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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Warm Conveyor Belts in Idealized Moist Baroclinic Wave Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This idealized modeling study of moist baroclinic waves addresses the formation of moist ascending airstreams, so-called warm conveyor belts (WCBs), their characteristics, and their significance for the downstream flow evolution. Baroclinic wave ...

Sebastian Schemm; Heini Wernli; Lukas Papritz

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Regulation of Moist Convection over the West Pacific Warm Pool  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mechanisms that regulate moist convection over the warm tropical oceans are not well understood. One school of thought holds that convection is caused by the convergence of moisture, which in turn is produced by an independent dynamical ...

David J. Raymond

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Cold and Warm Frontal Circulations in an Idealized Moist Semigeostrophic Baroclinic Wave  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diagnoses are presented of the three-dimensional vertical circulation for a coupled cold-warm frontal system in an idealized moist semi-geostrophic (SG) baroclinic wave. The vertical circulation is computed in SG space where the solution ...

Qin Xu

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Five-Year Climatology of Midtroposphere Dry Air Layers in Warm Tropical Ocean Regions as Viewed by AIRS/Aqua  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many studies have commented on the presence of midtroposphere dry air layers in normally moist areas of the warm-pool region in the tropical western Pacific Ocean. In this study, 5 yr of relative humidity (RH) observations from the Atmospheric ...

Sean P. F. Casey; Andrew E. Dessler; Courtney Schumacher

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Revised formula for the density of moist air (CIPM-2007)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... using air buoyancy artefacts Metrologia 41 330–2 [6] Kobayashi Y, Nezu Y, Uchikawa K, Ikeda S and Yano H 1986 Prototype kilogram balance II of ...

2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

6

Examining the physical principles behind the motion of moist air: Which expressions are sound?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The physical equations determining the motion of moist atmospheric air in the presence of condensation remain controversial. Two distinct formulations have been proposed, published and cited. The equation of Bannon [2002, J. Atmos. Sci. 59: 1967--1982] includes a term for a "reactive motion" that arises when water vapor condenses and droplets begin to fall; according to this term the remaining gas moves upwards so as to conserve momentum. In the equation of Ooyama[2001, J. Atmos. Sci. 58: 2073--2102] the reactive motion term is absent. Both equations contain a term for condensate loading, but in the formulation of Ooyama [2001] there are two additional terms. In some modern nonhydrostatic models of moist atmospheric circulation, however, formulations have been mixed. Here we examine the contrasting equations for the motion of moist air. We discuss inconsistencies in the application of Newton's second and third laws to an air and condensate mixture. We show that the concept of reactive motion in this context i...

Makarieva, A M; Nefiodov, A V; Sheil, D; Nobre, A D; Bunyard, P; Li, B -L

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

A Preferred Scale for Warm-Core Instability in a Nonconvective Moist Basic State  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The existence, scale, and growth rates of subsynoptic-scale warm-core circulations are investigated with a simple parameterization for latent heat release in a nonconvective basic state using a linear two-layer shallow-water model. For a range of ...

Brian H. Kahn; Douglas M. Sinton

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Solar Warming Submitted to Avalanche.ca Journal Feb. 2008 Can solar warming contribute to dry slab avalanches?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Warming Submitted to Avalanche.ca Journal Feb. 2008 Can solar warming contribute to dry slab, when signs of warming, such as relatively warm air temperatures, strong solar radiation, and moist by a skier on a steep south-west facing aspect. Solar warming may have contributed to this release. (photo

Jamieson, Bruce

9

Radiation Impacts on Conditionally Unstable Moist Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present work analyzes the impacts of radiative cooling in three-dimensional high-resolution direct numerical simulations of moist Rayleigh–Bénard convection. An atmospheric slab is destabilized by imposing a warm, moist lower boundary and a ...

Olivier Pauluis; Jörg Schumacher

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

CAST STONE OXIDATION FRONT EVALUATION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS FOR SAMPLES EXPOSED TO MOIST AIR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup ?} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup ?}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. • The Cr oxidation front (depth to which soluble Cr was detected) for the Cast Stone sample exposed for 68 days to ambient outdoor temperatures and humid air (total age of sample was 131 days) was determined to be about 35 mm below the top sample surface exposed. The Tc oxidation front, depth at which Tc was insoluble, was not determined. Interpretation of the results indicates that the oxidation front is at least 38 mm below the exposed surface. The sample used for this measurement was exposed to ambient laboratory conditions and humid air for 50 days. The total age of the sample was 98 days. • Technetium appears to be more easily oxidized than Cr in the Cast Stone matrix. The oxidized forms of Tc and Cr are soluble and therefore leachable. Longer exposure times are required for both the Cr and Tc spiked samples to better interpret the rate of oxidation. Tc spiked subsamples need to be taken further from the exposed surface to better define and interpret the leachable Tc profile. • Finally Tc(VII) reduction to Tc(IV) appears to occur relatively fast. Results demonstrated that about 95 percent of the Tc(VII) was reduced to Tc(IV) during the setting and very early stage setting for a Cast Stone sample cured 10 days. Additional testing at longer curing times is required to determine whether additional time is required to reduce 100 % of the Tc(VII) in Cast Stone or whether the Tc loading exceeded the ability of the waste form to reduce 100 % of the Tc(VII). Additional testing is required for samples cured for longer times. Depth discrete subsampling in a nitrogen glove box is also required to determine whether the 5 percent Tc extracted from the subsamples was the result of the sampling process which took place in air. Reduction capacity measurements (per the Angus-Glasser method) performed on depth discrete samples could not be correlated with the amount of chromium or technetium leached from the depth discrete subsamples or with the oxidation front inferred from soluble chromium and technetium (i.e., effective Cr and Tc oxidation fronts). Residual reduct

Langton, C.

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

11

Influence of Stratospheric Sudden Warming on AIRS Midtropospheric CO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Midtropospheric CO2 retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) were used to explore the influence of stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) on CO2 in the middle to upper troposphere. To choose the SSW events that had strong coupling ...

Xun Jiang; Jingqian Wang; Edward T. Olsen; Thomas Pagano; Luke L. Chen; Yuk L. Yung

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Warm-Air Intrusions in Arizona’s Meteor Crater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Episodic nighttime intrusions of warm air, accompanied by strong winds, enter the enclosed near-circular Meteor Crater basin on clear, synoptically undisturbed nights. Data analysis is used to document these events and to determine their spatial ...

Bianca Adler; C. David Whiteman; Sebastian W. Hoch; Manuela Lehner; Norbert Kalthoff

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Evaporation and Precipitation Surface Effects in Local Mass Continuity Laws of Moist Air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The local mass balance equations of cloudy air are formulated for a model system composed of dry air, water vapor, and four categories of water condensate particles, as typically adopted for numerical weather prediction and climate models. The ...

Ulrike Wacker; Thomas Frisius; Fritz Herbert

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Vertical Moist Thermodynamic Structure and Spatial–Temporal Evolution of the MJO in AIRS Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmospheric moisture and temperature profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit on the NASA Aqua mission, in combination with the precipitation from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), ...

Baijun Tian; Duane E. Waliser; Eric J. Fetzer; Bjorn H. Lambrigtsen; Yuk L. Yung; Bin Wang

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Large-Eddy Simulation of Moist Convection during a Cold Air Outbreak over the Gulf Stream  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cold air outflow over the Gulf Stream is modeled using a cloud-resolving large-eddy simulation model with three classes of precipitation. Simulations are conducted in a quasi-Lagrangian framework using an idealized sounding and uniform ...

Eric D. Skyllingstad; James B. Edson

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Interaction of Plutonium with Diverse Materials in Moist Air and Nitrogen-Argon Atmospheres at Room Temperature  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Chemical and radiolytic interactions of weapons-grade plutonium with metallic, inorganic, and hydrogenous materials in atmospheres containing moist air-argon mixtures have been characterized at room temperature from pressure-volume-temperature and mass spectrometric measurements of the gas phase. A reaction sequence controlled by kinetics and gas-phase composition is defined by correlating observed and known reaction rates. In all cases, O{sub 2} is eliminated first by the water-catalyzed Pu + O{sub 2} reaction and H{sub 2}O is then consumed by the Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction, producing a gas mixture of N{sub 2}, argon, and H{sub 2}. Hydrogen formed by the reaction of water and concurrent radiolysis of hydrogenous materials either reacts to form PuH{sub 2} or accumulates in the system. Accumulation of H{sub 2} is correlated with the presence of hydrogenous materials in liquid and volatile forms that are readily distributed over the plutonium surface. Areal rates of radiolytic H{sub 2} generation are determined and applied in showing that modest extents of H{sub 2} production are expected for hydrogenous solids if the contact area with plutonium is limited. The unpredictable nature of complex chemical systems is demonstrated by occurrence of the chloride-catalyzed Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction in some tests and hydride-catalyzed nitriding in another.

John M. Haschke; Raymond J. Martinez; Robert E. Pruner II; Barbara Martinez; Thomas H. Allen

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

A Transilient Matrix for Moist Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is introduced for diagnosing a transilient matrix for moist convection. This transilient matrix quantifies the nonlocal transport of air by convective eddies: for every height z, it gives the distribution of starting heights z? for the ...

David M. Romps; Zhiming Kuang

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

The Relationship between Relative Humidity and the Dewpoint Temperature in Moist Air: A Simple Conversion and Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative humidity (RH) and the dewpoint temperature (td) are two widely used indicators of the amount of moisture in air. The exact conversion from RH to td, as well as highly accurate approximations, are too complex to be done easily without ...

Mark G. Lawrence

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Total environmental warming impact (TEWI) calculations for alternative automative air-conditioning systems  

SciTech Connect

The Montreal Protocol phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has required manufacturers to develop refrigeration and air-conditioning systems that use refrigerants that can not damage stratospheric ozone. Most refrigeration industries have adapted their designs to use hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) or hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants; new automobile air- conditioning systems use HFC-134a. These industries are now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants on global warming. Automobile air-conditioning has three separate impacts on global warming; (1) the effects of refrigerant inadvertently released to the atmosphere from accidents, servicing, and leakage; (2) the efficiency of the cooling equipment (due to the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to power the system); and (3) the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to transport the system. The Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) is an index that should be used to compare the global warming effects of alternative air-conditioning systems because it includes these contributions from the refrigerant, cooling efficiency, and weight. This paper compares the TEWI of current air-conditioning systems using HFC-134a with that of transcritical vapor compression system using carbon dioxide and systems using flammable refrigerants with secondary heat transfer loops. Results are found to depend on both climate and projected efficiency of C0{sub 2}systems. Performance data on manufacturing prototype systems are needed to verify the potential reductions in TEWI. Extensive field testing is also required to determine the performance, reliability, and ``serviceability`` of each alternative to HFC-134a to establish whether the potential reduction of TEWI can be achieved in a viable consumer product.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Seasonal Prediction of Air Temperature Associated with the Growing-Season Start of Warm-Season Crops across Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seasonal prediction of growing-season start of warm-season crops (GSSWC) is an important task for the agriculture sector to identify risks and opportunities in advance. On the basis of observational daily surface air temperature at 210 stations ...

Zhiwei Wu; Hai Lin; Ted O’Brien

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Comparison of global warming impacts of automobile air-conditioning concepts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The global warming impacts of conventional vapor compression automobile air conditioning using HFC-134a are compared with the potential impacts of four alternative concepts. Comparisons are made on the basis of total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) which accounts for the effects of refrigerant emissions, energy use to provide comfort cooling, and fuel consumed to transport the weight of the air conditioning system. Under the most favorable assumptions on efficiency and weight, transcritical compression using CO{sub 2} as the refrigerant and adsorption cooling with water and zeolite beds could reduce TEWI by up to 18%rlative to HFC-134a compression air conditioning. Other assumptions on weight and efficiency lead to significant increases in TEWI relative to HFC-134a, and it is impossible to determine which set of assumptios is valid from existing data, Neither Stirling cycle or thermoelectric cooling will reduce TEWI relative to EFC-134a. Brief comments are also made concerning technical barriers that must be overcome for succesful development of the new technologies.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect

International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Energy and global warming impacts of next generation refrigeration and air conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect

Significant developments have occurred in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and the application of ammonia and hydrocarbons as refrigerant working fluids since the original TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) report in 1991. System operating and performance data on alternative refrigerants and refrigeration technologies justify and updated evaluation of these new alternative refrigerants and competing technologies in well-characterized applications. Analytical and experimental results are used to show quantitative comparisons between HFCS, HFC blends, hydrocarbons, and ammonia, used as refrigerants. An objective evaluation is presented for commercial and near commercial non-CFC refrigerants/blowing agents and alternative refrigeration technologies. This information is needed for objective and quantitative decisions on policies addressing greenhouse gas emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. The evaluation assesses the energy use and global warming impacts of refrigeration and air conditioning technologies that could be commercialized during the phase out of HCFCS. Quantitative comparison TEWI for two application areas are presented. Opportunities for significant reductions in TEWI are seen with currently known refrigerants through improved maintenance and servicing practices and improved product designs.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

A transilient matrix for moist convection  

SciTech Connect

A method is introduced for diagnosing a transilient matrix for moist convection. This transilient matrix quantifies the nonlocal transport of air by convective eddies: for every height z, it gives the distribution of starting heights z{prime} for the eddies that arrive at z. In a cloud-resolving simulation of deep convection, the transilient matrix shows that two-thirds of the subcloud air convecting into the free troposphere originates from within 100 m of the surface. This finding clarifies which initial height to use when calculating convective available potential energy from soundings of the tropical troposphere.

Romps, D.; Kuang, Z.

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

25

Thermodynamic Consistency of the Anelastic Approximation for a Moist Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary goal of this paper is to validate the use of the anelastic approximation for fluids with a complex equation of state such as moist air or seawater. The anelastic approximation is based on a leading-order expansion of the equations of ...

Olivier Pauluis

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Mesoscale Energy Spectra of Moist Baroclinic Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of moist processes in the development of the mesoscale kinetic energy spectrum is investigated with numerical simulations of idealized moist baroclinic waves. Dry baroclinic waves yield upper-tropospheric kinetic energy spectra that ...

Michael L. Waite; Chris Snyder

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Surface Meteorology and Air-Sea Fluxes in the Western Equatorial Pacific Warm Pool during the TOGA Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A major goal of the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) was to achieve significantly more accurate and complete descriptions of the surface meteorology and air-sea fluxes in the western equatorial warm pool region. Time series of ...

R. A. Weller; S. P. Anderson

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Warming of the North Pacific Ocean: Local Air–Sea Coupling and Remote Climatic Impacts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, global climatic response to the North Pacific oceanic warming is investigated in a series of coupled ocean–atmosphere modeling experiments. In the model, an idealized heating is imposed over the North Pacific Ocean, while the ocean ...

Lixin Wu; Chun Li

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

MOIST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... program that predicts the one-dimensional transfer of heat and moisture. ... developed by: Joseph Chi, PhD, PE University of District of Columbia ...

2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

30

Addressing Global Warming, Air Pollution Health Damage, and Long-Term Energy Needs Simultaneously  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pollution simultaneously, namely wind- and solar energy for electric power, electric vehicles and diesel vehicles currently cause. 4) Studies to date suggest little reduction or an exacerbation of global estimates of the effects of cellulosic ethanol on global warming to date are premature and low. 6) Wind

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

31

Moist caustic leaching of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

Nowak, Michael A. (Elizabeth, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Moist caustic leaching of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is claimed for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300{degrees}C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

Nowak, M.A.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

33

A 15-Year Climatology of Warm Conveyor Belts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents the first climatology of so-called warm conveyor belts (WCBs), strongly ascending moist airstreams in extratropical cyclones that, on the time scale of 2 days, rise from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere. The ...

Sabine Eckhardt; Andreas Stohl; Heini Wernli; Paul James; Caroline Forster; Nicole Spichtinger

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Relationship between Air–Sea Density Flux and Isopycnal Meridional Overturning Circulation in a Warming Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study aims to explore the relationship between air–sea density flux and isopycnal meridional overturning circulation (MOC), using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) model projections of the ...

MyeongHee Han; Igor Kamenkovich; Timour Radko; William E. Johns

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: MOIST  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MOIST MOIST MOIST logo. Program to predict combined transfer of heat and moisture in multi-layer building construction. Inputs hourly weather data from diskette and predicts the moisture content and temperature of the construction layers as a function of time of year. Can be used to develop guidelines and practices for controlling moisture in walls, flat roofs, and cathedral ceilings. Keywords combined heat and moisture transfer, envelope Validation/Testing N/A Expertise Required Low to moderate level of computer literacy; most users require about 3 hours to learn how to use the program. Users Over 1250. Audience Building engineers, architects, consultants. Input ASHRAE WYEC Weather Data (over 50 cities available at http://www.bfrl.nist.gov/863/moist.html); user-defined building

36

Potential Vorticity in a Moist Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential vorticity principle for a nonhydrostatic, moist, precipitating atmosphere is derived. An appropriate generalization of the well-known (dry) Ertel potential vorticity is found to be P = ??1(2? + × u)?·???, where ? is the total ...

Wayne H. Schubert; Scott A. Hausman; Matthew Garcia; Katsuyuki V. Ooyama; Hung-Chi Kuo

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Fundamental Moist Modes of the Equatorial Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Raymond's diabatic parameterizations are combined with a three-dimensional channel model on an equatorial beta plane. The equatorially symmetric moist modes of this model for an atmosphere initially at rest are “nonlinear WISHE” (wind-induced ...

David J. Raymond; David J. Torres

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Moist Convection at a Surface Cold Front  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The motion of a surface cold front in an environment that is unstable to moist convection is studied with the aid ofboth hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic two-dimensional models. Simulations with the hydrostatic model essentially extend the work ...

N. Andrew Crook

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

1 2 3 4 5 6 Review of Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

14 This paper reviews and ranks major proposed energy-related solutions to global warming, 15 air pollution mortality, and energy security while considering other impacts of the 16 17 proposed solutions, such as on water supply, land use, wildlife, resource availability, thermal pollution, water chemical pollution, nuclear proliferation, and undernutrition. 18 Nine electric power sources and two liquid fuel options are considered. The electricity 19 sources include solar-photovoltaics (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP), wind, 20 geothermal, hydroelectric, wave, tidal, nuclear, and coal with carbon capture and storage 21 (CCS) technology. The liquid fuel options include corn-ethanol (E85) and cellulosic E85. 22 To place the electric and liquid fuel sources on an equal footing, we examine their 23 comparative abilities to address the problems mentioned by powering new-technology 24 vehicles, including battery-electric vehicles (BEVs), hydrogen fuel cell vehicles 25 (HFCVs), and flex-fuel vehicles run on E85. Twelve combinations of energy source-

Mark Z. Jacobson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

REVIEW www.rsc.org/ees | Energy & Environmental Science Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security†  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reviews and ranks major proposed energy-related solutions to global warming, air pollution mortality, and energy security while considering other impacts of the proposed solutions, such as on water supply, land use, wildlife, resource availability, thermal pollution, water chemical pollution, nuclear proliferation, and undernutrition. Nine electric power sources and two liquid fuel options are considered. The electricity sources include solar-photovoltaics (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP), wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, wave, tidal, nuclear, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. The liquid fuel options include corn-ethanol (E85) and cellulosic-E85. To place the electric and liquid fuel sources on an equal footing, we examine their comparative abilities to address the problems mentioned by powering new-technology vehicles, including battery-electric vehicles (BEVs), hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs), and flex-fuel vehicles run on E85. Twelve combinations of energy source-vehicle type are considered. Upon ranking and weighting each combination with respect to each of 11 impact categories, four clear divisions of ranking, or tiers, emerge. Tier 1 (highest-ranked) includes wind-BEVs and wind-HFCVs. Tier 2 includes CSP-BEVs, geothermal-BEVs, PV-BEVs, tidal-BEVs, and wave-BEVs. Tier 3 includes hydro-BEVs, nuclear-BEVs, and CCS-BEVs. Tier 4 includes corn- and cellulosic-E85. Wind-BEVs ranked first in seven out of 11 categories, including the two most

Mark Z. Jacobson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Laminar flame speeds of moist syngas mixtures  

SciTech Connect

This work experimentally investigates the effect of the presence of water vapor on the laminar flame speeds of moist syngas/air mixtures using the counterflow twin-flame configuration. The experimental results presented here are for fuel lean syngas mixtures with molar percentage of hydrogen in the hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixture varying from 5% to 100%, for an unburned mixture temperature of 323 K, and under atmospheric pressure. At a given equivalence ratio, the effect of varying amount of water vapor addition on the measured laminar flame speed is demonstrated. The experimental laminar flame speeds are also compared with computed values using chemical kinetic mechanisms reported in the literature. It is found that laminar flame speed varies non-monotonically with addition of water for the carbon monoxide rich mixtures. It first increases with increasing amount of water addition, reaches a maximum value, and then decreases. An integrated reaction path analysis is further conducted to understand the controlling mechanism responsible for the non-monotonic variation in laminar flame speed due to water addition. On the other hand, for higher values of H{sub 2}/CO ratio the laminar flame speed monotonically decreases with increasing water addition. It is shown that the competition between the chemical and thermal effects of water addition leads to the observed response. Furthermore, reaction rate sensitivity analysis as well as binary diffusion coefficient sensitivity analysis are conducted to identify the possible sources of discrepancy between the experimental and predicted values. The sensitivity results indicate that the reaction rate constant of H{sub 2}+OH = H{sub 2}O+H is worth revisiting and refinement of binary diffusion coefficient data of N{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O, N{sub 2}-H{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O pairs can be considered. (author)

Das, Apurba K. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Kumar, Kamal; Sung, Chih-Jen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

A Benchmark Simulation for Moist Nonhydrostatic Numerical Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A benchmark solution that facilitates testing the accuracy, efficiency, and efficacy of moist nonhydrostatic numerical model formulations and assumptions is presented. The solution is created from a special configuration of moist model processes ...

George H. Bryan; J. Michael Fritsch

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Modeling Tropical Convergence Based on the Moist Static Energy Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vertically integrated moist static energy equation provides a convenient starting point for the construction of simple models of the time-mean low level convergence in the tropics. A vertically integrated measure of the moist static stability,...

J. David Neelin; Isaac M. Held

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Moist Dynamics of Extended Monsoon Breaks over South Asia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present research to identify moist processes that initiate and maintain extended monsoon breaks over South Asia moisture and moist static energy (MSE) budgets are performed on the newly available European Centre for Medium-Range Weather ...

V. Prasanna; H. Annamalai

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Generation of Moist Potential Vorticity in Extratropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mechanism of moist potential vorticity (MPV) generation in a three-dimensional moist adiabatic and frictionless flow is investigated. It is found that MPV generation is governed by baroclinic vectors and moisture gradients. Negative (positive)...

Zuohao Cao; Han-Ru Cho

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Numerical Simulation of Cloud–Clear Air Interfacial Mixing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses results from a series of direct numerical simulations of the microscale cloud–clear air mixing, set forth in the idealized scenario of decaying moist turbulence. In the moist case, kinetic energy of microscale motions comes ...

Miros?aw Andrejczuk; Wojciech W. Grabowski; Szymon P. Malinowski; Piotr K. Smolarkiewicz

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

An Equation for Moist Entropy in a Precipitating and Icy Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper addresses an equation for moist entropy in the framework of cloud-resolving models. After rewriting the energy equation with moist entropy in the place of temperature, an equation for moist entropy is obtained. The equation expresses ...

Xiping Zeng; Wei-Kuo Tao; Joanne Simpson

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Moist multi-scale models for the hurricane embryo  

SciTech Connect

Determining the finite-amplitude preconditioned states in the hurricane embryo, which lead to tropical cyclogenesis, is a central issue in contemporary meteorology. In the embryo there is competition between different preconditioning mechanisms involving hydrodynamics and moist thermodynamics, which can lead to cyclogenesis. Here systematic asymptotic methods from applied mathematics are utilized to develop new simplified moist multi-scale models starting from the moist anelastic equations. Three interesting multi-scale models emerge in the analysis. The balanced mesoscale vortex (BMV) dynamics and the microscale balanced hot tower (BHT) dynamics involve simplified balanced equations without gravity waves for vertical vorticity amplification due to moist heat sources and incorporate nonlinear advective fluxes across scales. The BMV model is the central one for tropical cyclogenesis in the embryo. The moist mesoscale wave (MMW) dynamics involves simplified equations for mesoscale moisture fluctuations, as well as linear hydrostatic waves driven by heat sources from moisture and eddy flux divergences. A simplified cloud physics model for deep convection is introduced here and used to study moist axisymmetric plumes in the BHT model. A simple application in periodic geometry involving the effects of mesoscale vertical shear and moist microscale hot towers on vortex amplification is developed here to illustrate features of the coupled multi-scale models. These results illustrate the use of these models in isolating key mechanisms in the embryo in a simplified content.

Majda, Andrew J. [New York University; Xing, Yulong [ORNL; Mohammadian, Majid [University of Ottawa, Canada

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Saturation Point Analysis of Moist Convective Overturning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A unified approach to the thermodynamics of cloudy air, cloud-clear air mixing processes, atmospheric thermodynamic equilibrium structure and instability is formulated, using a new concept: the Saturation Point. This permits the representation of ...

Alan K. Betts

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Moist Absolute Instability: The Sixth Static Stability State  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is argued that a sixth static stability state, moist absolute instability, can be created and maintained over mesoscale areas of the atmosphere. Examination of over 130 000 soundings and a numerical simulation of an observed event are employed ...

George H. Bryan; Michael J. Fritsch

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

How can Weather-Forecasting Facilitate the Improvement of Moist...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Weather-Forecasting Facilitate the Improvement of Moist Processes in Climate Models? Speaker(s): Stephen A. Klein Date: May 22, 2008 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar HostPoint...

52

Resolution Requirements for the Simulation of Deep Moist Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spatial resolution appropriate for the simulation of deep moist convection is addressed from a turbulence perspective. To provide a clear theoretical framework for the problem, techniques for simulating turbulent flows are reviewed, and the ...

George H. Bryan; John C. Wyngaard; J. Michael Fritsch

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Behavior of buoyant moist plumes in turbulent atmospheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A widely applicable computational model of buoyant moist plumes in turbulent atmospheres has been constructed. To achieve this a one dimensional Planetary Boundary Layer (P.B.L.) model has been developed to account for ...

Hamza, Redouane

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

The Moist Available Energy of a Conditionally Unstable Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concept of “moist available energy,” defined by Lorenz, is applied to study the potential energy available for cumulus convection in a conditionally unstable atmosphere. A modified version of Lorenz's parcel-moving algorithm is applied to the ...

David A. Randall; Junyi Wang

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Towards multiscale simulation of moist flows with soundproof equations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses incorporation of phase changes of the water substance that accompany moist atmospheric flows into the all-scale atmospheric model based on soundproof equations. Specific issue concerns developing a theoretical basis and ...

Marcin J. Kurowski; Wojciech W. Grabowski; Piotr K. Smolarkiewicz

56

The Dry-Entropy Budget of a Moist Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The entropy budget has been a popular starting point for theories of the work, or dissipation, performed by moist atmospheres. For a dry atmosphere, the entropy budget provides a theory for the dissipation in terms of the imposed diabatic heat ...

David M. Romps

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

A New Moist Turbulence Parameterization in the Community Atmosphere Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new moist turbulence parameterization is presented and implemented in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). It is derived from Grenier and Bretherton but has been heavily modified to improve its numerical stability and efficiency with the long ...

Christopher S. Bretherton; Sungsu Park

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Regional Variations of Moist Static Energy Flux into the Arctic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors investigate the climmological heating of the Arctic by the atmospheric moist static energy (MSE) flux from lower latitudes based on 25 years (November 1964–1989) of the GFDL dataset. During the five month winter period (NDJFM) the ...

James E. Overland; Philip Turet; Abraham H. Oort

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Theoretical Foundations for Models of Moist Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The equations describing the dynamics and thermodynamics of cloudy air are derived using the theories of multicomponent fluids and multiphase flows. The formulation is completely general and allows the hydrometeors to have temperatures and ...

Peter R. Bannon

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Coupled Modes of the Warm Pool Climate System. Part I: The Role of Air–Sea Interaction in Maintaining Madden–Julian Oscillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the warm pool of the equatorial Indian and western Pacific Oceans, both the climatological mean state and the processes of atmosphere–ocean interaction differ fundamentally from their counterparts over the cold tongue of the equatorial ...

