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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin American Recovery and Reinvestment Act workers recently cleaned up a second basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). About $24 million from the Recovery Act funded the environmental restoration project, allowing SRS to complete the project at least five years ahead of schedule. The work is part of a larger Recovery Act cleanup of the P Area scheduled for completion by the end of September 2011. Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin More Documents & Publications Recovery Act Workers Complete Environmental Cleanup of Coal Ash Basin Recovery Act Workers Add Time Capsule Before Sealing Reactor for Hundreds

2

Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin American Recovery and Reinvestment Act workers recently cleaned up a second basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). About $24 million from the Recovery Act funded the environmental restoration project, allowing SRS to complete the project at least five years ahead of schedule. The work is part of a larger Recovery Act cleanup of the P Area scheduled for completion by the end of September 2011. Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin More Documents & Publications EIS-0220: Final Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0220: Final Environmental Impact Statement

3

Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

21, 2011 21, 2011 Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin AIKEN, S.C. - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act workers re- cently cleaned up a second basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). About $24 million from the Recovery Act funded the environmental restoration project, allowing SRS to complete the project at least five years ahead of schedule. The work is part of a larger Recovery Act cleanup of the P Area scheduled for completion by the end of September 2011. The bulk of that cleanup involves deactivating and decommissioning a nuclear materials production reactor that occu- pies more than 300,000 square feet of space. The P Area cleanup will reduce the Cold War footprint by 31 square

4

Lead contents of coal, coal ash and fly ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flameless atomic absorption spectrometry is applied for the determination of Pb in coal, coal ash and fly ash. Lead concentrations in coal and coal ash ranging from respectively 7 to 110 µg...?1 and 120 to 450 µg...

C. Block; R. Dams

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Coal Ash and Clean Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IT is the normal view that the incombustible part of coal is not only a useless but even objectionable diluent. At times in the past, ... , familiar with the theory of contact catalysis of gas reactions, have speculated that the ash constituents might well play an active role in the processes of carbonisation and combustion. ...

H. J. HODSMAN

1926-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

6

Recovery Act Workers Complete Environmental Cleanup of Coal Ash Basin  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Savannah River Site (SRS) recently cleaned up a 17-acre basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act project was safely completed at a...

7

The Fusibility of Blended Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) of coal ash are found at temperatures below the predicted liquidus temperature and, for ashes from blended coals, are generally nonlinear with respect to the blend proportion. ... ashing. ...

G. W. Bryant; G. J. Browning; H. Emanuel; S. K. Gupta; R. P. Gupta; J. A. Lucas; T. F. Wall

2000-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

8

Insurance coverage for coal ash liabilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper discusses how liability insurance can be a valuable tool for limiting coal ash liabilities.

Elkind, D.L. [Dickstein Shapiro LLP (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Moon Dust and Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... struck by the similarity between the preliminary descriptions of moon dust and that of the ash residue collected from pulverized ... residue collected from pulverized coal-fired boilers (that is, pulverized fuel ...

A. B. HART; E. RAASK

1969-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

10

Ash Deposition Behavior of Upgraded Brown Coal and Bituminous Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash Deposition Behavior of Upgraded Brown Coal and Bituminous Coal ... Ash with a low melting point causes slagging and fouling problems in pulverized coal combustion boilers. ... The ash composition in coal and operational conditions in boilers such as heat load greatly affect the ash deposition behavior. ...

Katsuya Akiyama; Haeyang Pak; Toshiya Tada; Yasuaki Ueki; Ryo Yoshiie; Ichiro Naruse

2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

11

Simulation of Coal Ash Particle Deposition Experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simulation of Coal Ash Particle Deposition Experiments† ... Ichikawa et al.(7) measured deposition behavior for ash particles from ashing tests for a series of five coals, using a nominally 1 m tall × 60 mm diameter ash-heating tube that was fitted with a cooled, temperature-controlled particle impact probe oriented at a 30° angle to the atmospheric pressure air flow. ...

Weiguo Ai; John M. Kuhlman

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

12

Leaching of boron from coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Leaching of boron from coal ash ... First High-Resolution 11B Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectra of Coal Fly Ash by Satellite-Transition Magic Angle Spinning (STMAS) NMR ... First High-Resolution 11B Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectra of Coal Fly Ash by Satellite-Transition Magic Angle Spinning (STMAS) NMR ...

James A. Cox; Gary L. Lundquist; Andrzej Przyjazny; C. David Schmulbach

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

COAL ASH RESOURCES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC, pronounced ?cars?) is the core coal combustion by-product (CCB) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCBs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. CARRC continued the partnership of industry partners, university researchers, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) addressing needs in the CCB industry through technical research and development projects. Technology transfer also continued through distribution and presentation of the results of research activities to appropriate audiences, with emphasis on reaching government agency representatives and end users of CCBs. CARRC partners have evolved technically and have jointly developed an understanding of the layers of social, regulatory, legal, and competition issues that impact the success of CCB utilization as applies to the CCB industry in general and to individual companies. Many CARRC tasks are designed to provide information on CCB performance including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC activities from 1993?1998 included a variety of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. The tasks summarized in this report are 1) The Demonstration of CCB Use in Small Construction Projects, 2) Application of CCSEM (computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy) for Coal Combustion By-Product Characterization, 3) Development of a Procedure to Determine Heat of Hydration for Coal Combustion By-Products, 4) Investigation of the Behavior of High-Calcium Coal Combustion By-Products, 5) Development of an Environmentally Appropriate Leaching Procedure for Coal Combustion By-Products, 6) Set Time of Fly Ash Concrete, 7) Coal Ash Properties Database (CAPD), 8) Development of a Method for Determination of Radon Hazard in CCBs, 9) Development of Standards and Specifications, 10) Assessment of Fly Ash Variability, and 11) Development of a CCB Utilization Workshop. The primary goal of CARRC is to work with industry to solve CCB-related problems and promote the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economical utilization and disposal of these highly complex materials. CARRC 1993?1998 accomplishments included: C Updating the CAPD to a user-friendly database management system, and distributing it to CARRC members. C ASTM standard preparation for a guide to using CCBs as waste stabilization agents. C Preliminary identification of specific mineral transformations resulting from fly ash hydration. C Limited determination of the effects of fly ash on the set time of concrete. C Statistical evaluation of a select set of fly ashes from several regional coal-fired power plants. C Development and presentation of a workshop on CCB utilization focused on government agency representatives and interested parties with limited CCB utilization experience. C Participation in a variety of local, national, and international technical meetings, symposia, and conferences by presenting and publishing CCB-related papers.

NONE

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Effect of Coal Ash Composition on Ash Fusion Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments have been conducted in which mixtures of selected coal ashes and SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3, and MgO were subjected to the standard test for ash fusibility. ... One property that specifically gives detail information on the suitability of a coal source [Alpern, B., Nahuys, J., Martinez, L. Mineral matter in ashy and non-washable coals-its influence on chem. ...

Wen J. Song; Li H. Tang; Xue D. Zhu; Yong Q. Wu; Zi B. Zhu; Shuntarou Koyama

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

15

Utilization of Coal Ash As Recycling Material Options in View Point of Geoenvironment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Disposed coal ash is result from the residual of coal refinery processes and become environmentalimportant issues. Coal ash consists of bottom ash and fly ash. The number of coal ash production is abundant, and c...

Ahmad Rifa’I; Noriyuki Yasufuku; Kiyoshi Omine…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Leaching of Selected Elements from Coal Ash Dumping  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal ash obtained by coal combustion in the "Nikola Tesla A ... ionic strength of river water, we extracted coal ash with distilled water and 0.002 M–...3. The results show that changes in river water ionic ...

A. Popovic; D. Radmanovic; D. Djordjevic; P. Polic

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Ash limitation of physical coal beneficiation for medium–high ash coal—A geochemistry perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Nowadays the industrial coal beneficiation in China could only reduce the ash yield to about 10%, which could not meet the requirement or standard of environment protection. In this work, the possibility of reducing the ash yield was studied from the aspect of geochemistry. The channel samples were collected from two coal seams in Guizhou and Shanxi province, China and then conducted analysis by combining data from coals worldwide. The result reveals that the same coal seam or the coals deposited in the same peat swamp show a significantly positive correlation between ash yield and Al2O3 + SiO2 content, and the intercept of regression equation on the ash axis is always less than 5% (generally 2–5%). Overall, the coal from China is featured with a higher intercept compared with that in the other countries. The intercept of 2–5% on the ash axis indicates an original inorganic component in coal-forming peat. The research result also presents a theoretical limitation of coal ash by coal cleaning, because 2–5% of inorganic components in medium–high quality ash coal could hardly be separated by traditional physical coal beneficiation.

Wenfeng Wang; Weiduo Hao; Simon Xu; Fuchang Qian; Shuxun Sang; Yong Qin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

INAA multielemental analysis of Nigerian bituminous coal and coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to analyzed Nigerian bituminous coal and ash. Good statistical agreement (p...?0.05) between the literature and reported elemental values of USGS AGV-1 sam...

V. O. Ogugbuaja; W. D. James

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Iron Minerals in Coal, Weathered Coal and Coal Ash – SEM and Mössbauer Results  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of the present investigation was to identify and quantify the iron mineral phases present in South African coal from various coal fields and in coal ash, after industrial and laboratory combustion process...

F. B. Waanders; E. Vinken; A. Mans; A. F. Mulaba-Bafubiandi

20

Grain characteristics and engineering properties of coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?Ash produced by the coal fired thermal plants is often used as ... the grain characteristics and the engineering properties of coal ash. The results of x-ray diffraction, ... characteristic that may be used for ...

A. Trivedi; V. K. Sud

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/0702/citing-global- warming-georgia-judge-blocks-coal-plant/picture1.jpg/5307532-1-eng-US/picture1.jpgColor Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power color from pulp mill effluent using coal ash. Prevent coal ash adsorbent from leaching arsenic

Hutcheon, James M.

22

Application of Coal Fly Ash in Air Quality Management  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Application of Coal Fly Ash in Air Quality Management ... It has been found from the literature that fly ash possesses potential application in the management of air quality. ... Application of Zeolite Synthesized from Fly Ash in Air Quality Management ...

M. Ahmaruzzaman; V.K Gupta

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

23

Moon Dust and Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... SIR,-The similarity of the description of moon dust particles and that of pulverized coal ...coalash ...

D. J. THORNE; J. D. WATT

1969-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

24

Coal-ash spills highlight ongoing risk to ecosystems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal-ash spills highlight ongoing risk to ecosystems ... A holding pond for coal ash collapsed, releasing billions of gallons of coal-ash sludge onto nearby farmland and into the waters of the Emory and Tennessee rivers. ... For decades, researchers, environmental advocates, local communities, and even the U.S. EPA have been concerned about the ongoing risks posed by the unregulated management of coal ash. ...

Rhitu Chatterjee

2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

25

Maintaining and Improving Marketability of Coal Fly Ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Maintaining and Improving Marketability of Coal Fly Ash John N. Ward Ben Franklin Headwaters;2 A Headline You May Have Seen What is the future of coal fly ash utilization in a mercury controls world? What is produced when coal is consumed by power plants Fly ash can be used beneficially in numerous applications

26

Cast-Concrete Products Made with FBC Ash and Wet-Collected Coal-Ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. DOI: 10.1061/ ASCE 0899-1561 2005 17:6 659 CE Database subject headings: Recycling; Ashes; Concrete et al. 1991 . Fluidized bed combustion FBC ash is the ash produced by an FBC boiler in which the coal

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

27

Coal ash behavior in reducing environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is a four-year program designed to investigate the transformations and properties of coal ash in reducing environment systems. This project is currently midway through its third year. The work to date has emphasized four areas of research: (1) the development of quantitative techniques to analyze reduced species, (2) the production of gasification-type samples under closely controlled conditions, (3) the systematic gasification of specific coals to produce information about their partitioning during gasification, and (4) the study of the physical properties of ashes and slags under reducing atmospheres. The project is organized into three tasks which provide a strong foundation for the project. Task 1, Analytical Methods Development, has concentrated on the special needs of analyzing samples produced under a reducing atmosphere as opposed to the more often studied combustion systems. Task 2, Inorganic Partitioning and Ash Deposition, has focused on the production of gasification-type samples under closely controlled conditions for the study of inorganic partitioning that may lead to deposition. Task 3, Ash and Slag Physical Properties, has made large gains in the areas of sintering and strength development of coal ashes under reducing atmospheres for the evaluation of deposition problems. Results are presented for all three tasks.

Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Brekke, D.W.; Folkedahl, B.C.; Tibbetts, J.E.; Nowok, J.W.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Recovery Act Workers Complete Environmental Cleanup of Coal Ash Basin  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Site (SRS) recently cleaned up a 17- Site (SRS) recently cleaned up a 17- acre basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act project was safely completed at a cost of $8.9 million, $2.9 million under budget. The manmade earthen basin received ash from the former R Area Pow- erhouse operations, which ended in 1964. The first of five reactors con- structed at SRS, the R Reactor produced nuclear materials for national defense. Recovery Act funding allowed SRS to accelerate cleanup of the basin and complete the project five years earlier than the target set in a regu- latory schedule. In late 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control determined the closure met all regulatory requirements after inspection

29

Coal Ash from Thermal Power Plants in Finland  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This review summarizes formation mechanisms of coal ash, its chemistry and use pattern in the Finnish industry. Coal is composed of organic and inorganic materials. The properties of coal varies from one region t...

Arun B. Mukherjee; Ryunosuke Kikuchi

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Measurement of the Sintering Kinetics of Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurement of the Sintering Kinetics of Coal Ash ... A new technique has been developed to determine the sintering rate of coal ash based on the measurement of the pressure-drop across a pellet of ash. ... The technique developed in this study shows a good repeatability of the rate of sintering and confirms that viscous flow is the dominant mechanism for sintering of coal ash. ...

A. Y. Al-Otoom; L. K. Elliott; T. F. Wall; B. Moghtaderi

2000-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

31

Ash Transformations in the Real-Scale Pulverized Coal Combustion of South African and Colombian Coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, the formation of ash particles in the combustion of South African Klein Kopie coal and a Colombian coal was studied by measuring the ash particle characteristics upstream of the electrostatic precip...

Terttaliisa Lind; Esko I. Kauppinen…

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers Americans And Their Environment 2010 Thirty-nine New Damage Cases of Contamination from Improperly Disposed Coal Combustion Waste, Editor and Contributing Author #12;IN HARM'S WAY: Lack of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers

Short, Daniel

33

Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a reasonably high alkali content, thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was well within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that the aggressive alkali-iron-trisulfate constituent was present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. This report provides the results of the evaluation of Test Section C, including the samples that remained in the Test Section for the full exposure period as well as those that were removed early. The analysis of Test Section C followed much the same protocol that was employed in the assessment of Test Section A. Again, the focus was on determining and documenting the relative corrosion rates of the candidate materials. The detailed results of the investigation are included in this report as a series of twelve appendices. Each appendix is devoted to the performance of one of the candidate alloys. The table below summarizes metal loss rate for the worst case sample of each of the candidate materials for both Test Sections A and C. The body of this report compares these for all of the samples in the test section. The 'Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program' is being conducted by The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) at Reliant Energy's Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100 F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles Unit No.1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 29 months of operation. The second section was removed in August of 2003. Its evaluation has been completed and is the subject of this report. The final section remains in service and is expected to be removed in the spring of 2005. This paper describes the program; its importance, the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system, materials utilized, and experience to date. This report briefly reviews the results of the evaluation of the first section and then presents the results of the evaluation of the second section.

D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

2003-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

34

Data Summary Report for Hanford Site Coal Ash Characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to present data and findings from sampling and analysis of five distinct areas of coal ash within the Hanford Site River Corridor

Sulloway, H. M.

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

35

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Çatalazi coal-fired power plant in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......from 15 countries(4). The combustion of coal in a CFPP leads to an increase...of utilization of Turkish coal combustion fly ash in concrete production...7440-29-1 Thorium | Coal analysis Coal Ash analysis chemistry Environmental Exposure analysis......

Hüseyin Aytekin; Ridvan Baldik

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Improvement of the Coal Ash Slagging Tendency by Coal Washing and Additive Blending with Mullite Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four typical coals and two pretreatment methods were investigated to prevent slagging by facilitating mullite formation in coal ash at a high temperature. ... Both security and economy in power plant can be improved substantially as long as ash deposition and slagging tendency alleviated. ... Pilot-projects about coal washing and coal blending economic benefit are looking forward to put into practice. ...

Zhenyu Huang; Yan Li; Dan Lu; Zhijun Zhou; Zhihua Wang; Junhu Zhou; Kefa Cen

2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

37

Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash. In Arsenic Contaminationarea to volume ratio of coal ash is 200 times greater than1 mm diameters and spherical coal ash particles with 5 ?m

MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Coal Fly Ash as a Source of Iron in Atmospheric Dust. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal Fly Ash as a Source of Iron in Atmospheric Dust. Coal Fly Ash as a Source of Iron in Atmospheric Dust. Abstract: Anthropogenic coal fly ash aerosols may represent a...

39

Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash. In Arsenic Contaminationwater using  iron?oxide coated coal bottom ash  Johanna L.  using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash JOHANNA L. MATHIEU

MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Ultimate bearing capacity of footings on coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal ash is recognized as an alternative fill material to the conventional natural soils near a coal fired thermal power station where its large ... This paper presents experimental investigations on footings on

Ashutosh Trivedi; Vijay Kumar Sud

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The "Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program" is being conducted by The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) at Reliant Energy?s Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100°F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles? Unit #1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 33 months of operation. The second and third sections remain in service and the second is expected to be removed in the fall of 2003; the last is tentatively planned for the fall of 2004. This paper describes the program; its importance; the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system; materials utilized; experience to date; and results of the evaluation of the first section.

McDonald, D.K.

2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

42

Environmental hazard assessment of coal fly ashes using leaching and ecotoxicity tests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental hazard assessment of coal fly ashes using leaching and ecotoxicity tests V. Tsiridis t The environmental hazard of six coal fly ash samples collected from various coal incineration plants were examined- bustion, considerable amounts of coal fly ash are still produced. Although coal fly ash can be moderately

Short, Daniel

43

The recycling of the coal fly ash in glass production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recycling of fly ash obtained from the combustion of coal in thermal power plant has been studied. Coal fly ash was vitrified by melting at 1773 K for 5 hours without any additives. The properties of glasses produced from coal fly ash were investigated by means of Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. DTA study indicated that there was only one endothermic peak at 1003 K corresponding to the glass transition temperature. XRD analysis showed the amorphous state of the glass sample produced from coal fly ash. SEM investigations revealed that the coal fly ash based glass sample had smooth surface. The mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the glass sample were also determined. Recycling of coal fly ash by using vitrification technique resulted to a glass material that had good mechanical, physical and chemical properties. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results showed that the heavy metals of Pb, Cr, Zn and Mn were successfully immobilized into the glass. It can be said that glass sample obtained by the recycling of coal fly ash can be taken as a non-hazardous material. Overall, results indicated that the vitrification technique is an effective way for the stabilization and recycling of coal fly ash.

Erol, M.M.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Ersoy-Mericboyu, A. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Çatalazi coal-fired power plant in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Notes Radioactivity of coals and ashes from catalagzi coal-fired...radioactivity contents in feed coals from lignite-fired power plants...Geological Survey of Canada, Economic Geology Report. 14 Aytekin...influence of an underground coal mine in Zonguldak basin, Turkey......

Hüseyin Aytekin; Ridvan Baldik

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

The mild hydrothermal synthesis of hydrogrossular from coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, an attempt was made to synthesize hydrogrossular, a group of garnet minerals, under hydrothermal conditions at temperatures below 180°C, using coal ash, which is the solid waste from thermal...

Satoru Fujita; Kenzi Suzuki; Yasuo Shibasaki

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Chemical composition and some trace element contents in coals and coal ash from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje Coal Field, Serbia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical compositions and trace element contents (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, As, B, Hg, Sr, Se, Be, Ba, Mn, Th, V, U) in coal and coal ash samples from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje coal field in Serbia were studied. The coal from this field belongs to lignite. This high volatility coal has high moisture and low S contents, moderate ash yield, and high calorific value. The coal ash is abundant in alumosilicates. Many trace elements such as Ni > Cd > Cr > B > As > Cu > Co > Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal and Ni > Cr > As > B > Cu > Co = Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal ash are enriched in comparison with Clarke concentrations.

Vukasinovic-Pesic, V.; Rajakovic, L.J. [University of Montenegro, Podgorica (Montenegro)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Comparing properties of coal ash and alternative-fuel ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of investigating ash produced in burning alternative kinds of fuel are discussed. Its impact on the environment is evaluated, and possibilities of recovering it are studied.

E. P. Dick; G. A. Ryabov; A. N. Tugov; A. N. Soboleva

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a moderate alkali content (0.2% sodium equivalents), thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that aggressive alkali sulfate constituents were present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. Test Section A was removed in November 2001 after about 24 months of service at the desired steam temperature set point, with about 15.5 months of exposure at full temperature. A progress report, issued in October 2002, was written to document the performance of the candidate alloys in that test section. The evaluation described the condition of each tube sample after exposure. It involved a determination of the rate of wall thickness loss for these samples. In cases where there was more than one sample of a candidate material in the test section, an assessment was made of the performance of the alloy as a function of temperature. Test Sections B and C were examined during the November 2001 outage, and it was decided that, due to excessive wastage, certain tube samples needed to be removed and replaced in order to ensure that Test Sections B and C would have a chance of remaining in the boiler for their intended exposure period. These suspect tube samples were replaced and the two remaining test sections were put back into service. The tube samples that were removed from Test Sections B and C were set aside for later analysis at the end of the planned exposure period. Test Sections B and C were again examined approximately six months later. At that time, measured wall thickness losses raised concerns about additional tube samples. These suspect samples were also removed, set aside for later analysis, and replaced. The test sections then went back into service until the end of the second exposure period, which was concluded in May 2003 when, due to evidence of excessive wastage, the valves were opened increasing cooling steam flow and thereby effectively stopping corrosion. In August 2003, Test Sections B and C were removed for closer examination. Section C had experienced about 42 months of service at the desired team temperature set point with 28.5 months at temperature at full temperature. Additional suspect samples were removed from Test Section B, then, it was re-installed into the boiler (at the location originally occupied by Section C), where it remained in service until the end of the program. Due to this removal history, the samples from Test Section B had a total service duration that varied from a minimum of 15.5 months (for samples that performed poorly) to 37 months for samples the survived for the full intended service exposure for Section B. The figure below shows a schematic of Test Section B and indicates the length of service exposure for different locations. This report provides the results of the evaluation of Test Section B, including the samples that remained in the Test Section for the full exposure period as well as those that were removed early. This report also is intended to compare and summarize the results for all three test sections. The analysis of T

D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

49

Anion exchange method for the sequential determination of uranium, thorium and lead-210 in coal and coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A radiochemical procedure is presented for the sequential determination of uranium isotopes, thorium isotopes, and210Pb in coal and coal ash. This procedure consists of dry ashing the...210Pb is measured by beta ...

V. R. Casella; C. T. Bishop; A. A. Glosby…

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Study of ash deposition during coal combustion under oxyfuel conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a comparative study on ash deposition of two selected coals, Russian coal and lignite, under oxyfuel (O2/CO2) and air combustion conditions. The comparison is based on experimental results and subsequent evaluation of the data and observed trends. Deposited as well as remaining filter ash (fine ash) samples were subjected to XRD and ICP analyses in order to study the chemical composition and mineral transformations undergone in the ash under the combustion conditions. The experimental results show higher deposition propensities under oxyfuel conditions; the possible reasons for this are investigated by analyzing the parameters affecting the ash deposition phenomena. Particle size seems to be larger for the Russian coal oxy-fired ash, leading to increased impaction on the deposition surfaces. The chemical and mineralogical compositions do not seem to differ significantly between air and oxyfuel conditions. The differences in the physical properties of the flue gas between air combustion and oxyfuel combustion, e.g. density, viscosity, molar heat capacity, lead to changes in the flow field (velocities, particle trajectory and temperature) that together with the ash particle size shift seem to play a role in the observed ash deposition phenomena.

L. Fryda; C. Sobrino; M. Glazer; C. Bertrand; M. Cieplik

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Influence of Coal Ash/Organic Waste Application on Distribution of Trace Metals in Soil, Plant, and Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study was conducted to evaluate effects of coal ash mixture (coal ash, biosolids and yard waste compost ratio of ... fruits, and its leaching potential into groundwater. Coal ash mixture was applied at rates...

Yuncong Li; Min Zhang; Peter Stoffella; Zhenli He…

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Calculating the higher heat of coal combustion in the wet ash-free state  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analysis of the coal concentrates used in the Ukrainian coke industry yields a mathematical formula for predicting the higher heat of coal combustion in the wet ash-free state on the basis of the coal’s charac...

D. V. Miroshnichenko; Ya. S. Balaeva

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Production of low ash coal by thermal extraction with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Present study was conducted for the purpose of producing low ash coal from LRC (low rank coals) such as lignite and sub-bituminous coal through thermal extraction using polar solvent. Extraction from bituminous coal

Sang Do Kim; Kwang Jae Woo; Soon Kwan Jeong…

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Prediction of ash deposition in pulverized coal combustion systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A predictive scheme based on CCSEM flyash data and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been developed to study the slagging propensity of coals. The model has been applied to predict the deposition potential of three UK coals; Bentinck, Daw Mill and Silverdale, in a pilot scale single burner ash deposition test facility and an utility size multi-burner front wall-fired furnace. The project is part of a collaborative research program sponsored by the UK Department of Trade and Industry and involved various industrial organizations and universities. The objective of the project is to understand the fundamental aspects of slagging in pulverized coal-fired combustion systems. This paper is a sequel to the poster paper entitled: The Prediction of Ash Deposition in a Coal Fired Axi-symmetric Furnace, presented in the last Engineering Foundation Conference. The present model predicts the relative slagging propensity of the three coals correctly. The predicted deposition patterns are also consistent with the observations. The results from the model indicate a preferential deposition of iron during the initial stage of ash deposition. The average compositions of the deposits become closer to that of the bulk ash when the accumulation of ash deposits is taken into account.

Lee, F.C.C.; Riley, G.S. [National Power PLC, Swindon (United Kingdom); Lockwood, F.C. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

55

Elemental characterization of coal ash and its leachates using sequential extraction techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Over 50 million tons of coal ash are produced annually in North America. Technological ... but have also increased contaminant concentrations in the ash of coal-fired boiler applications. The leaching of heavy .....

S. Landsberger; J. F. Cerbus; S. Larson

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline coal ash Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... ") UTILIZING CLEAN-COAL ASH 1 This project was for the...

57

Fractionation and transport of nutrients among coal ash residues and in soil covered with fly ash-amended organic compost  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal-fired power plants generate different types of ash residues and discharge small particles and vapors to the atmosphere. The ash residues which account for the major part ... the byproducts are collected and ...

M. P. Menon; K. S. Sajwan; G. S. Ghuman; J. James…

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Comparative analysis of methods for determination of arsenic in coal and coal ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper the comparative analysis of different methods for the preparation and analysis of arsenic content in coal and coal ash have been presented. The suggested method is coal digestion method, i.e., coal ash digestion using the mixture of acids: nitric and sulphuric in presence of vanadium-pentoxide as catalyzer. The comparative analysis of different recording techniques (AAS-GH, AAS-GF and ICP-AES) has also been presented. For arsenic recording the suggested technique is AAS-GF technique. The obtained results show that the method of high precision, high sensitivity and high reproductivity has been obtained.

Vukasinovic-Pesic, V.L.; Blagojevic, N.Z.; Rajakovic, L.V. [University of Montenegro, Podgorica (Montenegro)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Effects of Sediment Containing Coal Ash from the Kingston Ash Release on Embryo-Larval Development in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The largest environmental release of coal ash in US history occurred in December 2008 ... Plant in East Tennessee. A byproduct of coal-burning power plants, coal ash is enriched in metals and metalloids such ... ...

Mark S. Greeley Jr.; Logan R. Elmore…

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Thermomechanical Analysis of Coal Ash:? The Influence of the Material for the Sample Assembly  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although the proposed temperatures were low compared to conventional AFTs, especially for iron-rich samples, the use of TMA appeared to be an excellent tool for routine characterization of ash fusibility of various coals. ... BN, C, and Al2O3 assemblies are not suitable in studying the thermal behavior of coal ashes due to reactions with components of the ash. ... ashing. ...

G. W. Bryant; G. J. Browning; S. K. Gupta; J. A. Lucas; R. P. Gupta; T. F. Wall

2000-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Recovery of iron oxide from coal fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces is recovered from pulverized coal fly ash. The magnetic portion of the fly ash is separated and treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolves most of the silica and alumina in the fly ash, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which is an acid soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue and precipitate are then treated with a strong mineral acid to dissolve the precipitate leaving a solid residue containing at least 90 weight percent iron oxide.

Dobbins, Michael S. (Ames, IA); Murtha, Marlyn J. (Ames, IA)

1983-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

62

Correlation relations between mineralogical components in ash from Kaa-Khem coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Regression analysis was used to study correlation relations between the mineral components of coals. Regularities in the variability of the concentrations of individual ash-forming elements with changing ash contents of coals and changing seam depth were found. The X-ray diffraction characteristics of coal ashes and the qualitative composition of their mineralogical components are presented.

N.N. Yanchat; L.Kh. Tas-ool [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kyzyl (Russia). Tuvinian Institute for Complex Exploration of Natural Resources

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Catalytic Effects of Main Metals in Coal Ash on Advanced Reburning of Pulverized Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Catalytic Effects of Main Metals in Coal Ash on Advanced Reburning of Pulverized Coal ... To further reduce the NOx emission from power plants, an experimental study on the NO reduction during advanced reburning with reburning fuel of raw coal and coals loaded with four kinds of main metals in coal ash (Na, K, Fe, Ca) was performed in a two-staged drop flow reactor (TSDFR). ... By comparing the conversion of five main products during the reactions when using raw coal and coals loaded with different metals as reburning fuel, it is found that some types of metals can improve the NO reduction in reburning via increasing the concentration of CH4 and CO during the reactions. ...

Penghua Qiu; Hui Huang; Jianqiang Zhang; Li Liu; Yuqing Chen

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

64

Fly ash and concrete: a study determines whether biomass, or coal co-firing fly ash, can be used in concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current US national standards for using fly ash in concrete (ASTM C618) state that fly ash must come from coal combustion, thus precluding biomass-coal co-firing fly ash. The co-fired ash comes from a large and increasing fraction of US power plants due to rapid increases in co-firing opportunity fuels with coal. The fly ashes include coal fly ash, wood fly ash from pure wood combustion, biomass and coal co-fired fly ash SW1 and SW2. Also wood fly ash is blended with Class C or Class F to produce Wood C and Wood E. Concrete samples were prepared with fly ash replacing cement by 25%. All fly ash mixes except wood have a lower water demand than the pure cement mix. Fly ashes, either from coal or non coal combustion, increase the required air entraining agent (AEA) to meet the design specification of the mixes. If AEA is added arbitrarily without considering the amount or existence of fly ash results could lead to air content in concrete that is either too low or too high. Biomass fly ash does not impact concrete setting behaviour disproportionately. Switch grass-coal co-fired fly ash and blended wood fly ash generally lie within the range of pure coal fly ash strength. The 56 day flexure strength of all the fly ash mixes is comparable to that of the pure cement mix. The flexure strength from the coal-biomass co-fired fly ash does not differ much from pure coal fly ash. All fly ash concrete mixes exhibit lower chloride permeability than the pure cement mixes. In conclusion biomass coal co-fired fly ash perform similarly to coal fly ash in fresh and hardened concrete. As a result, there is no reason to exclude biomass-coal co-fired fly ash in concrete.

Wang, Shuangzhen; Baxter, Larry

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Influence of combustion conditions and coal properties on physical properties of fly ash generated from pulverized coal combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To develop combustion technology for upgrading the quality of fly ash, the influences of the coal properties, such as the size of pulverized coal particles and the two-stage combustion ratio during the combustion, on the fly ash properties were investigated using our test furnace. The particle size, density, specific surface area (obtained by the Blaine method), and shape of fly ash particles of seven types of coal were measured. It was confirmed that the size of pulverized coal particles affects the size of the ash particles. Regarding the coal properties, the fuel ratio affected the ash particle size distribution. The density and shape of the ash particles strongly depended on their ash size. Our results indicated that the shape of the ash particles and the concentration of unburned carbon affected the specific surface area. The influence of the two-stage combustion ratio was limited. 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Hiromi Shirai; Hirofumi Tsuji; Michitaka Ikeda; Toshinobu Kotsuji [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

66

Natural radioactivity of Zambian coal and coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

226Ra and232Th specific activities in coal from Maamba Collieries in Zambia have been...?1..., respectively. These values are nearly two and a half times larger than the world average for coal an...

P. Hayumbu; M. B. Zaman; S. S. Munsanje

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This integrated, multi-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal starts with the production of ultra low-ash coal and then converts it to high-vale, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

Kruse, C.W.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Cathode-Luminescence of Rare Earths in Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Samples of a number of Indian coals (from Darjeeling, Assam, Raniganj, Jharia and Hyderabad) were incinerated in thin layers ... in an electric furnace at 400° C. The presence of rare earths in the ashes so obtained could not be detected by arc spectrographic analysis with a current of 10 ...

BIBHUTI MUKHERJEE

1949-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

69

Ash aerosol formation from oxy-coal combustion and its relation to ash deposit chemistry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Ash aerosol and ash deposit formation during oxy-coal combustion were explored through experiments in a self-sustained 100 kW rated down-fired oxy-fuel combustor. Inlet oxidant conditions consisted of 50% inlet oxygen with CO2 (hereafter denoted as OXY50 conditions). A Berner low pressure impactor (BLPI), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) were used to obtain size segregated ash aerosol samples and to determine the particle size distributions (PSD). A novel surface temperature controlled ash deposition probe system that allowed inside and outside deposits to be separated was used to collect the ash deposits. The ash aerosol \\{PSDs\\} given by the BLPI and those produced by SMPS/APS were consistent with each other. Data suggested that oxy-coal combustion under these conditions did not change the formation mechanisms controlling the bulk ash aerosol composition, but it did increase the formation of ultra-fine particles initially formed through metal vaporization, due to increased vaporization of silicon at the higher combustion temperature. The smaller particles contained within the deposits had higher Si and lower Na and S concentrations under OXY50 conditions than for air combustion. Moreover, the ash aerosol composition for particle sizes less than 2.4 ?m was related to the composition of the inside deposits. A higher Na in the ash aerosol resulted in higher Na in inside deposits with comparable absolute Na concentrations in both those aerosol particles and those inside deposits particles. The contribution of S and Si to the inside deposits showed that S in the vaporization modes together with Si in the ultrafine vaporization mode, contributed significantly to the composition of the inside deposits. These results provided direct evidence that prediction of the chemistry of the initial deposit layer (but not of the bulk deposits) required knowledge of the size segregated chemistry of the ash aerosol.

