hole 31 March 2015 James Hansen Sorry to have disappeared for two months. I-thirds of North America know that global warming is really happening. In fact, 2015 should be the year that stifles discussion of a warming hiatus. A substantial developing El Nino will add to the global warming

  6. PRINT ONLY: GLOBAL WARMING Alexeev V. A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    PRINT ONLY: GLOBAL WARMING Alexeev V. A. Global Warming: 0.6°C or Less? [#1035] The peculiarities of global warming on the Earth during the last century are discussed. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII (2007) full818.pdf #12;GLOBAL WARMING: 0.6 OR LESS? V.A.Alexeev; Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry

  7. Mathematics Of Ice To Aid Global Warming Forecasts Mathematics Of Ice To Aid Global Warming Forecasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    Mathematics Of Ice To Aid Global Warming Forecasts Mathematics Of Ice To Aid Global Warming forecasts of how global warming will affect polar icepacks. See also: Earth & Climate q Global Warming q the effects of climate warming, and its presence greatly reduces solar heating of the polar oceans." "Sea ice

  8. Global Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World 1 Global Warming Politics in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World 1 Global Warming Politics in a Post Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World 3 Global Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World Worry About Global Warming.. 14 Everybody Loses on Fuel Efficiency

  9. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Sloan; A W Wolfendale

    2007-06-28

    It has been claimed by others that observed temporal correlations of terrestrial cloud cover with `the cosmic ray intensity' are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim to look for evidence to corroborate it. So far we have not found any and so our tentative conclusions are to doubt it. Such correlations as appear are more likely to be due to the small variations in solar irradiance, which, of course, correlate with cosmic rays. We estimate that less than 15% of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 35 years is due to this cause.

  10. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, T

    2007-01-01

    It has been claimed by others that observed temporal correlations of terrestrial cloud cover with `the cosmic ray intensity' are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim to look for evidence to corroborate it. So far we have not found any and so our tentative conclusions are to doubt it. Such correlations as appear are more likely to be due to the small variations in solar irradiance, which, of course, correlate with cosmic rays. We estimate that less than 15% of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 35 years is due to this cause.

  11. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2008-01-24

    Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.

  12. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  13. Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-10-01

    This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. In older homes in warm-humid climates, cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and some winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and avoids adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.

  14. Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin

    2014-10-01

    This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. Cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air in older homes in warm-humid climates. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long-off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.

  15. I-Scient? Service Feature ? BIIY THE ViEATHER 7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    northeasterly wind was All the action took place aloft. Up there a warm, moist wind invaded the precincts might almost Bay that the warm wind undermined the heavy cold air still ing the warm air upward, line, and from'canada t o the Gulf of Mexico. The most severe weather occurred i n its southwestern qudrant

  16. CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING: GREENHOUSE GASES, AEROSOLS, RADIATIVE FORCING dioxide increase: sources, mixing ratio, forcing Global temperature change Climate sensitivity and time;#12;ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION Energy per area per time Power per area Unit: Watt per square meter W m-2 #12;GLOBAL

  17. CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING Stephen E. Schwartz Ethical Culture Society of Suffolk;ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION Energy per area per time Power per area Unit: Watt per square meter W m-2 #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per square meter 343 237 237 254K 390

  18. On global warming T. C. Dorlas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorlas, Teunis C.

    On global warming T. C. Dorlas Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies School of Theoretical Physics- ature curve The ongoing debate about global warming prompted me to have a look at the physics myself

  19. Climate Whiplash: What Happens AFTER Global Warming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallin, Michael

    Climate Whiplash: What Happens AFTER Global Warming? with Dr. Curt Stager Author and Professor, Paul Smith's College Department of Natural Sciences Most debate over global warming looks only as far

  20. Warming trends: Adapting to nonlinear change

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jonko, Alexandra K.

    2015-01-28

    As atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise, some regions are expected to warm more than others. Research suggests that whether warming will intensify or slow down over time also depends on location.

  1. A Satellite Study of Tropical Moist Convection and Environmental Variability: A Moisture and Thermal Budget Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masunaga, Hirohiko

    of a variety of satellite sensors including radars, an infrared and microwave sounder unit, and a microwave including air temperature, water vapor, cumulus cloud cover, and surface wind are composited with respect of moisture and dry static energy and their vertical flux at cloud base from satellite observations alone

  2. Proposal for an Adsorption Solar-Driven Air-Conditioning Unit for Public Offices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsamni, O. A.; Sahmarani, K.J.; Obied, F. K.

    2010-01-01

    A simple prototype air conditioning unit driven entirely by solar energy is proposed aiming at replacing the conventional vapor compression air conditioning systems which are reasonable for the global warming. The proposed ...

  3. An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing (revised version) K. Miyazaki E that the anthropogenic global warming is severely limited because the Earth is a water planet. 1 Introduction Now,2,3] on this anthropogenic global warming (AGW) is essentially based on the results of elaborate and enormous computer

  4. Global Warming: The Threat to the Planet*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming: The Threat to the Planet* Jim Hansen 17 April 2007 2007 Leo Szilard Lecture. Graham Red Squirrel #12;Survival of Species 1. "Business-as-Usual" Scenario - Global Warming ~ 3ºC - Likely Extinctions ~ 50 percent 2. "Alternative" Scenario - Global Warming ~ 1ºC - Likely Extinctions

  5. An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro that the climate sensitivity never exceeds 6 C. Consequently, the anthropogenic global warming is severely limited be calculated in simple terms. Global warming is like that." However, there will be not a few physicists who do

  6. 1999 Macmillan Magazines Ltd Does global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFadden, Geoff

    © 1999 Macmillan Magazines Ltd Does global warming make Triton blush? Neptune's largest moon (refs 5,6), and global warming has now been observed7 . We obtained four spectra of Triton between 0. Both the spectral changes and the global warming may have been caused by a triggering event

  7. Global warming debates: the reading course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huybers, Peter

    Global warming debates: the reading course Spring 2014 Instructors: Peter Huybers and Eli Tziperman of global warming", please prepare by reading "the climate of man", IPCC introduction, and Lindzen article. background basics. l 1. Mountain Glaciers: Are mountain glaciers melting? Due to global warming? First, see

  8. Global warming debates: the reading course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huybers, Peter

    Global warming debates: the reading course spring 2012 Instructors: Eli Tziperman and Peter Huybers Hurricanes due to global warming? Apr 7: Stratospheric cooling: Why is the stratosphere cooling? Apr 14: Mid will be the impact of global warming on agriculture? Apr 28: Final Debate: Take sides! Should we act to curb global

  9. Global Warming and the Free State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boynton, Walter R.

    Global Warming and the Free State Comprehensive Assessment of Climate Change Impacts in Maryland of the report. Citation Boesch, D.F. (editor). 2008. Global Warming and the Free State: Comprehensive AssessmentJuskelis,MarylandSierraClub Global Warming and the Free State Comprehensive Assessment of Climate Change Impacts in Maryland Report

  10. Global warming debates: the reading course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huybers, Peter

    Global warming debates: the reading course spring 2010 Instructors: Eli Tziperman and Peter Huybers Hurricanes due to global warming? Apr 7: Stratospheric cooling: Why is the stratosphere cooling? Apr 14: Mid will be the impact of global warming on agriculture? Apr 28: Final Debate: Take sides! Should we act to curb global

  11. The Global Warming Debate: A July Hottest Month on Record in U.S.--Warming and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Christopher A.

    The Global Warming Debate: A Case Study July Hottest Month on Record in U.S.--Warming and Drought was the hottest month on record in the United States, perhaps due to a combination of global warming the fact that there is more than just natural variability playing a role: Global warming from human

  12. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Henry

    2012-01-01

    be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transitionone half of an air-cooled datacenter's energy consumption isof time if desired by the datacenter owner. If the building

  13. Hydrological consequences of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Norman L.

    2009-06-01

    The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

  14. Global Warming: the Sacrificial Temptation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galam, Serge

    2008-01-01

    The claimed unanimity of the scientific community about the human culpability for global warming is questioned. Up today there exists no scientific proof of human culpability. It is not the number of authors of a paper, which validates its scientific content. The use of probability to assert the degree of certainty with respect the global warming problem is shown to be misleading. The debate about global warming has taken on emotional tones driven by passion and irrationality while it should be a scientific debate. The degree of hostility used to mull any dissonance voice demonstrates that the current debate has acquired a quasi-religious nature. Scientists are behaving as priests in their will "to save the planet". We are facing a dangerous social phenomenon, which must be addressed from the social point of view. The current unanimity of citizens, scientists, journalists, intellectuals and politicians is intrinsically worrying. The calls to sacrifice our way of life to calm down the upset nature is an emotio...

  15. Geography 5: People and Earth's Ecosystems Lecture Outline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the planet through gravity Most of it occurs near Earth in the troposphere (8-18 km) Enables life stored in evaporated water · Uneven heating (rising warm air, sinking cool air) produces pressure water vapor and entrains it into the atmosphere · If warm, moist air is cooled sufficiently

  16. Geography 5: People and Earth's Ecosystems Lecture Outline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Climate vs. 4 The atmosphere is a thin envelope of gases (~99% N2, O2), clinging to the planet through heating (rising warm air, sinking cool air) produces pressure differences that cause wind, rain it into the atmosphere · If warm, moist air is cooled sufficiently and condensation nuclei are present, the water vapor

  17. Integrated assessment of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ott, K.O.

    1996-12-31

    The anomalies of sea surface temperatures, which show a warming trend since the 1850s through the decade 1960/70 of {Delta}SST {approximately} 0.3 C, are complemented by changes of the ground surface temperature ({Delta}GST). The global surface temperature change, based on these data, allows an integrated assessment of the associated increase in black-body irradiance and a comparison with the enhanced greenhouse-gas back-scattering. Information on the GST history is obtained from unfolding analyses of underground temperature distributions measured in 90 boreholes in Alaskan permafrost and Canadian bedrock. These analyses show GST increases ({Delta}GST) since the 19th century through 1960/70 of 3 C on average, with standard deviations of +1.8 C and {minus}0.9 C on the high and low end respectively. The onset of the warming trend, which is uncertain in the GST data, is timed more accurately by detailed length records of large valley glaciers in the US and the Alps. Evaluation of the heat capacities and heat transfer indicates that the temperature response to an increase in radiative forcing must be much larger on land than on the sea. Conversely, the observed large ratio of {Delta}GST and {Delta}SST can only be explained by increased radiative forcing. From 1960/70 through the warmest decade on record, 1980/90, global {Delta}SST and {Delta}SAT have further increased to 0.6 C and 0.8 C respectively, But, the most recent GST data are not accurate enough to extend the comparison through 1990. Calculation of the increase of radiative forcing from back-scattering of greenhouse gases for 1850 to 1970 yields 1.3 W/cm{sup 2}. The increase in black-body irradiance from 3.6 C warming on land and 0.3 C on sea provides the required balance. The warming on land of 3.6 C is larger than the average value of 3.0 C, but well within the observed range.

  18. Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    reluctant to turn on their air conditioning. 91 83. NationalB. The Importance of Air Conditioning .. 1. Coolinga. Air Conditioning Required . b. ' Funding

  19. Soil degradation, global warming and climate impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feddema, Johannes J.; Freire, Sergio Carneiro

    2001-01-01

    stream_size 21847 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Feddema_Soil_Degradation_Global_Warming.pdf.txt stream_source_info Feddema_Soil_Degradation_Global_Warming.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text.... This study will demonstrate one methodology for assessing the potential large-scale impacts of soil degradation on African climates and water resources. In addition it will compare and contrast these impacts to those expected from global warming and compare...

  20. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by 50% compared to today's best common practice - Alternative refrigerants with low global warming potential (GWP) are needed to achieve these goals - Provide guidance to the...

  1. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of planet formation and structures as well as the evolution of an imploding inertial fusion capsule depends on our understanding of matter in the complex warm dense matter...

  2. Nuclear energy output slows as climate warms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, David

    2014-06-01

    New reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the US government say the window is closing for actions to avert the worst effects of warming.

  3. Global Warming Systemically Caused Hurricane Sandy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakoff, George

    2012-01-01

    Warming Systemically Caused Hurricane Sandy by George Lakoffsystemically caused Hurricane Sandy -- and the Midwestenormous energy and size of Hurricane Sandy, as well as the

  4. Background: Global Warming, 2009 1. Unequivocally, the climate is warming. Natural systems are affected.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    ." #12;Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transportation Sources in Minnesota A Study gas (GHG) emissions from Minnesota's transportation sector. #12;Research Study Team UniversityBackground: Global Warming, 2009 1. Unequivocally, the climate is warming. Natural systems

  5. PATTERNS OF GREENHOUSE WARMING "Projected warming in the 21st century shows scenario-independent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PATTERNS OF GREENHOUSE WARMING "Projected warming in the 21st century shows scenario in response to increasing greenhouse gas levels will not be geographically uniform. · Computer models indicate greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. However, the warming is not expected to be uniform over the globe, nor

  6. Group Work: Global warming & natural variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    Group Work: Global warming & natural variability Left: Global annual temperature departure from://skepticalscience.com/foster-and-rahmstorf-measure-global-warming-signal.html 2013 2012 2011 #12;: 1963-1964, 1982-83, 1991-93 1. How do these events affect the global annual temperature and can you

  7. Wildfires ignite debate on global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moritz, Max A.

    Wildfires ignite debate on global warming Astemperaturessoar. Is there a link with global warming? We have good reason to think so, and not taking the link seriously could have on climate change and global fire predictions last month, and I have been in my own media storm ever since

  8. Advanced Review Drought under global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Aiguo

    Advanced Review Drought under global warming: a review Aiguo Dai This article reviews recent literature on drought of the last millennium, followed by an update on global aridity changes from 1950 of the warmest SSTs in the Atlantic and warming in the Indian Ocean are responsible for the recent Sahel droughts

  9. PRINCETON//989 Princeton WarmBore Magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    in that it has a horizontal ``warm bore'' passing completely through the solenoidal coil, giving easy access, the internal Helium valve has been capped off. On the other hand, the cold volume service lines open directly pumpout port, opening the valve and pumping down. When warm, the system will eventually pump down to about

  10. Microclimate moderates plant responses to macroclimate warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellend, Mark

    Microclimate moderates plant responses to macroclimate warming Pieter De Frennea,b,1 , Francisco of Land Use Systems, Leibniz-ZALF, DE-15374 Müncheberg, Germany; u Beechwood House, St. Briavels Common, Stanford, CA, and approved September 24, 2013 (received for review June 13, 2013) Recent global warming

  11. The Science of Global Warming Energy Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blais, Brian

    The Science of Global Warming ·Energy Balance ·Feedback Loops Global Warming can be understood complexities ·Introduce a Simple Model of Energy Balance ·Understand the Vocabulary ·Point out some units of energy input from the Sun = Temperature: 5.3 oC Greenhouse Effect 101: A Balance is Achieved

  12. Global warming, insurance losses and financial industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Low, N.C.

    1996-12-31

    Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global warming in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global warming. How global warming can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global warming that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.

  13. Global hydrological cycle response to rapid and slow global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuang, Zhiming

    Global hydrological cycle response to rapid and slow global warming and Jiaxu Zhang #12;· Anthropogenic global warming causes "robust" changes in the global in the global hydrological cycle due to anthropogenic global warming Atmospheric radiative

  14. WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE May 2014 #12;What's In A Name? Global Warming vs. Climate Change 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE NATIONAL SURVEY STUDY 2: GLOBAL WARMING VS. CLIMATE CHANGE............................ 10 Is global

  15. ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Air Pollution Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ), comprising 0.93% of air. The sum of these 3 is 99.96% (if we first remove the water ­ we call this "dry (O3) The thermosphere is warm due to absorption of high energy light (Xray, Gamma Ray, shortwave injure plants and animals #12;Mixing Ratios The most interesting and chemically important molecules

  16. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

    2011-08-26

    Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

  17. Comparing New-Technology Passive Warming Versus Traditional Passive Warming Methods for Optimizing Perioperative Body Core Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bender, M; Self, B; Schroeder, E; Giap, B

    2015-01-01

    provided the new-technology passive warming devices (Opt-on the most effective passive warming method to improve theComparing New-Technology Passive Warming Versus Traditional

  18. Cloudy Skies: Assessing Public Understanding of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sterman, John

    2003-02-03

    Surveys show most Americans believe global warming is real. But many advocate delaying action until there is more evidence that warming is harmful. The stock and ...

  19. Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wildfires may contribute more to global warming Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously predicted They suggest that fire emissions could contribute a lot...

  20. Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" June 7, 2015 Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" A well-known scientific principle...

  1. Cloudy Skies: Assessing Public Understanding of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sterman, John

    2002-06-07

    Surveys show most Americans believe global warming is real. But many advocate delaying action until there is more evidence that warming is harmful. The stock and ...

  2. Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First Comparisong Using External Costs on Urban Buses Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First...

  3. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for...

  4. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Lead Performer: National Institute of Standards and Technology -...

  5. Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    may contribute more to global warming than previously predicted They suggest that fire emissions could contribute a lot more to the observed climate warming than current...

  6. Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...

  7. Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dry by Global Warming" Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" Climate change will challenge tall trees like California's redwoods. June 7, 2015...

  8. Hot/Warm Gas Cleanup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bissett, Larry A.

    2001-11-06

    Using regenerable sorbents and transport or fluid-bed contacting, the Gas Process Development Unit (GPDU) at NETL-Morgantown will be used to demonstrate the process feasibility of removing sulfur from coal gasification or other fuel gas streams at temperatures above dew point of the gas. This technology, also known as hot or warm gas desulfurization, is expected to remove sulfur to concentrations lower than conventional systems at comparable cost. The project was constructed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power system program and is an ''enabling technology'' in the Vision 21 program. The GPDU was designed to be the smallest scale research and development facility capable of providing viable scale-up design data for new integrated transport or fluid-bed desulfurization processes. With the capability to test at process conditions representative of anticipated commercial applications in terms of temperatures, pressures, major compositions, velocities, and sorbent cycling, the unit is expected to generate important information on process control, configuration, and sorbent suitability. In this way, the GPDU fills a strategic role between past/current small-scale testing and large-scale demonstrations. A primary objective of the project is to gain insight into which reactor combination (i.e., both transport, both fluid bed, or mixed) is more suitable for desulfurization technology and why. Assuming process feasibility is demonstrated, this guides future development or commercial ventures by answering the question of what to build, and provides performance and scale-up data (e.g., required transport reactor densities). Another important objective, which naturally derives from the process development activities, is demonstration of sorbent suitability and readiness for commercial deployment (e.g., sorbent attrition and cycle life). In this sense, the GPDU can serve as a final testing ground to reduce the risks of large-scale sorbent failure.

  9. REGULAR ARTICLE Warming and increased precipitation frequency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Deborah A.

    REGULAR ARTICLE Warming and increased precipitation frequency on the Colorado Plateau: implications in temperature and precipitation are expected to influence ecosystem processes worldwide. Despite their globally how increased temperature and frequency of summertime precipitation affect the contributions of crust

  10. Global Warming Effects on Us Hurricane Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emanuel, Kerry Andrew

    While many studies of the effects of global warming on hurricanes predict an increase in various metrics of Atlantic basin-wide activity, it is less clear that this signal will emerge from background noise in measures of ...

  11. Global warming and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global warming concerns.

  12. WHAT TO DO ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE? Slowing the rate of carbon burning won't stop global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baez, John

    : most CO2 stays in the air over a century, though individual molecules come and go. Global warming. In 2004, Pacala and Socolow said merely holding worldwide carbon emissions constant for 50 years would. Starting now, double existing nuclear power. Replace 1400 gigawatts of coal-burning power plants with gas

  13. Is the basinwide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean related to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunzai

    to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming? Chunzai Wang1 and Shenfu Dong1,2 Received 31 January 2010 is controversial. Some studies argued that the warming is due to global warming in association with the secular sea surface temperature. Here we show that both global warming and AMO variability make a contribution

  14. Comparison of Moist Static Energy and Budget between the GCM-Simulated Madden–Julian Oscillation and Observations over the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Xiaoqing; Deng, Liping

    2013-07-01

    The moist static energy (MSE) anomalies and MSE budget associated with the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) simulated in the Iowa State University General Circulation Model (ISUGCM) over the Indian and Pacific Oceans are compared with observations. Different phase relationships between MJO 850-hPa zonal wind, precipitation, and surface latent heat flux are simulated over the Indian Ocean and western Pacific, which are greatly influenced by the convection closure, trigger conditions, and convective momentum transport (CMT). The moist static energy builds up from the lower troposphere 15–20 days before the peak of MJO precipitation, and reaches the maximum in the middle troposphere (500–600 hPa) near the peak of MJO precipitation. The gradual lower-tropospheric heating and moistening and the upward transport of moist static energy are important aspects of MJO events, which are documented in observational studies but poorly simulated in most GCMs. The trigger conditions for deep convection, obtained from the year-long cloud resolving model (CRM) simulations, contribute to the striking difference between ISUGCM simulations with the original and modified convection schemes and play the major role in the improved MJO simulation in ISUGCM. Additionally, the budget analysis with the ISUGCM simulations shows the increase in MJO MSE is in phase with the horizontal advection of MSE over the western Pacific, while out of phase with the horizontal advection of MSE over the Indian Ocean. However, the NCEP analysis shows that the tendency of MJO MSE is in phase with the horizontal advection of MSE over both oceans.