Bin Wang; Xiaosu Xie

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Internal Gravity Waves in a Saturated Moist Neutral Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work is motivated by an unusual feature associated with the start-up of a moist nearly neutral atmospheric flow over a mountain ridge that was previously observed in a full-physics numerical model. In that study, the upstream propagation of a ...

David J. Muraki; Richard Rotunno

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Internal Gravity Waves in a Saturated Moist-Neutral Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work is motivated by an unusual feature associated with the startup of a moist nearly neutral atmospheric flow over a mountain ridge that was previously observed in a full-physics numerical model. In that study, the upstream propagation of a ...

David J. Muraki; Richard Rotunno

63

A Theory for the Lower-Tropospheric Structure of the Moist Isentropic Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theoretical model describing the structure of the dry and moist isentropic circulations in the lower troposphere is derived. It decomposes the meridional flow in the troposphere into three contributions: a dry equatorward flow, a cold moist ...

Frédéric Laliberté; Tiffany Shaw; Olivier Pauluis

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

A Dynamic and Thermodynamic Foundation for Modeling the Moist Atmosphere with Parameterized Microphysics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Moist convection is an exquisite yet powerful participant in the creation of weather on our planet. To facilitate numerical modeling of weather systems in a moist atmosphere, a direct and consistent application of dynamic and thermodynamic ...

Katsuyuki V. Ooyama

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

A Gray-Radiation Aquaplanet Moist GCM. Part II: Energy Transports in Altered Climates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simplified moist general circulation model is used to study changes in the meridional transport of moist static energy by the atmosphere as the water vapor content is increased. The key assumptions of the model are gray radiation, with water ...

Dargan M. W. Frierson; Isaac M. Held; Pablo Zurita-Gotor

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Method and apparatus for extracting water from air  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water (ideally isothermal to a humidity of 1.0, then adiabatic thereafter). The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Method and apparatus for extracting water from air  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water. The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Callow, Diane Schafer (Albuquerque, NM); Marron, Lisa C. (Albuquerque, NM); Salton, Jonathan R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Moist Convection and the Thermal Stratification of the Extratropical Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulations with an aquaplanet general circulation model show that sensible and latent heat transport by large-scale eddies influences the extratropical thermal stratification over a wide range of climates, even in relatively warm climates with ...

Tapio Schneider; Paul A. O’Gorman

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

Zénó Farkas

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

70

Extended Sawyer–Eliassen Equation for Frontal Circulations in the Presence of small Viscous Moist Symmetric Stability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Sawyer–Eliassen (S–E) equation for frontal circulations forced by a geostrophic stretching deformation is extended to include the effects of both negative moist potential vorticity (MPV) and eddy viscosity. Since the moist (precipitation) ...

Qin Xu

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Improvement to Air2Air® Technology...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cooling tower with relatively drier and cooler ambient air. This is done in an air-to-air heat exchanger made up of plastic sheets with two discreet air pathways. As the warm,...

72

The Relation between Moist Convective Adjustment Schemes and the Mass-Flux Concept for Cumulus Parameterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of finding convective mass fluxes and convective condensation rates in moist convective adjustment schemes for cumulus parameterization in numerical weather prediction is addressed. Formal considerations reveal that, in general, it is ...

Peter Binder

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

A Gray-Radiation Aquaplanet Moist GCM. Part I: Static Stability and Eddy Scale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a simplified moist general circulation model is developed and used to study changes in the atmospheric general circulation as the water vapor content of the atmosphere is altered. The key elements of the model physics are gray ...

Dargan M. W. Frierson; Isaac M. Held; Pablo Zurita-Gotor

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Initial Condition Sensitivity and Predictability of a Severe Extratropical Cyclone Using a Moist Adjoint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensitivity and predictability of a rapidly-developing extratropical cyclone, ‘Xynthia’, that had a severe impact on Europe is explored using a high-resolution moist adjoint modeling system. The adjoint diagnostics indicate that the intensity ...

James D. Doyle; Clark Amerault; Carolyn A. Reynolds; P. Alex Reinecke

75

The Suppression of Deep Moist Convection near the Southern Great Plains Dryline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep moist convection failed to initiate over the Texas Panhandle on 6 May 1995 despite expectations to the contrary by the forecasters for the Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX). The National Centers for ...

Harald Richter; Lance F. Bosart

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

A Satellite Study of Tropical Moist Convection and Environmental Variability: A Moisture and Thermal Budget Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermodynamic variability associated with moist convection over tropical oceans is analyzed by making use of a variety of satellite sensors including radars, an infrared and microwave sounder unit, and a microwave radiometer and scatterometer ...

Hirohiko Masunaga

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Variational Assimilation of Precipitation Data Using Moist Convective Parameterization Schemes: A 1D-Var Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some basic aspects related to the problem of incorporating moist convective processes in a variational data assimilation framework are considered. The methodology is based on inverse problem theory and is formulated in its simplest context where ...

Luc Fillion; Ronald Errico

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Generation of Moist Potential Vorticity in Extratropical Cyclones. Part II: Sensitivity to Moisture Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of different moisture distributions on the generation of moist potential vorticity (MPV) in extratropical cyclones are examined by numerical simulations. These sensitivity experiments show that low-level negative MPV generation ...

Han-Ru Cho; Zuohao Cao

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Mesoscale Predictability of Moist Baroclinic Waves: Convection-Permitting Experiments and Multistage Error Growth Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recent study examined the predictability of an idealized baroclinic wave amplifying in a conditionally unstable atmosphere through numerical simulations with parameterized moist convection. It was demonstrated that with the effect of moisture ...

Fuqing Zhang; Naifang Bei; Richard Rotunno; Chris Snyder; Craig C. Epifanio

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Frontal Wave Stability during Moist Deformation Frontogenesis. Part I: Linear Wave Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been shown that lower tropospheric potential vorticity zones formed during moist deformation frontogenesis will support growing waves if at some time the frontogenesis ceases. In this paper, the ways in which these waves are affected by ...

Craig H. Bishop; Alan J. Thorpe

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

A Theory for Nonprecipitating Moist Convection between Two Parallel Plates. Part I: Thermodynamics and “Linear” Solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A defining feature of moist convection is latent heating. A simple, mathematically tractable but thermody-namically reasonable Kuo-type model is developed to isolate some important effects of latent heating on the structure and organization of ...

Christopher S. Bretherton

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Surface and atmospheric controls on the onset of moist convection over land  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The onset of moist convection over land is investigated using a conceptual approach with a slab boundary layer model. We here determine the essential factors for the onset of boundary layer clouds over land, and study their relative importance. ...

Pierre Gentine; Albert A. M. Holtslag; Fabio D’Andrea; Michael Ek

83

Moist Thermodynamics of the Madden–Julian Oscillation in a Cloud-Resolving Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The moist thermodynamic processes that determine the time scale and energy of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) are investigated using moisture and eddy available potential energy budget analyses on a cloud-resolving simulation. Two MJO episodes ...

Samson Hagos; L. Ruby Leung

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Mesoscale Convective Vortex Formation in a Weakly Sheared Moist Neutral Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Idealized simulations of a diabatic Rossby vortex (DRV) in an initially moist neutral baroclinic environment are performed using the fifth-generation National Center for Atmospheric Research–Pennsylvania State University (NCAR–PSU) Mesoscale ...

Robert J. Conzemius; Richard W. Moore; Michael T. Montgomery; Christopher A. Davis

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

“Multi-temperature” method for high-pressure sorption measurements on moist shales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple and effective experimental approach has been developed and tested to study the temperature dependence of high-pressure methane sorption in moist organic-rich shales. This method

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Influence of Moist Physics and Norms on Singular Vectors for a Tropical Cyclone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the structures and growth rates of singular vectors (SVs) for Typhoon Usagi were investigated using different moist physics and norms. The fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research ...

Hyun Mee Kim; Byoung-Joo Jung

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

A Numerical Study of the Role of Humidity in the Updraft Driven by Moist Slantwise Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hydrostatic numerical model with simple microphysical parameterization is used to simulate moist slantwise convection (MSC) in an archetypal initial condition free of other kinds of instability. The numerical experiments are designed to explore ...

Valdir Innocentini; Ernesto Dos Santos Caetano Neto

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Linearization of a Simple Moist Convection Scheme for Large-Scale NWP Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple Kuo-type convection scheme with an improved closure based on moist enthalpy accession (Kuo symmetric) has been linearized for the tangent-linear (TL) and adjoint (AD) versions of the Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model. The ...

Jean-François Mahfouf

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

The Moist Static Energy Budget of a Composite Tropical Intraseasonal Oscillation in a Climate Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The intraseasonal moist static energy (MSE) budget is analyzed in a climate model that produces realistic eastward-propagating tropical intraseasonal wind and precipitation variability. Consistent with the recharge–discharge paradigm for tropical ...

Eric D. Maloney

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

A Large-Eddy Simulation Study of Moist Convection Initiation over Heterogeneous Surface Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study uses large-eddy simulations to investigate processes of moist convection initiation (CI) over heterogeneous surface fluxes. Surface energy balance is imposed via a 180° phase lag of the surface moisture flux (relative to the sensible ...

Song-Lak Kang; George H. Bryan

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Inclusion of Linearized Moist Physics in NASA’s Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation Tools  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inclusion of moist physics in the linearized version of a weather forecast model is beneficial in terms of variational data assimilation. Further it improves the capability of important tools, such as adjoint based observation impacts and ...

Daniel Holdaway; Ronald Errico; Ronald Gelaro; Jong G. Kim

92

A Satellite Study of Tropical Moist Convection and Environmental Variability: A Moisture and Thermal Budget Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermodynamic variability associated with moist convection over tropical oceans is analyzed by making use of a variety of satellite sensors including radars, an infrared and microwave sounder unit, and microwave radiometer and scatterometer ...

Hirohiko Masunaga

93

Coupling of Moist-Convective and Stratiform Precipitation Processes for Variational Data Assimilation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some problems posed by the coupling of moist-convective and stratiform precipitation processes for variational assimilation of precipitation-rate data are examined in a 1D-Var framework. Background-error statistics and vertical resolution are ...

Luc Fillion; Jean-François Mahfouf

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Validity of the Tangent Linear Approximation in a Moist Convective Cloud Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The validity of the moist tangent linear model (TLM) derived from a time-dependent 1D Eulerian cloud model is investigated by comparing TLM solutions to differences between results from a nonlinear model identically perturbed. The TLM solutions ...

Seon Ki Park; Kelvin K. Droegemeier

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Singular-Vector Perturbation Growth in a Primitive Equation Model with Moist Physics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Finite-time growth of perturbations in the presence of moist physics (specifically, precipitation) is investigated using singular vectors (SVs) in the context of a primitive equation regional model. Two difficulties appear in the explicit ...

Martin Ehrendorfer; Ronald M. Errico; Kevin D. Raeder

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Tests of an Adjoint Mesoscale Model with Explicit Moist Physics on the Cloud Scale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An adjoint modeling system based upon the Naval Research Laboratory’s Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System’s atmospheric component has been developed. The system includes the adjoint model of the explicit moist physics ...

Clark Amerault; Xiaolei Zou; James Doyle

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Numerical Simulation of Cloud–Clear Air Interfacial Mixing: Homogeneous versus Inhomogeneous Mixing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This note presents an analysis of several dozens of direct numerical simulations of the cloud–clear air mixing in a setup of decaying moist turbulence with bin microphysics. The goal is to assess the instantaneous relationship between the ...

Miroslaw Andrejczuk; Wojciech W. Grabowski; Szymon P. Malinowski; Piotr K. Smolarkiewicz

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Impacts of Air–Sea Flux Parameterizations on the Intensity and Structure of Tropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fluxes of momentum and moist enthalpy across the air–sea interface are believed to be one of the most important factors in determining tropical cyclone intensity. Because these surface fluxes cannot be directly resolved by numerical weather ...

Benjamin W. Green; Fuqing Zhang

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

The Theoretician’s Clouds—Heavier or Lighter than Air? On Densities in Atmospheric Thermodynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Threefold densities may be introduced into atmospheric thermodynamics. For rainless clouds the general indirect or implicit conclusion is that they are denser than moist air under the same circumstances, although in a classic treatise a different ...

Joachim Pelkowski; Thomas Frisius

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Global Warming, Soot, Ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Warming, Soot, Ice Speaker(s): James Hansen Date: November 7, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Irreversible "dangerous anthropogenic interference" with the climate system...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Montana - State Energy Profile Analysis - U.S. Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The Continental Divide forms much of Montana's western border with Idaho, where the Bitterroot Range captures warm moist air from the Pacific.

102

Motor vehicles and global warming  

SciTech Connect

Energy use in transportation is one of the contributors to the concern over global warming. The primary greenhouse gases released by the transportation sector are carbon dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons. When all greenhouse gases are considered, CO{sub 2} emissions from the operation of highway vehicles worldwide represent about 4.7% of global warming enhancement. CO{sub 2} emissions from U.S. highway vehicles along represent about 2 to 2.5% of worldwide greenhouse gases. The use of CFCs in automotive air conditioning, in blowing foams for seats and padding and in the manufacture of electronic circuit boards accounted for 15% of the global usage of CFC-12 in 1985 according to the U.S. EPA. The Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association supports the phase-out of CFC use provided that safe substitutes are available and that adequate lead time is allowed for.They suggest that reduction of greenhouse gases would require planning on a global scope to be effective. One alternative they suggest for further study is a carbon fee for reducing emissions of carbon dioxide. This fee would be levied on each type of fossil fuel, proportional to its carbon content per unit of energy.

Halberstadt, M.L.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Influences of Moist Convection on a Cold-Season Outbreak of Clear-Air Turbulence (CAT)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 9–10 March 2006 aviation turbulence outbreak over the central United States is examined using observations and numerical simulations. Though the turbulence occurs within a deep synoptic cyclone with widespread precipitation, comparison of ...

Stanley B. Trier; Robert D. Sharman; Todd P. Lane

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Warm Gas Cleanup  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Warm Gas Cleanup Warm Gas Cleanup NETL Office of Research and Development Project Number: FWP-2012.03.03 Task 5 Project Description The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established strict regulations for the trace contaminant emissions from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. The Department of Energy (DOE) performance goals for trace contaminant removal were selected to meet or exceed EPA's standard limits for contaminants, as well as to avoid poisoning of: the catalysts utilized in making liquids from fuel gas the electrodes in fuel cells selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts The objective of the NETL's ORD Warm Gas Cleanup project is to assist in achieving both DOE and EPA targets for trace contaminant capture from coal gasification, while preserving the high thermal efficiency of the IGCC system. To achieve this, both lab and pilot-scale research is underway to develop sorbents capable of removing the following contaminants from high temperature syngas (up to 550°F):

105

Bifurcation and Stability in a Model of Moist Convection in a Shearing Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The six-coefficient spectral model (model I) of two-dimensional shallow moist convection discussed by Shirer and Dutton (1979) is extended to an eleven component system (model II) in order that a height-dependent basic wind V(z) could be added to ...

Hampton N. Shirer

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Impacts of Shallow Convection on MJO Simulation: A Moist Static Energy and Moisture Budget Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of shallow convection in Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) simulation is examined in terms of the moist static energy (MSE) and moisture budgets. Two experiments are carried out using the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model, version 3.0 (CAM3.0)...

Qiongqiong Cai; Guang J. Zhang; Tianjun Zhou

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

A Scale Analysis of Deep Moist Convection and Some Related Numerical Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A scale analysis valid for deep moist convection is carried out. The approximate equations of motion are anelastic with the time scale set by the Brunt- Väisälä frequency. A new assumption is that the base state potential temperature is a slowly ...

Franik B. Lipps; Richard S. Hemler

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Warm Water Mass Formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poleward heat transport by the own implies warm Water mass formation, i.e., the retention by the tropical and subtropical ocean of some of its net radiant heat gain. Under what condition net heat retention becomes comparable to latent heat ...

G. T. Csanady

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Entropy Budget of an Atmosphere in Radiative–Convective Equilibrium. Part II: Latent Heat Transport and Moist Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In moist convection, atmospheric motions transport water vapor from the earth's surface to the regions where condensation occurs. This transport is associated with three other aspects of convection: the latent heat transport, the expansion work ...

Olivier Pauluis; Isaac M. Held

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

The Impact on Simulated Storm Structure and Intensity of Variations in the Mixed Layer and Moist Layer Depths  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensitivities of convective storm structure and intensity to variations in the depths of the prestorm mixed layer, represented here by the environmental lifted condensation level (LCL), and moist layer, represented by the level of free ...

Eugene W. McCaul Jr.; Charles Cohen

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Moist Dynamics and Orographic Precipitation in Northern and Central California during the New Year’s Flood of 1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamics of moist orographic flows during the January 1997 floods in northern and central California are investigated using numerical simulations computed with the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric ...

Joseph Galewsky; Adam Sobel

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Moist Static Energy Budget of MJO-like Disturbances in the Atmosphere of a Zonally Symmetric Aquaplanet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO)-like spectral feature is observed in the time–space spectra of precipitation and column-integrated moist static energy (MSE) for a zonally symmetric aquaplanet simulated with Superparameterized Community ...

Joseph Allan Andersen; Zhiming Kuang

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Mesoscale Energy Spectra of the Mei-Yu Front System. Part II: Moist Available Potential Energy Spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Part II of this study, a new formulation of the spectral energy budget of moist available potential energy (MAPE) and kinetic energy is derived. Compared to previous formulations, there are three main improvements: i) the Lorenz available ...

Jun Peng; Lifeng Zhang; Yu Luo; Chunhui Xiong

114

Arrhenius and global warming  

SciTech Connect

Although concern about global atmospheric warming has intensified in recent decades, research into the greenhouse effect actually began in the 19th century. Fourier and other scientists appreciated that without heat-absorbing gases in the atmosphere, the temperature on the ground would be considerably lower, making life as we know it impossible. In 1896, the Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius was the first to make a quantitative link between changes in carbon dioxide concentration and climate. Publication of his paper was celebrated at a recent Swedish workshop. 13 refs., 1 fig.

Uppenbrink, J.

1996-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

115

Stay Warm in Your Apartment | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stay Warm in Your Apartment Stay Warm in Your Apartment Stay Warm in Your Apartment October 19, 2009 - 11:43am Addthis Eric Barendsen Energy Technology Program Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Yes, the Ghost of Winters Future has officially knocked on our front doors again. The leaves here in Washington, D.C., have started to turn toward their colorful crescendo, that spectacular finish before their end on the chilly ground. It makes me cold just thinking about it. Like me, you're probably not opening your windows much at night anymore. I'm holding out still, surrendering a little more of my beloved fresh air each night and dreading that first night when I have to pop the heater on. Last night, I only open my window about an inch. I guess that means it's time to think about locking out the cold air once and for all this year.

116

Stay Warm in Your Apartment | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stay Warm in Your Apartment Stay Warm in Your Apartment Stay Warm in Your Apartment October 19, 2009 - 11:43am Addthis Eric Barendsen Energy Technology Program Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Yes, the Ghost of Winters Future has officially knocked on our front doors again. The leaves here in Washington, D.C., have started to turn toward their colorful crescendo, that spectacular finish before their end on the chilly ground. It makes me cold just thinking about it. Like me, you're probably not opening your windows much at night anymore. I'm holding out still, surrendering a little more of my beloved fresh air each night and dreading that first night when I have to pop the heater on. Last night, I only open my window about an inch. I guess that means it's time to think about locking out the cold air once and for all this year.

117

Enthalpy Transfer across the Air–Water Interface in High Winds Including Spray  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Controlled experiments were conducted in the Air–Sea Interaction Saltwater Tank (ASIST) at the University of Miami to investigate air–sea moist enthalpy transfer rates under various wind speeds (range of 0.6–39 m s?1 scaled to equivalent 10-m ...

Dahai Jeong; Brian K. Haus; Mark A. Donelan

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Method and apparatus for extracting water from air using a desiccant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method can be considered as four phases: (1) adsorbing water from air into a desiccant, (2) isolating the water-laden desiccant from the air source, (3) desorbing water as vapor from the desiccant into a chamber, and (4) isolating the desiccant from the chamber, and compressing the vapor in the chamber to form liquid condensate. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. Careful design of the dead volumes and pressure balances can minimize the energy required. The dried air can be exchanged for fresh moist air and the process repeated. An apparatus comprises a first chamber in fluid communication with a desiccant, and having ports to intake moist air and exhaust dried air. The apparatus also comprises a second chamber in fluid communication with the desiccant. The second chamber allows variable internal pressure, and has a port for removal of liquid condensate. Each chamber can be configured to be isolated or in communication with the desiccant. The first chamber can be configured to be isolated or in communication with a course of moist air. Various arrangements of valves, pistons, and chambers are described.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Callow, Diane Schafer (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

A Numerical Modeling Study of Warm Offshore Flow over Cool Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of boundary layer evolution in offshore flow of warm air over cool water are conducted and compared with aircraft observations of mean and turbulent fields made at Duck, North Carolina. Two models are used: a two-dimensional,...

Eric D. Skyllingstad; Roger M. Samelson; Larry Mahrt; Phil Barbour

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Moist Chlorine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...E.L. Liening, Corrosion by Chlorine, Corrosion: Environments and Industries, Vol 13C, ASM Handbook, ASM International, 2006, p 704â??709...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Global Warming Local Warning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

informed consumption and lifestyle decisions. "Green energy must be put at the heart of sustainable from the expected increase in freak and extreme weather conditions. My concern as Green Party MEP working to combat aviation subsidies, since air transport is the fastest growing source of greenhouse gas

Williams, Paul

122

WARM SPRINGS, OREGON  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

and, as part of its charter, has the responsibility to evaluate and develop renewable energy resources for the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs. WSPWE recently completed a multi-year-year wind resource assessment of tribal lands, beginning with the installation of wind monitoring towers on the Mutton Mountains site in 2003, and collection of on-site wind data is ongoing. The study identified the Mutton Mountain site on the northeastern edge of the reservation as a site with sufficient wind resources to support a commercial power project estimated to generate over 226,000 MWh per year. Initial estimates indicate that the first phase of the project would be approximately 79.5 MW of installed capacity. This Phase 2 study expands and builds on the previously conducted Phase 1 Wind Resource Assessment, dated June 30, 2007. In order to fully assess the economic benefits that may accrue to the Tribes through wind energy development at Mutton Mountain, a planning-level opinion of probable cost was performed to define the costs associated with key design and construction aspects of the proposed project. This report defines the Mutton Mountain project costs and economics in sufficient detail to allow the Tribes to either build the project themselves or contract with a developer under the most favorable terms possible for the Tribes.

Jim Manion; Michael Lofting; Wil Sando; Emily Leslie; Randy Goff

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

123

Rising Sea Levels Due to Global Warming Are Unstoppable  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rising Sea Levels Rising Sea Levels Due to Global Warming Are Unstoppable Rising Sea Levels Due to Global Warming Are Unstoppable Mitigation can slow down but not prevent sea level rise for centuries to come August 5, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, Lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 washington.jpg Because seawater absorbs heat more slowly than the atmosphere above it, our oceans won't feel the full impact of the greenhouse gases already in the air for hundreds of years. Warm water expands, raising sea levels. (Courtesy W. Washington) Select to enlarge. A reduction in greenhouse gas emissions could greatly lessen the impacts of climate change. However, the gases already added to the atmosphere ensure a certain amount of sea level rise to come, even if future emissions are reduced. A study by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

124

Global Warming and Extreme Weather  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Warming and Extreme Weather Global Warming and Extreme Weather Speaker(s): Michael Wehner Date: November 28, 2006 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Surabi Menon Extreme weather events can have serious impacts on human and ecological systems. Changes in the magnitude and frequency of extreme weather associated with changes in the mean climate are likely the most serious consequence of human induced global warming. Understanding what the future portends is vital if society hopes to adapt to the very different world that awaits. In this talk, we will exploit simple extreme value theory to make predictions about the late 21st century climate. Current work on the relationship between global warming and the hurricane cycle will also be presented. The bottom line is that events that are considered rare today

125

Global warming continues in 1989  

SciTech Connect

Nineteen eight-nine ranks as one of the warmest years on record despite the chill of unusually cool water in the tropical Pacific. The continued robustness of the warming trend that began in the mid-1970s lends support to claims that an intensifying greenhouse effect is behind it all, although that case has not yet been made definitively. Even at the current rate of global warming it will take another 10 years or so to be confident that the greenhouse effect is with us. Although the global warming trend is consistent with an increasing contribution by the greenhouse effect, direct signs that the greenhouse effect is intensifying are still hard to come by in the temperature record. Greenhouse models agree that if that is happening, the temperature increase should be most pronounced around the Arctic. Alaska, northwestern Canada, and northern Siberia warmed sharply in the 1980s, but the region from eastern Canada through Greenland and into Scandinavia cooled markedly.

Kerr, R.A.

1990-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

126

Authropogenic Warming in North Alaska?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using permafrost boreholes, Lachenbruch and Marshall recently reported evidence for a 2°–4°C warming in North Alaska occurring at some undetermined time during the last century. Popular accounts suggest their findings are evidence for ...

Patrick J. Michaels; David E. Sappington; David E. Stooksbury

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

The Psychology of Global Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evidence in support of global warming and the lack of significant published evidence to the contrary provides an extraordinarily strong foundation for the scientific community's call for action on greenhouse gas emissions. However, public ...

Ben R. Newell; Andrew J. Pitman

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Dynamic Instabilities of Simulated Hurricane-like Vortices and Their Impacts on the Core Structure of Hurricanes. Part II: Moist Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy flows of a simulated moist hurricane-like vortex are analyzed to examine the processes that change the intensity and structure of tropical cyclones. The moist vortex used in this study is initially axisymmetric on an f plane and is ...

Young C. Kwon; William M. Frank

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Moist thermodynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in a cloud resolving simulation  

SciTech Connect

The moist thermodynamic processes that determine the scale and energy of the Madden-Julian Oscillation are investigated using moisture and eddy available potential energy (EAPE) budget analyses on a high resolution regional model simulation. The two MJO episodes observed during the winter of 2007-2008 are realistically simulated. In the model, small differences among the timescales of convective vertical transport, mixing and condensation of moisture determine the timescale of MJO moistening. Furthermore, various cloud types play a damping or destabilizing contribution role in the EAPE budget of the MJO, depending on their characteristic latent heating profile and its covariance with the temperature fluctuations. The results are used identify possible sources of the difficulties in simulating MJO in low resolution models that rely on cumulus parameterizations.

Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

130

A Unified Model for Moist Convective Boundary Layers Based on a Stochastic Eddy-Diffusivity/Mass-Flux Parameterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A single-column model (SCM) is developed for representing moist convective boundary layers. The key component of the SCM is the parameterization of subgrid-scale vertical mixing, which is based on a stochastic eddy-diffusivity/mass-flux (EDMF) ...

Kay Sušelj; João Teixeira; Daniel Chung

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Combustion Characteristics of Moist H2 and H2/CO Mixtures and In-situ Temperature and Species Measurements Using Mid-IR Absorption Spectroscopy in a New RCM.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The title study investigates the combustion characteristics of moist H2/oxidizer and moist H2/CO/oxidizer mixtures. It involves experimental determination of laminar flame speeds with emphasis on… (more)

Das, Apurba K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

It's Not Too Late to Change Global Warming's Course - NERSC Science News  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

It's Not Too Late to It's Not Too Late to Change Global Warming's Course It's Not Too Late to Change Global Warming's Course Simulations Show That Cuts in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Would Save Arctic Ice, Reduce Sea Level Rise October 27, 2009 | Tags: Climate Research mitigation1.jpg Computer simulations show the extent that average air temperatures at Earth's surface could warm by 2080-2099 compared to 1980-1999, if (top) greenhouse gases emissions continue to climb at current rates, or if (middle) society cuts emissions by 70 percent. In the latter case, temperatures rise by less than 2°C (3.6°F) across nearly all of Earth's populated areas (the bottom panel shows warming averted). However, unchecked emissions could lead to warming of 3°C (5.4°F) or more across parts of Europe, Asia, North America, and Australia. (Image: Geophysical

133

Global Warming: Physics and Facts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth`s radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.

Levi, B.G. [Physics Today, New York, NY (United States); Hafemeister, D. [Committee on Foreign Relations (U.S. Senate), Washington, DC (United States); Scribner, R. [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States)] [eds.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Global Warming: Physics and Facts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.