Zhonghua Zhan; Andrew Fry; Yanwei Zhang; Jost O.L. Wendt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Leaching of elements from bottom ash, economizer fly ash, and fly ash from two coal-fired power plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To assess how elements leach from several types of coal combustion products (CCPs) and to better understand possible risks from CCP use or disposal, coal ashes were sampled from two bituminous-coal-fired power plants. One plant located in Ohio burns high-sulfur (about 3.9%) Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal from the Monongahela Group of the Central Appalachian Basin; the other in New Mexico burns low-sulfur (about 0.76%) Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation coal from the San Juan Basin, Colorado Plateau. The sampled \\{CCPs\\} from the Ohio plant were bottom ash (BA), economizer fly ash (EFA), and fly ash (FA); the sampled \\{CCPs\\} from the New Mexico plant were BA, mixed FA/EFA, FA, and cyclone-separated coarse and fine fractions of a FA/EFA and FA blend. Subsamples of each ash were leached using the long-term leaching (60-day duration) component of the synthetic groundwater leaching procedure (SGLP) or the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP, 18-hour duration). These ashes were all alkaline. Leachate concentrations and leachabilities of the elements from the \\{CCPs\\} were similar between corresponding CCP types (BA, EFA, and FA) from each plant. The leachabilities of most elements were lowest in BA (least leachable) and increased from EFA to FA (most leachable). Ca and Sr were leached more from EFA than from either BA or FA. Leachability of most elements also increased as FA particle size decreased, possibly due in part to increasing specific surface areas. Several oxyanion-forming elements (As, Mo, Se, U, and V) leached more under SGLP than under TCLP; the opposite was true for most other elements analyzed.

Kevin B. Jones; Leslie F. Ruppert; Sharon M. Swanson

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Microwave-assisted sample preparation of coal and coal fly ash for subsequent metal determination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to review microwave-assisted digestion of coal and coal fly ash. A brief description of microwave heating principles is presented. Microwave-assisted digestion appears currently to be the most popular preparation technique, possibly due to the comparatively rapid sample preparation and the reduction of contamination, compared to the conventional hot-plate digestion methods.

Srogi, K. [Inst. of Chemical Processing of Coal, Zabrze (Poland)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

Modelling fly ash generation for UK power station coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An in-depth characterization has been made of three UK bituminous coals and the combustion products from these coals when burned at a power station and on a range of experimental combustion facilities. The coals were chosen to represent the range of ash compositions and slagging propensities found at UK power stations. CCSEM analysis of the pulverized coals has been performed to provide quantitative data on the size and chemical composition of individual mineral occurrences, and to determine the nature of the mineral-mineral and mineral-organic associations in the pulverized fuel. In a similar way the size and chemical composition of individual fly ash particle has been determined. The mineral-mineral association information has been used to predict the effects of mineral coalescence, the dominant mineral transformation process for UK power station coals. The CCSEM information correctly identifies the types of mineral-mineral association and hence the predicted effects of coalescence. The limitations of the information are inherent in the analysis of a cross-section, but useful information for the modelling of ash generation may still be obtained.

Wigley, F.; Williamson, J. [Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

73

Ash reduction in clean coal spiral product circuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The article describes the Derrick Corporation's Stack Sizer{trademark} technology for high capacity fine wet cleaning with long-lasting high open-area urethane screen panels. After field trials, a Stack Sizer fitted with a 100-micron urethane panel is currently processing approximately 40 stph of clean coal spiral product having about 20% ash at McCoy-Elkhorn's Bevin Branch coal preparation plant in Kentucky, USA. Product yield is about 32.5 short tons per hour with 10% ash. The material is then fed to screen bowl centrifuges for further processing. At Blue Diamond Coal's Leatherwood preparation plant similar Stacker Sizers are achieving the same results. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photo.

Brodzik, P.

2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Coal Ash Contaminants in Wetlands | SREL Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

trace metals are elevated in sediments of the APW area, including arsenic, selenium, strontium and copper. Coal-fired facilities have been in operation on the SRS since the early...

75

Coal ash composition of Australian low rank coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The iron-containing phases in nine precipitator ashes of widely differing composition have been analyzed by57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The importance of the relative proportion of calcium ferrite to magnesioferr...

L. J. Brown; J. D. Cashion; R. C. Ledger

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals - sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significantconcentration-dependent increases in DNA damage in whole blood cells, lymphocytes, and in Nicotiana plants. The comet parameters show increases in tail DNA percentage (%), tail length (mu m), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

Chakraborty, R.; Mukherjee, A. [University of Calcutta, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Botany

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Prediction of Chinese Coal Ash Fusion Temperatures in Ar and H2 Atmospheres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analysis of coal ashes on a weight percent basis shows that they consist mainly of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, and MgO, so that the properties of coal ashes at high temperature might be modeled by a five system SiO2?Al2O3?Fe2O3?CaO?MgO synthetic ash. ... The peaks from lab. ashes and corresponding combustion ashes derived from the same coals show clear differences which may be related to the evapn. of potassium during combustion and the reactions of the mineral residues to form combustion ash. ...

Wen J. Song; Li H. Tang; Xue D. Zhu; Yong Q. Wu; Zi B. Zhu; Shuntarou Koyama

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

78

Spectroscopy of infrared emission characteristics of thermal power plant boiler coal ash deposits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal radiation characteristics of ash deposits on a coal combustion boiler of an electric power plant are investigated. Normal emittance spectra in 2.5-25 µm wavelength region and total normal emittance are measured on four kinds of ash at 600-1100K ... Keywords: ash deposit, emittance, pulverized coal combustion boiler furnace, spectroscopic measurement, thermal radiation

Aleksandar Saljnikov; Darko Goricanec; Danijela Dobersek; Dorde Kozic

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which utilizes the known ash level temperature profile to monitor the ash bed level. A bed stirrer which travels up and down through the extent of the bed ash level is modified by installing thermocouples to measure the bed temperature as the stirrer travels through the stirring cycle. The temperature measurement signals are transmitted to an electronic signal process system by an FM/FM telemetry system. The processing system uses the temperature signals together with an analog stirrer position signal, taken from a position transducer disposed to measure the stirrer position to compute the vertical location of the ash zone upper boundary. The circuit determines the fraction of each total stirrer cycle time the stirrer-derived bed temperature is below a selected set point, multiplies this fraction by the average stirrer signal level, multiplies this result by an appropriate constant and adds another constant such that a 1 to 5 volt signal from the processor corresponds to a 0 to 30 inch span of the ash upper boundary level. Three individual counters in the processor store clock counts that are representative of: (1) the time the stirrer temperature is below the set point (500.degree. F.), (2) the time duration of the corresponding stirrer travel cycle, and (3) the corresponding average stirrer vertical position. The inputs to all three counters are disconnected during any period that the stirrer is stopped, eliminating corruption of the measurement by stirrer stoppage.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Study of the correlation between the coal calorific value and coal ash content using X-ray fluorescence analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we have studied the possibility of determining the chemical elements in coal samples using X-ray fluorescence analysis and have found a relationship between the coal calorific value and its ash cont...

D. Bolortuya; P. Zuzaan; M. V. Gustova…

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Spectroscopic research on infrared emittance of coal ash deposits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper deals with thermal radiation characteristics of ash deposits on a pulverized coal combustion boiler of an electric power plant. Normal emittance spectra in the near to medium infrared (2.5-25 {mu}m) region and total normal emittances were measured on four kinds of ground ash deposits. Measurements were conducted in the 570-1460 K temperature range which is common for boiler furnaces, by both heating and cooling the ash samples, with the aim to study the effect of their thermal history. Dependence of emittance on wavelength, temperature and chemical composition was studied, too. Samples were tested for transparency (opacity) to verify the accuracy of results. It was determined that the thicknesses used for the ash powders are opaque for infrared radiation for thicknesses in the order of a millimeter. Tests have shown that spectral emittance increases with an increase of wavelength with a characteristic pattern common for all samples. Spectral normal emittance increases strongly with temperature at shorter wavelengths and remains high and unchanged at longer ones. Emittance spectra are not very sensitive to chemical composition of ashes especially beyond {lambda} {approx} 5 {mu}m. With an increase of temperature, total emittance of the powdered sample decreases to a minimum value around 1200 K. Further temperature rise induces an increase of total emittance due to sintering in the ash. On cooling, the emittance increases monotonically following the hysteresis. Quantitative directions for evaluating thermal radiation characteristics of ash deposits for the merits of the safety design of boiler furnaces were proposed. That comprises correlating the experimentally obtained emittance spectra with curves of simple analytical form, i.e., a continuous function of minimum emittance vs. wavelength. The proposed method can be extended to other specimens from the same furnace and used to determine correlations for thermal calculation of old and design of new furnaces - with similar geometry and combusting similar coal. The method is potentially applicable to completely different boiler furnaces combusting different coal, and the authors recommend running the tests with new deposit samples. The data will then be applicable to the thermal design of a whole new class of furnaces, having similar geometry and combusting similar coal. This is expected to greatly enhance the accuracy and precision of thermal calculation as well as the efficiency of thermal design of steam boilers. (author)

Saljnikov, Aleksandar; Komatina, Mirko; Gojak, Milan [Department of Thermomechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, 11120 Belgrade 35 (RS); Vucicevic, Biljana [Laboratory for Thermal Engineering, Institute of Nuclear Sciences VINCA, P.O. Box 522, Belgrade 11001 (RS); Goricanec, Darko [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, Maribor 2000 (Slovenia); Stevanovic, Zoran [Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, Dusina 7, 11120 Belgrade 35 (RS)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

JV Task 6 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP), which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCB performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 1998 to 2007 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. CARRC topical reports were prepared on several completed tasks. Specific CARRC 1998B2007 accomplishments included: (1) Development of several ASTM International Standard Guides for CCB utilization applications. (2) Organization and presentation of training courses for CCB professionals and teachers. (3) Development of online resources including the Coal Ash Resource Center, Ash from Biomass in Coal (ABC) of cocombustion ash characteristics, and the Buyer's Guide to Coal-Ash Containing Products. In addition, development of expanded information on the environmental performance of CCBs in utilization settings included the following: (1) Development of information on physical properties and engineering performance for concrete, soil-ash blends, and other products. (2) Training of students through participation in CARRC research projects. (3) Participation in a variety of local, national, and international technical meetings, symposia, and conferences by presenting and publishing CCB-related papers.

Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Erick Zacher

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Ash chemistry and mineralogy of an Indonesian coal during combustion: Part 1 Drop-tube observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper reports a systematic and comprehensive laboratory investigation into the ash chemistry and mineralogical changes undergone by a low-rank Indonesian coal during combustion. Combustion experiments conducted in a drop-tube furnace included ash formation experiments (using cyclone and filter arrangement) under closely controlled conditions in the range of 1200–1400 °C and deposition experiments at a probe temperature of 750 °C. Tests conducted with raw coal, coal/additive mixtures and washed coal indicated significant changes in ash characteristics. Of the ash formation and deposit samples examined, the raw coal + bauxite showed the lowest glass content and high contents of corundum indicating low ash deposition propensities. When compared to the ash formation samples, the deposit samples showed even significantly lower glass contents and were enriched in quartz. With the exception of the raw coal + bauxite sample, all are characterized by high silica and iron and moderate aluminium contents. In contrast, the raw coal + bauxite sample have low silica and much higher alumina contents which is in agreement with XRD observations. QEMSCAN™ results showed that the ash particles are sparsely distributed suggesting lack of a deposit initiation layer. Experimental observations suggest that the use of raw coal with bauxite would appear to offer the best performance with respect to handling ash-related issues. Present findings are of practical significance to power utilities employing Indonesian coal as there is no comprehensive work reported in the literature on ash chemistry and mineralogy of such coals.

H.B. Vuthaluru; D. French

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Volcanic ash in feed coal and its influence on coal combustion products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana Utility to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from a coal-fired power plant. The plant utilizes a low-sulfur (.23--.47 weight percent S) coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of feed coal samples identified two mineral suites. A primary suite (not authigenic) consisting of quartz (detrital and volcanic beta-form grains), biotite, and minor zircon and a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing calcite, alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The authigenic minerals are attributed to air-fall and reworked volcanic ash that was deposited in peat-forming mires. The Powder River Basin feed coals contain higher amounts of Ba, Ca, Mg, Na, Sr, and P compared to other analyzed eastern coals. These elements are associated with alumino-phosphate, biotite, calcite, and clay minerals. The element associations are indicative of coal that incorporated volcanic ash during deposition. XRD analysis of CCPs revealed a predominance of glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals in the fly ash; and quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite in the bottom ash. Microprobe and SEM analysis of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, and rounded grains of wollastonite with periclase. The abundant Ca and Mg mineral phases in the fly ashes are related to the presence of carbonate, clay, and phosphate minerals in the feed coal. The Ca- and Mg-rich mineral phases in the CCPs can be attributed to volcanic minerals deposited in the peat-forming mire. Dissolution and alteration of these minerals occurred either in the peat-forming sate or during coalification/diagenesis contributing to the authigenic mineral suite. Additionally, detrital mineral input and epigenetic ground-water flow may have affected the geochemistry of the feed coal.

Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; Brownfield, I.K.; Hower, J.C.; Stricker, G.D.; O'Connor, J.T.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Leaching characteristics of arsenic and selenium from coal fly ash: role of calcium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the leaching behavior of arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) in coal fly ash is important in evaluating the potential environmental impact of coal fly ash. Batch experiments were employed to systematically investigate the leaching behavior of As and Se in two major types of coal fly ashes, bituminous coal ash and sub-bituminous coal ash, and to determine the underlying processes that control As and Se leaching. The effects of pH, solid/liquid (S/L) ratio, calcium addition, and leaching time on the release of As and Se were studied. Overall, bituminous coal ash leached significantly more As and Se than sub-bituminous coal ash, and Se was more readily leachable, in both absolute concentration and relative fraction, than As for both types of fly ashes. Adsorption/desorption played a major role on As and Se leaching from bituminous coal ashes. However, calcium precipitation played the most important role in reducing As and Se leaching from sub-bituminous coal ashes in the entire experimental pH range. The leaching of As and Se from bituminous coal ashes generally increased with increases in the S/L ratio and leaching time. However, for sub-bituminous coal ashes, the leaching of As was not detected under most experimental conditions, while the leaching of Se increased with increases in the S/L ratio and leaching time. As{sup V} and Se{sup IV} were found to be the major species in all ash leachates in this study. 46 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Tian Wang; Jianmin Wang; Yulin Tang; Honglan Shi; Ken Ladwig [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States). Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, and Environmental Research Center (ERC)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

86

An Empirical Method for the Prediction of Coal Ash Slag Viscosity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An Empirical Method for the Prediction of Coal Ash Slag Viscosity ... Samples were prepared by ashing coals to completion at 815 °C; then a slag was generated under nitrogen at >1650 °C with the appropriate amount of reagent grade calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as flux added. ... (5)?Watt, J. D.; Fereday, F. The Flow Properties of Slags Formed from the Ashes of British Coals:? Part 1. Viscosity of Homogeneous Liquid Slags in Relation to Slag Composition. ...

G. J. Browning; G. W. Bryant; H. J. Hurst; J. A. Lucas; T. F. Wall

2003-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

87

A Method for Making In Situ Emittance Measurements of Coal Ash Deposits.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A major problem associated with any power generation process in which coal is burned is the formation of ash and slag from the inorganic constituents… (more)

Moore, Travis J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Extracting Coal Ash Content from Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Spectra by Multivariate Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) combined with partial least squares (PLS) analysis has been applied for the quantitative analysis of the ash content of coal in this...

Yao, Shunchun; Lu, Jidong; Dong, Meirong; Chen, Kai; Li, Junyan; Li, Jun

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Ash vaporization in circulating fluidized bed coal combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the vaporization of the ash-forming constituents in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) in a full-scale 80 MW{sub th} unit was studied. Ash vaporization in CFBC was studied by measuring the fly ash aerosols in a full-scale boiler upstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) at the flue gas temperature of 125{degree}C. The fly ash number size distributions showed two distinct modes in the submicrometer size range, at particle diameters 0.02 and 0.3 {mu}m. The concentration of the ultrafine 0.02-{mu}m mode showed a large variation with time and it decreased as the measurements advanced. The concentration of the 0.02-{mu}m mode was two orders of magnitude lower than in the submicrometer mode observed earlier in the bubbling FBC and up to three orders of magnitude lower than in the pulverized coal combustion. Scanning electron micrographs showed few ultrafine particles. The intermediate mode at 0.3 {mu}m consisted of particles irregular in shape, and hence in this mode the particles had not been formed via a gas to particle route. We propose that the 0.3-{mu}m mode had been formed from the partial melting of the very fine mineral particles in the coal. The mass size distribution in the size range 0.01-70 {mu}m was unimodal with maximum at 20 {mu}m. Less than 1% of the fly ash particles was found in the submicrometer size range. 35 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Lind, T.; Kauppinen, E.I.; Maenhaut, W. [Univ. of Gent (Belgium); Shah, A.; Huggins, F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Ash transformations in the real-scale pulverized coal combustion of South African and Colombian coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the formation of ash particles in the combustion of South African Klein Kropie coal and a Colombian coal was studied by measuring the ash particle characteristics upstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) at a 510 MW{sub e} pulverized coal fired power plant. The authors measured the ash particle mass size distributions in the size range 0.01--50 {micro}m using low-pressure impactors and precutter cyclones. Also, samples were collected for computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) with a cyclone with an aerodynamic cut-diameter of about 1 {micro}m. The cyclone-collected samples were analyzed with standard CCSEM procedure by depositing the particles on a filter, and by embedding the particles in epoxy hence acquiring the cross-section analysis of the sample. All major mineral classes in both coals were found to undergo extensive coalescence during combustion. Iron, calcium and magnesium rich particles resulting from the decomposition of pyrite, calcite and dolomite were found to coalesce with quartz and aluminosilicate particles. The size distributions of the fly ash determined with CCSEM and low-pressure impactor-cyclone sampler were found to be similar.

Lind, T.; Kauppinen, E.I.; Valmari, T. [VTT (Finland); Klippel, N. [ABB Corporate Research, Baden (Switzerland); Mauritzson, C. [ABB Flaekt Industri AB, Vaexjoe (Sweden)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

91

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Çatalazi coal-fired power plant in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......CFPPs installed in Turkey uses lignite, the catalagz CFPP uses the...basin, Turkey. The total reserve of the basin is estimated as...contents in feed coals from lignite-fired power plants in Western...equilibrium in the ashes produced in lignite-fired power plants. J......

Hüseyin Aytekin; Ridvan Baldik

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Prevention of trace and major element leaching from coal combustion products by hydrothermally-treated coal ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The most important structural components of coal ash obtained by coal combustion in 'Nikola Tesla A' power plant located near Belgrade (Serbia) are amorphous alumosilicate, alpha-quartz, and mullite. The phase composition of coal ash can be altered to obtain zeolite type NaA that crystallizes in a narrow crystallization field (SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2}; H{sub 2}O/Na{sub 2}O ratios). Basic properties (crystallization degree, chemical composition, the energy of activation) of obtained zeolites were established. Coal ash extracts treated with obtained ion-exchange material showed that zeolites obtained from coal ash were able to reduce the amounts of iron, chromium, nickel, zinc, copper, lead, and manganese in ash extracts, thus proving its potential in preventing pollution from dump effluent waters.

Adnadjevic, B.; Popovic, A.; Mikasinovic, B. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Dept. of Chemistry

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Status of coal ash corrosion resistant materials test program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In November of 1998, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) began development of a system to permit testing of several advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam conditions of 1100 F and higher in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B and W, and First Energy's Ohio Edison jointly fund the project. CONSOL Energy Company is also participating as an advisor. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. The coal-ash corrosion resistant materials test program will provide full scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater and reheater tube materials. These newer materials may be capable of operating at higher steam temperatures while resisting external/fire-side corrosion. For high sulfur coal applications, this is a key issue for advanced cycle pulverized coal-fired plants. Fireside corrosion is also a critical issue for many existing plants. Previous testing of high temperature materials in the United States has been based primarily on using laboratory test coupons. The test coupons did not operate at conditions representative of a high sulfur coal-fired boiler. Testing outside of the United States has been with low sulfur coal or natural gas firing and has not addressed corrosion issues. This test program takes place in an actual operating boiler and is expected to confirm the performance of these materials with high sulfur coal. The system consists of three identical sections, each containing multiple pieces of twelve different materials. They are cooled by reheater steam, and are located just above the furnace exit in Ohio Edison's Niles Unit No.1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. After one year of operation, the first section will be removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation. The second and third sections will operate for three and five years respectively prior to removal and evaluation. The objective is to determine how well each material resists corrosion at different operating temperatures and over different time periods and provide characteristic data. Selection of the test materials, system engineering, fabrication, installation and startup of this system is now completed and data acquisition is in progress. This paper gives an overview of the program and its objectives, explains the system, describes section fabrication, identifies the materials selected, and describes ORNL's experience in fabricating four of the advanced materials.

McDonald, D.K.; Meisenhelter, D.K.; Sikka, V.K.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Crystallization of Coal Ash Slags at High Temperatures and Effects on the Viscosity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coal samples were ashed in a muffle furnace at 815 °C, according to the Chinese Standard GB/T1574-2007. ... Shenfu and Beisu coals are enriched in glass modifying oxides (CaO + Fe2O3 + MgO > 30%), while the contents of Al2O3 in Baodian coal ash is higher than 30%; therefore, they exhibit the crystalline slag behavior. ... compn. of coals and coal ashes from a wide variety of deposits (41) were studied by a melting test, x-ray diffractometry, light microscopy, differential-thermal, thermogravimetric and chem. ...

Haiping Yuan; Qinfeng Liang; Xin Gong

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

95

Iron Transformation and Ash Fusibility during Coal Combustion in Air and O2/CO2 Medium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1) The successful design and operation of oxy-fired pulverized coal boilers require comprehensive knowledge of ash deposition characteristics, which have a major impact on the safety and economic performance of the boilers. ... Two bituminous coals (Utah coal and Illinois coal) and one sub-bituminous coal (PRB coal) were burned on a down-fired combustor under both oxy- and air-firing. ...

Dunxi Yu; Liang Zhao; Zuoyong Zhang; Chang Wen; Minghou Xu; Hong Yao

2011-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

96

Utilization of blended fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash in geopolymer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, synthesis of geopolymer from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash was studied in order to effectively utilize both ashes. FBC-fly ash and bottom ash were inter-ground to three different finenesses. The ashes were mixed with as-received PCC-fly ash in various proportions and used as source material for synthesis of geopolymer. Sodium silicate (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) and 10 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions at mass ratio of Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}/NaOH of 1.5 and curing temperature of 65 deg. C for 48 h were used for making geopolymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), degree of reaction, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the geopolymer pastes. Compressive strength was also tested on geopolymer mortars. The results show that high strength geopolymer mortars of 35.0-44.0 MPa can be produced using mixture of ground FBC ash and as-received PCC-fly ash. Fine FBC ash is more reactive and results in higher degree of reaction and higher strength geopolymer as compared to the use of coarser FBC ash. Grinding increases reactivity of ash by means of increasing surface area and the amount of reactive phase of the ash. In addition, the packing effect due to fine particles also contributed to increase in strength of geopolymers.

Chindaprasirt, Prinya [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Rattanasak, Ubolluk, E-mail: ubolluk@buu.ac.t [Department of Chemistry and Center for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Burapha University, Chonburi 20131 (Thailand)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

97

Entrained-flow dry-bottom gasification of high-ash coals in coal-water slurries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It was shown that the effective use of dry ash removal during entrained-flow gasification of coal-water slurries consists in simplification of the ash storage system and utilization of coal ash, a decrease in the coal demand, a reduction in the atmospheric emissions of noxious substances and particulate matter, and abandonment of the discharge of water used for ash slurry. According to the results of gasification of coal-water slurries (5-10 {mu}m) in a pilot oxygen-blow unit at a carbon conversion of >91%, synthesis gas containing 28.5% CO, 32.5% H{sub 2}, 8.2% CO{sub 2}, 1.5% CH{sub 4}, the rest being nitrogen, was obtained. The fly ash in its chemical composition, particle size, and density meets the requirements of the European standard EN 450 as a cement additive for concrete manufacture.

E.G. Gorlov; V.G. Andrienko; K.B. Nefedov; S.V. Lutsenko; B.K. Nefedov [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

Mineralogical characterization of Sasol feed coals and corresponding gasification ash constituents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Feed coal and coarse ash particles (heated rock fragments and clinkers), produced from Sasol-Lurgi gasifier tests under different operating conditions, have been characterized by quantitative X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analysis, and associated chemical techniques, as a basis for better understanding of the relations between the mineralogical and physical properties of the ash particles. Crystalline phases in the ashes include quartz particles inherited directly from the feed coal, as well as anorthite, mullite, and diopside, derived from solid-state reactions or crystallization of a silicate melt during the gasification process. Glass, cooled from the melt, is also abundant in the ash materials. The abundance of large particles of hard minerals in the coal or the ash, such as quartz, anorthite, pyrite, and diopside, has been correlated with a laboratory-determined abrasion index and may contribute significantly to wear on mechanical equipment during coal- or ash-handling operations. 21 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

Aivo B. Hlatshwayo; Ratale H. Matjie; Zhongsheng Li; Colin R. Ward [Sasol Technology (Proprietary) Limited, Sasolburg (South Africa)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

99

Soil stabilization and pavement recycling with self-cementing coal fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manual provides design information for self-cementing coal fly ash as the sole stabilizing agent for a wide range of engineering applications. As in any process, the application of sound engineering practices, appropriate testing, and evaluation of fly ash quality and characteristics will lend themselves to successful projects using the guidelines in this manual. Topics discussed include: self-cementing coal fly ash characteristics; laboratory mix design; stabilization of clay soils; stabilisation of granular materials; construction considerations; high sulfate ash; environmental considerations for fly ash stabilization; design considerations; state specification/guidelines/standards; and a sample of a typical stabilization specification.

NONE

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

100

Maternal Transfer of Contaminants to Eggs in Common Grackles (Quiscalus quiscala) Nesting on Coal Fly Ash Basins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

common grackles (Quiscalus quis- cala) nesting in association with coal fly ash settling basins be warranted. The disposal of slurried coal combustion waste (hereafter, ash) into open settling impoundments grackles (Quiscalus quiscala) nesting at coal ash settling basins for trace elements to determine

Hopkins, William A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

JV Task 120 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') is the core coal combustion product (CCP) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCPs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCP utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program, which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCP performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 2007 to 2009 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCPs. The tasks were included in four categories: (1) Environmental Evaluations of CCPs; (2) Evaluation of Impacts on CCPs from Emission Controls; (3) Construction and Product-Related Activities; and (4) Technology Transfer and Maintenance Tasks. All tasks are designed to work toward achieving the CARRC overall goal and supporting objectives. The various tasks are coordinated in order to provide broad and useful technical data for CARRC members. Special projects provide an opportunity for non-CARRC members to sponsor specific research or technology transfer consistent with CARRC goals. This report covers CARRC activities from January 2007 through March 2009. These activities have been reported in CARRC Annual Reports and in member meetings over the past 2 years. CARRC continues to work with industry and various government agencies with its research, development, demonstration, and promotional activities nearing completion at the time of submission of this report. CARRC expects to continue its service to the coal ash industry in 2009 and beyond to work toward the common goal of advancing coal ash utilization by solving CCP-related technical issues and promoting the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economically viable management of these complex and changing materials.

Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Loreal Heebink; David Hassett; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher

2009-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

102

Differences in gasification behaviors and related properties between entrained gasifier fly ash and coal char  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the study, two fly ash samples from Texaco gasifiers were compared to coal char and the physical and chemical properties and reactivity of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption method, and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The main results were obtained. The carbon content of gasified fly ashes exhibited 31-37%, which was less than the carbon content of 58-59% in the feed coal. The fly ashes exhibited higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, richer meso- and micropores, more disordered carbon crystalline structure, and better CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity than coal char. Ashes in fly ashes occurred to agglomerate into larger spherical grains, while those in coal char do not agglomerate. The minerals in fly ashes, especial alkali and alkaline-earth metals, had a catalytic effect on gasification reactivity of fly ash carbon. In the low-temperature range, the gasification process of fly ashes is mainly in chemical control, while in the high-temperature range, it is mainly in gas diffusion control, which was similar to coal char. In addition, the carbon in fly ashes was partially gasified and activated by water vapor and exhibited higher BET surface area and better gasification activity. Consequently, the fact that these carbons in fly ashes from entrained flow gasifiers are reclaimed and reused will be considered to be feasible. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Jing Gu; Shiyong Wu; Youqing Wu; Ye Li; Jinsheng Gao [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources and Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

103

Assessment of the effect of high ash content in pulverized coal combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The existing literature on CFD-based coal combustion modelling is applicable mainly for coals of low ash content and the calculations are done on an ash-free basis. In Indian coals, the ash content may be significantly higher, up to 40% or more. Studies reported in the literature show that the mineral matter in the coal may have a number of effects on the combustion characteristics. In the present study, a sensitivity analysis is performed, using the CFD code CFX of AEA Technology, on the likely effect of ash content on the char reactivity, oxygen diffusion rate for char combustion and on the radiative heat transfer parameters. The results show that the effect of enhanced char reactivity is negligible whereas reduced oxygen diffusion rates due to a thicker ash layer may result in a significant reduction in char oxidation rates with a resultant decrease in the peak temperature in the furnace. The global parameters such as the peak temperature and the flue gas temperature remain relatively insensitive to the presence of high ash content. These results are consistent with the experimental observations of Kurose et al. . Kurose, M. Ikeda, H. Makino, Combustion characteristics of high ash coal in pulverized coal combustion, J. Fuel 80 (2001) 1447-1455).

Jayanti, S.; Maheswaran, K.; Saravanan, V. [Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

104

Prediction of Chinese coal ash fusion temperatures in Ar and H{sub 2} atmospheres  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ash fusion temperatures (AFTs) of 21 typical Chinese coal ash samples and 60 synthetic ash samples were measured in Ar and H{sub 2} atmospheres. The computer software package FactSage was used to calculate the temperatures corresponding to different proportions of the liquid phase and predict the phase equilibria of synthetic ash samples. Empirical liquidus models were derived to correlate the AFTs under both Ar and H{sub 2} atmospheres of 60 synthetic ash samples, with their liquidus temperatures calculated by FactSage. These models were used to predict the AFTs of 21 Chinese coal ash samples in Ar and H{sub 2} atmospheres, and then the AFT differences between the atmospheres were analyzed. The results show that, for both atmospheres, there was an apparently linear correlation and good agreement between the AFTs of synthetic ash samples and the liquidus temperatures calculated by FactSage (R > 0.89, and {sigma} < 30{sup o}C). These models predict the AFTs of coal ash samples with a high level of accuracy (SE < 30{sup o}C). Because the iron oxides in coal ash samples fused under a H{sub 2} atmosphere are reduced to metallic iron and lead to changes of mineral species and micromorphology, the AFTs in a H{sub 2} atmosphere are always higher than those with an Ar atmosphere. 34 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

Wen J. Song; Li H. Tang; Xue D. Zhu; Yong Q. Wu; Zi B. Zhu; Shuntarou Koyama [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Extraction of Lignite Coal Fly Ash for Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Modified and Unmodified Supercritical Fluid Extraction, Enhanced-Fluidity Solvents, and Accelerated Solvent Extraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......7440-44-0 Carbon | Carbon analysis chemistry Coal analysis Coal Ash Gas Chromatography-Mass...Hydrocarbons, Aromatic analysis chemistry Industrial Waste analysis Particulate...particles on the interaction of coal combustion stack ash with organic matter......

Donald V. Kenny; Susan V. Olesik

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Effects of pulverized coal fly-ash addition as a wet-end filler in papermaking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This experimental study is based on the innovative idea of using pulverized coal fly ash as a wet-end filler in papermaking. This is the first evaluation of the possible use of fly ash in the paper industry. Coal-based thermal power plants throughout the world are generating fly ash as a solid waste product. The constituents of fly ash can be used effectively in papermaking. Fly ash has a wide variation in particle size, which ranges from a few micrometers to one hundred micrometers. Fly ash acts as an inert material in acidic, neutral, and alkaline papermaking processes. Its physical properties such as bulk density (800-980 kg/m{sup 3}), porosity (45%-57%), and surface area (0.138-2.3076 m{sup 2}/g) make it suitable for use as a paper filler. Fly ash obtained from thermal power plants using pulverized coal was fractionated by a vibratory-sieve stack. The fine fraction with a particle size below 38 micrometers was used to study its effect on the important mechanical-strength and optical properties of paper. The effects of fly-ash addition on these properties were compared with those of kaolin clay. Paper opacity was found to be much higher with fly ash as a filler, whereas brightness decreased as the filler percentage increased Mechanical strength properties of the paper samples with fly ash as filler were superior to those with kaolin clay.

Sinha, A.S.K. [SLIET, Longowal (India). Dept. of Chemical Technology

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Experimental Options for Determining the Temperature for the Onset of Sintering of Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a comparison of techniques that can be used to obtain the sintering temperature of coal ash. These techniques are thermal conductivity analysis (TCA), thermomechanical analysis (TMA), the compressive strength test (CS), and a proposed ...