  15. Air-to-air turbocharged air cooling versus air-to-water turbocharged air cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moranne, J.-P.; Lukas, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    In Europe, turbocharged air in diesel engines used in on-road vehicles is cooled only by air. It is expected that by 1990, ten to twelve percent of European heavy trucks with diesel engines will cool turbocharged air by water. Air-to-air turbocharges air cooling is reviewed and the evolution of air-to-water turbocharged air cooling presented before the two systems are compared.

  16. Global warming: Science or politics. Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorweiler, V.P.

    1998-04-01

    ``The balance of evidence suggests that there has been a discernible influence of human activity on global climate`` is a statement employed as the foundation basis to intervene on behalf of the globe and the future. That statement, as scientific evidence of human-produced greenhouse gases (primarily CO{sub 2}) having a warming effect on global climate is a political statement only. Further, the Kyoto conference to consider intervention in human activities regarding global warming was a political conference. Political and treaty issues were the focus; scientific issues were not much discussed. What change is needed then to scientifically determine global warming and to ascertain whether human activity is involved? A better understanding of the natural climate variations related to solar variation can improve understanding of an anthropogenic greenhouse effect on the climate. The purpose of this article is to pose the scientific question. Part 2 will present an answer.

  17. Carbonyl sulfide: No remedy for global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taubman, S.J.; Kasting, J.F. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The authors look at the possibility of counteracting global warming forces by the injection of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) into the stratosphere at levels high enough to balance the impact say of a doubling of carbon dioxide concentrations, which are projected to result in a global 3{degrees} C warming. OCS injections at densities to provide such cooling will result a 30 percent impact of global ozone, whereas the carbon dioxide only made a 5% impact. In addition levels which would be found on the earths surface would be in the range 10 ppmv which is questionable as a safe exposure limit for humans, in addition to its impact on the ph of rainwater.

  18. Energy and global warming impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

    1997-06-01

    The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global warming. A Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the environmental affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of environmental impact because it is not based solely on the global warming potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the environmental benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global warming impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial environmental benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global warming potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.

  19. Valuation of mountain glaciation response on global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ananicheva, M.D.; Davidovich, N.V.

    1997-12-31

    Quantitative estimates of main climatic parameters, influencing the glacier regime (summer air temperature and annual solid precipitation), and glaciologic characteristics (mass balance components, equilibrium line altitude and rate of air temperature at this height), received on the basis of the scenario for a climate development according to R. Wetherald and S. Manabe (1982) are submitted. The possible reaction of mountain glaciation on global warming is considered for two mountain countries: South-eastern Alaska and Pamir-Alay (Central Asia). In given paper we have tried to evaluate changes of the mountain glaciation regime for a time of CO{sub 2} doubling in the atmosphere, basing on the scenario of climate development and modern statistical relationships between climatic and glaciologic parameters. The GCM scenario of R. Wetherald and C. Manabe (GFDL model) which is made with respect of mountain territories is in the basis our calculations. As initial materials we used data of long-term observations and the maps of World Atlas of Snow and Ice Resources (WASIR).

  20. Editorial – The Global Warming Fight is “Bringing Sexy Back,” Are You Ready?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jankowska, Marta Maja

    2006-01-01

    2006, September 25). Is global warming raising a tempest?or her behavior towards global warming in 2007. *Timberlake,Editorial: The Global Warming Fight is “Bringing Sexy

  1. Is the Ozone Depletion Regime a Model for an Emerging Regime on Global Warming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang, Winfried

    1991-01-01

    the for- mation of a global warming regime produces a highlydepletion and the global warming regimes was recognized byan Emerging Regime on Global Warming? by Winfried Lang I.

  2. Comparing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckaus, Richard S.

    1990-01-01

    Policies dealing with global warming require a measure of the effects of the emissions of greenhouse gases that create different magnitudes of instantaneous radiative forcing and have different lifetimes. The Global Warming ...

  3. Central issues in the negotiations on limiting greenhouse warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckaus, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    The three central questions in the international negotiations on greenhouse warming are: (1) How much global warming should be tolerated? (2) How much responsibility for past emissions should be assigned to present ...

  4. Optimization of High-Volume Warm Forming for Lightweight Sheet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Volume Warm Forming for Lightweight Sheet Alloys Optimization of High-Volume Warm Forming for Lightweight Sheet Alloys 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  5. Aridity changes in the Tibetan Plateau in a warming climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Yanhong; Li, Xia; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Chen, Deliang; Xu, Jianwei

    2015-03-10

    Desertification in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has drawn increasing attention in the recent decades. It has been postulated as a consequence of climate aridity due to the observed warming. This study quantifies the aridity changes in the TP and attributes the changes to different climatic factors. Using the ratio of P/PET (precipitation to potential evapotranspiration) as an aridity index to indicate changes in dryness and wetness in a given area, P/PET was calculated using observed records at 83 stations in the TP, with PET calculated using the Penman–Monteith (PM) algorithm. Spatial and temporal changes of P/PET in 1979-2011 are analyzed.more »Results show that stations located in the arid and semi-arid northwestern TP are becoming significantly wetter and stations in the semi-humid southeastern TP are becoming drier, though not significantly, in the recent three decades. The aridity change patterns are significantly correlated with precipitation, sunshine duration and diurnal temperature range changes at confidence level of 99.9% from two-tail t-test. Temporal correlations also confirm the significant correlation between aridity changes with the three variables, with precipitation being the most dominant driver of P/PET changes at interannual time scale. PET changes are insignificant but negatively correlated with P/PET in the cold season. In the warm season, however, correlation between PET changes and P/PET changes are significant at confidence level of 99.9% when the cryosphere melts near the surface. Significant correlation between wind speed changes and aridity changes occurs in limited locations and months. Consistency in the climatology pattern and linear trends in surface air temperature and precipitation calculated using station data, gridded data, and nearest grid-to-stations for the TP average and across sub-basins indicate the robustness of the trends despite the large spatial heterogeneity in the TP that challenge climate monitoring.« less

  6. Total Building Air Management: When Dehumidification Counts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chilton, R. L.; White, C. L.

    1996-01-01

    within the zone rise. The choice with this type of equipment can often be between cold and dry, or warm and damp. As an alternative to zone air-conditioning systems, desiccant systems are often employed along with the cooling systems to dehumidify... effectively dehumidify but with the penalty of increased first cost and high maintenance 3. Most conventional methods of dehumidification increase maintenance costs, either of the facility or of the dehumidification equipment itself Equipment...

  7. Impact of the global warming hiatus on Andean temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuille, Mathias

    Impact of the global warming hiatus on Andean temperature Mathias Vuille1 , Eric Franquist1 , René Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología, Quito, Ecuador Abstract The recent hiatus in global warming in global warming has spurred a debate regarding its underlying causes. While some have suggested

  8. Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rust, Bert W.

    Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear" Bert W. Rust Mathematical- tioned the connection between global warming and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide by pointing out of these plots to global warming have spilled over to the real world, inviting both praise [4, 17] and scorn [15

  9. Global Warming 20 Years Later: Tipping Points Near

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming 20 Years Later: Tipping Points Near Jim Hansen 23 June 2008 National Press Club, and House Select Committee on Energy Independence & Global Warming Washington, DC #12;1988 Testimony Has Big Effects Did Not Emphasize That Global Warming Enhances Both Extremes of Water Cycle - More

  10. Measuring evolutionary responses to global warming: cautionary lessons from Drosophila

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

    Measuring evolutionary responses to global warming: cautionary lessons from Drosophila FRANCISCO. Understanding evolutionary responses to global climate warming can be daunt- ingly complex. But, primarily of the magnitude of long-term responses to global warming; standardising by equivalent seasonal tem- perature

  11. Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes Chunzai Wang1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunzai

    Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes Chunzai Wang1 and Sang-Ki Lee2 Received 18] A secular warming of sea surface temperature occurs almost everywhere over the global ocean. Here we use observational data to show that global warming of the sea surface is associated with a secular increase

  12. Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming Bert W. Rust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rust, Bert W.

    Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming Bert W. Rust Reprinted from the CD Rust, B. W. (2003) "Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming," Computing Science and Statistics, 35, 263-277. ­ or ­ Rust, B. W. (2003) "Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming," Computing Science and Statistics, 35

  13. California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects by Richard J: _______________________________________ Date #12;California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects Richard J, 2006 #12;#12;ABSTRACT California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming

  14. The Logic of Global Warming A bitter pill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratt, Vaughan

    The Logic of Global Warming A bitter pill Vaughan Pratt Stanford University June 23, 2011 Vaughan PrattStanford University () The Logic of Global WarmingA bitter pill June 23, 2011 1 / 1 What is climate population growth. 2. Accumulation of hazardous materials: lead, mercury, CFCs, . . . 3. Global warming

  15. GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todorov, Alex

    GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial Beyond its objective basis in natural science, understanding, discussion, and res- olution of the policy issue labeled "global warming the global warming problem. In public discussion, natu- ral scientists tend to frame the issue through

  16. Comment on "Global Genetic Change Tracks Global Climate Warming in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

    Comment on "Global Genetic Change Tracks Global Climate Warming in Drosophila subobscura" Francisco in response to global warming. However, that conclusion is not adequately buttressed by their data, because that chromosomal inversion polymorphisms of Drosophila subobscura are evolving in response to global warming. (2

  17. Observationally based assessment of polar amplification of global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Uma

    Observationally based assessment of polar amplification of global warming Igor V. Polyakov,1) are similar, and do not support the predicted polar amplification of global warming. The possible moderating amplification of global warming. Intrinsic arctic variability obscures long-term changes, limiting our ability

  18. Communicating Dangers and Opportunities in Global Warming 13 December Draft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Communicating Dangers and Opportunities in Global Warming 13 December Draft James Hansen American: "Subversion of Public Affairs Chart 7: The Global Warming Story C. Tenets of a Democracy: "An Informed Public, not as a spokesman for NASA There is a huge gap between what is understood about global warming and what is known

  19. Strategies to Address Global Warming Is Sundance Kid a Criminal?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Strategies to Address Global Warming & Is Sundance Kid a Criminal? Jim Hansen In my opinion, it is still feasible to solve the global warming problem before we pass tipping points that would guarantee ppm yields global warming about 2°C (3.6°F) above the preindustrial level. Such a level of atmospheric

  20. The global warming signal is the average of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    The global warming signal is the average of years 70-80 in the increasing CO2 run minus the average represent significant uncertainty in the global warming signal (Fig. 5). The differences at high latitudes, uncertainty in the isopycnal diffusivity causes uncertainty of up to 50% in the global warming signal

  1. Global Warming Time Bomb:* Actions Needed to Avert Disaster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming Time Bomb:* Actions Needed to Avert Disaster James Hansen 26 October 2009 Club statements relating to policy are personal opinion Global Warming Status 1. Knowledge Gap Between - What Benefits of Solution Despite the publicity that global warming has received, there is a large gap between

  2. Laughing Turfgrass Warms Mother Earth Dale Bremer, Kansas State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    warming and climate change. In truth, none of us would be able to survive on the earth were be global warming and climate change. So why are we measuring nitrous oxide emissions from turfgrass at KLaughing Turfgrass Warms Mother Earth Dale Bremer, Kansas State University Published October 2005

  3. The Science and Ethics of Global Warming George Philander

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von Storch, Hans

    The Science and Ethics of Global Warming George Philander (Lecture given on 26 August 2009, Cape Town, South Africa) The controversies of global warming are ostensibly about divergent interpretations at the equator, which is similar to global warming in having both scientific and ethical aspects, but which

  4. Global warming is real, and Nevertheless, practical actions, which

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Global warming is real, and Nevertheless, practical actions, which ICEBERG BREAKS OFF the San BY JAMES HANSEN Global Warming Defusing the #12;became strikingly apparent to me one summer afternoon. Objective analysis of global warming requires quantitative knowledge of three issues: the sensitivity

  5. Hydrothermal venting of greenhouse gases triggering Early Jurassic global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svensen, Henrik

    Hydrothermal venting of greenhouse gases triggering Early Jurassic global warming Henrik Svensen a carbon cycle. The event lasted for approximately 200,000 years and was manifested by a global warming, and the Toarcian global warming. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: climate change; Toarcian

  6. Transient Floral Change and Rapid Global Warming at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyons, S. Kathleen

    #12;Transient Floral Change and Rapid Global Warming at the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary Scott L. Wing. Freeman3 Rapid global warming of 5- to 10-C during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) coincided shape and size suggest that climate warmed by È5-C during the PETM and that precipitation was low early

  7. Global Warming and Marine Carbon Cycle Feedbacks on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, Thomas

    Global Warming and Marine Carbon Cycle Feedbacks on Future Atmospheric CO2 Fortunat Joos,* Gian-biogeochemical climate model was used to project at- mospheric carbon dioxide and global warming for scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation weakens in all global warming

  8. Latitudinal distribution of the recent Arctic warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, Petr; Lesins, Glen K; Wang, Muyin

    2010-12-08

    Increasing Arctic temperature, disappearance of Arctic sea ice, melting of the Greenland ice sheet, sea level rise, increasing strength of Atlantic hurricanes are these impending climate catastrophes supported by observations? Are the recent data really unprecedented during the observational records? Our analysis of Arctic temperature records shows that the Arctic and temperatures in the 1930s and 1940s were almost as high as they are today. We argue that the current warming of the Arctic region is affected more by the multi-decadal climate variability than by an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, none of the existing coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models used in the IPCC 2007 cIimate change assessment is able to reproduce neither the observed 20th century Arctic cIimate variability nor the latitudinal distribution of the warming.

  9. Borehole temperatures and a baseline for 20th-century global warming estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, R.N.; Chapman, D.S.

    1997-03-14

    Lack of a 19th-century baseline temperature against which 20th-century warming can be referenced constitutes a deficiency in understanding recent climate change. Combination of borehole temperature profiles, which contain a memory of surface temperature changes in previous centuries, with the meteorologicl archive of surface air temperatures can provide a 19th-century baseline temperature tied to the current observational record. A test case in Utah, where boreholes are interspersed with meteorological stations belonging to the Historical Climatological network, Yields a noise reduction in estimates of 20th-century warming and a baseline temperature that is 0.6{degrees} {+-} 0.1{degrees}C below the 1951 to 1970 mean temperature for the region. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. BULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY / De-cember 1999Byrne, Yun / EFFICIENT GLOBAL WARMING Efficient Global Warming: Contradictions in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    BULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY / De-cember 1999Byrne, Yun / EFFICIENT GLOBAL WARMING Efficient Global Warming: Contradictions in Liberal Democratic Responses to Global Environmental Problems democracies can be ex- pected to pursue a policy regime of "efficient global warming." Key words

  11. A global warning for global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paepe, R.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of global warming is a complex one not only because it is affecting desert areas such as the Sahel leading to famine disasters of poor rural societies, but because it is an even greater threat to modern well established industrial societies. Global warming is a complex problem of geographical, economical and societal factors together which definitely are biased by local environmental parameters. There is an absolute need to increase the knowledge of such parameters, especially to understand their limits of variance. The greenhouse effect is a global mechanism which means that in changing conditions at one point of the Earth, it will affect all other regions of the globe. Industrial pollution and devastation of the forest are quoted as similar polluting anthropogenic activities in far apart regions of the world with totally different societies and industrial compounds. The other important factor is climatic cyclicity which means that droughts are bound to natural cycles. These natural cycles are numerous as is reflected in the study of geo-proxydata from several sequential geological series on land, ice and deepsea. Each of these cycles reveals a drought cycle which occasionally interfere at the same time. It is believed that the present drought might well be a point of interference between the natural cycles of 2,500 and 1,000 years and the man induced cycle of the last century`s warming up. If the latter is the only cycle involved, man will be able to remediate. If not, global warming will become even more disastrous beyond the 21st century.

  12. Evaluation of moist processes during intense precipitation in km-scale NWP models using remote sensing and in-situ data: Impact of microphysics size distribution assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Weverberg, K.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbe, L.

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of moist processes and surface precipitation during three extreme precipitation events over Belgium to the representation of rain, snow and hail size distributions in a bulk one-moment microphysics parameterisation scheme. Sensitivities included the use of empirically derived relations to calculate the slope parameter and diagnose the intercept parameter of the exponential snow and rain size distributions and sensitivities to the treatment of hail/graupel. A detailed evaluation of the experiments against various high temporal resolution and spatially distributed observational data was performed to understand how moist processes responded to the implemented size distribution modifications. Net vapor consumption by microphysical processes was found to be unaffected by snow or rain size distribution modifications, while it was reduced replacing formulations for hail by those typical for graupel, mainly due to intense sublimation of graupel. Cloud optical thickness was overestimated in all experiments and all cases, likely due to overestimated snow amounts. The overestimation slightly deteriorated by modifying the rain and snow size distributions due to increased snow depositional growth, while it was reduced by including graupel. The latter was mainly due to enhanced cloud water collection by graupel and reduced snow depositional growth. Radar reflectivity and cloud optical thickness could only be realistically represented by inclusion of graupel during a stratiform case, while hail was found indispensable to simulate the vertical reflectivity profile and the surface precipitation structure. Precipitation amount was not much altered by any of the modifications made and the general overestimation was only decreased slightly during a supercell convective case.

  13. Zeolite Membrane Water Vapor Separation for Building Air-Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanskyi, Oleksandr

    2015-07-17

    -AR0000138 “High-efficiency, on-line membrane air dehumidifier enabling sensible cooling for warm and humid climates”. 2. Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Advanced Research Projects Agency... Outdoor air PC Polycarbonate PDMS Polydimethylsiloxane PE Polyethylene PES Polyethersulphone PNNL Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PSF Polysulfone PVDF Polyvinylidenefluoride RH Relative humidity SF Separation factor STP Standard conditions...

  14. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional KnowledgeAgenda Agenda NERSC UserAgustin Mihi andAir Leaks inAir

  15. Warm or Steaming Ground | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village ofWaialua,Wallington,Solar CoFacility | Open EnergyWarm

  16. Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ardakanian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

  17. Global warming: Science or politics? Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorweiler, V.P.

    1998-05-01

    Supplementing the conclusion that ``there has been a discernible influence of human activity on global climate`` is a set of dire consequences to the globe and human population. One consequence is the spread of tropical diseases. It has not been concluded whether the spread of disease is due to global conditions or to opening of tropical forests to commerce, allowing spread by travelers. Whether these forecasts abet the claimed relation of human activity to global warming, they are not a new phenomenon. In the space of several decades, dire consequences have been forecast in three sectors: natural resource consumption, energy resources and environmental fate. These three areas are reviewed.

  18. Hansen, J. et al., 2002: Global warming continues. Science, 295, 275. Global Warming Continues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    50 years (4). The greatest warm anomalies in 2001 were in Alaska-Canada, in a band from North Africa. Geophys. Res. 106, 23947, 2001. 2. R.W. Reynolds, N.A. Rayner, T.M. Smith, D.C. Stokes, W. Wang, J

  19. Black carbon contribution to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Kou, L.; Wong, J.

    1996-12-31

    Before the onset of industrial revolution the only important source of black carbon in the atmosphere was biomass burning. Today, black carbon production is divided between the biomass and fossil fuel burning. Black carbon is a major agent responsible for absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols. Thus black carbon makes other aerosols less efficient in their role of reflecting solar radiation and cooling the earth-atmosphere system. Black carbon also contributes to the absorption of solar radiation by clouds and snow cover. The authors present the results of black carbon concentrations measurements in the atmosphere, in cloud water, in rain and snow melt water collected during the 1992--1996 time period over the southern Nova Scotia. Their results are put into the global and historical perspective by comparing them with the compilation of past measurements at diverse locations and with their measurements of black carbon concentrations in the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Black carbon contribution to the global warming is estimated, and compared to the carbon dioxide warming, using the radiative forcing caused by the black carbon at the top of the atmosphere.

  20. {sup 85}Kr induced global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakharov, V.I.

    1996-12-31

    It`s well known that the trace atmospheric constituent as {sup 85}Kr is at present about 10{sup 6} cm{sup {minus}3} and increasing considerably (twice every 8--10 years) as a result of nuclear fuel utilization. This paper presents the model of influence of {sup 85}Kr accumulation in the earth atmosphere on climate perturbation and global warming. The process of increasing the concentrations in the troposphere due to the anthropogenic emission of {sup 85}Kr and its radioactive decay is analyzed, based on master kinetic equations. Results indicate that anthropogenic emissions contributing to the total equilibrium concentration of tropospheric ions due to {sup 85}Kr is about equal to the natural level of tropospheric ions. The influence of atmospheric electricity on the transformation between water vapor and clouds which result in an increase in the concentration of ions in troposphere is investigated. The paper shows that the process of anthropogenic accumulation of {sup 85}Kr in the troposphere at present rate up to 2005--2010 increases the mean of the dew-point temperature several degrees on the global scale. Relevant change of height for the lower level of clouds has been obtained. Positive feedback between the process of warming of the lower atmosphere and the concentration of tropospheric ions has been considered.