Levi, B.G. (Physics Today, New York, NY (United States)); Hafemeister, D. (Committee on Foreign Relations (U.S. Senate), Washington, DC (United States)); Scribner, R. (Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States)) (eds.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Air-Conditioning Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air-Conditioning Basics Air-Conditioning Basics Air-Conditioning Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:59pm Addthis Air conditioning is one of the most common ways to cool homes and buildings. How Air Conditioners Work Air conditioners employ the same operating principles and basic components as refrigerators. Refrigerators use energy (usually electricity) to transfer heat from the cool interior of the refrigerator to the relatively warm surroundings; likewise, an air conditioner uses energy to transfer heat from the interior space to the relatively warm outside environment. An air conditioner uses a cold indoor coil called the evaporator. The condenser, a hot outdoor coil, releases the collected heat outside. The evaporator and condenser coils are serpentine tubing surrounded by aluminum fins. This tubing is usually made of copper.

136

Thermal insulation as a source of air pollution  

SciTech Connect

Complaints about odors in buildings may be caused by penetration of moisture into mineral wool used as thermal insulation in the cavity wall or under the roof. The complaints may occur particularly during hot weather. In laboratory experiments, moist mineral wool produced the same unpleasant odor at 50{degree}C. In air samples over the moist wool, higher aliphatic aldehydes, ketones and aromatic aldehydes were detected. In air samples collected in rooms of buildings where complaints about odor had been made, higher aliphatic aldehydes (n-hexanal-n-decanal) were detected with concentrations between 1 and 50 {mu}g{center dot}m{sup {minus}3} for each of these aldehydes. Thus, the penetration of moisture into mineral wool used for thermal insulation should be avoided.

van der Wal, J.F.; Moons, A.M.M.; Steenlage, R. (TNO Division of Technology for Society, Delft (Netherlands))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Policy implications of greenhouse warming  

SciTech Connect

Contents: background; the greenhouse gases and their effects; policy framework; adaptation; mitigation; international considerations; findings and conclusions; recommendations; questions and answers about greenhouse warming; background information on synthesis panel members and professional staff; and membership lists for effects, mitigation, and adaptation panels.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Air Conditioning | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conditioning Conditioning Air Conditioning July 1, 2012 - 6:28pm Addthis Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard How does it work? An air conditioner uses energy -- usually electricity -- to transfer heat from the interior of your home to the relatively warm outside environment. Two-thirds of all homes in the United States have air conditioners. Air conditioners use about 5% of all the electricity produced in the United States, at an annual cost of more than $11 billion to homeowners. As a

139

Why Are There Tropical Warm Pools?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tropical warm pools appear as the primary mode in the distribution of tropical sea surface temperature (SST). Most previous studies have focused on the role of atmospheric processes in homogenizing temperatures in the warm pool and establishing ...

Amy C. Clement; Richard Seager; Raghu Murtugudde

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Prediction of domestic warm-water consumption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents methodologies able to predict dynamic warm water consumption in district heating systems, using time-series analysis. A simulation model according to the day of a week has been chosen for modeling the domestic warm water consumption ... Keywords: autoregressive model, district heating systems, domestic warm water, prediction, simulation, time series models

Elena Serban; Daniela Popescu

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

United Mechanisms for the Generation of Low- and High-Frequency Tropical Waves. Part I: Control Experiments with Moist Convective Adjustment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To examine several mechanisms for the generation of low- and high-frequency tropical waves, numerical experiments are conducted using an idealized nine-level R21 spectral model with the original scheme of moist convective adjustment (MCA). The ...

Y. Hayashi; D. G. Golder

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Vertical Moist Thermodynamic Structure of the Madden–Julian Oscillation in Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Retrievals: An Update and a Comparison to ECMWF Interim Re-Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The large-scale vertical moist thermodynamic structure of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) was documented using the first 2.5 yr (2002–05) of version 4 atmospheric specific humidity and temperature profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared ...

Baijun Tian; Duane E. Waliser; Eric J. Fetzer; Yuk L. Yung

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Comparison of Moist Static Energy and Budget between the GCM-Simulated Madden–Julian Oscillation and Observations over the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The moist static energy (MSE) anomalies and MSE budget associated with the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) simulated in the Iowa State University General Circulation Model (ISUGCM) over the Indian and Pacific Oceans are compared with observations. ...

Xiaoqing Wu; Liping Deng

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Heard Island global warming test  

SciTech Connect

In late January and early February 1991, an international team will conduct an experiment to test the possibility of measuring global warming in the world's oceans. The goal is to provide early indications of warming caused by the so-called greenhouse effect, the atmospheric buildup of CO{sub 2} and other gases. The method is based on the principle that acoustic energy travels through water between a source and receiver at a speed determined primarily by the water temperature. Thus acoustic travel time can be used as a temperature gauge. The idea is an outgrowth of suggestions made by Professor Walter Munk of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Professor Carl Wunsch of MIT in the early 1980s to use long-range underwater acoustic transmissions to measure changes in the heat content of the oceans.

Spindel, R.C. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Hydrological consequences of global warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

Miller, Norman L.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Calculations Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming Since 1901 NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming Since 1901 September 9, 2013 | Tags: Climate Research, Hopper Contact: Jon Bashor, jbashor@lbl.gov, 510-486-5849 campo.jpg These maps show the changes in air temperatures over land as measured using thermometers (left side) and as calculated by the 20th Century Reanalysis project (left side). While more than 80 percent of the observed variation is captured by the computer model, the results show interesting differences in some regions such as the midwestern United States, Argentina and eastern Brazil. The differences may be due previously unrecognized issues with the pressure observations, variations in land use and land cover over time,

147

Warm or Steaming Ground | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Warm or Steaming Ground Warm or Steaming Ground Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Warm or Steaming Ground Dictionary.png Warm or Steaming Ground: An area where geothermal heat is conducted to the earth's surface, warming the ground and sometimes causing steam to form when water is present. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Modern Geothermal Features Typical list of modern geothermal features Hot Springs Fumaroles Warm or Steaming Ground Mudpots, Mud Pools, or Mud Volcanoes Geysers Blind Geothermal System Steam rising from the ground at Eldvorp, a 10 km row of craters, in Southwestern Iceland. http://www.visiticeland.com/SearchResults/Attraction/eldvorp Warm or steaming ground is often an indicator of a geothermal system beneath the surface. In some cases a geothermal system may not show any

148

Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NIST is producing new suites of primary gas standards for carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide in air at atmospheric levels ...

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

149

Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

Ken Mortensen

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

150

NREL: News Feature - NREL Solar Technology Will Warm Air at ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

coved in perforated metal, with two men standing next to it. Enlarge image NREL's Craig Christensen and Chuck Kutscher stand next to a wall at the RSF that uses their...

151

Chimneys: Warm and Cozy or Easy Exit for Your Heat? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chimneys: Warm and Cozy or Easy Exit for Your Heat? Chimneys: Warm and Cozy or Easy Exit for Your Heat? Chimneys: Warm and Cozy or Easy Exit for Your Heat? January 12, 2010 - 10:21am Addthis Drew Bittner Web Manager, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Both of my childhood homes featured fireplaces. If you've had one, you know how terrific they can be-great places to bask on cold winter nights, an easy opportunity to toast marshmallows, picturesque, undeniably a pleasure in the house that has one. However, fireplaces have chimneys...and chimneys can be problems when it comes to home energy efficiency. For one thing, many people do not take care to close their chimney flue when there is no fire. This means warm air has an easy exit from your home; you have a big hole in your roof, after all, and warm air will take advantage of that. Ditto cold air in the

152

Global warming and biological diversity  

SciTech Connect

This book is based on presentations given at the World Wildlife Fund's Conference on Consequences of the Greenhouse Effect for Biological Diverisity in 1988, and includes updated literature citations. The general topics covered in the book include the following: overview; summary of past responses of plants to climatic change; general ecological and physiological responses; ecosystems in 4 specific regions (arctic marine, Alaskan North Slope, NW US forests, and Mediterranean); global warming's implications for conservation. Ideas and data from many ecosystems and information about the relationships between biodiversity and climatic change are brought together with a balance of factual information and defensible scientific prognostication.

Peters, R.L.; Lovejoy, T.E. (eds.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

A Lagrangian Climatology of Tropical Moisture Exports to the Northern Hemispheric Extratropics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Case studies have shown that heavy precipitation events and rapid cyclogenesis in the extratropics can be fueled by moist and warm tropical air masses. Often the tropical moisture export (TME) occurs through a longitudinally confined region in ...

Peter Knippertz; Heini Wernli

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

A Synoptic Overview of a Heavy Rain Event in Southern China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The meteorological events surrounding the heavy rains of 23–25 June 1983 in the Yangtze River Valley of China are investigated. The rains developed along a persistent quasi-stationary frontal boundary that separated warm, moist tropical air from ...

Kai-Yu Ma; Lance F. Bosart

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Do Changes in the Midlatitude Circulation Have Any Impact on the Arctic Surface Air Temperature Trend?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The warming of the near-surface air in the Arctic region has been larger than the global mean surface warming. There is general agreement that the Arctic amplification of the surface air temperature (SAT) trend to a considerable extent is due to ...

R. G. Graversen

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Warm-to-Cold Water Conversion in the Northern North Atlantic Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A box Model of warm-to-cold-water conversion in the northern North Atlantic is developed and used to estimate conversion rates, given water mass temperatures, conversion paths and rate of air-sea heat exchange. The northern North Atlantic is ...

M. S. McCartney; L. D. Talley

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Modeling the subsurface thermal impact of Arctic thaw lakes in a warming climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Warming air temperatures in the Arctic are modifying the rates of thermokarst processes along Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain. The Arctic Coastal Plain is dominated by thaw lakes. These kilometer-scale lakes are the most visible surface features in the ... Keywords: MATLAB, Numerical model, Permafrost, Thaw lakes, Thermal model

N. Matell; R. S. Anderson; I. Overeem; C. Wobus; F. E. Urban; G. D. Clow

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of planet formation and structures as well as the evolution of an imploding inertial fusion capsule depends on our understanding of matter in the complex warm dense matter...

159

Hotel energy use contributes to global warming.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Before learning about the consequences of global warming and the efforts hotels are making to reverse the effects, it is important to get a better… (more)

Faja, Christine

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Diagnostics of Climate Model Biases in Summer Temperature and Warm-Season Insolation for the Simulation of Regional Paddy Rice Yield in Japan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study quantifies the ranges of climate model biases in surface air temperature for July and August (summer temperature) and daily total insolation for May–October (warm-season insolation) that can give simulated regional paddy rice yields ...

Toshichika Iizumi; Motoki Nishimori; Masayuki Yokozawa

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reluctant to turn on their air conditioning. 91 83. NationalB. The Importance of Air Conditioning .. 1. Coolinga. Air Conditioning Required . b. ' Funding

Carlson, Ann E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Greenhouse warming and the tropical water budget  

SciTech Connect

The present work takes issue with some of the theses of Lindzen's (1990) work on global warming, arguing in particular that Lindzen's work is hampered by the use of oversimplified models. Lindzen then presents a detailed reply to these arguments, emphasizing the fundamental importance of the upper tropospheric water-vapor budget to the question of global warming. 26 refs.

Betts, A.K.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

The Sinking of Warm-Core Rings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intense cooling of a warm-core ring or warming of the fluids surrounding a ring can increase the density of that ring relative to the surrounding fluids. This increase in density can cause the ring to sink under the surrounding fluids. A simple ...

Rick Chapman; Doron Nof

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are used in a number of applications and volumes of CFCs used grew at a tremendous pace during the 1960s and 1970s. However, in the mid-1980s, it was confirmed that these extremely useful chemicals contribute to the destruction of stratospheric ozone. These chemicals are being phased out of use rapidly to protect the ozone layer and it is very important that the replacements for CFCs do not result in a net increase in global warming by introducing less efficient processes that lead to higher energy use and increased carbon dioxide emissions. A study was conducted to identify those alternative chemicals and technologies that could replace CFCs in energy related applications before the year 2000, and to assess the total potential impact of these alternatives on global warming. The analysis for this project included an estimate of the direct effects from the release of blowing agents, refrigerants, and solvents into the atmosphere and the indirect effects in the form of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from energy use for commercial and residential heating and cooling, household and commercial refrigeration, building and automobile air-conditioning, and general metal and electronics solvent cleaning. The discussion in this paper focuses on those aspects of the study relevant to refrigeration and air-conditioning. In general the use of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) alternatives for CFCs lead to large and sometimes dramatic reductions in total equivalent warming impact (TEWI), lifetime equivalent CO{sub 2} emissions. Most of the reductions result from decreased direct effects without significant changes in energy use.

Fischer, S.K.; Fairchild, P.D.; Hughes, P.J.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are used in a number of applications and volumes of CFCs used grew at a tremendous pace during the 1960s and 1970s. However, in the mid-1980s, it was confirmed that these extremely useful chemicals contribute to the destruction of stratospheric ozone. These chemicals are being phased out of use rapidly to protect the ozone layer and it is very important that the replacements for CFCs do not result in a net increase in global warming by introducing less efficient processes that lead to higher energy use and increased carbon dioxide emissions. A study was conducted to identify those alternative chemicals and technologies that could replace CFCs in energy related applications before the year 2000, and to assess the total potential impact of these alternatives on global warming. The analysis for this project included an estimate of the direct effects from the release of blowing agents, refrigerants, and solvents into the atmosphere and the indirect effects in the form of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from energy use for commercial and residential heating and cooling, household and commercial refrigeration, building and automobile air-conditioning, and general metal and electronics solvent cleaning. The discussion in this paper focuses on those aspects of the study relevant to refrigeration and air-conditioning. In general the use of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) alternatives for CFCs lead to large and sometimes dramatic reductions in total equivalent warming impact (TEWI), lifetime equivalent CO{sub 2} emissions. Most of the reductions result from decreased direct effects without significant changes in energy use.

Fischer, S.K.; Fairchild, P.D.; Hughes, P.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

A Decomposition of Feedback Contributions to Polar Warming Amplification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polar surface temperatures are expected to warm 2-3 times faster than the global mean surface temperature; a phenomenon referred to as polar warming amplification. Therefore, understanding individual process contributions to the polar warming is ...

Patrick C. Taylor; Ming Cai; Aixue Hu; Jerry Meehl; Warren Washington; Guang J. Zhang

167

A Possible Effect of an Increase in the Warm-Pool SST on the Magnitude of El Niño Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

El Niño warming corresponds to an eastward extension of the western Pacific warm pool; one thus naturally wonders whether an increase in the warm pool SST will result in stronger El Niños. This question, though elementary, has not drawn much ...

De-Zheng Sun

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Warm Springs State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Warm Springs State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

169

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

2011-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

170

The Dynamics of Warm and Cold Climates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmospheric dynamics of five different climate simulations with the GISS GCM are compared to investigate the changes that occur as climate warms or cools. There are two ice age simulations, the current and doubled CO2 climates, and a ...

D. Rind

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Response to Skeptics of Global Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The majority of the scientific community involved in climate research is convinced of the reality of a current and future global warming due to the greenhouse effect, a change that must be largely caused by human activities. However, a minority ...

William W. Kellogg

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Initial Precipitation Formation in Warm Florida Cumulus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The microphysical processes that lead to the development of precipitation in small, warm cumulus are examined using data from the Small Cumulus Microphysics Study near Cape Canaveral, Florida. Aircraft measurements are used to determine the ...

Neil F. Laird; Harry T. Ochs III; Robert M. Rauber; L. Jay Miller

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive dataset describing tropical cloud systems and their environmental setting and impacts has been collected during the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) and Aerosol and Chemical Transport in Tropical ...

Peter T. May; James H. Mather; Geraint Vaughan; Keith N. Bower; Christian Jakob; Greg M. McFarquhar; Gerald G. Mace

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Dynamic and Thermodynamic Regulation of Ocean Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative roles of clouds, surface evaporation, and ocean heat transport in limiting maximum sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the western Pacific warm pool are investigated by means of simple and intermediate coupled ocean–atmosphere models. ...

Tim Li; Timothy F. Hogan; C-P. Chang

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Numerical Simulation of Sudden Stratospheric Warmings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mechanistic, quasi-geostrophic, semi-spectral model with a self-consistent calculation of the mean zonal flow fields is used to numerically simulate sudden stratospheric warmings generated by a single zonal harmonic (m) planetary wave. The ...

Mark R. Schoeberl; Darrell F. Strobel

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Scaling Potential Evapotranspiration with Greenhouse Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is a supply-independent measure of the evaporative demand of a terrestrial climate, of basic importance in climatology, hydrology, and agriculture. Future increases in PET from greenhouse warming are often cited ...

Jacob Scheff; Dargan M. W. Frierson

177

Separating signal and noise in climate warming  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

11162011 | NR-11-11-03 Separating signal and noise in climate warming Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Printer-friendly A National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

178

Structure and Formation Mechanism on the 24 May 2000 Supercell-Like Storm Developing in a Moist Environment over the Kanto Plain, Japan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The structure and formation mechanism of a supercell-like storm in a moist environment below a melting layer were investigated using dual-Doppler radar analysis and a cloud-resolving storm simulator (CReSS). The supercell-like storm developed ...

Shingo Shimizu; Hiroshi Uyeda; Qoosaku Moteki; Takeshi Maesaka; Yoshimasa Takaya; Kenji Akaeda; Teruyuki Kato; Masanori Yoshizaki

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Development of a Two-Dimensional Zonally Averaged Statistical-Dynamical Model. Part I The Parameterization of Moist Convection and its Role in the General Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The moist convection parameterization used in the GISS 3-D GCM is adapted for use in a two-dimensional (2-D) zonally averaged statisticai-dynamical model. Experiments with different versions of the parameterization show that its impact on the ...

Mao-Sung Yao; Peter H. Stone

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Cold-blooded and warm-blooded  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cold-blooded and warm-blooded Cold-blooded and warm-blooded Name: Walter Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: What is the fundamental difference between cold-blooded and warm- blooded creatures? I know that reptile blood is a bit different than mammal blood, but is that the difference or is it a difference in the other cells of the body? Replies: Warm blooded refers to an animals ability to maintain its body temperature at a constant level. Cold blooded animal's bodies stay at the temperature of environment around them (more or less). The mechanism by which a warm blooded animal does this is by generating heat, mostly through muscle movement (but by other biochemical processes too). An example of this is shivering. Warm blooded animals also cool themselves off by sweating, panting (and other ways). In mammals the hypothalamic area of the brain has much to do with controlling these reflex processes

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Television news coverage of global warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Citizens are expressing increased concern over the number and variety of environmental problems. Global warming in particular is a focus of concern for scientists and environmental groups. Such concern should naturally motivate individuals to seek information about these topics. Many people turn to the media, most usually television, for information on the nature of these problems. Consequently, this paper studied media coverage of environmental issues, specifically global warming. Television coverage was examined for: (1) the general nature of coverage; (2) biases in coverage; (3) visual images used to cover global warming; and (4) the congruity between visual and verbal messages in newscasts. Nightly newscasts from the three major American television networks were analyzed from 1993--1995 to determine the overall nature of global warming coverage since the Earth Summit in 1992. Results indicated that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global warming issues. The paper concludes by first discussing how its results intertwine with other work in the global warming and mass media field. Finally, the implications of inadequacies in media coverage for policy-makers when it comes to sound management of critical resources in this area are also discussed.

Nitz, M. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). School of Communication; Jarvis, S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Speech Communication; Kenski, H. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Communication

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

A Theoretical Study of Cold Air Damming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamics of cold air damming are examined analytically with a two-layer steady state model. The upper layer is a warm and saturated cross-mountain (easterly or southeasterly onshore) flow. The lower layer is a cold mountain-parallel (...

Qin Xu

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Global warming and end-use efficiency implications of replacing CFCs  

SciTech Connect

The direct contribution of CFCs to calculated global warming has been recognized for some time. As a result of the international agreement to phase out CFCs due to stratospheric ozone and the ensuing search for suitable alternatives, there has recently been increased attention on the DIRECT global warming potential (GWP) of the fluorocarbon alternatives as greenhouse gases. However, to date there has been little focus on the INDIRECT global warming effect arising from end-use efficiency changes and associated CO{sub 2} emissions. A study being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) addresses this combined or total global warming impact of viable options to replace CFCs in their major energy-related applications. This paper reviews selected results for air-conditioning, refrigeration, and heat pump applications. The analysis indicates that the CFC user industries have made substantial progress in approaching near-equal energy efficiency with the HCFC/HFC alternative refrigerants. The findings also bring into question the relative importance of the DIRECT (chemical-related) effect in many applications. Replacing CFCs is an important step in reducing the total global warming impact, and at present the HCFC and HFCS appear to offer the best efficiency and lowest total impact of options available in the relatively short time period required for the transition away from CFCs.

Fairchild, P.D.; Fischer, S.K.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

184

Cool Roofs Are Ready to Save Energy, Cool Urban Heat Islands, and Help Slow Global Warming  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

roofing is the fastest growing sector roofing is the fastest growing sector of the building industry, as building owners and facility managers realize the immediate and long-term benefits of roofs that stay cool in the sun. Studies exploring the energy efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of cool roofs show that in warm or hot climates, substituting a cool roof for a conventional roof can: * Reduce by up to 15% the annual air-

185

Warm conveyor belts in the ERA-Interim data set (1979-2010). Part I: Climatology and potential vorticity evolution.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A global climatology of warm conveyor belts (WCBs) is presented for the years 1979-2010, based upon trajectories calculated with ERA-Interim reanalyses. WCB trajectories are identified as strongly ascending air parcels (600 hPa in 2 days) near ...

Erica Madonna; Heini Wernli; Hanna Joos; Olivia Martius

186

Mechanisms Contributing to the Warming Hole and the Consequent U.S. East–West Differential of Heat Extremes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A linear trend calculated for observed annual mean surface air temperatures over the United States for the second-half of the twentieth century shows a slight cooling over the southeastern part of the country, the so-called warming hole, while ...

Gerald A. Meehl; Julie M. Arblaster; Grant Branstator

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Can we delay a greenhouse warming  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews a book published by the Environmental Protection Agency. The book discussed the Greenhouse Effect which is a warming of the earth's atmosphere caused by the doubling of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. The excess carbon dioxide is pollution derived from the burning of fossil fuels. The report suggested that the warming of the atmosphere would cause thawing of the polar regions which in turn would cause a rise in sea levels and flooding of the coastal lowlands. In addition to the flooding, the report predicted climate changes that would effect the productivity of croplands in the west. The authors of the report stressed that there was no way to avoid this warming of the earth. They suggested that people should start preparing for the inevitable.

Seidel, S.; Keyes, D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter Print Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter Print Being neither solid, liquid, gas, nor plasma, warm dense matter (WDM) occupies a no man's land in the map of material phases. Its temperature can range between that of planetary cores (tens of thousands K) to that of stellar cores (hundreds of thousands K). Not only is it prevalent throughout the universe, it is relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and material performance under extreme conditions. However, because of its extreme temperatures and pressures, WDM tends to be drastically transient and thus difficult to study in the laboratory. Now, researchers have set up ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the ALS to measure the electronic structure of WDMs, demonstrating that fast-changing electron temperatures of matter under extreme conditions can be determined with picosecond resolution.

189

Air Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What We Monitor & Why » What We Monitor & Why » Air Quality Air Quality To preserve our existing wilderness-area air quality, LANL implements a conscientious program of air monitoring. April 12, 2012 Real-time data monitoring for particulate matter An air monitoring field team member tests one of LANL's tapered element oscillating microbalance samplers, which collects real-time particulate matter data. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email LANL monitors air quality 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Why we monitor air LANL monitors many different pathways in order to assess their impact on workers, the public, animals, and plants. We monitor the air around the Laboratory to ensure our operations are not affecting the air of nearby

190

Ga Air Compressor, Ga Air Compressor Products, Ga Air ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Ga Air Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Ga Air Compressor Products from Global Ga Air Compressor Suppliers and Ga Air Compressor ...

191

Energy and global warming impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global warming. A Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the environmental affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of environmental impact because it is not based solely on the global warming potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the environmental benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global warming impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial environmental benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global warming potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Indoor air movement acceptability and thermal comfort in hot-humid climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

comfort in warm conditions. ASHRAE Trans 84 (2): 263 – 277.Moving air for comfort. ASHRAE Journal: 18-29. [9] Zhang,control, and occupant comfort. ASHRAE Trans 110:17–35. [11

Candido, Christhina Maria

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Supermassive Black Holes and the Warm Ionized  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supermassive Black Holes and the Warm Ionized Gas in Early-type Galaxies Renbin Yan University stars actively. (late-type galaxies) #12;Prevalence of Supermassive Black Holes in Massive Galaxies MBH merging Right after coalescing Post-merger Star Formation Rate Black Hole Accretion Rate #12;Maintenance

Wang, Ming-Jye

194

Can we delay a greenhouse warming  

SciTech Connect

The author comments on the EPA report dated September 1983 Can We Delay A Greenhouse Warming. He takes exception to the widely-held interpretation that the answer is not much. The contribution of other greenhouse gases such as methane and nitrous oxide to the EPA scenarios is pointed out, and the lack of understanding of their role is emphasised. (ACR)

Perry, A.M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Warm Pool Physics in a Coupled GCM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The physics of the Indo–Pacific warm pool are investigated using a coupled ocean atmosphere general circulation model. The model, developed at the Max-Planck-Institut fair Meteorologic, Hamburg, does not employ a flux correction and is used with ...

Niklas Schneider; Tim Barnett; Mojib Latif; Timothy Stockdale

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

STANDARDS CONTROLLING AIR EMISSIONS FOR THE SOIL DESICCATION PILOT TEST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This air emissions document supports implementation of the Treatability Test Plan for Soil Desiccation as outlined in the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau (DOE/RL-2007-56). Treatability testing supports evaluation of remedial technologies for technetium-99 (Tc-99) contamination in the vadose zone at sites such as the BC Cribs and Trenches. Soil desiccation has been selected as the first technology for testing because it has been recommended as a promising technology in previous Hanford Site technology evaluations and because testing of soil desiccation will provide useful information to enhance evaluation of other technologies, in particular gas-phase remediation technologies. A soil desiccation pilot test (SDPT) will evaluate the desiccation process (e.g., how the targeted interval is dried) and the long-term performance for mitigation of contaminant transport. The SDPT will dry out a moist zone contaminated by Tc-99 and nitrate that has been detected at Well 299-E13-62 (Borehole C5923). This air emissions document applies to the activities to be completed to conduct the SDPT in the 200-BC-1 operable unit located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. Well 299-E13-62 is planned to be used as an injection well. This well is located between and approximately equidistant from cribs 216-B-16, 216-B-17, 216-B-18. and 216-B-19. Nitrogen gas will be pumped at approximately 300 ft{sup 3}/min into the 299-EI3-62 injection well, located approximately 12 m (39 ft) away from extraction well 299-EI3-65. The soil gas extraction rate will be approximately 150 ft{sup 3}/min. The SDPT will be conducted continuously over a period of approximately six months. The purpose of the test is to evaluate soil desiccation as a potential remedy for protecting groundwater. A conceptual depiction is provided in Figure 1. The soil desiccation process will physically dry, or evaporate, some of the water from the moist zone of interest. As such, it is expected that Tc-99 and nitrate will remain with the water residual that is not removed, or remain as a salt bound to the soil particles. In addition, the SDPT will be conducted at lower extraction velocities to preclude pore water entrainment and thus, the extracted air effluent should be free of the contaminant residual present in the targeted moist zone. However, to conservatively bound the planned activity for potential radionuclide air emissions, it is assumed, hypothetically, that the Tc-99 does not remain in the zone of interest, but that it instead travels with the evaporated moisture to the extraction well and to the test equipment at the land surface. Thus, a release potential would exist from the planned point source (powered exhaust) for Tc-99 in the extracted moist air. In this hypothetical bounding case there would also be a potential for very minor fugitive emissions to occur due to nitrogen injection into the soil. The maximum value for Tc-99, measured in the contaminated moist zone, is used in calculating the release potential described in Section 2.3. The desiccation mechanism will be evaporation. Nitrate is neither a criteria pollutant nor a toxic air pollutant. It would remain nitrate as a salt adhered to sand and silt grains or as nitrate dissolved in the pore water. Nitrogen, an inert gas, will be injected into the ground during the test. Tracer gasses will also be injected near the beginning, middle, and the end of the test. The tracer gasses are sulfur hexafluoride, trichlorofluoromethane, and difluoromethane.