A. Y. Al-Otoom; G. W. Bryant; L. K. Elliott; B. J. Skrifvars; M. Hupa; T. F. Wall

1999-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

108

Study on structural and compositional transitions of coal ash by using NMR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Structural and compositional transitions of Datong coal ash and its CaCO3...additional effects were carefully examined at a temperature range of 300 to 1 600 °C by using XRD and solid state NMR. The quantitative ...

Xiong-chao Lin; Keiko Ideta; Jin Miyawaki…

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

2007 American Coal Ash Association membership directory as of June 21, 2007  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A listing of names, addresses, contact numbers and websites is given for 101 members of the American Coal Ash Association. Honorary members are also named. Included are power generation companies, combustion by-product manufacturers and university departments.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Coal ash as an absorbent to remove SO2, and its activity change in NO?NH3 reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After being activated with NaOH aqueous solution, coal ash showed a maximal sorption capacity of about...3 SO2/g ash. Catalytic activity of coal ash for the NO?NH3 reaction was gradually depressed by the presence...

F. Nozaki; O. Watanabe; T. Sodesawa

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Transformations and affinities for sulfur of Chinese Shenmu coal ash in a pulverized coal-fired boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less than 10% is retained in the bottom ash. About 70% of the sulfur element fed into the furnace is emitted as SO{sub 2} in the flue gas, while less than 10% is retained in the fly ash and less than 1% is retained in the bottom ash. The mineralogical compositions of feed coal, fly ash, and bottom ash were obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis. It is found that the initial amorphous phase content is 91.17% and the initial CaCO{sub 3} phase content is 2.07% in Shenmu coal. The vitreous phase and sulfation product CaSO{sub 4} contents are, respectively, 70.47% and 3.36% in the fly ash obtained at full capacity, while the retained CaCO{sub 3} and CaO contents are, respectively, 4.73% and 2.15%. However, the vitreous phase content is only 25.68% and no CaSO{sub 4} is detected in the bottom ash obtained at full capacity. When the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%, the vitreous phase content in fly ash decreases from 70.47% to 67.41% and that in bottom ash increases from 25.68% to 28.10%.

Cheng, J.; Zhou, J.H.; Liu, J.Z.; Cao, X.Y.; Cen, K.F. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Ash content prediction of coarse coal by image analysis and GA-SVM  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Ash content is one of the most important indexes of coal quality, and fast prediction of ash content is urgent and important for coal processing industry. The aim of this paper is to propose a method of ash content prediction of coarse coal by the use of image analysis and GA-SVM. Coal particles on the surface were randomly selected to measure the ash content, and a semi-automatic local-segmentation algorithm was proposed to identify the corresponding coal particle regions. Thirty-eight features were extracted, and selected by GA. Ash content prediction model was established by SVM, and K-CV method is used to determine the hyper-parameters (c, g) of SVM. RMSE and R-square were used to measure the prediction effects of ash content. Results indicated that the prediction effects of narrow size fractions are better than wide size fraction, and larger size fraction is more accurate than smaller size fraction in ash content prediction.

Zelin Zhang; Jianguo Yang; Yuling Wang; Dongyang Dou; Wencheng Xia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Characterization of fly ashes from circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boilers cofiring coal and petroleum coke  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemistry, mineralogy, morphology, and particle size distribution were investigated in fly ashes from the burning of Datong (ShanXi, China) bituminous coal and the cofiring of Mideast high-sulfur petroleum coke (PC) with 30:70 (cal %) and 50:50 (cal %) blends of Datong bituminous coal in two commercial CFBC boilers. With the exception of CaO, the amounts of major oxides in the fly ashes from cofiring PC and coal were close to those of the common coal fly ashes. The PC-coal fly ashes were enriched in Ni, V, and Mo, implying these trace elements were mainly derived from PC. Ni and V, along with several other elements, such as Cr, Cu, Se, Pb, U, Th, and possibly As and Cd, increased in content with a decrease in temperature of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The results of chemistry, mineralogy, and morphology studies suggested that the desulfurization rate of the CFBC boilers at current conditions was low, and the PC tends to coarsen the fly ash particles and increase the loss on ignition (LOI) values, making these fly ashes unsuitable for use as a cement additive or a mineral admixture in concrete. Further studies on the combustion status of the CFBC boilers are needed if we want to be able to increase the desulfurization rate and produce high-quality fly ashes for broader and full utilization. 22 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Feihu Li; Jianping Zhai; Xiaoru Fu; Guanghong Sheng [Nanjing University, Nanjing (China). State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, School of the Environment

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

114

A review of ash in conventional and advanced coal-based power systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Process conditions are briefly described for conventional and advanced power systems. The advanced systems include both combustion and gasification processes. We discuss problems in coal-based power generation systems, including deposition, agglomeration and sintering of bed materials, and ash attack are discussed. We also discuss methods of mitigating ash problems and anticipated changes anticipated in ash use by converting from conventional to advanced systems.

Holcombe, N.T.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

115

Re-imaging coal: novel process removes mercury while retaining ash sales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-stage thermal pretreatment process for removing moisture and mercury from raw coal has been developed by the Western Research Institute. This allows sales of ash from power plants to continue since no sorbents end up in the ash. 3 figs., 1 photo.

Bland, A. [Western Research Institute (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Coal fly ash disposal in the ocean: an alternative worth considering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical and biological experiments measured the solubility of 16 elements in coal fly ash and the short-term toxicity of coal fly ash to clams and phytoplankton. Of the elements studied, 10 to 60% of the As, Br, Cr, Sb, Se, Ni, Pb, and Sr dissolved within a 24-hour period. Elements which were less than 10% soluble in 24-hours included Cu, Zn, Na, La, Sc, Fe, Co and Eu. Littleneck clams (Protothaca staminea) were exposed to coal fly ash in flowing seawater for a 25-day period. At the end of the exposure Cu concentration in gills was 15 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ dry wt compared to 6 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ in control clams. Elements that were not elevated in the exposed clams were Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Se and As. The effects of the soluble fraction of coal fly ash on primary production was measured by /sup 14/C uptake rate on coastal phytoplankton. The addition of soluble coal fly ash material had no effect on the /sup 14/C uptake rate of phytoplankton. These measurements were made in the productive Washington shelf water during August. The literature indicates coal fly ash has a relatively low toxicity to plants and animals. Disposal methods could be designed so EPA water quality criteria levels would not be exceeded except in the immediate vicinity of the dumpsite.

Crecelius, E.A.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Ash bed level control system for a fixed-bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ash level control system is provided which incorporates an ash level meter to automatically control the ash bed level of a coal gasifier at a selected level. The ash level signal from the ash level meter is updated during each cycle that a bed stirrer travels up and down through the extent of the ash bed level. The ash level signal is derived from temperature measurements made by thermocouples carried by the stirrer as it passes through the ash bed and into the fire zone immediately above the ash bed. The level signal is compared with selected threshold level signal to determine if the ash level is above or below the selected level once each stirrer cycle. A first counter is either incremented or decremented accordingly. The registered count of the first counter is preset in a down counter once each cycle and the preset count is counted down at a selected clock rate. A grate drive is activated to rotate a grate assembly supporting the ash bed for a period equal to the count down period to maintain the selected ash bed level. In order to avoid grate binding, the controller provides a short base operating duration time each stirrer cycle. If the ash bed level drops below a selected low level or exceeds a selected high level, means are provided to notify the operator.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV); Rotunda, John R. (Fairmont, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Surface studies of coal, oil, and coal-oil-mixture ash using auger electron spectroscopy and solvent leaching techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash produced by the combustion of coal, oil, and a coal-oil mixture have been studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and solvent leaching techniques. The Auger data indicate that the surface concentration of the metal ions Na, Fe, Mg, Ni, V, and Al as well as S and C increases on going from coal to coal-oil mixture and oil ash. The relative surface enrichments of oil and coal-oil-mixture ash are consistent with a simple model of the ash-formation process, and the results confirm that several toxic metals are significantly enriched on the surface of the ash particles. The Auger data are compared to HCl and tris buffer leachate composition analyses, and in neither case does the leachate give an accurate representation of the surface composition. HCl apparently dissolves large oxide deposits and thus overestimates the surface concentrations of Fe, Al, and V. Conversely, several metallic ions are essentially insoluble in neutral aqueous solutions, so their surface concentration is underestimated by the tris leachate.

Stinespring, C.D.; Harris, W.R.; Cook, J.M.; Casleton, K.H.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Effects of Sediment Containing Coal Ash from the Kingston Ash Release on Embryo-Larval Development in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The largest environmental release of coal ash in U.S. history occurred in December 2008 with the failure of a retention structure at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee. A byproduct of coal-burning power plants, coal ash is enriched in metals and metalloids such as selenium and arsenic with known toxicity to fish including embryonic and larval stages. The effects of contact exposure to sediments containing up to 78 % coal ash from the Kingston spill on the early development of fish embryos and larvae were examined in 7-day laboratory tests with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). No significant effects were observed on hatching success, incidences of gross developmental abnormalities, or embryo-larval survival. Results suggest that direct exposures to sediment containing residual coal ash from the Kingston ash release may not present significant risks to fish eggs and larvae in waterways affected by the spill.

Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL] [ORNL; Elmore, Logan R [ORNL] [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL] [ORNL; Sherrard, Rick [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)] [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Zeolite formation from coal fly ash and its adsorption potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The possibility in converting coal fly ash (CFA) to zeolite was evaluated. CFA samples from the local power plant in Prachinburi province, Thailand, were collected during a 3-month time span to account for the inconsistency of the CFA quality, and it was evident that the deviation of the quality of the raw material did not have significant effects on the synthesis. The zeolite product was found to be type X. The most suitable weight ratio of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to CFA was approximately 2.25, because this gave reasonably high zeolite yield with good cation exchange capacity (CEC). The silica (Si)-to-aluminum (Al) molar ratio of 4.06 yielded the highest crystallinity level for zeolite X at 79% with a CEC of 240 meq/100 g and a surface area of 325 m{sup 2}/g. Optimal crystallization temperature and time were 90{sup o}C and 4 hr, respectively, which gave the highest CEC of approximately 305 meq/100 g. Yields obtained from all experiments were in the range of 50-72%. 29 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

Duangkamol Ruen-ngam; Doungmanee Rungsuk; Ronbanchob Apiratikul; Prasert Pavasant [Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand). Department of Chemical Engineering

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

The Leaching of Major and Trace Elements from Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most power stations currently operate wet ash disposal systems. However, this method of ash disposal is being subjected to increasing scrutiny as there is a potential for contamination of surface and groundwat...

D. R. Jones

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Methods for Characterization of Composition of Fly Ashes from Coal-Fired Power Stations:? A Critical Overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

HTA and LTA are laboratory-produced coal ashes that are originated at (i) regulated temperatures, commonly at 500?815 °C in air (after the spontaneous coal combustion), and (ii) oxygen plasma ashing (normally at 150?200 °C), respectively. ... The wet disposal of ash, from the coal-fired thermal power plants, involves its mixing with water and its impoundment in the ash ponds or lagoons. ... The fabric, mineralogy, and chem. of high-calcium ash deposits from the Agios Dimitrios pulverized-lignite power plant in northern Greece were investigated as a key to the ability to improve the performance of the power plant. ...

Stanislav V. Vassilev; Christina G. Vassileva

2005-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

124

An assessment of coal-ash slagging propensity using an entrained flow reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the design and operation of an entrained flow reactor to assess the slagging propensity of a coal-ash. Temperatures and residence times have been chosen to closely simulate those experienced by pulverized fuel (pf) particles in a full-size utility boiler. Ash deposits have been collected on ceramic coupons at 1500 C and 1200 C and on an air-cooled metal probe at 830 C. Ten UK coals and one US coal were selected to give a wide range of coal-ash compositions, a range similar to that found at many power stations. Deposits ranged from dense, highly fused material collected at 1500 C, to lightly sintered ash-particles collected at 830 C. A visual inspection of the deposits allowed a provisional ranking of the slagging propensity to be made. A computer-controlled scanning electron microscope (CCSEM) technique has been developed to provide a quantitative characterization of each microstructure, thus providing the basis for a more rigorous assessment of the slagging propensity. The technique described provides the basis for a reliable assessment of coal-ash slagging propensity to be made from a few kgs of coal. It removes many of the uncertainties associated with conventional indices and the previous subjectively based laboratory techniques.

Hutchings, I.S.; Williamson, J. [Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; West, S.S. [ETSU, Harwell (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

125

Removal of ash from Indian Assam coking coal using sodium hydroxide and acid solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mineral matter (ash) removal from Assam coking coal by leaching with different concentrations of sodium hydroxide and acid (HCl, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, HNO{sub 3}, and HF) solutions has been investigated at a temperature of 75 C. The parameters tested were concentration of NaOH, type of acid, concentration of acids, and number of acid leaching steps. Total ash removed increased with increase of NaOH and acid concentrations up to the range studied. For the same experimental conditions, treatment of caustic leached coal in HCl acid resulted in better demineralization than in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or HNO{sub 3} acid. In the NaOH-HNO{sub 3} leaching method, a higher concentration (>20%) of HNO{sub 3} acid had an adverse effect on the de-ashing of coal. The NaOH-HF leaching process has been found to be the most effective method of coal de-ashing. The two acid treatment steps (HCl-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/HCl-HNO{sub 3}) after caustic leaching are the next most effective methods of coal de-ashing. The removal of mineral matter (including S) from coal is expected to decrease the graphite reactivity and thus the atmospheric pollution (due to the generation of smaller quantities of CO and SO{sub 2} gases).

Kumar, M.; Shankar, R.H.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Impact of Coal Ash Lagoons Upon the Surrounding Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash and slag are the waste products from thermal power stations (TPS). In one Polish TPS, 10,000 Mg of slag, and 48,700 Mg of ash are produced every year. All the slag is utilizedi whereas the ash is tipped of...

E. S. Kempa; A. J?drczak

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Biomass and Coal Fly Ash in Concrete: Strength, Durability, Microstructure, Quantitative Kinetics of Pozzolanic Reaction and Alkali Silica Reaction Investigations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Biomass represents an important sustainable energy resource, with biomass-coal cofiring representing among the most effective and cost efficient CO2 reduction strategies. Fly ash generated… (more)

Wang, Shuangzhen

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium. Annual report and selected publications, 1 July 1992--30 June 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC, pronounced cars), formerly the Western Fly Ash Research, Development, and Data Center (WFARDDC), has continued fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research focused on promoting environmentally safe, economical use of coal combustion fly ash. The research tasks selected for the year included: (1) Coal Ash Properties Database Maintenance and Expansion, (2) Investigation of the High-Volume Use of Fly Ash for Flowable Backfill Applications, (3) Investigation of Hydrated Mineralogical Phases in Coal Combustion By-Products, (4) Comparison of Department of Transportation Specifications for Coal Ash Utilization, (5) Comparative Leaching Study of Coal Combustion By-Products and Competing Construction Materials, (6) Application of CCSEM for Coal Ash Characterization, (7) Determination of Types and Causes of Efflorescence in Regional Concrete Products, and (8) Sulfate Resistance of Fly Ash Concrete: A Literature Review and Evaluation of Research Priorities. The assembly of a database of information on coal fly ash has been a focus area for CARRC since its beginning in 1985. This year, CARRC members received an updated run time version of the Coal Ash Properties Database (CAPD) on computer disk for their use. The new, user-friendly database management format was developed over the year to facilitate the use of CAPD by members as well as CARRC researchers. It is anticipated that this direct access to CAPD by members as well as CARRC researchers. It is anticipated that this direct access to CAPD by members will be beneficial to each company`s utilization efforts, to CARRC, and to the coal ash industry in general. Many additions and improvements were made to CAPD during the year, and a three-year plan for computer database and modeling related to coal ash utilization was developed to guide both the database effort and the research effort.

Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Dockter, B.A.; Eylands, K.E.; Hassett, D.J.; O`Leary, E.M.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Influence of coal nature and structure on ash size formation characteristic and related pollutant emissions during CFB combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The size distribution of coal particles in a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler plays a crucial role in the ... the variation of coal ash distributions and other CFB performance data due to the cyclone and...

Min Qian; Arnaud Boelle; Philippe Jaud; Yongjie Na…

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Accumulation and Selective Maternal Transfer of Contaminants in the Turtle Trachemys scripta Associated with Coal Ash Deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal combustion wastes are enriched in a number...Trachemys scripta) are common inhabitants of coal ash settling basins in South Carolina, USA,...T. scripta...may influence the survivorship and quality of their o...

R. D. Nagle; C. L. Rowe; J. D. Congdon

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Simulation of Coal Ash Particle Deposition Experiments (Copyright 2011, American Chemical Society)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Existing experimental ash particle deposition measurements from the literature have been simulated using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) discrete phase model (DPM) Lagrangian particle tracking method and an existing ash particle deposition model based on the Johnson?Kendall?Roberts (JKR) theory, in the Fluent commercial CFD code. The experimental heating tube was developed to simulate ash temperature histories in a gasifier; ash-heating temperatures ranged from 1873 to 1573 K, spanning the ash-melting temperature. The present simulations used the realizable k?? turbulence model to compute the gas flow field and the heat transfer to a cooled steel particle impact probe and DPM particle tracking for the particle trajectories and temperatures. A user-defined function (UDF) was developed to describe particle sticking/rebounding and particle detachment on the impinged wall surface. Expressions for the ash particle Young’s modulus in the model, E, versus the particle temperature and diameter were developed by fitting to the E values that were required to match the experimental ash sticking efficiencies from several particle size cuts and ash-heating temperatures for a Japanese bituminous coal. A UDF that implemented the developed stiffness parameter equations was then used to predict the particle sticking efficiency, impact efficiency, and capture efficiency for the entire ash-heating temperature range. Frequency histogram comparisons of adhesion and rebound behavior by particle size between model and experiments showed good agreement for each of the four ash-heating temperatures. However, to apply the present particle deposition model to other coals, a similar validation process would be necessary to develop the effective Young’s modulus versus the particle diameter and temperature correlation for each new coal.

Ai, Weiguo; Kuhlman, John M

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

132

Removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same by adsorption on coal fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of .sup.226 Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

Scheitlin, Frank M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Trophic structure and metal bioaccumulation differences in multiple fish species exposed to coal ash-associated metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On December 22, 2008 a dike containing coal fly ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant near Kingston Tennessee USA failed and resulted in the largest coal ash spill in U.S. history. Coal ash, the by-product of coal combustion, is known to contain multiple contaminants of concern, including arsenic and selenium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of arsenic and selenium and to identify possible differences in trophic dynamics in feral fish at various sites in the vicinity of the Kingston coal ash spill. Elevated levels of arsenic and selenium were observed in various tissues of largemouth bass, white crappie, bluegill and redear sunfish from sites associated with the Kingston coal ash spill. Highest concentrations of selenium were found in redear sunfish with liver concentrations as high as 24.83 mg/kg dry weight and ovary concentrations up to 10.40 mg/kg dry weight at coal ash-associated sites. To help explain the elevated selenium levels observed in redear sunfish, investigations into the gut pH and trophic dynamics of redear sunfish and bluegill were conducted which demonstrated a large difference in the gut physiology between these two species. Redear sunfish stomach and intestinal pH was found to be 1.1 and 0.16 pH units higher than in bluegill, respectively. In addition, fish from coal ash-associated sites showed enrichment of 15N & 13C compared to no ash sites, indicating differences in food web dynamics between sites. These results imply the incorporation of coal ash-associated compounds into local food webs and/or a shift in diet at ash sites compared to the no ash reference sites. Based on these results, further investigation into a broader food web at ash-associated sites is warranted.

Otter, Ryan [Middle Tennessee State University; Bailey, Frank [Middle Tennessee State University; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Adams, Marshall [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Effect coal ash on some refractory properties of alumino-silicate (Kankara) clay for furnace lining  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The work aimed on the improving the refractory properties of Kankara clay (alumino-silicate) found in Kankara Village, Katsina State, Nigeria by blending with coal ash for the production of refractory bricks was investigated. Coal ash additions were varied from 5 to 25 wt% in the blend. Refractory properties such as: linear shrinkage, apparent porosity, bulk density, cold crushing strength and thermal shock resistance were tested. The results were compared with standard refractory properties for fireclay bricks. All the values obtained from the blends are within the recommended values for medium fireclay bricks. Hence, addition of coal ash to Kankara clay enhanced the refractory properties; the bricks were used in the production of heat treatment furnace with good thermal resistance.

S.B. Hassan; V.S. Aigbodion

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Ash chemistry and mineralogy of an Indonesian coal during combustion: Part II — Pilot scale observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports on combustion experiments carried out in a pilot scale furnace as a follow-up to research previously carried out using a drop-tube furnace to investigate the combustion behaviour of an Indonesian coal, in particular the effects of additives on ash chemistry, mineralogy and ash deposit formation. Combustion experiments were carried out in a pilot scale furnace to test the effectiveness of bauxite addition in reducing ash build-up. Samples collected from deposits on the slagging panels and fouling probe tubes, electrostatic precipitator fly ash, the furnace ash and tunnel ash were fully characterized using various analytical techniques. Experimental results substantiated earlier drop-tube observations suggesting that the use of raw coal with an addition of 3 wt.% bauxite would appear to offer the best performance with respect to slagging and fouling propensity in comparison to use of the raw coal alone. Observations on the reduction in glass content resulting from the addition of bauxite during PSF test runs support the earlier findings of the drop-tube tests. The reduction in glass content found in the slagging panel and fouling probe samples is comparable to that found in ash formation experiments conducted at 1400 °C despite the observed differences in mineralogy. Although deposits are still likely to form as indicated by the PSF runs they appear to be more friable and hence amenable to removal by conventional methods such as frequent soot blowing. These findings demonstrate how the results of laboratory experiments can be combined with those of pilot scale trials to provide data for full-scale trials on the effects of additives in the remediation of ash problems associated with the firing low-rank coals.

H.B. Vuthaluru; D. French

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Apparatus for mixing char-ash into coal stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for obtaining complete mixing of char with coal prior to the introduction of the mixture into the combustor (30) of a coal gasifier (10). The coal is carried in one air stream (22), and the char in another air stream (54), to a riffle plate arrangement (26), where the streams of solid are intimately mixed or blended.

Blaskowski, Henry J. (Avon, CT)

1982-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

137

Study on ash deposition under oxyfuel combustion of coal/biomass blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combustion in an O2/CO2 mixture (oxyfuel) has been recognized as a promising technology for CO2 capture as it produces a high CO2 concentration flue gas. Furthermore, biofuels in general contribute to CO2 reduction in comparison with fossil fuels as they are considered CO2 neutral. Ash formation and deposition (surface fouling) behavior of coal/biomass blends under O2/CO2 combustion conditions is still not extensively studied. Aim of this work is the comparative study of ash formation and deposition of selected coal/biomass blends under oxyfuel and air conditions in a lab scale pulverized coal combustor (drop tube). The fuels used were Russian and South African coals and their blends with Shea meal (cocoa). A horizontal deposition probe, equipped with thermocouples and heat transfer sensors for on line data acquisition, was placed at a fixed distance from the burner in order to simulate the ash deposition on heat transfer surfaces (e.g. water or steam tubes). Furthermore, a cascade impactor (staged filter) was used to obtain size distributed ash samples including the submicron range at the reactor exit. The deposition ratio and propensity measured for the various experimental conditions were higher in all oxyfuel cases. The SEM/EDS and ICP analyses of the deposit and cascade impactor ash samples indicate K interactions with the alumina silicates and to a smaller extend with Cl, which was all released in the gas phase, in both the oxyfuel and air combustion samples. Sulfur was depleted in both the air or oxyfuel ash deposits. S and K enrichment was detected in the fine ash stages, slightly increased under air combustion conditions. Chemical equilibrium calculations were carried out to facilitate the interpretation of the measured data; the results indicate that temperature dependence and fuels/blends ash composition are the major factors affecting gaseous compounds and ash composition rather than the combustion environment, which seems to affect the fine ash (submicron) ash composition, and the ash deposition mechanisms.

L. Fryda; C. Sobrino; M. Cieplik; W.L. van de Kamp

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Removing mercury from coal emissions: options for ash-friendly technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The article gives a brief description of techniques to remove mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants and discusses environmental considerations associated with the effect of emission controls on coal fly ash. Techniques covered include use of injected mercury sorbents (activated carbon, metal oxide catalysts, MerCAP{trademark} and MercScreen{trademark}) and fuel cleaning. Technologies currently being researched are mentioned. 8 refs.

Sager, J. [United States Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Melting behavior of ashes from the co-combustion of coal and straw  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Straw may be used today as a substitute fuel to lower the greenhouse gas emissions from traditional coal-fired power plants and provide green-based electricity. It may also provide an alternative source of income to the local farmers helping the developed countries to support sustainable development. The use of straw as a co-firing feedstock in traditional coal-fired plants is associated with operational problems, such as deposition, agglomeration, and/or corrosion, mainly because of the higher amounts of alkali metals and chlorine in straw compared to coal. This may lead to unscheduled shutdowns and costly repairs, increasing the operational costs and the cost of the produced power. In this paper, the melting characteristics of several ash fractions sampled from different parts of a pilot-scale pulverized fuel (PF) boiler operating with different coal/straw mixtures is determined by measuring the ash viscosity using a high-temperature rotational viscometer. The produced data provide information on the melting of the ash material, its flow characteristics, and the rates of crystallization and recrystallization, as a function of the temperature. This information may be used to modify the temperature profile in the different parts of the boiler to reduce the deposition of the ash material. The results show that the straw in the co-combustion mixture changes the viscosity characteristics of the produced ash fractions. The viscosity of the different ash fractions is lowered, as the percentage of straw in the co-combustion mixture increases, and leads to higher stickiness of the produced ash particles at lower temperatures. 25 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

S. Arvelakis; F.J. Frandsen [Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Lyngby (Denmark). CHEC Research Centre

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This integrated, multi-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal starts with the production of ultra low-ash coal and then converts it to high-vale, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

Kruse, C.W.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Mineral sequestration of CO2 by aqueous carbonation of1 coal combustion fly-ash2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Mineral sequestration of CO2 by aqueous carbonation of1 coal combustion fly-ash2 3 G. Montes that could possibly4 contribute to reducing carbon dioxide emissions is the in-situ mineral sequestration (long term5 geological storage) or the ex-situ mineral sequestration (controlled industrial reactors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

142

EM Takes on Next Environmental Cleanup Challenge at SRS: Coal-Fired Ash  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

AIKEN, S.C. – A large, 1950s-era, coal-fired power plant sits cold and dark at the Savannah River Site (SRS), but employees with EM and its management and operations contractor are preparing to clean up the facility’s substantial quantities of ash generated over the decades.

143

Growth and elemental accumulation by canola on soil amended with coal fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To explore the agronomic potential of an Australian coal fly ash, we conducted two glasshouse experiments in which we measured chlorophyll fluorescence, CO{sub 2} assimilation (A), transpiration, stomatal conductance, biomass accumulation, seed yield, and elemental uptake for canola (Brassica napus) grown on soil amended with an alkaline fly ash. In Experiment 1, application of up to 25 Mg/ha of fly ash increased A and plant weight early in the season before flowering and seed yield by up to 21%. However, at larger rates of ash application A, plant growth, chlorophyll concentration, and yield were all reduced. Increases in early vigor and seed yield were associated with enhanced uptake of phosphorus (P) by the plants treated with fly ash. Fly ash application did not influence accumulation of B, Cu, Mo, or Zn in the stems at any stage of plant growth or in the seed at harvest, except Mo concentration, which was elevated in the seed. Accumulation of these elements was mostly in the leaves, where concentrations of Cu and Mo increased with any amount of ash applied while that of B occurred only with ash applied at 625 Mg/ha. In Experiment 2, fly ash applied at 500 Mg/ha and mixed into the whole 30 cm soil core was detrimental to growth and yield of canola, compared with restricting mixing to 5 or 15 cm depth. In contrast, application of ash at 250 Mg/ha with increasing depth of mixing increased A and seed yield. We concluded that fly ash applied at not more than 25 Mg/ha and mixed into the top 10 to 15 cm of soil is sufficient to obtain yield benefits.

Yunusa, I.A.M.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Murray, B.R.; Nissanka, S.P. [University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

144

Use of Ekibastuzsk coal ash as a filler for acid resistant plaster  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acid resistant plasters are used extensively at thermal power plants for protection of gas conduits, ash traps with spouts and hydraulic valves, and the internal surfaces of smoke pump housings. The surface being protected is preliminarily cleaned and a No. 16-20 steel grid attached to the surface by electrial welding. In producing the acid resistant plaster, 14-17 parts by weight of sodium silicofluoride are added to 100 parts by weight of sodium water glass; the remainder consists of andesite or diabase meal to the required consistency. The water glass fulfills the role of a binder; the sodium silicofluoride accelerates solidification of the water glass and the andesite and diabase meal serve as fillers. We found, tested in the laboratory and used successfully (under experimental-industrial conditions) a substitute for andesite and diabase meal. This substitute was ash of Ekibastuzsk coal, which was not only comparable to the meal in regard to quality of the acid resistant plaster, but even exceeded andesite and diabase meal in regard to several qualitative indicators. At the present time, a formula is being developed for an acid resistant plaster produced on the basis of water glass, sodium silicofluoride and ash of Ekibastuzsk coal. In order to verify the possibility of using other ashes instead of andesite and diabase meal, we also tested, under laboratory conditions, acid resistant plasters using ash from thermal power plants (TPP's) also burning Karagandinsk, Kuuchekinsk, Kuznetsk and Kansko-Achinsk coals. In compositions produced with polymer binders, Kansko-Achinsk coal ash was one of the best fillers, providing the most favorable physico-mechanical properties of the composition.

Korsakov, F.F.; Isichenko, I.I.; Kabanov, G.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Investigation of mechanisms of ash deposit formation from low-rank coal combustion: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was undertaken to determine the chemical behavior of alkali metal and other species implicated in the ash fouling which can occur during the combustion of low rank coals. The coal combustion was studied in unaugmented premixed pulverized coal flames. Vapor species were measured by molecular beam mass spectrometry. Temperatures were also measured, and time-resolved coal/ash particulate samples were collected and analyzed. A major part of the research on this project was devoted to: (1) the development and refinement of techniques for the MBMS analysis of trace quantities of unstable and reactive high temperature vapor species from the pulverized coal flames; and (2) the time-resolved sampling and collection of particulates. The equipment is now operating very satisfactorily. Inorganic species, some of which were present at parts-per-million levels, were quantitatively sampled and measured in the pulverized coal flames. Time-resolved particulate samples which were free of vapor deposited contaminants were collected without the use of an interfering substrate. Profiles of the alkali metal species in Beulah lignite and Decker subbituminous coal flames were obtained. It was found in both flames that sodium is volatilized as the atomic species early (milliseconds) in the combustion process. The gaseous Na reacts, also in milliseconds, to form an unknown species which is probably an oxide fume, but which is not NaOH or Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. This is probably the mechanism for the formation of the alkali ''fumes'' observed in other systems. Measurements were also made of a number of other gaseous species, and time-resolved coal/ash samples were obtained and analyzed. 27 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.

Greene, F.T.; O'Donnell, J.E.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Attrition of coal ash particles in a fluidized-bed reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental data of ash-particles attrition in a fluidized bed is presented, and also the results of modeling. Five sizes of ash particles (1.02-1.25; 1.25-1.6; 1.6-2.0; 2.0-5.0; 5.0-10.0 mm) produced in an industrial CFB boiler were examined. A new model of mechanical attrition has been proposed which incorporates new parameters: the shape factor of particles and the ratio of the bed height to bed diameter, strongly influencing the rate of bed mass loss. The model describes very well experimental data for coal-ash particles attrition. The attrition-rate coefficient for ash particles was evaluated.

Tomeczek, J.; Mocek, P. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

147

INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH AND ACTIVATED CARBON OBTAINED FROM PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addresses the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addresses the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project is determining the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed are also being determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control, are being analyzed to determine the effect of SCR on the ash.

Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas for further combustion in modified oil or gas fired furnaces or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion volume within the inner shell and a plenum between them through which combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

Beaufrere, Albert H. (Huntington, NY)

1983-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

149

Assessing determinants of industrial waste reuse: The case of coal ash in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Devising effective strategies to facilitate waste reuse depends on the solid understanding of reuse behaviors. However, previous studies of reuse behavior have been limited in scope, focusing mostly on household recycling behaviors or very limited types of industrial wastes. To gain a better understanding of the business reuse behaviors, this study examined the impact of various factors in technical, economic, regulatory, and behavioral categories in the case of coal ash generated in the United States. The results of fixed effect models for fly ash and bottom ash particularly showed the significance role of the behavioral factor. In both models, a proxy variable, which represents knowledge sharing among the power plants or the utility's decision-making, turned out to be statistically significant and had the largest coefficient estimates among a group of variables. This finding may imply that the characteristics of waste reuse behavior are determined more by business decision-making behaviors than by market or institutional factors. However, the role of the behavioral variable was stronger in the bottom ash models than in the fly ash models. While the reuse of bottom ash was determined primarily by the behavioral variable, fly ash reuse was determined by more diverse factors including economic and regulatory variables. This could be explained by material characteristics in relation to competing resources and the nature of reuse applications.

Joo Young Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Suppression of fine ash formation in pulverized coal flames. Final technical report, September 30, 1992--January 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal ash, and particularly fine fly ash, remain one of the principal practical and environmental problems in coal-based power generation. In particular, submicron aerosols are identified with direct inhalation risk. Submicron ash is thought to arise from mineral vaporization during char combustion, followed by nucleation, condensation and coagulation to yield an aerosol. While aerosols are predominantly made out of volatile alkali minerals, they also can include refractory oxides that are chemically reduced to more volatile forms within the char particle and vaporized. Most of the ash of size greater than 1 {mu}m is generated by agglomeration of mineral as the char particle bums out. These two principal mechanisms are thought to account for most of the ash generated in coal combustion. Previous research has shown that various forms of coal treatment can influence the yields of fine ash from combustion. The research reported here investigates various forms of treatment, including physical coal cleaning, aerodynamic sizing, degree of grinding, and combinations of these on both aerosol yields and on yields of fine residual ash (1-4 {mu}m). The work also includes results from the combustion of artificial chars that include individual mineral elements. This research shows that these various forms of coal treatment can significantly change ash characteristics. While none of the treatments affected the bulk of the residual ash size distribution significantly, the yield of the ash aerosol mode (d<0.5 {mu}m) and fine residual ash mode (1-4 {mu}m) are changed by the treatments.