  1. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerants Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Brian Fricke conducts research in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Brian Fricke...

  2. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies...

  3. Call for emission limits heats debate on global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, S.F.

    1997-08-01

    Emission limits on carbon dioxide is recommended by an Intergovernmental Panel in a discussion on global warming. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Intense Ion Beam for Warm Dense Matter Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heimbucher, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    charged particle physics Introduction . . . . . . . . .Driven Warm Dense Matter Physics, Four Point Sher- atonIntroduction to Plasma Physics, Plenum Press, New York [18

  5. Modeling the effects of fire severity and climate warming on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modeling the effects of fire severity and climate warming on active layer thickness and soil carbon storage of black spruce forests across the landscape in interior Alaska Citation...

  6. First-principles opacity table of warm dense deuterium forinertial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    First-principles opacity table of warm dense deuterium for inertial-confinement-fusion applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: First-principles opacity table of...

  7. Chemical And Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chemical And Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated With Normal Faults In Utah Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  8. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications Plant Air Air tools, general plant air Instrument Air Laboratories, paint spraying, powder coating, climate control Process Air Food and pharmaceutical process...

  9. Global Warming: A Science Overview for the A/C Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1999-12-06

    Fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas) provide about 85% of the world's energy, sustaining our standard-of-living. They are inexpensive, transportable, safe, and relatively abundant. At the same time, their use contributes to problems such as air quality and acid rain that are being addressed through various control efforts and to the problem of global warming, which is now being considered by governments of the world. This talk will focus on six key aspects of the scientific findings that are leading to proposals for significant limitation of the emissions of fossil-fuel-derived carbon dioxide and limitations on emissions of other greenhouse gases that can influence the global climate, including substances used in the refrigeration and air-conditioning industries.

  10. 100 LPW 800 Lm Warm White LED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decai Sun

    2010-10-31

    An illumination grade warm white (WW) LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2800 K and 3500K and capable of producing 800 lm output at 100 lm/W, has been developed in this program. The high power WW LED is an ideal source for use as replacement for incandescent, and Halogen reflector and general purpose lamps of similar lumen value. Over the two year period, we have made following accomplishments: developed a high power warm white LED product and made over 50% improvements in light output and efficacy. The new high power WW LED product is a die on ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 1x1 mm{sup 2} InGaN pump dice flip chip attached to a ceramic submount in 2x2 array, covered by warm white phosphor ceramic platelets called Lumiramicâ?¢ and an overmolded silicone lens encapsulating the LED array. The performance goal was achieved through breakthroughs in following key areas: (1) High efficiency pump LED development through pump LED active region design and epi growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs). (2) Increase in injection efficiency (IE) represented by reduction in forward voltage (V{sub f}) through the improvement of the silver-based p-contact and a reduction in spreading resistance. The injection efficiency was increased from 80% at the start of the program to 96% at the end of the program at 700 mA/mm{sup 2}. (3) Improvement in thermal design as represented by reduction in thermal resistance from junction to case, through improvement of the die to submount connection in the thin film flip chip (TFFC) LED and choosing the submount material of high thermal conductivity. A thermal resistance of 1.72 K/W was demonstrated for the high power LED package. (4) Improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN die level and package level optical extraction efficiency improvement. (5) Improvement in phosphor system efficiency by improving the lumen equivalent (LE) and phosphor package efficiency (PPE) through improvement in phosphor-package interactions. Another achievement in the development of the phosphor integration technology is the demonstration of tight color control. The high power WW LED product developed has been proven to have good reliability. The manufacturing of the product will be done in Philips Lumiledsâ?? LUXEON Rebel production line which has produced billions of high power LEDs. The first high power WW LED product will be released to the market in 2011.

  11. Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Increased outside ventilation air requirements demand special attention to how that air will be conditioned. In winter, the incoming air may need preheating; in summer. the mixed air may be too humid for effective dehumidification. Part...

  12. Comparing New-Technology Passive Warming Versus Traditional Passive Warming Methods for Optimizing Perioperative Body Core Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bender, M; Self, B; Schroeder, E; Giap, B

    2015-01-01

    BCG Medical provided the new-technology passive warmingpersonal copy Comparing New-Technology Passive Warmingreducing hypothermia. New-technology passive warming holds

  13. Relationship between MTBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzawa, Takumi; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Kashiwabara, Kimito [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Fujisawa, Norihiro; Matsubara, Michiro

    1995-12-31

    The relationship between MBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability is investigated by focusing on the transient combustion air-fuel ratio that strongly relates to the combustion state of the engine. As a result, although warm-up driveability of MTBE-free gasoline has a high correlation with 50% distillation temperature (T50) and a high correlation with 100 C distillation volume (E100), the correlation is found to be low when blended with MTBE. Various formulas that improve correlation with peak excess air ratio ({lambda}) by correcting T50 and E100 for the amount of MTBE blended are examined. The formula for which the highest determination coefficient is obtained is proposed as a new driveability index (DI) that can also be applied to MTBE-blended gasoline. In addition, the effect on driveability by gasoline base materials using this new DI also is investigated. The results indicate that the new DI worsen when heavy reformate containing large amounts of aromatics or MTBE, an oxygen-containing compound, is used for the octane improver, leaving the balance of the volatility out of consideration.

  14. Global warming and changes in ocean circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.

    1998-02-01

    This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global warming may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art numerical model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional numerical model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.

  15. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA I N P A T T E R N AManaged bynuevo sistemaAir

  16. Global warming, global research, and global governing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preining, O.

    1997-12-31

    The anticipated dangers of Global Warming can be mitigated by reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, especially CO{sub 2}. To reach acceptable, constant levels within the next couple of centuries it might be necessary to accept stabilization levels higher than present ones, The annual CO{sub 2} emissions must be reduced far below today`s values. This is a very important result of the models discussed in the 1995 IPCC report. However, any even very modest scenario for the future must take into account a substantial increase in the world population which might double during the 21st century, There is a considerable emission reduction potential of the industrialized world due to efficiency increase, However, the demand for energy services by the growing world population will, inspite of the availability of alternative energy resources, possibly lead to a net increase in fossil fuel consumption. If the climate models are right, and the science community believes they are, we will experience a global warming of the order of a couple of degrees over the next century; we have to live with it. To be prepared for the future it is essential for us to use new research techniques embracing not only the familiar fields of hard sciences but also social, educational, ethical and economic aspects, We must find a way to build up the essential intellectual capacities needed to deal with these kinds of general problems within all nations and all societies. But this is not Although, we also have to find the necessary dynamical and highly flexible structures for a global governing using tools such as the environmental regime. The first step was the Framework Convention On Climate Change, UN 1992; for resolution of questions regarding implementations the Conference of the Parties was established.

  17. The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levermann, Anders

    The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming Anders Levermanna,b,1 , Peter U. Clarkc of as much as several meters per degree of warming during previous intervals of Earth history when global. Moore, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing, China, and accepted by the Editorial

  18. Climatic unpredictability and parasitism of caterpillars: Implications of global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stireman III, John O.

    Climatic unpredictability and parasitism of caterpillars: Implications of global warming J. O that are associated with global warming (1, 2). Additional studies have demon- strated changes in ecological outbreaks are expected to increase in frequency and inten- sity with projected changes in global climate

  19. On warming, Williams is 'just plain wrong' Durham Herald Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    run we know that these emissions can retard warming, but we also know that carbon dioxide stays dampened the warming response to increased carbon dioxide. These aerosols result from inceased smokestack in the atmosphere 1,000 times longer than the aerosols, so ultimately the carbon dioxide will win out. In fact

  20. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pederson, Joel L.

    LETTERS Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere Mousumi Roy1 , Thomas H. Jordan2 & Joel Pederson3 The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high experienced 2 km of rock uplift7 without significant internal deformation2­4 . Here we propose that warming

  1. Paleoclimatic warming increased carbon dioxide concentrations D. M. Lemoine1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Paleoclimatic warming increased carbon dioxide concentrations D. M. Lemoine1 Received 6 July 2010 feedbacks are positive, then warming causes changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) sources and sinks that increase increased carbon dioxide concentrations, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D22122, doi:10.1029/2010JD014725. 1

  2. ORIGINAL PAPER Modeling the impacts of global warming on predation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Modeling the impacts of global warming on predation and biotic resistance in regulating or limiting exotic prey. We investigate how global warming potentially alters the strength damselfly Megalag- rion calliphya as predator and the invasive southern house mosquito Culex

  3. Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues Megan Mc mmccull3@nd.edu ABSTRACT: The recent destruction due to hurricanes and the apparent increase in frequency. Warm water holds more energy to fuel hurricanes and may contribute to the conditions needed

  4. AIR: THE GREAT, THE LARGE and the small. Lecture 3-4. P.B.Rhines 5 ii 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (warm) air rises. · the sun heats the tropics more than the Poles, leading to a distribution of air (and its circulation). Here our earlier ideas about sun's radiation are important too. The atmosphere, which trap pollutants in the lower atmosphere. · the basic temperature decreases by about 500 C from

  5. Global Warming: What It Is What Is Controversial About It and What We Might Do in Response to It

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botkin, Daniel B.

    1991-01-01

    along coasts. If global warming occurs, many environmentalSee, eg. , S. SCHNEIDER, GLOBAL WARMING: ARE WE ENTERING THETRANSITION (1989); Roberts, Global Warming: Blaming The Sun,

  6. Will U.S. Agriculture Really Benefit from Global Warming? Accounting for Irrigation in the Hedonic Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlenker, Wolfram; Hanemann, W. Michael; Fisher, Anthony C.

    2004-01-01

    Really Benefit from Global Warming? Accounting forR. , “The Impact of Global Warming on Agriculture: Comment,”371–411. , “The Impact of Global Warming on Agriculture: A

  7. Global warming from chlorofluorocarbons and their alternatives: Time scales of chemistry and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Malcolm K.W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Molnar, Gyula; Prather, Michael J

    1993-01-01

    and their replacements on global warming. Nature Hansen J. ,gas emissions to global warming. Nature London Amendment toNature 315, 649-652, Global warming time scales WMO (World

  8. Review: Behind the Curve: Science and the Politics of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Ryder W.

    2014-01-01

    realities of global warming history and contemporary climatemoral discussions about global warming at home that gives meScience and the Politics of Global Warming By Joshua P. Howe

  9. Review: The Global Warming Reader: A Century of Writing About Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Byron P.

    2013-01-01

    Review: The Global Warming Reader: A Century of WritingMcKibben, Bill, ed. The Global Warming Reader: A Century ofrecord of no action on global warming. Those who have done

  10. Regional calibration of coral-based climate reconstructions from Palau, West Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osborne, Michael C; Dunbar, Robert B; Mucciarone, David A; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Druffel, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    of the western Paci?c Warm Pool. Climate Dynamics 33, 565–of the Paci?c warm pool: implications for ENSO. Sciencein the western Paci?c warm pool. Coral Reefs 29, 413–418.

  11. A policy synthesis approach for slowing global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timilsina, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    Global warming is a burning environmental issue today but confronting with subjective as well as policy conflicts. The findings of various studies indicate that developed countries that are capable of affording effective measures towards the global warming mitigation have fewer incentives for doing so because they will have a minimal damage from global warming. The developing countries, although they will have greater damage, are unlikely to divert their development budget for taking preventive actions towards global warming. The only solution in this situation is to design a policy that encourages all the nation in the world to participate in the programs for slowing global warming. Without active participation of all nations, it seems unlikely to reduce the global warming problem in an effective way. This study presents a qualitative policy recommendation extracted from a comprehensive analysis of the findings of several studies conducted so far in this field. This study has categorized the policy approaches for mitigating the global warming in three groups: Engineering approach, forestry approach and economic approach.

  12. Halo Formation in Warm Dark Matter Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Bode; Jeremiah P. Ostriker; Neil Turok

    2001-05-29

    Discrepancies have emerged between the predictions of standard cold dark matter (CDM) theory and observations of clustering on sub-galactic scales. Warm dark matter (WDM) is a simple modification of CDM in which the dark matter particles have initial velocities due either to their having decoupled as thermal relics, or having been formed via non-equilibrium decay. We investigate the nonlinear gravitational clustering of WDM with a high resolution N-body code, and identify a number of distinctive observational signatures. Relative to CDM, halo concentrations and core densities are lowered, core radii are increased, and large halos emerge with far fewer low mass satellites. The number of small halos is suppressed, and those present are formed by `top down' fragmentation of caustics, as part of a `cosmic web' connecting massive halos. Few small halos form outside this web. If we identify small halos with dwarf galaxies, their number, spatial distribution, and formation epoch appear in better agreement with the observations for WDM than they are for CDM.

  13. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Peter T.; Mather, James H.; Vaughan, Geraint; Jakob, Christian; McFarquhar, Greg; Bower, Keith; Mace, Gerald G.

    2008-05-01

    One of the most complete data sets describing tropical convection ever collected will result from the upcoming Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in the area around Darwin, Northern Australia in January and February 2006. The aims of the experiment, which will be operated in conjunction with the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin, will be to examine convective cloud systems from their initial stages through to the decay of the cirrus generated and to measure their impact on the environment. The experiment will include an unprecedented network of ground-based observations (soundings, active and passive remote sensors) combined with low, mid and high altitude aircraft for in-situ and remote sensing measurements. A crucial outcome of the experiment will be a data set suitable to provide the forcing and evaluation data required by cloud resolving and single column models as well as global climate models (GCMs) with the aim to contribute to parameterization development. This data set will provide the necessary link between the observed cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a large multi-agency experiment including substantial contributions from the United States DOE ARM program, ARM-UAV program, NASA, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, EU programs and many universities.

  14. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  15. Low-Global Warming Potential HVAC System with Ultra-Small Centrifugal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global Warming Potential HVAC System with Ultra-Small Centrifugal Compression Low-Global Warming Potential HVAC System with Ultra-Small Centrifugal Compression Mechanical...

  16. High-resolution paleoceanography and modeling of abrupt warming events on greenhouse earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Sandra Kirtland

    2012-01-01

    simulation of an Eocene Greenhouse Climate, GeophysicalDelaney, (2009), Coupled greenhouse warming and deep-seaanalogues for a future greenhouse warming? Philosophical

  17. Editorial – The Global Warming Fight is “Bringing Sexy Back,” Are You Ready?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jankowska, Marta Maja

    2006-01-01

    The Global Warming Fight is “Bringing Sexy Back”*, Are Youwas something fun to fight about, but it never gained thepersonal contribution to the fight against global warming.

  18. Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

    2012-01-01

    in the Netherlands, Indoor Air 2, 127 – 136. BuildingPaliaga, G. (2009) Moving air for comfort. ASHRAE Journal,ventilation system on perceived air quality, Indoor Air

  19. Generated using version 3.2 of the official AMS LATEX template Distinguishing the cold conveyor belt and sting jet air streams in1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plant, Robert

    belt and sting jet air streams in1 an intense extratropical cyclone2 Oscar Mart´inez-Alvarado, Laura H observations13 show for the first time that the CCB and sting jet air streams are distinct air masses even14 of the cold front in the warm sector of40 the cyclone. This low-level jet is part of the broader air stream

  20. Moving air for comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Turner, Stephen; Zhang, Hui; Paliaga, Gwelen

    2009-01-01

    Brager, L. Zagreus. 2007, “Air movement preferences observed709-731. 9. Toftum, J. 2004. “Air movement – good or bad? ”Indoor Air 14, pp 40-45. 10. Gong, N. , K. Tham, A. Melikov,

  1. Feasibility of air capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranjan, Manya

    2010-01-01

    Capturing CO2 from air, referred to as Air Capture, is being proposed as a viable climate change mitigation technology. The two major benefits of air capture, reported in literature, are that it allows us to reduce the ...

  2. Environmental Impact on Applied Technology- Global Warming CFCs & VOCs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J. S.

    1989-01-01

    Hardly a day goes by that the threats to our environment are not brought to our attention. Whether you are following oil spills, groundwater contamination, global warming, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or volatile organic compounds (VOCs), you must...

  3. 9 Global warming stephane.gaiffas@cmap.polytechnique.fr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaïffas, Stéphane

    9 Global warming stephane.gaiffas@cmap.polytechnique.fr Goal The aim of this project is to study time-series measuring the evolution of global temperature. We consider a particular global temperature

  4. Press Pass - Press Release - Fermilab Hosts Global Warming Presentatio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Education Office, 630-840-5588 For immediate release Fermilab Hosts Presentation on Global Warming on Feb. 28 Program is free and open to the public Dr. David Carlson,...

  5. Shifting suitability for malaria vectors across Africa with warming climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, A. Townsend

    2009-05-10

    Background Climates are changing rapidly, producing warm climate conditions globally not previously observed in modern history. Malaria is of great concern as a cause of human mortality and morbidity, particularly across Africa, thanks in large part...

  6. The variability of warm absorbers in Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, Robert R. (Robert Ross)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents three studies of warm (photoionized) absorber variability in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) using high-resolution X-ray spectra provided by the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). The first ...

  7. The Impact of Boreal Forest Fire on Climate Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    The Impact of Boreal Forest Fire on Climate Warming J. T.analysis of a boreal forest fire, integrating the effects ofnet effect of a boreal forest fire on climate, on the basis

  8. Probing warm dense lithium by inelastic X-ray scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    of warm dense matter states has practical applications for controlled thermonuclear fusion, where, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX, UK 4 Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics

  9. St. Augustinegrass Warm-season turfgrass. Prefers full sun, but

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    St. Augustinegrass Warm-season turfgrass. Prefers full sun, but has a high tolerance for shade-season grass. It does best in full sun and high temperatures. Goes dormant and turns brown in winter. Very

  10. The Climate Policy Narrative for a Dangerously Warming World

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, Todd; Frumhoff, Peter; Luers, Amy; Gulledge, Jay

    2014-01-01

    It is time to acknowledge that global average temperatures will likely rise above the 2 C policy target and consider how that deeply troubling prospect should affect priorities for communicating and managing the risks of a dangerously warming climate.

  11. Geographical features of global water cycle during warm geological epochs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Georgiadi, A.G.

    1996-12-31

    The impact of global warming on the water cycle can be extremely complex and diverse. The goal of the investigation was to estimate the geographic features of the mean annual water budget of the world during climatic optimums of the Holocene and the Eemian interglacial periods. These geological epochs could be used as analogs of climatic warming on 1 degree, centigrade and 2 degrees, centigrade. The author used the results of climatic reconstructions based on a simplified version of a GCM.

  12. Control optimization of the cryoplant warm compressor station for EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang, M.; Hu, L. B.; Zhou, Z. W.; Xia, G. H. [Cryogenic Engineering Division, Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O.Box 1126,Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-01-29

    The cryogenic control system for EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) was designed based on DeltaV DCS of Emerson Corporation. The automatic control of the cryoplant warm compressors has been implemented. However, with ever-degrading performance of critical equipment, the cryoplant operation in the partial design conditions makes the control system fluctuate and unstable. In this paper, the warm compressor control system was optimized to eliminate the pressure oscillation based on the expert PID theory.

  13. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  14. Biological Air Emissions Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Air quality standards are becoming more stringent for the U.S. wood products industry. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (including methanol,...

  15. Chapter 21 Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are in the PortlandVancouver metro area where there are more industrial sources of air pollution and higher levels of traffic congestion that create more air emissions....

  16. Warm ocean anomaly, air sea fluxes, and the rapid intensification of tropical cyclone Nargis (2008)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    Profile Program) data base are searched to depict the detail UOTS structure. Sea surface height anom- aly are available. The cyclone track and intensity data is from the Unisys Weather (http://weather to Monthly Weather Review, 2008], in this work we investigate the role of upper ocean thermal structure (UOTS

  17. Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions, 2nd ed.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laberge, Yves

    2013-01-01

    catastrophic risks with wind and solar power are zero” (p.a comparative table of “Power available in wind, water, andwind, wave, geothermal, hydroelectric, tidal turbines, solar and concentrated solar power (

  18. NREL Solar Technology Will Warm Air at 'Home' - News Feature | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14 Contact:News Releases | NRELScientistNRELNREL Solar

  19. Global warming implications of non-fluorocarbon technologies as CFC replacements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1993-12-31

    Many technologies could be developed for use in place of conventional compression systems for refrigeration and air conditioning. Comparisons of the global warming impacts using TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) can be used to identify alternatives that have the potential for lower environmental impacts than electric-driven vapor compression systems using HCFCs and HFCs. Some options, such as secondary heat transfer loops in commercial refrigeration systems to reduce refrigerant charge and emission rates, could be useful in reducing the losses of refrigerants to the atmosphere. Use of ammonia instead of a fluorocarbon in a system with a secondary loop offers only a small potential for decreasing TEWI, and this may not warrant the increased complexity and risks of using ammonia in a retail sales environment. A few technologies, such as adsorption heat pumps, have efficiency levels that show reduced TEWI levels compared to conventional and state of the art compression systems, and further development could lead to an even more favorable comparison. Health and safety risks of the alternative technologies and the materials they employ must also be considered.