BENECKE MW

2010-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

197

Observational Constraints on Past Attributable Warming and Predictions of Future Global Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the impact of aerosol forcing uncertainty on the robustness of estimates of the twentieth-century warming attributable to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Attribution analyses on three coupled climate models with ...

Peter A. Stott; John F. B. Mitchell; Myles R. Allen; Thomas L. Delworth; Jonathan M. Gregory; Gerald A. Meehl; Benjamin D. Santer

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

The Role of Human Activity in the Recent Warming of Extremely Warm Daytime Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Formal detection and attribution analyses of changes in daily extremes give evidence of a significant human influence on the increasing severity of extremely warm nights and decreasing severity of extremely cold days and nights. This paper ...

Nikolaos Christidis; Peter A. Stott; Simon J. Brown

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Energy Tax Credits: Stay Warm and Save MORE Money! | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tax Credits: Stay Warm and Save MORE Money Energy Tax Credits: Stay Warm and Save MORE Money October 29, 2008 - 6:00am Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL With all of...

200

An Interpretation of Sudden Warmings In Terms of Potential vorticity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple and concise interpretation of stratospheric sudden warmings is offered in terms Of the transient changes in the potential vorticity pattern. The warming is viewed as a manifestation of the reversal of the mean (zonally averaged) relative ...

H. C. Davies

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Forecast cloudy; The limits of global warming models  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on climate models used to study global warming. It discusses factors which must be included in climate models, shortcomings of existing climate models, and scenarios for global warming.

Stone, P.H.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

An Analysis of Tropical Ocean Diurnal Warm Layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During periods of light surface wind, a warm stable layer forms at the ocean surface with a maximum sea surface temperature (SST) in the early afternoon. The diurnal SST amplitude (DSA) associated with these diurnal warm layers (DWLs) can reach ...

Hugo Bellenger; Jean-Philippe Duvel

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Sonoluminescence test for equation of state in warm dense matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IN WARM DENSE MATTER Siu-Fai Ng 1, 2 , J. J. Barnard 3 , P.IN WARM DENSE MATTER Siu-Fai Ng 1, 2 , J. J. Barnard 3 , P.

Ng, Siu-Fai

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-Global Warming Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy

205

The Heat Balance of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermodynamic development of the Western Hemisphere warm pool and its four geographic subregions are analyzed. The subregional warm pools of the eastern North Pacific and equatorial Atlantic are best developed in the boreal spring, while in ...

David B. Enfield; Sang-ki Lee

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Anthropogenic Warming of the Oceans: Observations and Model Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations show the oceans have warmed over the past 40 yr, with appreciable regional variation and more warming at the surface than at depth. Comparing the observations with results from two coupled ocean–atmosphere climate models [the ...

David W. Pierce; Tim P. Barnett; Krishna M. AchutaRao; Peter J. Gleckler; Jonathan M. Gregory; Warren M. Washington

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Mechanisms of Global Warming Impacts on Regional Tropical Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mechanisms that determine the tropical precipitation anomalies under global warming are examined in an intermediate atmospheric model coupled with a simple land surface and a mixed layer ocean. To compensate for the warm tropospheric temperature, ...

Chia Chou; J. David Neelin

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Mechanisms for Global Warming Impacts on Precipitation Frequency and Intensity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global warming mechanisms that cause changes in frequency and intensity of precipitation in the tropics are examined in climate model simulations. Under global warming, tropical precipitation tends to be more frequent and intense for heavy ...

Chia Chou; Chao-An Chen; Pei-Hua Tan; Kuan Ting Chen

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Comparing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global warming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Policies dealing with global warming require a measure of the effects of the emissions of greenhouse gases that create different magnitudes of instantaneous radiative forcing and have different lifetimes. The Global Warming ...

Eckaus, Richard S.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects by Richard J: _______________________________________ Date #12;California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects Richard J, 2006 #12;#12;ABSTRACT California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming

Kammen, Daniel M.

211

Global Warming Mitigation Investments Optimized under Uncertainty  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Warming Mitigation Investments Optimized under Uncertainty Global Warming Mitigation Investments Optimized under Uncertainty Speaker(s): Hermann Held Date: July 9, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Thomas McKone The Copenhagen Accord (2009) recognizes that 'the increase in global temperature should be below 2 degrees Celsius' (compared to pre-industrial levels, '2° target'). In recent years, energy economics have derived welfare-optimal investment streams into low-emission energy mixes and associated costs. According to our analyses, auxiliary targets that are in line with the 2° target could be achieved at relatively low costs if energy investments were triggered rather swiftly. While such analyses assume 'perfect foresight' of a benevolent 'social planner', an accompanying suite of experiments explicitly

212

Decarbonization and Sequestration for Mitigating Global Warming  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DECARBONIZATION AND SEQUESTRATION FOR DECARBONIZATION AND SEQUESTRATION FOR MITIGATING GLOBAL WARMING M. Steinberg (msteinbe@bnl.gov); 631-344-3036 Brookhaven National Laboratory 12 South Upton Street Upton, NY 11973-5000, USA ABSTRACT Mitigating the global warming greenhouse effect while maintaining a fossil fuel economy, requires improving efficiency of utilization of fossil fuels, use of high hydrogen content fossil fuels, decarbonization of fossil fuels, and sequestering of carbon and CO 2 applied to all the sectors of the economy, electric power generation, transportation, and industrial, and domestic power and heat generation. Decarbonization means removal of carbon as C or CO 2 either before or after fossil fuel combustion and sequestration means disposal of the recovered C or CO 2 including its utilization. Removal and recovery of CO

213

Latitudinal distribution of the recent Arctic warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing Arctic temperature, disappearance of Arctic sea ice, melting of the Greenland ice sheet, sea level rise, increasing strength of Atlantic hurricanes are these impending climate catastrophes supported by observations? Are the recent data really unprecedented during the observational records? Our analysis of Arctic temperature records shows that the Arctic and temperatures in the 1930s and 1940s were almost as high as they are today. We argue that the current warming of the Arctic region is affected more by the multi-decadal climate variability than by an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, none of the existing coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models used in the IPCC 2007 cIimate change assessment is able to reproduce neither the observed 20th century Arctic cIimate variability nor the latitudinal distribution of the warming.

Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen K [DALLHOUSIE UNIV.; Wang, Muyin [UNIV OF WASHINGTON

2010-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

214

Warm Standby in Hierarchically Structured Process-Control Programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We classify standby redundancy design space in process-control programs into the following three categories: cold standby, warm standby, and hot standby. Design parameters of warm standby are identified and the reliability of a system using warm standby is evaluated and compared with that of hot standby. Our analysis indicates that the warm standby scheme is particularly suitable for longlived unmaintainable systems, especially those operating in harsh environments where burst hardware failures are possible. The feasibility of warm standby is demonstrated with a simulated chemical batch reactor system.

Ing-Ray Chen And; Ing-ray Chen; Farokh B. Bastani

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Rethinking the economics of global warming  

SciTech Connect

Most of the debates over the impact of the greenhouse effect have centered around the reliability of computer models and have neglected considerations of the economic effects of attempts to reduce global warming. Economic models have certain limitations but the input of cost benefit analysis is needed for arriving at suitable policies for lowering anthropogenic input into warming of the earth. Care must be used in extrapolating from data of time periods which are inappropriate. Estimates of costs of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions also must include possible benefits; at present this is not being done. Economic models must address differences in the distribution of global warming's consequences over time and geographical space. The costs of delaying or accelerating reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions need to be included in policy considerations. A global agreement must not adversely affect developing countries. Faulty assumptions of the effect of market forces on costs impair economic models. We have to recognize that economic and environmental goals need not be incompatible. If economic models are viewed as possible scenarios and not as predictions, then these scenarios can be useful in determining policies for reducing the greenhouse effect without harming populations and their economies.

Miller, A.; Mintzer, I.; Brown, P.G. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Sorption Mechanisms for Mercury Capture in Warm Post-Gasification Gas Clean-Up Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorption MechaniSMS for Mercury Sorption MechaniSMS for Mercury capture in WarM poSt-GaSification GaS clean-up SySteMS Background Power generation systems employing gasification technology must remove a variety of potential air pollutants, including mercury, from the synthetic gas steam prior to combustion. In general, efforts to remove mercury have focused on removal at lower temperatures (under 300 °F). The ability to remove mercury at warm-gas cleanup conditions (300 °F to 700 °F) or in the hot-gas cleanup range (above 1200 °F) would provide plant operators with greater flexibility to choose the treatment method best suited to conditions at their plant. The University of Arizona is investigating the use of paper waste-derived sorbents (PWDS) for the removal of mercury and other trace metals at temperatures in and

217

Studies say - tentatively - that greenhouse warming is here  

SciTech Connect

Published studies on greenhouse warming have been ambivalent as to whether warming has arrived. Now two independent studies of the climate record have incriminated the green-house effect in global warming, although they fall short of convicting it. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg are confident they have exonerated natural climatic variability, saying the observed global warming seems to large to account for the warming effect. A group from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory directly implicates greenhouse warming by finding its geographic `fingerprinting` in the climate record of the past century. This article discusses both studies and how the results will affect future concerns in the area of greenhouse warming.

Kerr, R.A.

1995-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

218

Fact Sheet: Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage (October 2012)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SustainX SustainX American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage Demonstrating a modular, market-ready energy storage system that uses compressed air as a storage medium SustainX will demonstrate an isothermal compressed air energy storage (ICAES) system. Energy can be stored in compressed air, with minimal energy losses, and released when the air is later allowed to expand. Many traditional compressed air energy storage (CAES) projects store energy in underground geological formations such as salt caverns. However, in these systems, the air warms when it is compressed and cools when it is expanded. CAES systems generally use gas combustion turbines to reheat the cooled air before expansion. This process creates inefficiencies and emissions.

219

On Moist Instability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An argument is made that the concepts of conditional instability and conditional symmetric instability need to be revisited. Confusion in the profession has led to two extant definitions of conditional instability that are superficially similar ...

Steven C. Sherwood

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Tropical Cyclogenesis Factors in a Warming Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the underlying causes of tropical cyclone formation is crucial to predicting tropical cyclone behavior in a warming environment, given the Earth's current warming trend. This study examines two sets of simulations from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model version 3.1 (CAM3): one with aerosol forcings and one without. We looked at how four factors known to be important to tropical cyclone formation vary as carbon dioxde and the ensuing temperature changes increase to very high levels. These factors include Maximum Potential Intensity (MPI), mid-tropospheric moisture content, 200-850 mb vertical wind shear, and 850 mb absolute vorticity. We considered different representations of mid-tropospheric moisture by examining both relative humidity and chi, a non-dimensional measure of the saturation entropy deficit at 600 mb. We also looked at different combinations of these factors, including several variations of a Genesis Potential Index (GPI) and an incubation parameter, gamma, that is related to the length of time required to saturate the middle troposphere and aid tropical cyclogenesis. Higher MPI, lower saturation deficits and higher relative humidity, lower wind shear, and higher absolute vorticity all act to enhance the GPI and lower the incubation time, meaning larger environmental support for tropical cyclone development and intensification. In areas where tropical cyclone development is prevalent today, we found that shear generally decreased, but MPI decreased, absolute vorticity decreased, and the saturation deficit increases. Thus, in today's prevalent tropical cyclone regions, conditions become less favorable for development and intensification as the climate warms. On the other hand, genesis regions tend to push northward into the subtropics, as conditions become much more favorable for development up to ~40 degrees North due to both decreased wind shear and much higher MPI values.

Cathey, Stephen Christopher

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Capture and Use of Coal Mine Ventilation-Air Methane  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capture and use of Coal Mine Capture and use of Coal Mine Ventilation - air Methane Background Methane emissions from coal mines represent about 10 percent of the U.S. anthropogenic methane released to the atmosphere. Methane-the second most important non-water greenhouse gas-is 21 times as powerful as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in its global warming potential. Ventilation-air methane (VAM)-the exhaust air from underground coal mines-is the largest source of coal mine methane, accounting for about half of the methane emitted from coal mines in the United States. Unfortunately, because of the low methane concentration (0.3-1.5 percent) in ventilation air, its beneficial use is difficult. However, oxidizing the methane to CO 2 and water reduces its global warming potential by 87 percent. A thermal

222

Swapping Global Warming Gases for Methane in Gas Hydrate ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Swapping Global Warming Gases for Methane in Gas Hydrate Layer ... would serve as energy sources as well as carbon dioxide storage sites in the ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

223

Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

224

Intense Ion Beam for Warm Dense Matter Physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

charged particle physics Introduction . . . . . . . . .Driven Warm Dense Matter Physics, Four Point Sher- atonIntroduction to Plasma Physics, Plenum Press, New York [18

Heimbucher, Lynn

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

She, With a Warm Palm, the Skin Over My Spine.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??She, with a Warm Palm, the Skin over My Spine is a collection of sixnonfiction essays and three vignettes divided into two parts. The first… (more)

Cambardella, Cara Maria Michele

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

100 LPW 800 Lm Warm White LED  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An illumination grade warm white (WW) LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2800 K and 3500K and capable of producing 800 lm output at 100 lm/W, has been developed in this program. The high power WW LED is an ideal source for use as replacement for incandescent, and Halogen reflector and general purpose lamps of similar lumen value. Over the two year period, we have made following accomplishments: developed a high power warm white LED product and made over 50% improvements in light output and efficacy. The new high power WW LED product is a die on ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 1x1 mm{sup 2} InGaN pump dice flip chip attached to a ceramic submount in 2x2 array, covered by warm white phosphor ceramic platelets called Lumiramicâ?¢ and an overmolded silicone lens encapsulating the LED array. The performance goal was achieved through breakthroughs in following key areas: (1) High efficiency pump LED development through pump LED active region design and epi growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs). (2) Increase in injection efficiency (IE) represented by reduction in forward voltage (V{sub f}) through the improvement of the silver-based p-contact and a reduction in spreading resistance. The injection efficiency was increased from 80% at the start of the program to 96% at the end of the program at 700 mA/mm{sup 2}. (3) Improvement in thermal design as represented by reduction in thermal resistance from junction to case, through improvement of the die to submount connection in the thin film flip chip (TFFC) LED and choosing the submount material of high thermal conductivity. A thermal resistance of 1.72 K/W was demonstrated for the high power LED package. (4) Improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN die level and package level optical extraction efficiency improvement. (5) Improvement in phosphor system efficiency by improving the lumen equivalent (LE) and phosphor package efficiency (PPE) through improvement in phosphor-package interactions. Another achievement in the development of the phosphor integration technology is the demonstration of tight color control. The high power WW LED product developed has been proven to have good reliability. The manufacturing of the product will be done in Philips Lumiledsâ?? LUXEON Rebel production line which has produced billions of high power LEDs. The first high power WW LED product will be released to the market in 2011.

Decai Sun

2010-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

227

Global Warming: A Science Overview for the A/C Industry  

SciTech Connect

Fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas) provide about 85% of the world's energy, sustaining our standard-of-living. They are inexpensive, transportable, safe, and relatively abundant. At the same time, their use contributes to problems such as air quality and acid rain that are being addressed through various control efforts and to the problem of global warming, which is now being considered by governments of the world. This talk will focus on six key aspects of the scientific findings that are leading to proposals for significant limitation of the emissions of fossil-fuel-derived carbon dioxide and limitations on emissions of other greenhouse gases that can influence the global climate, including substances used in the refrigeration and air-conditioning industries.

MacCracken, M.C.

1999-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

228

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies for foam building insulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS) have been used as blowing agents in foam insulation, as the working fluids in cooling and refrigeration equipment, and as solvents in general and precision cleaning applications since their introduction in the 1930s. The number of applications and volumes of CFCs used grew at a tremendous pace during the 1960s and 1970s, but in the mid-1980s it was confirmed that these extremely useful chemicals contribute to the destruction of stratospheric zone and that they are the primary cause of the CFCs have also been found to be second only to carbon dioxide as a factor causing increased greenhouse warming. These chemicals are being phased out of use rapidly to protect the ozone layer and it is very important that the replacements for CFCs do not result in a net increase in global warming by introducing less efficient processes that lead to higher energy use and increased carbon dioxide emissions. A study was conducted to identify those alternative chemicals and technologies that could replace CFCs in energy related applications before the year 2000, and to assess the total potential impact of those alternatives on global warming. The analysis for this project included an estimate of the direct effects from the release of blowing agents, refrigerants, and solvents into the atmosphere and the indirect effects of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from energy use for commercial and residential building insulation, household and commercial refrigeration, building and automobile air conditioning, and general metal and electronics solvent cleaning. This paper focuses on those aspects of the study relevant to building insulation. In general the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon alternatives for CFCs lead to large and sometimes dramatic reductions in total equivalent warming impact, lifetime equivalent C0{sub 2} emissions (TEWI). Most of the reductions result from decreased direct effects without significant changes in energy use.

Fischer, S.K.; Fairchild, P.D.; Hughes, P.J.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies for foam building insulations  

SciTech Connect

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS) have been used as blowing agents in foam insulation, as the working fluids in cooling and refrigeration equipment, and as solvents in general and precision cleaning applications since their introduction in the 1930s. The number of applications and volumes of CFCs used grew at a tremendous pace during the 1960s and 1970s, but in the mid-1980s it was confirmed that these extremely useful chemicals contribute to the destruction of stratospheric zone and that they are the primary cause of the CFCs have also been found to be second only to carbon dioxide as a factor causing increased greenhouse warming. These chemicals are being phased out of use rapidly to protect the ozone layer and it is very important that the replacements for CFCs do not result in a net increase in global warming by introducing less efficient processes that lead to higher energy use and increased carbon dioxide emissions. A study was conducted to identify those alternative chemicals and technologies that could replace CFCs in energy related applications before the year 2000, and to assess the total potential impact of those alternatives on global warming. The analysis for this project included an estimate of the direct effects from the release of blowing agents, refrigerants, and solvents into the atmosphere and the indirect effects of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from energy use for commercial and residential building insulation, household and commercial refrigeration, building and automobile air conditioning, and general metal and electronics solvent cleaning. This paper focuses on those aspects of the study relevant to building insulation. In general the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon alternatives for CFCs lead to large and sometimes dramatic reductions in total equivalent warming impact, lifetime equivalent C0{sub 2} emissions (TEWI). Most of the reductions result from decreased direct effects without significant changes in energy use.

Fischer, S.K.; Fairchild, P.D.; Hughes, P.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

LLNL scientists find precipitation, global warming link  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 For immediate release: 11/11/2013 | NR-13-11-04 Lawrence Livermore scientists have found that observed changes in global precipitation are directly affected by human activities. LLNL scientists find precipitation, global warming link Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov LIVERMORE, Calif. -- The rain in Spain may lie mainly on the plain, but the location and intensity of that rain is changing not only in Spain but around the globe. A new study by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory scientists shows that observed changes in global (ocean and land) precipitation are directly affected by human activities and cannot be explained by natural variability alone. The research appears in the Nov. 11 online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

231

Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Pollution, Air Quality Classifications and Standards, and Air Quality Area Classifications (New York) Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Pollution, Air Quality Classifications and Standards, and Air Quality Area Classifications (New York) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Fuel Distributor Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State New York Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider NY Department of Environmental Conservation These regulations establish emissions limits and permitting and operational

232

Modification of Precipitation from Warm Clouds—A Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This review is begun with a brief summary of the current status of our understanding of the physics of precipitation in warm clouds. The impact of warm-cloud precipitation processes on the evolution of the ice phase in supercooled clouds also is ...

William R. Cotton

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Applied engineering on biosystems: the reduction in global warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work concerns the problem of decision making in the context of investment allocation in clean technology and in reforestation, aimed at reducing the global warming. In order to model the government actions, fuzzy rules are employed to represent ... Keywords: biosystems modeling, fuzzy control, global warming, optimization, simulation

J. A. M. Felippe de Souza; Marco A. L. Caetano; Douglas F. M. Gherardi; Takashi Yoneyama

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

The Abyss of the Nordic Seas Is Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past decade, the multiyear oceanographic time series from ocean weather station Mike at 66°N, 2°E indicate a warming by about 0.01°C yr?1 in the deep water of the Norwegian Sea. The time of onset of this warming is depth dependent, ...

Svein Østerhus; Tor Gammelsrød

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

A Nonlinear Response of Sahel Rainfall to Atlantic Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response over West Africa to uniform warming of the Atlantic Ocean is analyzed using idealized simulations with a regional climate model. With warming of 1 and 1.5 K, rainfall rates increase by 30%–50% over most of West Africa. With Atlantic ...

Naresh Neupane; Kerry H. Cook

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

A nonlinear response of Sahel rainfall to Atlantic warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response over West Africa to uniform warming of the Atlantic Ocean is analyzed using idealized simulations with a regional climate model. With warming of 1 K and 1.5 K, rainfall rates increase by 30-50% over most of West Africa. With Atlantic ...

Naresh Neupane; Kerry H. Cook

237

WOOD FLOORING 1. INTRODUCTION TO WARM AND WOOD FLOORING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This chapter describes the methodology used in EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) to estimate streamlined life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors for wood flooring beginning at the waste generation reference point. 1 The WARM GHG emission factors are used to compare the net emissions associated with wood flooring in the following three waste management alternatives: source reduction, combustion, and landfilling.

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

WOOD PRODUCTS 1. INTRODUCTION TO WARM AND WOOD PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This chapter describes the methodology used in EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) to estimate streamlined life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors for wood products beginning at the point of waste generation. The WARM GHG emission factors are used to compare the net emissions associated with wood products in the following four materials management alternatives: source

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

FIBERGLASS INSULATION 1. INTRODUCTION TO WARM AND FIBERGLASS INSULATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This chapter describes the methodology used in EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) to estimate streamlined life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors for fiberglass insulation beginning at the waste generation reference point. 1 The WARM GHG emission factors are used to compare the net emissions associated with fiberglass insulation in the following two waste management alternatives: source reduction and landfilling.

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

The Role of GOES Satellite Imagery in Tracking Low-Level Moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This note provides examples of how geostationary satellite data can be applied to augment other data sources in tracking warm, moist air masses as they move northward from the Gulf of Mexico. These so-called returning air masses are often a key ...

Dan Bikos; John F. Weaver; Jeff Braun

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Postfrontal Boundary-Layer Modification over the Western Gulf of Mexico during GUFMEX  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cold-frontal passages over the Gulf of Mexico in late winter or early spring are frequently followed by return-flow episodes in which modified polar air and warm, moist tropical air move toward the Gulf coast. While both advection and airmass ...

William T. Thompson; Stephen D. Burk

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Geoengineering: Plan B Remedy for Global Warming Andrew A. Lacis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Geoengineering: Plan B Remedy for Global Warming Geoengineering: Plan B Remedy for Global Warming Andrew A. Lacis NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies Accelerated melting of Greenland ice is a clear indication that consequences of global warming are real and impending. The underlying causes of global warming are well enough understood, but the necessary reduction of greenhouse gases to prevent irreversible climate change is unlikely to happen before the point of no return is reached. To reverse the impending sea level rise, geoengineering counter- measures may be required to counter the current global energy imbalance due to global warming. Of the many proposed remedies, deploying aerosols within the stratosphere offers realistic prospects. Sulfur injections in the lower stratosphere would have the cooling effect of naturally occurring volcanic aerosols. Soot at

243

Wednesday, December 8, 2010 Global Warming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rising and people in developing countries are consuming more energy per capita... ...and more demand, but not renewable) Energy consumption is rising faster than the renewables are growing, so more oil, coal that are emitted directly to air So this is $100 per 400 gallons, or 25 cents per gallon. Per capita emissions

Toohey, Darin W.

244

The Interaction of Radiative and Dynamical Processes during a Simulated Sudden Stratospheric Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis of a spontaneous sudden stratospheric warming that occurred during a 2-year integration of the Langley Research Center Atmospheric Simulation Model is presented. The simulated warming resembles observed “wave 1&rdquo warmings in the ...

R. B. Pierce; W. T. Blackshear; W. L. Grose; R. E. Turner; T. D. Fairlie

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

The Predictability of Stratospheric Warming Events: More from the Troposphere or the Stratosphere?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The roles of the stratosphere and the troposphere in determining the predictability of stratospheric final warming and sudden warming events are evaluated in an idealized atmospheric model. For each stratospheric warming event simulated in the ...

Lantao Sun; Walter A. Robinson; Gang Chen

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

NETL: Gasification Systems - Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas Project Number: DE-FC26-05NT42459 Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas Project ID: DE-FC26-05NT42459 Objective: The objective is to develop a warm multi-contaminant syngas cleaning system for operation between 300 and 700° F. This project will continue development of the RTI warm syngas cleanup technology suite. Based on the field testing results with real syngas from Eastman Chemical Company's gasifier under DOE Contract DE-AC26-99FT40675, additional technical issues need to be addressed to move the technologies used in warm syngas cleaning further towards commercial deployment especially for chemical/fuels production. These issues range from evaluation of startup and standby options for the more developed desulfurization processes to integration and actual pilot plant testing with real coal-derived syngas for the technologies that were tested at bench scale during Phase I. Development shall continue of the warm gas syngas cleaning technology platform through a combination of lab-scale R&D and larger integrated pilot plant testing with real coal-derived syngas as well as process/systems analysis and simulation for optimization of integration and intensification.

247

Warm Weather and the Daily Commute | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Warm Weather and the Daily Commute Warm Weather and the Daily Commute Warm Weather and the Daily Commute May 7, 2013 - 12:02pm Addthis Biking to work helps you get some exercise while reducing your carbon footprint. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/olaser Biking to work helps you get some exercise while reducing your carbon footprint. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/olaser Elizabeth Spencer Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory How can I participate? Check out options for busing or carpooling in your area or, if you live close, try walking or biking to work. You know the weather is starting to warm up when you start hearing about those "bike, bus, or walk to work" challenges. And while my local news just started drumming up publicity for theirs, I've seen these events pop up in

248

Brooks Warm Springs Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Warm Springs Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Warm Springs Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Brooks Warm Springs Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Brooks Warm Springs Sector Geothermal energy Type Aquaculture Location Fergus County, Montana Coordinates 47.2126745°, -109.4141° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

249

The Sensitivity of Mountain Snowpack Accumulation to Climate Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Controls on the sensitivity of mountain snowpack accumulation to climate warming (?S) are investigated. This is accomplished using two idealized, physically based models of mountain snowfall to simulate snowpack accumulation for the Cascade ...

Justin R. Minder

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Successive Modulation of ENSO to the Future Greenhouse Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The multidecadal modulation of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) due to greenhouse warming has been analyzed herein by means of diagnostics of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) coupled general ...

Soon-Il An; Jong-Seong Kug; Yoo-Geun Ham; In-Sik Kang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Mechanisms of Remote Tropical Surface Warming during El Niño  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors demonstrate through atmospheric general circulation model (the Community Climate Model version 3.10) simulations of the 1997/98 El Niño that the observed “remote” (i.e., outside the Pacific) tropical land and ocean surface warming ...