Kramlich, J.C.; Chenevert, B.; Park, Jungsung; Hoffman, D.A.; Butcher, E.K.

1996-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

151

The effect of iron-bearing mineral melting behavior on ash deposition during coal combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mineral matter in coal is one of the most important sources of problems in coal combustion, including fouling, slagging and corrosion, etc. Mineral matter transformation and slag formation are specific properties of coal that provide more information on the suitability for coal combustion or gasification. In this research, the sintering behavior of Chinese pulverized coal (PC) ash as well as mineral transition mechanism under various atmospheres, especially iron-bearing minerals, was studied by heating microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) combined with EDX (SEM-EDX). Furthermore, the molecular chemical characteristics of iron-bearing minerals, fayalite (2FeO·SiO2), were also calculated using quantum chemistry theory to provide an insight into the mineral reaction mechanism at molecular level in detail. The results showed that the different states of iron (Fe2+ or Fe3+) are the dominant reasons for different sintering behaviors of coal ash under different conditions. The iron-bearing minerals in ash, such as wustite (FeO), almandite (3FeO·Al2O3·3SiO2) and fayalite, etc., are the most important factors influencing the initial sintering behavior of coal ash in the temperature range from 1273 to 1373 K under reducing condition during coal combustion. In fayalite molecular cluster, it is because that the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest occupied molecular orbital (LUMO) are mostly constituted by Fe atoms and the minimum energy difference between HOMO and LUMO in fayalite cluster (1.659 eV) is much lower than that of mullite (3Al2O3·2SiO2, 6.8 eV) and kaolinite (Al2O3·2SiO2·2H2O, 3.49 eV), the thermal stability of fayalite is relatively low and Fe atoms (especially Fe(6), Fe(8) and Fe(3)) have relatively higher reactivity than any other atoms in fayalite molecular cluster. That is the reason why fayalite starts to melt at relatively low temperature during ash sintering behavior.

Zhongxiao Zhang; Xiaojiang Wu; Tuo Zhou; Yushuang Chen; Ningpu Hou; Guilin Piao; Nobusuke Kobayashi; Yoshinori Itaya; Shigekatsu Mori

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Application of SEM Techniques to the Characterization of Coal and Coal Ash Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal is a major source of fuel for...(1)...The last decade has seen a significant increase in the use of coal for power generation. The increased demand for coal and the tendency to use a variety of coals to meet...

Michael L. Jones; David P. Kalmanovitch…

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Coal fly ash–carbide lime bricks: An environment friendly building product  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Coal fly ash and carbide lime are industrial by-products of coal combustion in thermal power plants and of manufacture of acetylene gas, respectively, available in profusion in southern Brazil. Research has been carried out to search for possible use of such materials to produce environmental friendly bricks that have high compressive strength. This study aims to evaluate strength controlling parameters of coal fly ash–carbide lime mixtures, as well as to show that porosity/carbide lime (?/Lv) ratio (corresponding to porosity divided by the volumetric carbide lime content) can be used to predict compressive strength (qu). The controlling parameters evaluated here are carbide lime content, porosity, curing temperature, curing time and porosity/carbide lime ratio. A number of unconfined compression tests were carried out. The results show that a power function adapts better the relation qu versus ?/Lv, in which Lv is adjusted by an exponent (in this case 0.11) for all coal fly ash–carbide lime mixtures studied. Equations that control the compressive strength for each curing period and curing temperature examined can be formulated using this unique ratio. Preferred strategies for varying ranges of qu are also proposed based on the energy required for heating, considering distinct curing periods and temperatures.

Nilo Cesar Consoli; Cecília Gravina da Rocha; Rodrigo Beck Saldanha

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Composition and structure of the shells of fly ash cenospheres from the combustion of coal of the Kuznetsk Basin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The chemical and phase composition and the structure of the shells of the narrow fractions of nonmagnetic and magnetic unperforated cenospheres in fly ash from the combustion of coal of the Kuznetsk Basin were...

E. V. Fomenko; N. N. Anshits; L. A. Solov’ev; O. A. Mikhailova…

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

A prospect for achieving more efficient combustion of Kuznetsk lean coal in a boiler with dry-ash removal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new high-efficient technology for staged combustion of Kuznetsk lean coal in PK-10 boilers with dry-ash removal is proposed, which ... It is expected that more reliable, economically efficient, and environmenta...

A. M. Arkhipov; A. V. Roor

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

A Concept of Large-Scale Artificial Ridges Using a New Hardened Product Made from Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This report describes one concept for developing a new type of fishing ground. The idea is to form a large-scale artificial ridge on the bottom of the sea, using coal ash which is produced in large quantities by

T. Suzuki

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Environmental assessment of coal ash ponds of thermal power plants in the south of the Russian Far East  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of environmental assessment of ash ponds of thermal power plants in Vladivostok and Khabarovsk are given. High radioactivity of coal in the Russian Far East is responsible ... accumulation of radionuc...

V. P. Zvereva; L. T. Krupskaya

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Biomass and Coal Fly Ash in Concrete: Strength, Durability, Microstructure, Quantitative Kinetics of Pozzolanic Reaction and Alkali Silica Reaction Investigations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Biomass represents an important sustainable energy resource, with biomass-coal cofiring representing among the most effective and cost efficient CO2 reduction strategies. Fly ash generated during… (more)

Wang, Shuangzhen 1971-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Viscosity Determination of Molten Ash from Low-Grade US Coals  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

In entrained slagging gasifiers, the fluidity of the molten ash is a critical factor for process control since it affects slag formation, the capture of inorganic constituents, refractory wear, and slag drainage along the gasification chamber walls. The use of western coal, or mixtures of eastern and western coals as gasifier feedstock, is likely to occur as western coals become available and technological issues that hinder their use are being resolved. In the present work, the viscosity of synthetic slags with ash chemistries simulating the western U.S. coals, was experimentally measured at a Po2?=?10- 8 atm in the temperature range of 1773–1573 K (1500–1300 °C) using a rotating-bob viscometer. Alumina spindles and containment crucibles of both alumina and zirconia were used. Crystallization studies of this slag using a confocal scanning laser microscope found that a (Mg,Fe)Al2O4-based spinel precipitated at temperatures below 1723 K (1450 °C), and this agreed with FactSage equilibrium phase prediction. The same spinels were observed in the post-viscometry experiment slags when ZrO2 crucibles were used and assumed to be in equilibrium with the slag at the higher temperatures. Zirconia dissolution resulted in a slight increase in the solid fraction present in slags at lower temperatures, compared to spinel fraction. Crystal precipitation changed the apparent activation energy and required a longer stabilization times for viscosity measurements. The viscosity results were used in predictive equations based on Veytsman and Einstein's models, with critical nucleation temperatures and the solid fraction calculated with FactSage. In the simulated eastern/western coal feedstock blends based on ash compositions, the fractions of the solid precipitates were also calculated using the thermodynamic program FactSage for each blend composition, and the plastic viscosity of each eastern/western coal slag blend was predicted using Veytsman's model and compared to available experimental data.

Zhu, Jingxi [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); URS Corp., Albany, OR (United States); Nakano, Jinichiro [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); URS Corp., Albany, OR (United States); Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mu, Haoyuan [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bennett, James P. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Kwong, Kyei-Sing [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Rozelle, Peter [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Clean Energy Systems; Sridhar, Seetharaman [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fly ash during coal and residual char combustion in a pressurized fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To investigate the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fly ash, the combustion of coal and residual char was performed in a pressurized spouted fluidized bed. After Soxhlet extraction and Kuderna-Danish (K-D) concentration, the contents of 16 PAHs recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in coal, residual char, and fly ash were analyzed by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence and diode array detection. The experimental results show that the combustion efficiency is lower and the carbon content in fly ash is higher during coal pressurized combustion, compared to the residual char pressurized combustion at the pressure of 0.3 MPa. Under the same pressure, the PAH amounts in fly ash produced from residual char combustion are lower than that in fly ash produced from coal combustion. The total PAHs in fly ash produced from coal and residual char combustion are dominated by three- and four-ring PAHs. The amounts of PAHs in fly ash produced from residual char combustion increase and then decrease with the increase of pressure in a fluidized bed. 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Hongcang Zhou; Baosheng Jin; Rui Xiao; Zhaoping Zhong; Yaji Huang [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

The effects of ash and maceral composition of Azdavay and Kurucasile (Turkey) coals on coking properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, investigations were made as to the effect of the maceral compositions and mineral matter content of Azdavay and Kurucasile coals on the coking property. Chemical and maceral analyses and coking properties were determined for the products of the float-sink procedure. The coking properties were established on the basis of free swelling index and Ruhr dilatometer tests. Maceral analyses showed that as the ash content of a coal containing both high and medium volatile matter increases, its effective maceral proportion decreases, and the coking property is affected in an unfavorable way.

Toroglu, I. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Adsorptive removal of thiophene and benzothiophene over zeolites from Mae Moh coal fly ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Zeolites have been hydrothermally synthesized using Thai coal fly ash from Mae Moh Power Plant as silica and alumina sources. The synthesis conditions, i.e., SiO2/Al2O3 ratio, amount of water, amount of base, and aging temperature, were varied to prepare different topologies of zeolitic products. The zeolites attained were sodalite (SOD), gismondine (GIS), and cancrinite (CAN). The zeolites have been applied to adsorption of thiophene and benzothiophene in n-hexane solution. It was found that GIS with higher specific surface area and average pore volume had superior performance to other synthesized materials. Adsorption capacity of our developed zeolites was compared to those of commercial zeolites, i.e. NaY, HUSY, beta, and ZSM-5 obtained via the conventional synthesis methods. The results suggested a potential of zeolites derived from Mae Moh coal fly ash for removal of refractory sulfur compounds, such as benzothiophene.

Chawalit Ngamcharussrivichai; Chatchawan Chatratananon; Sakdinun Nuntang; Pattarapan Prasassarakich

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

An investigation of radon exhalation rate and estimation of radiation doses in coal and fly ash samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal is a technologically important material used for power generation. Its cinder (fly ash) is used in the manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. Coal and its by-products often contain significant amounts of radionuclides, including uranium which is the ultimate source of the radioactive gas radon. Burning of coal and the subsequent atmospheric emission cause the redistribution of toxic radioactive trace elements in the environment. In the present study, radon exhalation rates in coal and fly ash samples from the thermal power plants at Kolaghat (W.B.) and Kasimpur (U.P.) have been measured using sealed Can technique having LR-115 type II detectors. The activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in the samples of Kolaghat power station are also measured. It is observed that the radon exhalation rate from fly ash samples from Kolaghat is higher than from coal samples and activity concentration of radionuclides in fly ash is enhanced after the combustion of coal. Fly ash samples from Kasimpur show no appreciable change in radon exhalation. Radiation doses from the fly ash samples have been estimated from radon exhalation rate and radionuclide concentrations.

A.K. Mahur; Rajesh Kumar; Meena Mishra; D. Sengupta; Rajendra Prasad

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Photosynthetic pigment concentrations, gas exchange and vegetative growth for selected monocots and dicots treated with two contrasting coal fly ashes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is uncertainty as to the rates of coal fly ash needed for optimum physiological processes and growth. In the current study we tested the hyothesis that photosynthetic pigments concentrations and CO{sub 2} assimilation (A) are more sensitive than dry weights in plants grown on media amended with coal fly ash. We applied the Terrestrial Plant Growth Test (Guideline 208) protocols of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to monocots (barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Secale cereale)) and dicots (canola (Brasica napus), radish (Raphanus sativus), field peas (Pisum sativum), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)) on media amended with fly ashes derived from semi-bituminous (gray ash) or lignite (red ash) coals at rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 Mg ha(-1). The red ash had higher elemental concentrations and salinity than the gray ash. Fly ash addition had no significant effect on germination by any of the six species. At moderate rates ({<=}10 Mg ha{sup -1}) both ashes increased (P < 0.05) growth rates and concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, but reduced carotenoid concentrations. Addition of either ash increased A in radish and transpiration in barley. Growth rates and final dry weights were reduced for all of the six test species when addition rates exceeded 10 Mg ha{sup -1} for gray ash and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} for red ash. We concluded that plant dry weights, rather than pigment concentrations and/or instantaneous rates of photosynthesis, are more consistent for assessing subsequent growth in plants supplied with fly ash.

Yunusa, I.A.M.; Burchett, M.D.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Skilbeck, C.G. [University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Environmental Science

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

Reduced Sulfur in Ashes and Slags from the Gasification of Coals: Availability for Chemical and Microbial Oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...9 by 30 cm) ofa coal gasifier slag (1.5 kg [air-dried...rates. Ten grams of gasifier ash was suspended in...most-probable-number (MPN) medium de- scribed below except...99. Growth in the medium was scored positive if...S OXIDATION IN COAL GASIFIER SOLID WASTES 745 6 E...

Richard F. Strayer; Edward C. Davis

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Coal Fly Ash as a Source of Iron in Atmospheric Dust  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anthropogenic coal fly ash aerosols may represent a significant source of bioavailable iron in the open ocean. Few measurements have been made to compare the solubility of atmospheric iron from anthropogenic aerosols and other sources. We report an investigation of the iron dissolution of three fly ash samples in acidic aqueous solutions and compare the solubilities with that of Arizona test dust, a reference material of mineral dust. The effects of pH, cloud processing, and solar irradiation on Fe solubility were explored. Similar to previously reported results on mineral dust, iron in aluminosilicate phases provide predominant dissolved iron compared with iron in oxides. Iron solubility of fly ash is higher than Arizona test dust, especially at the higher pH conditions investigated. Simulated atmospheric processing elevates iron solubility due to significant changes in the morphology aluminosilicate glass, a dominantly material in fly ash particle. Iron continuously releases into the aqueous solution as fly ash particles break up into smaller fragments. The assessment of dissolved atmospheric iron deposition fluxes, and their effect on the biogeochemistry at ocean surface should be constrained by taking into account the source, environment pH, Fe speciation, and solar radiation.

Chen, Haihan; Laskin, Alexander; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Gorski, Christopher A.; Scherer, Michelle; Grassian, Vicki H.

2012-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

167

Chronic exposure to coal fly ash causes minimal changes in corticosterone and testosterone concentrations in male southern toads Bufo terrestris  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 50% of the electricity in the United States is produced by coal-burning power plants. The byproduct of coal-burning plants is coal fly ash, which contains increased concentrations of trace metals and is disposed of in collection basins. Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) frequently use these basins for reproduction. Male toads were collected in spring 2001 and 2002 from an ash basin and a reference site and divided into four groups: toads collected at the control site and maintained on (1) control substrate and food or (2) ash and contaminated food and toads collected at the ash site and maintained in (3) control or (4) ash conditions. Blood was collected periodically during 5 months to determine testosterone and corticosterone concentrations. Reference to ash toads exhibited a significant, transient increase in corticosterone at 4 weeks, but neither corticosterone nor testosterone continued to increase beyond this time. In contrast, toads caught and maintained on ash did not exhibit increased corticosterone. Testosterone in these toads appeared to be unrelated to ash exposure. This unexpected lack of a corticosterone response and no effect on testosterone suggests that toads chronically exposed to trace metals can acclimate to a polluted environment, but they may still experience subtle long-term consequences.

Ward, C.K.; Mendonca, M.T. [Auburn University, Montgomery, AL (United States). Dept. of Biology

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

168

Production of cements from Illinois coal ash. Technical report, September 1, 1995--November 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to convert Illinois coal combustion residues, such as fly ash, bottom ash, and boiler slag, into novel cementitious materials for use in the construction industry. Currently only about 30% of the 5 million tons of these coal combustion residues generated in Illinois each year are utilized, mainly as aggregate. These residues are composed largely Of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, and CaO, which are also the major components of cement. The process being developed in this program will use the residues directly in the manufacture of cement products. Therefore, a much larger amount of residues can be utilized. To achieve the above objective, in the first phase (current year) samples of coal combustion residues will be blended and mixed, as needed, with a lime or cement kiln dust (CKD) to adjust the CaO composition. Six mixtures will be melted in a laboratory-scale furnace at CTL. The resulting products will then be tested for cementitious properties. Two preliminary blends have been tested. One blend used fly ash with limestone, while the other used fly ash with CKD. Each blend was melted and then quenched, and the resulting product samples were ground to a specific surface area similar to portland cement. Cementitious properties of these product samples were evaluated by compression testing of 1-inch cube specimens. The specimens were formed out of cement paste where a certain percentage of the cement paste is displaced by one of the sample products. The specimens were cured for 24 hours at 55{degrees}C and 100% relative humidity. The specimens made with the product samples obtained 84 and 89% of the strength of a pure portland cement control cube. For comparison, similar (pozzolanic) materials in standard concrete practice are required to have a compressive strength of at least 75% of that of the control.

Wagner, J.C. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bhatty, J.I.; Mishulovich, A. [Construction Technology Labs., Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

169

Selection of fluxing agent for coal ash and investigation of fusion mechanism: a first-principles study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An approach based on the ab initio quantum chemical modeling (CASTEP, generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and density functional theory (DFT)) was first employed to guide the selection of the appropriate fluxing agent to reduce the coal ash melting temperature. Two kinds of typical Chinese coal ash A and B with a high-melting temperature were chosen as the investigated subjects. Result of the calculation shows that mullite mineral, which is the main component of coal ash, is easier to combine with an electron acceptor than with an electron donor. Because the cations of borax (Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}10H{sub 2}O) and limestone can act as electron acceptors, borax and limestone were selected as the fluxing agents in our experiment. Results of the experiment show that the melting temperatures of coal ash A and B are both decreased by borax and limestone, respectively. Moreover, borax has a better fluxing effect than limestone under the same conditions. The further numerical study on the coal ash fusing mechanism indicates that the Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} cations, as acceptors, can enter into the crystal lattice of mullite mainly through O(7) and O(8) and then cause the Al(6)-O(8) and Al(5)-O(7) bonds to rupture in the (AlO{sub 6})-octahedron. From this, mullite is forced to transform to feldspar and corundum minerals that have a low binding energy. Because of the phase change of minerals in the coal ash, the coal ash melting temperature is decreased by adding borax and limestone. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Jie Li; Mei-Fang Du; Zhong-Xiao Zhang; Rong-Qing Guan; Yu-Shuang Chen; Ting-Yu Liu [University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). College of Science, and Department of Power Engineering

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Viscosity Determination of Molten Ash from Low-Grade US Coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In entrained slagging gasifiers, the fluidity of the molten ash is a critical factor for process control since it affects slag formation, the capture of inorganic constituents, refractory wear, and slag drainage along the gasification chamber walls. The use of western coal, or mixtures of eastern and western coals as gasifier feedstock, is likely to occur as western coals become available and technological issues that hinder their use are being resolved. In the present work, the viscosity of synthetic slags with ash chemistries simulating the western U.S. coals, was experimentally measured at a Po2?=?10- 8 atm in the temperature range of 1773–1573 K (1500–1300 °C) using a rotating-bob viscometer. Alumina spindles and containment crucibles of both alumina and zirconia were used. Crystallization studies of this slag using a confocal scanning laser microscope found that a (Mg,Fe)Al2O4-based spinel precipitated at temperatures below 1723 K (1450 °C), and this agreed with FactSage equilibrium phase prediction. The same spinels were observed in the post-viscometry experiment slags when ZrO2 crucibles were used and assumed to be in equilibrium with the slag at the higher temperatures. Zirconia dissolution resulted in a slight increase in the solid fraction present in slags at lower temperatures, compared to spinel fraction. Crystal precipitation changed the apparent activation energy and required a longer stabilization times for viscosity measurements. The viscosity results were used in predictive equations based on Veytsman and Einstein's models, with critical nucleation temperatures and the solid fraction calculated with FactSage. In the simulated eastern/western coal feedstock blends based on ash compositions, the fractions of the solid precipitates were also calculated using the thermodynamic program FactSage for each blend composition, and the plastic viscosity of each eastern/western coal slag blend was predicted using Veytsman's model and compared to available experimental data.

Zhu, Jingxi [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); URS Corp., Albany, OR (United States); Nakano, Jinichiro [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); URS Corp., Albany, OR (United States); Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mu, Haoyuan [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bennett, James P. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Kwong, Kyei-Sing [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Rozelle, Peter [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Clean Energy Systems; Sridhar, Seetharaman [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Evaluation of the Performance of Air Dense Medium Fluidized Bed (ADMFB) for Low-Ash Coal Beneficiation. Part 2: Characteristics of the Beneficiated Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evaluation of the Performance of Air Dense Medium Fluidized Bed (ADMFB) for Low-Ash Coal Beneficiation. ... The slagging and fouling decrease the efficiency of heat-exchange surfaces in conventional coal-firing furnaces, while in slagging gasifiers, where ash is intentionally converted into liquid slag (better operation, control particulate matter emission, and trap trace elements and heavy metals in a unleachable glass phase), to achieve free flux toward the bottom of the gasifier (tapping system), the higher slagging propensity and lower viscosity at the operating temperature are required. ... These samples include two clean coal products, which exhibited minimum ash content (B and C), two tests that offered maximum organic material recovery (D and E) from the middle particle size fraction, and two tests with fine and coarse particle sizes (A and F, respectively). ...

Ebrahim Azimi; Shayan Karimipour; Moshfiqur Rahman; Jozef Szymanski; Rajender Gupta

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

172

Ash melting behavior and slag infiltration into alumina refractory simulating co-gasification of coal and biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In the present study melting behavior of ashes from German brown coal and biomass (wheat straw) as well as from two artificial mixtures of both has been investigated. The four fuel samples were ashed at 450 °C over a period of 26 h. Ash fusion tests and all other measurements have been executed under reducing atmosphere, simulating gasification conditions. The ash melting and wetting properties have been studied for ash cylinders placed onto an alumina refractory at temperatures up to 1600 °C. Optical microscopy and SEM/EDX studies have been performed to analyze the infiltration of slag into the refractory and related progression. For the ash fusion behavior and surface wetting of the refractory clear distinctions from pure ashes have been detected for the blend with 50 wt.% biomass addition due to the formation of eutectics. From optical microscopy and SEM/EDX images of the sections different infiltration properties and mechanisms have been identified. The qualitative infiltration depth and deceleration of slag infiltration by a formation of solid phases have been provided by FactSage™ calculations. In these calculations the contact zone between the two materials has been reconstructed by a stepwise change in the amounts of ash and refractory. The experimental results are very well reflected in this model. Finally, the obtained results suggest low corrosive biomass amounts for co-use in the present gasifier types designed for pure coal.

Guanjun Zhang; Markus Reinmöller; Mathias Klinger; Bernd Meyer

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Coal fly ash: the most powerful tool for sustainability of the concrete industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the last 15 years the global cement industry has almost doubled its annual rate of direct emissions of carbon dioxide. These can be cut back by reducing global concrete consumption, reducing the volume of cement paste in mixtures and reducing the proportion of portland clinker in cement. It has recently been proved that use of high volumes of coal fly ash can produce low cost, durable, sustainable cement and concrete mixtures that would reduce the carbon footprint of both the cement and the power generation industries. 2 photos.

Mehta, P.K. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

A Dendroecological Evaluation of the Effects of Coal Ash on Tree Growth, Kingston Fossil Plant, Harriman, Tennessee, U.S.A.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Dendroecological Evaluation of the Effects of Coal Ash on Tree Growth, Kingston Fossil Plant boat rides and GIS aerial photographs. Your time and input has been invaluable to this project. I am of coal ash into the Clinch and Emory Rivers, impacting aquatic life as well as terrestrial flora

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

175

Task 6.4 - the use of coal ash in ceramics. Topical report, July--December 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previous empirical tests at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) have indicated that coal combustion by-products are a viable starting material for the production of a variety of ceramic products, including brick, tile, and high-flexural-strength ceramics. The EERC has focused on high-temperature properties of coal ashes and has provided valuable insight into ash transformations, fouling, and stagging for the utility industry. It is proposed to utilize the information generated in these past projects to develop material selection criteria and product manufacturing techniques based on scientific and engineering characteristics of the ash. Commercialization of the use of coal combustion by-products in ceramics is more likely to become viable if a quality-assured product can be made, and predictive materials selection is a key component of a quality-assured product. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the development and production of a ceramic material utilizing coal ash as a key component. Chemical and high-temperature properties of ash were carefully determined with the objective of identifying criteria for materials selection and manufacturing options for ceramic production.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Survey of the potential environmental and health impacts in the immediate aftermath of the coal ash spill in Kingston, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An investigation of the potential environmental and health impacts in the immediate aftermath of one of the largest coal ash spills in U.S. history at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston coal-burning power plant has revealed three major findings. First, the surface release of coal ash with high levels of toxic elements (As = 75 mg/kg; Hg = 150 {mu}g/kg) and radioactivity ({sup 226}Ra + {sup 228}Ra = 8 pCi/g) to the environment has the potential to generate resuspended ambient fine particles (<10 {mu}m) containing these toxics into the atmosphere that may pose a health risk to local communities. Second, leaching of contaminants from the coal ash caused contamination of surface waters in areas of restricted water exchange, but only trace levels were found in the downstream Emory and Clinch Rivers due to river dilution. Third, the accumulation of Hg- and As-rich coal ash in river sediments has the potential to have an impact on the ecological system in the downstream rivers by fish poisoning and methylmercury formation in anaerobic river sediments. 61 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Laura Ruhl; Avner Vengosh; Gary S. Dwyer; Heileen Hsu-Kim; Amrika Deonarine; Mike Bergin; Julia Kravchenko [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States). Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

177

Durability and microstructure characteristics of alkali activated coal bottom ash geopolymer cement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Many studies have focused on the production of mortar and concrete without cement. This is referred to as geopolymer mortar or concrete. This paper discusses the effect of alkali oxides (Na2O = 8, 12, 16 wt.% and SiO2 = 0, 4, 8, 12 wt.%) on compressive strength, microstructure and durability of circulating fluidized bed combustion coal bottom ash (CBA) geopolymer cements (GC). Durability and morphology tests were carried out through heating and freezing tests. The highest compressive strength (25.83 MPa) was achieved at Na2O wt.% = 12, SiO2 wt.% = 8. The optimum atomic ratios for a compact microstructure were obtained for Si/Al between 3.5 and 4 and Si/Na close to 0.5. Following the sintering, the main reaction products (N-A-S-H gel) became more amorphous at 800 °C, attaining Si/Al and Si/Na atomic ratios of 4.54 and 0.98. Sodium carbonate formation was observed at 800 °C. Also, the strength loss of GC was only 6.77% after 30 freeze-thaw cycles. The results show that durable geopolymer concrete without cement can be produced by using waste bottom coal ash. Therefore, the production of geopolymer concrete has a high environmental impact, decreasing waste material in addition to global warming.

?lker Bekir Topçu; Mehmet U?ur Toprak; Tayfun Uyguno?lu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using a probiotic from coal fly ash effluent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metal resistant probiotic species was isolated from coal fly ash effluent site. • Uniform sized anatase form of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized using Propionibacterium jensenii. • Diffraction patterns confirmed the anatase – TiO{sub 2} NPs with average size <80 nm. • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle incorporated wound dressing exhibits better wound healing. - Abstract: The synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO{sub 2} NP) has gained importance in the recent years owing to its wide range of potential biological applications. The present study demonstrates the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} NPs by a metal resistant bacterium isolated from the coal fly ash effluent. This bacterial strain was identified on the basis of morphology and 16s rDNA gene sequence [KC545833]. The physico-chemical characterization of the synthesized nanoparticles is completely elucidated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM). The crystalline nature of the nanoparticles was confirmed by X-RD pattern. Further, cell viability and haemolytic assays confirmed the biocompatible and non toxic nature of the NPs. The TiO{sub 2} NPs was found to enhance the collagen stabilization and thereby enabling the preparation of collagen based biological wound dressing. The paper essentially provides scope for an easy bioprocess for the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} NPs from the metal oxide enriched effluent sample for future biological applications.

Babitha, S; Korrapati, Purna Sai, E-mail: purnasaik.clri@gmail.com

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

179

Evaluation of fly ash from co-combustion of coal and petroleum coke for use in concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An investigation of fly ash (FA) produced from various blends of coal and petroleum coke (pet coke) fired at Belledune Generating Station, New Brunswick, Canada, was conducted to establish its performance relative to FA derived from coal-only combustion and its compliance with CSA A3000. The FA samples were beneficiated by an electrostatic separation process to produce samples for testing with a range of loss-on-ignition (LOI) values. The results of these studies indicate that the combustion of pet coke results in very little inorganic residue (for example, typically less than 0.5% ash) and the main impact on FA resulting from the co-combustion of coal and up to 25% pet coke is an increase in the unburned carbon content and LOI values. The testing of FA after beneficiation indicates that FA produced from fuels with up to 25% pet coke performs as good as FA produced from the same coal without pet coke.

Scott, A.N.; Thomas, M.D.A.

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

180

Production of cements from Illinois coal ash. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to convert Illinois coal combustion residues, such as fly ash, bottom ash, and boiler slag, into novel cementitious materials for use in the construction industry. These residues are composed largely of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, and CaO, which are also the major components of cement. Since the residues are used as an integral component of the cement and not just as additives to concrete, larger amounts of the residues can be utilized. The process uses submerged combustion to melt blends of coal combustion residues with lime, clay, and/or sand. The submerged combustion melter utilizes natural gas-oxidant firing directly into a molten bath to provide efficient melting of mineral-like materials. Use of this melter for cement production has many advantages over rotary kilns including very little, if any, grinding of the feed material, very low emissions, and compact size. During the first year of the program, samples of coal combustion residues were blended and mixed, as needed; with lime, clay, and/or sand to adjust the composition. Six mixtures, three with fly ash and three with bottom ash, were melted in a laboratory-scale furnace. The resultant products were used in mortar cubes and bars which were subjected to ASTM standard tests of cementitious properties. In the hydraulic activity test, mortar cubes were found to have a strength comparable to standard mortar cements. In the compressive strength test, mortar cubes were found to have strengths that exceeded ASTM blended cement performance specifications. In the ASR expansion test, mortar bars were subjected to alkali-silica reaction-induced expansion, which is a problem for siliceous aggregate-based concretes that are exposed to moisture. The mortar bars made with the products inhibited 85 to 97% of this expansion. These results show that residue-based products have an excellent potential as ASR-preventing additions in concretes.

Wagner, J.C.; Bhatty, J.L.; Mishulovich, A.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Influence of Particle Morphology on the Hydraulic Behavior of Coal Ash and Sand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Residues of thermo electrical power plants are generically known as ashes, and can be classifies as slag, bottom ash and fly ash. Slag has a high content of unburned ... %) and coarse grains or clods. Bottom ash ...

Karla Salvagni Heineck; Rosemar Gomes Lemos…

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

The effect of oxygen-to-fuel stoichiometry on coal ash fine-fragmentation mode formation mechanisms.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ash particles smaller than 2.5 {micro}m in diameter generated during pulverized coal combustion are difficult to capture and may pose greater harm to the environment and human health than the discharge of larger particles. Recent research efforts on coal ash formation have revealed a middle fine-fragment mode centered around 2 {micro}m. Formation of this middle or fine-fragment mode (FFM) is less well understood compared to larger coarse and smaller ultrafine ash. This study is part of an overall effort aimed at determining the key factors that impact the formation of FFM. This work examined the effects of oxygen-to-fuel stoichiometry (OFS). Pulverized Illinois No.6 bituminous coal was combusted and the ash generated was size segregated in a Dekati low pressure inertial impactor. The mass of each fraction was measured and the ash was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis. The FFM ash types were classified based on the SEM images to evaluate the significant fine-fragment ash formation mechanisms and determine any possible link between stoichiometry and formation mechanism. From the particle size distributions (PSDs), the coarse mode appears unaffected by the change in OFS, however, the OFS 1.05 lowered the fraction of ultrafine ash in relation to the higher OFS settings, and appears to increase the portion of the FFM. An intermediate minimum was found in the FFM at 1.3 {micro}m for the 1.20 and 1.35 OFS tests but was not observed in the 1.05 OFS. SEM analysis also suggests that OFS may contribute to changing formation mechanisms.

Fix, G.; Seames, W. S.; Mann, M. D.; Benson, S. A.; Miller, D. J. (Materials Science Division); (Univ. of North Dakota)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Investigation of the relationship between particulate-bound mercury and properties of fly ash in a full-scale 100 MWe pulverized coal combustion boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of fly ash in coal-fired boilers influence the emission of mercury from power plants into the environment. In this study, seven different bituminous coals were burned in a full-scale 100 MWe pulverized coal combustion boiler and the derived fly ash samples were collected from a mechanical hopper (MH) and an electrostatic precipitator hopper (ESP). The mercury content, specific surface area (SSA), unburned carbon, and elemental composition of the fly ash samples were analyzed to evaluate the correlation between the concentration of particulate-bound mercury and the properties of coal and fly ash. For a given coal, it was found that the mercury content in the fly ash collected from the ESP was greater than in the fly ash samples collected from the MHP. This phenomenon may be due to a lower temperature of flue gas at the ESP (about 135{sup o}C) compared to the temperature at the air preheater (about 350{sup o}C). Also, a significantly lower SSA observed in MH ash might also contribute to the observation. A comparison of the fly ash samples generated from seven different coals using statistical methods indicates that the mercury adsorbed on ESP fly ashes has a highly positive correlation with the unburned carbon content, manganese content, and SSA of the fly ash. Sulfur content in coal showed a significant negative correlation with the Hg adsorption. Manganese in fly ash is believed to participate in oxidizing volatile elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) to ionic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}). The oxidized mercury in flue gas can form a complex with the fly ash and then get removed before the flue gas leaves the stack of the boiler.