  20. Thermal Plasticity of Photosynthesis: the Role of Acclimation in Forest Responses to a Warming Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunderson, Carla A [ORNL; O'Hara, Keiran H [ORNL; Campion, Christina M [ORNL; Walker, Ashley V [ORNL; Edwards, Nelson T [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The increasing air temperatures central to climate change predictions have the potential to alter forest ecosystem function and structure by exceeding temperatures optimal for carbon gain. Such changes are projected to threaten survival of sensitive species, leading to local extinctions, range migrations, and altered forest composition. This study investigated photosynthetic sensitivity to temperature and the potential for acclimation in relation to the climatic provenance of five species of deciduous trees, Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus rubra, Quercus falcata, Betula alleghaniensis, and Populus grandidentata. Open-top chambers supplied three levels of warming (+0, +2, and +4 C above ambient) over 3 years, tracking natural temperature variability. Optimal temperature for CO2 assimilation was strongly correlated with daytime temperature in all treatments, but assimilation rates at those optima were comparable. Adjustment of thermal optima was confirmed in all species, whether temperatures varied with season or treatment, and regardless of climate in the species' range or provenance of the plant material. Temperature optima from 17 to 34 were observed. Across species, acclimation potentials varied from 0.55 C to 1.07 C per degree change in daytime temperature. Responses to the temperature manipulation were not different from the seasonal acclimation observed in mature indigenous trees, suggesting that photosynthetic responses should not be modeled using static temperature functions, but should incorporate an adjustment to account for acclimation. The high degree of homeostasis observed indicates that direct impacts of climatic warming on forest productivity, species survival, and range limits may be less than predicted by existing models.

  1. Increased Climate Variability Is More Visible Than Global Warming: A General

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Increased Climate Variability Is More Visible Than Global Warming: A General System@utep.edu Abstract While global warming is a statistically confirmed long-term phenomenon, its most visible than the global warming itself. 1 Formulation of the Problem What is global warming. The term "global

  2. Discriminating robust and non-robust atmospheric circulation responses to global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Discriminating robust and non-robust atmospheric circulation responses to global warming Michael response to global warming in a set of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) is investigated. The global-warmed climate is forced by a global pattern of warmed ocean surface temperatures

  3. Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battisti, David

    Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2 Aaron warming is likely caused by enhanced ASR. global warming | climate feedbacks | energy accumulation Global global warm- ing, with the world ocean as the primary reservoir for energy accumulation (1). In turn

  4. Game Theory and Global Warming Steve Schecter (North Carolina State University)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schecter, Stephen

    Game Theory and Global Warming Steve Schecter (North Carolina State University) Mary Lou Zeeman global warming game It's time to negotiate a new treaty to stop global warming. · Player 1: Governments, Brazil, Mexico, . . . ). Situation: · An investment of $2 trillion is needed to stop global warming

  5. Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming Martin Wild,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming Martin Wild,1 Atsumu Ohmura,1 and Knut February 2007. [1] Speculations on the impact of variations in surface solar radiation on global warming was responsible for the observed warming. To disentangle surface solar and greenhouse influences on global warming

  6. Global Warming? Reid A. Bryson Ph.D., D.Sc., D.Engr.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Global Warming? Reid A. Bryson Ph.D., D.Sc., D.Engr.1 The Built-in Nonsense Detector Hardly a day Warming". A quick search of the internet uncovers literally hundreds of items about "Global Warming, usually meaning "Global Warming" or some aspect thereof. Whole generations of graduate students have been

  7. http://www.yfes.tn.edu.tw/environment/main1.htm Global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yang-Yuan

    ; : #12; Global warming Stratospheric ozone depletion Acid deposition Deforestation Desertification Ocean

  8. How strong is carbon cycle-climate feedback under global warming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    How strong is carbon cycle-climate feedback under global warming? Haifeng Qian Advisor: Prof. Ning IPCC report, global warming was predicted under different CO2 scenarios. Under such warming conditions carbon cycle to the climate system, which means that under the global warming condition, the ecosystem

  9. Air Pollution Spring 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Jeffrey

    ATS 555 Air Pollution Spring 2010 T Th 11:00 ­ 12:15, NESB 101 Instructor: Prof. Sonia Kreidenweis an understanding of types and sources of air pollution. 2. Examine concentrations of air pollutants and their effects on health and welfare. Review regulations governing air pollution. 3. Examine the meteorological

  10. Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    New Air Conditioning System Uses Desiccant to Transfer Moisture and Increase Efficiency and Capacity

  11. Global warming and the future of coal carbon capture and storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Berlin; Robert M. Sussman

    2007-05-15

    The paper considers how best to change the economic calculus of power plant developers so they internalize CCS costs when selecting new generation technologies. Five policy tools are analyzed: establishing a greenhouse gas cap-and-trade program; imposing carbon taxes; defining CCS systems as a so-called Best Available Control Technology for new power plants under the USA Clean Air Act's New Source Review program; developing a 'low carbon portfolio' standard that requires utilities to provide an increasing proportion of power from low-carbon generation sources over time; and requiring all new coal power plants to meet an 'emission performance' standard that limits CO{sub 2} emissions to levels achievable with CCS systems. Each of these tools has advantages and drawbacks but an emission performance standard for new power plants is likely to be most effective in spurring broad-scale adoption of CCS systems. Chapter headings are: global warming and the future of coal; new coal-fired power plants threaten all other efforts to combat global warming; a potential path to zero emissions through carbon capture and storage; CO{sub 2} capture at coal plants: the promise of IGCC and other technologies; barriers to commercialization of IGCC technology; crossing the chasm: a new policy framework to push ccs implementation forward; encouraging CCS systems with carbon caps and trading programs; using the existing Clean Air Act to require CCS systems for new coal plants; retail low carbon portfolio standard; carbon tax; emission performance standards for new coal power plants; and conclusions. 16 figs.

  12. Momentum Flux Budget across the AirSea Interface under Uniform and Tropical Cyclone Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    into ocean currents is equal to the flux from air (wind stress). However, when the surface wave field grows into currents under TCs. 1. Introduction The passage of a tropical cyclone (TC) over a warm ocean represents one is mainly due to the vertical turbulent mixing induced by the strong momentum flux into ocean currents

  13. Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01

    The supply air temperature set point for a singleduct constant air volume air handling unit (AHU) system is often reset based on either return air temperature or outside air temperature in order to reduce simultaneous cooling and heating energy...

  14. Global crop yield losses from recent warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobell, D; Field, C

    2006-06-02

    Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

  15. More data needed to support or disprove global warming theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-26

    Reports of global warming are prevalent in the popular press. With the exception of Scandinavia, no major energy tax laws have been passed to date. But environmental pressures may change this, and the change could have a profound effect on refiners. These are the views of Gerald T. Westbrook, of TSBV Consultants, Houston. Westbrook summarized recent global-warming research, and his position on the subject, at the National Petroleum Refiners Association annual meeting, held March 16--18, in San Antonio. The greenhouse effect is real, says Westbrook. It is important, however, to distinguish between the two major mechanisms of the greenhouse effect: natural warming and anthropogenic warming (changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases caused by man). Without greenhouse gases the earth`s equilibrium temperature would be {minus}18 C. The effect of the gases is to raise the equilibrium temperature to 15 C. In the early 1980s, computer models estimated global warming over the past 100 years to be as much as 2.3 C. By 1986, those estimates had been reduced to 1.0 C, and in 1988, a range of 0.63 {+-} 0.2 C was reported. In 1995, a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC) cited a range of 0.3--0.6 C. Westbrook asserts that the earth`s motion anomalies--orbit eccentricity, axial tilt, and wobbles--lead to dramatic changes in insolation, and are the dominant force over the last 160,000 years.

  16. The Great Season Climatic Oscillation and the Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucenna, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    The present earth warming up is often explained by the atmosphere gas greenhouse effect. This explanation is in contradiction with the thermodynamics second law. The warming up by greenhouse effect is quite improbable. It is cloud reflection that gives to the earth s ground its 15 degres C mean temperature. Since the reflection of the radiation by gases is negligible, the role of the atmosphere greenhouse gases in the earth warming up by earth radiation reflection loses its importance. We think that natural climatic oscillations contribute more to earth climatic disturbances. The oscillation that we hypothesize to exist has a long period (800 to 1000 years). The glacier melting and regeneration cycles lead to variations in the cold region ocean water density and thermal conductibility according to their salinity. These variations lead one to think about a macro climate oscillating between maximum hot and minimum cold temperatures. This oscillation is materialized by the passages of the planet through hot, mil...

  17. Military implications of global warming. Strategy research project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, P.E.

    1999-05-20

    The 1998 National Security Strategy repeatedly cites global environmental issues as key to the long-term security of the United States. Similarly, US environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current US Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate change. It discusses related economic factors and environmental concerns. It assesses current White House policy as it relates to the US military. It reviews the Department of Defense strategy for energy conservation and reduction of greenhouse gases. Finally, it offers recommendations and options for military involvement to reduce global warming. Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the US military. As the United States leadership in environmental matters encourages global stability, the US military will be able to focus more on readiness and on military training and operations.

  18. Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Rosenfeld, Arthur; Elliot, Matthew

    2009-08-28

    Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduce its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere. This process of 'negative radiative forcing' can help counter the effects of global warming. In addition, cool roofs reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win-win-win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

  19. The 7. global warming international conference and expo: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    This conference was held April 1--3, 1996 in Vienna, Austria. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on global warming. Topics of interest include the following: global and regional natural resource management; energy, transportation, minerals and natural resource management; industrial technology and greenhouse gas emission; strategies for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emission; greenhouse gas production/utilization and carbon budgets; strategies for promoting the understanding of global change; international policy strategy and economics; and global warming and public health. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  20. Alternative Air Conditioning Technologies: Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc, 1992.Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. , 1992.Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. , 1990.

  1. Cantanduanes Street and Other Fictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Fuente, Marco Paolo Reyes

    2013-01-01

    muscles and tendons of dead animals and imagines the moist, warm, comfort they will bring to waiting mouths,

  2. General Air Permits (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any source, including a temporary source, which emits or has the potential to emit any air contaminant requires an air permit. Facilities with potential emissions less than 5 tons per year of any...

  3. Clean Air Bill 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Her Majesty's Stationary Office

    1955-01-01

    The object of this Bill is to implement the principal recommendations in the Report of the Committee on Air Pollution

  4. American Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida, Maine, and Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    1 American Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida, Maine warming has been happening · What might have caused global warming · Whether global warming

  5. on man, nature & air pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2008-01-01

    on man, nature & air pollution About three decades ago, itand episodes of air pollution the following summer. Wetthe increase in air pollution. This hypothesis generated

  6. Role of anthropogenic direct heat emissions in global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Fei; Zhao, Guangju; Gao, Peng; Li, Pengfei

    2015-01-01

    The anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are widely realized as the predominant drivers of global warming, but the huge and increasing anthropogenic direct heat emissions (AHE) has not gained enough attention in terms of its role in the warming of the climate system. Based on two reasonable assumptions of (1) AHE eventually transfers to the Earth energy system and (2) the net warming is only driven by the net radioactive forcing (RF) from either GHG or other causes, we analyzed the role of AHE in global warming. The mean annual total AHE of the four main sources including energy consumption, residual heat of electricity generation, biomass decomposition by land use and cover change (LUCC) and food consumption was estimated to be 4.41*10^20 J in 1970-2010, accounting for 6.23% of the net annual heat increase of the Earth reported by IPCC AR5 for the period. The mean annual radioactive forcing (RF) by AHE was up to 29.94 mW m^(-2) globally in 1981-2010, less than the annual net increase of total GH...

  7. Global warming. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning policies and general studies on global warming. Topics include the greenhouse effect, global climatic models, and climatic effects from combustion of fossil fuels. (Contains a minimum of 173 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. 8th Global warming international conference and exposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    Abstracts are presented from The 8th Annual Global Warming international conference and expo. Topics centered around greenhouse gas emission and disposal methods, policy and economics, carbon budget, and resource management. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  9. Global warming and its implications for conservation. 1. Overview.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creel, Scott

    Global warming and its implications for conservation. 1. Overview. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) consensus forecast for climate is an increase in global temperature by 2 - 5o C of atmospheric CO2 would yield an increase in global mean temperature of T2X = 3.5o C (6.7 o F, with 95

  10. Global warming and the regions in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvi, S.H.; Elagib, N.

    1996-12-31

    The announcement of NASA scientist James Hansen made at a United States Senate`s hearing in June 1988 about the onset of global warming ignited a whirlwind of public concern in United States and elsewhere in the world. Although the temperature had shown only a slight shift, its warming has the potential of causing environmental catastrophe. According to atmosphere scientists, the effect of higher temperatures will change rainfall patterns--some areas getting drier, some much wetter. The phenomenon of warming in the Arabian Gulf region was first reported by Alvi for Bahrain and then for Oman. In the recent investigations, the authors have found a similar warming in other regions of the Arabian Gulf and in several regions of Sudan in Africa. The paper will investigate the observed data on temperature and rainfall of Seeb in Oman, Bahrain, International Airport in Kuwait as index stations for the Arabian Gulf and Port Sudan, Khartoum and Malakal in the African Continent of Sudan. Based on various statistical methods, the study will highlight a drying of the regions from the striking increase in temperature and decline of rainfall amount. Places of such environmental behavior are regarded as desertifying regions. Following Hulme and Kelly, desertification is taken to mean land degradation in dryland regions, or the permanent decline in the potential of the land to support biological activity, and hence human welfare. The paper will also, therefore, include the aspect of desertification for the regions under consideration.

  11. What Geology Has To Say About Global Warming William Menke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menke, William

    insights about earth's climate that can be applied to the present-day global warming debate. The geological record of ancient climate is excellent. Ancient temperatures can be determined very precisely, because the composition of the shells of corals and other marine organisms varies measurably with it. Furthermore

  12. Tachyon warm inflationary universe model in the weak dissipative regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergio del Campo; Ramon Herrera; Joel Saavedra

    2008-12-05

    Warm inflationary universe model in a tachyon field theory is studied in the weak dissipative regime. We develop our model for an exponential potential and the dissipation parameter $\\Gamma=\\Gamma_0$=constant. We describe scalar and tensor perturbations for this scenario.

  13. Primordial fluctuations of the metric in the warm inflation scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauricio Bellini

    2000-05-16

    I consider a semiclassical expansion of the scalar field in the warm inflation scenario. I study the evolution for the fluctuations of the metric around the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker one. The formalism predicts that, in the power-law expansion universe, the fluctuations of the metric decreases with time.

  14. Plants reverse warming effect on ecosystem water balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zavaleta, Erika

    that global warming may increase aridity in water- limited ecosystems by accelerating evapotranspiration. We University, Stanford, CA, and approved June 16, 2003 (received for review April 7, 2003) Models predict for the unexpected rise in soil moisture. Our findings illustrate the potential for organism­environment interactions

  15. The Impact of Boreal Forest Fire on Climate Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, Charles

    The Impact of Boreal Forest Fire on Climate Warming J. T. Randerson,1 * H. Liu,2 M. G. Flanner,1 S measurements and analysis of a boreal forest fire, integrating the effects of greenhouse gases, aerosols, black the concept of radiative forcing (12) to assess quantitatively the net effect of a boreal forest fire

  16. Non-linear Langmuir waves in a warm quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubinov, Alexander E., E-mail: dubinov-ae@yandex.ru; Kitaev, Ilya N. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center—All-Russia Scientific and Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF), 37 Mira Ave., Nizhny Novgorod region, Sarov 607188 (Russian Federation); Sarov State Institute of Physics and Technology (SarFTI), National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 607186 Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-15

    A non-linear differential equation describing the Langmuir waves in a warm quantum electron-ion plasma has been derived. Its numerical solutions of the equation show that ordinary electronic oscillations, similar to the classical oscillations, occur along with small-scale quantum Langmuir oscillations induced by the Bohm quantum force.

  17. I. PROBLEM ADDRESSED In recent years, global warming, depleting conventional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramakrishnan, Naren

    such as solar panels, wind turbines or diesel generators. Typically, and more so recently dueI. PROBLEM ADDRESSED In recent years, global warming, depleting conventional sources of energy physical and operational state, including environmental sensor data (e.g. temperature), operational state

  18. Energy and Global Warming Impacts of CFC Alternative Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;Energy and Global Warming Impacts of CFC Alternative Technologies S. K. Fischer P. J. Hughes P Arthur D. Little, Inc. Sponsored by the Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS) and the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) December 1991 #12;This report was printed as two

  19. PAINTING TALENT QUESTIONNAIRE: Before beginning painting warm-up session

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haro, Antonio

    PAINTING TALENT QUESTIONNAIRE: Before beginning painting warm-up session: Age: _______ Gender: M the following questions: (1) Have you ever painted as an artistic activity, as opposed to painting a house? Yes / No (1a) If you answered yes to Question 1, when was the last time you painted? (2) Have you ever drawn

  20. Dynamics of substructures in warm dark-matter cosmologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bastian Arnold; Alexander Knebe; Chris Power; Brad K. Gibson

    2008-11-13

    We performed cosmological simulations based upon both a cold dark matter (CDM) and a warm dark matter (WDM) model. The focus of our investigations lies with selected spatial and kinematic properties of substructure halos (subhalos) orbiting within host halos, that form in both dark-matter cosmologies. We aim at using the dynamics of the subhalos as a probe of the respective cosmology.

  1. ORIGINAL PAPER Global warming impact on the dominant precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    ORIGINAL PAPER Global warming impact on the dominant precipitation processes in the Middle East a good job of simulating the precipitation for most of the domain, though it performs relatively poorly. The results also show widespread decreases in precipitation over the eastern Mediterranean and Turkey

  2. Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

  3. Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference Department: Chemical permit regulations are designed to track, record, and control air pollutants belonging to several on chemical classifications. This reference outlines major categories of air pollutants found at SLAC

  4. How Can We Control Fomes Root and Butt Rot?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forest Area Is Distributed As Follows: · Cool Wet 40 · Cool Moist 17 · Warm Wet 06 · Warm Moist 27 · Warm Dry 10 (% Total High Forest Area) #12;How Do We Assess Hazard? 2. Soils Hazard Rating: · Brown earths soils #12;COOL AND WET 100% Low Hazard #12;51% Low 49% Medium COOL AND MOIST #12;12% Low 56% Medium 32

  5. Impact of Desert Dust Radiative Forcing on Sahel Precipitation: Relative Importance of Dust Compared to Sea Surface Temperature Variations, Vegetation Changes, and Greenhouse Gas Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Vegetation Changes, and Greenhouse Gas Warming M ASARU Yin the simulation. Greenhouse gas warming * The Nationalvegetation change, and greenhouse gas (GHG) warming using

  6. Comparison of Community Climate System Model Simulations and Paleoclimate Data for the Western Pacific Warm Pool Climate during the Last Glacial Maximum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittman, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Pacific Warm Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Proxy datain and around the warm pool. Streamlines are coloredyears ago. CLIMAP found warm pool cooling of ?1 ? C during

  7. Air to Air Communication Protocol Arjan Durresi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Raj

    1 Air to Air Communication Protocol Arjan Durresi1 , Vamsi Paruchuri1 , Leonard Barolli2 and Raj. Louis, MO 63130, USA 314-935-4963, jain@cse.wustl.edu Abstract--We present Air to Air Communication (AAC........................................................2 3. AIR TO AIR COMMUNICATION..............................3 4. SIMULATIONS

  8. Oil and Gas Air Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

    2006-01-01

    Most conventional air heaters adopt indirect heat transfer, which uses combustion gases to indirectly heat fresh air by heating surfaces to generate hot air used for material drying and dehumidification. We call them indirect air heaters. However...

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulholland, James A.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Emergency Department Visits Kristi Busico ambient air pollutants and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the roles of the physicochemical components the relation between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular conditions using ambient air quality data

  10. Macroeconomic Impacts of the California Global Warming Solutions Act on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    101 Macroeconomic Impacts of the California Global Warming Solutions Act on the Southern California California Assembly Bill 32 (AB32), the California Global Warming Solutions Act, calls for the cutback

  11. Political Polarization over Global Warming: Analyzing Twitter Data on Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukthankar, Gita Reese

    Political Polarization over Global Warming: Analyzing Twitter Data on Climate Change Alireza/Democrats are more likely to ex- press personal concern about global warming than are self-identified conservatives

  12. Global warming and temperature-mediated increases in cercarial emergence in trematode parasites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poulin, Robert

    Global warming and temperature-mediated increases in cercarial emergence in trematode parasites R Global warming can affect the world's biota and the functioning of ecosystems in many indirect ways

  13. Review: Dead Pool: Lake Powell, Global Warming, and the Future of Water in the West

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenkins, David

    2009-01-01

    Review: Dead Pool: Lake Powell, Global Warming, and theJames Lawrence. Dead Pool: Lake Powell, Global Warming, andFortunately, too, Dead Pool is not simply about Glen Canyon

  14. The Impact of Global Warming on U.S. Agriculture: An Econometric Analysis of Optimal Growing Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlenker, Wolfram; Hanemann, W. Michael; Fisher, Anthony C.