John C. H. Chiang; Benjamin R. Lintner

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Are You Keeping Warm This Winter? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Are You Keeping Warm This Winter? Are You Keeping Warm This Winter? Are You Keeping Warm This Winter? January 23, 2013 - 4:33pm Addthis An efficient heater can save money and energy while keeping you warmer. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL 20288. An efficient heater can save money and energy while keeping you warmer. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL 20288. Elizabeth Spencer Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory How can I participate? Get an energy audit and learn about your heating options to warm your home while saving money. Last week, I turned on the weather forecast to find that the entire central United States was hovering somewhere between 5 and 20 degrees. Talk about frigid! I've lived all over the country, and I know how incredibly miserable it is to do anything when the high barely ekes above 0 degrees

253

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: AkWarm  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

AkWarm AkWarm AkWarm logo. Innovative, user-friendly, Windows-based software for home energy modeling. AkWarm is designed for weatherization assessment and the EPA Energy Star Home energy rating program. Features include: Graphical display of energy use by building component, improvement options analysis, design heat load, calculates CO2 emissions, and shows code compliance. Utility, weather data, and other libraries are maintained in a database library for easy updating. A separate database is available to archive all input and output data for detailed analysis of housing types, trends, amd energy use. Keywords home energy rating systems, home energy, residential modeling, weatherization Validation/Testing N/A Expertise Required Basic understanding of building construction, with a minimal level of

254

Are You Keeping Warm This Winter? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Are You Keeping Warm This Winter? Are You Keeping Warm This Winter? Are You Keeping Warm This Winter? January 23, 2013 - 4:33pm Addthis An efficient heater can save money and energy while keeping you warmer. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL 20288. An efficient heater can save money and energy while keeping you warmer. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL 20288. Elizabeth Spencer Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory How can I participate? Get an energy audit and learn about your heating options to warm your home while saving money. Last week, I turned on the weather forecast to find that the entire central United States was hovering somewhere between 5 and 20 degrees. Talk about frigid! I've lived all over the country, and I know how incredibly miserable it is to do anything when the high barely ekes above 0 degrees

255

Warm coats, big thanks | Y-12 National Security Complex  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Community / Warm coats, big thanks Community / Warm coats, big thanks Warm coats, big thanks Posted: January 9, 2014 - 2:23pm Over the last 12 years, Y-12ers have donated almost 7000 coats, sweaters and other winter wear to the Volunteer Ministry Center. As East Tennessee faces the coldest temperatures seen in a long while, Y-12ers have shown their volunteer spirit for the twelfth straight year by helping countless people stay warm thanks to another successful United Way Coat Drive to benefit the Volunteer Ministry Center. In total, the site donated 589 coats and winter wear items, 64 pairs of gloves, 47 scarves, and 66 hats and toboggans, which VMC makes available to the public through its Knoxville office. In addition, this year's efforts were expanded to include collection of toiletries for VMC. Y-12 collected more than 20 copy paper boxes full of

256

Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously predicted  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wildfires may contribute more to global warming Wildfires may contribute more to global warming Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously predicted They suggest that fire emissions could contribute a lot more to the observed climate warming than current estimates show. July 9, 2013 Haze of smoke emanating from the 2011 Las Conchas, NM fire. Haze of smoke emanating from the 2011 Las Conchas, NM fire. Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email "The fact that we are experiencing more fires and that climate change may increase fire frequency underscores the need to include these specialized particles in the computer models, and our results show how this can be done," Dubey said. Particle analysis shows "tar ball" effect is significant LOS ALAMOS, N.M., July 9, 2013-Wildfires produce a witch's brew of

257

Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously predicted  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wildfires may contribute more to global warming Wildfires may contribute more to global warming Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously predicted They suggest that fire emissions could contribute a lot more to the observed climate warming than current estimates show. July 9, 2013 Haze of smoke emanating from the 2011 Las Conchas, NM fire. Haze of smoke emanating from the 2011 Las Conchas, NM fire. Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email "The fact that we are experiencing more fires and that climate change may increase fire frequency underscores the need to include these specialized particles in the computer models, and our results show how this can be done," Dubey said. Particle analysis shows "tar ball" effect is significant LOS ALAMOS, N.M., July 9, 2013-Wildfires produce a witch's brew of

258

NOAA Predicts Mixed Bag of Drought, Flooding and Warm Weather...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NOAA Predicts Mixed Bag of Drought, Flooding and Warm Weather for Spring Print E-mail NOAA 2013 Spring Outlook Map Thursday, March 21, 2013 Featured by NOAA, a member of the U.S....

259

A global warming forum: Scientific, economic, and legal overview  

SciTech Connect

A Global Warming Forum covers in detail five general subject areas aimed at providing first, the scientific background and technical information available on global warming and second, a study and evaluation of the role of economic, legal, and political considerations in global warming. The five general topic areas discussed are the following: (1) The role of geophysical and geoengineering methods to solve problems related to global climatic change; (2) the role of oceanographic and geochemical methods to provide evidence for global climatic change; (3) the global assessment of greenhouse gas production including the need for additional information; (4) natural resource management needed to provide long-term global energy and agricultural uses; (5) legal, policy, and educational considerations required to properly evaluate global warming proposals.

Geyer, R.A. (ed.)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Modeling the Impact of Warming in Climate Change Economics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Any economic analysis of climate change policy requires some model that describes the impact of warming on future GDP and consumption. Most integrated assessment models (IAMs) relate temperature to the level of real GDP ...

Pindyck, Robert S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Rapid Development of the Tropical Cyclone Warm Core  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a simple theoretical argument to isolate the conditions under which a tropical cyclone can rapidly develop a warm-core thermal structure and subsequently approach a steady state. The theoretical argument is based on the ...

Jonathan L. Vigh; Wayne H. Schubert

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

On the Height of the Warm Core in Tropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The warm-core structure of tropical cyclones is examined in idealized simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. The maximum perturbation temperature in a control simulation occurs in the midtroposphere (5–6 km), in ...

Daniel P. Stern; David S. Nolan

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Greenhouse Warming: Is the Mid-Holocene a Good Analogue?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mid-Holocene period (from approximately 9000 to 6000 years before present) is often suggested as an analogue for enhanced greenhouse warming. The changes in net radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere are very different; increases in ...

John F. B. Mitchell

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Sudden Stratospheric Warming and Anomalous U.S. Weather  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Severe distortion of tropospheric circulation is associated with major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. This distortion consisting primarily of weakening of smaller-scale synoptic mats and development of strong blocking activity, is ...

James P. McGuirk; Donald A. Douglas

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Warm Rain Study in Hawaii—Rain Initiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

More than 300 hours of aircraft flights were conducted in Hawaii from 1977 to 1979 to study precipitation mechanisms in warm rain. Airborne instruments were used to measure drop size distributions over the size range from cloud droplets to ...

Tsutomu Takahashi

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Supervised Learning Approaches to Classify Sudden Stratospheric Warming Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sudden stratospheric warmings are prominent examples of dynamical wave–mean flow interactions in the Arctic stratosphere during Northern Hemisphere winter. They are characterized by a strong temperature increase on time scales of a few days and a ...

Christian Blume; Katja Matthes; Illia Horenko

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Small-Scale Variability in Warm Continental Cumulus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have analyzed small-scale fluctuations in microphysical, dynamical and thermodynamical parameters measured in two warm cumulus clouds during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) project (1981) in light of predictions of ...

P. H. Austin; M. B. Baker; A. M. Blyth; J. B. Jensen

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Global Warming Shifts the Monsoon Circulation, Drying South Asia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monsoon rainfall over South Asia has decreased during the last 5 to 6 decades according to several sets of observations. Although sea surface temperature (SST) has risen across the Indo-Pacific warm pool during this period, the expected ...

H. Annamalai; Jan Hafner; K. P. Sooraj; P. Pillai

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Definition: Warm or Steaming Ground | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

heat is conducted to the earth's surface, warming the ground and sometimes causing steam to form when water is present. Ret LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see...

270

Warming and Freshening in the Abyssal Southeastern Indian Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Warming and freshening of abyssal waters in the eastern Indian Ocean between 1994/95 and 2007 are quantified using data from two closely sampled high-quality occupations of a hydrographic section extending from Antarctica northward to the ...

Gregory C. Johnson; Sarah G. Purkey; John L. Bullister

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Monitoring Global Climate Change: The Case of Greenhouse Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent record high temperatures and drought conditions in many regions of the United States have prompted heightened concern about whether these are early manifestations of the global green house warming projected by the major climate models. An ...

Fred B. Wood

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Mechanisms Affecting the Overturning Response in Global Warming Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climate models used to produce global warming scenarios exhibit widely diverging responses of the thermohaline circulation (THC). To investigate the mechanisms responsible for this variability, a regional Atlantic Ocean model driven with forcing ...

U. Schweckendiek; J. Willebrand

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Cloud Clusters and Superclusters over the Oceanic Warm Pool  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Infrared satellite images of the oceanic warm-pool region (8O°E-160°W) have been objectively processed to reveal tropical “cloud clusters” with temperature colder than a given threshold. Cloud clusters span a somewhat lognormal distribution of ...

Brain E. Mapes; Robert A. Houze Jr.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Long-Term Evolution of Elongated Warm Eddies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this research is to investigate the evolution of elongated warm eddies. A shallow-water, reduced-gravity, primitive equation model is used to perform a multicase numerical experiment, which includes vortices of very different ...

Edgar G. Pavía; Manuel López

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Does Global Warming Cause Intensified Interannual Hydroclimate Variability?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The idea that global warming leads to more droughts and floods has become commonplace without clear indication of what is meant by this statement. Here, the authors examine one aspect of this problem and assess whether interannual variability of ...

Richard Seager; Naomi Naik; Laura Vogel

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

The Dynamics of Northern Hemisphere Stratospheric Final Warming Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A lag composite analysis is performed of the zonal-mean structure and dynamics of Northern Hemisphere stratospheric final warming (SFW) events. SFW events are linked to distinct zonal wind deceleration signatures in the stratosphere and ...

Robert X. Black; Brent A. McDaniel

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Mesoscale Predictability of an Extreme Warm-Season Precipitation Event  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mesoscale model is used to investigate the mesoscale predictability of an extreme precipitation event over central Texas on 29 June 2002 that lasted through 7 July 2002. Both the intrinsic and practical aspects of warm-season predictability, ...

Fuqing Zhang; Andrew M. Odins; John W. Nielsen-Gammon

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Interpretation of Simulated Global Warming Using a Simple Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple energy balance model with two parameters, an effective heat capacity and an effective climate sensitivity, is used to interpret six GCM simulations of greenhouse gas–induced global warming. By allowing the parameters to vary in time, the ...

I. G. Watterson

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Inferences of Predictability Associated with Warm Season Precipitation Episodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Herein preliminary findings are reported from a radar-based climatology of warm season precipitation “episodes.” Episodes are defined as time–space clusters of heavy precipitation that often result from sequences of organized convection such as ...

R. E. Carbone; J. D. Tuttle; D. A. Ahijevych; S. B. Trier

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Diurnal Variations of Warm-Season Precipitation over Northern China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the diurnal variations of the warm-season precipitation over northern China using the high-resolution precipitation products obtained from the Climate Prediction Center’s morphing technique (CMORPH) during May–August of 2003–...

Huizhong He; Fuqing Zhang

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Physics of Greenhouse Effect and Convection in Warm Oceans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sea surface temperature (SST) in roughly 50% of the tropical Pacific Ocean is warm enough (SST > 300 K) to permit deep convection. This paper examines the effects of deep convection on the climatological mean vertical distributions of water vapor ...

A. K. Inamdar; V. Ramanathan

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Probing warm dense lithium by inelastic X-ray scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-26000, NWFP, Pakistan 9 Institut f¨ur Kernphysik, Technische Universit¨at Darmstadt, Schlo�gartenstr. 9-temperature superconductors and nuclear matter1 . Warm dense matter, defined by temperatures of a few electron volts

Loss, Daniel

283

Air Pollution (Illinois)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This article states regulations for monitoring air pollution, methods for permit applications, emission limitations for pollutants and air quality standards.

284

Global warming implications of non-fluorocarbon technologies as CFC replacements  

SciTech Connect

Many technologies could be developed for use in place of conventional compression systems for refrigeration and air conditioning. Comparisons of the global warming impacts using TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) can be used to identify alternatives that have the potential for lower environmental impacts than electric-driven vapor compression systems using HCFCs and HFCs. Some options, such as secondary heat transfer loops in commercial refrigeration systems to reduce refrigerant charge and emission rates, could be useful in reducing the losses of refrigerants to the atmosphere. Use of ammonia instead of a fluorocarbon in a system with a secondary loop offers only a small potential for decreasing TEWI, and this may not warrant the increased complexity and risks of using ammonia in a retail sales environment. A few technologies, such as adsorption heat pumps, have efficiency levels that show reduced TEWI levels compared to conventional and state of the art compression systems, and further development could lead to an even more favorable comparison. Health and safety risks of the alternative technologies and the materials they employ must also be considered.

Fischer, S.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

285

Global warming and the future of coal carbon capture and storage  

SciTech Connect

The paper considers how best to change the economic calculus of power plant developers so they internalize CCS costs when selecting new generation technologies. Five policy tools are analyzed: establishing a greenhouse gas cap-and-trade program; imposing carbon taxes; defining CCS systems as a so-called Best Available Control Technology for new power plants under the USA Clean Air Act's New Source Review program; developing a 'low carbon portfolio' standard that requires utilities to provide an increasing proportion of power from low-carbon generation sources over time; and requiring all new coal power plants to meet an 'emission performance' standard that limits CO{sub 2} emissions to levels achievable with CCS systems. Each of these tools has advantages and drawbacks but an emission performance standard for new power plants is likely to be most effective in spurring broad-scale adoption of CCS systems. Chapter headings are: global warming and the future of coal; new coal-fired power plants threaten all other efforts to combat global warming; a potential path to zero emissions through carbon capture and storage; CO{sub 2} capture at coal plants: the promise of IGCC and other technologies; barriers to commercialization of IGCC technology; crossing the chasm: a new policy framework to push ccs implementation forward; encouraging CCS systems with carbon caps and trading programs; using the existing Clean Air Act to require CCS systems for new coal plants; retail low carbon portfolio standard; carbon tax; emission performance standards for new coal power plants; and conclusions. 16 figs.

Ken Berlin; Robert M. Sussman [Skadden Arps, Slate, Meagher and Flom (United States)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

The Development of Arctic Air Masses in Northwest Canada and Their Behavior in a Warming Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface observations, soundings, and a thermodynamic budget are used to investigate the formation process of 93 arctic airmass events. The events involve very cold surface temperatures—an average of ?42.8°C at Norman Wells, a centrally located ...

Jessica K. Turner; John R. Gyakum

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Enhancement of Evaporation from a Large Northern Lake by the Entrainment of Warm, Dry Air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The turbulent exchange of water vapor and heat were measured above Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada, using the eddy covariance method for most of the ice-free period in 1997, 1998, and 1999. In all years, evaporation tended to ...

Peter D. Blanken; Wayne R. Rouse; William M. Schertzer

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Title Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-5553E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Walker, Iain S., Mile Lubliner, Darryl J. Dickerhoff, and William W. Delp Journal 2010 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings The Climate for efficiency is now Date Published 08/2010 Abstract In recent years, great strides have been made in reducing air leakage in residential and to a lesser extent small commercial forced air duct systems. Several authorities have introduced low leakage limits for thermal distribution systems; for example, the State of California Energy Code for Buildings gives credit for systems that leak less than 6% of the total air flow at 25 Pa.

289

More data needed to support or disprove global warming theory  

SciTech Connect

Reports of global warming are prevalent in the popular press. With the exception of Scandinavia, no major energy tax laws have been passed to date. But environmental pressures may change this, and the change could have a profound effect on refiners. These are the views of Gerald T. Westbrook, of TSBV Consultants, Houston. Westbrook summarized recent global-warming research, and his position on the subject, at the National Petroleum Refiners Association annual meeting, held March 16--18, in San Antonio. The greenhouse effect is real, says Westbrook. It is important, however, to distinguish between the two major mechanisms of the greenhouse effect: natural warming and anthropogenic warming (changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases caused by man). Without greenhouse gases the earth`s equilibrium temperature would be {minus}18 C. The effect of the gases is to raise the equilibrium temperature to 15 C. In the early 1980s, computer models estimated global warming over the past 100 years to be as much as 2.3 C. By 1986, those estimates had been reduced to 1.0 C, and in 1988, a range of 0.63 {+-} 0.2 C was reported. In 1995, a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC) cited a range of 0.3--0.6 C. Westbrook asserts that the earth`s motion anomalies--orbit eccentricity, axial tilt, and wobbles--lead to dramatic changes in insolation, and are the dominant force over the last 160,000 years.

1997-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

290

Global crop yield losses from recent warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

Lobell, D; Field, C

2006-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

291

Metal-Air Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehab. Space Heating Low Temperature  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Space Heating Low Temperature Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehab. Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehab. Sector Geothermal energy Type Space Heating Location Warm Springs, Georgia Coordinates 32.8904081°, -84.6810381° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

293

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Tropical Warm Pool  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment May, Peter Bureau or Meteorology Research Centre Mather, James Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Jakob, Christian BMRC One of the most complete data sets describing tropical convection ever collected will result from the upcoming Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWPICE) in the area around Darwin in late 2005 and early 2006. The aims of the experiment will be to examine convective cloud systems from their initial stages through to the decay of the cirrus generated and to measure their impact on the environment. The experiment design includes an unprecedented network of ground-based observations (soundings, active and passive remote sensors) combined with a large range of low, mid and high altitude aircraft for in-situ and remote sensing

294

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tropical Warm Pool Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment General Description The Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) was a collaborative effort led by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Beginning January 21 and ending February 14, 2006, the experiment was conducted in the region near the ARM Climate Research Facility in Darwin, Northern Australia. This permanent facility is fully equipped with sophisticated instruments for measuring cloud and other atmospheric properties to provide a long-term record of continuous observational data. Measurements obtained from the other experiment components (explained below) will complement this dataset to provide a detailed description of the tropical atmosphere.

295

Chemical And Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated With Normal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated With Normal Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated With Normal Faults In Utah Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Chemical And Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated With Normal Faults In Utah Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Thermal springs associated with normal faults in Utah have been analyzed for major cations and anions, and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. Springs with measured temperatures averaging greater than 40°C are characterized by Na + K- and SO4 + Cl-rich waters containing 103 to 104 mg/l of dissolved solids. Lower temperature springs, averaging less than 40°C, are more enriched in Ca + Mg relative to Na + K. Chemical variations monitored through time in selected thermal springs are probably produced by

296

Warm Springs State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Warm Springs State Hospital Sector Geothermal energy Type Space Heating Location Warm Springs, Montana Coordinates 46.1813145°, -112.78476° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

297

Legendary West Virginia Senior Citizen Stays Warm With New Furnace |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Legendary West Virginia Senior Citizen Stays Warm With New Furnace Legendary West Virginia Senior Citizen Stays Warm With New Furnace Legendary West Virginia Senior Citizen Stays Warm With New Furnace April 1, 2010 - 7:16pm Addthis Joshua DeLung For the last 56 years, Beulah Sisk has lived in the same house in Princeton, W.Va. Beulah, who worked for 25 years at Lloyd's Pastry Shop, is well known in Princeton. People still see her on the streets today and recognize her as an icon in the community. After a wind storm damaged Beulah's home last year, it came as no surprise when a senior center employee, concerned for Beulah's safety, told her about the weatherization assistance program. "A tree fell on my house and damaged a lot of things, including my furnace," Beulah says. "I tried to have it repaired, but it still

298

NETL: Gasification Systems - Warm Gas Multi-Contaminant Removal System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Warm Gas Multi-Contaminant Removal System Warm Gas Multi-Contaminant Removal System Project Number: DE-SC00008243 TDA Research, Inc. is developing a high-capacity, low-cost sorbent that removes anhydrous ammonia (NH3), mercury (Hg), and trace contaminants from coal- and coal/biomass-derived syngas. The clean-up system will be used after the bulk warm gas sulfur removal step, and remove NH3 and Hg in a regenerable manner while irreversibly capturing all other trace metals (e.g., Arsenic, Selenium) reducing their concentrations to sub parts per million (ppm) levels. Current project plans include identifying optimum chemical composition and structure that provide the best sorbent performance for removing trace contaminants, determining the effect of operating parameters, conducting multiple-cycle experiments to test the life of the sorbent for NH3 and Hg removal, and conducting a preliminary design of the sorbent reactor.

299

The 7. global warming international conference and expo: Abstracts  

SciTech Connect

This conference was held April 1--3, 1996 in Vienna, Austria. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on global warming. Topics of interest include the following: global and regional natural resource management; energy, transportation, minerals and natural resource management; industrial technology and greenhouse gas emission; strategies for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emission; greenhouse gas production/utilization and carbon budgets; strategies for promoting the understanding of global change; international policy strategy and economics; and global warming and public health. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

300

Deep Convection East of the Andes Cordillera: A Test Case Analysis of Airmass Origin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Warm and moist air masses, required to generate deep convection east of the Andes Cordillera, are generally the result of humidity transport by the so-called low-level jet (LLJ). In this paper, it is shown from detailed test cases that the ...

Hector Teitelbaum; Hervé Le Treut; Mohamed Moustaoui; Gustavo C. Cabrera; Guillermo Ibañez

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Feasibility of air capture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Capturing CO2 from air, referred to as Air Capture, is being proposed as a viable climate change mitigation technology. The two major benefits of air capture, reported in literature, are that it allows us to reduce the ...

Ranjan, Manya

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduce its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere. This process of 'negative radiative forcing' can help counter the effects of global warming. In addition, cool roofs reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win-win-win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Rosenfeld, Arthur; Elliot, Matthew

2009-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

303

A heuristic predictive logic controller applied to hybrid solar air conditioning plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper shows the development of a heuristic predictive logic controller (HPLoC) applied to a solar air conditioning plant. The plant uses two energy sources, solar and gas, in order to warm up the water. The hot water feeds a single-effect absorption ...

Darine Zambrano; Winston García-Gabín; Eduardo F. Camacho

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Primary zone air proportioner  

SciTech Connect

An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

305

Air Pollution Control (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This legislation establishes the Department of Environmental Management and the Air Pollution Control Board, which are tasked with the prevention, abatement, and control of air pollution by all...

306

Detecting the Nonstationary Response of ENSO to Greenhouse Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On the basis of the latest greenhouse warming experiment performed with the Max-Planck Institut coupled atmosphere/isopycnal ocean model (ECHAM4/OPYC) it is shown that not only the climate mean but also the statistics of higher-order statistical ...

A. Timmermann

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

8th Global warming international conference and exposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstracts are presented from The 8th Annual Global Warming international conference and expo. Topics centered around greenhouse gas emission and disposal methods, policy and economics, carbon budget, and resource management. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

NONE

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

308

Arctic Ocean Warming Contributes to Reduced Polar Ice Cap  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of modern and historical observations demonstrates that the temperature of the intermediate-depth (150–900 m) Atlantic water (AW) of the Arctic Ocean has increased in recent decades. The AW warming has been uneven in time; a local 1°C ...

Igor V. Polyakov; Leonid A. Timokhov; Vladimir A. Alexeev; Sheldon Bacon; Igor A. Dmitrenko; Louis Fortier; Ivan E. Frolov; Jean-Claude Gascard; Edmond Hansen; Vladimir V. Ivanov; Seymour Laxon; Cecilie Mauritzen; Don Perovich; Koji Shimada; Harper L. Simmons; Vladimir T. Sokolov; Michael Steele; John Toole

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Regional Simulations of Greenhouse Warming Including Natural Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The perception of the hypothesized greenhouse effect will differ dramatically depending upon the location on the earth at which the effect is analyzed. This is due mainly to two causes: 1) the warming signal depends upon the position on the earth,...

Kwang-Y. Kim; Gerald R. North

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

POLYLACTIDE (PLA) BIOPOLYMER 1. INTRODUCTION TO WARM AND PLA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This chapter describes the methodology used in EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) to estimate streamlined life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors for Natureworks ’ Ingeo polylactide (PLA) biopolymer resin, beginning at the waste generation reference point. Due to the large number of end applications for PLA (e.g., food containers, bottles and other consumer products) and the

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

From the warm magnetized atomic medium to molecular clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

{It has recently been proposed that giant molecular complexes form at the sites where streams of diffuse warm atomic gas collide at transonic velocities.} {We study the global statistics of molecular clouds formed by large scale colliding flows of warm neutral atomic interstellar gas under ideal MHD conditions. The flows deliver material as well as kinetic energy and trigger thermal instability leading eventually to gravitational collapse.} {We perform adaptive mesh refinement MHD simulations which, for the first time in this context, treat self-consistently cooling and self-gravity.} {The clouds formed in the simulations develop a highly inhomogeneous density and temperature structure, with cold dense filaments and clumps condensing from converging flows of warm atomic gas. In the clouds, the column density probability density distribution (PDF) peaks at $\\sim 2 \\times 10^{21} \\psc$ and decays rapidly at higher values; the magnetic intensity correlates weakly with density from $n \\sim 0.1$ to $10^4 \\pcc$, and then varies roughly as $n^{1/2}$ for higher densities.} {The global statistical properties of such molecular clouds are reasonably consistent with observational determinations. Our numerical simulations suggest that molecular clouds formed by the moderately supersonic collision of warm atomic gas streams.}

P. Hennebelle; R. Banerjee; E. Vazquez-Semadeni; R. Klessen; E. Audit

2008-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

312

Effects of a Warm Oceanic Feature on Hurricane Opal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On 4 October 1995, Hurricane Opal deepened from 965 to 916 hPa in the Gulf of Mexico over a 14-h period upon encountering a warm core ring (WCR) in the ocean shed by the Loop Current during an upper-level atmospheric trough interaction. Based on ...

Lynn K. Shay; Gustavo J. Goni; Peter G. Black

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Global Warming Effects on U.S. Hurricane Damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While many studies of the effects of global warming on hurricanes predict an increase in various metrics of Atlantic basin-wide activity, it is less clear that this signal will emerge from background noise in measures of hurricane damage, which ...

Kerry Emanuel

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Warming Trends in the Arctic from Clear Sky Satellite Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite thermal infrared data on surface temperatures provide pan-Arctic coverage from 1981 to 2001 during cloud-free conditions and reveal large warming anomalies in the 1990s compared to the 1980s and regional variability in the trend. The ...

Josefino C. Comiso

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Global hydrological cycle response to rapid and slow global warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze the response of global water vapor to global warming in a series of fully coupled climate model simulations. We find that a roughly 7% per Kelvin rate of increase of water vapor with global surface temperature is robust only for rapid ...

Larissa Back; Karen Russ; Zhengyu Liu; Kuniaki Inoue; Jiaxu Zhang; Bette Otto-Bliesner

316

Myth or reality; Some data dispute global warming theory  

SciTech Connect

Science in March 1990 published a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) analysis of data collected from 1979 through 1988 by the TIROS-N series of weather satellites. The data include the most precise global temperature measurements ever taken. The study found no evidence of global warming from the greenhouse effect during that period. If anything, the short-term trend was toward cooling, since the average of the first five years, 1979 to 1983, was warmer than the most recent five. The NASA findings can be added to a burgeoning body of scientific data seriously questioning the contention that Earth is threatened by global warming resulting from a greenhouse effect primarily instigated by man. Ironically, James Hansen, director of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, has been the nation's most outspoken advocate of the thesis that, because concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other greenhouse gases, such as methane, have risen by 30 percent in the last 100 years and are expected to rise another 40 percent by 2050, the planet eventually will warm by about 4 degrees Celsius. According to this hypothesis, the warming will cause major coastal flooding, inland droughts and sundry other catastrophes. But Reid Bryson, founder of the Institute for Environmental Studies at the University of Wisconsin, contends Hansen's thesis cannot be accepted, and Michael Schlesinger, professor of meteorology at the University of Illinois, asserts the chance that global warming has already been detected is pretty close to zero.

Lee, R.W.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Get Ready for Fall: Leaf Peeping, Staying Warm, and Saving Money...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Get Ready for Fall: Leaf Peeping, Staying Warm, and Saving Money Get Ready for Fall: Leaf Peeping, Staying Warm, and Saving Money September 21, 2009 - 3:04pm Addthis Allison Casey...

318

A New Look at Stratospheric Sudden Warmings. Part I: Climatology and Modeling Benchmarks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stratospheric sudden warmings are the clearest and strongest manifestation of dynamical coupling in the stratosphere–troposphere system. While many sudden warmings have been individually documented in the literature, this study aims at ...

Andrew J. Charlton; Lorenzo M. Polvani

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Can CGCMs Simulate the Twentieth-Century “Warming Hole” in the Central United States?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The observed lack of twentieth-century warming in the central United States (CUS), denoted here as the “warming hole,” was examined in 55 simulations driven by external historical forcings and in 19 preindustrial control (unforced) simulations ...

Kenneth E. Kunkel; Xin-Zhong Liang; Jinhong Zhu; Yiruo Lin

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Sensitivities and Mechanisms of the Zonal Mean Atmospheric Circulation Response to Tropical Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although El Niño and global warming are both characterized by warming in the tropical upper troposphere, the latitudinal changes of the Hadley cell edge and midlatitude eddy-driven jet are opposite in sign. Using an idealized dry atmospheric model,...

Lantao Sun; Gang Chen; Jian Lu

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

A Perfect Prognosis Scheme for Forecasting Warm-Season Lightning over Florida  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study develops and evaluates a statistical scheme for forecasting warm-season lightning over Florida. Four warm seasons of analysis data from the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) and lightning data from the National Lightning Detection Network are ...

Phillip E. Shafer; Henry E. Fuelberg

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

A Simple Dynamical Model of the Warm-Water Branch of the Middepth Meridional Overturning Cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A reduced-gravity model is presented of the warm-water branch of the middepth meridional overturning circulation in a rectangular basin with a circumpolar connection. The model describes the balance between production of warm water by Ekman ...