Sen Li; Chin-Min Cheng; Bobby Chen; Yan Cao; Jacob Vervynckt; Amanda Adebambo; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

Ancillary operations in coal preparation instrumentation on-line low cost sulfur and ash analyzer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A program of design, fabrication, and field testing of an on-line sulfur and ash analyzer was undertaken by The Babcock Wilcox Company. The analyzer is intended for use on coal slurry streams such as those found at coal cleaning facilities. The analyzer design consists of a sample preparation and delivery system (SPAD) and an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). The program consisted of the following major tasks: Selection and screening of delivery systems; Design of the analyzer system; Fabrication of SPAD system; Field testing of the SPAD system; and Laboratory ICP testing of field collected samples. The field testing was conducted at CQ Inc., (Homer City, Pa. pilot plant). Testing was completed without taking the ICP to the field, since the analysis of coal slurry by ICP had been demonstrated during the delivery system screening tests and the field tests were aimed primarily at demonstrating the performance of the SPAD system. Although the ICP was not deployed to the field, the subsequent laboratory testing of field collected samples simulated the performance of the entire system. 16 refs., 103 figs., 38 tabs.

Malito, M.L.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program Evaluation of the First Section Removed in November 2001  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at Reliant Energy’s Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100°F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles ’ Unit #1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 33 months of operation. The second and third sections remain in service and the second is expected to be removed in the fall of 2003; the last is tentatively planned for the fall of 2004. This paper describes the program; its importance; the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system; materials utilized; experience to date; and results of the evaluation of the first section.

Dennis K. Mcdonald

186

Reduced Sulfur in Ashes and Slags from the Gasification of Coals: Availability for Chemical and Microbial Oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the TXB-thiosulfate medium described by Brannan...replaced the sulfates. The medium con- tained the following...99. Growth in the medium was scored positive if...Ash and slag particle size distribu- tions were...S OXIDATION IN COAL GASIFIER SOLID WASTES 745 6 E...

Richard F. Strayer; Edward C. Davis

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Investigation of the use of fly-ash based autoclaved cellular concrete blocks in coal mines for air duct work. Final report, January 25, 1993--December 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal mines are required to provide ventilation to occupied portions of underground mines. Concrete block is used in this process to construct air duct walls. However, normal concrete block is heavy and not easy to work with and eventually fails dramatically after being loaded due to mine ceiling convergence and/or floor heave. Autoclaved cellular concrete block made from (70{plus_minus}%) coal fly ash is lightweight and less rigid when loaded. It is lighter and easier to use than regular concrete block for underground mine applications. It has also been used in surface construction around the world for over 40 years. Ohio Edison along with eight other electric utility companies, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and North American Cellular Concrete constructed a mobile demonstration plant to produce autoclaved cellular concrete block from utility fly ash. To apply this research in Ohio, Ohio Edison also worked with the Ohio Coal Development Office and CONSOL Inc. to produce autoclaved cellular concrete block not only from coal ash but also from LIMB ash, SNRB ash, and PFBC ash from various clean coal technology projects sponsored by the Ohio Coal Development Office. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the potential for beneficial use of fly ash and clean coal technology by-products in the production of lightweight block.

Horvath, M.L. [Ohio Edison Co., Akron, OH (United States)

1995-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

188

Influence of a Modification of the Petcoke/Coal Ratio on the Leachability of Fly Ash and Slag Produced from a Large PCC Power Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Influence of a Modification of the Petcoke/Coal Ratio on the Leachability of Fly Ash and Slag Produced from a Large PCC Power Plant ... This study is focused on identifying the changes in the environmental quality of co-fired fly ash and slag induced by a modification of the petcoke/coal ratio. ... Petcoke was found to increase the leachable content of V and Mo and to enhance the mobility of S and As. ...

Maria Izquierdo; Oriol Font; Natalia Moreno; Xavier Querol; Frank E. Huggins; Esther Alvarez; Sergi Diez; Pedro Otero; Juan Carlos Ballesteros; Antonio Gimenez

2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

189

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash bottom ash Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: of bottom ash, 3 million tons of boiler slag, and 28 million tons of clean-coal ash materials) were produced... CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By...

190

Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe laboratory and field results of a novel arsenic removal adsorbent called 'Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash' (ARUBA). ARUBA is prepared by coating particles of coal bottom ash, a waste material from coal fired power plants, with iron (hydr)oxide. The coating process is simple and conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Material costs for ARUBA are estimated to be low (~;;$0.08 per kg) and arsenic remediation with ARUBA has the potential to be affordable to resource-constrained communities. ARUBA is used for removing arsenic via a dispersal-and-removal process, and we envision that ARUBA would be used in community-scale water treatment centers. We show that ARUBA is able to reduce arsenic concentrations in contaminated Bangladesh groundwater to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Using the Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.77) ARUBA's adsorption capacity in treating real groundwater is 2.6x10-6 mol/g (0.20 mg/g). Time-to-90percent (defined as the time interval for ARUBA to remove 90percent of the total amount of arsenic that is removed at equilibrium) is less than one hour. Reaction rates (pseudo-second-order kinetic model, R2>_ 0.99) increase from 2.4x105 to 7.2x105 g mol-1 min-1 as the groundwater arsenic concentration decreases from 560 to 170 ppb. We show that ARUBA's arsenic adsorption density (AAD), defined as the milligrams of arsenic removed at equilibrium per gram of ARUBA added, is linearly dependent on the initial arsenic concentration of the groundwater sample, for initial arsenic concentrations of up to 1600 ppb and an ARUBA dose of 4.0 g/L. This makes it easy to determine the amount of ARUBA required to treat a groundwater source when its arsenic concentration is known and less than 1600 ppb. Storing contaminated groundwater for two to three days before treatment is seen to significantly increase ARUBA's AAD. ARUBA can be separated from treated water by coagulation and clarification, which is expected to be less expensive than filtration of micron-scale particles, further contributing to the affordability of a community-scale water treatment center.

MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.; GADGIL, ASHOK J.; ADDY, SUSAN E.A.; KOWOLIK, KRISTIN

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by selective oil agglomeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this study was to investigate desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by the agglomeration method. For this purpose, experimental studies were conducted on a mixture containing subbituminous coal, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The effects of some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of selective oil agglomeration, such as solid concentration, pH, bridging liquid type and concentration, and depressant type and amount, were investigated. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of various depressants (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, FeCl3, corn starch, wheat starch) in the agglomeration medium has a positive effect on the reduction of ash and total sulfur content of agglomerates. It was found that an agglomerate product containing 3.03% total sulfur and 25.01% ash with a total sulfur reduction of 56.71% was obtained from a feed that contained 7% total sulfur and 43.58% ash when FeCl{sub 3} was used in the agglomeration medium.

Ayhan, F.D. [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

Co-combustion of pulverized coal and solid recovered fuel in an entrained flow reactor – General combustion and ash behaviour  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Co-combustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF) was carried out in an entrained flow reactor, and the influence of additives such as NaCl, PVC, ammonium sulphate, and kaolinite on co-combustion was investigated. The co-combustion experiments were carried out with SRF shares of 7.9 wt.%, 14.8 wt.% and 25 wt.%, respectively. The effect of additives was evaluated by maintaining the share of secondary fuel (mixture of SRF and additive) at 14.8 wt.%. The experimental results showed that the fuel burnout, NO and SO2 emission in co-combustion of coal and SRF were decreased with increasing share of SRF. The majority of the additives inhibited the burnout, except for NaCl which seemed to have a promoting effect. The impact of additives on NO emission was mostly insignificant, except for ammonium sulphate which greatly reduced the NO emission. For SO2 emission, it was found that all of the additives increased the S-retention in ash. Analysis of the bulk composition of fly ash from different experiments indicated that the majority of S and Cl in the fuels were released to gas phase during combustion, whereas the K and Na in the fuels were mainly retained in ash. When co-firing coal and SRF, approximately 99 wt.% of the K and Na in fly ash was present in water insoluble form such as aluminosilicates or silicates. The addition of NaCl, PVC, and ammonium sulphate generally promoted the vaporization of Na and K, resulting in an increased formation of water soluble alkalis such as alkali chlorides or sulphates. The vaporization degree of Na and K was found to be correlated during the experiments, suggesting an interaction between the vaporization of Na and K during pulverized fuel combustion. By collecting deposits on an air-cooled probe during the experiments, it was found that the ash deposition propensity in co-combustion was decreased with increasing share of SRF. The addition of NaCl and PVC significantly increased the ash deposition propensity, whereas the addition of ammonium sulphate or kaolinite showed a slight reducing effect. The chlorine content in the deposits generally implied a low corrosion potential during co-combustion of coal and SRF, except for the experiments with NaCl or PVC addition.

Hao Wu; Peter Glarborg; Flemming Jappe Frandsen; Kim Dam-Johansen; Peter Arendt Jensen; Bo Sander

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Chemistry and petrology of fly ash derived from the co-combustion of western United States coal and tire-derived fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inorganic ash chemistry and petrology was investigated in coal-combustion by-products from the burning of tire-derived fuel (TDF) with a 1:1 blend of Colorado and Utah high volatile C bituminous coal and Powder River Basin subbituminous coal. Both coal components had high vitrinite contents. With the exception of Sr and Ba, the trace-element contents of the coals were not high. The fly ash was enriched in Zn, known to be a constituent of both the rubber and the wire in tires. Cu, also a constituent of the brass coatings of bead wire, was enriched in the same fractions with high Zn concentrations. Zn and Cu, along with several other elements, increased in concentration in the back, cooler row of the electrostatic precipitator. The enrichment of other elements, such as Se, As, and Pb, was more problematical. It is possible that the latter elements have more of a coal source than a tire source.

James C. Hower; J.David Robertson

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

(Fluidized bed combustion of high-ash Indian coals): Foreign trip report, January 5, 1988--March 16, 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The foreign research assignment at BHEL, Trichy, was undertaken to participate in the ongoing USAID/BHEL joint program in fluidized bed combustion (FBC). As part of this program, an experimental FBC research test facility has been designed, erected and commissioned at BHEL, Trichy, to conduct experiments on the combustion of high-ash Indian coals and coal washery rejects. The data will be used to optimize the design and to select the operational parameters for large scale industrial and utility FBC boilers. ORNL has been providing technical assistance to BHEL since the initiation of the project in November 1983. The US team visited at 10 MW(e) FBC boiler fired with coal washery rejects at the Tata Iron and Steel Company (supplied by BHEL). The tour was very informative and gave the US team a good first-hand perspective of the Indian experience and concerns with FBC technology.

Krishnan, R.P.; Daw, C.S.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Discussion on 'characteristics of fly ashes from full-scale coal-fired power plants and their relationship to mercury adsorption' by Lu et al.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mercury capture by coal-combustion fly ash is a function of the amount of Hg in the feed coal, the amount of carbon in the fly ash, the type of carbon in the fly ash (including variables introduced by the rank of the feed coal), and the flue gas temperature at the point of ash collection. In their discussion of fly ash and Hg adsorption, Lu et al. (Energy Fuels 2007, 21, 2112-2120) had some fundamental flaws in their techniques, which, in turn, impact the validity of analyzed parameters. First, they used mechanical sieving to segregate fly ash size fractions. Mechanical sieving does not produce representative size fractions, particularly for the finest sizes. If the study samples were not obtained correctly, the subsequent analyses of fly ash carbon and Hg cannot accurately represent the size fractions. In the analysis of carbon forms, it is not possible to accurately determine the forms with scanning electron microscopy. The complexity of the whole particles is overlooked when just examining the outer particle surface. Examination of elements such as Hg, present in very trace quantities in most fly ashes, requires careful attention to the analytical techniques. 36 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

James C. Hower; Bruno Valentim; Irena J. Kostova; Kevin R. Henke [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

Coal Fly Ash Chemistry and Carbon Dioxide Infusion Process to Enhance its Utilization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The increased use of coal in production of electricity is predicted to ... continue well into the 21st century. Thus, coal burning power plants play a key role ... the United States. Like any other process, coal ...

Katta J. Reddy

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fixation in slag or bottom ash, coal gasification, or coallimestone and coal that form little fly ash and trap sulfurSulfate Organic Ash (%) "Organic Sulfur", in Wheelock, Coal

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Coal fly ash interaction with environmental fluids: Geochemical and strontium isotope results from combined column and batch leaching experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major element and Sr isotope systematics and geochemistry of coal fly ash and its interactions with environmental waters were investigated using laboratory flow-through column leaching experiments (sodium carbonate, acetic acid, nitric acid) and sequential batch leaching experiments (water, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid). Column leaching of Class F fly ash samples shows rapid release of most major elements early in the leaching procedure, suggesting an association of these elements with soluble and surface bound phases. Delayed release of certain elements (e.g., Al, Fe, Si) signals gradual dissolution of more resistant silicate or glass phases as leaching continues. Strontium isotope results from both column and batch leaching experiments show a marked increase in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio with continued leaching, yielding a total range of values from 0.7107 to 0.7138. For comparison, the isotopic composition of fluid output from a fly ash impoundment in West Virginia falls in a narrow range around 0.7124. The experimental data suggest the presence of a more resistant, highly radiogenic silicate phase that survives the combustion process and is leached after the more soluble minerals are removed. Strontium isotopic homogenization of minerals in coal does not always occur during the combustion process, despite the high temperatures encountered in the boiler. Early-released Sr tends to be isotopically uniform; thus the Sr isotopic composition of fly ash could be distinguishable from other sources and is a useful tool for quantifying the possible contribution of fly ash leaching to the total dissolved load in natural surface and ground waters.

Brubaker, Tonya M.; Stewart, Brian W.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J.; Vesper, Dorothy J.; Cardone, Carol R.; Rohar, Paul C.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Behavior of mineral matters in Chinese coal ash melting during char-CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O gasification reaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The typical Chinese coal ash melting behavior during char-CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O gasification reaction was studied by using TGA, XRD, and SEM-EDX analysis. It was found that ash melting behavior during char gasification reaction is quite different from that during coal combustion process. Far from the simultaneously ash melting behavior during coal combustion, the initial melting behavior of ash usually occurs at a middle or later stage of char-CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O reaction because of endothermic reaction and more reactivity of char gasification reaction as compared with that of mineral melting reactions in ash. In general, the initial melting temperature of ash is as low as 200-300 K below the deformation temperature (T{sub def}) of ash with ASTM test. The initial molten parts in ash are mainly caused by iron bearing minerals such as wustite and iron-rich ferrite phases under gasification condition. Along with the proceeding of ash melting, the melting behavior appears to be accelerated by the presence of calcium to form eutectic mixtures in the FeO-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. The different states of iron are the dominant reason for different melting behaviors under gasification and combustion conditions. Even under both reducing conditions, the ash fusion temperature (AFT) of coal under char-CO{sub 2} reaction is about 50-100 K lower than that under char-H{sub 2}O reaction condition. The main reason of that is the higher content of CO under char-CO{sub 2} reaction, which can get a lower ratio of Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe in NaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-FeO melts. 38 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Xiaojiang Wu; Zhongxiao Zhang; Guilin Piao; Xiang He; Yushuang Chen; Nobusuke Kobayashi; Shigekatsu Mori; Yoshinori Itaya [University of Shanghai for Science & Technology, Shanghai (China). Department of Power Engineering

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

200

Removal of sulphates from South African mine water using coal fly ash .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study evaluated SO4 2- removal from circumneutral mine water (CMW) collected from Middleburg coal mine using coal FA collected from Hendrina power station. The… (more)

Madzivire, Godfrey

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

INTERACTION OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH A STRONG ACID AND A STRONG BASE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

molten sodium hydroxide. coal ash. and glass. b, Ultimatealmost all the ash constituents of coal, and hence ofash composition The ash composition bituminous coals 39 are

Seth, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Synthesis of zeolite from Italian coal fly ash: Differences in crystallization temperature using seawater instead of distilled water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study Italian coal fly ash was converted into several types of zeolite in laboratory experiments with temperatures of crystallization ranging from 35 up to 90 deg. C. Distilled and seawater were used during the hydrothermal synthesis process in separate experiments, after a pre-treatment fusion with NaOH. The results indicate that zeolites could be formed from different kind of Italian coal fly ash at low temperature of crystallization using both distilled and seawater. SEM data and the powder patterns of X-ray diffraction analysis show that faujasite, zeolite ZK-5 and sodalite were synthesized when using both distilled and seawater; zeolite A crystallized only using distilled water. In particular the experiments indicate that the synthesis of zeolite X and zeolite ZK-5 takes place at lower temperatures when using seawater (35 and 45 deg. C, respectively). The formation of sodalite is always competitive with zeolite X which shows a metastable behaviour at higher temperatures (70-90 deg. C). The chemical composition of the fly ash source could be responsible of the differences on the starting time of synthesized zeolite with distilled water, in any case our data show that the formation of specific zeolites takes place always at lower temperatures when using seawater.

Belviso, Claudia, E-mail: belviso@imaa.cnr.i [Laboratory of Environmental and Medical Geology, IMAA-CNR, Tito Scalo (Italy); Cavalcante, Francesco; Fiore, Saverio [Laboratory of Environmental and Medical Geology, IMAA-CNR, Tito Scalo (Italy)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

Naturally Occurring Radionuclides of Ash Produced by Coal Combustion. The Case of the Kardia Mine in Northern Greece  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

West Macedonia Lignite Center (WMLC), located in Northwest Greece, releases into the atmosphere about 21,400 tons/year of fly ash through the stacks of four coal fired plants. The lignite ash contains naturally occurring radionuclides, which are deposited on the WMLC basin. This work investigates the natural radioactivity of twenty six ash samples, laboratory produced from combustion of lignite, which was sampled perpendicularly to the benches of the Kardia mine. The concentrations of radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 232}Th, were measured spectroscopically and found round one order of magnitude as high as those of lignite. Subsequently the Radionuclide Partitioning Coefficients of radionuclides were calculated and it was found that they are higher for {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K, because the latter have closer affinity with the inorganic matrix of lignite. During combustion up to one third of the naturally occurring radioisotopes escape from the solid phase into the flue gases. With comparison to relative global data, the investigated ash has been found to have relatively high radioactivity, but the emissions of the WMLC radionuclides contribute only 0.03% to the mean annual absorbed dose.

Fotakis, M.; Tsikritzis, L.; Tzimkas, N.; Kolovos, N.; Tsikritzi, R. [Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of West Macedonia, Department of Pollution Control Technologies, Koila, Kozani, 50100 (Greece)

2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

204

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash technical progress Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and economic benefits. (1) Fly ash... of coal in conventional and or advanced clean coal technology combustors. These include fly ash, bottom... ash, boiler slag, and flue...

205

Sulfur and ash in Paleocene Wyodak-Anderson coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: A fuel source beyond 2000  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When coal-fired power plants are required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet more stringent sulfur emission standards (0.6 pound per million Btu) after the year 2000, most of the clean and compliant coals will come from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana. In 1996 more than 300 million short toms of these clean and compliant coals were produced from the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plans region. This is more than 30% of the total US coal production of 1.03 billion short tons in 1996. Future demand for clean and compliant coals can probably be met through production of more F or Union coals in the region. It is projected by the Energy Information Agency (1996) that most of the low-sulfur and low-ash coals in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region will be produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin. To date, coal produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone, containing 0.5% sulfur, 1.2 lb SO{sub 2} per million btu, and 6% ash (mean values on an as-received basis) meet current EPA regulatory compliance. This coal bed/zone alone produced 262 million short toms of >26% of the total US coal production in 1996. Based on the current consumption rates of coal and a forecast by the EIA (1996), the Wyodak-Anderson coals are projected to produce an additional 153 million short tons a year by the year 2016. At this rate of production, high quality Wyodak-Anderson coals may be adequate to fill future energy needs.

Ellis, M.S.; Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Sulfur and ash in paleocene Wyodak-Anderson coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: A fuel source beyond 2000  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When coal-fired power plants are required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet more stringent sulfur emission standards (0.6 pound per million Btu) after the year 2000, most of the clean and compliant coals will come from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana. In 1996 more than 300 million short tons of these clean and compliant coals were produced from the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region. This is more than 30 percent of the total US coal production of 1.03 billion short tons in 1996. Future demand for clean and compliant coals can probably be met through production of more Fort Union coals in the region. It is projected by the Energy Information Agency (1996) that most of the low-sulfur and low-ash coals in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region will be produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin. To date, coal produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone, containing 0.5 percent sulfur, 1.2 lb SO{sub 2} per million btu, and 6 percent ash (mean values on an as-received basis) meet current EPA regulatory compliance. This coal bed/zone alone produced 262 million short tons or >26 percent of the total U.S. coal production in 1996. Based on the current consumption rates of coal and a forecast by the EIA (1996), the Wyodak-Anderson coals are projected to produce an additional 153 million short tons a year by the year 2016. At this rate of production, high quality Wyodak-Anderson coals may be adequate to fill our future energy needs.

Ellis, M.S.; Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Use of solid waste for chemical stabilization: Adsorption isotherms and {sup 13}C solid-state NMR study of hazardous organic compounds sorbed on coal fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Adsorption of hazardous organic compounds on the Dave Johnston plant fly ash is described. Fly ash from Dave Johnston and Laramie River power plants were characterized using elemental, x-ray, and {sup 29}Si NMR; the Dave Johnston (DJ) fly ash had higher quartz contents, while the Laramie River fly ash had more monomeric silicate anions. Adsorption data for hydroaromatics and chlorobenzenes indicate that the adsorption capacity of DJ coal fly ash is much less than that of activated carbon by a factor of >3000; but it is needed to confirm that solid-gas and solid-liquid equilibrium isotherms can indeed be compared. However, for pyridine, pentachlorophenol, naphthalene, and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, the DJ fly ash appears to adsorb these compounds nearly as well as activated carbon. {sup 13}C NMR was used to study the adsorption of hazardous org. cpds on coal fly ash; the nuclear spin relaxation times often were very long, resulting in long experimental times to obtain a spectrum. Using a jumbo probe, low concentrations of some hazardous org. cpds could be detected; for pentachlorophenol adsorbed onto fly ash, the chemical shift of the phenolic carbon was changed. Use of NMR to study the adsorption needs further study.

Netzel, D.A.; Lane, D.C.; Rovani, J.F.; Cox, J.D.; Clark, J.A.; Miknis, F.P.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Coal deposit characterization by gamma-gamma density/percent dry ash relationships  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: pb = C + Va(pa) Equation 3 where C is a constant. Ash content can therefore be geophysically determined as variations In log-derived bulk density measurements are in direct response to variations in ash content. However, when any of the above... by applying the relationships between geophysi cally-derived gamma-gamma density and laboratory-derived percent dry ash. The linear gamma-gamma density/percent dry ash relationship is dependent upon a constant fuel ratio (percent fixed carbon...

Wright, David Scott

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Influence of a Modification of the Petcoke/Coal Ratio on the Leachability of Fly Ash and Slag Produced from a Large PCC Power Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Co-firing of coal with inexpensive secondary fuels such as petroleum coke is expected to increase in the near future in the EU given that it may provide certain economic and environmental benefits with respect to coal combustion. However, changes in the feed fuel composition of power plants may modify the bulk content and the speciation of a number of elements in fly ash and slag. Consequently, leachability of these byproducts also can be modified. This study is focused on identifying the changes in the environmental quality of co-fired fly ash and slag induced by a modification of the petcoke/coal ratio. Petcoke was found to increase the leachable content of V and Mo and to enhance the mobility of S and As. However, with the exception of these elements, the addition of this secondary fuel did not drastically modify the bulk composition or the overall leachability of the resulting fly ash and slag.

Izquierdo,M.; Font, O.; Moreno, N.; Querol, X.; Huggins, F.; Alvarez, E.; Diez, S.; Otero, P.; Ballesteros, J.; Gimenez, A.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

JV Task 5 - Evaluation of Residual Oil Fly Ash As A Mercury Sorbent For Coal Combustion Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mercury adsorption capacity of a residual oil fly ash (ROFA) sample collected form Florida Power and Light Company's Port Everglades Power Plant was evaluated using a bituminous coal combustion flue gas simulator and fixed-bed testing protocol. A size-segregated (>38 {micro}g) fraction of ROFA was ground to a fine powder and brominated to potentially enhance mercury capture. The ROFA and brominated-ROFA were ineffective in capturing or oxidizing the Hg{sup 0} present in a simulated bituminous coal combustion flue gas. In contrast, a commercially available DARCO{reg_sign} FGD initially adsorbed Hg{sup 0} for about an hour and then catalyzed Hg{sup 0} oxidation to produce Hg{sup 2+}. Apparently, the unburned carbon in ROFA needs to be more rigorously activated in order for it to effectively capture and/or oxidize Hg{sup 0}.

Robert Patton

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

211

Ray Penetration Window Technology of Mining Explosion-Proof Instrument for Measuring Ash Content of Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to improve the extraction rate and reduce the gangue content in coal ... control the top-coal caving. The ray penetration window technology breaks through the rules of ... and effectively solves the prob...

Wen-qing Wang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Characteristics of coal ashes in Yanzhou mining district and distribution of trace elements in them  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the process of combustion of coal organic and inorganic materials in it will ... them will become volatiles and, together with coal smoke, enter into atmosphere, some will remain in micro-particulates such as

Guijian Liu; Zicheng Peng; Pingyue Yang; Herong Gui…

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Distribution of hazardous air pollutant trace elements, total sulfur, and ash in coals from five Tertiary basins in the Rocky Mountain Region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Arithmetic mean values of the contents of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) trace elements named in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and uranium), ash, and total sulfur were statistically compared on a whole-coal basis for Paleocene coals from five Tertiary basins in the Rocky Mountain Region. The study of proximate and elemental analyses indicate a relationship between trace element contents and paleogeography.

Ellis, M.S.; Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

214

Synthesis of CFB-Coal Fly Ash Clay Bricks and Their Characterisation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this work was to test CFB-derived fly ash for its potential to ... . Results showed that large-scale production of CFB FA-containing bricks is feasible, as their...

Nikolaos Koukouzas; Chrisovalantis Ketikidis…

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Measurements and Modeling of Coal Ash Deposition in an Entrained-Flow Reactor.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coal plays a significant role in meeting the world’s need for energy and will continue to do so for many years to come. Economic, environmental,… (more)

Blanchard, Ryan P 1980-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Measurements and Modeling of Coal Ash Deposition in an Entrained-Flow Reactor.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coal plays a significant role in meeting the world's need for energy and will continue to do so for many years to come. Economic, environmental,… (more)

Blanchard, Ryan P.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

High ash non-coking coal preparation by tribo-electrostatic dry process.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coal is the single largest fossil fuel used world-wide and accounts for more than 60% of the total commercial energy consumed. Between 60 to 80%… (more)

Ranjan Dwari

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Relationship between selenium body burdens and tissue concentrations in fish exposed to coal ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston spill site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In December 2008, 4.1 million m3 of coal ash were released into the Emory and Clinch Rivers by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant. Coal ash contains several contaminants, including the bioaccumulative metalloid selenium (Se). Because Se is predominantly accumulated in aquatic organisms through dietary, rather than aqueous exposure, tissue-based toxicity thresholds for Se are currently being considered. The proposed threshold concentrations range between 4-9 g/g Se (dry wt.) in whole body fish, with a proposed fillet threshold of 11.8 g/g. In the present study we examined the spatial and temporal trends in Se bioaccumulation and examined the relationship between the Se content in fillets and in whole bodies of fish collected around the Kingston spill site to determine whether Se bioaccumulation was a significant concern at the ash spill site. While Se concentrations in fish (whole bodies and fillets) were elevated at sampling locations affected by the Kingston ash spill relative to reference locations, concentrations do not appear to be above risk thresholds and have not been increasing over the five year period since the spill. Our results are not only relevant to guiding the human health and ecological risk assessments at the Kingston ash spill site, but because of current national discussions on appropriate guidelines for Se in fish as well for the disposal of coal combustion wastes, our results are also relevant to the general understanding of Se bioaccumulation in contaminated water bodies.

Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Jett, Robert T [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Carriker, Neil [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Morris, Jesse G [ORNL; Gable, Jennifer [Environmental Standards, Inc.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Effect of freeze–thaw cycles on the strength and physical properties of cement-stabilised soil containing recycled bassanite and coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Earth materials deteriorate physically under freeze–thaw cycling. It is thus important to determine how freeze–thaw cycling affects their properties of new man-made materials in areas experiencing seasonal frost. The effect of variable freeze–thaw cycling on the durability of cement-stabilised soils containing bassanite and coal ash was quantified to promote the use of bassanite in earthwork project in seasonal frost areas. For this purpose, very soft clay was stabilised with 5% cement content by weight of dry soil, and bassanite and coal ash were mixed with it in differing proportions. These stabilised soil samples were subjected to differing numbers of freeze–thaw cycles (up to five cycles), after curing for 28 days. Unconfined compressive strength and several physical properties were investigated after freeze–thaw cycling. The results show that the addition of both bassanite and coal ash improves the strength and durability of stabilised soils significantly, whereas the addition of coal ash alone has a negative effect on strength improvement. Unconfined compressive strength increases with increased bassanite and coal ash contents. With respect to freezing and thawing durability, the first or second cycles of freeze–thaw action markedly decrease the unconfined compressive strength of both treated and untreated cement-stabilised soils, but further cycles have little additional influence. The use of both additives improves durability, and retains 65–85% strength compared to corresponding non-frozen stabilised soils; if either additive is used, the strength is 55–65%; and if no additives are used, about 50%. The effects of freeze–thaw cycling on water content and dry density are negligible compared to those of additive contents. Volume after freezing increased slightly with increase in the number of freeze–thaw cycles, although volume after thawing fell slightly and reached minimum at the first thawing process.

Toshihide Shibi; Takeshi Kamei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Mercury Capture on Fly Ash and Sorbents: The Effects of Coal Properties and Combustion Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The control of mercury from coal combustion is very dependent upon the flue gas chemistry. The flue gas chemistry is a function of the time–temperature ... duct, etc. However, the flue gas chemistry, and thus mer...

Nick D. Hutson

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin quantitation in stack-collected coal fly ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...TRACE CHEM FIRE SOUR ( 1978...SINCE ADVENT OF FIRE, SAYS DOW...because of the release of fly ash...sources of both airborne and waterborne...in four size fractions (Fl throughF4...sources of both airborne and waterborne...The TCDD fractions were evaporated...Chemistries of Fire-A Source...

BJ Kimble; ML Gross

1980-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

222

CORROSION OF IRON-BASE ALLOYS BY COAL CHAR AT 871 AND 982 C  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Composition of Illinois #6 ash and coal char (6). ASH SiO Zcombustion waste gases and ash Coal can be processed,

Gordon, Bruce Abbott

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

A Novel Method for CO2 Sequestration via Indirect Carbonation of Coal Fly Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The data show that the major Ca-containing phases in the fresh fly ash include lime (CaO), ettringite (3CaO·Al2O3·3CaSO4·32H2O), and anhydrite (CaSO4). ... Lime and ettringite are reactive Ca-containing phases. ... In all the extraction residues, lime and ettringite are not detected, confirming that calcium as lime and ettringite largely dissolved in ammonium salt solutions under the conditions investigated. ...

Lanlan He; Dunxi Yu; Weizhi Lv; Jianqun Wu; Minghou Xu

2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

224

Disposal of boiler ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As more boilers are converted from oil to solid fuels such as coal, the quantity of ash requiring disposal will increase dramatically. The factors associated with the development of land disposal systems for ash landfills are presented, including ash characterization, site selection procedures, design parameters, and costs.

Atwell, J.S.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Sulfur and ash reduction potential and selected chemical and physical properties of United States coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the washability and comprehensive characterization of 975 raw coal channel samples collected from the Eastern, Central, and Western Regions (including Alaska) of the United States. All of this information is sorted in the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Coal Technology Data Base. Individual reports for each region were completed previously as Volumes 1, 2, and 3 and included the detailed data for each of the 975 samples. This report is a summation of the results of those three reports on a state- and region-wide basis only, and does not include the data for individual samples, but only includes the composite data for each state and region. Graphical summations are presented by state, section or rank, and region showing the effects of crushing on impurity reductions and showing the distribution of raw and clean coal samples meeting various levels of SO{sub 2} emissions. The statistical evaluations in the Appendices present the composited washability data of 1.30, 1.40, and 1.60 specific gravities of separation, the selected chemical and physical properties, and the composited washability data interpolated at various levels of Btu recovery. 13 refs., 93 figs., 9 tabs.

Cavallaro, J.A.; Deurbrouck, A.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Fuchs, W. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA)); Jacobsen, P.S. (Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

De-ashing of coal liquids with ceramic membrane microfiltration and diafiltration. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of mineral matter from liquid hydrocarbons derived from the direct liquefaction of coal is required for product acceptability. This program is directed towards development of an improved process for de-ashing and recovery of coal-derived residual oil: the use of ceramic membranes for high-temperature microfiltration and disfiltration. Using laboratory-scale ceramic membrane modules, samples of a coal-derived residual oil containing ash will be processed by crossflow microfiltration, followed by solvent addition and refiltration (disfiltration). Recovery of de-ashed residual oil will be demonstrated. Data from this program will be used to develop a preliminary engineering design and cost estimate for a demonstration pilot plant incorporating full-scale membrane modules. In addition, estimates for production system capital and operating costs will be developed to assess process economic feasibility.The five program tasks include (1) ceramic membrane fabrication, (2) membrane test system assembly, (3) testing of the ceramic membranes, (4) design of a demonstration system using full scale membrane modules, and (5) development of estimates for microfiltration capital and operating costs and assessment of process economic feasibility. A subcontract is being sought with Exxon Research and Engineering (ER+E) to conduct microfiltration and diafiltration with CeraMem`s modules using a coal liquid made at Exxon`s liquefaction facility in Baton Rouge LA. To help plan the test program at Exxon and to anticipate how the CeraMem module many perform, CeraMem made mass balance calculations of a prototypical diafiltration process. These calculations predict that 80% to 90% of the residual oil can be recovered in an ash-free form even with modest ratios (2 to 4) of diafiltration solvent volume to residual oil volume. The calculations also say that no more than three diafiltration stages will likely be economical.