    2004-01-01

    Really Bene?t From Global Warming? Accounting for IrrigationR. , The Economics of Global Warming, Washington, D.C. :1992. , “The Impact of Global Warming on Agriculture:

  15. The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillage management is only realized when practised in the long term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Six, J; Ogle, S M; Breidt, F J; Conant, R T; Mosier, A R; Paustian, K

    2004-01-01

    The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillageNT adoption reduces the net global warming potential (GWP)soil for purposes of global warming mitigation. Our results

  16. Is global warming just a giant natural fluctuation? When estimating voter's intentions, pollsters know that statements like "40%

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    Is global warming just a giant natural fluctuation? When estimating voter theory. So what about global warming? Shouldn't we apply the same on determining how much confidence we have in the truth of anthropogenic warming

  17. Impacts of Central America gap winds on the SST annual cycle in the eastern Pacific warm pool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Fengpeng; Yu, Jin-Yi

    2006-01-01

    the eastern Pacific warm pool, gap winds, thermocline dome,in the eastern Pacific warm pool Fengpeng Sun 1 and Jin-Yiin the eastern Pacific warm pool and its relation to Central

  18. The distinct behaviors of Pacific and Indian Ocean warm pool properties on seasonal and interannual time scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Seon Tae; Yu, Jin-Yi; Lu, Mong-Ming

    2012-01-01

    are there trop- ical warm pools? , J. Clim. , 18, 5294–5331,P. J. Webster (1999), Warm pool SST variability in relationin the western Pacific warm pool, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. ,

  19. A retrospective study of ecosystem effects of the 1976/77 regime shift in the eastern Pacific warm pool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vilchis, L. Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    of the eastern Pacific warm pool: Can community structure bein the eastern Pacific warm pool A dissertation submitted inthe eastern Pacific warm pool (5-20°N, 90-110°W). Values are

  20. Warming accelerates decomposition of decades-old carbon in forest soils.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, FM; Torn, MS; Trumbore, SE

    2012-01-01

    and climate warming in earth system models is particularlyor ?eld studies. Earth system models are designed to predict

  1. Estimated impacts of climate warming on California’s high-elevation hydropower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madani, Kaveh; Lund, Jay R.

    2010-01-01

    Cubed M (2005) Potential changes in hydropower productionpotential effects of climate warming on high-elevation hydropower

  2. Global Warming Twenty Years Later: Tipping Points Near James Hansen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming Twenty Years Later: Tipping Points Near James Hansen1 My presentation today is exactly 20 years after my 23 June 1988 testimony to Congress, which alerted the public that global warming has developed between what is understood about global warming by the relevant scientific community

  3. Climate changes mirror global warming predictions BY THOMAS CROWLEY Guest columnist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate changes mirror global warming predictions BY THOMAS CROWLEY Guest columnist The Herald" and must reflect, at least in part, the climate system response to the increase in global warming. What if we wanted to prevent global warming. This is just doomsday speaking of the same type that he

  4. What should we do about the dangers posed by global warming? Judging by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    What should we do about the dangers posed by global warming? Judging by the collective actions rainandozonedepletioninanattempt toconfusethepublicaboutthescience of global warming and delay regula- tion of greenhouse of Engineering,itdiffersfromtheothers in its attitude towards those who deny the reality of global warming, or hu

  5. Estimating the Response of Extreme Precipitation over Mid-latitude1 Mountains to Global Warming2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estimating the Response of Extreme Precipitation over Mid-latitude1 Mountains to Global Warming2@atmos.washington.edu8 Generated using v4.3.1 (5-19-2014) of the AMS LATEX template1 #12;ABSTRACT Global warming induced-wave theory as arising from global-warming in- duced changes in the upper-tropospheric static stability

  6. Indian Ocean Dipole Response to Global Warming in the CMIP5 Multimodel Ensemble*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    Indian Ocean Dipole Response to Global Warming in the CMIP5 Multimodel Ensemble* XIAO-TONG ZHENG,1 The response of the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) mode to global warming is investigated based on simu- lations- mospheric feedback and zonal wind variance weaken under global warming. The negative skewness in eastern

  7. Global warming shifts Pacific tropical cyclone location MinHo Kwon,1,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Tim

    Global warming shifts Pacific tropical cyclone location Tim Li,1 MinHo Kwon,1,3 Ming Zhao,3 Jong) is used to investigate the change of tropical cyclone frequency in the North Pacific under global warming, and W. Yu (2010), Global warming shifts Pacific tropical cyclone location, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L

  8. The Threat to the Planet* Dark & Bright Sides of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    The Threat to the Planet* Dark & Bright Sides of Global Warming Jim Hansen 3 October 2007 presented provides most important information on global warming. Recorded human history occurs within the Holocene for these large climate change is perturbations of Earth's orbit. #12;Continental Drift Fig. 1 "Global Warming

  9. Mechanisms for Tropical Tropospheric Circulation Change in Response to Global Warming*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    Mechanisms for Tropical Tropospheric Circulation Change in Response to Global Warming* JIAN MA change in global warming is studied by comparing the response of an atmospheric general circulation model globally in response to SST warming. A diagnostic framework is developed based on a linear baroclinic model

  10. Reply to comment by Joseph J. Barsugli on ``Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes''

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunzai

    Reply to comment by Joseph J. Barsugli on ``Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes on ``Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes'', Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L01706, doi:10, may represent global warming, ENSO-like (including the Pacific decadal oscillation), and the Atlantic

  11. 16 APRIL 2004 VOL 304 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org388 Future Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gazzaniga, Michael

    16 APRIL 2004 VOL 304 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org388 Future Global Warming Scenarios INA STUDY the short-term consequences of global warming. This scenario, which predicts a shutdown of the Atlantic, if global warming were to cause a repeat of such an abrupt change, the consequences would be akin to those

  12. Teaching Energy Balance using Round Numbers: A Quantitative Approach to the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blais, Brian

    and Global Warming Brian Blais Science and Technology Department Bryant College bblais@bryant.edu August 29, 2003 Abstract The idea of energy balance used to explain the greenhouse effect and global warming analysis, but is much more intuitive for students. 1 Introduction The topic of global warming is of current

  13. Role of global warming on the statistics of record-breaking temperatures S. Redner1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redner, Sidney

    Role of global warming on the statistics of record-breaking temperatures S. Redner1, * and Mark R in Philadelphia, as a function of the number of years of observation. We then consider the case of global warming question arises: is global warming the cause of such heat waves or are they merely statistical fluctuations

  14. DO GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE REPRESENT A SERIOUS THREAT TO OUR WELFARE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DO GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE REPRESENT A SERIOUS THREAT TO OUR WELFARE AND ENVIRONMENT? By Michael E. Mann I. Introduction The subjects of "global warming" and "climate change" have become parts of both the popular lexicon and the public discourse. Discussions of global warming often evoke passionate

  15. Global warming and hyperbolic discounting 207 Giannini Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry S.

    Global warming and hyperbolic discounting Larry Karp 207 Giannini Hall, University of California-lived environmental problems such as global warming has two disadvantages: the prescribed policy is sensitive illustrates the role of hyperbolic discounting in a model of global warming. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  16. Thursday, November 13 2014 Global warming could increase U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romps, David M.

    Thursday, November 13 2014 Ad Wonkblog Global warming could increase U.S. lightning strikes by 50, a team of researchers deliver an alarming prediction: A global warming world will see a major increase affect lightning. The upshot was that while precipitation may increase in some areas under global warming

  17. Response of the Indian Ocean Basin Mode and Its Capacitor Effect to Global Warming*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    Response of the Indian Ocean Basin Mode and Its Capacitor Effect to Global Warming* XIAO-TONG ZHENG under global warming are in- vestigated using a pair of integrations with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics itself weakens in response to global warming. In the prior spring, an antisymmetric pattern of rainfall

  18. Journal of Mammalogy, 84(2):354368, 2003 MAMMALIAN RESPONSE TO GLOBAL WARMING ON VARIED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    354 Journal of Mammalogy, 84(2):354­368, 2003 MAMMALIAN RESPONSE TO GLOBAL WARMING ON VARIED how Rocky Mountain mam- malian communities changed during past global warming events characterized not) in different ways. Nevertheless, examination of past global warming episodes suggested

  19. VIRGINIA CENTER FOR COAL & ENERGY RESEARCH WINTER 1998-99 / VOL. XVIII, NO. 1 Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VIRGINIA CENTER FOR COAL & ENERGY RESEARCH WINTER 1998-99 / VOL. XVIII, NO. 1 Global Warming Our over global warming continue, becoming more strident again as differing models predict widely varying, following the warmth of 1998, here are our two cents worth on global warming, written in the knowledge

  20. Detection-attribution of global warming at the regional scale: How to deal with precipitation variability?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Detection-attribution of global warming at the regional scale: How to deal with precipitation record over recent decades. Citation: Douville, H. (2006), Detection-attribution of global warming at recent climate scenarios, Douville et al. [2005] showed that the precipitation response to global warming

  1. A SLIPPERY SLOPE: HOW MUCH GLOBAL WARMING CONSTITUTES "DANGEROUS ANTHROPOGENIC INTERFERENCE"?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    A SLIPPERY SLOPE: HOW MUCH GLOBAL WARMING CONSTITUTES "DANGEROUS ANTHROPOGENIC INTERFERENCE on the global warming that can be tolerated without risking dangerous anthropogenic interference with climate. I" mainly as a metaphor for the danger posed by global warming. So I changed "Hell" to "disaster." What

  2. Needed: A Realistic Strategy for Global Warming Henry D. Jacoby, Ronald G. Prinn and Richard Schmalensee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Needed: A Realistic Strategy for Global Warming Henry D. Jacoby, Ronald G. Prinn and Richard of this issue. One day we hear that all responsible scientists agree that global warming is a dagger be slashed immediately to save our planet. The next day we're told that global warming is the illegitimate

  3. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature09407 Global metabolic impacts of recent climate warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huey, Raymond B.

    LETTER doi:10.1038/nature09407 Global metabolic impacts of recent climate warming Michael E. Dillon and projected climate warming2,13,14 . Global warming is probably having profound and diverse effects phenology3,4 , community interactions5 , genetics3,6 and extinctions7 have been attributed to recent global

  4. NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory Global warming and U.S. landfalling hurricanes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory Global warming and U.S. landfalling worldwide (plus many TV & radio shows). An AOML's paper "Global warming and United States landfalling & Meteorological Laboratory Warming Occurs Almost Everywhere over the Global Ocean The first EOF mode from

  5. A Vast Machine Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    A Vast Machine Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming Paul N. Edwards models, climate data, and the politics of global warming / Paul N. Edwards. p. cm. Includes this: Global warming is a myth. It's all model predictions, nothing but simulations. Before you believe

  6. Increase of global monsoon area and precipitation under global warming: A robust signal?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Tim

    Increase of global monsoon area and precipitation under global warming: A robust signal? Pang future sea surface temperature (SST) warming patterns. The results show that the global monsoon area. Zhao (2012), Increase of global monsoon area and precipitation under global warming: A robust signal

  7. Global warming of the mantle beneath continents back to the Archaean Nicolas Coltice a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global warming of the mantle beneath continents back to the Archaean Nicolas Coltice a, , Hervé triggering melting events without the involvement of hot plumes. This model, called mantle global warming.R., Bertrand, H., Ricard, Y., Rey, P. (2007) Global warming of the mantle at the origin of flood basalts over

  8. Response of the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent and its Variability to Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    1 Response of the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent and its Variability to Global Warming of the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC) and its variability to global warming is examined where mode water forms. Keywords: North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent, global warming, decadal

  9. 2006 Nature Publishing Group Arctic hydrology during global warming at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    © 2006 Nature Publishing Group Arctic hydrology during global warming at the Palaeocene The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum represents a period of rapid, extreme global warming ,55 million years ago global warming6 . The terrestrial-plant carbon isotope excursion (about 24.5 to 26 per mil

  10. Global warming and changes in risk of concurrent climate extremes: Insights from the 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AghaKouchak, Amir

    Global warming and changes in risk of concurrent climate extremes: Insights from the 2014 for Hydrometeorology and Remote Sensing, University of California, Irvine, California, USA Abstract Global warming The warming global climate has increased concurrent climatic extremes such as droughts and heat waves [Leonard

  11. Global warming, convective threshold and false thermostats Ian N. Williams,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global warming, convective threshold and false thermostats Ian N. Williams,1 Raymond T thermostats. Citation: Williams, I. N., R. T. Pierrehumbert, and M. Huber (2009), Global warming, convective. To first order this consists of a shift to warmer temperatures as climate warms, without change of shape

  12. Global warming and positive fitness response in mountain populations of common lizards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danchin, Etienne

    Global warming and positive fitness response in mountain populations of common lizards Lacerta, Madrid, Spain Abstract Recent global warming threatens many species and has already caused population and individual-based approaches. Keywords: body size, fitness, global warming, life-history trade-offs, lizards

  13. Towards a more saline North Atlantic and a fresher Arctic under global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drange, Helge

    Towards a more saline North Atlantic and a fresher Arctic under global warming I. Bethke,1,2,3 T global warming, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L21712, doi:10.1029/ 2006GL027264. 1. Introduction [2.g., Cubasch et al., 2001; Ra¨isa¨nen, 2002]. At the high northern latitudes, a combination of warming

  14. Equatorial currents transport changes for extreme warm and cold events in the Atlantic Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Equatorial currents transport changes for extreme warm and cold events in the Atlantic Ocean Marlos compositedevents.For the cold(warm)eventthe EUC shows a greater (reduced) transport and core velocity, and a deeper.Wainer, Equatorial currents transport changes for extreme warm and cold events in the Atlantic Ocean, Geophys. Res

  15. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System - Compressed Air Tip Sheet #5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-08-01

    BestPractices Program tip sheet discussing how to determine the right air quality for compressed air systems.

  16. Global Warming as a Detectable Thermodynamic Marker of Earth-like Extrasolar Civilizations: The Case for a Telescope like

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdyugina, Svetlana

    1 Global Warming as a Detectable Thermodynamic Marker of Earth-like Extrasolar Civilizations also have broad social implications. Keywords: extraterrestrial civilizations, global warming

  17. Research & Development Roadmap: Next-Generation Low Global Warming...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Refrigerants Refrigerants are used in a wide variety of heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) equipment. The current generation of refrigerants,...

  18. The Theory of Justice in a Warming Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunnas, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Suicide mortality in Finland during an economic cycle, 1985-and Air Pollution in Finland. Scandinavian Economic Historyfor Foreign Affairs of Finland (2010). Appropriations for

  19. A General Systems Theory for Rain Formation in Warm Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2014-08-15

    A cumulus cloud model which can explain the observed characteristics of warm rain formation in monsoon clouds is presented. The model is based on classical statistical physical concepts and satisfies the principle of maximum entropy production. Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal fluctuations that are ubiquitous to all dynamical systems in nature, such as physical, chemical, social, etc and are characterized by inverse power law form for power (eddy energy) spectrum signifying long-range space-time correlations. A general systems theory model for atmospheric flows developed by the author is based on the concept that the large eddy energy is the integrated mean of enclosed turbulent (small scale) eddies. This model gives scale-free universal governing equations for cloud growth processes. The model predicted cloud parameters are in agreement with reported observations, in particular, the cloud dropsize distribution. Rain formation can occur in warm clouds within 30minutes lifetime under favourable conditions of moisture supply in the environment.

  20. Toxicological and epidemiological aspects of global warming on human health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Wakamatsu, K.; Kawahara, I.; Asanuma, S.

    1996-12-31

    Since human activities are responsible for anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions, climate models project an increase in the global surface temperature of 0.9 C to 4.0 C by 2100. For human health, it is projected that global warming may have a critical effect on the increased periods of severe heat stress in summer throughout the world. Global warming may have a critical issue on the increased periods of severe heat stress that have a potential impact on peroxidative damage in humans and animals. Lipid peroxidative damage is markedly related to GSH peroxidase activities, therefore the study was carried out to analyze the relationship between biochemical adaptability and the lipid peroxidative damage especially intracellular structure, such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum depending on the exposure time of heat stress.

  1. Remote sensing, global warming, and vector-borne disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, B.; Beck, L.; Dister, S.; Lobitz, B.

    1997-12-31

    The relationship between climate change and the pattern of vector-borne disease can be viewed at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. At one extreme are changes such as global warming, which are continental in scale and occur over periods of years, decades, or longer. At the opposite extreme are changes associated with severe weather events, which can occur at local and regional scales over periods of days, weeks, or months. Key ecological factors affecting the distribution of vector-borne diseases include temperature, precipitation, and habitat availability, and their impact on vectors, pathogens, reservoirs, and hosts. Global warming can potentially alter these factors, thereby affecting the spatial and temporal patterns of disease.

  2. Global warming: A geothermal evidence from northern Finland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodri, L.

    1996-12-31

    The greatest potential climatic changes induced by an increasing greenhouse effect are expected to occur in the high latitudes. Due to the great natural climatic variability in such areas, it is difficult to detect the greenhouse signal from meteorologic records. A reliable documentation of climate changes requires the examining of all available climatic records. In present study, temperature-depth profiles from two Finnish boreholes from over the Arctic circle have been considered to reconstruct ground surface temperature histories. The holes have been carefully selected to exclude any possible disturbances from underground water circulation, and to minimize the human effects as completely as possible. Both boreholes indicate continuous warming by {approximately}1--1.5 K through the last hundred years. The rate of warming increases from about the 1960`s. The results are in good agreement with those obtained for the Alaskan Arctic in a similar study by Lachenbruch and Marshall.

  3. GIS applications to evaluate public health effects of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regens, J.L.; Hodges, D.G.

    1996-12-31

    Modeling projections of future climatic conditions suggest changes in temperature and precipitation patterns that might induce direct adverse effects on human health by altering the extent and severity of infectious and vector-borne diseases. The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases, for example, could increase substantially in areas where temperature and relative humidity rise. The application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offers new methodologies to evaluate the impact of global warming on changes in the incidence of infectious and vector-borne diseases. This research illustrates the potential analytical and communication uses of GIS for monitoring historical patterns of climate and human health variables and for projecting changes in these health variables with global warming.

  4. Management of Philippine tropical forests: Implications to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasco, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    The first part of the paper presents the massive changes in tropical land management in the Philippines as a result of a {open_quotes}paradigm shift{close_quotes} in forestry. The second part of the paper analyzes the impacts of the above management strategies on global warming, in general, preserved forests are neither sinks not sources of greenhouse gasses (GHG). Reforestation activities are primarily net sinks of carbon specially the use of fast growing reforestation species. Estimates are given for the carbon-sequestering ability of some commonly used species. The last part of the paper policy recommendations and possible courses of action by the government to maximize the role of forest lands in the mitigation of global warming. Private sector initiatives are also explored.

  5. Surface electromagnetic wave equations in a warm magnetized quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Chunhua; Yang, Weihong [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei (China); Wu, Zhengwei, E-mail: wuzw@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Center of Low Temperature Plasma Application, Yunnan Aerospace Industry Company, Kunming, 650229 Yunnan (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-07-15

    Based on the single-fluid plasma model, a theoretical investigation of surface electromagnetic waves in a warm quantum magnetized inhomogeneous plasma is presented. The surface electromagnetic waves are assumed to propagate on the plane between a vacuum and a warm quantum magnetized plasma. The quantum magnetohydrodynamic model includes quantum diffraction effect (Bohm potential), and quantum statistical pressure is used to derive the new dispersion relation of surface electromagnetic waves. And the general dispersion relation is analyzed in some special cases of interest. It is shown that surface plasma oscillations can be propagated due to quantum effects, and the propagation velocity is enhanced. Furthermore, the external magnetic field has a significant effect on surface wave's dispersion equation. Our work should be of a useful tool for investigating the physical characteristic of surface waves and physical properties of the bounded quantum plasmas.

  6. Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longstreth, J.

    1993-06-01

    Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global warming and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches.

  7. Inert-sterile neutrino: Cold or warm dark matter candidate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Osoba, Efunwande [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio [Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-03-15

    In usual particle models, sterile neutrinos can account for the dark matter of the Universe only if they have masses in the keV range and are warm dark matter. Stringent cosmological and astrophysical bounds, in particular, imposed by x-ray observations, apply to them. We point out that in a particular variation of the inert doublet model, sterile neutrinos can account for the dark matter in the Universe and may be either cold or warm dark matter candidates, even for masses much above the keV range. These inert-sterile neutrinos, produced nonthermally in the early Universe, would be stable and have very small couplings to standard model particles, rendering very difficult their detection in either direct or indirect dark matter searches. Their existence could be revealed only by discovering other particles of the model in collider experiments.

  8. Evidences of global warming for various regions of Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batyreva, O.V.; Pischehko, V.A.; Vilfand, R.M.; Vasiliev, A.A.

    1997-12-31

    The automatical classification of mean monthly temperature fields of Russia was carried out. The data of 42 years in regular grid-points 5 x 10{degree} of Northern Hemisphere were used. The combination of land`s algorithm of K-averages was applied. The increasing of prevailing occurrence of warm types during last decades was discovered. It turned out that different regions had different dynamics of type occurrences.