R. M. Samelson

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

How Do You Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme Weather? How Do You Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme Weather? February 3, 2011 - 6:30am Addthis Many states are...

324

Phase Speed Spectra and the Latitude of Surface Westerlies: Interannual Variability and Global Warming Trend  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The extratropical annular-mode-like atmospheric responses to ENSO and global warming and the internal variability of annular modes are associated with similar, yet distinct, dynamical characteristics. In particular, La Niña, global warming, and ...

Gang Chen; Jian Lu; Dargan M. W. Frierson

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Diagnostic Study of a Wavenumber-2 Stratospheric Sudden Warming in a Transformed Eulerian-Mean Formalism  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The intense wavenumber-2 stratospheric warming of February 1979 is analyzed in a transformed Eulerian-mean formalism, and compared with diagnostics generated by the model warming of Dunkerton et al. (1981). Significant differences in the ...

T. N. Palmer

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Tropical Stabilization of the Thermohaline Circulation in a Greenhouse Warming Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most global climate models simulate a weakening of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) in response to enhanced greenhouse warming. Both surface warming and freshening in high latitudes, the so-called sinking region, contribute to ...

M. Latif; E. Roeckner; U. Mikolajewicz; R. Voss

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

How Dry is the Tropical Free Troposphere? Implications for Global Warming Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The humidity of the free troposphere is being increasingly scrutinized in climate research due to its central role in global warming theory through positive water vapor feedback. This feedback is the primary source of global warming in general ...

Roy W. Spencer; William D. Braswell

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Are There Any Satisfactory Geologic Analogs for a Future Greenhouse Warming?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There have been numerous attempts to propose past warm time periods as “analogs” for a future greenhouse warming. In this paper it is argued that, although paleoclimate studies may provide important insights into process operating in the climate ...

Thomas J. Crowley

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

The Supercooled Warm Rain Process and the Specification of Freezing Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About 30% of freezing precipitation cases are observed to occur in a subfreezing atmosphere (contrary to the classical melting ice model). We explain these cases with the concept of the “supercolled warm rain process” (SWRP): the warm rain ...

George J. Huffman; Gene Alfred Norman Jr.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

The Unusual Midwinter Warming in the Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere 2002: A Comparison to Northern Hemisphere Phenomena  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A strong midwinter warming occurred in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) stratosphere in September 2002. Based on experiences from the Northern Hemisphere (NH), this event can be defined as a major warming with a breakdown of the polar vortex in ...

Kirstin Krüger; Barbara Naujokat; Karin Labitzke

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

The effect of experimental warming and precipitation change on proteolytic enzyme activity: positive feedbacks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.8 1.4 739 Harvard Forest-Prospect Hill HF1 Petersham, MA Temperate Forest Warming 42.5 Ã?72.2 7.8 1172 Harvard Forest-Barre Woods HF2 Petersham, MA Temperate Forest Warming 42.5 Ã?72.2 7.8 1172 Harvard Forest-N 9 Warming HFN Petersham, MA Temperate Forest Warming 42.5 Ã?72.2 7.8 1172 Boston Area Climate

Minnesota, University of

332

Warm Pool SST Variability in Relation to the Surface Energy Balance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The warm tropical oceans underlie the most convective regions on earth and are a critical component of the earth’s climate, yet there are differing opinions on the processes that control warm pool SST. The Indo–Pacific warm pool is characterized ...

John Fasullo; Peter J. Webster

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Energy Basics: Solar Air Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Solar Air Heating Solar air heating systems use air as the working fluid for absorbing and transferring solar energy. Solar air collectors (devices to heat air...

334

Mesoscale predictability of an extreme warm-season precipitation event  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the period of June 29 through July 6, 2002, an extreme precipitation event occurred over Texas, resulting in catastrophic flooding. Operational forecasts performed poorly, neither predicting the copious amounts of rain nor its longevity. The Penn State University/NCAR Mesoscale Model version 5 (MM5) was used to conduct predictability experiments, which follow closely to the research conducted by Zhang et al. A control simulation initialized at 00Z 1 July is established over a 30-km grid. First, practical predictability experiments are performed by exploring the impacts due to different lead-times, resolution dependence, and different physics parameterizations. Second, intrinsic predictability is investigated by inducing a random temperature perturbation in the initial conditions, followed by numerous simulations with various perturbed initializations. Similar results to those found by Zhang et al. were discovered here: the prominent initial error growth is associated with moist processes leading to convection. Eventually these errors grow from the convective scale to sub-synoptic scale, essentially below 1000 kilometers. This indicates that as the forecast time extends further beyond initialization, the resulting errors will impact forecasts of larger-scale features such as differences in the positioning and intensity of positive PV anomalies and distribution of precipitation from the control simulation.

Odins, Andrew Michael

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Proposal for an Adsorption Solar-Driven Air-Conditioning Unit for Public Offices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simple prototype air conditioning unit driven entirely by solar energy is proposed aiming at replacing the conventional vapor compression air conditioning systems which are reasonable for the global warming. The proposed model is supposed to be used in conditioning the governmental offices during the working hours in the weekdays when both the sunshine and the need for air-conditioning reach their maximum levels at the same instance. Solar adsorption refrigeration devices have no moving parts consequently they are noiseless, non-corrosive, cheap to maintain, long lasting in addition to being environmentally friendly with zero ozone depletion as well as zero global warming potentials. For these reasons, the research activities are of increasing interest in this aspect in order to provide optimum solutions for the crucial points that impede making these systems capable to meet the criteria for commercialization.

Elsamni, O. A.; Sahmarani, K.J.; Obied, F. K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Isokinetic air sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

Sehmel, George A. (Richland, WA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Warm Springs Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Warm Springs Greenhouses Sector Geothermal energy Type Greenhouse Location Banks, Idaho Coordinates 44.0804473°, -116.1240151° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

338

Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Warm Springs Water District Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Boise, Idaho Coordinates 43.6135002°, -116.2034505° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

339

Estimating impacts of warming temperatures on California's electricity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

impacts of warming temperatures on California's electricity impacts of warming temperatures on California's electricity system Title Estimating impacts of warming temperatures on California's electricity system Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Sathaye, Jayant A., Larry L. Dale, Peter H. Larsen, Gary A. Fitts, Kevin Koy, Sarah M. Lewis, and André Frossard Pereira de Lucena Journal Global Environmental Change Volume 23 Start Page 499 Issue 2 Pagination 499-511 Date Published 04/2013 Keywords EES-EG, electricity markets and policy group Abstract Despite a clear need, little research has been carried out at the regional-level to quantify potential climate-related impacts to electricity production and delivery systems. This paper introduces a bottom-up study of climate change impacts on California's energy infrastructure, including high temperature effects on power plant capacity, transmission lines, substation capacity, and peak electricity demand. End-of-century impacts were projected using the A2 and B1 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios. The study quantifies the effect of high ambient temperatures on electricity generation, the capacity of substations and transmission lines, and the demand for peak power for a set of climate scenarios. Based on these scenarios, atmospheric warming and associated peak demand increases would necessitate up to 38% of additional peak generation capacity and up to 31% additional transmission capacity, assuming current infrastructure. These findings, although based on a limited number of scenarios, suggest that additional funding could be put to good use by supporting R&D into next generation cooling equipment technologies, diversifying the power generation mix without compromising the system's operational flexibility, and designing effective demand side management programs.

340

Winners and losers in a world with global warming: Noncooperation, altruism, and social welfare  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, global warming is an asymmetric transboundary externality which benefits some countries or regions and harms others. Few environmental problems have captured the public`s imagination as much and attracted as much scrutiny as global warming. The general perception is that global warming is a net social bad, and that across-the-board abatement of greenhouse gas emissions is therefore desirable. Despite many interesting academic contributions, not all of the basic economics of this phenomenon have been fully worked out. The authors use a simple two-country model to analyze the effects of global warming on resource allocations, the global-warming stock, and national and global welfare.

Caplan, A.J. [Weber State Univ., Ogden, UT (United States). Dept. of Economics; Ellis, C.J.; Silva, E.C.D. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Economics

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

North Florida Global Warming Study Group | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Florida Global Warming Study Group Florida Global Warming Study Group Jump to: navigation, search Name North Florida Global Warming Study Group Address 8342 Compass Rose Dr S Place Jacksonville, Florida Zip 32216 Year founded 2003 Phone number 9047379211 Website [atilley@unf.edu atilley@unf.edu ] Notes This is an email newslist. Coordinates 30.259044°, -81.571333° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":30.259044,"lon":-81.571333,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

342

Potential bias of model projected greenhouse warming in irrigated regions  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) used to project climate responses to increased CO{sub 2} generally omit irrigation of agricultural land. Using the NCAR CAM3 GCM coupled to a slab-ocean model, we find that inclusion of an extreme irrigation scenario has a small effect on the simulated temperature and precipitation response to doubled CO{sub 2} in most regions, but reduced warming by as much as 1 C in some agricultural regions, such as Europe and India. This interaction between CO{sub 2} and irrigation occurs in cases where agriculture is a major fraction of the land surface and where, in the absence of irrigation, soil moisture declines are projected to provide a positive feedback to temperature change. The reduction of warming is less than 25% of the temperature increase modeled for doubled CO{sub 2} in most regions; thus greenhouse warming will still be dominant. However, the results indicate that land use interactions may be an important component of climate change uncertainty in some agricultural regions. While irrigated lands comprise only {approx}2% of the land surface, they contribute over 40% of global food production. Climate changes in these regions are therefore particularly important to society despite their relatively small contribution to average global climate.

Lobell, D; Bala, G; Bonfils, C; Duffy, P

2006-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

343

[Global warming and the running average sunspot number  

SciTech Connect

It has been reported in your pages that the Bush administration`s views and actions regarding how or whether to react to possible global warming due to greenhouse gases have been influenced by the so-called Marshall report. This unrefereed report, released by the George C. Marshall Institute, had as its principal conclusion the finding that the 0.5{degree} C global warming of the last century was mostly due to solar variability and, thus, the greenhouse warming of the 21st century can be expected to be a relatively small l{degree} C or so. The authors support this finding by comparing the 33-year running average sunspot number with the trend in annual average global temperature and noting the parallel between the two, especially during the 1940s--1960s when the temperature trend was downward. Subsequent letters to Science debated the merits of this and other conclusions contained in the report. I now present additional technical evidence which shows that, quite aside from the question of whether the data presented in the report support its conclusions, the actual figure on which the above conclusion is based is in error.

Fernau, M.E.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Global Warming Solutions Inc previously Southern Investments Inc | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Warming Solutions Inc previously Southern Investments Inc Warming Solutions Inc previously Southern Investments Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Global Warming Solutions Inc (previously Southern Investments Inc) Place Houston, Texas Zip 77002 Sector Solar Product Developer of a combined PV and thermal energy solar system called light electric and thermal generator (LETG). Coordinates 29.76045°, -95.369784° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":29.76045,"lon":-95.369784,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

345

Global warming and global dioxide emission: An empirical study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the dynamic relationship between global surface temperature (global warming) and global carbon dioxide emission (CO{sub 2}) is modelled and analyzed by causality and spectral analysis in the time domain and frequency domain, respectively. Historical data of global CO{sub 2} emission and global surface temperature anomalies over 129 years from 1860-1988 are used in this study. The causal relationship between the two phenomena is first examined using the Sim and Granger causality test in the time domain after the data series are filtered by ARIMA models. The Granger causal relationship is further scrutinized and confirmed by cross-spectral and multichannel spectral analysis in the frequency domain. The evidence found from both analyses proves that there is a positive causal relationship between the two variables. The time domain analysis suggests that Granger causality exists between global surface temperature and global CO{sub 2} emission. Further, CO{sub 2} emission causes the change in temperature. The conclusions are further confirmed by the frequency domain analysis, which indicates that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission causes climate warming because a high coherence exists between the two variables. Furthermore, it is proved that climate changes happen after an increase in CO{sub 2} emission, which confirms that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission does cause global warming. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Linyan Sun [Xian Jiaotong Univ., Shaanxi (China); Wang, M. [Saint Mary`s Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Availability of 3-out-of Warm Standby System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction Standby techC6A4P are used to improve system availability. Usually, a k-out-of-n:G standby system is assumedthu whm an operating component fails, a standby component becomes active and th system is working if at least k components are fault-free. In general,ther arethC6 types in component standby, i.e., cold,hd and warm standby. Cold standby impliesthe inactive components h ve a zero failure rate. Hot standby impliesthl an inactive componenthx th same failure rate aswh6 it is in operation. Warm standby impliesthi an inactive componenthx a failure rate between cold and hdC it is also called dormant failure in some papers. k-out-of-n:G warm standby systemsh ve been used in several research fields including medical diagnosis, redundant-system testing, power plant system and so on. Th.C h ve been many articles concerning study on availability of k-out-of-n:G syst

Tielingzhan Nonmember And; Specialsection On; Michio Horigome; M Er

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Global Warming: some back-of-the-envelope calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We do several simple calculations and measurements in an effort to gain understanding of global warming and the carbon cycle. Some conclusions are interesting: (i) There has been global warming since the end of the "little ice age" around 1700. There is no statistically significant evidence of acceleration of global warming since 1940. (ii) The increase of CO_2 in the atmosphere, beginning around 1940, accurately tracks the burning of fossil fuels. Burning all of the remaining economically viable reserves of oil, gas and coal over the next 150 years or so will approximately double the pre-industrial atmospheric concentration of CO_2. The corresponding increase in the average temperature, due to the greenhouse effect, is quite uncertain: between 1.3 and 4.8K. This increase of temperature is (partially?) offset by the increase of aerosols and deforestation. (iii) Ice core samples indicate that the pre-historic CO_2 concentration and temperature are well correlated. We conclude that changes in the temperatures o...

Fabara, C

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Two-phase flow and transport in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two-phase flow and transport of reactants and products in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells is studied analytically and numerically. Four regimes of water distribution and transport are classified by defining three threshold current densities and a maximum current density. They correspond to first appearance of liquid water at the membrane/cathode interface, extension of the gas-liquid two-phase zone to the cathode/channel interface, saturated moist air exiting the gas channel, and complete consumption of oxygen by the electrochemical reaction. When the cell operates above the first threshold current density, liquid water appears and a two-phase zone forms within the porous cathode. A two-phase, multi-component mixture model in conjunction with a finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique is applied to simulate the cathode operation in this regime. The model is able to handle the situation where a single-phase region co-exists with a two-phase zone in the air cathode. For the first time, the polarization curve as well as water and oxygen concentration distributions encompassing both single- and two-phase regimes of the air cathode are presented. Capillary action is found to be the dominant mechanism for water transport inside the two-phase zone. The liquid water saturation within the cathode is predicted to reach 6.3% at 1.4 A/cm{sup 2}.

WANG,Z.H.; WANG,C.Y.; CHEN,KEN S.

2000-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

349

Air Conditioning | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and basic components as refrigerators. Refrigerators use energy (usually electricity) to transfer heat from the cool interior of the refrigerator to the relatively warm...

350

Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Ambient Air Quality...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ambient Air Quality Standards (Vermont) Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Ambient Air Quality Standards (Vermont) Eligibility Utility Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility...

351

Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor, Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor Products from Global Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor Suppliers ...

352

China Ga Air Compressor, China Ga Air Compressor Products ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

China Ga Air Compressor, China Ga Air Compressor Suppliers and Manufacturers Directory - Source a Large Selection of Ga Air Compressor Products at ...

353

Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor, Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor Products from Global Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor Suppliers ...

354

Screw Type Ac Air Compressor Manufacturers, Screw Type Ac Air ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Screw Type Ac Air Compressor, Screw Type Ac Air Compressor Manufacturers & Suppliers Directory - Find here Screw Type Ac Air Compressor Traders, ...

355

Minimizing the Global Warming Impact of Industrial Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 4, 2010... widely used in air conditioning and the manufacturing of electronics, ... spectrum through which radiation from Earth is released into space.

356

Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Air Conditioning and lungs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Conditioning and lungs Name: freeman Status: NA Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: Around 1993 Question: What affect does air conditioning have upon the lungs of the...

358

Marine Fog and Its Dissipation over Warm Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A long aircraft flight in fog at altitude 60 m was conducted on 25 September 1981, due west from San Francisco, California, until clear air was reached. The fog began near the coast and the air remained foggy until the boundary with the warmer ...

James W. Telford; Steven K. Chai

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Origins and Levels of Monthly and Seasonal Forecast Skill for United States Surface Air Temperatures Determined by Canonical Correlation Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Statistical techniques have been used to study the ability of SLP, SST and a form of persistence to forecast cold/warm season air temperatures over the United States and to determine the space–time evolution of these fields that give rise to ...

T. P. Barnett; R. Preisendorfer

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Air Pollution- Local Air Quality (Ontario, Canada)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Air Pollution regulation administered by the Ministry of the Environment enforces compliance to the standards set in the Ontario law. The law is phased in, with portions taking effect in 2010,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Solar assisted heat pump on air collectors: A simulation tool  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The heating system of the bioclimatic building of the Greek National Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) comprises two heating plants: the first one includes an air source heat pump, Solar Air Collectors (SACs) and a heat distribution system (comprising a fan coil unit network); the second one is, mainly, a geothermal heat pump unit to cover the ground floor thermal needs. The SAC configuration as well as the fraction of the building heating load covered by the heating plant are assessed in two operation modes; the direct (hot air from the collectors is supplied directly to the heated space) and the indirect mode (warm air from the SAC or its mixture with ambient air is not supplied directly to the heated space but indirectly into the evaporator of the air source heat pump). The technique of the indirect mode of heating aims at maximizing the efficiency of the SAC, saving electrical power consumed by the compressor of the heat pump, and therefore, at optimizing the coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump due to the increased intake of ambient thermal energy by means of the SAC. Results are given for three research objectives: assessment of the heat pump efficiency whether in direct or indirect heating mode; Assessment of the overall heating plant efficiency on a daily or hourly basis; Assessment of the credibility of the suggested simulation model TSAGAIR by comparing its results with the TRNSYS ones. (author)

Karagiorgas, Michalis; Galatis, Kostas; Tsagouri, Manolis [Department of Mechanical Engineering Educators, ASPETE, N. Iraklio, GR 14121 (Greece); Tsoutsos, Theocharis [Environmental Engineering Dept., Technical University of Crete, Technical University Campus, GR 73100, Chania (Greece); Botzios-Valaskakis, Aristotelis [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), 19th km Marathon Ave., GR 19001, Pikermi (Greece)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

362

Physics of greenhouse effect and convection in warm Oceans  

SciTech Connect

Sea surface temperatures (SST) in roughly 50% of the tropical Pacific Ocean is warm enough (SST > 300 K) to permit deep convection. This paper examines the effects of deep convection on the climatological mean vertical distributions of water vapor and its greenhouse effect over such warm oceans. The study also examines the link between SST, vertical distribution of water vapor, and its greenhouse effect in the tropical oceans. The radiation model calculations do not include the effects of clouds. The data are grouped into nonconvective and convective categories using SST as an index for convective activity. On average, convective regions are more humid, trap significantly more longwave radiation, and emit more radiation to the sea surface. The greenhouse effect in regions of convection operates as per classical ideas, that is, as the SST increases, the atmosphere traps the excess longwave energy emitted by the surface and reradiates it locally back to the ocean surface. The important departure from the classical picture is that the net (up minus down) fluxes at the surface and at the top-of-the atmosphere decrease with an increase in SST; that is, the surface and the surface-troposphere column lose the ability to radiate the excess energy to space. The cause of this upper greenhouse effect at the surface is the rapid increase in the lower-troposphere humidity with SST; that of the column is due to a combination of increase in humidity in the entire column and increase in the lapse rate within the lower troposphere. The increase in the vertical distribution of humidity far exceeds that which can be attributed to the temperature dependence of saturation vapor pressure; that is, the tropospheric relative humidity is larger in convective regions. The positive coupling between SST and the radiative warming of the surface by the water vapor greenhouse effect is also shown to exist on interannual time scales. 35 refs., 17 figs. 4 tabs.

Inamdar, A.K.; Ramanathan, V. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States))

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

FINAL REPORT WIND POWER WARM SPRINGS RESERVATION TRIBAL LANDS DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FG36-07GO17077 SUBMITTED BY WARM SPRINGS POWER & WATER ENTERPRISES A CORPORATE ENTITY OF THE CONFEDERATED TRIBES OF WARM SPRINGS WARM SPRINGS, OREGON  

SciTech Connect

Wind Generation Feasibility Warm Springs Power and Water Enterprises (WSPWE) is a corporate entity owned by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, located in central Oregon. The organization is responsible for managing electrical power generation facilities on tribal lands and, as part of its charter, has the responsibility to evaluate and develop renewable energy resources for the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs. WSPWE recently completed a multi-year-year wind resource assessment of tribal lands, beginning with the installation of wind monitoring towers on the Mutton Mountains site in 2003, and collection of on-site wind data is ongoing. The study identified the Mutton Mountain site on the northeastern edge of the reservation as a site with sufficient wind resources to support a commercial power project estimated to generate over 226,000 MWh per year. Initial estimates indicate that the first phase of the project would be approximately 79.5 MW of installed capacity. This Phase 2 study expands and builds on the previously conducted Phase 1 Wind Resource Assessment, dated June 30, 2007. In order to fully assess the economic benefits that may accrue to the Tribes through wind energy development at Mutton Mountain, a planning-level opinion of probable cost was performed to define the costs associated with key design and construction aspects of the proposed project. This report defines the Mutton Mountain project costs and economics in sufficient detail to allow the Tribes to either build the project themselves or contract with a developer under the most favorable terms possible for the Tribes.

Jim Manion; Michael Lofting; Wil Sando; Emily Leslie; Randy Goff

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

364

Thin Air Breathing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thin Air Breathing Thin Air Breathing Name: Amy Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Why is it hard to breathe in thin air? What health dangers do mountain climbers face at high altitudes? Replies: Among the obvious dangers of losing ones footing, the oxygen available in the air is considerable less at higher altitudes. If I recall correctly, 21% of the atmosphere at standard temperature and pressure at sea level is composed of oxygen. This is less at higher altitudes. One can lose consciousness and even die in an oxygen deficient environment with changes from oxygen content to lower than 19.5%. This can unfortunate effect can occur within minutes. Dr. Myron The air is not really thin at high altitudes. The problem is that air pressure is lower. As altitude increases, air pressure decreases. In order for your lungs to fill with air, the air pressure in your lungs has to be less than the pressure of the air outside your lungs. Air moves from areas of higher pressure to lower pressure. As your diaphragm (the muscle that separates your chest cavity from your abdominal cavity) moves downward, the size of your chest cavity increases. This decreases the pressure in your chest and air flows in. When the diaphragm is up, it puts pressure on the chest cavity and the pressure in the lungs is greater than outside the lungs. Air flows out. This is an example of Boyle's Law. The movement of the diaphragm is controlled by the brainstem. Anyway-the reason that it is harder for some people to breathe at higher altitudes is that the air pressure differences aren't as great between the inside of the lungs and outside.

365

Signal and noise in global warming detection. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The specific objectives of this study were the following: (1) What is the expected sampling error and bias incurred in estimation of the global average temperature from a finite number of point gauges? (2) What is the best one can do by optimally arranging N point gauges, how can one make best use of existing data at N point gauges by optimally weighting them? (3) What is a good estimation of the signal of global warming based upon simple models of the climate system? (4) How does one develop an optimal signal detection technique from the knowledge of signal and noise?

North, G.R.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Scientists studying the greenhouse effect challenge fears of global warming  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the controversy in the scientific community about the significance of the increased gases causing the greenhouse effect to be detrimental to the earth's ecosystems. He states that the most important aspect of the controversy is the fact that governments are embarking on foolish activities in order to prevent global warming. The fact that scientists offer research with contradicting results furthers the confusion as to what the best course of action is. The government agencies that control policy need to appropriate funds to study specific climatic changes and what effect carbon dioxide and other gases have on the atmosphere.

Wheeler, D.L.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

The rising tide: Global warming and world sea levels  

SciTech Connect

The author presents a broad-based and well-written approach to the impacts of sea level rise. Besides chapters on global warming, sources of sea level variability and the future, the effects on coastal nations, the book contains an important action-oriented discussion of proposed legislation and guidelines for planning and management aimed at reducing loss and damage produced by sea-level rise. The list of acknowledgements includes all the leading practitioners in the field. The references and information are current; reports and information from 1989 and 1990 meetings are included.

Edgerton, L.T.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Indirect Drive Warm-Loaded Ignition Target Design  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the Indirect Drive Warm-Loaded Ignition Target design. These targets either use a fill tube or the capsule is strong enough to withstand the room temperature pressure of the DT fuel. Only features that affect the design of the NIF Cryogenic Target System (NCTS) are presented. The design presented is the current thinking and may evolve further. The NCTS should be designed to accommodate a range of targets and target scales, as described here. The interface location between the target and the NCTS cryostat is at the target base / gripper joint, the tamping gas gland/gland joint, and the electrical plug/receptacle joint.

Bernat, T P; Gibson, C R

2004-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

369

Sheet metal stamping die design for warm forming  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In metal stamping dies, by taking advantage of improved material flow by selectively warming the die, flat sections of the die can contribute to the flow of material throughout the workpiece. Local surface heating can be accomplished by placing a heating block in the die. Distribution of heating at the flat lower train central regions outside of the bend region allows a softer flow at a lower stress to enable material flow into the thinner, higher strain areas at the bend/s. The heating block is inserted into the die and is powered by a power supply.

Ghosh, Amit K. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

370

600 a Current Leads with Dry and Compact Warm Terminals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the LHC magnet test benches 26 pairs of conventional helium vapour-cooled 600 A current leads are required. The first pair of 600 A current leads has been designed and built by industry and tested at CERN. The main component of the lead is the heat exchanger, which consists of two concentric copper pipes. Special attention was also given to the design of the warm terminal in order to avoid any condensation and to resist at an electrical test of 2 kV. The paper describes construction details and compares calculated and measured values of the main parameters.

Andersen, T P; Vullierme, B

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operational costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2} would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operational pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operational air pressure and when the lining is kept moist at a relatively high liquid saturation. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability off less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2}, heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be minimized by keeping the air-injection temperature of compressed air closer to the ambient temperature of the underground storage cavern. In such a case, almost all the heat loss during compression is gained back during subsequent decompression. Finally, our numerical simulation study showed that CAES in shallow rock caverns is feasible from a leakage and energy efficiency viewpoint. Our numerical approach and energy analysis will next be applied in designing and evaluating the performance of a planned full-scale pilot test of the proposed underground CAES concept.

Kim, H.-M.; Rutqvist, J.; Ryu, D.-W.; Choi, B.-H.; Sunwoo, C.; Song, W.-K.

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

The role of clouds and oceans in global greenhouse warming  

SciTech Connect

During the past three years we have conducted several studies using models and a combination of satellite data, in situ meteorological and oceanic data, and paleoclimate reconstructions, under the DoE program, Quantifying the Link Between Change in Radiative Balance and Atmospheric Temperature''. Our goals were to investigate effects of global cloudiness variations on global climate and their implications for cloud feedback and continue development and application of NYU transient climate/ocean models, with emphasis on coupled effects of greenhouse warming and feedbacks by both the clouds and oceans. Our original research plan emphasized the use of cloud, surface temperature and ocean data sets interpreted by focused climate/ocean models to develop a cloud radiative forcing scenario for the past 100 years and to assess the transient climate response; to narrow key uncertainties in the system; and to identify those aspects of the climate system most likely to be affected by greenhouse warming over short, medium and long time scales.

Hoffert, M.I.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

The role of nuclear energy in mitigating greenhouse warming  

SciTech Connect

A behavioral, top-down, forced-equilibrium market model of long-term ({approximately} 2,100) global energy-economics interactions has been modified with a bottom-up nuclear energy model and used to construct consistent scenarios describing future impacts of civil nuclear materials flows in an expanding, multi-regional (13) world economy. The relative measures and tradeoffs between economic (GNP, tax impacts, productivity, etc.), environmental (greenhouse gas accumulations, waste accumulation, proliferation risk), and energy (resources, energy mixes, supply-side versus demand-side attributes) interactions that emerge from these analyses are focused herein on advancing understanding of the role that nuclear energy (and other non-carbon energy sources) might play in mitigating greenhouse warming. Two ostensibly opposing scenario drivers are investigated: (a) demand-side improvements in (non-price-induced) autonomous energy efficiency improvements; and (b) supply-side carbon-tax inducements to shift energy mixes towards reduced- or non-carbon forms. In terms of stemming greenhouse warming for minimal cost of greenhouse-gas abatement, and with the limitations of the simplified taxing schedule used, a symbiotic combination of these two approaches may offer advantages not found if each is applied separately.