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Influence of a modification of the petcoke/coal ratio on the leachability of fly ash and slag produced from a large PCC power plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Co-firing of coal with inexpensive secondary fuels such as petroleum coke is expected to increase in the near future in the EU given that it may provide certain economic and environmental benefits with respect to coal combustion. However, changes in the feed fuel composition of power plants may modify the bulk content and the speciation of a number of elements in fly ash and slag. Consequently, leachability of these byproducts also can be modified. This study is focused on identifying the changes in the environmental quality of co-fired fly ash and slag induced by a modification of the petcoke/coal ratio. Petcoke was found to increase the leachable content of V and Mo and to enhance the mobility of S and As. However, with the exception of these elements, the addition of this secondary fuel did not drastically modify the bulk composition or the overall leachability of the resulting fly ash and slag. 30 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Maria Izquierdo; Oriol Font; Natalia Moreno (and others) [CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Institute of Earth Sciences 'Jaume Almera'

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL TO LIQUID PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at 900°C. raw Illinois coal, the ash content was quite low.30% from the feed coal on a moisture and ash free basis. In~ Solids (ash, FeSx. , unreacted coal) L . - - - - - - I

Tanner, K.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SUBMICRON PARTICULATES FROM PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Element Enrichment in Fly-Ash During Coal Combustion, Paperof the Mechanism of Fly-Ash Formation in Coal Fired Utilitymatter in the coal is necessarily con- verted to ash during

Pennucci, J.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Use of High-Calcium Fly Ash in Cement-Based Construction Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, total coal ash production in the world was estimated to be 600 million tons, of which 100 million tons with ASTM 618, coal fly ash is classified into two main categories, Class F fly ash (low-calcium) and Class coal, and Class C fly ash is generated from burning of lignite and subbituminous coals. Class F fly ash

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

231

Adsorption properties of coal from the Ishideiskoe deposit, semicokes, and ash and slag wastes from the combustion of coals from Siberia and Sakhalin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of studying the adsorption properties of black coal, semicoke, and waste coals from a number of coal deposits in Irkutsk oblast and Sakhalin and the Irsha-Borodino deposit are reported. The results...

N. G. Vyazova; V. N. Kryukova; L. P. Shaulina; E. A. Pisar’kova…

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash deposits part Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Reading Collection: Geosciences 24 Research Summary RECOAL: Reintegration of coal ash disposal sites and mitigation Summary: being used for coal ash deposits....

233

Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III Year 6 - Activity 1.10 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been conducting research on gasification for six decades. One of the objectives of this gasification research has been to maximize carbon conversion and the water–gas shift process for optimal hydrogen production and syngas quality. This research focus and experience were a perfect fit for the National Center for Hydrogen Technology ® (NCHT®) Program at the EERC for improving all aspects of coal gasification, which ultimately aids in the production and purification of hydrogen. A consortia project was developed under the NCHT Program to develop an improved predictive model for ash formation and deposition under the project entitled “Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III: Development of the CABRE III Model.” The computer-based program is now applicable to the modeling of coal and ash behavior in both entrained-flow and fluidized-bed gasification systems to aid in overall gasification efficiency. This model represents a significant improvement over the CABRE II model and runs on a Microsoft Windows PC platform. The major achievements of the CABRE III model are partitioning of inorganic transformations between various phases for specific gas cleanup equipment; slag property predictions, including standard temperature–viscosity curves and slag flow and thickness; deposition rates in gasification cleanup equipment; provision for composition analysis for all input and output streams across all process equipment, including major elements and trace elements of interest; composition analysis of deposit streams for various deposit zones, including direct condensation on equipment surfaces (Zone A), homogeneous particulate deposition (Zone B), and entrained fly ash deposition (Zone C); and physical removal of ash in cyclones based on D50 cut points. Another new feature of the CABRE III model is a user-friendly interface and detailed reports that are easily exportable into Word documents, Excel spreadsheets, or as pdf files. The user interface provides stepwise guides with built-in checks for efficient entry of required input data on fuels of interest to allow a successful execution of the model. The model was developed with data from several fuels selected by the sponsors, including bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite, and petroleum coke (petcoke). The data from these fuels were obtained using small pilot-scale entrained-flow and fluidized-bed gasifiers at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The CABRE III model is expected to further advance the knowledge base for the NCHT® Program and, more importantly, allow for prediction of the slagging and fouling characteristics of fuels in reducing environments. The information obtained from this program will potentially also assist in maintaining prolonged gasifier operation free from failure or facilitate troubleshooting to minimize downtime in the event of a problem.

Stanislowski, Joshua; Azenkeng, Alexander; McCollor, Donald; Galbreath, Kevin; Jensen, Robert; Lahr, Brent

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

234

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash blended cement Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CLSM mixture utilized... . CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR CEMENT-BASED MATERIALS 2 The major... investigation. Two additional ash ......

235

Novel microorganism for selective separation of coal from ash and pyrite. Second quarterly technical progress report, 1 December 1993--28 February 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to study the effectiveness of a novel hydrophobic microorganism, Mycobacterium phlei (M. phlei), for the selective flocculation of coal from pyrite and ash forming minerals. During the reporting period, the hydrophobicity of different coal samples was studied both in the presence and absence of M. phlei cells. In the absence of M. Phlei, Illinois No. 6 and Pennsylvania No. 8 exhibited higher contact angles as compared to Kentucky No. 9 coal. All the coal samples exhibited a maximum in contact angle around pH 5--7, which roughly coincides with the iso-electric point (iep) of different coals studied in this investigation. In the presence of M. phlei, maximum contact angle shifted to lower pH range of 2--3 which coincides with the iep of the M. phlei. These measurements reinforce the notion that good flocculation of coal with M. phlei can be achieved around pH 2--3. The amount of soluble fraction released during rupturing of M. phlei cells was studied as a function of sonication time. The rupturing experiments showed that the whole cells (unruptured cells) contain nearly 40% by weight of soluble fractions. Also, during the reporting period, the fabrication of the counter-current flocculation device was completed.

Misra, M.; Smith, R.W.; Raichur, A.M.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Coal Combustion Fly Ash Characterization: Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis, Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The surface and bulk properties of five samples of fly ash have been examined by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy...

Rothenberg, S J; Denee, P; Holloway, P

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Pilot Demonstration of Technology for the Production of High Value Materials from the Ultra-Fine (PM2.5) Fraction of Coal Combustion Ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of recovering a very fine fraction of fly ash, that is 5 microns in diameter or less and examining the characteristics of these materials in new or at least less traditional applications. These applications included as a polymer filler or as a 'super' pozzolanic concrete additive. As part of the effort the ash from 6 power plants was investigated and characterized. This work included collection from ESP Hoppers and ponds. The ash was thoroughly characterized chemically and physically. Froth flotation was used to reduce the carbon and testing showed that flotation could effectively reduce carbon to acceptable levels (i.e. 0.5% LOI) for most of the substrates tested. in order to enable eventual use as fillers. Hydraulic classification was used in the separation of the fine ash from the coarse ash. Hydraulic classification requires the ash to be dispersed to be effective and a range of dispersants were tested for adsorption as well as sedimentation rate. A wide range of dosages were required (0.3 to 10 g/kg). In general the ponded ash required less dispersant. A model was developed for hydraulic classification. A pilot-scale hydraulic classifier was also designed and operated for the project. Product yields of up to 21% of feed solids were achieved with recoveries of <5 {micro}m particles as high as 64%. Mean particle sizes (D{sub 50}) of the ultra fine ash (UFA) products varied from 3.7 to 10 {micro}m. A patent was filed on the classifier design. A conceptual design of a Process Demonstration Unit (PDU) with a feed rate of 2 tons of raw ash feed per hour was also completed. Pozzolanic activity was determined for the UFA ashes in mortars. In general the overall strength index was excellent with values of 90% achieved in 3 days and {approx}100% in 7 days. Three types of thermoplastic polymers were evaluated with the UFA as a filler: high density polyethylene, thermoplastic elastomer and polyethylene terphthalate filled polymers were prepared and subjected to SEM analysis to verify that the UFA was well dispersed. The addition of fillers increased the modulus of the HDPE composite, but decreased both the offset yield stress and offset yield strain, showing that the fillers essentially made the composite stiffer but the transition to plastic deformation occurred earlier in filled HDPE as stress was applied. Similar results were obtained with TPE, however, the decrease in either stress or strain at offset yield were not as significant. Dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA) were also completed and showed that although there were some alterations in the properties of the HDPE and TPE, the alterations are small, and more importantly, transition temperatures are not altered. The UFA materials were also tested in expanded urethanes, were improvements were made in the composites strength and stiffness, particularly for lighter weight materials. The results of limited flammability and fire safety testing were encouraging. A flowsheet was developed to produce an Ultra-Fine Ash (UFA) product from reclaimed coal-fired utility pond ash. The flowsheet is for an entry level product development scenario and additional production can be accommodated by increasing operating hours and/or installing replicate circuits. Unit process design was based on experimental results obtained throughout the project and cost estimates were derived from single vendor quotes. The installation cost of this plant is estimated to be $2.1M.

T. L. Robl; J. G. Groppo; R. Rathbone; B. Marrs; R. Jewell

2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

238

THE USE OF FERRIC SULFATE - ACID MEDIA FOR THE DESULFURIZATION OF MODEL COMPOUNDS OF COAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 (W.Va. ) Sulfate Organic Ash (%) Coal (ref. 32) Total Sin slag or bottom ash, coal gasification or liquefaction asthe Sulfur and Ash Content of High-Sulfur Coals by Peroxide-

Clary, Lloyd R.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

INTERACTION OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS WITH A SUBBITUMINOUS COAL BELOW PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from the original dry, ash-free coal; and E is the yield oforiginal dry or dry, ash-free coal charged to the system.6.3% of the original dry, ash-free coal. calculation of the

Dorighi, G.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

THE COMBUSTION OF SOLVENT REPINED COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION FLAME  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

refining, the sulfur and ash levels of coal may be reduced.pressed pulverized coal with significant ash production inin both sulfur and ash in comparison with the parent coal.

Chin, W.K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

COAL LIQUEFACTION STUDIES USING PHOSPHORIC ACID AT MODERATE TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the fact that the treated coal ash amount of not present sion-exchange mechanism. the coal ash structure, The sulfursince intimate catalyst and the coal~ash contacting can be

McLean, J.B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the loss of Zn to the coal ash (which appears to invoLve ionhydrocracking is the catalyst/coal ash interaction typifiedof chlorides of metals found in coal ash is of interest, and

Holten, R.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sulfur plus 10 to 40% of the coal ash. It also increases theto extract most of the coal ash. Heavy metals are alsotons of scrubber and coal ash sludge per year. By 1980, a

Ferrell, G.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Fly ash chemical classification based on lime  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Typically, total lime content (CaO) of fly ash is shown in fly ash reports, but its significance is not addressed in US specifications. For certain applications a low lime ash is preferred. When a class C fly ash must be cementitious, lime content above 20% is required. A ternary S-A-C phase diagram pilot is given showing the location of fly ash compositions by coal rank and source in North America. Fly ashes from subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin usually contain sufficient lime to be cementitious but blending with other coals may result in calcium being present in phases other than tricalcium aluminate. 9 refs., 1 fig.

Fox, J. [BASF Construction Chemicals, LLC (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS MADE WITH COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ash and bottom ash are produced as by-products of coal-fired electricity generation. In many countries coal ashes are by-products of the coal combustion, their properties are influenced by the nature of understanding behavior of masonry products made from coal ashes. The objective of this research program

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

246

An investigation into the hydrothermal processing of coal fly ash to produce zeolite for controlled release fertiliser applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??During the year that concluded prior to the commencement of this PhD (2001) 11.7 million tonnes of fly ash was produced in Australia, of which… (more)

Elliot, Alexander Dean

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Sulfur and ash reduction potential and selected chemical and physical properties of United States coals. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the washability and comprehensive characterization results of 247 raw coal channel samples, including anthracite, bituminous and lignite coals, collected from the Western Region of the United States. Although the Western Region includes Alaska, coal data from this state will often be cited apart from the Western Region data from the lower United States. This is the third of a three volume report on the coals of the United States. All the data are presented in six appendices. Statistical techniques and definitions are presented in Appendix A, and a glossary of terms is presented in Appendix B. The complete washability data and an in-depth characterization of each sample are presented alphabetically by state in Appendix C. In Appendix D, a statistical evaluation is given for the composited washability data, selected chemical and physical properties, and washability data interpolated at various levels of Btu recovery. This presentation is shown by state, section, and region where four or more samples were collected. Appendix E presents coalbed codes and names for the Western Region coals. Graphical summations are presented by state, rank, and region showing the effects of crushing on impurity reductions, and the distribution of raw and clean coal samples meeting various levels of SO{sub 2} emissions. 35 figs., 3 tabs.

Cavallaro, J.A.; Deurbrouck, A.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Fuchs, W. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA). Coal Preparation Div.); Jacobsen, P.S. (Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Does the Addition of Fly Ash to Concrete Present a Radon Hazard? J. A. Siegel1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Street, Suite 450, Austin, Texas, 78701, USA Summary: Fly ash, a waste material from coal-fired power of fly ash [9]. Fly ash is a waste material from coal fired power plants; when added to concrete, fly ashDoes the Addition of Fly Ash to Concrete Present a Radon Hazard? J. A. Siegel1 , M. Juenger1 and J

Siegel, Jeffrey

249

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash slag silica Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 91 By-Products Utilization Summary: pozzolans include coal fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume, and other combustion ashes. When...

250

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash deposition propensities Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ash, fouling, co-combustion 1... ;5 relative compositions of major ash species in coal, ... Source: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute Collection: Renewable Energy 51...

251

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash char deposits Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ash, fouling, co-combustion 1... ;5 relative compositions of major ash species in coal, ... Source: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute Collection: Renewable Energy 86...

252

Characterization of the Thermal Transport Through a Temporally-Varying Ash Layer.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Ash deposits in commercial coal-fired boilers frequently pose serious maintenance challenges and decrease thermal efficiency. A better understanding of fundamental thermal transport properties in ash… (more)

Cundick,Darron Palmer 1979-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashe higher education Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

higher abrasion... Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

254

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash quarterly technical Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

255

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash paving demonstration Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AND DEMONSTRATION... Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

256

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash penurunan kadar Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

257

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashes Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

258

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash ahto lobjakas Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

259

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash based gepolymer Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: . CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR CEMENT-BASED MATERIALS 2 The major... large amounts of conventional or...

260

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash projekt vaendoera Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

262

A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 Geologic Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wt. % Ca, whereas the ash residue of coal combustion aloneCl H N S O Ash Trace Element Concentrations in Coal, ppm dryresidues of coal combustion, i.e. , fly ash and slag, then,

Apps, J.A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Role of Pulverized Coal Ash against Agglomeration, Fouling, and Corrosion in Circulating Fluidized-Bed Boilers Firing Challenging Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mechanisms of fouling and corrosion in biomass combustion have been extensively studied for a long time, and although the basic aspects are well-accepted, the complexity of the details are not yet fully understood. ... (5) In an earlier study, Foster Wheeler tested the effectiveness of different alternative bed materials to counteract the agglomeration induced by high-alkali biomass. ... Figure 4 show SEM/EDX analysis complemented with phase composition calculations (Noran System, NSS 2.3) of loopseal samples from combustion tests, where bed material included both PC-ash and sand. ...

Vesna Bariši?; Kari Peltola; Edgardo Coda Zabetta

2013-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

264

Technology for the Recovery of Fuel and Adsorbent Carbons from Coal Burning Utility Ash Ponds and Landfills  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several sampling techniques were evaluated to recover representative core samples from the ash ponds at Western Kentucky Energy's Coleman Station. The most successful was a combination of continuous-flight augers and specially designed soft-sediment sampling tubes driven by a Hammerhead drill mounted on an amphibious ARGO vehicle. A total of 51 core samples were recovered and analyzed in 3 ft sections and it was determined that there are 1,354,974 tons of ash in Pond C. Of the over 1.35M tons of ash present, 14% or 190K tons can be considered as coarse (+100 mesh). Pond C contains approximately 88K tons of carbon, nearly half of which is coarse and potentially recoverable with spiral concentration while the fine carbon (-100 mesh) is recoverable with froth flotation. There are 1.27M tons of carbon-free ash, 12% of which is coarse and potentially usable as block sand. Spiral concentration testing on bulk samples showed that product grade of 30 to 38% C (4200 to 5500 Btu/lb) was obtainable. When this product was cleaned again in an additional stage of spiral concentration, the product grade was improved to 7200 to 8200 Btu/lb with an accompanying 13 to 29% decrease in yield. Release analysis of hydraulically classified pond ash showed that froth flotation could provide froth products with as high a grade as 9000 Btu/lb with a yield of 5%. Increasing yield to 10% reduced froth grade to 7000 Btu/lb. Batch flotation provided froth grades as high as 6500 Btu/lb with yields of 7% with 1.5 lb/ton SPP and 1 lb/ton frother. Column flotation test results were similar to those achieved in batch flotation in terms of both grade and yield, however, carbon recoveries were lower (<70%). High airflow rate was required to achieve >50% carbon recovery and using wash water improved froth grade. Bottom ash samples were recovered from each of the units at Coleman Station. Characterization confirmed that sufficient quantity and quality of material is generated to produce a marketable lightweight aggregate and recover a high-grade fuel product. Spiral concentration provided acceptable grade lightweight aggregate with yields of only 10 to 20%. Incorporating a sieve bend into the process to recover coarse, porous ash particles from the outside race of the spirals increased aggregate yield to as high as 75%, however, the carbon content of the aggregate also increased. An opening size of 28 mesh on the sieve bend appeared to be sufficient. Lightweight concrete blocks (28 to 32 lbs) were produced from bottom ash and results show that acceptable strength could be attained with a cement/concrete ratio as low as 1/4. A mobile Proof-of-Concept (POC) field unit was designed and fabricated to meet the processing objectives of the project. The POC plant consisted of two trailer-mounted modules and was completely self sufficient with respect to power and water requirements. The POC unit was hauled to Coleman Station and operated at a feed rate of 2 tph. Results showed that the spirals operated similarly to previous pilot-scale operations and a 500 lb composite sample of coarse carbon was collected with a grade of 51.7% C or 7279 Btu/lb. Flotation results compared favorably with release analysis and 500 lbs of composite froth product was collected with a grade of 35% C or 4925 Btu/lb. The froth product was dewatered to 39% moisture with vacuum filtration. Pan pelletization and briquetting were evaluated as a means of minimizing handling concerns. Rotary pan pelletization produced uniform pellets with a compressive strength of 4 lbf without the use of any binder. Briquettes were produced by blending the coarse and fine carbon products at a ratio of 1:10, which is the proportion that the two products would be produced in a commercial operation. Using 3% lime as a binder produced the most desirable briquettes with respect to strength, attrition and drop testing. Additionally, the POC carbon products compared favorably with commercial activated carbon when used for removal of mercury from simulated flue gas. A business model was generated to summarize anti

J.G. Groppo; T.L. Robl

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

265

Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant`s remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash forming acid-resistant Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

European Summer Fly Ash Workshop," Warsaw, Poland, June 2005. Department... combustion of coal in conventional and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. These include fly...

267

Characterization and modeling of toxic fly ash constituents in the environment.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coal fly ash is a by-product of coal combustion that has drawn renewed public scrutiny due to the negative environmental impacts from accidental release of… (more)

Zhu, Zhenwei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

ASH EMISSIVITY CHARACTERIZATION AND PREDICTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increased use of western subbituminous coals has generated concerns regarding highly reflective ash disrupting heat transfer in the radiant zone of pulverized-fuel boilers. Ash emissivity and reflectivity is primarily a function of ash particle size, with reflective deposits expected to consist of very small refractory ash materials such as CaO, MgO, or sulfate materials such as Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. For biomass fuels and biomass-coal blends, similar reflectivity issues may arise as a result of the presence of abundant organically associated calcium and potassium, which can transform during combustion to fine calcium, and potassium oxides and sulfates, which may act as reflective ash. The relationship of reflectivity to ash chemistry is a second-order effect, with the ash particle size distribution and melting point being determined by the size and chemistry of the minerals present in the starting fuel. Measurement of the emission properties of ash and deposits have been performed by several research groups (1-6) using both laboratory methods and measurements in pilot- and full-scale combustion systems. A review of the properties and thermal properties of ash stresses the important effect of ash deposits on heat transfer in the radiant boiler zone (1).

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Charlene R. Crocker

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Analysis of Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in Fly Ash from a Waste Incineration Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Article | 0 Benzofurans 0 Coal Ash 0 Particulate Matter...purification Carbon chemistry Coal Ash Gas Chromatography-Mass...Education,Departmentof Chemistry,42099 Konya,Turkey...obtained from various combustion processes.The combustionprocess......

Mustafa Pehlivan; Erol Pehlivan; Hüseyin Kara

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

SINGLE ELEMENT TEST PREDICTIONS FOR STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR OF PANKI FLY-ASH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Fly-ash is a waste product produced by burning of coal at thermal power plants. It is often used. Introduction Fly-ash is a fine powdery material, produced by burning of coal at thermal power plants. Fly

Prashant, Amit

272

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash silica fume Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

,and Bruce W. Ramme CBU-1996-08 REP-283 July 1996 Presented andPublished at the American Coal Ash Association... 's Twelfth International Coal Ash Use Symposium,Orlando,FL,January...

273

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash utilization symposium Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... ") UTILIZING CLEAN-COAL ASH 1 This project was for the...

274

ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. INTERACTION OF ORGANIC SOLVENT WITH A SUBBITUMINOUS COAL BELOW PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

just 51% of the coal on a dry, ash free basis. thatextracted 8.7% (dry, ash free basis) of the coal at 250 0 CAsh % Oxygen (difference) HIC Molcular Ratio Table II. Analysis of Roland Seam Coal

Lindsey, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Experimental Study on Ash-Returned Reactor of CFB Atmospheric Air Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In an attempt to improve the gasification efficiency and decrease the carbon content in fly ash of atmospheric air CFB gasifiers, an innovatory equipment by name ash-returned ... ash, and hence the coal conversio...

Zhang Shihong; Tian Luning; Zhou Xianrong…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Trace elements in brown coal and its products of combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Concentrations of 38 elements in brown coal, bottom ash and size fractionated ESP coal ash from the Belchatów I Power Plant were determined by INAA. Based on enrichment factors calculated relatively to iron an...

U. Tomza; P. Kaleta

1986-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

277

Settlement of footing on compacted ash bed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Compacted coal ash fills exhibit capillary stress due to contact moisture and preconsolidation stress due to the compaction process. As such, the conventional methods of estimating settlement of footing on cohesionless soils based on penetration tests become inapplicable in the case of footings on coal ash fills, although coal ash is also a cohesionless material. Therefore, a method of estimating load-settlement behavior of footings resting on coal ash fills accounting for the effect of capillary and preconsolidation stresses is presented here. The proposed method has been validated by conducting plate load tests on laboratory prepared compacted ash beds and comparing the observed and predicted load-settlement behavior. Overestimation of settlement greater than 100% occurs when capillary and preconsolidation stresses are not accounted for, as is the case in conventional methods.

Ramasamy, G.; Pusadkar, S.S. [IIT Roorkee, Roorkee (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

Coal Science: Basic Research Opportunities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...carbon is arranged in coal becomes real. What...NMR experiments at high temperatures. This...of characterizing high-boiling coal "liquids" which...reactions. Coal mineral matter. Most U.S. coals...burned is called ash. Techniques are...

Martin L. Gorbaty; Franklin J. Wright; Richard K. Lyon; Robert B. Long; Richard H. Schlosberg; Zeinab Baset; Ronald Liotta; Bernard G. Silbernagel; Dan R. Neskora

1979-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

279

Direct utilization - recovery of minerals from coal fly ash. Fossil Energy Program. Technical progress report, 1 July 1984-30 September 1984 including summary of work for FY84  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research discussed in this report deals with resource recovery from coal conversion solid wastes. Progress is reported on two methods (the HiChlor and Lime-Sinter processes) for extracting metal values from power plant fly ash. Preliminary work is also reported on a method of making cement from the residue of the lime-sinter process. In the HiChlor Process, metal oxides in the fly ash are converted to volatile chlorides by reaction with chlorine in the presence of a reductant. Several versions of this approach are being investigated. The Lime-Sinter Process utilizes a solid state reaction to selectively convert the alumina in fly ash to a soluble form. Fly ash is mixed with limestone and a suitable mineralizer (to reduce the temperature required for sintering and to enhance alumina recovery) and then sintered in a high temperature kiln. Alumina is recovered by leaching the resulting clinker. A complex relationship between the calcium, alumina, silica, and sulfur constituents in the feed mixture controls the formation and extraction of aluminate compounds. Alumina recovery levels are enhanced by promoting the formation of less-soluble calcium compounds and/or more-soluble aluminum compounds. A study is underway to determine the degree to which flue gas scrubber sludge can be used both as a limestone substitute and as a sulfur bearing mineralizer. Results show that 20 to 25% of the limestone can be provided by the scrubber sludges. 25 refs.,25 figs., 10 tabs.

Burnet, G.; Murtha, M.J.; Benson, J.D.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

THE EFFECT OF COAL CHAR ON THE CORROSION OF 304 SS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Illinois #6 Ash and Coal Char ASH Si0 2 A1 0 Fe 0 CaO MgOatm. Thus, the effect of the ash in coal char on the sulfurand ash formed in the Synthane process from Illinois #6 coal,

Foerster, Thomas Friedrich Wilhelm

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

PILOT DEMONSTRATION OF TECHNOLOGY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HIGH VALUE MATERIALSFROM THE ULTRA-FINE (PM2.5)FRACTION OF COAL COMBUSTION ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dry fly ash samples were collected from 6 of the7 largest power plants operated by Louisville Gas and Electric Company (LG&E). Samples were taken from individual ESP hoppers in a continuous flow through stages of particulate collection. A total of 41 samples were taken from 16 operating units. The samples were thoroughly characterized for pertinent physical and chemical composition. The fly ash samples contained 10 to 50% -10{micro}m material, with higher concentrations of finer particles located in the latter stages of particulate collection. Flotation evaluation was conducted on a continuous flow though a single unit at each power station to assess the viability of using froth flotation to reduce the LOI in the fly ash to very low levels (i.e. 0.5% LOI) in order to enable eventual use as fillers. Ash from all of the units tested responded favorably with the exception of the ash from Henderson Station, which is attributed to a significant proportion of un-combusted or partially-combusted petroleum coke in the ash at this station, Bulk samples of dry ash and pond ash were also collected from Mill Creek, Trimble County, E.W. Brown and Coleman power plants and evaluated for carbon removal by froth flotation. Release analyses showed that flotation could effectively reduce carbon to acceptable levels for most of the substrates tested. The exception was the Mill Creek ashes. The cause of this exception will be further investigated.

T.L. Robl; J.G. Groppo

2004-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

282

Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Elevated Trace Element Concentrations in Southern Toads, Bufo terrestris, Exposed to Coal Combustion Waste  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and behavioral abnormalities in amphibians to coal combustion wastes (coal ash). Few studies, however, have determined trace element concentrations in amphibians exposed to coal ash. In the current study we compare high levels of selenium and may be useful bioindicators in agricultural and coal ash-impacted habitats

Hopkins, William A.

284

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced coal preparation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... investigation. Two additional ash samples were prepared by...

285

Rapid Analysis of PAHs in Fly Ash Using Thermal Desorption and Fast GC-TOF-MS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Department of Chemistry, Western...of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology...Carbon chemistry Coal Ash Gas Chromatography-Mass...incomplete combustion of organic...Department of Chemistry, Western...of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology......

Daozhong Zou; Kunlei Liu; Wei-Ping Pan; John T. Riley; Yiqan Xu

286

NETL: Utilization Projects - Managing High-Carbon Ash  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Managing High-Carbon Ash Managing High-Carbon Ash Task 1: Effect of Coal Quality The objective of this task is to assess if fuel selection is an important factor determining ash quality. Work on this task will involve each of the three participating organizations. Ash samples from three coals will be generated under identical firing conditions in the pilot furnace at the University of Utah, and the matching ash and coal samples sent to Brown. Additional matching sets of coal and ash will be obtained from commercial-scale firing at Southern Company. The ashes will be characterized for LOI and surfactant adsorption activity under standard conditions and trends with fuel type identified. At the same time, chars will be prepared from the matching coal set under standard conditions in a laboratory furnace and also characterized for surfactant adsorptivity. A variety of standard conditions may need to be explored. The combined data set will be analyzed to determine cross correlations between ash behavior, standard laboratory char behavior, and parent coal properties. Our goal is to be able to anticipate ash behavior either (a) from coal properties directly, or (b) from the properties of chars made by a simple laboratory procedure. Either could be the basis for a coal quality index -- one based on fuel properties and the other based on a simple screening test.

287

Petrographic characterization of economizer fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Policies for reducing NOx emissions have led power plants to restrict O{sub 2}, resulting in high-carbon fly ash production. Therefore, some potentially useful fly ash, such as the economizer fly ash, is discarded without a thorough knowledge of its composition. In order to characterize this type of fly ash, samples were collected from the economizer Portuguese power plant burning two low-sulfur bituminous coals. Characterization was also performed on economizer fly ash subsamples after wet sieving, density and magnetic separation. Analysis included atomic absorption spectroscopy, loss-on-ignition, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Soares, S.; Guedes, A.; Garcia, C.; Flores, D.; Oliveira, A. [University of Porto, Oporto (Portugal). Center of Geology

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

288

Developing Engineered Fuel (Briquettes) Using Fly Ash from the Aquila Coal-Fired Power Plant in Canon City and Locally Available Biomass Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to explore the feasibility of producing engineered fuels from a combination of renewable and non renewable energy sources. The components are flyash (containing coal fines) and locally available biomass waste. The constraints were such that no other binder additives were to be added. Listed below are the main accomplishments of the project: (1) Determination of the carbon content of the flyash sample from the Aquila plant. It was found to be around 43%. (2) Experiments were carried out using a model which simulates the press process of a wood pellet machine, i.e. a bench press machine with a close chamber, to find out the ideal ratio of wood and fly ash to be mixed to get the desired briquette. The ideal ratio was found to have 60% wood and 40% flyash. (3) The moisture content required to produce the briquettes was found to be anything below 5.8%. (4) The most suitable pressure required to extract the lignin form the wood and cause the binding of the mixture was determined to be 3000psi. At this pressure, the briquettes withstood an average of 150psi on its lateral side. (5) An energy content analysis was performed and the BTU content was determined to be approximately 8912 BTU/lb. (6) The environmental analysis was carried out and no abnormalities were noted. (7) Industrial visits were made to pellet manufacturing plants to investigate the most suitable manufacturing process for the briquettes. (8) A simulation model of extrusion process was developed to explore the possibility of using a cattle feed plant operating on extrusion process to produce briquettes. (9) Attempt to produce 2 tons of briquettes was not successful. The research team conducted a trial production run at a Feed Mill in La Junta, CO to produce two (2) tons of briquettes using the extrusion process in place. The goal was to, immediately after producing the briquettes; send them through Aquila's current system to test the ability of the briquettes to flow through the system without requiring any equipment or process changes. (10) Although the above attempt failed, the plant is still interested in producing briquettes. (11) An economic analysis of investing in a production facility manufacturing such briquettes was conducted to determine the economic viability of the project. Such a project is estimated to have an internal rate of return of 14% and net present value of about $400,000. (12) An engineering independent study class (4 students) is now working on selecting a site near the power plant and determining the layout of the future plant that will produce briquettes.

H. Carrasco; H. Sarper

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

289

Coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Wastewater remediation using coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...?Small-scale domestic septic tanks discharge excess nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen, as well as pathogens, which can degrade local water supplies. Unfortunately, traditional chemical and physical tre...

D. W. Kirk; C. Q. Jia; J. Yan…

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Investigation into ash related issues during co-combustion of coal and biomass: Development of a co-firing advisory tool.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The co-firing technology of coal with biomass has been implemented to enhance the usage of biomass in power generation, thus reducing the release of greenhouse… (more)

Arun Kumar, Veena Doshi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Factors Controlling the Solubility of Mercury Adsorbed on Fly Ash  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

N:\R&D_Projects_Partial\FlyAsh&CCBs\Meetings\2005_04_WorldOfCoalAsh\AnnKim\HgSol N:\R&D_Projects_Partial\FlyAsh&CCBs\Meetings\2005_04_WorldOfCoalAsh\AnnKim\HgSol ubility_Paper.doc Factors Controlling the Solubility of Mercury Adsorbed on Fly Ash Ann G. Kim 1 and Karl Schroeder 2 1 ORISE Research Fellow, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, 626 Cochrans Mill Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 2 Research Group Leader, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, 626 Cochrans Mill Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 KEYWORDS Coal Utilization By-Products, leaching, activated carbon, pH ABSTRACT It is expected that increased controls on Hg emissions will shift the environmental burden from the flue gas to the solid coal utilization by-products (CUB), such as fly ash and flue-gas

293

ULTRA CLEAN COAL PRODUCTION USING DENSE MEDIUM SEPARATION FOR THE SILICON MARKET.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The production of high quality silicon requires the use of ultraclean coal containing less than 1.5% ash. The magnetite used to clean the coal in… (more)

Amini, Seyed Hassan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

S. W. Clark and H. M Sulloway

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

295

Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

S. W. Clark and H. M. Sulloway

2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

296

ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

NONE

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Adsorption Behavior of CO2 in Coal and Coal Char  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coals of diverse characteristics have been chosen to provide a better understanding on the influence of various coal properties, such as maceral, volatile matter, and ash contents. ... In addition, char samples from two of these coals (a non-coking coal A and a coking coal B) were prepared by pyrolysis at 800 and 1000 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere and were tested for CO2 adsorption capacity. ... As stated earlier, virgin coal samples considered for the adsorption measurements include coals A, C, and D, which are of low-, high-, and medium-volatile sub-bituminous rank, respectively. ...

Shanmuganathan Ramasamy; Pavan Pramod Sripada; Md Moniruzzaman Khan; Su Tian; Japan Trivedi; Rajender Gupta

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Proximate analysis of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A. [University of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (USA)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

299

Electricity from coal and utilization of coal combustion by-products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most electricity in the world is conventionally generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Due to environmental concerns, there is a growing interest in alternative energy sources for heat and electricity production. The major by-products obtained from coal combustion are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials. The solid wastes produced in coal-fired power plants create problems for both power-generating industries and environmentalists. The coal fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

Demirbas, A. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

High-Sulfur Coal for Generating Electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...amounts of coal, because...Director-Mineral Re-sources...of Gas from Coal through a...on coals of high ash-fusion temperature...per ton of high-sulfur coal burned. Absorp-tion...particulate matter as well as...capable of remov-ing up to...