  9. Chemical and mechanical instability in warm and dense nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavagno, A; 10.1103/PhysRevC.86.024917

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the possible thermodynamic instability in a warm and dense nuclear medium (Tliquid-gas phase transition, we show that the nucleon-Delta matter phase transition is characterized by both mechanical instability (fluctuations on the baryon density) and by chemical-diffusive instability (fluctuations on the charge concentration) in asymmetric nuclear matter. We then perform an investigation and a comparative study on the different nature of such instabilities and phase transitions.

  10. Warm inflation and scalar perturbations of the metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauricio Bellini

    2001-01-16

    A second-order expansion for the quantum fluctuations of the matter field was considered in the framework of the warm inflation scenario. The friction and Hubble parameters were expended by means of a semiclassical approach. The fluctuations of the Hubble parameter generates fluctuations of the metric. These metric fluctuations produce an effective term of curvature. The power spectrum for the metric fluctuations can be calculated on the infrared sector.

  11. Warm inflation with back - reaction: a stochastic approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauricio Bellini

    1999-10-25

    I study a stochastic approach for warm inflation considering back - reaction of the metric with the fluctuations of matter field. This formalism takes into account the local inhomogeneities fo the spacetime in a globally flat Friedmann - Robertson - Walker metric. The stochastic equations for the fluctuations of the matter field and the metric are obtained. Finally, the dynamics for the amplitude of these fluctuations in a power - law expansion for the universe are examined.

  12. Cores and cusps in warm dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco [IFIC, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, E-46071, Valencia (Spain); Dalal, Neal, E-mail: villa@ific.uv.es, E-mail: neal@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON, M5S3H8 (Canada)

    2011-03-01

    The apparent presence of large core radii in Low Surface Brightness galaxies has been claimed as evidence in favor of warm dark matter. Here we show that WDM halos do not have cores that are large fractions of the halo size: typically, r{sub core}/r{sub 200}?<10{sup ?3}. This suggests an astrophysical origin for the large cores observed in these galaxies, as has been argued by other authors.

  13. Indoor Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In Focus For decades, teams of Berkeley Lab scientists have investigated the ways that indoor air quality affects human health-from cognitive ability to personal comfort...

  14. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Ronald G. (Los Alamos, NM); Salazar, Samuel A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  15. Man made global warming explained - closing the blinds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, T

    2010-01-01

    One of the big problems of the age concerns 'Global Warming', and whether it is 'man-made' or 'natural'. Most climatologists believe that it is very likely to be the former but some scientists (mostly non-climatologists) subscribe to the latter. Unsurprisingly, the population at large is often confused and and is not convinced either way. Here we try to explain the principles of man-made global warming in a simple way. Our purpose is to try to understand the story which the climatologists are telling us through their rather complicated general circulation models. Although the effects in detail are best left to the climatologists' models, we show that for the Globe as a whole the effects of man-made global warming can be demonstrated in a simple way. The simple model of only the direct heating from the absorption of infrared radiation, illustrates the main principles of the science involved. The predicted temperature increase due to the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere over the last century descr...

  16. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun

    2005-08-15

    Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Direct health effects of global warming in Japan and China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Tamura, K.

    1997-12-31

    Combustion of fossil fuels and industrial and agricultural activities are resulting in greater emissions of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, therefore contributing to global warming. Using general circulation models, it is estimated that surface temperatures in temperate regions will rise 1 to 3 degrees C during the next 100 years. Because global warming may increase the frequency and length of high temperatures during hot summer months, various health risks caused by heat stress have been studied. According to our epidemiological survey, the incidence of heat-related illness was significantly correlated to hot environments in Tokyo, Japan and in Nanjing and Wuhan, China. The epidemiological results also showed that the incidence of heat-related morbidity and mortality in the elderly increased very rapidly in summer. The regression analysis on these data showed that the number of heat stroke patients increased exponentially when the mean daily temperature and maximum daily temperature exceeded 27C and 32C in Tokyo and 31C and 36C in Wuhan and Nanjing, respectively. Since the incidence of heat-related morbidity and mortality has been shown to increase as a result of exposure to long periods of hot summer temperatures, it is important to determine to what extent the incidence of heat stress-related morbidity and mortality will be affected as a result of global warming.

  18. Winners and losers in a world with global warming: Noncooperation, altruism, and social welfare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caplan, A.J.; Ellis, C.J.; Silva, E.C.D.

    1999-05-01

    In this paper, global warming is an asymmetric transboundary externality which benefits some countries or regions and harms others. Few environmental problems have captured the public`s imagination as much and attracted as much scrutiny as global warming. The general perception is that global warming is a net social bad, and that across-the-board abatement of greenhouse gas emissions is therefore desirable. Despite many interesting academic contributions, not all of the basic economics of this phenomenon have been fully worked out. The authors use a simple two-country model to analyze the effects of global warming on resource allocations, the global-warming stock, and national and global welfare.

  19. Leads Tactical Air Control Party (TACP) and Air Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Air LiAison officer Leads Tactical Air Control Party (TACP) and Air Support Operations Center (ASOC) operations. Provides Command and Control, and Execution of Air, Space, and Cyber power. Primary advisor and advocate to the Ground Force Commander ensuring effective Air, Space, and Cyber power integration with US

  20. Appendix F. Air Permits Appendix F. Air Permits F-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Appendix F. Air Permits #12;#12;Appendix F. Air Permits F-3 Table F.1. Air Permits at the Y-12 Chemical Process Operation 01-0020-21 554701 Air Bearing Operation 01-0020-05 554701 Special Processing Purification Facility #12;Oak Ridge Reservation F-4 Appendix F. Air Permits Table F.2. Oak Ridge National

  1. Appendix E. Air Permits Appendix E. Air Permits E-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Appendix E. Air Permits #12;#12;Appendix E. Air Permits E-3 Table E.1. Air permits at the Y-12 Chemical Process Operation 01-0020-21 554701 Air Bearing Operation 01-0020-05 554701 Special Processing Operation 01-0020-68 554701 Disassembly and Storage Operation #12;Oak Ridge Reservation E-4 Appendix E. Air

  2. History of Air Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    We take it for granted but what would life be like without the air conditioner? Once considered a luxury, this invention is now an essential, allowing us to cool everything from homes, businesses, businesses, data centers, laboratories and other buildings vital to our daily lives. Explore this timeline to learn some of the key dates in the history of air conditioning.

  3. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  4. Compressed Air System Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    1999-01-01

    Several years ago I went to a gas station and noticed that my car's tires were low on air. I saw the gas station had an air compressor, but it cost a quarter to use the compressor. I paid my quarter and used the compressor. I realized...

  5. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  6. EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, Neal.A.

    PURPOSE: To minimise emissions and discharges to air from boilers, fume cupboards, air conditioning Act 1993. SCOPE: All air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment METHOD: Air-conditioning or fluorinated greenhouse gases (air conditioning units, refrigeration units etc.) 2. Several approved

  7. Home News & Views Columns Correspondents Community Forum Arts Calendar February 19, 2008 Area Experts Debate Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trenberth, Kevin Edward

    Experts Debate Global Warming Editor's Comment: While the issue of man-caused global warming is much more people on the street if mankind's activities are causing global warming, and at least eight will say yes-have distorted the subject of human-induced global warming out of all sensible proportion. Many have been lead

  8. ATM S 211 Climate and Climate Change Prof. David Catling EXAMPLES OF MISINFORMATION FROM GLOBAL WARMING DENIERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catling, David C.

    in great detail in the IPCC report. The IPCC consensus concluded: - There was a global warming trend warming. Kuwaiti Foundation funded Balling's skeptic book on global warming. Prof. Richard Lindzen (MIT) Mostly has his own scientific reasons for "opposing" global warming. But 1991 trip to Senate hearings

  9. Global Climate Change Response Program: Potential regional impacts of global warming on precipitation in the western United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leverson, V.

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to build upon a previous Global Climate Change Response Program investigation in which an initial `first guess` climate change scenario was derived for the Western United States. Using the scenario`s hypothesized northward shift in the mean wintertime storm track, historical upper-air patterns in the atmosphere were searched to identify winter months (December, January, or February) that would serve as appropriate global warming analogues (GWA). Contour charts were generated of four geopotential height parameters. Specific pattern configurations of the four parameters were identified that reflected the altered storm track pattern, and guidelines for selecting suitable analogues based on the configurations were developed. Monthly mean precipitation values for the GWA months at three climatological divisions in Western Montana, northern Utah, and east central Arizona were compared with median values for the 1946-89 period to determine if any significant differences existed.

  10. Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    limits and permitting and operational requirements for facilities that may contribute to air emissions. General air quality standards and standards for specific contaminants are...

  11. Abatement of Air Pollution: Prohibition of Air Pollution (Connecticut...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    All air pollution not otherwise covered by these regulations is prohibited. Stationary sources which cause air pollution must be operated in accordance with all applicable...

  12. Abatement of Air Pollution: Hazardous Air Pollutants (Connecticut...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    allowable stack concentrations and hazard limiting values for the emission of hazardous air pollutants. The regulations also discuss sampling procedures for hazardous air...

  13. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 7 - Emission of Air Contaminant...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with the enjoyment of life and property. The criteria for determining compliance is listed in the regulations, and is based on other air pollution and ambient air standards...

  14. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  15. Renewables and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wooley, D.R.

    2000-08-01

    The US heavy reliance on fossil fuels is a central obstacle to improving air quality and preventing catastrophic climate change. To solve this problem will require a combination of financial incentives and market rules that strongly encourage development of renewable energy resources to meet electric power demand. One promising policy option is to allow renewable energy resources to directly participate in air pollution emission trading mechanisms. Currently, the clean air benefits of renewable energy generally go unrecognized by regulators, under-appreciated by consumers and uncompensated by markets. Renewable energy is a key clean air alternative to conventional electricity generation, and the development of renewables could be stimulated by changes to the Clean Air Act's emissions trading programs. As Congress revisits clean air issues over the next several years, renewable energy representatives could push for statutory changes that reward the renewable energy industry for the air quality benefits it provides. By also becoming involved in key US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state rule-making cases, the renewables industry could influence the structure of emissions trading programs and strengthen one of the most persuasive arguments for wind, solar and biomass energy development.

  16. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Among all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.

  17. The stability of the thermohaline circulation in global warming experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmittner, A.; Stocker, T.F.

    1999-04-01

    A simplified climate model of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system is used to perform extensive sensitivity studies concerning possible future climate change induced by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Supplemented with an active atmospheric hydrological cycle, experiments with different rates of CO{sub 2} increase and different climate sensitivities are performed. The model exhibits a threshold value of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration beyond which the North Atlantic Deep Water formation stops and never recovers. For a climate sensitivity that leads to an equilibrium warming of 3.6 C for a doubling of CO{sub 2} and a rate of CO{sub 2} increase of 1% yr{sup {minus}1}, the threshold lies between 650 and 700 ppmv. Moreover, it is shown that the stability of the thermohaline circulation depends on the rate of increase of greenhouse gases. For a slower increase of atmospheric pCO{sub 2} the final amount that can be reached without a shutdown of the circulation is considerably higher. This rate-sensitive response is due to the uptake of heat and excess freshwater from the uppermost layers to the deep ocean. The increased equator-to-pole freshwater transport in a warmer atmosphere is mainly responsible for the cessation of deep water formation in the North Atlantic. Another consequence of the enhanced latent heat transport is a stronger warming at high latitudes. A model version with fixed water vapor transport exhibits uniform warming at all latitudes. The inclusion of a simple parameterization of the ice-albedo feedback increases the model sensitivity and further decreases the pole-to-equator temperature difference in a greenhouse climate. The possible range of CO{sub 2} threshold concentrations and its dependency on the rate of CO{sub 2} increase, on the climate sensitivity, and on other model parameters are discussed.

  18. Current status and direction of US global warming policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D.

    1997-12-31

    The pace and intensity of U.S. global warming efforts have been increasing over the past few years for three main reasons: (1) steady improvement in the underlying science that is in turn strengthening public support for action; (2) the likelihood that the United States will fall short of our national goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000; and (3) U.S. participation in international negotiations to address global climate change. The expansion of U.S. global warming activities can be seen at the state, federal, and international levels. At the state level, for example, a majority of states have completed greenhouse gas emissions inventories, several have undertaken analyses of mitigation options, and some are already beginning to take action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. At the federal level, all federal agencies with an interest in global warming are working together to define the likely consequences of continued increases in greenhouse gas emissions, inform the public about Such consequences, and assess the costs and benefits of different response options. Among the response options being assessed are actions to expand the use of energy efficient technologies; new controls on greenhouse gas emissions through -- for example - government standards, regulations, or emissions trading programs; and increased research and development of technologies less dependent on fossil fuels. Finally, at the international level, the United States is continuing to develop the position it will take to the climate change negotiations to be held in Japan this December. Among, other things, we have proposed enforceable emissions targets for developed countries, a strong program of reporting and compliance, new efforts by developing countries to prepare emissions inventories and mitigate emissions, and an international emissions trading program.

  19. Interpretation of simulated global warming using a simple model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watterson, I.G.

    2000-01-01

    A simple energy balance model with two parameters, an effective heat capacity and an effective climate sensitivity, is used to interpret six GCM simulations of greenhouse gas-induced global warming. By allowing the parameters to vary in time, the model can be accurately calibrated for each run. It is found that the sensitivity can be approximated as a constant in each case. However, the effective heat capacity clearly varies, and it is important that the energy equation is formulated appropriately, and thus unlike many such models. For simulations with linear forcing and from a cold start, the capacity is in each case close to that of a homogeneous ocean with depth initially 200 m, but increasing some 4.3 m each year, irrespective of the sensitivity and forcing growth rate. Analytic solutions for t his linear capacity function are derived, and these reproduce the GCM runs well, even for cases where the forcing is stabilized after a century or so. The formation of a subsurface maximum in the mean ocean temperature anomaly is a significant feature of such cases. A simple model for a GCM run with a realistic forcing scenario starting from 1,880 is constructed using component results for forcing segments. Given this, an estimate of the cold start error of a simulation of the warming due to forcing after the present would be given by the negative of the temperature drift of the anomaly due to the past forcing. The simple model can evidently be used to give an indication of likely warming curves, at lest for this range of scenarios and GCM sensitivities.

  20. Health Hazards in Indoor Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    Health Hazards in Indoor Air. In Proceedings of the 2010for VOCs from post-1990 indoor air concentration studies inUnion project on indoor air pollutants. Allergy, 2008. 63(

  1. Texas Clean Air Act (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act is designed to safeguard the state's air resources from pollution by requiring the control and abatement of air pollution and emissions of air contaminants, consistent with the protection...

  2. Signal and noise in global warming detection. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    North, G.R.

    1998-11-01

    The specific objectives of this study were the following: (1) What is the expected sampling error and bias incurred in estimation of the global average temperature from a finite number of point gauges? (2) What is the best one can do by optimally arranging N point gauges, how can one make best use of existing data at N point gauges by optimally weighting them? (3) What is a good estimation of the signal of global warming based upon simple models of the climate system? (4) How does one develop an optimal signal detection technique from the knowledge of signal and noise?

  3. The contribution of cosmic rays to global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, Terry

    2011-01-01

    A search has been made for a contribution of the changing cosmic ray intensity to the global warming observed in the last century. The cosmic ray intensity shows a strong 11 year cycle due to solar modulation and the overall rate has decreased since 1900. These changes in cosmic ray intensity are compared to those of the mean global surface temperature to attempt to quantify any link between the two. It is shown that, if such a link exists, the changing cosmic ray intensity contributes less than 8% to the increase in the mean global surface temperature observed since 1900.

  4. Sheet metal stamping die design for warm forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Amit K. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2003-04-22

    In metal stamping dies, by taking advantage of improved material flow by selectively warming the die, flat sections of the die can contribute to the flow of material throughout the workpiece. Local surface heating can be accomplished by placing a heating block in the die. Distribution of heating at the flat lower train central regions outside of the bend region allows a softer flow at a lower stress to enable material flow into the thinner, higher strain areas at the bend/s. The heating block is inserted into the die and is powered by a power supply.

  5. Air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  6. Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences - an ongoing science and policy story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 63 (2013)Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 63 (2013)of the Air & Waste Management Association Publication

  7. Compressed Air Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are incentives for variable frequency drive screw compressors (10-40 HP), air receivers/tanks for load/no-load compressors, cycling refrigerated dryers (up to 200 CFM capacity), no-loss...

  8. Air conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  9. Guide to Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-01

    Air sealing is one of the most cost-effective ways to improve the comfort and energy efficiency of your home. Hire a certified professional contractor for best results.

  10. Air bag restraint device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  11. Retrofit Air Preheat Economics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goolsbee, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Retrofit air preheat systems are the most reliable and efficient means to effect significant energy conservation for large existing industrial furnaces. Units can be quickly installed without a lengthy shutdown, and the furnace efficiency can...

  12. Combustion Air Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughart, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    to 100%. If the air and fuel controls are on automatic but the flue gas oxygen content cannot be lowered to 4% oxygen without the boiler smoking, burner problems may be suspected. The trouble may be traced to dirty or improperly assembled oil guns..., combustion air distribution problems, vaporizing steam control problems, oil viscosity, or flow control problems. It is very important to have all oil guns operating properly before proceeding with a combustion test. The minimum stack gas oxygen level you...

  13. Subarctic warming: Results from the global treeline project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siren, G.; Shen, S.

    1996-12-31

    The authors reported last year at the 6th Global Warming Science and Policy Conference (GW6), April 3--6, 1995, San Francisco USA, the Global Treeline Project (BLECSCO) has definitively established the northward movement in the 20th century of the northernmost limit for pine trees in Finland. this movement is due to climate warming. The Finnish Forest Research Institute has been working on this problem between 1951 and 1996. The authors have observed over half a century the movements of the coniferous treeline. The subarctic pine tree line is used as a permanent bioindicator of climate change. The dynamic pine tree line in the subarctic of Finland serves as a reliable indicator of expected climate change in the future as well as of climatic fluctuations in the past. The FFRI has tracked comprehensively seed year frequencies, performed dendrochronological studies, fire studies, and ecological studies since the abundant seed year of 1948--50 to the present, and discovered that climate change has favored the northward movement of the pine limit. The authors report the detailed scientific methodology, data, and conclusions.

  14. Why the Earth has not warmed as much as expected?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, S.E.

    2010-05-01

    The observed increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST) over the industrial era is less than 40% of that expected from observed increases in long-lived greenhouse gases together with the best-estimate equilibrium climate sensitivity given by the 2007 Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Possible reasons for this warming discrepancy are systematically examined here. The warming discrepancy is found to be due mainly to some combination of two factors: the IPCC best estimate of climate sensitivity being too high and/or the greenhouse gas forcing being partially offset by forcing by increased concentrations of atmospheric aerosols; the increase in global heat content due to thermal disequilibrium accounts for less than 25% of the discrepancy, and cooling by natural temperature variation can account for only about 15%. Current uncertainty in climate sensitivity is shown to preclude determining the amount of future fossil fuel CO2 emissions that would be compatible with any chosen maximum allowable increase in GMST; even the sign of such allowable future emissions is unconstrained. Resolving this situation, by empirical determination of the earth's climate sensitivity from the historical record over the industrial period or through use of climate models whose accuracy is evaluted by their performance over this period, is shown to require substantial reduction in the uncertainty of aerosol forcing over this period.

  15. Persisting cold extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodra, Evan A [ORNL; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of climate model simulations and observations reveal that extreme cold events are likely to persist across each land-continent even under 21st-century warming scenarios. The grid-based intensity, duration and frequency of cold extreme events are calculated annually through three indices: the coldest annual consecutive three-day average of daily maximum temperature, the annual maximum of consecutive frost days, and the total number of frost days. Nine global climate models forced with a moderate greenhouse-gas emissions scenario compares the indices over 2091 2100 versus 1991 2000. The credibility of model-simulated cold extremes is evaluated through both bias scores relative to reanalysis data in the past and multi-model agreement in the future. The number of times the value of each annual index in 2091 2100 exceeds the decadal average of the corresponding index in 1991 2000 is counted. The results indicate that intensity and duration of grid-based cold extremes, when viewed as a global total, will often be as severe as current typical conditions in many regions, but the corresponding frequency does not show this persistence. While the models agree on the projected persistence of cold extremes in terms of global counts, regionally, inter-model variability and disparity in model performance tends to dominate. Our findings suggest that, despite a general warming trend, regional preparedness for extreme cold events cannot be compromised even towards the end of the century.

  16. Why hasn't earth warmed as much as expected?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, S.E.; Charlson, R.; Kahn, R.; Ogren, J.; Rodhe, H.

    2010-03-15

    The observed increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST) over the industrial era is less than 40% of that expected from observed increases in long-lived greenhouse gases together with the best-estimate equilibrium climate sensitivity given by the 2007 Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Possible reasons for this warming discrepancy are systematically examined here. The warming discrepancy is found to be due mainly to some combination of two factors: the IPCC best estimate of climate sensitivity being too high and/or the greenhouse gas forcing being partially offset by forcing by increased concentrations of atmospheric aerosols; the increase in global heat content due to thermal disequilibrium accounts for less than 25% of the discrepancy, and cooling by natural temperature variation can account for only about 15%. Current uncertainty in climate sensitivity is shown to preclude determining the amount of future fossil fuel CO2 emissions that would be compatible with any chosen maximum allowable increase in GMST; even the sign of such allowable future emissions is unconstrained. Resolving this situation by empirical determination of Earth’s climate sensitivity from the historical record over the industrial period or through use of climate models whose accuracy is evaluated by their performance over this period is shown to require substantial reduction in the uncertainty of aerosol forcing over this period.