Krakowski, R.A.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

374

Ashton Warm Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Ashton Warm Springs Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermal Resource Area: Ashton Warm Springs Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and Environmental Issues 4 Exploration History 5 Well Field Description 6 Geology of the Area 7 Geofluid Geochemistry 8 NEPA-Related Analyses (0) 9 Exploration Activities (0) 10 References Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"TERRAIN","zoom":6,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"500px","height":"300px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":44.095,"lon":-111.4583,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

375

Warm molecular hydrogen in the Spitzer SINGS galaxy sample  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(simplified) Results on the properties of warm H2 in 57 normal galaxies are derived from H2 rotational transitions, obtained as part of SINGS. This study extends previous extragalactic surveys of H2, the most abundant constituent of the molecular ISM, to more common systems (L_FIR = e7 to 6e10 L_sun) of all morphological and nuclear types. The S(1) transition is securely detected in the nuclear regions of 86% of SINGS galaxies with stellar masses above 10^9.5 M_sun. The derived column densities of warm H2 (T > ~100 K), even though averaged over kiloparsec-scale areas, are commensurate with those of resolved PDRs; the median of the sample is 3e20 cm-2. They amount to between 1% and >30% of the total H2. The power emitted in the sum of the S(0) to S(2) transitions is on average 30% of the [SiII] line power, and ~4e-4 of the total infrared power (TIR) within the same area for star-forming galaxies, which is consistent with excitation in PDRs. The fact that H2 emission scales tightly with PAH emission, even thoug...

Roussel, H; Hollenbach, D J; Draine, B T; Smith, J D; Armus, L; Schinnerer, E; Walter, F; Engelbracht, C W; Thornley, M D; Kennicutt, R C; Calzetti, D; Dale, D A; Murphy, E J; Bot, C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Why the Earth has not warmed as much as expected?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The observed increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST) over the industrial era is less than 40% of that expected from observed increases in long-lived greenhouse gases together with the best-estimate equilibrium climate sensitivity given by the 2007 Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Possible reasons for this warming discrepancy are systematically examined here. The warming discrepancy is found to be due mainly to some combination of two factors: the IPCC best estimate of climate sensitivity being too high and/or the greenhouse gas forcing being partially offset by forcing by increased concentrations of atmospheric aerosols; the increase in global heat content due to thermal disequilibrium accounts for less than 25% of the discrepancy, and cooling by natural temperature variation can account for only about 15%. Current uncertainty in climate sensitivity is shown to preclude determining the amount of future fossil fuel CO2 emissions that would be compatible with any chosen maximum allowable increase in GMST; even the sign of such allowable future emissions is unconstrained. Resolving this situation, by empirical determination of the earth's climate sensitivity from the historical record over the industrial period or through use of climate models whose accuracy is evaluted by their performance over this period, is shown to require substantial reduction in the uncertainty of aerosol forcing over this period.

Schwartz, S.E.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Dehumidification of air by aqueous triethylene glycol solution in a spray tower  

SciTech Connect

A spray tower in the absorber-stripper system has been designed to study the absorption of water vapor from moist air by contact with aqueous solutions that contained from 87.7 to 95.2% triethylene glycol (TEG). The design of a U-shape air tunnel with eliminators in the absorber and stripper is to prevent the carryover of the solution and to increase the absorption rate and the regeneration rate. This spray tower was capable of handling air flow rates from 1.94 to 3.77 kg/min and liquid flow rates from 2.17 to 3.,31 kg/min. Under the operating conditions of this study, the overall mass transfer coefficients calculated from the experimental data of 95.2% TEG solution varied from /1.78 to 1.95 mol/m{sup 3}s. These corresponded to the heights of a transfer unit of 0.63 to 0.38 m, respectively. The efficiencies of the spray tower typically varied from 64 to 86%.

Chung, T.W.; Wu, H. [Chung-Yuan Christian Univ., Chungli (Taiwan, Province of China). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

A warm-start approach for large-scale stochastic linear programs?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aug 29, 2006 ... The reduced tree selection induces a function r : T ?TR that maps each ...... We applied our warm-start strategy to the capacity assignment ...

379

Indoor Air Quality Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... CONTAM has been used at NIST to study the indoor air quality impacts of HVAC systems in single-family residential buildings, ventilation in large ...

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

380

Air Resources Board  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Air Resources Board (the Board or ARB) will conduct a public hearing at the time and place noted below to consider amendments to the Verifkztion

unknown authors

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Air Resources Board  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Air Resources Board (the Board or ARB) will conduct a public hearing at the time and place noted below to consider amendments to the Verification

unknown authors

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Environmental Quality: Air (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Environmental Quality regulates air quality in Louisiana. The Department has an established a fee system for funding the monitoring, investigation and other activities required...

383

Air Pollution Project: Scenario  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Project Summary HELP Index Summary Scenario Internet Links Student Pages SubjectContent Area: ScienceChemistry, Environment - Air Pollution Target Audience: High school chemistry...

384

Forced air fireplace furnace  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design of heating system for buildings including a fireplace with an open front hearth for burning firewood, a chimney extending from the upper portion of the hearth, a metal firebox being open in the front and closed on the sides and back, a plenum chamber within and surrounding the sides and back of the metal firebox and the chimney lower portion, a horizontal heat distribution chamber positioned in the building attic and communicating at one end with the plenum chamber is described. An air distribution duct connects to the other end of the air distributing chamber, the duct extending to discharge heated air to a place in the building remote from the fireplace. A fan is placed in the horizontal air distributing chamber, and a return air duct extends from selected place in the building and communicates with the plenum chamber lower portion so that the fan draws air through the return air duct, through the plenum chamber around the firebox where the air is heated, through the horizontal distribution chamber, and out through the distribution duct for circulation of the heated air within the building.

Bruce, R.W.; Gorman, R.E.

1980-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

385

Movements in air conditioning.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Movements in Air Conditioning is a collection of poems that explores the obstacles inherent in creating a new sense of home in a country that… (more)

Hitt, Robert D. (Robert David)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Adsorption air conditioner  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solar powered air conditioner using the adsorption process is constructed with its components in a nested cylindrical array for compactness and ease of operation.

Rousseau, Jean L. I. (Redondo Beach, CA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Room Air Conditioners  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners year month keywords appliance energy efficiency energy efficiency incentives Market Transformation standards url https isswprod lbl gov...

388

Air Pollution Controls  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Various statutes within the Wisconsin Legislative Documents relate to air pollution control. These statutes describe zoning, permitting, and emissions regulations for hazardous and non-hazardous...

389

Barrier Layers of the Atlantic Warm Pool: Formation Mechanism and Influence on Weather and Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this research is to study the formation mechanism of Barrier Layers (BL) in the western tropical Atlantic and their influence on the tropical Atlantic climate at both short and long timescales. Many Coupled General Circulation Models (CGCMs) tend to overestimate the salinity in the Atlantic warm pool or the Northwestern Tropical Atlantic (NWTA) and underestimate the surface salinity in the subtropical salinity maxima region. Most of these models also suffer from a seasurface temperature (SST) bias in the NWTA region, leading to suggestions that the upper ocean salinity stratification may need to be improved in order to improve the BL simulations and thus the SST through BL-SST-Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) feedbacks. We used a CGCM to perform a set of idealized numerical experiments to understand the sensitivity of the BL and consequently SST in the NWTA region to freshwater flux and hence the upper ocean salinity strati cation. We find that the BL of the western tropical Atlantic is quite sensitive to upper ocean salinity changes in the Amazon River discharge region and the subtropical salinity maxima region. The BL phenomenon is further manifested by the formation of winter temperature inversions in our model simulations. However, in the region of improved BL simulation, the SST response is not statistically significant. SST response to Tropical Cyclones (TCs) is studied for the Atlantic region using a high-resolution coupled regional climate model (CRCM) and observational data sets. The presence of a BL, defined as the layer below the mixed layer that separates the base of the isothermal layer from the base of the isohaline layer, is found to modulate the SST response. The amplitude of TC-induced surface cooling is reduced by more than 35 percent in the presence of a BL, as a consequence of the weak thermal stratification. Furthermore, in locations when the BL exhibits a temperature inversion, TC-induced mixing can result in weak surface warming. BLs considerably reduce the rightward bias for tropical storms, but the effect is less conspicuous for TCs. The enthalpy flux into the atmosphere at the air-sea interface is enhanced by 16 percent and the increase in upper ocean potential energy due to TC-induced mixing is reduced by 25 percent in the presence of BLs. The results from the coupled model are supported by an observational analysis performed using re-analysis data sets, as well as data from Argo floats and TRMM satellite. As previous modeling and observational studies have indicated that the surface cooling caused by TC-induced mixing acts as a negative feedback for its intensity, results from our study suggest that BLs may have potential implications for TC intensity prediction.

Balaguru, Karthik

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Regional emissions of air pollutants in China.  

SciTech Connect

As part of the China-MAP program, sponsored by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, regional inventories of air pollutants emitted in China are being characterized, in order that the atmospheric chemistry over China can be more fully understood and the resulting ambient concentrations in Chinese cities and the deposition levels to Chinese ecosystems be determined with better confidence. In addition, the contributions of greenhouse gases from China and of acidic aerosols that counteract global warming are being quantified. This paper presents preliminary estimates of the emissions of some of the major air pollutants in China: sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and black carbon (C). Emissions are estimated for each of the 27 regions of China included in the RAINS-Asia simulation model and are subsequently distributed to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} grid using appropriate disaggregation factors. Emissions from all sectors of the Chinese economy are considered, including the combustion of biofuels in rural homes. Emissions from larger power plants are calculated individually and allocated to the grid accordingly. Data for the period 1990-1995 are being developed, as well as projections for the future under alternative assumptions about economic growth and environmental control.

Streets, D. G.

1998-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

391

Cool Colored Roofs to Save Energy and Improve Air Quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William; Berdahl, Paul

2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

392

Corrosion product identification and relative rates of corrosion of candidate metals in an irradiated air-steam environment  

SciTech Connect

Previously reported work by others indicates that dicopper trihydroxide nitrate, Cu{sub 2}NO{sub 3}(OH){sub 3}, forms on copper and copper alloys subjected to irradiated moist air near room temperature. We have performed experiments over a range of temperature and humidity, and have found that this species is formed at temperatures up to at least 150{degree}C if low to intermediate relative humidities are present. At 150{degree}C and 100% relative humidity, only Cu{sub 2}O and CuO were observed. The relative general corrosion rates of the copper materials tested in 1-month experiments at dose rates of 0.7 and 2.0 kGy/h were Cu > 70/30 Cu--Ni > Al-bronze. High-nickel alloy 825 showed no observable corrosion. 29 refs., 4 tabs.

Reed, D.T.; Swayambunathan, V.; Tani, B.S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Van Konynenburg, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1989-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

393

Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses  

SciTech Connect

In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths`s ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths's ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

The Effect of the Sea Ice Freshwater Flux on Southern Ocean Temperatures in CCSM3: Deep-Ocean Warming and Delayed Surface Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study explores the role of sea ice freshwater and salt fluxes in modulating twenty-first-century surface warming in the Southern Ocean via analysis of sensitivity experiments in the Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3). In ...

Clark H. Kirkman IV; Cecilia M. Bitz

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Recirculating electric air filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Portable oven air circulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

Jorgensen, Jorgen A. (Bloomington, MN); Nygren, Donald W. (Minneapolis, MN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Microsoft Word - Warm Rinse Guidance 6 29 2010_FINAL _2_  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The following is a draft U.S. Department of Energy interpretive rule, which sets out the The following is a draft U.S. Department of Energy interpretive rule, which sets out the Department's views on the application of the clothes washer testing procedure described in 10 CFR § 430 Appendix J1. This draft interpretive rule represents the Department's interpretation of its existing regulations and is exempt from the notice and comment requirements of the Administrative Procedure Act. See 5 U.S.C. § 553(b)(A). Nevertheless, we are interested in receiving feedback from the public on the interpretation set forth below. Therefore, the Department is accepting comments from the public until July 30, 2010. Comments should be provided in WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, PDF, or text file format by sending an email to: WarmRinse.FAQ@hq.doe.gov. At the end of the

399

New electric technologies to reduce global warming impacts  

SciTech Connect

Advanced electric technologies hold significant potential to reduce global warming impact through reduction of primary fuel needed to power end-use applications. These reductions can occur in two forms: (1) reduced kilowatt-hour usage and power plant emissions through efficiency improvements and technological enhancements of existing electrically-driven applications; (2) the development of new electric technologies to replace traditional fossil-fuel driven applications which can result in less overall primary energy consumption and lower overall emissions. Numerous new electric technologies are presently being developed by the Electric Power Research Institute. The technologies reviewed in this paper include: Microwave Fabric Dryer, Advanced Heat Pumps, Heat Pump Water Heater, Infrared Sand Reclaimer, Freeze Concentration, Membrane Water Recovery, Microwave Petrochemical Production, Infrared Drying, and Electric Vehicles. Full commercialization of these technologies can result in significant energy savings and CO[sub 2] reductions, in addition to improving the competitiveness of businesses using these technologies.

Courtright, H.A. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Storage and retrieval of thermal light in warm atomic vapor  

SciTech Connect

We report slowed propagation and storage and retrieval of thermal light in warm rubidium vapor using the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We first demonstrate slowed propagation of the probe thermal light beam through an EIT medium by measuring the second-order correlation function of the light field using the Hanbury-Brown-Twiss interferometer. We also report an experimental study on the effect of the EIT slow-light medium on the temporal coherence of thermal light. Finally, we demonstrate the storage and retrieval of the thermal light beam in the EIT medium. The direct measurement of the photon number statistics of the retrieved light field shows that the photon number statistics are preserved during the storage and retrieval processes.

Cho, Young-Wook; Kim, Yoon-Ho [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Dynamical instabilities of warm npe matter: {delta} meson effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of {delta} mesons on the dynamical instabilities of cold and warm nuclear and stellar matter at subsaturation densities are studied in the framework of relativistic mean-field hadron models (NL3, NL{rho}, and NL{rho}{delta}) with the inclusion of the electromagnetic field. The distillation effect and the spinodals for all the models considered are discussed. The crust-core transition density and pressure are obtained as a function of temperature for {beta}-equilibrium matter with and without neutrino trapping. An estimation of the size of the clusters formed in the nonhomogeneous phase and the corresponding growth rates are made. It is shown that cluster sizes increase with temperature. The effects of the {delta} meson on the instability region are larger for low temperatures, very asymmetric matter, and densities close to the spinodal surface. It increases the distillation effect above {approx}0.4{rho}{sub 0} and has the opposite effect below that density.

Pais, Helena; Santos, Alexandre; Providencia, Constanca [Centro de Fisica Computacional, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Meeting the Air Leakage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Meeting the Air Leakage Meeting the Air Leakage Requirements of the 2012 IECC The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes the enormous potential that exists for improving the energy efficiency, safety and comfort of homes. The newest edition of the International Energy Conservation Code ® (IECC) (2012) sets the bar higher for energy efficiency, and new air sealing requirements are one of the key new provisions. This guide is a resource for understanding the new air leakage requirements in the 2012 IECC and suggestions on how these new measures can be met. It also provides information from Building America's Air Sealing Guide, Best Practices and case studies on homes that are currently meeting the provisions. The 2012 IECC and a few International Residential Code (IRC) requirements are referenced throughout the guide.

403

Warm Water Oxidation Verification - Scoping and Stirred Reactor Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scoping tests to evaluate the effects of agitation and pH adjustment on simulant sludge agglomeration and uranium metal oxidation at {approx}95 C were performed under Test Instructions(a,b) and as per sections 5.1 and 5.2 of this Test Plan prepared by AREVA. (c) The thermal testing occurred during the week of October 4-9, 2010. The results are reported here. For this testing, two uranium-containing simulant sludge types were evaluated: (1) a full uranium-containing K West (KW) container sludge simulant consisting of nine predominant sludge components; (2) a 50:50 uranium-mole basis mixture of uraninite [U(IV)] and metaschoepite [U(VI)]. This scoping study was conducted in support of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Phase 2 technology evaluation for the treatment and packaging of K-Basin sludge. The STP is managed by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) for the U.S. Department of Energy. Warm water ({approx}95 C) oxidation of sludge, followed by immobilization, has been proposed by AREVA and is one of the alternative flowsheets being considered to convert uranium metal to UO{sub 2} and eliminate H{sub 2} generation during final sludge disposition. Preliminary assessments of warm water oxidation have been conducted, and several issues have been identified that can best be evaluated through laboratory testing. The scoping evaluation documented here was specifically focused on the issue of the potential formation of high strength sludge agglomerates at the proposed 95 C process operating temperature. Prior hydrothermal tests conducted at 185 C produced significant physiochemical changes to genuine sludge, including the formation of monolithic concretions/agglomerates that exhibited shear strengths in excess of 100 kPa (Delegard et al. 2007).

Braley, Jenifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

404

The greenhouse effect: Chicken Little and our response to global warming  

SciTech Connect

In this article the author suggests that global warming studies are ambiguous and have generated a chicken little response in the public and in policymakers. Uncertainties in studies of ocean warming and ozone depletion are discussed as well as the role of other trace gases such as methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrogen oxides.

Michaels, P.J.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Cheap coal said top enemy in fighting global warming By Alister Doyle, Environment Correspondent  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cheap coal said top enemy in fighting global warming By Alister Doyle, Environment Correspondent OSLO, Sept 28 (Reuters) - Cheap coal will be the main enemy in a fight against global warming in the 21st century because high oil prices are likely to encourage a shift to coal before wind or solar power

Calov, Reinhard

406

A mechanism for landocean contrasts in global monsoon trends in a warming climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A mechanism for land­ocean contrasts in global monsoon trends in a warming climate J. Fasullo of the global monsoon record involves reported decreases in rainfall over land during an era in which the global in the monsoons in a warming climate while bolstering the concept of the global monsoon in the context of shared

Fasullo, John

407

Time-Dependent Internal Energy Budgets of the Tropical Warm Water Pools  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The exchange of internal energy between the warm water pools of the tropical oceans and the overlying atmosphere is thought to play a central role in the evolving climate system of the earth. Spatial displacements of the warm water pools are ...

John M. Toole; Huai-Min Zhang; Michael J. Caruso

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

A Comparative Analysis of Global Warming Policies for California's Electricity Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

i A Comparative Analysis of Global Warming Policies for California's Electricity Sector Sara Kamins #12;ii A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL WARMING POLICIES FOR CALIFORNIA'S ELECTRICITY SECTOR By: Sara...................................................................................................................11 1.4. Literature Review on Comparisons of Carbon-Reducing Electricity Policies

Kammen, Daniel M.

409

Variability of warm deep water inflow in a submarine trough on the Amundsen Sea Shelf  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ice shelves in the Amundsen Sea are thinning rapidly, and the main reason for their decline appears to be warm ocean currents circulating below the ice shelves and melting these from below. Ocean currents transport warm dense water onto the ...

A. K. Wåhlin; O. Kalén; L. Arneborg; G. Björk; G. K. Carvajal; H. K. Ha; T. W. Kim; S. H. Lee; J. H. Lee; C. Stranne

410

Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system--Rankine air conditioner redesign  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report contains a summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single-family heating and cooling system. The objectives discussed are the interim design and schedule status of the Residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

How Do You Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme Weather? |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

How Do You Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme How Do You Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme Weather? How Do You Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme Weather? February 3, 2011 - 6:30am Addthis Many states are getting extreme weather this week, with deep freezes, huge blizzards, and ice storms causing various problems across the country. Such weather can cause us to use energy a bit differently to stay warm and keep things running. Depending on where you are, you may be keeping the faucet dripping (so pipes don't freeze), your furnace might be working overtime in the cold, or you may be spending extra time warming up your car. In extreme conditions, it's important to be safe and take your own home and needs into account when taking these extra measures, while still considering your energy use and costs. For example, are your pipes in a

412

How Do You Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme Weather? |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme Weather? How Do You Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme Weather? February 3, 2011 - 6:30am Addthis Many states are getting extreme weather this week, with deep freezes, huge blizzards, and ice storms causing various problems across the country. Such weather can cause us to use energy a bit differently to stay warm and keep things running. Depending on where you are, you may be keeping the faucet dripping (so pipes don't freeze), your furnace might be working overtime in the cold, or you may be spending extra time warming up your car. In extreme conditions, it's important to be safe and take your own home and needs into account when taking these extra measures, while still considering your energy use and costs. For example, are your pipes in a

413

Abatement of Air Pollution: Prohibition of Air Pollution (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

All air pollution not otherwise covered by these regulations is prohibited. Stationary sources which cause air pollution must be operated in accordance with all applicable emissions standards and...

414

Abatement of Air Pollution: Prohibition of Air Pollution (Connecticut...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DEEP Air Management Department Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Division Environmental Protection Division; Bureau of Air Management Address 79 Elm Street Place...

415

Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Feature - Lithium-air Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Develop Lithium-Air Battery Li-air Li-air batteries hold the promise of increasing the energy density of Li-ion batteries by as much as five to 10 times. But that potential will...

417

Air Shower Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Air shower simulations are a vital part of the design of air shower experiments and the analysis of their data. We describe the basic features of air showers and explain why numerical simulations are the appropriate approach to model the shower simulation. The CORSIKA program, the standard simulation program in this field, is introduced and its features, performance and limitations are discussed. The basic principles of hadronic interaction models and some gerneral simulation techniques are explained. Also a brief introduction to the installation and use of CORSIKA is given.

Alania, Marco; Gomez, Adolfo V. Chamorro [Centro de Tecnologias de Informacion y Comunicaciones, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Lima (Peru); Araya, Ignacio J. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Huerta, Humberto Martinez; Flores, Alejandra Parra [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Knapp, Johannes [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

418

Air heating system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

A Demonstration That Large-Scale Warming Is Not Urban  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On the premise that urban heat islands are strongest in calm conditions but are largely absent in windy weather, daily minimum and maximum air temperatures for the period 1950–2000 at a worldwide selection of land stations are analyzed separately ...

David E. Parker

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

The Development of Warm Gas Cleanup Technologies for the Removal of Sulfur Containing Species from Steam Hydrogasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gupta, B. Turk, M. Lesemann. RTI/Eastman warm syngas clean-feasibility analysis of RTI warm gas cleanup(WGCU)reactor was constructed by RTI from DOE-Morgantown gasifier,

Luo, Qian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

How Does the Eye Warm? Part I: A Potential Temperature Budget Analysis of an Idealized Tropical Cyclone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this first part of a two-part study, the mechanisms that accomplish the warming in the eye of tropical cyclones are investigated through a potential temperature budget analysis of an idealized simulation. The spatial structure of warming varies ...

Daniel P. Stern; Fuqing Zhang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Roles of Anomalous Tibetan Plateau Warming on the Severe 2008 Winter Storm in Central-Southern China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anomalous warming occurred over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) before and during the disastrous freezing rain and heavy snow hitting central and southern China in January 2008. The relationship between the TP warming and this extreme event is ...

Qing Bao; Jing Yang; Yimin Liu; Guoxiong Wu; Bin Wang

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Land–Ocean Warming Contrast over a Wide Range of Climates: Convective Quasi-Equilibrium Theory and Idealized Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface temperatures increase at a greater rate over land than ocean in simulations and observations of global warming. It has previously been proposed that this land–ocean warming contrast is related to different changes in lapse rates over land ...

Michael P. Byrne; Paul A. O’Gorman

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Air Handling Unit Supply Air Temperature Optimization During Economizer Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most air handling units (AHUs) in commercial buildings have an air economizer cycle for free cooling under certain outside air conditions. During the economizer cycle, the outside air and return air dampers are modulated to seek mixing air temperature at supply air temperature setpoint. Mechanical cooling is always required when outside air temperature is higher than the supply air temperature setpoint. Generally the supply air temperature setpoint is set at 55°F for space humidity control. Actually the dehumidification is not necessary when outside air dew point is less than 55°F. Meanwhile the space may have less cooling load due to envelope heat loss and/or occupant schedule. These provide an opportunity to use higher supply air temperature to reduce or eliminate mechanical cooling and terminal box reheat. On the other hand the higher supply air temperature will require higher air flow as well as higher fan power. Therefore the supply air temperature has to be optimized to minimize the combined energy for fan, cooling and heating energy. In this paper a simple energy consumption model is established for AHU systems during the economizer and then a optimal supply air temperature control is developed to minimize the total cost of the mechanical cooling and the fan motor power. This paper presents AHU system energy modeling, supply air temperature optimization, and simulated energy savings.

Xu, K.; Liu, M.; Wang, G.; Wang, Z.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Air Quality | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Air Quality Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAirQuality&oldid612070" Category: NEPA Resources...

426

Air Carrier Flight Operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most air carriers operate under a system of prioritized goals including safety, customer service (on-time departures and arrivals) and operating economics. The flight operations department is responsible for the safe and ...

Midkif, Alan H.

427

AIR RESOURCES BOARD Acknowledgements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report was prepared with the assistance and support from other agencies, divisions and offices of the Air Resources Board, and private firms. Staff would especially like to thank the following individuals for their assistance in developing this proposed pathway:

Green Wastes; Green Wastes; Richard Corey; Deputy Executive Officer; Cynthia Marvin Chief; Michael Waugh Chief; Kamal Ahuja; Brian Helmowski; Wes Ingram; Ray Asregadoo (arb; Juliet Bohn (hwma; Richard Boyd (arb; Alicia Chakrabarthy (ebmud; Steven Cliff (arb; Kevin Dickison (ebmud; Jacques Franco (calrecycle

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Breathing zone air sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

air_water.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Office of Legacy Management Weldon Spring Site Air and Water Monitoring 32008 This fact sheet provides information at Weldon Spring, Missouri. This site is managed by the U.S....

430

FREE AIR PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Indenter gages, Wiancko gages, and interferometer gages were used to measure air overpressure vs time at essentially ground level stations for both the surface (S) and undprground (U) atomic explosions. For the S Burst several instruments were placed on a line extending from an overpressure region of 13 psi to a region of less than one psi. The air measurements for the U Burst ranged from 32 to 2 psi. (D. L.G.)

Howard, W.J.; Jones, R.D.

1952-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

431

Heat and Mass Budgets of the Warm Upper Layer of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean in 1979–99  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mass and heat budgets of the warm upper-ocean layer are investigated in the equatorial Atlantic using in situ observations during the period 1979–99, which encompassed a series of warm events in the equatorial Atlantic. The warm water layer ...