James T. Dunham; Carl Rampacek; T. A. Henrie

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Investigation Of Synergistic NOx Reduction From Cofiring And Air Staged Combustion Of Coal And Low Ash Dairy Biomass In A 30 Kilowatt Low NOx Furnace  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alternate, cost effective disposal methods must be developed for reducing phosphorous and nitrogen loading from land application of animal waste. Cofiring coal with animal waste, termed dairy biomass (DB), is the proposed thermo-chemical method...

Lawrence, Benjamin Daniel

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Ultrasonic ash/pyrite liberation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop a coal preparation concept which employed ultrasonics to precondition coal prior to conventional or advanced physical beneficiation processes such that ash and pyrite separation were enhanced with improved combustible recovery. Research activities involved a series of experiments that subjected three different test coals, Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Upper Freeport, ground to three different size fractions (28 mesh [times] 0, 200 mesh [times] 0, and 325 mesh [times] 0), to a fixed (20 kHz) frequency ultrasonic signal prior to processing by conventional and microbubble flotation. The samples were also processed by conventional and microbubble flotation without ultrasonic pretreatment to establish baseline conditions. Product ash, sulfur and combustible recovery data were determined for both beneficiation processes.

Yungman, B.A.; Buban, K.S.; Stotts, W.F.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

LOW-COST, HIGH-PERFORMANCE MATERIALS USING ILLINOIS COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conventional and clean coal technologies. This project was primarily directed toward developing concrete, mineralogical, and microstructural properties. A clean coal ash is defined as the ash derived from SO2 control technologies. Based on these properties, two sources of both conventional and clean coal ashes were selected

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

304

On-site field tests for study of low-rank western coal fly ash. Technical summary report, field test No. 3. Big Brown Station electrostatic precipitator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of field and laboratory studies of combined NH/sub 3/ and SO/sub 3/ conditioning at the Big Brown Station of Texas Utilities Generating Company. This unusual combination of conditioning agents is used routinely at the Big Brown Station in order to improve the performance of the cold-side electrostatic precipitators. The primary objectives of this field study were to evaluate the performance of one of the Big Brown precipitators, and to obtain data on the concentration, composition, and size distribution of the fly ash, as well as the composition of the flue gas and the overall and fractional collection efficiencies of the precipitator. The laboratory studies of the Big Brown fly ash were intended to further characterize the ash both physically and chemically, and to study the attenuation of the electrical resistivity of the ash associated with the surface film produced by the dual conditioning process and by the use of SO/sub 3/ conditioning alone. 6 references, 22 figures, 9 tables.

Dahlin, R. S.; Bickelhaupt, R. E.; Marchant, Jr., G. H.; Gooch, J. P.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

PILOT DEMONSTRATION OF TECHNOLOGY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HIGH VALUE MATERIALS FROM THE ULTRA-FINE (PM 2.5) FRACTION OF COAL COMBUSTION ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Broad range dispersants, including naphthalene sulfonate-formaldehyde condensates (NSF) and polycarboxylate based products, were tested on both wet and dry fly ash samples from the LG&E Energy Corp. plants in the study. Tests included both total adsorption and measurement of sedimentation rate via time density relationships. A wide range of dosages were required, ranging from 0.3 to 10 g/kg. In general the ponded ash required less dispersant. Leaching tests of 5% ash solutions by weight revealed a wide range of soluble salts to be present in the ash, and found a relationship between calcium ion concentration and dispersant dosage requirement. Other parameters measured included SO{sub 4}, Cl, F, NO{sub 3}, PO{sub 4}, Al, Ca, Mg, K, Na and alkalinity. An assessment was made of the available software to digitally model the overall process circuit. No prefabricated digital model was found for hydraulic classification or froth flotation. Work focused on building a model for hydraulic classification in an Excel spread sheet based on Stokes Law. A pilot plant scale hydraulic classifier was fabricated and operated. The performance of the hydraulic classifier was found to be forecastable within reasonable bounds, and work to improve both are ongoing.

T.L. Robl; K.R. Henke; J.G. Groppo

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Pilot Demonstration of Technology for the Production of High Value Materials from the Ultra-Fine (PM 2.5) Fraction of Coal Combustion Ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work on the project focused on the determination of the hydraulic classification characteristics of the Coleman and Mill Creek ashes. The work utilized the hydraulic classifier developed earlier in the project. Testing included total yield, recovery of <5 {micro}m ash diameter particles and LOI partitioning as functions of dispersant dosage and type, retention time and superficial velocity. Yields as high as 21% with recoveries of up to 2/3 of the <5 {micro}m ash fractions were achieved. Mean particle size (D{sub 50}) of varied from 3.7 to 10 {micro}m. The ashes were tested for there pozzolanic activity in mortars as measured by strength activity index using ASTM criteria. Additional testing included air entrainment reagent demand and water requirements. The classified products all performed well, demonstrating excellent early strength development in the mortars. Some increased air entrainment demand was noted. The conceptual design of a process demonstration unit PDU was also completed. A flexible, trailer-mounted field unit is envisioned.

T.L. Robl; J.G. Groppo; Robert Rathebone

2005-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

307

Leaching and standing water characteristics of bottom ash and composted manure blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal burning electrical generating facilities produce roughly 91 million metric tons of ash byproducts annually. Typically, this ash is retained at the power plant sites, adding to the cost of managing wastes at the plants. Another waste material...

Mathis, James Gregory

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated fly ash Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 9 By-Products Utilization Summary: CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Rafat Siddique... of...

309

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashing dry Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Shrinkage of Non-Air Entrained HRWRA Concrete -0.05% 0.00% 0.05% 0... NS3, 33% Clean Coal Ash, 5% Class F Fly Ash Fig. 15 - ... Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of -...

310

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashing wet Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 4 By-Products Utilization Summary: A3, containing 20% clean coal ash and 5% wet collected Class F ash had compressive strengths... 0 Center for...

311

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash material analisis Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

was used in this work. An ASTM Class F fly ash... , and N3) were proportioned with clean coal fly ash containing 22% ... Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department...

312

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash dispersion utilizing Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R... , utilization rate of such ashes is much lower compared to a...

313

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali-activated fly ash Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering ; Materials Science 12 By-Products Utilization Summary: CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Rafat Siddique... of...

314

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashes total contents Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fly ash content for normal concrete... contained fly ash up to a maximum of 35% of clean-coal ... Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department of Civil Engineering and...

315

The fluidized bed combustion ash management puzzle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the electric and industrial power generation industry upgrades and expands, the amount of coal and other solid fuels also expands. With increased environmental controls, the introduction of a competitive market for power, and the increased interest in opportunity fuels will increase the usage of Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) boilers in the power industry. The combustion of these solid fuels will generate combustion ashes. Power generators, including FBC boilers owners, have traditionally looked to landfills for the disposal of their ash. With the tighter environmental controls being placed on landfills at the federal and state level, power generators are beginning to see constantly escalating tipping fees which now make the landfill option less attractive. In some instances, landfills are beginning to refuse to accept ash regardless of the tipping fee. In view of this, the power generators are now struggling to find a place to store or dispose of the ash that is produced by their power boiler. Other disposal alternatives such as backhaul to the mine and beneficial reuse are now being considered. Either alternative presents its own set of technical and environmental variables to be considered in developing an effective ash management plan. To be effective, these plans need to incorporate an aggressive, yet realistic, role to support beneficial reuse of the ash. Many applications exist for reuse of the various types of ash. The applications for conventional ashes such as those from pulverized coal boilers and stoker fired boilers are mature and more commonplace. The uses for FBC ash are not as well researched and demonstrated and therefore the marketing opportunities for FBC ash continue to require development. FBC boiler owners and operators must be willing to accept the challenges posed in developing these reuse applications for FBC ash for the market to accept the applications for FBC ash and allow the full value of the FBC ash to be realized.

Fitzgerald, H.B. [ReUse Technology, Inc., Kennesaw, GA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

316

Nuclear War  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several chapters in Last Aid warrant the attention of the medical profession. What is known and not known about acute biologic effects following a nuclear explosion is described. The social, physical, and environmental impact of nuclear war on urban population centers is described. How nuclear weapons could affect the composition of the ozone layer and the effects this could have on human survival, including possible interruption of the aquatic ecosystem to produce single-cell organisms for the food cycle, especially seafood is noted.

MacLeod, G.K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Quality fluctuations of coking coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The quality fluctuations of coal from different sources is assessed, in terms of technical analysis, petrographic analysis, and plastometric data. Considerable fluctuations are seen in the moisture, ash, and s...

V. P. Lyalyuk; V. P. Sokolova; I. A. Lyakhova; D. A. Kassim

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Growth and elemental accumulation of plants grown in acidic soil amended with coal fly ash-sewage sludge co-compost  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth and heavy-metal accumulation of Brassica chinensis and Agropyron elongatum in 10 and 25% ash-sludge co-compost (ASC)-amended loamy acidic soil (pH 4.51) at two different application rates: 20% and 40% (v/v). Soil pH increased, whereas electrical conductivity decreased with the amendment of ASC to soil. Bioavailable Cu, Zn, and Mn contents of ASC-amended soil decreased, whereas Ni, Pb, and B contents increased. Concentrations of bioavailable Cu, Zn, and Mn in sludge compost (SC)-amended soils were 5.57, 20.8, and 8.19 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. These concentrations were significantly lower than those in soil receiving an application rate of 20 or 25% ASC as 2.64, 8.48, and 5.26 mg kg(-1), respectively. Heavy metals and B contents of the composting mass significantly increased with an increase in ASC application rate from 20 to 40% (6.2 to 16.6 mg kg{sup -1} for 10% ASC- and 9.4 to 18.6 mg kg{sup -1} for 25% ASC-amended soil. However, when the ash content in co-compost increased from 10 to 25% during composting, bioavailable heavy-metal contents decreased. However, B contents increased with an increase in ash content. Addition of co-composts increased the dry-weight yield of the plants, and this increase was more obvious as the ash amendment rate in the co-composts and the ASC application rate increased. In case of B. chinensis, the biomass of 2.84 g/plant for 40% application of 25% ASC was significantly higher than SC (0.352 g/plant), which was 40% application of 10% ASC (0.434 g/plant) treatments. However, in A. elongatum, the differences between biomass of plants grown with 10% (1.34-1.94 g/ plant) and 25% ASC (2.12-2.21 g/plant) were not significantly different. ASC was favorable in increasing the growth of B. chinensis and A. elongatum. The optimal ash amendment to the sludge composting and ASC application rates were at 25 and 20%, respectively.

Wong, J.W.C.; Selvam, A. [Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

320

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash quality recycling Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... CANMET Conference on Quality of Concrete Structures and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Chemical comminution of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the present research is to study the chemical reactivity of a mixture of methyl alcohol and aqueous sodium hydroxide solution in the temperature range 298 to 363 K, and a caustic concentration of 0 to 10 wt. %, on an Iowa bituminous coal. The sample studied was collected from coal zone 4, equivalent to most historical references to Laddsdale coal. The coals in this zone are typical high-sulfur, high-ash middle Pennsylvania Cherokee group coals. The apparent rank is high-volatile C bituminous coal. The relatively high content of sulfur and 23 other elements in these coals is related to near neutral (6-8) pH conditions in the depositional and early diagenetic environments, and to postdepositional sphalerite/calcite/pyrite/kaolinite/barite mineralization.

Mamaghani, A.H.; Beddow, J.K.; Vetter, A.F.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Coal-oil slurry preparation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Characteristics of coking coal burnout  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An attempt was made to clarify the characteristics of coking coal burnout by the morphological analysis of char and fly ash samples. Laboratory-scale combustion testing, simulating an ignition process, was carried out for three kinds of coal (two coking coals and one non-coking coal for reference), and sampled chars were analyzed for size, shape and type by image analysis. The full combustion process was examined in industrial-scale combustion testing for the same kinds of coal. Char sampled at the burner outlet and fly ash at the furnace exit were also analyzed. The difference between the char type, swelling properties, agglomeration, anisotropy and carbon burnout were compared at laboratory scale and at industrial scale. As a result, it was found that coking coals produced chars with relatively thicker walls, which mainly impeded char burnout, especially for low volatile coals.

Nakamura, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Bailey, J.G. [Univ. of Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

324

Role of Fly Ash in the Removal of Organic Pollutants from Wastewater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In India the problem is further compounded by the use of wet fly ash collection systems by a large number of power plants, which results in degradation of the pozzolanic characteristics of ash, an essential ingredient for several ash-based products. ... To accommodate the many new subbituminous fly ashes, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) established two classes of fly ash, Class F from bituminous coal and Class C from subbituminous and lignite coal. ... Thermal power plant waste material (bottom ash) was utilized as a potential adsorbent for the textile dye malachite green. ...

M. Ahmaruzzaman

2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

325

Annual book of ASTM Standards 2008. Section Five. Petroleum products, lubricants, and fossil fuels. Volume 05.06. Gaseous fuels; coal and coke  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first part covers standards for gaseous fuels. The second part covers standards on coal and coke including the classification of coals, determination of major elements in coal ash and trace elements in coal, metallurgical properties of coal and coke, methods of analysis of coal and coke, petrogrpahic analysis of coal and coke, physical characteristics of coal, quality assurance and sampling.

NONE

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

Annual book of ASTM Standards 2005. Section Five. Petroleum products, lubricants, and fossil fuels. Volume 05.06. Gaseous fuels; coal and coke  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first part covers standards for gaseous fuels. The standard part covers standards on coal and coke including the classification of coals, determination of major elements in coal ash and trace elements in coal, metallurgical properties of coal and coke, methods of analysis of coal and coke, petrographic analysis of coal and coke, physical characteristics of coal, quality assurance and sampling.

NONE

2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

Coal combustion products 2007 production and use report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The American Coal Ash Association's 2007 Annual Coal Combustion Products (CCP) are derived from data from more than 170 power plants. The amount of CCPs used was 40.55%, a decrease of 2.88% from 2006, attributed to reduced fuel burn and a decrease in demand in the building industry. Figures are given for the production of fly ash, flue gas desulfurization gypsum, bottom ash, FBC ash and boiler slag. The article summarises results of the survey. 1 ref., 1 tab.

NONE

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Coal competition: prospects for the 1980s  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report consists of 10 chapters which present an historical overview of coal and the part it has played as an energy source in the economic growth of the United States from prior to World War II through 1978. Chapter titles are: definition of coals, coal mining; types of coal mines; mining methods; mining work force; development of coal; mine ownership; production; consumption; prices; exports; and imports. (DMC)

Not Available

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

CORROSION OF Fe-10Al-Cr ALLOYS BY COAL CHAR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Potent.ials Encountered in Coal Conversion Systems", NASA TNof Illinois #6 ash and coal char. Figure 1. Cross sectionsof Fe-lOAl-Cr Alloys by Coal Char B. A. Gordon and V.

Gordon, B.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Coal combustion by-products: State regulatory overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal combustion by-products (CCBs) are generated from the combustion of coal for energy production. Approximately 82 million tons of CCBs are produced each year by electric utilities. (1991 Coal Combustion By-Product Production and Use, American Coal Ash Association, 1992.) There are several common types of CCBs produced by coal combustion--fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, flue gas desulfurization material (FGD) and fluidized bed combustion byproducts (FBC). Some CCBs, such as fly ash, have pozzolanic properties and may have cementitious properties, both of which are advantageous for engineering, construction and waste remediation applications. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) in ASTM C-618 has created two classifications of useful and quality coal ash, Class F ash and Class C ash. Each class of coal ash has different pozzolanic and cementitious characteristics. Coal ash can be utilized in many manufacturing, mining, agricultural, engineering, construction and waste remediation applications. This is a review by state of regulations concerning coal combustion by-products.

Jagiella, D. [Howard and Howard Attorneys, Peoria, IL (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority`s newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective.

Not Available

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Eco-friendly fly ash utilization: potential for land application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increase in demand for power in domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors has increased the pressure on coal combustion and aggravated the problem of fly ash generation/disposal. Consequently the research targeting effective utilization of fly ash has also gained momentum. Fly ash has proved to be an economical substitute for expensive adsorbents as well as a suitable raw material for brick manufacturing, zeolite synthesis, etc. Fly ash is a reservoir of essential minerals but is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. By amending fly ash with soil and/or various organic materials (sewage sludge, bioprocess materials) as well as microbial inoculants like mycorrhizae, enhanced plant growth can be realized. Based on the sound results of large scale studies, fly ash utilization has grown into prominent discipline supported by various internationally renowned organizations. This paper reviews attempts directed toward various utilization of fly ash, with an emphasis on land application of organic/microbial inoculants amended fly ash.

Malik, A.; Thapliyal, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Mineral associations in coal and their transformation during gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The principle aim of this investigation was to determine the effect that minerals and mineral associations in dense medium coal fractions have on the ash fusion temperature (AFT) of coal, where the mineral matter...

F. B. Waanders; A. Govender

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Coal cleaning program for Kazakstan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1992 the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) started sponsoring general projects in the Energy and Environmental Sector to improve health and well-being, to improve the efficiency of the existing fuel and energy base, and to assist in the establishment of a strong private sector. Coal Cleaning Program, covered in this report, is one of the recently completed projects by Burns and Roe, which is a prime USAID contractor in the field of energy and environment for the NIS. The basis for coal cleaning program is that large coal resources exist in northeast Kazakstan and coal represents the major fuel for heat and electricity generation at present and in the foreseeable future. The coal mined at Karaganda and Ekibastuz, the two main coal mining areas of Kazakstan, currently contains up to 55% ash, whereas most boilers in Kazakstan are designed to fire a coal with an ash content no greater than 36%. The objective of the task was to determine optimum, state-of-the-art coal cleaning and mining processes which are applicable to coals in Kazakstan considering ultimate coal quality of 36% ash, environmental quality, safety and favorable economics.

Popovic, N. [Burns and Roe Enterprises, Oradell. NJ (United States); Daley, D.P. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Jacobsen, P.S. [Jacobsen (P. Stanley), Littleton, CO (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

335

Low-rank coal oil agglomeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

336

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Fusibility and sintering characteristics of ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The temperature characteristics of ash fusibility are studied for a wide range of bituminous and brown coals, lignites, and shales with ratios R{sub B/A} of their alkaline and acid components between 0.03 and 4. Acritical value of R{sub B/A} is found at which the fusion temperatures are minimal. The sintering properties of the ashes are determined by measuring the force required to fracture a cylindrical sample. It is found that the strength of the samples increases sharply at certain temperatures. The alkali metal content of the ashes has a strong effect on their sintering characteristics.

Ots, A. A., E-mail: aots@sti.ttu.ee [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

Screening technology reduces ash in spiral circuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2006, the James River Coal Co. selected the Stack Sizer to remove the minus 100 mesh high ash clay fraction from the clean coal spiral product circuits at the McCoy-Elkhorn Bevins Branch prep plant and at the Blue Diamond Leatherwood prep plant in Kentucky. The Stack Sizer is a multi-deck, high-frequency vibrating screen capable of separations as fine as 75 microns when fitted with Derrick Corp.'s patented high open area urethane screen panels. Full-scale lab tests and more than 10 months of continuous production have confirmed that the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 100 micron urethane screen panels consistently produces a clean coal fraction that ranges from 8 to 10% ash. Currently, each five-deck Stack Sizer operating at the Bevins Branch and Leatherwood prep plants is producing approximately 33 tons per hour of clean coal containing about 9% ash. This represents a clean coal yield of about 75% and an ash reduction of about 11% from the feed slurry. 3 figs. 2 tabs.

Brodzik, P. [Derrick Corp., Buffalo, NY (United States)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

Process May Reduce Pollution From Burning Coal Refuse Piles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Process May Reduce Pollution From Burning Coal Refuse Piles ... The process uses a heavy liquid to separate marketable high-ash coal from nonburnable waste rock. ... Nearly 500 mountains of coal refuse, waste material from coal cleaning operations, are burning uncontrollably in 15 states in the U.S., according to a Bureau of Mines survey. ...

1965-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

340

Pilot Demonstration of Technology fo the Production of High Value Materials from the Ultra-Fine (PM 2.5) Fraction of Coal Combustion Ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work on the project primarily focused on the design and testing of different hydraulic classifier configurations. A four cell, open channel, cross flow classifier with and without weirs separating the cells was evaluated. Drawbacks to this configuration included thick sediment compression zones and relatively low throughput. The configuration was redesigned with inclined lamellae plates, to increase sedimentation area and decreased sediment compression zone thickness. This configuration resulted in greater throughput for any given product grade and enhanced product recovery. A digital model of a hydraulic classifier was also constructed based upon Stokes law and the configurations of the tests units. When calibrated with the size of the ash used in the tests, it produced a reasonable approximation of the size, yield and recovery of the actual product. The digital model will be useful to generate test data, at least on a relative basis, of conditions that are hard to generate in the laboratory or at larger scale. Test work on the dispersant adsorption capacity, settling tests and leaching test were also conducted on materials collected from the Coleman power station pond.

T.L. Robl; J.G. Groppo; K.R. Henke

2005-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Low-rank coal research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Classification of carbon in Canadian fly ashes and their implications in the capture of mercury  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fly ashes produced from Canadian power plants using pulverized coal and fluidized bed combustors were examined for their carbon content to determine their ability to capture mercury. The feed coal used in these power plants were lignite, subbituminous, high and medium volatile bituminous, their blends, and also blends of coal with petroleum coke (Petcoke). The carbon and mercury content of the coals and fly ashes were determined using the ASTM standard method and by the cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry method. The carbon content of the fly ash was concentrated by strong acid digestion using \\{HCl\\} and HF. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of the carbon concentrate were made by using a reflected light microscope. The results show that the carbon content of fly ash appears to be partially related to depositional environment during coalification and to the rank of the coal. The Hg captured by the fly ash depends on the rank and blend of the feed coals and the type of carbon in the fly ash. The isotropic vitrinitic char is mostly responsible for the capture of most Hg in fly ash. The inadvertent increase in carbon content due to the blending of coal with petroleum coke did not increase the amount Hg captured by the fly ash. The fly ash collected by the hot side electrostatic precipitator has a low Hg content and no relation between the Hg and carbon content of the ash was observed. These results indicate that the quantity of carbon in the fly ash alone does not determine the amount Hg captured. The types of carbon present (isotropic and anisotropic vitrinitic, isotropic inertinitic and anisotropic Petcoke), the halogen content, the types of fly ash control devices, and the temperatures of the fly ash control devices all play major roles in the capture of Hg.

Fariborz Goodarzi; James C. Hower

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Ash fusibility and compositional data of solid recovered fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Several approaches are established to analyse the fouling and slagging propensities of coal ashes, but the same cannot be said of solid recovered fuel (SRF) ashes. This work has been conducted by using some fouling and slagging indicators, which are commonly applicable to coal ashes, on SRF ashes to ascertain their applicability. In this work, laboratory prepared ashes derived from municipal solid waste (MSW), sewage sludge, demolition wood, shredded rubber tyres, and plastic/paper fluff are analysed for their fusibility leading to fouling and slagging using three approaches; the ash fusibility temperatures (AFT), ternary phase diagrams, and fouling/slagging indices. The results from each approach are examined to determine the inclination of the ashes toward fouling and slagging. A subsequent inter-comparison of the methods was conducted to validate the methods which are in agreement and are applicable to SRF ashes. The study showed that ternary equilibrium phase diagram SiO2–CaO–Al2O3, various fouling and slagging indices, and AFT can be used to complement each other to predict ash fusion properties, fouling and slagging propensities of SRF ashes.

Gregory Dunnu; Jörg Maier; Günter Scheffknecht

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Utilization of CFB fly ash for construction applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disposal in landfills has been the most common means of handling ash in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler power plants. Recently, larger CFB boilers with generating capacities up to 300 MWe are currently being planned, resulting in increased volumes and disposal cost of ash by-product. Studies have shown that CFB ashes do not pose environmental concerns that should significantly limit their potential utilization. Many uses of CFB ash are being investigated by Foster Wheeler, which can provide more cost-effective ash management. Construction applications have been identified as one of the major uses for CFB ashes. Typically, CFB ash cannot be used as a cement replacement in concrete due to its unacceptably high sulfur content. However, CFB ashes can be used for other construction applications that require less stringent specifications including soil stabilization, road base, structural fill, and synthetic aggregate. In this study, potential construction applications were identified for fly ashes from several CFB boilers firing diverse fuels such as petroleum coke, refuse derived fuel (RDF) and coal. The compressive strength of hydrated fly ashes was measured in order to screen their potential for use in various construction applications. Based on the results of this work, the effects of both ash chemistry and carbon content on utilization potential were ascertained. Actual beneficial uses of ashes evaluated in this study are also discussed.

Conn, R.E.; Sellakumar, K.; Bland, A.E.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Coal hydrogenation and deashing in ebullated bed catalytic reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for hydrogenation of coal containing ash with agglomeration and removal of ash from an ebullated bed catalytic reactor to produce deashed hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, a flowable coal-oil slurry is reacted with hydrogen in an ebullated catalyst bed reaction zone at elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The upward velocity and viscosity of the reactor liquid are controlled so that a substantial portion of the ash released from the coal is agglomerated to form larger particles in the upper portion of the reactor above the catalyst bed, from which the agglomerated ash is separately withdrawn along with adhering reaction zone liquid. The resulting hydrogenated hydrocarbon effluent material product is phase separated to remove vapor fractions, after which any ash remaining in the liquid fraction can be removed to produce substantially ash-free coal-derived liquid products.

Huibers, Derk T. A. (Pennington, NJ); Johanson, Edwin S. (Princeton, NJ)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Moist caustic leaching of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

Nowak, Michael A. (Elizabeth, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Conversion of Fly Ash into Mesoporous Aluminosilicate Hsiao-Lan Chang, Chang-Min Chun, Ilhan A. Aksay, and Wei-Heng Shih*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and aluminum sources. Fly ash, which is a byproduct of coal burning, contains mostly aluminosilicates. Recently, several authors have studied the conversion of fly ash into zeolites.5-7 Shige- moto et al.8 increased the yield of zeolites by first fusing the fly ash with NaOH. The reaction of fly ash with NaOH produced

Aksay, Ilhan A.

349

Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved coal liquefaction process is provided whereby coal conversion is improved and yields of pentane soluble liquefaction products are increased. In this process, selected feed coal is pulverized and slurried with a process derived solvent, passed through a preheater and one or more dissolvers in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures, following which solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. The selected feed coals comprise washed coals having a substantial amount of mineral matter, preferably from about 25-75%, by weight, based upon run-of-mine coal, removed with at least 1.0% by weight of pyritic sulfur remaining and exhibiting vitrinite reflectance of less than about 0.70%.

Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Fly ash system technology improves opacity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unit 3 of the Dave Johnston Power Plant east of Glenrock, WY, USA had problems staying at or below the opacity limits set by the state. The unit makes use of a Lodge Cottrell precipitator. When the plant changed to burning Power River Basin coal, ash buildup became a significant issue as the fly ash control system was unable to properly evacuate hoppers on the unit. To overcome the problem, the PLC on the unit was replaced with a software optimization package called SmartAsh for the precipitator fly ash control system, at a cost of $500,000. After the upgrade, there have been no plugged hoppers and the opacity has been reduced from around 20% to 3-5%. 2 figs.

NONE

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

Freidin, C. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)] [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Comparative Study of Gasification Performance between Bituminous Coal and Petroleum Coke in the Industrial Opposed Multiburner Entrained Flow Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SUMMARY : Co-gasification performance of coal and petroleum coke (petcoke) blends in a pilot-scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier was studied exptl. ... Two different coals, including a subbituminous coal (Coal A) and a bituminous coal (Coal B), individually blended with a petcoke in the gasifier were considered. ... results suggested that, when the petcoke was mixed with Coal A over 70%, the slagging problem, which could shorten the operational period due to high ash content in the coal, was improved. ...

Zhonghua Sun; Zhenghua Dai; Zhijie Zhou; Jianliang Xu; Guangsuo Yu

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

353

Effect of fuel properties on the bottom ash generation rate by a laboratory fluidized bed combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The range of fuels that can be accommodated by an FBC boiler system is affected by the ability of the fuel, sorbent, and ash-handling equipment to move the required solids through the boiler. Of specific interest is the bottom ash handling equipment, which must have sufficient capacity to remove ash from the system in order to maintain a constant bed inventory level, and must have sufficient capability to cool the ash well below the bed temperature. Quantification of a fuel's bottom ash removal requirements can be useful for plant design. The effect of fuel properties on the rate of bottom ash production in a laboratory FBC test system was examined. The work used coal products ranging in ash content from 20 to 40+ wt. %. The system's classification of solids by particle size into flyash and bottom ash was characterized using a partition curve. Fuel fractions in the size range characteristic of bottom ash were further analyzed for distributions of ash content with respect to specific gravity, using float sink tests. The fuel fractions were then ashed in a fixed bed. In each case, the highest ash content fraction produced ash with the coarsest size consist (characteristic of bottom ash). The lower ash content fractions were found to produce ash in the size range characteristic of flyash, suggesting that the high ash content fractions were largely responsible for the production of bottom ash. The contributions of the specific gravity fractions to the composite ash in the fuels were quantified. The fuels were fired in the laboratory test system. Fuels with higher amounts of high specific gravity particles, in the size ranges characteristic of bottom ash, were found to produce more bottom ash, indicating the potential utility of float sink methods in the prediction of bottom ash removal requirements.

Rozelle, P.L.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W. [Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Energy & Geoenvironmental Engineering

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

COAL LOGISTICS. Tracking U.S. Coal Exports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

COAL LOGISTICS has the capability to track coal from a U. S. mine or mining area to a foreign consumer`s receiving dock. The system contains substantial quantities of information about the types of coal available in different U. S. coalfields, present and potential inland transportation routes to tidewater piers, and shipping routes to and port capabilities in Italy, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. It is designed to facilitate comparisons of coal quality and price at several stages of the export process, including delivered prices at a wide range of destinations. COAL LOGISTICS can be used to examine coal quality within or between any of 18 U. S. coalfields, including three in Alaska, or to compare alternative routes and associated service prices between coal-producing regions and ports-of-exit. It may be used to explore the possibilities of different ship sizes, marine routes, and foreign receiving terminals for coal exports. The system contains three types of information: records of coal quality, domestic coal transportation options, and descriptions of marine shipment routes. COAL LOGISTICS contains over 3100 proximate analyses of U. S. steam coals, usually supplemented by data for ash softening temperature and Hardgrove grindability; over 1100 proximate analyses for coals with metallurgical potential, usually including free swelling index values; 87 domestic coal transportation options: rail, barge, truck, and multi-mode routes that connect 18 coal regions with 15 U. S. ports and two Canadian terminals; and data on 22 Italian receiving ports for thermal and metallurgical coal and 24 coal receiving ports along the Asian Pacific Rim. An auxiliary program, CLINDEX, is included which is used to index the database files.

Sall, G.W. [US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1988-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

355

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation. Final report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal`s emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

NONE

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

357

Owl Feather War Bonnet  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation covers the Owl Feather War Bonnet and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Rapid City, South Dakota.

358

Process for separating anthracite coal from impurities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for separating a first mixture including previously mined anthracite coal, klinker-type cinder ash and other refuse consisting of: a. separating the first mixture to produce a refuse portion and a second mixture consisting of anthracite and klinker-type cinder ash, b. reducing the average particle size in the second mixture to a uniform size, c. subjecting the second mixture to a separating magnetic field to produce a klinker-type cinder ash portion and an anthracite coal portion.

Stiller, D.W.; Stiller, A.H.

1985-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

359

Soil Amendments Promote Vegetation Establishment and Control Acidity in Coal Combustion Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of adding various soil amendments and a pyrite oxidation inhibitor to aid in the establishment of vegetation and to reduce acid drainage (AD) from coal fly ash and coal reject (FA + CR*) were assessed...

R. M. Danker; D. C. Adriano; Bon-Jun Koo…

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

ORIGINAL PAPER Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion of Coal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL PAPER Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion of Coal Gordon R. Holcomb · Joseph Tylczak the nature of coal ash deposits. Wigley and Goh [1] reported that particles in oxy-fired deposits, compared

Laughlin, David E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Risk Ranking of Bioaccessible Metals from Fly Ash Dissolved in Simulated Lung and Gut Fluids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Power plant fly ash from two fuels, coal and a mixture of coal and shredded tires, were evaluated for trace metal solubility in simulated human lung and gut fluids (SLF and SGF, respectively) to estimate bioaccessibility. ... The proportion of bioaccessible to total metal ranged from zero (V) to 80% (Zn) for coal-derived ash in SLF and from 2 (Th) to 100% (Cu) for tire-derived fly ash in SGF. ... On dissolution in SLF, the most limiting metals were Pb, Cu, and Zn. ...

John Twining; Peter McGlinn; Elaine Loi; Kath Smith; Reto Gieré

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

362

Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Application of solid ash based catalysts in heterogeneous catalysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid wastes, fly ash, and bottom ash are generated from coal and biomass combustion. Fly ash is mainly composed of various metal oxides and possesses higher thermal stability. Utilization of fly ash for other industrial applications provides a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of recycling this solid waste, significantly reducing its environmental effects. On the one hand, due to the higher stability of its major component, aluminosilicates, fly ash could be employed as catalyst support by impregnation of other active components for various reactions. On the other hand, other chemical compounds in fly ash such as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} could also provide an active component making fly ash a catalyst for some reactions. In this paper, physicochemical properties of fly ash and its applications for heterogeneous catalysis as a catalyst support or catalyst in a variety of catalytic reactions were reviewed. Fly-ash-supported catalysts have shown good catalytic activities for H{sub 2} production, deSOx, deNOx, hydrocarbon oxidation, and hydrocracking, which are comparable to commercially used catalysts. As a catalyst itself, fly ash can also be effective for gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, aqueous-phase oxidation of organics, solid plastic pyrolysis, and solvent-free organic synthesis. 107 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Shaobin Wang [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). Department of Chemical Engineering

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Coal Gasification  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE's Office of Fossil Energy supports activities to advance coal-to-hydrogen technologies, specifically via the process of coal gasification with sequestration. DOE anticipates that coal...