  17. inAir: Sharing Indoor Air Quality Measurements and Visualizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mankoff, Jennifer

    evidence has indicated that indoor air pollution within homes and other buildings can be worse than the outdoor air pollution in even the largest and most industrialized cities. For example, the California Air Resources Board estimates that indoor air pollutant levels are 25-62% greater than outside levels [4

  18. inAir: Sharing Indoor Air Quality Measurements and Visualizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    the outdoor air pollution in even the largest and most industrialized cities. For example, the California Air evidence has indicated that indoor air pollution within homes and other buildings can be worse than Resources Board estimates that indoor air pollutant levels are 25-62% greater than outside levels [4

  19. Simulated Impacts of Global Warming on Building Thermal Loads Throughout the 21st Century 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Degelman, L.

    2007-01-01

    of Global Warming on Building Thermal Loads Throughout the 21st Century Presented at ASHRAE Seminar 48 ?Climate Change: Modeling the Weather and Its Potential Impacts on Building Performance? Tuesday, 8:00 a.m., 26 June 2007 Long Beach, CA by Larry O.... Degelman, P.E. Professor Emeritus of Architecture Texas A&M University ldegelman@suddenlink.net Outline handptrightTrends in global warming handptrightModels matched against global warming records handptrightFactors contributing to global warming...

  20. Next Generation Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants R&D...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of low-global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants. DOE commissioned this roadmap to establish a set of high-priority research and development (R&D) activities that...

  1. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED INTO A DWELLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED.peuportier@mines-paristech.fr, Tel.: +33 1 40 51 91 51 ABSTRACT An inverter-driven air-to-air heat pump model has been developped capacity air-to-air heat pump coupled with temperate air sources (crawlspace, attic, sunspace, heat

  2. air traffic the polytechnic school

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    air traffic management the polytechnic school innovation.asu.edu #12;undergraduate degree program B.S., air traffic management Our undergraduate air traffic management program offers students exceptional training and state-of-the-art air traffic control simulators to enhance and reinforce classroom study. You

  3. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  4. Cold stress on Russian territory during last global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinogradov, V.V.

    1996-12-31

    A great part of Russian territory is characterized by climate discomfort of life. In winter cold stress covers nearly all territory. The purpose of this work is to learn how the climatic discomfort of life is affected by climate change. The effect of global warming for the period 1981--1990 on geographical distribution of bioclimatic indexes by seasons (compared with average figures) is analyzed. Indexes of enthalpy, dry cooling, wind chill, wet cooling, effective temperature, physiological deficit index for monthly average figures were calculated and the data bank for the period 1981--1990 was made up. The indexes of enthalpy, wet cooling, and dry cooling according to Bodman were chosen as the most informative and independent. Maps of the climatic indexes taking into account temperature, humidity and wind speed were made up on the basis of the calculated figures.

  5. Storage and Retrieval of Thermal Light in Warm Atomic Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young-Wook Cho; Yoon-Ho Kim

    2010-07-12

    We report slowed propagation and storage and retrieval of thermal light in warm rubidium vapor using the effect of electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT). We first demonstrate slowed-propagation of the probe thermal light beam through an EIT medium by measuring the second-order correlation function of the light field using the Hanbury-Brown$-$Twiss interferometer. We also report an experimental study on the effect of the EIT slow-light medium on the temporal coherence of thermal light. Finally, we demonstrate the storage and retrieval of thermal light beam in the EIT medium. The direct measurement of the photon number statistics of the retrieved light field shows that the photon number statistics is preserved during the storage and retrieval process.

  6. Warm Water Oxidation Verification - Scoping and Stirred Reactor Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braley, Jenifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-06-15

    Scoping tests to evaluate the effects of agitation and pH adjustment on simulant sludge agglomeration and uranium metal oxidation at {approx}95 C were performed under Test Instructions(a,b) and as per sections 5.1 and 5.2 of this Test Plan prepared by AREVA. (c) The thermal testing occurred during the week of October 4-9, 2010. The results are reported here. For this testing, two uranium-containing simulant sludge types were evaluated: (1) a full uranium-containing K West (KW) container sludge simulant consisting of nine predominant sludge components; (2) a 50:50 uranium-mole basis mixture of uraninite [U(IV)] and metaschoepite [U(VI)]. This scoping study was conducted in support of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Phase 2 technology evaluation for the treatment and packaging of K-Basin sludge. The STP is managed by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) for the U.S. Department of Energy. Warm water ({approx}95 C) oxidation of sludge, followed by immobilization, has been proposed by AREVA and is one of the alternative flowsheets being considered to convert uranium metal to UO{sub 2} and eliminate H{sub 2} generation during final sludge disposition. Preliminary assessments of warm water oxidation have been conducted, and several issues have been identified that can best be evaluated through laboratory testing. The scoping evaluation documented here was specifically focused on the issue of the potential formation of high strength sludge agglomerates at the proposed 95 C process operating temperature. Prior hydrothermal tests conducted at 185 C produced significant physiochemical changes to genuine sludge, including the formation of monolithic concretions/agglomerates that exhibited shear strengths in excess of 100 kPa (Delegard et al. 2007).

  7. Optimal Outside Air Control for Air Handling Units with Humidity Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, G.; Liu, M.

    2006-01-01

    Most air handling units (AHUs) in commercial buildings have the (air) economizer cycle to use outside air for free cooling under certain outside air conditions. Ideally the economizer cycle is enabled if outside air enthalpy is less than return air...

  8. Portable air monitoring laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehntholt, D.J.; Beltis, K.J.; McCullough, J.E.; Valentine, J.R. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Arthur D. Little, Inc. was contracted by the US Army to design, fabricate, test and deliver a series of portable air monitoring laboratories which could be used to detect trace levels of toxic chemicals on board cargo ships. The labs were designed to be completely self-sufficient, containing all supplies necessary for a 75-day mission, and to operate under rugged conditions. They were used to monitor for parts-per-billion concentrations of chemical agents in air and to provide information equivalent to high quality fixed laboratory analyses. The mission was successfully completed; independent design awards were received for the laboratories, and they were subsequently diverted to other uses.

  9. A Large Ozone-Circulation Feedback & Its Implications for Global Warming Assessments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Sophie

    Peer A Large Ozone-Circulation Feedback & Its Implications for Global Warming Assessments PeerCO2, b T by 4xCO2, c T by O3 and d water vapour by O3. 4. GLOBAL WARMING RESPONSE 0 50 100 150 200 250) Figure 1 | Temporal evolution of the annual and global mean surface tem- perature anomalies. Interactive

  10. Entropy Shows that Global Warming Should Cause Increased Variability in the Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Michael Williams

    2001-02-21

    Elementary physical reasoning seems to leave it inevitable that global warming would increase the variability of the weather. The first two terms in an approximation to the global entropy are used to show that global warming has increased the free energy available to drive the weather, and that the variance of the weather should increase correspondingly.

  11. Crystal coat warms up LED light 16:46 01 February 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    in the home. Now researchers have used nanocrystals to create LEDs that give off a warm white light. FineCrystal coat warms up LED light 16:46 01 February 2008 NewScientist.com news service Mason Inman Topping LEDs with a coating of carefully tuned nanocrystals makes their light warmer and less clinical

  12. Harbingers and agents of global warming The rapid retreat of mountain glaciers makes them an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berthier, Etienne

    Harbingers and agents of global warming The rapid retreat of mountain glaciers makes them of the many reasons why we should keep a close eye on these harbingers and agents of global warming. Our one-third (approx. 1 mm/year) to the total rise in the global mean sea level of 3 mm/year. Locally

  13. A Vast Machine Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    A Vast Machine Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming Paul N. Edwards models, climate data, and the politics of global warming / Paul N. Edwards. p. cm. Includes. Climatology--History. 3. Meteorology--History. 4. Climatology--Technological innovation. 5. Global temperature

  14. ORIGINAL PAPER Global warming may freeze the invasion of big-headed ants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courchamp, Franck

    ORIGINAL PAPER Global warming may freeze the invasion of big-headed ants Cleo Bertelsmeier · Gloria is that these threats interact, and that a globally warming climate could favour invasive species. In this study we techniques, 3 Global Circu- lation Models and 2 CO2 emission scenarios, we generated world maps with suitable

  15. The change in oceanic O2 inventory associated with recent global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeling, Ralph

    The change in oceanic O2 inventory associated with recent global warming Ralph F. Keeling, 2002 (received for review September 24, 2001) Oceans general circulation models predict that global warming may cause a decrease in the oceanic O2 inventory and an associated O2 outgassing. An independent

  16. DOES FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION LEAD TO GLOBAL WARMING? Stephen E. Schwartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    DOES FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION LEAD TO GLOBAL WARMING? Stephen E. Schwartz Environmental Chemistry of the United States Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH00016. #12;Schwartz--Fossil Fuel--Fri, Dec 1, 2006 DOES FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION LEAD TO GLOBAL WARMING? Stephen E. Schwartz Environmental

  17. The impact of Arctic warming on the midlatitude jet-stream: Can it?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, Elizabeth A.

    Opinion The impact of Arctic warming on the midlatitude jet-stream: Can it? Has it? Will it. An open question, however, is whether these Arctic changes have an effect on the jet-stream and thereby inquiries around three distinct questions: Can Arctic warming influence the midlatitude jet-stream? Has

  18. Climate Change: Sources of Warming in the Late 20th Century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerald E. Marsh

    2009-05-28

    The role of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, volcanic and other aerosols, as well as the extraordinary solar activity of the late 20th century are discussed in the context of the warming since the mid-1970s. Much of that warming is found to be due to natural causes.

  19. Greenhouse warming by nitrous oxide and methane in the Proterozoic Eon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halevy, Itay

    Greenhouse warming by nitrous oxide and methane in the Proterozoic Eon A. L. ROBERSON,1 J. ROADT,2 are possible during this time. The combined greenhouse effect of CH4 and N2O could have pro- vided up to 10 at the beginning of the Proterozoic and still 5% dimmer at its end (Gough, 1981). Greenhouse warm- ing by CO2 and H

  20. Aerosol control on depth of warm rain in convective clouds Mahen Konwar,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Aerosol control on depth of warm rain in convective clouds Mahen Konwar,1 R. S. Maheskumar,1 J. R effective radius (re) increased with distance above cloud base (D). Warm rain became detectable, i.e., rain water content >0.01 g/Kg, at the tops of growing convective clouds when re exceeded 12 mm. The re

  1. P1.26 ROLE OF WARM OCEAN FEATURES ON INTENSITY CHANGE: HURRICANE OPAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P1.26 ROLE OF WARM OCEAN FEATURES ON INTENSITY CHANGE: HURRICANE OPAL Lynn K. Shay, Gustavo J. Goni elds during hurricane Opal. 2. HURRICANE OPAL As shown in Fig. 1a., the passage of hurricane Opal, hurricane Opal moved over a warm core eddy detected by the altimeter onboard the NASA oceanographic TOPogra

  2. New Observations of Precipitation Initiation in Warm Cumulus Clouds JENNIFER D. SMALL AND PATRICK Y. CHUANG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuang, Patrick Y.

    New Observations of Precipitation Initiation in Warm Cumulus Clouds JENNIFER D. SMALL AND PATRICK Y) to initiate precipitation (termed collision­coalescence initiators or CCIs) are found preferentially at cloud locally enhances collision­coalescence rates. 1. Introduction The initiation of precipitation in warm

  3. Winter 2010 in Europe: A cold extreme in a warming climate J. Cattiaux,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Codron, Francis

    Winter 2010 in Europe: A cold extreme in a warming climate J. Cattiaux,1 R. Vautard,1 C. Cassou,2 P spells over Northern and Western Europe. This somehow unusual winter with respect to the most recent ones. Yiou, V. MassonDelmotte, and F. Codron (2010), Winter 2010 in Europe: A cold extreme in a warming

  4. Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Pollution, Air Quality Classifications and Standards, and Air Quality Area Classifications (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations establish emissions limits and permitting and operational requirements for facilities that may contribute to air emissions. General air quality standards and standards for...

  5. Microstructure of warm rolling and pearlitic transformation of ultrafine-grained GCr15 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Jun-Jie; Lian, Fu-Liang; Liu, Hong-Ji; Jiang, Tao; Guo, Sheng-Wu; Du, Lin-Xiu; Liu, Yong-Ning

    2014-09-15

    Pearlitic transformation mechanisms have been investigated in ultra-fine grained GCr15 steel. The ultrafine-grained steel, whose grain size was less than 1 ?m, was prepared by thermo-mechanical treatment at 873 K and then annealing at 923 K for 2 h. Pearlitic transformation was conducted by reheating the ultra-fine grained samples at 1073 K and 1123 K for different periods of time and then cooling in air. Scanning electron microscope observation shows that normal lamellar pearlite, instead of granular cementite and ferrite, cannot be formed when the grain size is approximately less than 4(± 0.6) ?m, which yields a critical grain size for normal lamellar pearlitic transformations in this chromium alloyed steel. The result confirms that grain size has a great influence on pearlitic transformation by increasing the diffusion rate of carbon atoms in the ultra-fine grained steel, and the addition of chromium element doesn't change this pearlitic phase transformation rule. Meanwhile, the grain growth rate is reduced by chromium alloying, which is beneficial to form fine grains during austenitizing, thus it facilitating pearlitic transformation by divorced eutectoid transformation. Moreover, chromium element can form a relatively high gradient in the frontier of the undissolved carbide, which promotes carbide formation in the frontier of the undissolved carbide, i.e., chromium promotes divorced eutectoid transformation. - Highlights: • Ultrafine-grained GCr15 steel was obtained by warm rolling and annealing technology. • Reduction of grain size makes pearlite morphology from lamellar to granular. • Adding Cr does not change normal pearlitic phase transformation rule in UFG steel. • Cr carbide resists grain growth and facilitates pearlitic transformation by DET.

  6. Canned Air in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi

    2013-10-23

    Broadcast Transcript: Not that long ago, coal smoke made the air here in Beijing so caustic that your nasal passages were seared with each breath. Those were the good old days: Car ownership was limited to government officials and the rest...

  7. Zach Harmon Air Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    in the Troposphere Summary of Problem/Impact United States dependency on foreign oil and increased energy consumptionZach Harmon 810907207 Air Chemistry Natural Gas Production Impacts on levels of ozone administration to encourage fast growth to reduce dependency of foreign oil and be energy independent. It

  8. Compressed Air 101: Getting Compressed Air to Work 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, J. J.; Bessey, E. G.

    2003-01-01

    "Air compressors are a significant industrial energy user. Based on a survey (conducted by Oregon State University and the Bonneville Power Administration) of energy audit reports from 125 plants, air compressors account for roughly 10% of total...

  9. Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Ambient Air Quality Standards (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ambient air quality standards are based on the national ambient air quality standards. The Vermont standards are classified as primary and secondary standards and judged adequate to protect...

  10. Industrial HVAC Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Retrofit Economics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Retrofitting air-to-air energy recovery equipment is relatively simply to design and easy to install. Additionally, HVAC energy recovery is almost risk free when compared to process retrofit. Life cycle cost analysis is the best way to illustrate...

  11. CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System. Quarterly report, August 1, 1988--October 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.; Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1988-12-01

    Objective is to develop an economically viable coal-water slurry fueled furnace that is competitive with current oil and natural gas systems. During this period, which is the first quarter of Phase II, testing and evaluation of the second-generation furnace assembly continued. Emphasis was placed on integrated system performance and value engineering. Work also began on design and fabrication of a third-generation prototype furnace. A preliminary cost evaluation was accomplished.

  12. Global warming and its implications for conservation. 3. How does it work? Part two: atmospheric science and the layer model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creel, Scott

    Global warming and its implications for conservation. 3. How does it work? Part two: atmospheric warms the surface of the planet as it moves toward an equilibrium of energy fluxes in and out. The layer

  13. Land–Ocean Warming Contrast over a Wide Range of Climates: Convective Quasi-Equilibrium Theory and Idealized Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrne, Michael Patrick

    Surface temperatures increase at a greater rate over land than ocean in simulations and observations of global warming. It has previously been proposed that this land–ocean warming contrast is related to different changes ...

  14. A very oligotrophic zone observed from space in the equatorial Pacific warm pool1 Marie-Hlne Radenaca

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    penetration of nutrient-rich water due to the following processes. 1/ The34 equatorial oligotrophic warm pool tropical Pacific, and especially the eastern part of the warm pool,51 is one of the world ocean regions

  15. The investigation of exhaust powered, automotive air cycle air conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holley, James Andrew

    1978-01-01

    TEE INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST POWERED, AUTOMOTIVE AIR CYCLE AIR CONDITIONING A Thesis James Andrew Holley Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1978 Major SubJect: Mechanical Engineering THE INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST POWERED, AUTOMOTIVE AIR CYCLE AIR CONDITIONING A Thesis hy James Andrew Holley Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee) (Head of Departm nt) Memb e...

  16. 130 LPW 1000 Lm Warm White LED for Illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soer, Wouter

    2012-06-14

    An illumination-grade warm-white LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2700 and 3500 K and capable of producing 1000 lm output at over 130 lm/W at room temperature, has been developed in this program. The high-power warm-white LED is an ideal source for use in indoor and outdoor lighting applications. Over the two year period, we have made the following accomplishments: • Developed a low-cost high-power white LED package and commercialized a series of products with CCT ranging from 2700 to 5700 K under the product name LUXEON M; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 124.8 lm/W at a flux of 1023 lm, CCT of 3435 K and color rendering index (CRI) over 80 at room temperature in the productized package; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 133.1 lm/W at a flux of 1015 lm, CCT of 3475 K and CRI over 80 at room temperature in an R&D package. The new high-power LED package is a die-on-ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 2 mm2 InGaN pump dice, flip-chip attached to a ceramic submount in a 2x2 array configuration. The submount design utilizes a design approach that combines a high-thermal- conductivity ceramic core for die attach and a low-cost and low-thermal-conductivity ceramic frame for mechanical support and as optical lens carrier. The LED package has a thermal resistance of less than 1.25 K/W. The white LED fabrication also adopts a new batch level (instead of die-by-die) phosphor deposition process with precision layer thickness and composition control, which provides not only tight color control, but also low cost. The efficacy performance goal was achieved through the progress in following key areas: (1) high-efficiency royal blue pump LED development through active region design and epitaxial growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs); (2) improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN-die-level and package-level optical extraction efficiency; and (3) improvement in phosphor system efficiency by improving the lumen equivalent (LE) and phosphor package efficiency (PPE) through improvement in phosphor-package interactions. The high-power warm-white LED product developed has been proven to have good reliability through extensive reliability tests. The new kilo-lumen package has been commercialized under the product name LUXEON M. As of the end of the program, the LUXEON M product has been released in the following CCT/CRI combinations: 3000K/70, 4000K/70, 5000K/70, 5700K/70, 2700K/80, 3000K/80 and 4000K/80. LM-80 tests for the products with CCTs of 4000 K and higher have reached 8500 hours, and per IESNA TM-21-11 have established an L70 lumen maintenance value of >51,000 hours at A drive current and up to 120 °C board temperature.

  17. Worldwide, accelerating glacier loss provides independent and startling evidence that global warming is occurring1 It is now clear that the Earth is warming rapidly due to man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combes, Stacey A.

    such as coal, oil and natural gas are burned for trans- portation, heating, or the production of electricity! Climate Change And Global Glacier Decline Global Warming is melting glaciers in every region of the world that global warming is occurring1 . It is now clear that the Earth is warming rapidly due to man

  18. Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion Practical Air Pollution Dispersion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moncrieff, John B.

    Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion 1 of 5 Practical ­ Air Pollution Dispersion in the lectures how such models can be used to explain observed concentrations of air pollutants in an area and to test `what-if' scenarios for pollution control and reduction. You will use the Gaussian Plume Model

  19. Social Media: Air Quality #SummerSafety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    than adults to the health effects caused by air pollution. http://cdc.gov/air/air_health.htm #SummerSafety Twitter: Children and teens may be more sensitive than adults to air pollution. http://cdc.gov/air/air Social Media: Air Quality #SummerSafety Please help the NWS spread these important safety

  20. Evaluation of thermal energy storage materials for advanced compressed air energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaloudek, F.R.; Wheeler, K.R.; Marksberry, L.

    1983-03-01

    Advanced Compressed-Air Energy Storage (ACAS) plants have the near-term potential to reduce the fuel consumption of compressed-air plants from 33 to 100%, depending upon their design. Fuel is saved by storing some or all of the heat of compression as sensible heat which is subsequently used to reheat the compressed air prior to expansion in the turbine generator. The thermal storage media required for this application must be low cost and durable. The objective of this project was to screen thermal store materials based on their thermal cycle durability, particulate formation and corrosion resistant characteristics. The materials investigated were iron oxide pellets, Denstone pebbles, cast-iron balls, and Dresser basalt rock. The study specifically addressed the problems of particle formation and thermal ratcheting of the materials during thermal cycling and the chemical attack on the materials by the high temperature and moist environment in an ACAS heat storage bed. The results indicate that from the durability standpoint Denstone, cast iron containing 27% or more chromium, and crushed Dresser basalt would possibly stand up to ACAS conditions. If costs are considered in addition to durability and performance, the crushed Dresser basalt would probably be the most desirable heat storage material for adiabatic and hybrid ACAS plants, and more in-depth longer term thermal cycling and materials testing of Dresser basalt is recommended. Also recommended is the redesign and costing analysis of both the hybrid and adiabatic ACAS facilities based upon the use of Dresser basalt as the thermal store material.