F. Vauclair; Y. du Penhoat; G. Reverdin

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Air Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Air Cooling: Air cooling is commonly defined as rejecting heat from an object by flowing air over the surface of the object, through means of convection. Air cooling requires that the air must be cooler than the object or surface from which it is expected to remove heat. This is due to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that heat will only move spontaneously from a hot reservoir (the heat sink) to a cold reservoir (the air). Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Air Cooling Air Cooling Diagram of Air Cooled Condenser designed by GEA Heat Exchangers Ltd. (http://www.gea-btt.com.cn/opencms/opencms/bttc/en/Products/Air_Cooled_Condenser.html) Air cooling is limited on ambient temperatures and typically require a

433

InAir: sharing indoor air quality measurements and visualizations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes inAir, a tool for sharing measurements and visualizations of indoor air quality within one's social network. Poor indoor air quality is difficult for humans to detect through sight and smell alone and can contribute to the development ... Keywords: air quality, domestic technology, environment, health, iphone, persuasive technology, sensors, sustainability

Sunyoung Kim; Eric Paulos

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Greenhouse warming potential of candidate gaseous diffusion plant coolants  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary estimate has been made of the greenhouse warming potential (GWP) of coolants under consideration as substitutes for CFC-114 in the gaseous diffusion plants. Coolants are not at present regulated on the basis of GWP, but may well be in the future. Use of c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8} or n-C{sub 4}F{sub 10} is estimated to have three to four times the greenhouse impact of an equivalent use of CFC-114. Neither of the substitutes, of course, would cause any ozone depletion. HCFC-124 (a probable commercial substitute for CFC-114, but not presently under serious consideration due to its relatively high UF{sub 6} reactivity) would have much less greenhouse and ozone depletion impact than CFC-114. The GWP estimates derive from a simple model that approximately reproduces literature values for similar compounds. The major uncertainty in these estimates lies in the atmospheric lifetime, especially of the perfluorocarbon compounds, for which little reliable information exists. In addition to GWP estimates for coolants, the overall greenhouse impact of the gaseous diffusion plants is calculated, including indirect power-related CO{sub 2} emissions. This result is used to compare greenhouse impacts of nuclear- and coal-produced electricity. 11 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Trowbridge, L.D.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Global warming projections: Sensitivity to deep ocean mixing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The climatological impact of increases in greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, despite being a subject of intensive study in recent years, is still very uncertain [1, 2]. One major uncertainty affecting possible climate change that has not received enough attention is the uncertainty in heat uptake by the deep ocean. We analyze the influence of this process and its uncertainty on climate predictions by means of numerical simulations with a 2-dimensional (2D) climate model. In the case of high climate sensitivity, as a result of uncertainty in deep ocean heat uptake, there is more than a factor of two uncertainty in the predicted increase of surface temperature. The corresponding uncertainty in the sea level rise due to thermal expansion is much larger than the uncertainty in the predicted temperature change and is significant even in the case of low climate sensitivity. The uncertainty in the rate of heat uptake by the deep ocean has not been included in the projections of climate change made by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [1,2]. However, our results show that this uncertainty plays a very important role in defining the ranges ofÊpossible warming and, especially, of sea level rise. To assess the uncertainty we have used a 2-dimensional (zonally averaged) climate model, the MIT 2D model [3,4,5]. This model allows us to

Andrei P. Sokolov; Peter H. Stone

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Sonoluminescence test for equation of state in warm dense matter  

SciTech Connect

In experiments of Single-bubble Sonoluminescence (SBSL), the bubble is heated to temperatures of a few eV in the collapse phase of the oscillation. Our hydrodynamic simulations show that the density inside the bubble can go up to the order of 1 g/cm3, and the electron density due to ionization is 1021 /cm3. So the plasma coupling constant is found to be around 1 and the gas inside the bubble is in the Warm Dense Matter (WDM) regime. We simulate the light emission of SL with an optical model for thermal radiation which takes the finite opacity of the bubble into consideration. The numerical results obtained are compared to the experimental data and found to be very sensitive to the equation of state used. As theories for the equation of state, as well as the opacity data, in the WDM regime are still very uncertain, we propose that SL may be a good low-cost experimental check for the EOS and the opacity data for matter in the WDM regime.

Ng, Siu-Fai; Barnard, J.J.; Leung, P.T.; Yu, S.S.

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

FORMATION OF ORGANIC MOLECULES AND WATER IN WARM DISK ATMOSPHERES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations from Spitzer and ground-based infrared spectroscopy reveal significant diversity in the molecular emission from the inner few AU of T Tauri disks. We explore theoretically the possible origin of this diversity by expanding on our earlier thermal-chemical model of disk atmospheres. We consider how variations in grain settling, X-ray irradiation, accretion-related mechanical heating, and the oxygen-to-carbon ratio can affect the thermal and chemical properties of the atmosphere at 0.25-40 AU. We find that these model parameters can account for many properties of the detected molecular emission. The column density of the warm (200-2000 K) molecular atmosphere is sensitive to grain settling and the efficiency of accretion-related heating, which may account, at least in part, for the large range in molecular emission fluxes that have been observed. The dependence of the atmospheric properties on the model parameters may also help to explain trends that have been reported in the literature between molecular emission strength and mid-infrared color, stellar accretion rate, and disk mass. We discuss whether some of the differences between our model results and the observations (e.g., for water) indicate a role for vertical transport and freezeout in the disk midplane. We also discuss how planetesimal formation in the outer disk (beyond the snowline) may imprint a chemical signature on the inner few AU of the disk and speculate on possible observational tracers of this process.

Najita, Joan R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Adamkovics, Mate; Glassgold, Alfred E. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

438

Global warming---The role for nuclear power  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power is currently making an important contribution to our energy requirements. It provides 17% of the world's electricity today --- almost 20% in the US. Reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide over the next 30 to 50 years sufficiently to address the issue of global warming can only be accomplished by a combination of much improved energy efficiency, substantial growth in use of nuclear power, and substantial growth in use of renewable energy. This paper discusses new initiatives in the major nuclear technologies (LWR, HTGR, LMR) which are emerging from a fundamental reexamination of nuclear power in response to the challenges and opportunities in the 21st century. To fulfill its role, nuclear power must gain worldwide acceptance as a viable energy option. The use of modern technology and passive'' safety features in next-generation nuclear power plants offers the potential to simplify their design and operation, enhance their safety, and reduce the cost of electricity. With such improvements, we believe nuclear power can regain public confidence and make a significant contribution to our energy future. 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Jones, J.E. Jr.; Fulkerson, W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Transitional solar dynamics, cosmic rays and global warming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar activity is studied using a cluster analysis of the time-fluctuations of the sunspot number. It is shown that in an Historic period the high activity components of the solar cycles exhibit strong clustering, whereas in a Modern period (last seven solar cycles: 1933-2007) they exhibit a white-noise (non-)clustering behavior. Using this observation it is shown that in the Historic period, emergence of the sunspots in the solar photosphere was strongly dominated by turbulent photospheric convection. In the Modern period, this domination was broken by a new more active dynamics of the inner layers of the convection zone. Then, it is shown that the dramatic change of the sun dynamics at the transitional period (between the Historic and Modern periods, solar cycle 1933-1944yy) had a clear detectable impact on Earth climate. A scenario of a chain of transitions in the solar convective zone is suggested in order to explain the observations, and a forecast for the global warming is suggested on the basis of this scenario. A relation between the recent transitions and solar long-period chaotic dynamics has been found. Contribution of the galactic turbulence (due to galactic cosmic rays) has been discussed. These results are also considered in a content of chaotic climate dynamics at millennial timescales.

A. Bershadskii

2008-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

440

Effects of warming on the structure and function of a boreal black spruce forest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A strong argument can be made that there is a greater need to study the effect of warming on boreal forests more than on any other terrestrial biome. Boreal forests, the second largest forest biome, are predicted to experience the greatest warming of any forest biome in the world, but a process-based understanding of how warming will affect the structure and function of this economically and ecologically important forest biome is lacking. The effects of warming on species composition, canopy structure and biogeochemical cycles are likely to be complex; elucidating the underlying mechanisms will require long-term whole-ecosystem manipulation to capture all the complex feedbacks (Shaver et al. 2000, Rustad et al. 2001, Stromgren 2001). The DOE Program for Ecosystem Research funded a three year project (2002-2005) to use replicated heated chambers on soil warming plots in northern Manitoba to examine the direct effects of whole-ecosystem warming. We are nearing completion of our first growing season of measurements (fall 2004). In spite of the unforeseen difficulty of installing the heating cable, our heating and irrigation systems worked extremely well, maintaining environmental conditions within 5-10% of the specified design 99% of the time. Preliminary data from these systems, all designed and built by our laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, support our overall hypothesis that warming will increase the carbon sink strength of upland boreal black spruce forests. I request an additional three years of funding to continue addressing the original objectives: (1) Examine the effect of warming on phenology of overstory, understory and bryophyte strata. Sap flux systems and dendrometer bands, monitored by data loggers, will be used to quantify changes in phenology and water use. (2) Quantify the effects of warming on nitrogen and water use by overstory, understory and bryophytes. (3) Compare effects of warming on autotrophic respiration and above- and belowground net primary production (NPP) budgets. Autotrophic respiration budgets will be constructed using chamber measurements for each tissue and NPP and standard allometry techniques (Gower et al. 1999). (4) Compare microbial and root dynamics, and net soil surface CO2 flux, of control and warmed soils to identify causes that may explain the hypothesized minimal effect of soil warming on soil surface CO2 flux. Fine root production and turnover will be quantified using minirhizotrons, and microbial dynamics will be determined using laboratory mineralization incubations. Soil surface CO2 flux will be measured using automated soil surface CO2 flux systems and portable CO2 analyzers. The proposed study builds on the existing research programs Gower has in northern Manitoba and would not be possible without in-kind services and financial support from Manitoba Hydro and University of Wisconsin.

Stith T.Gower

2010-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system. Quarterly report, January 22, 1987--April 30, 1987  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is the development of a coal water slurry burning residential furnace. A literature survey has been performed. Also, the preliminary testing of prototype components was carried out. Design criteria and specifications are discussed.

Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; McPeak, M.A.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Compressed Air System Maintenance Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The "Compressed Air System Maintenance Guide" provides fossil plant personnel with information on the operation and maintenance of the compressed air system. The contents of this guide will assist personnel in improving performance of the compressed air system, reducing maintenance costs, and increasing air system reliability.

2002-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

443

Solar Buildings: Transpired Air Collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transpired air collectors preheat building ventilation air by using the building's ventilation fan to draw fresh air through the system. The intake air is heated as it passes through the perforated absorber plate and up the plenum between the absorber and the south wall of the building. Reduced heating costs will pay for the systems in 3--12 years.

NONE

1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

444

Comments on [open quotes]Global warming: A reduced threat [close quotes] by P. J. Michaels and D. E. Stooksbury  

SciTech Connect

The author of this letter criticizes Michaels and Stooksbury (1992) for arguing that, because climate models predict more warming for the last century than has been observed, the model predictions of major greenhouse warming must be wrong. It is the position of the author that this is not a valid argument, although the warming may have been relatively mild. In this letter, the author defends the belief that the magnitude of the recent warming actually tells very little about the sensitivity of the climate system to greenhouse gas emissions. Reasons for the warming observed over the last hundred years are summarized. 4 refs.

Duffy, P.B. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Analysis and design of a solar-powered liquid-desiccant air conditioner for use in hot and humid climates  

SciTech Connect

An experimental and theoretical investigation of the feasibility of a solar-powered liquid-desiccant air conditioner, for use in hot and humid climates, was carried out at the Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Florida. The proposed liquid desiccant system used nonadiabatic contactors, packed with finned-tube coils, for both moist air dehumidification and liquid-desiccant regeneration. A theoretical model was developed to analyze the complex phenomena of simultaneous heat and mass transfer in nonadiabatic contactors, as well as the continuous interaction between the dehumidification and regeneration processes. A computer code was written to assist in the analysis of the dehumidification and regeneration processes separately and coupled, for continuous operation. It was used to investigate the interaction between the different controlling parameters and their effects on the overall performance of the desiccant system. A fully solar-powered liquid-desiccant air-conditioner, with three tons of capacity was designed and optimized including economical criteria. The overall coefficient of performance (COP) of the optimized system was determined to be 0.312.

Chebbah, A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Inverter Controlled Screw Air Compressor Manufacturers ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Inverter Controlled Screw Air Compressor, Inverter Controlled Screw Air Compressor Manufacturers & Suppliers Directory - Find here Inverter ...

447

Compressed air energy storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

DOE's Energy Savers Website Helps Consumers "Stay Warm, Save Money" |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Savers Website Helps Consumers "Stay Warm, Save Money" Energy Savers Website Helps Consumers "Stay Warm, Save Money" DOE's Energy Savers Website Helps Consumers "Stay Warm, Save Money" October 1, 2008 - 3:43pm Addthis DOE Helps Americans Be Energy Efficient at Home and Save on Energy Costs WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today, on the first day of Energy Awareness Month, launched the Stay Warm, Save Money website and educational outreach campaign to help consumers be more energy efficient and save on energy costs. The information focuses on proactive ways to implement simple, cost-effective, energy saving solutions for both homes and businesses this winter and will expand to year-round home energy efficient tips. The site also features the Department's work to develop

449

A New Visibility Parameterization for Warm-Fog Applications in Numerical Weather Prediction Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to suggest a new warm-fog visibility parameterization scheme for numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. In situ observations collected during the Radiation and Aerosol Cloud Experiment, representing boundary ...

I. Gultepe; M. D. Müller; Z. Boybeyi

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Ocean Heat Transport as a Cause for Model Uncertainty in Projected Arctic Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Arctic climate is governed by complex interactions and feedback mechanisms between the atmosphere, ocean, and solar radiation. One of its characteristic features, the Arctic sea ice, is very vulnerable to anthropogenically caused warming. ...

Irina Mahlstein; Reto Knutti

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Inferring Climate Change from Underground Temperatures: Apparent Climatic Stability and Apparent Climatic Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data are used to demonstrate two effects apparent in ground surface temperature histories coming from inversions of borehole temperatures: apparent climatic warming and apparent climatic stability. Unrecognized local terrain effects, such as ...

Trevor Lewis; Walter Skinner

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

NOGAPS-ALPHA Simulations of the 2002 Southern Hemisphere Stratospheric Major Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-altitude version of the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) spectral forecast model is used to simulate the unusual September 2002 Southern Hemisphere stratospheric major warming. Designated as NOGAPS-Advanced ...

Douglas R. Allen; Lawrence Coy; Stephen D. Eckermann; John P. McCormack; Gloria L. Manney; Timothy F. Hogan; Young-Joon Kim

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Effect of Aerosol on the Susceptibility and Efficiency of Precipitation in Warm Trade Cumulus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-eddy simulations of warm, trade wind cumulus clouds are conducted for a range of aerosol conditions with a focus on precipitating clouds. Individual clouds are tracked over the course of their lifetimes. Precipitation rate decreases ...

Hongli Jiang; Graham Feingold; Armin Sorooshian

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Probing the Fast and Slow Components of Global Warming by Returning Abruptly to Preindustrial Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fast and slow components of global warming in a comprehensive climate model are isolated by examining the response to an instantaneous return to preindustrial forcing. The response is characterized by an initial fast exponential decay with an ...

Isaac M. Held; Michael Winton; Ken Takahashi; Thomas Delworth; Fanrong Zeng; Geoffrey K. Vallis

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Decadal Fluctuations in Planetary Wave Forcing Modulate Global Warming in Late Boreal Winter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The warming trend in global surface temperatures over the last 40 yr is clear and consistent with anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gases. Over the last 2 decades, this trend appears to have accelerated. In contrast to this general behavior, ...

Judah Cohen; Mathew Barlow; Kazuyuki Saito

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Understanding Land–Sea Warming Contrast in Response to Increasing Greenhouse Gases. Part I: Transient Adjustment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climate model simulations consistently show that surface temperature over land increases more rapidly than over sea in response to greenhouse gas forcing. The enhanced warming over land is not simply a transient effect caused by the land–sea ...

Buwen Dong; Jonathan M. Gregory; Rowan T. Sutton

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Climate Change over the Equatorial Indo-Pacific in Global Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of the equatorial Indian Ocean climate to global warming is investigated using model outputs submitted to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. In all of the analyzed climate models, the SSTs ...

Chie Ihara; Yochanan Kushnir; Mark A. Cane; Victor H. de la Peña

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Results of the Thailand Warm-Cloud Hygroscopic Particle Seeding Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A randomized, warm-rain enhancement experiment was carried out during 1995–98 in the Bhumibol catchment area in northwestern Thailand. The experiment was conducted in accordance with a randomized, floating single–target design. The seeding ...

Bernard A. Silverman; Wathana Sukarnjanaset

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

A Coupled Theory of Tropical Climatology: Warm Pool, Cold Tongue, and Walker Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on results from analytic and general circulation models, the authors propose a theory for the coupled warm pool, cold tongue, and Walker circulation system. The intensity of the coupled system is determined by the coupling strength, the ...

Zhengyu Liu; Boyin Huang

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Pre- and Post-1997/98 Westerly Wind Events and Equatorial Pacific Cold Tongue Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Westerly wind events (WWEs) in the western equatorial Pacific have previously been shown to cause significant warming of sea surface temperature (SST) in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Observational statistics compiled during and prior to the ...

D. E. Harrison; A. M. Chiodi

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Mechanisms for Tropical Tropospheric Circulation Change in Response to Global Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The annual-mean tropospheric circulation change in global warming is studied by comparing the response of an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) to a spatial-uniform sea surface temperature (SST) increase (SUSI) with the response of a ...

Jian Ma; Shang-Ping Xie; Yu Kosaka

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

A Statistical Procedure to Forecast Warm Season Lightning over Portions of the Florida Peninsula  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sixteen years of cloud-to-ground lightning data from the National Lightning Detection Network and morning radiosonde-derived parameters are used to develop a statistical scheme to provide improved forecast guidance for warm season afternoon and ...

Phillip E. Shafer; Henry E. Fuelberg

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

The Dynamic Response of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets to Multiple-Century Climatic Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New calculations were performed to investigate the combined response of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to a range of climatic warming scenarios over the next millennium. Use was made of fully dynamic 3D thermomechanic ice sheet models, ...

Philippe Huybrechts; Jan de Wolde

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Reasons for Larger Warming Projections in the IPCC Third Assessment Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Projections of future warming in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report (TAR) are substantially larger than those in the Second Assessment Report (SAR). The reasons for these differences are documented and ...

T. M. L. Wigley; S. C. B. Raper

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

The Orographic Modulation of Pre-Warm-Front Precipitation in Southern New England  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Topographic forcing over the hills and small mountains of southern New England plays an important role in determining the distribution of pre-warm-front precipitation from winter cyclones. Upslope regions receive 20–60% more precipitation than do ...

Richard E. Passarelli Jr.; Hannah Boehme

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Propagation and Diurnal Evolution of Warm Season Cloudiness in the Australian and Maritime Continent Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Warm season cold cloud-top climatology in the Austral–Indonesian region is examined for evidence of propagating modes of precipitation that originate from elevated heat sources and the diurnal heating cycle. Using satellite-inferred cloudiness ...

T. D. Keenan; R. E. Carbone

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Interactions of Cold- and Warm-Core Rings with Environmental Shear  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-layer analytical model of cold- and warm-core rings has been constructed to explore steady interactions of isolated eddies with horizontally sheared flows around and below the eddies. Steady inviscid solutions to the quasi-geostrophic ...

Doron Nof; Chuan Shi

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Stratospheric Sudden Warmings as Self-Tuning Resonances. Part I: Vortex Splitting Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fundamental dynamics of “vortex splitting” stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs), which are known to be predominantly barotropic in nature, are reexamined using an idealized single-layer f-plane model of the polar vortex. The aim is to ...

N. Joss Matthewman; J. G. Esler

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

The Role of Giant and Ultragiant Aerosol Particles in Warm Rain Initiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Giant and ultragiant aerosol particles can play an important role in warm rain initiation. Recent aerosol measurements have established that particles as large as 100 ?m are a regular part of the atmospheric aerosol. When ingested in growing ...

David B. Johnson

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Changes in Interannual Variability and Decadal Potential Predictability under Global Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global warming will result in changes in mean temperature and precipitation distributions and is also expected to affect interannual and longer time-scale internally generated variability as a consequence of changes in climate processes and ...

G. J. Boer

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Atlantic Warm-Pool Variability in the IPCC AR4 CGCM Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates Atlantic warm pool (AWP) variability in the twentieth century and preindustrial simulations of coupled GCMs submitted to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). In the twentieth-...

Hailong Liu; Chunzai Wang; Sang-Ki Lee; David Enfield

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

“Climategate” Undermined Belief in Global Warming Among Many American TV Meteorologists  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Television (TV) meteorologists are a potentially important source of informal climate change education in that most American adults watch local TV news and consider TV weather reporters to be a trusted source of global warming information. In ...

Edward Maibach; James Witte; Kristopher Wilson

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Mechanisms for the Interannual Variability of SST in the East Pacific Warm Pool  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In comparison with the western and equatorial Pacific Ocean, relatively little is known about the east Pacific warm pool (EPWP). Observations indicate that the interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) in the EPWP is highly ...

Kristopher B. Karnauskas; Antonio J. Busalacchi

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Increased Occurrence of Stratospheric Sudden Warmings during El Niño as Simulated by WACCM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experiments with Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) under perpetual January conditions indicate that stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) are twice as likely to occur in El Niño winters than in La Niña winters, in basic agreement ...

Masakazu Taguchi; Dennis L. Hartmann

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Constraining the Ratio of Global Warming to Cumulative CO2 Emissions Using CMIP5 Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ratio of warming to cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide has been shown to be approximately independent of time and emissions scenarios and directly relates emissions to temperature. It is therefore a potentially important tool for climate ...

Nathan P. Gillett; Vivek K. Arora; Damon Matthews; Myles R. Allen

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Pacific Warm Pool Temperature Regulation during TOGA COARE: Upper Ocean Feedback  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Hasselmann feedback model was applied to hindcast western Pacific warm pool sea surface temperatures (SST) with heat flux observations obtained near 2°S, 156°E from October 1992 to February 1993 during the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere ...

Gary S. E. Lagerloef; Roger Lukas; Robert A. Weller; Steven P. Anderson

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Constraining the ratio of global warming to cumulative CO2 emissions using CMIP5 simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ratio of warming to cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide has been shown to be approximately independent of time and emissions scenario, and directly relates emissions to temperature. It is therefore a potentially important tool for climate ...

Nathan P. Gillett; Vivek K. Arora; Damon Matthews; Myles R. Allen

478

Amazonian Deforestation: Impact of Global Warming on the Energy Balance and Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coupled biosphere–atmosphere statistical–dynamical model is used to study the relative roles of the impact of the land change caused by tropical deforestation and global warming on energy balance and climate. Three experiments were made: 1) ...

E. C. Moraes; Sergio H. Franchito; V. Brahmananda Rao

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Mesoscale Generation of Available Potential Energy in the Warm Sector of an Extratropical Cyclone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Generation of available potential energy (APE) is computed for the warm sector of an extratropical cyclone containing intense convection. Three hourly mesoscale rawinsonde data from the 10–11 April day of AVESESAME 1979 are used to evaluate ...

Henry E. Fuelberg; Mark G. Ruminski; David O'C. Starr

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Multiparameter Radar and Aircraft Study of Raindrop Spectral Evolution in Warm-based Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radar measurements of reflectivity differential reflectivity, and X-band (3-cm wavelength) specific attenuation are used to inter some microphysical characteristics of warm-based convective clouds with emphasis on raindrop spectral evolution. The ...

V. N. Bringi; D. A. Burrows; S. M. Menon

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "warm moist air" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Simulation of the Tropical Pacific Warm Pool with the NCAR Climate System Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The simulation of the tropical western Pacific warm pool is explored with the NCAR Climate System Model (CSM). The simulated sea surface temperatures in the Pacific basin have biases that are similar to other coupled model simulations in this ...

J. T. Kiehl

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Interannual Variability in Warm Water Volume Transports in the Equatorial Pacific during 1993–99  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous studies have indicated that the volume of warm water (WWV) in the equatorial Pacific is intrinsically related to the dynamics of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. A gridded subsurface temperature dataset, which incorporates ...

Christopher S. Meinen; Michael J. McPhaden

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Regional Tropical Precipitation Change Mechanisms in ECHAM4/OPYC3 under Global Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mechanisms of global warming impacts on regional tropical precipitation are examined in a coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model (ECHAM4/OPYC3). The pattern of the regional tropical precipitation changes, once established, tends to ...

Chia Chou; J. David Neelin; Jien-Yi Tu; Cheng-Ta Chen

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Heat Balance in the Pacific Warm Pool Atmosphere during TOGA COARE and CEPEX  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmosphere above the western equatorial Pacific warm pool (WP) is an important source for the dynamic and thermodynamic forcing of the atmospheric general circulation. This study uses a high-resolution reanalysis and several observational ...

Baijun Tian; Guang Jun Zhang; V. Ramanathan

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Multiwavelength WHAM Observations of Extra-planar Warm Ionized Gas in the Galaxy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. We report on observations of several optical emission lines toward a variety of newly revealed faint, large-scale H?-emitting structures in the warm ionized medium (WIM) of the Galaxy. The lines include [N II] ?6583,

G. J. Madsen

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

The Effect of Irrigation on Warm Season Precipitation in the Southern Great Plains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The synoptic and subsynoptic atmospheric processes that accompany statistically determined periods of irrigation-induced rainfall increases during the warm season in the Texas Panhandle are examined. Major results are as follows.

Anthony G. Barnston; Paul T. Schickedanz

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Different Pacific Ocean Warming Decaying Types and Northwest Pacific Tropical Cyclone Activity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study focuses on statistical analysis of anomalous TC activities and the physical mechanisms behind these anomalies. Different patterns of decaying of the warm sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) over the equatorial central-eastern Pacific ...

Yao Ha; Zhong Zhong; Xiuqun Yang; Yuan Sun

488

Improving Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts in the Warm Season: A USWRP Research and Development Strategy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Warm-season quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) are the poorest performance area of forecast systems worldwide. They stubbornly fall further behind while other aspects of weather prediction steadily improve. Unless a major effort is ...

J. Michael Fritsch; R. E. Carbone

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Modulation of the Diurnal Cycle of Warm-Season Precipitation by Short-Wave Troughs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Traveling deep tropospheric disturbances of wavelengths ~1500 km (short waves) have long been known to play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of warm-season convection. To date, relatively few studies have formally documented the ...

John D. Tuttle; Chris A. Davis

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Mechanisms of Thermohaline Mode Switching with Application to Warm Equable Climates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-box model of haline and thermal mode overturning is developed to study thermohaline oscillations found in a number of ocean general circulation models and that might have occurred in warm equable paleoclimates. By including convective ...

Rong Zhang; Michael Follows; John Marshall

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Planetary Wave Breaking and Tropospheric Forcing as Seen in the Stratospheric Sudden Warming of 2006  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The major stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) of January 2006 is examined using meteorological fields from Goddard Earth Observing System version 4 (GEOS-4) analyses and forecast fields from the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction ...

Lawrence Coy; Stephen Eckermann; Karl Hoppel

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Modeling Study of Ice Formation in Warm-Based Precipitating Shallow Cumulus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of large concentrations of ice particles in the dissipating stage of warm-based precipitating shallow cumulus clouds point to the limitations of scientists’ understanding of the physics of such clouds and the possible role of cloud ...

Jiming Sun; Parisa A. Ariya; Henry G. Leighton; Man Kong Yau

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Propagation and Selective Transmission of Internal Gravity Waves in a Sudden Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Longitudinally asymmetric features of gravity wave propagation in a sudden warming are examined theoretically, using observed geostrophic wind fields in the stratosphere for three days of winter 1979. It is shown that the wind patterns ...

Timothy J. Dunkerton; Neal Butchart

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Households to pay more than expected to stay warm this winter  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

stay warm this winter Following a colder-than-expected November, U.S. households are forecast to consume more heating fuels than previously expected....resulting in higher heating...

495

Climatology of Warm Boundary Layer Clouds at the ARM SGP Site and Their Comparison to Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 4-yr climatology (1997–2000) of warm boundary layer cloud properties is developed for the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Parameters in the climatology include cloud ...

Manajit Sengupta; Eugene E. Clothiaux; Thomas P. Ackerman

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Multiscale Temporal Variability of Warm-Season Precipitation over North America: Statistical Analysis of Radar Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Directionally averaged time series of precipitation rates for eight warm seasons (1996–2003) over the continental United States derived from Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) measurements are analyzed using spectral decomposition methods. ...

Hsiao-ming Hsu; Mitchell W. Moncrieff; Wen-wen Tung; Changhai Liu

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Convection and Easterly Wave Structures Observed in the Eastern Pacific Warm Pool during EPIC-2001  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During September–October 2001, the East Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes in the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere System (EPIC-2001) intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) field campaign focused on studies of deep convection in the warm-pool ...

Walter A. Petersen; Robert Cifelli; Dennis J. Boccippio; Steven A. Rutledge; Chris Fairall

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Energy and environmental policy and electric utilities' choice under uncertain global warming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper reviews and discusses uncertainty about global warming science, impact on society. It also discusses what assumptions have been made and how appropriate the assumptions in scenarios have been for estimating global ...

Takahashi, Masaki

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Does Increased Predicted Warm-Season Rainfall Indicate Enhanced Likelihood of Rain Occurrence?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The likelihood of simulated rainfall above a specified threshold being observed is evaluated as a function of the amounts predicted by two mesoscale models. Evaluations are performed for 20 warm-season mesoscale convective system events over the ...

William A. Gallus Jr.; Moti Segal

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

What Drives the Seasonal Onset and Decay of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The annual heat budget of the Western Hemisphere warm pool (WHWP) is explored using the output of an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) simulation. According to the analysis, the WHWP cannot be considered as a monolithic whole with a single ...

S-K. Lee; D. B. Enfield; C. Wang

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z