  1. Optimization of Air Conditioning Cycling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshadri, Swarooph

    2012-10-19

    Systems based on the vapor compression cycle are the most widely used in a variety of air conditioning applications. Despite the vast growth of modern control systems in the field of air conditioning systems, industry standard control is still...

  2. Tennessee Air Quality Act (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tennessee Air Quality Act (AQA) delegates the power to maintain air quality in the State to the Department of Environment and Conservation. Under the Department of the Environment and...

  3. Louisiana Air Control Law (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This law states regulations for air quality control and states the powers and duties of the secretary of environmental quality. It provides information about permits and licenses, air quality...

  4. Fundamentals of Compressed Air Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Find out how a compressed air system works and the benefits of optimal compressed air system performance. This initial class demonstrates how to compute the current cost of your plant's compressed...

  5. Role of global warming on the statistics of recordbreaking temperatures S. Redner 1, * and Mark R. Petersen 2,+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redner, Sidney

    Role of global warming on the statistics of record­breaking temperatures S. Redner 1, * and Mark R of global warming, where the mean temperature systematically in­ creases with time. Over the 126­year time question arises: is global warming the cause of such heat waves or are they merely statistical fluctuations

  6. Role of the upper ocean structure in the response of ENSO-like SST variability to global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noh, Yign

    Role of the upper ocean structure in the response of ENSO-like SST variability to global warming)-like variability to global warming varies comparatively between the two different climate system models, i are reduced in the eastern equatorial Pacific under global warming, which erodes the thermo- cline feedback

  7. Interactive effects of global warming and `global worming' on the initial establishment of native and exotic herbaceous plant species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    1 Interactive effects of global warming and `global worming' on the initial establishment of native, epigeic, or all three together) and 4°C warming on soil water content, litter turnover and seedling establishment of four native and four exotic herbaceous plant species. Warming and worming exerted independent

  8. Response and impact of equatorial ocean dynamics and tropical instability waves in the tropical Atlantic under global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    Atlantic under global warming: A regional coupled downscaling study Hyodae Seo1,2 and ShangPing Xie1. Under global warming, both global and regional models exhibit an increased (decreased) rainfall thermal stratification is suggested to be more important under global warming. The strengthened upwelling

  9. Interactive effects of global warming and `global worming' on the initial establishment of native and exotic herbaceous plant species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    1121 Interactive effects of global warming and `global worming' on the initial establishment, endogeic, epigeic, or all three together) and 4°C warming on soil water content, litter turnover and seedling establishment of four native and four exotic herbaceous plant species. Warming and worming exerted

  10. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 1 APRIL 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1461 135 years of global ocean warming between the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riser, Stephen C.

    of global warming. Warming in the Atlantic Ocean is stronger than in the Pacific. Systematic errors and indicates that globally the oceans have been warming at least since the late-nineteenth or earlyLETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 1 APRIL 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1461 135 years of global ocean

  11. "Global warming and global cooling are physical phenomenon. But the battle over these real or presumed developments is a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baez, John

    "Global warming and global cooling are physical phenomenon. But the battle over these real of catastrophic global warming the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people" What is climate change we have ever seen" What is climate change? Lord Nicholas Stern, October 2006 #12;"Global warming

  12. What Global Warming Looks Like The July 2010 global map of surface temperature anomalies (Figure 1), relative to the average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    What Global Warming Looks Like The July 2010 global map of surface temperature anomalies (Figure 1 anomalies an example of what we can expect global warming to look like? Maps of temperature anomalies, such as Figure 1, are useful for helping people understand the role of global warming in extreme events

  13. The future of water, ice, snow underThe future of water, ice, snow under global warmingglobal warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurricane Katrina, the Kerry--Gingrich debate over globalGingrich debate over global warming, the local and regional warming.effects of global warming. Climate extends beyond temperature and rainfall, toClimate extendsThe future of water, ice, snow underThe future of water, ice, snow under global warmingglobal

  14. ON THE INSTABILITY OF TROPICAL WESTERN PACIFIC WARM POOL DURING THE BOREAL WINTER AND SPRING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BARR-KUMARAKULASINGHE,S.A.

    1998-03-23

    A source of instability in the western Pacific warm pool is shown to be due to sea surface elevation variations caused by changes in the zonal sea-surface temperature (SST) gradient and the changes in the Pacific Ocean basin length in relation to the warm pool latitudinal location. The variation of the sea-surface elevation is measured by using the thermocline depth response calculated from a two-layer ocean. The warm pool is shown to be barely at equilibrium during the boreal late winter and early spring by comparing the measured thermocline at 110{degree}W, 0{degree}E with the calculated thermocline depth. Based on this analysis, a failure or reversal of the climatological zonal winds are apparently not a necessary precursor for the instability of the warm pool and initiation of a warm event. A warm event can be initiated by an increase in the size of the warm pool and/or an increase in zonal SST differences during the boreal/winter spring. This mechanism could be an alternate mechanism for El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dynamics to that postulated by Bjeknes (1969).

  15. Air Pollution & Health in Rapidly Developing Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bucher, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Review: Air Pollution & Health in Rapidly DevelopingFrank Murray (Eds. ). Air Pollution & Health in Rapidlyand researchers alike, Air Pollution & Health provides a

  16. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wahl, Linnea

    2012-01-01

    LBNL-470E-20Ì1 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Preparedfor Estimating Fugitive Air Emissions of Radionuclides fromStandards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Radionuclides),

  17. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese Union of Air Pollution Prevention Associations,The Status of Indoor Air Pollution Research 1976, GeometAnnual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association,

  18. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    Ext. 6782 Combustion -Generated Indoor Air Pollution Craigcontrol of air pollution from indoor combustion sources. Ifocused on combustion-generated indoor air pollution, namely

  19. Air Observe System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-10

    This manuscript contains a description and basic principles for observing inaccessible areas using low cost, easily deployed equipment. The basic premise is to suspend a tiny video camera at an altitude of 10 - 200 meters over the area to be surveyed. The TV camera supports at altitude by wind or balloon. The technical challenges regard the means by which the camera is suspended. Such a system may be used by military or police forces or by civil authorities for rescue missions or assessment of natural disasters. The method may be further developed for military applications by integrating the surveillance task with deployment of munitions. Key words: air observer, air suspended system, low altitude video observer.

  20. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  1. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-04-02

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  2. Air cathode structure manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Momyer, William R. (Palo Alto, CA); Littauer, Ernest L. (Los Altos Hills, CA)

    1985-01-01

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  3. TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery Input file: ducts.in You are a technician for the Air Conditioning Machinery company (ACM). Unfortunately, when you arrive at a customer site to install some air conditioning ducts, you discover that you are running low on supplies. You have only six duct segments

  4. Air Pollution Socio-Economic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Traffic Air Pollution and Socio-Economic Status Gregory C Pratt PhD Kristie Ellickson PhD #12 · Relationships #12;Living near traffic increases exposure to air pollution and is associated with adverse health exposed to traffic and air pollution. They are also more vulnerable and have an increased risk of adverse

  5. Transitional solar dynamics, cosmic rays and global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bershadskii

    2009-04-12

    Solar activity is studied using a cluster analysis of the time-fluctuations of the sunspot number. It is shown that in an Historic period the high activity components of the solar cycles exhibit strong clustering, whereas in a Modern period (last seven solar cycles: 1933-2007) they exhibit a white-noise (non-)clustering behavior. Using this observation it is shown that in the Historic period, emergence of the sunspots in the solar photosphere was strongly dominated by turbulent photospheric convection. In the Modern period, this domination was broken by a new more active dynamics of the inner layers of the convection zone. Then, it is shown that the dramatic change of the sun dynamics at the transitional period (between the Historic and Modern periods, solar cycle 1933-1944yy) had a clear detectable impact on Earth climate. A scenario of a chain of transitions in the solar convective zone is suggested in order to explain the observations, and a forecast for the global warming is suggested on the basis of this scenario. A relation between the recent transitions and solar long-period chaotic dynamics has been found. Contribution of the galactic turbulence (due to galactic cosmic rays) has been discussed. These results are also considered in a content of chaotic climate dynamics at millennial timescales.

  6. After Kyoto, science still probes global warming causes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, G.

    1998-01-19

    The Kyoto meeting has come and gone. In the US, the treaty still has to be signed by President Bill Clinton and ratified by the Senate, an action that is most unlikely in view of last year`s 95-0 vote on the issue. In the short term 36 senators are up for reelection in November and therefore likely to come under intense pressure to change their positions, to support the Kyoto treaty, and to push for Senate action. Senators will need support, additional inputs, and overall reinforcement of their positions. One area that this writer believes still has much to offer in this context is the quality--more specifically, the lack of quality--of much of the scientific evidence behind this treaty. Part of that subject is the natural variability in the climate. Natural climate variability is based on cyclical forces, random events, and the Earth`s response to these two factors. These forces create the variability in the climate, the background noise above which any signal of anthropogenic warming must rise in order to be detected. A review of key climatic cycles is the subject of this article.

  7. Infrared Spectroscopy of U Equulei's Warm Circumstellar Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. R. Geballe; C. Barnbaum; Keith S. Noll; M. Morris

    2005-03-18

    Medium and high resolution spectroscopy of U Equulei from 1 to 4 microns during 1997-2003 has revealed information about its unusual circumstellar envelope, observed previously at optical and radio wavelengths. Strong absorption bands of H2O and of CO dominate the 1-4um spectrum. The gas has a mean temperature of 600 K and 12C/13C =< 10. The CO 2-0 line profiles and velocities imply no net ejection or infall and indicate either rapid radial gas motions being seen along a narrow continuum beam, or absorption by orbiting gas that is nearly coincident with a highly extended continuum source. The gas could be located in a disk-like structure. The observed high column densities of warm CO and H2 normally would be associated with sufficient dust to completely obscure the star at optical wavelengths. The observations thus indicate either a highly abnormal gas-to-dust ratio, consistent with the earlier optical observation of abundant refractory metal oxides in the circumstellar gas, or peculiar geometry and/or illumination.

  8. Warm and cold fermionic dark matter via freeze-in

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasen, Michael; Yaguna, Carlos E. E-mail: carlos.yaguna@uni-muenster.de

    2013-11-01

    The freeze-in mechanism of dark matter production provides a simple and intriguing alternative to the WIMP paradigm. In this paper, we analyze whether freeze-in can be used to account for the dark matter in the so-called singlet fermionic model. In it, the SM is extended with only two additional fields, a singlet scalar that mixes with the Higgs boson, and the dark matter particle, a fermion assumed to be odd under a Z{sub 2} symmetry. After numerically studying the generation of dark matter, we analyze the dependence of the relic density with respect to all the free parameters of the model. These results are then used to obtain the regions of the parameter space that are compatible with the dark matter constraint. We demonstrate that the observed dark matter abundance can be explained via freeze-in over a wide range of masses extending down to the keV range. As a result, warm and cold dark matter can be obtained in this model. It is also possible to have dark matter masses well above the unitarity bound for WIMPs.

  9. The First Billion Years of a Warm Dark Matter Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maio, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    We present results of cosmological N-body hydrodynamic chemistry simulations of primordial structure growth and evolution in a scenario with warm dark matter (WDM) having a mass of 3keV and compare with a model consisting of standard cold dark matter (CDM). We focus on the high-redshift universe ($z>6$), where the structure formation process should better reflect the primordial (linear) differences in terms of matter power spectrum. We find that early epochs are exceptional probes of the dark-matter nature. Non-linear CDM and WDM power spectra differ by up to 2 dex at early times and show spreads of factor of a few persisting in the whole first Gyr. Primordial WDM objects with masses $\\lesssim 10^8\\,\\rm M_\\odot$ are less abundant by $\\gtrsim 1\\,\\rm dex$, both in terms of dark matter and of baryon content. Runaway molecular cooling in primordial WDM mini-haloes results severely inhibited due to the damping of power at large $k$ modes. As a consequence, the cosmic (population III and II-I) star formation activi...

  10. Delaying the waterfall transition in warm hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastero-Gil, Mar [Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Granada, 18071 (Spain); Berera, Arjun; Metcalf, Thomas P. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Rosa, João G., E-mail: mbg@ugr.es, E-mail: ab@ph.ed.ac.uk, E-mail: t.p.metcalf@ed.ac.uk, E-mail: joao.rosa@ua.pt [Departamento de Física da Universidade de Aveiro and I3N, Campus de Santiago, Aveiro, 3810-183 (Portugal)

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the dynamics and observational predictions of supersymmetric hybrid inflation in the warm regime, where dissipative effects are mediated by the waterfall fields and their subsequent decay into light degrees of freedom. This produces a quasi-thermal radiation bath with a slowly-varying temperature during inflation and further damps the inflaton's motion, thus prolonging inflation. As in the standard supercooled scenario, inflation ends when the waterfall fields become tachyonic and can no longer sustain a nearly constant vacuum energy, but the interaction with the radiation bath makes the waterfall fields effectively heavier and delays the phase transition to the supersymmetric minimum. In this work, we analyze for the first time the effects of finite temperature corrections and SUSY mass splittings on the quantum effective potential and the resulting dissipation coefficient. We show, in particular, that dissipation can significantly delay the onset of the tachyonic instability to yield 50–60 e-folds of inflation and an observationally consistent primordial spectrum, which is not possible in the standard supercooled regime when inflation is driven by radiative corrections.

  11. The Dynamics of Subhalos in Warm Dark Matter Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Knebe; Bastian Arnold; Chris Power; Brad K. Gibson

    2008-02-12

    We present a comparison of the properties of substructure halos (subhalos) orbiting within host halos that form in Cold Dark Matter (CDM) and Warm Dark Matter (WDM) cosmologies. Our study focuses on selected properties of these subhalos, namely their anisotropic spatial distribution within the hosts; the existence of a "backsplash'' population; the age-distance relation; the degree to which they suffer mass loss; and the distribution of relative (infall) velocities with respect to the hosts. We find that the number density of subhalos in our WDM model is suppressed relative to that in the CDM model, as we would expect. Interestingly, our analysis reveals that backsplash subhalos exist in both the WDM and CDM models. Indeed, there are no statistically significant differences between the spatial distributions of subhalos in the CDM and WDM models. There is evidence that subhalos in the WDM model suffer enhanced mass loss relative to their counterparts in the CDM model, reflecting their lower central densities. We note also a tendency for the (infall) velocities of subhalos in the WDM model to be higher than in the CDM model. Nevertheless, we conclude that observational tests based on either the spatial distribution or the kinematics of the subhalo population are unlikely to help us to differentiate between the CDM model and our adopted WDM model.

  12. Air conditioning apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouchi, Y.; Otoshi, Sh.

    1985-04-09

    The air conditioning apparatus according to the invention comprises an absorption type heat pump comprising a system including an absorber, a regenerator, a condenser and an evaporator. A mixture of lithium bromide and zinc chloride is used as an absorbent which is dissolved to form an absorbent solution into a mixed solvent having a ratio by weight of methanol to water, the ratio falling in a range between 0.1 and 0.3. Said solution is circulated through the system.

  13. Padding with Compressed Air 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beals, C.

    2004-01-01

    , while the plant air pressure drops 9 psi to 79 psi. Four psi of the pressure drop is due to compressor setpoints, while the remaining fall in pressure is due to the increased airflow through the cleanup equipment and piping. Figure 3... pressure variations. Figure 3, depicts the proper application of dedicated storage with metered recovery. In this arrangement, the metering valve paces the airflow into the dedicated storage and prevents pressure variations from having Tanks Chemical...

  14. Fresh air indoors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kull, K.

    1988-09-01

    This article describes and compares ventilation systems for the control of indoor air pollution in residential housing. These include: local exhaust fans, whole-house fans, central exhaust with wall ports, and heat-recovery central ventilation (HRV). HRV's have a higher initial cost than the other systems but they are the only ones that save energy. Homeowners are given guidelines for choosing the system best suited for their homes in terms of efficiency and payback period.

  15. Combustion air preheating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, T.A.; Petterson, W.C.

    1986-10-14

    This patent describes a process for steam cracking hydrocarbons to cracked gases in a tubular furnace heated by burning a mixture of fuel and combustion air and subsequently quenching the cracked gases. Waste heat is recovered in the form of high pressure steam and the combustion air is preheated prior to introduction into the furnace. The improvement described here comprises: (a) superheating the high pressure steam and expanding at least a portion of the superheated high pressure steam through a first turbine to produce shaft work and superheated medium pressure steam at a temperature between 260/sup 0/ and 465/sup 0/ C.; (b) expanding at least a portion of the superheated medium pressure steam through a second turbine to produce shaft work and low pressure steam at a temperature between 120/sup 0/ and 325/sup 0/ C.; and (c) preheating the combustion air by indirect heat exchange with at least a portion of the superheated medium pressure stream and at least a portion of the low pressure steam.

  16. Effects of warming on the structure and function of a boreal black spruce forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stith T.Gower

    2010-03-03

    A strong argument can be made that there is a greater need to study the effect of warming on boreal forests more than on any other terrestrial biome. Boreal forests, the second largest forest biome, are predicted to experience the greatest warming of any forest biome in the world, but a process-based understanding of how warming will affect the structure and function of this economically and ecologically important forest biome is lacking. The effects of warming on species composition, canopy structure and biogeochemical cycles are likely to be complex; elucidating the underlying mechanisms will require long-term whole-ecosystem manipulation to capture all the complex feedbacks (Shaver et al. 2000, Rustad et al. 2001, Stromgren 2001). The DOE Program for Ecosystem Research funded a three year project (2002-2005) to use replicated heated chambers on soil warming plots in northern Manitoba to examine the direct effects of whole-ecosystem warming. We are nearing completion of our first growing season of measurements (fall 2004). In spite of the unforeseen difficulty of installing the heating cable, our heating and irrigation systems worked extremely well, maintaining environmental conditions within 5-10% of the specified design 99% of the time. Preliminary data from these systems, all designed and built by our laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, support our overall hypothesis that warming will increase the carbon sink strength of upland boreal black spruce forests. I request an additional three years of funding to continue addressing the original objectives: (1) Examine the effect of warming on phenology of overstory, understory and bryophyte strata. Sap flux systems and dendrometer bands, monitored by data loggers, will be used to quantify changes in phenology and water use. (2) Quantify the effects of warming on nitrogen and water use by overstory, understory and bryophytes. (3) Compare effects of warming on autotrophic respiration and above- and belowground net primary production (NPP) budgets. Autotrophic respiration budgets will be constructed using chamber measurements for each tissue and NPP and standard allometry techniques (Gower et al. 1999). (4) Compare microbial and root dynamics, and net soil surface CO2 flux, of control and warmed soils to identify causes that may explain the hypothesized minimal effect of soil warming on soil surface CO2 flux. Fine root production and turnover will be quantified using minirhizotrons, and microbial dynamics will be determined using laboratory mineralization incubations. Soil surface CO2 flux will be measured using automated soil surface CO2 flux systems and portable CO2 analyzers. The proposed study builds on the existing research programs Gower has in northern Manitoba and would not be possible without in-kind services and financial support from Manitoba Hydro and University of Wisconsin.

  17. A transilient matrix for moist convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romps, D.

    2012-01-01

    eddies, and compen- sating subsidence) binned by origin andof q by compensating subsidence. The third term describespossible z , compensating subsidence, and turbulent di?usion

  18. Preprocessing Moist Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biorefinery Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal Yancey; Christopher T. Wright; Craig Conner; J. Richard Hess

    2009-06-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system of a lignocellulosic biorefinery. Preprocessing is generally accomplished using industrial grinders to format biomass materials into a suitable biorefinery feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many factors affect machine efficiency and the physical characteristics of preprocessed biomass. For example, moisture content of the biomass as received from the point of production has a significant impact on overall system efficiency and can significantly affect the characteristics (particle size distribution, flowability, storability, etc.) of the size-reduced biomass. Many different grinder configurations are available on the market, each with advantages under specific conditions. Ultimately, the capacity and/or efficiency of the grinding process can be enhanced by selecting the grinder configuration that optimizes grinder performance based on moisture content and screen size. This paper discusses the relationships of biomass moisture with respect to preprocessing system performance and product physical characteristics and compares data obtained on corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw as model feedstocks during Vermeer HG 200 grinder testing. During the tests, grinder screen configuration and biomass moisture content were varied and tested to provide a better understanding of their relative impact on machine performance and the resulting feedstock physical characteristics and uniformity relative to each crop tested.

  19. Miniaturized Air to Refrigerant Heat Exchangers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Improving Data Center Efficiency with Rack or Row...

  20. Air Risk Information Support Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J.

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.