365

Conventional coal preparation in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Processing of bituminous and anthracite coal is widely practiced in the United States and, as mentioned earlier, about 80 percent of the production of these coals is processed as clean coal in preparation plants. Subbituminous coal is not widely processed, primarily because these low rank raw coals are low in sulfur (0.5 to 1.0 percent) and relatively low in ash (8 to 15 percent). They are also relatively low in heat content due to their high inherent moisture. Lignite coals, to the best of the authors{close_quote} knowledge, are not presently being processed in Conventional Coal Preparation plants. This is due to their unstable nature and putting them in water in a coal preparation plant is likely to cause severe degradation in particle size and add to their already high inherent moisture content. The following are the benefits of clean coal processing: produces a uniform product which can be utilized more efficiently; produces a higher quality product which results in higher efficiency at the power station or the steel mill; reduces sulfur dioxide and other adverse stack emissions during coal firing which is a very important environmental consideration; reduces ash or slag handling costs by the user; reduces shipping costs; and reduces handling and storage costs. Processing any stable raw coal in a coal preparation plant will always produce a higher grade product which is a more efficient and a more environmentally acceptable fuel for use at power stations, steel mills, home heating or industrial boilers.

Beck, M.K.; Taylor, B.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

366

Ash & Pulverized Coal Deposition in Combustors & Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Further progress in achieving the objectives of the project was made in the period of January I to March 31, 1998. The direct numerical simulation of particle removal process in turbulent gas flows was completed. Variations of particle trajectories are studied. It is shown that the near wall vortices profoundly affect the particle removal process in turbulent boundary layer flows. Experimental data for transport and deposition of fibrous particles in the aerosol wind tunnel was obtained. The measured deposition velocity for irregular fibrous particles is compared with the empirical correlation and the available data for glass fibers and discussed. Additional progress on the sublayer model for evaluating the particle deposition and resuspension in turbulent flows was made.

Goodarz Ahmadi

1998-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

367

Ash & Pulverized Coal Deposition in Combustors & Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Further progress in achieving the objectives of the project was made in the period of October I to December 31, 1997. The direct numerical simulation of particle removal process in turbulent gas flows was continued. Variations of vorticity contours which are averaged over a short time duration are studied. It is shown that the near wall vortices profoundly affect the particle removal process in turbulent boundary layer flows. The sublayer model for evaluating the particle deposition in turbulent flows was extended to include the effect of particle rebound. A new more advance flow model for the near wall vortices is also used in these analysis. Sample particle trajectories are obtained and discussed. Experimental data for transport and deposition of fibrous particles in the aerosol wind tunnel was obtained. The measured deposition velocity is compared with the empirical correlation and the available data and discussed. Particle resuspension process in turbulent flows are studied. The model is compared with the experimental data. It is shown that when the effects of the near wall flow structure, as well as the surface roughness are included the model agrees with the available experimental data.

Goodarz Ahmadi

1998-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

368

Ash & Pulverized Coal Deposition in Combustors & Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Further progress in achieving the objectives of the project was made in the period of July 1 to September 30, 1997. The direct numerical simulation of particle removal process in turbulent gas flows was continued. Variations of vorticity contours which are averaged over a short time duration are studied. It is shown that the near wall vortices profoundly affect the particle removal process in turbulent boundary layer flows. The sublayer model for evaluating the particle deposition in turbulent flows was extended to include the effect of particle rebound. A new more advance flow model for the near wall vortices is also used in these analysis. Sample particle trajectories are obtained and discussed. Experimental data for transport and deposition of fibrous particles in the aerosol wind tunnel was obtained. The measured deposition velocity is compared with the empirical correlation and the available data and discussed. Particle resuspension process in turbulent flows are studied. The model is compared with the experimental data. It is shown that when the effects of the near wall flow structure, as well as the surface roughness are included the model agrees with the available experimental data.

Goodarz Ahmadi

1998-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

369

Ash & Pulverized Coal Deposition in Combustors & Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Further progress in achieving the objectives of the project was made in the period of October 1 to December 31, 1996. In particular, the sublayer model for evaluating the particle deposition in turbulent flows was extended to include the effect of particle rebound. A new more advance flow model for the near wall vortices is also used in these analysis. The computational model for simulating particle transport in turbulent flows was used to analyze the dispersion and deposition of particles in a recirculating flow region. The predictions of the particle resuspension model is compared with the experimental data. It is shown that when the effects of the near wall flow structure, as we as the surface roughness are included the model agrees with the available experimental data. Considerable progress was also made in the direct numerical simulation of particle removal process in turbulent gas flows. Experimental data for transport and deposition of glass fiber in the aerosol wind tunnel was also obtained.

Goodarz Ahmadi

1998-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

370

Beneficial use of coal combustion products continues to grow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In August 2007 the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) released results of the Coal Combustion Products Production (CCP) and use survey. Production was 124,795,000 tons while beneficial use was 54,203,000 tons, a utilization rate of over 43%, 3% higher than in 2005. The article includes graphs of 40 years of CCP production and use and projected trade of CCP utilization until 2011. It also gives 2006 figures for Production and use of fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, FGD gypsum and other FGD products, and FBC ash. 3 refs., 3 figs.

MacDonald, M. [American Coal Ash Association (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

France at War: Additions to the War Poster Collection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a collection of eighty-five French posters from the First and Second World Wars. These add to Yale's extensive War Poster Collection, which has over 500 French posters from World War I but very few from World War of formats, includ- ing books, maps and atlases, pamphlets, music, broad- First North American Contributor

372

Coal Segregation Control for Meeting Homogeneity Z. Huang, R. Kumar J. Yingling, J. Sottile  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal Segregation Control for Meeting Homogeneity Standards Z. Huang, R. Kumar J. Yingling, J were developed to control coal segre- gation to meet ash targets over large coal batches (e. g., a unit train of coal) while realizing high yields and economic savings. We have extended this work to address

Kumar, Ratnesh

373

Ash Research from Palm Coast, Florida to Banff, Canada: Entry of Biomass in Modern Power Boilers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Six laboratories participated, and each performed five analyses, on three bituminous coal samples, focusing on their content of calcite, kaolinite, pyrite, and quartz. ... CCSEM of these ashes revealed that the fly ashes and deposits contained high quantities of salts, especially KCl, and varying quantities of K- and Ca-silicates, whereas the bottom ashes consisted of a mixture of quartz, K-, Ca-, and Al-silicates. ... Wang and Baxter(134) presented a work that systematically investigated the performance of biomass fly ash concrete, including mixtures of biomass fly ash and calcium hydroxide, with respect to strength, kinetics, and durability. ...

Flemming J. Frandsen

2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

374

Clean Fuels from Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...A. G. Horsler, Gas Counc. (Gt. Brit...England, 1962; Gas J. 312, 19 (1962...be-come overdependent on natural gas and oil to supply...gasifier at elevated pressure with a downward flow...operability on coals of high ash-fusion temperature...

Arthur M. Squires

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

375

coking coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

coking coal [A caking coal suitable for the production of coke for metallurgical use] ? Kokskohle f, verkokbare Kohle

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

E-Print Network 3.0 - ash alter innate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Ecology 4 By-Products Utilization Summary: not meet ASTM C 618 requirements for coal fly ash for use as mineral admixture in concrete, and one source... of variable carbon fly...

377

Sewage sludge ash as an alternative low-cost oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, novel low-cost oxygen carriers containing Fe2O3 are evaluated for use in chemical looping combustion. Sewage sludge ashes and reference samples were...2...) fuel and a solid fuel (hard coal) were t...

Ewelina Ksepko

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Fusibility Characteristics of Residual Ash from Lignite Fluidized-Bed Gasification To Understand Its Formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignite is an abundant resource, which accounts for approximately 40% of global coal reserves. ... The effects of leaching and floatation on the ash fusion temperatures of three selected lignites ...

Feng-hai Li; Jie-jie Huang; Yi-tian Fang; Quan-run Liu

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

379

NETL: Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) - Round 1  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 1 Industrial Applications Advanced Cyclone Combustor with Internal Sulfur, Nitrogen, and Ash Control - Project Brief [PDF-302KB] Coal Tech Corp., Williamsport, PA PROGRAM PUBLICATIONS Final Reports Demonstration of an Advanced Cyclone Coal Combustor with Internal Sulfur Nitrogen, and Ash Control for the Conversion of a 23-MMBtu/Hour Oil Fired Boiler to Pulverized Coal (Aug 1991) Volume 1: Final Technical Report [PDF-5.9MB] Appendixes I through VI [PDF-8.9MB] CCT Reports: Project Performance Summaries, Post-Project Assessments, & Topical Reports The Coal Tech Advanced Cyclone Combustor Demonstration Project -- A DOE Assessment [PDF-234KB] (May 1993) Environmental Reports Annual Environmental Report for The Demonstration of an Advanced Cyclone Coal Combustor, with Internal Sulfur, Nitrogen, and Ash Control for the Conversion of a 23 MMBtu/Hour Boiler to Coal [PDF-812KB] (Sept 1987)

380

Owl Feather War Bonnet  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Owl Feather War Bonnet, LLC c/o DISGEN 200 Union Blvd, Suite 304 Lakewood CO 80228 Owl Feather War Bonnet, LLC c/o DISGEN 200 Union Blvd, Suite 304 Lakewood CO 80228 Owl Feather War Bonnet Project Description Owl Feather War Bonnet LLC (OFWB) proposes to develop, construct and operate a 30 MW wind facility to be located on Rosebud Sioux Tribal Trust Land on the Rosebud Indian Reservation. OFWB is solely owned by Distributed Generation Systems, Inc. (Disgen) in Colorado. The US Department of the Interior's Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is the lead Trust Authority for this project and both the Tribe and BIA have authorized the 35 year Rights of Use easement for a wind energy project. * An existing 115kV Nebraska Public Power District (NPPD) transmission line crosses the project area along with an existing substation serving the local cooperative. The

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Afghanistan and Iraq Wars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter focuses on the “war against terrorism” as it has been fought by the United States and its allies in Afghanistan and Iraq. After the September 11, 2001 attacks...2001, 2003) and Tomis Kapitan (2003) p...

Gail M. Presbey

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

War and Taxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability Appropriations Act4,018 U.S. fatalities in Iraq and Afghanistan. And accordingspending on the war in Iraq has provided fodder to

Bank, Steven A.; Stark, Kirk J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

War and Occupation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The war brought hardship to all of Holland. The universities had their fair share of the consequences of the occupation and the new regime. Jews were dismissed, the adventures of Freudenthal illustrate the fat...

Dirk van Dalen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department and Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-E Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

Atencio, B.P.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

Atencio, B.P.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

387

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

388

The foul side of 'clean coal'  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As power plants face new air pollution control, ash piles and their environmental threats are poised to grow. Recent studies have shown that carcinogens and other contaminants in piles of waste ash from coal-fired power plants can leach into water supplies at concentrations exceeding drinking water standards. Last year an ash dam broke at the 55-year old power plant in Kingston, TN, destroying homes and rising doubts about clean coal. Despite the huge amounts of ash generated in the USA (131 mtons per year) no federal regulations control the fate of ash from coal-fired plants. 56% of this is not used in products such as concrete. The EPA has found proof of water contamination from many operating ash sites which are wet impoundments, ponds or reservoirs of some sort. Several member of Congress have show support for new ash-handling requirements and an inventory of waste sites. Meanwhile, the Kingston disaster may well drive utilities to consider dry handling. 3 photos.

Johnson, J.

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Market Assessment and Technical Feasibility Study of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash Use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler Energy International, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy Technology Center (METC), has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) ashes. The assessment is designed to address six applications, including: (1) structural fill, (2) road base construction, (3) supplementary cementing materials in portland cement, (4) synthetic aggregate, and (5) agricultural/soil amendment applications. Ash from low-sulfur subbituminous coal-fired Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, and ash from the high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired American Electric Power (AEP) bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing. This paper addresses the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC unit using low- sulfur coal and limestone sorbent (karhula ash) and high-sulfur coal and dolomite sorbents (AEP Tidd ash).

Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

Coal quality and estimated coal resources in the proposed Colville Mining District, central North Slope, Alaska  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed Colville Mining District (CMD) encompasses 27,340 mi{sup 2} (70,800 km{sup 2}) in the central part of the North Slope. Known coal deposits within the proposed district range from Mississippian to Tertiary in age. Available information indicates that neither Mississippian and Tertiary coals in the CMD constitute a significant resource because they are excessively deep, thin, or high in ash content; however, considerable amount of low-sulfur Cretaceous coal is present. The paper briefly describes the geology and quality of these coal reserves. Difficult conditions will restrict mining of these coals in the near future.

Stricker, G.D. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Clough, J.G. [Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

391

Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Utilization of ash from fluidized bed boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion ash from a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) boiler contains not only carbon, but also silica alumina, quicklime as a sorbent, and a calcium sulfate by-product. These substances react chemically during fluidized bed combustion, and with the addition of water, they start an ettringite reaction and solidify. We determined the conditions necessary for producing hard solids through the study of the composition, curing methods, and characteristics of the solidified ash. We then used two types of road base material, crushed stone and solidified ash from an FBC boiler, to construct a test road at a site with a great deal of heavy traffic. Construction began in 1985, and since then, periodic tests have been performed to evaluate the performance of the road base materials. The testing of the manufacturing techniques centered on the amount and manner that water was added to the mixture and the curing methods of the mixture. Additional testing focused on the handling of the ash powder, the mixtures, and the solidified ash. Since 1991, under the sponsorship of MITI, the Center for Coal Utilization, in conjunction with Naruto Salt Mfg., Ltd., Nippon Hodo Co., Ltd., and Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., has used the referenced results to undertake a joint research and development project aimed at the eventual practical application of the technology. In 1993, a pilot facility to solidify ash with the fluidized bed boiler of 75 t/h capacity was completed. At present, all the discharged ash from the pilot facility is being solidified, and experiments on solidification and road base application techniques are underway. Actual road base tests are also in progress, and we are continuing research to meet the national certification requirements for road base materials.

Takada, Tomoaki [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Akashi (Japan)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

393

Fundamental study of ash formation and deposition: Effect of reducing stoichiometry. Quarterly Report No. 8, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this research program include: the identification of the partitioning of inorganic coal constituents among vapor, submicron fume, and fly ash products generated during pulverized coal combustion; identification of fundamental processes by which the transformation of minerals and organically associated species occurs; the incorporation of the effects of combustion stoichiometry into an engineering model for ash formation.

Bool, L.E. III; Helble, J.J.; Sarofim, A.F. [and others

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

NETL: IEP - Coal Utilization By-Products - Utilization Projects -  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

University of North Dakota, EERC - Table of Contents University of North Dakota, EERC - Table of Contents Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Stabilizing Feedlots Using Coal Ash Environmental Evaluation for Utilization of Ash in Soil Stabilization Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Background CAEEC is a cooperation among industry, government, and the research community to work together to solve CCB- related problems and promote the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economically viable utilization and disposal of CCBs. Objectives To improve the technical and economic aspects of coal combustion by-product (CCB) management. Description CARRC tasks fall into three general categories: Member-prioritized research tasks, Technical and administrative tasks, and Special projects that support CARRC objectives and strengthen and increase the availability of sound technical data for CARRC use.

395

Variation in mineral composition of coal during enrichment and coking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The parameters I b and B b used in developing an optimal coking-batch composition are determined from data on ... of the ash in Donetsk Basin and other coal. It is found that, when...

M. L. Ulanovskii; A. N. Likhenko

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Fly ash carbon passivation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

397

Rationalist causes of war : mechanisms, experiments, and East Asian wars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation specifies and tests rationalist mechanisms of war. Why would rational states fight each other despite their incentives for peaceful bargains that would avoid the costs of war? In the rationalist theory ...

Quek, Ch-yuan Kaiy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Reactivity of fly ashes in a spray dryer FGD process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the period 1981-1982, a study was performed to determine the ability of various fly ashes to retain sulfur dioxide in a pilot plant spray dryer/fabric filter flue gas desulfurization system. This knowledge would provide design engineers with the necessary data to determine whether the fly ash from a particular utility could be used as an effective supplement or substitute for slaked lime in a spray dryer system. The study commenced with the collection of 22 fly ashes from lignite, subbituminous, and bituminous eastern and western coals. The ashes were contacted with the flue gas entering the pilot plant by two different techniques. In the first, the ashes were slurried in water and injected into the spray dryer through a spinning disk atomizer. In the second, the ashes were injected as a dry additive into the flue gas upstream of the spray dryer. Analyses were conducted to determine the ability of each ash to retain sulfur dioxide in the system followed by statistical correlations of the sulfur retention with the physical/chemical properties of each ash. 17 references, 32 figures, 19 tables.

Davis, W.T.; Reed, G.D.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Split and collectorless flotation to medium coking coal fines for multi-product zero waste concept  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The medium coking coal fines of ? 0.5 mm from Jharia coal field were taken for this investigation. The release analysis of the composite coal reveals that yield is very low at 10.0% ash, about 25% at 14% ash and 50% at 17% ash level. The low yield is caused by the presence of high ash finer fraction. The size-wise ash analysis of ? 0.5 mm coal indicated that ? 0.5 + 0.15 mm fraction contains less ash than ? 0.15 mm fraction. Thus, the composite feed was split into ? 0.5 + 0.15 mm and ? 0.15 mm fractions and subjected to flotation separately. The low ash bearing fraction (? 0.5 + 0.15 mm) was subjected to two stages collectorless flotation to achieve the concentrate with 10% ash. The cleaner concentrate (18.9%) with 10% ash was recovered which has an application in metallurgical industries. The concentrate of 30.2% yield with 12.5% ash could be achieved in one stage collectorless flotation which is suitable for use in coke making as sweetener. As the ? 0.15 mm fraction contains relatively high ash, collector aided flotation using sodium silicate was performed to get a concentrate of 23.6% yield with about 17% ash. The blending of this product with cleaner tail obtained from ? 0.5 + 0.15 mm produces about 35.0% yield with 17% ash and that can be utilized for coke making. The reject from the two fractions can be used for conventional thermal power plant or cement industries using a 23.5% ash after one stage collector aided flotation and the final tailings produced content ash of 61.6% can be used for fluidization combustion bed (FBC). This eventually leads to complete utilization of coal.

Shobhana Dey; K.K. Bhattacharyya

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (formerly ICPP) ash reutilization study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since 1984, the coal-fired plant at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC, formerly Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) has been generating fly ash at a rate of approximately 1,000 tons per year. This ash is hydrated and placed in an ash bury pit near the coal-fired plant. The existing ash bury pit will be full in less than 1 year at its present rate of use. A conceptual design to build a new ash bury pit was completed, and the new pit is estimated to cost $1.7 million. This report evaluates ash reutilization alternatives that propose to eliminate this waste stream and save the $1.7 million required to build a new pit. The alternatives include using ash for landfill day cover, concrete admixture, flowable fill, soil stabilization, waste remediation, and carbon recovery technology. Both physical and chemical testing, under the guidance of the American Society for Testing and Materials, have been performed on ash from the existing pit and from different steps within the facility`s processes. The test results have been evaluated, compared to commercial ash, and are discussed as they relate to reutilization alternatives. This study recommends that the ash be used in flowable fill concrete for Deactivation and Demolition work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

Langenwalter, T.; Pettet, M.; Ochoa, R.; Jensen, S.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Quantification of mineral matter in the Argonne Premium Coals using interactive Rietveld-based X-ray diffraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mineral matter in the eight reference North American coal samples of the Argonne Premium Coal series has been investigated on a quantitative basis using X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. X-ray diffraction data obtained from electronic low-temperature (oxygen–plasma) ash (LTA) residues, from ashes produced by heating the coals in air at 370°C, and also from the raw coals themselves, were evaluated using an interactive data processing system (siroquant™) based on Rietveld interpretation methods. The results from the three types of material (LTA, 370°C ash and raw coal) were compared for each sample. This allowed the components present in the raw coals in crystalline form to be recognised separately from mineral artifacts produced, particularly in the low-rank coals, from interaction of organically associated elements (Ca, S, etc.) during the two ashing processes. After the allowance for the production of any artifacts, the quantitative mineral assemblages identified from XRD of the raw coals were found to be consistent, even for coals having a relatively low ash percentage (around 5%), with the results obtained from the respective mineral concentrates prepared by the ashing methods. The effects of heating the coal to 370°C could also be distinguished, relative to the raw coal or the LTA, through changes in components such as pyrite and the clay minerals. Although some areas of uncertainty exist, particularly with magnesium in the low-rank coals, the calculated chemical compositions of the coal ash derived from the mineral mixtures identified for each coal were also found to be consistent with the results of direct chemical analysis of the respective coal ash materials.

Colin R. Ward; John C. Taylor; C.E. Matulis; L.S. Dale

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Coal combustion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Conditions of utilization of coal mining and processing sludges as slurry fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of this study have shown that coal sludge can be used as slurry fuel (like coal-water fuel (CWF)) providing that its ash content does not exceed 30% and the amount in the fuel is at least 55%. The conventional CWF preparation technologies are inapplicable to the fabrication of water-sludge fuel; therefore, special technologies with allowance for the ash content, the particle size, and the water content of coal sludge are demanded.

E.G. Gorlov; A.I. Seregin; G.S. Khodakov [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

404

NETL: Coal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

use of our domestic energy resources and infrastructure. Gasification Systems | Advanced Combustion | Coal & Coal-Biomass to Liquids | Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Turbines CO2...

405

Civil War Makeshifts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Civil War Makeshifts Civil War Makeshifts Nature Bulletin No. 297-A March 9, 1968 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Richard B. Ogilvie, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation CIVIL WAR MAKESHIFTS Recently we came across an article about "Hard Times in the Confederacy" published in Century Magazine in 1988. It is difficult to picture, now, the misery and want that prevailed during that bloody four-year Civil War. With no money and all the able-bodied menfolks gone, particularly in the south but to some extent in the northern states, our grandmothers had to resort to desperate makeshifts in order to feed and clothe their families. Salt, common salt, became a luxury in the south, in spite of its production from the salt springs and "licks" in Virginia, Tennessee and Indian Territory. The price of wheat flour rose to more than $100 per barrel. There was no sugar. After the fall of Vicksburg, which cut off the supply of sugar and molasses from Louisiana, sorghum cane was widely grown and crushed in primitive mills to make molasses or "long sweetenin"'. Its seeds were ground into a meal that made excellent brown bread. A recipe book of that day, which also told how to tan a dog's skin for making gloves, said that "wonderful shoe blacking can be made of sorghum molasses, pinewood soot, neat's-foot oil and vinegar..

406

Experimental studies on hydrophobic flocculation of coal fines in aqueous solutions and flotation of flocculated coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrophobic flocculation of fine bituminous coal particles in aqueous solutions under mechanical conditioning and without any surfactants has been experimentally studied through the measurements of aggregative efficiency, zeta potential and contact angle in this work. The results have shown that the hydrophobic coal fines strongly aggregated in a wide pH range (3.5â??9.5), even though the particle surfaces were highly charged. This hydrophobic flocculation closely correlated with particle hydrophobicity, having a stronger aggregation for more hydrophobic coal fines. It reaches the maximum degree only if a sufficient kinetic energy is applied to the coal slurry. Also, it has been found that the hydrophobic flocculation could be greatly enhanced by adding a little amount of nonpolar oil. In addition, the flotation of flocculated coal fines was tested on the fine Prince coal for the deep elimination of ash and pyrite from coals in this work. An ultraclean coal with 1.3% ash remaining was produced with 87% combustible recovery. The ash rejection and pyritic sulfur rejection were about 93% and 66%, respectively.

Shaoxian Song

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

Robert Wilson

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

408

Ultrasonic ash/pyrite liberation. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop a coal preparation concept which employed ultrasonics to precondition coal prior to conventional or advanced physical beneficiation processes such that ash and pyrite separation were enhanced with improved combustible recovery. Research activities involved a series of experiments that subjected three different test coals, Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Upper Freeport, ground to three different size fractions (28 mesh {times} 0, 200 mesh {times} 0, and 325 mesh {times} 0), to a fixed (20 kHz) frequency ultrasonic signal prior to processing by conventional and microbubble flotation. The samples were also processed by conventional and microbubble flotation without ultrasonic pretreatment to establish baseline conditions. Product ash, sulfur and combustible recovery data were determined for both beneficiation processes.

Yungman, B.A.; Buban, K.S.; Stotts, W.F.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

The Shenhua coal direct liquefaction plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon Technologies (HTI) has been working on a feasibility study for the construction of a Direct Coal Liquefaction Plant in Shenhua coalfield of China. HTI's direct coal liquefaction process, consisting primarily of two backmixed reactor stages plus a fixed-bed inline hydrotreater, operates at a pressure of 17 \\{MPa\\} and reactor temperatures in the range of 400–460°C. A dispersed superfine iron catalyst, GelCat®, is used in the process. Phase I of the study was successfully completed. Two coal sample from a coal mine in Shenhua coalfield were tested on HTI's continuous flow unit (CFU). Results were very encouraging. Though Shenhua coals are high in inert materials, HTI's coal liquefaction process has been able to achieve coal conversion of higher than 91 wt.% (on moisture and ash free, maf, coal) under all test conditions. Under the best conditions tested, distillate product yields from Shenhua coals are between 63–68 wt.% (maf coal). Liquid products are very low in sulfur and nitrogen, thus, very clean. Phase II is now underway. An additional test was conducted on a coal from another coal mine in Shenhua coalfield, which showed similar performance on liquefaction. Preliminary economic assessment is also discussed.

Alfred G. Comolli; Theo L.K. Lee; Gabriel A. Popper; Peizheng Zhou

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

On-line carbon-in-ash monitors: Survey and demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash unburned carbon (UBC) level is an important consideration for combustion efficiency as well as ash marketing. The presence of unburned carbon in fly ash has been shown to be a function of furnace design, coal quality, the ability of the pulverizer to grind the coal, and heat release rate. Boilers are designed to take these factors into consideration. However, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 drove many utilities to switch coal supplies and install low NO{sub x} burners. Higher carbon-in-ash levels have been the result of these changes in coal quality and the staged combustion characteristics associated with low NO{sub x} burners. Over the past few years, several instruments for the on-line determination and monitoring of the unburned carbon content of ash samples have been developed. However, to date they have not been deployed widely in the U.S. despite potential uses for combustion optimization and as an aid in fly ash marketing. Based on the lack of publicly available performance and operation data available for the current CIAM (carbon-in-ash monitor) commercial offerings, Southern Company initiated a demonstration of several commercial technologies on its coal-fired units. As part of a DOE Clean Coal Project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction on NO{sub x} emissions from coal-fired boilers, the CAM, SEKAM and FOCUS systems were installed at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4. CAM and M&W instruments were also placed at Alabama Power Company`s Plant Gaston Unit 4. The testing of the instruments was conducted from November 1995 through August 1996.

Sorge, J.; Larrimore, L.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Combined effects of fly ash and waste ferrochromium on properties of concrete Osman Gencel a,d,,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Unsalvaged fly ash, a by-product of coal power plants, causes environmental damage by causing air and water with coke as the reducing agent at the temperature of about 1700 °C. Both the liquids of the high

North Texas, University of

412

Elk Valley coal implements smartcell flotation technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In anticipation of future raw coal containing higher fines content, Elk Valley Coal Corp.'s Greenhills Operations upgraded their fines circuit to include Wemco SmartCells in March 2007. Positive results were immediately achieved increasing the average flotation tailings ash by 16%. With this increase in yield the SmartCells project paid for itself in less than eight months. 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

Stirling, J.C. [Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Elkford, BC (Canada)

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

Reuse of coal combustion by-products: A new profit center  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal combustion by-products (CCBs) are generated from the combustion of coal for energy production. Approximately 82 million tons of CCBs are produced each year by electric utilities. There are several common types of CCBs produced by coal combustion--fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, flue gas desulfurization material (FGD) and fluidized bed combustion byproducts (FBC). Some CCBs such as fly ash, have pozzolanic properties and may have cementitious properties, both of which are advantageous for engineering, construction and waste remediation applications. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) in ASTM C-618 has created two classifications of useful and quality coal ash, Class F ash and Class C ash. Each class of coal ash has different pozzolanic and cementitious characteristics. Coal ash can be utilized in many manufacturing, mining, agricultural, engineering, construction and waste remediation applications. These potential applications may provide a new revenue source for utilities. The profitability of these applications can, however, be limited by applicable state regulations. Prior to initiating any reuse application, a utility should ensure regulatory approval of the proposed use. Approval may be apparent from a review of state law and regulations. Often times, further regulatory analysis and consultations may be necessary.

Jagiella, D. [Howard and Howard Attorneys, Peoria, IL (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Coal waste seen as valuable resource Published: March. 29, 2011 at 8:09 PM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal waste seen as valuable resource Published: March. 29, 2011 at 8:09 PM ANAHEIM, Calif., March 29 (UPI) -- Fly ash, a byproduct of coal-burning electric power plants, could save billions. More than 450 coal-burning electric power plants in the United States produce about 130 million tons

Belogay, Eugene A.

415

INVESTIGATION OF AMMONIA ADSORPTION ON FLY ASH DUE TO INSTALLATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes an investigation of the potential impacts associated with the utilization of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems at coal-fired power plants. The study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Emission Control By-Products Consortium, Dominion Generation, the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and GAI Consultants, Inc. SCR systems are effective in reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as required by the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. However, there may be potential consequences associated with ammonia contamination of stack emissions and combustion by-products from these systems. Costs for air quality, landfill and pond environmental compliance may increase significantly and the marketability of ash may be seriously reduced, which, in turn, may also lead to increased disposal costs. The potential impacts to air, surface water, groundwater, ash disposal, ash utilization, health and safety, and environmental compliance can not be easily quantified based on the information presently available. The investigation included: (1) a review of information and data available from published and unpublished sources; (2) baseline ash characterization testing of ash samples produced from several central Appalachian high-volatile bituminous coals from plants that do not currently employ SCR systems in order to characterize the ash prior to ammonia exposure; (3) an investigation of ammonia release from fly ash, including leaching and thermal studies; and (4) an evaluation of the potential impacts on plant equipment, air quality, water quality, ash disposal operations, and ash marketing.

G.F. Brendel; J.E. Bonetti; R.F. Rathbone; R.N. Frey Jr.

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

ATOMS PEACE WAR Eisenhower  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ATOMS ATOMS PEACE WAR Eisenhower and the Atomic Energy Commission Richard G. Hewlett and lack M. Roll With a Foreword by Richard S. Kirkendall and an Essay on Sources by Roger M. Anders University of California Press Berkeley Los Angeles London Published 1989 by the University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California University of California Press, Ltd. London, England Prepared by the Atomic Energy Commission; work made for hire. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hewlett, Richard G. Atoms for peace and war, 1953-1961. (California studies in the history of science) Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Nuclear energy-United States-History. 2. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission-History. 3. Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Dwight David), 1890-1969.

417

Modeling the behavior of selenium in Pulverized-Coal Combustion systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The behavior of Se during coal combustion is different from other trace metals because of the high degree of vaporization and high vapor pressures of the oxide (SeO{sub 2}) in coal flue gas. In a coal-fired boiler, these gaseous oxides are absorbed on the fly ash surface in the convective section by a chemical reaction. The composition of the fly ash (and of the parent coal) as well as the time-temperature history in the boiler therefore influences the formation of selenium compounds on the surface of the fly ash. A model was created for interactions between selenium and fly ash post-combustion. The reaction mechanism assumed that iron reacts with selenium at temperatures above 1200 C and that calcium reacts with selenium at temperatures less than 800 C. The model also included competing reactions of SO{sub 2} with calcium and iron in the ash. Predicted selenium distributions in fly ash (concentration versus particle size) were compared against measurements from pilot-scale experiments for combustion of six coals, four bituminous and two low-rank coals. The model predicted the selenium distribution in the fly ash from the pilot-scale experiments reasonably well for six coals of different compositions. (author)

Senior, Constance; Otten, Brydger Van; Wendt, Jost O.L.; Sarofim, Adel [Reaction Engineering International, 77 W. 200 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84101 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Speciation of Selenium, Arsenic, and Zinc in Class C Fly Ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major environmental concern associated with coal fly ash is the mobilization of trace elements that may contaminate water. To better evaluate proper use of fly ash, determine appropriate disposal methods, and monitor postdisposal conditions, it is important to understand the speciation of trace elements in fly ash and their possible environmental impact. The speciation of selenium, arsenic, and zinc was determined in five representative Class C fly ash samples from combustion of sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coal using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy to provide an improved understanding of the mechanisms of trace element association with the fly ash. Selenium in all fly ash samples occurs predominantly as Se(IV), with the exception of one sample, in which there was a minor amount of Se(0). Se(0) is likely associated with the high content of unburned coal in the sample. Arsenic exists in the fly ash as a single phase most consistent with calcium pyroarsenate. In contrast, zinc occurs as two distinct species in the silicate glass matrix of the fly ash. This work demonstrates that residual carbon in fly ash may reduce potential Se mobility in the environment by retaining it as less soluble elemental Se instead of Se(IV). Further, this work suggests that As and Zn in Class C fly ash will display substantially different release and mobilization behaviors in aquatic environments. While As release will primarily depend upon the dissolution and hydrolysis of calcium pyroarsenate, Zn release will be controlled by the dissolution of alkaline aluminosilicate glass in the ash.

Luo, Yun; Giammar, Daniel E.; Huhmann, Brittany L.; Catalano, Jeffrey G. (WU)

2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

419

Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Work this quarter concentrated on the following: washability studies, which included particle size distribution of the washability samples, and chemical analysis of washability test samples; characterization studies of induction time measurements, correlation between yield, combustible-material recovery (CMR), and heating-value recovery (HVR), and QA/QC for standard flotation tests and coal analyses; surface modification and control including testing of surface-modifying reagents, restoration of hydrophobicity to lab-oxidized coals, pH effects on coal flotation, and depression of pyritic sulfur in which pyrite depression with calcium cyanide and pyrite depression with xanthated reagents was investigated; flotation optimization and circuitry included staged reagent addition, cleaning and scavenging, and scavenging and middling recycling. Weathering studies are also discussed. 19 figs., 28 tabs.

Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Harris, G.; Sotillo, F.; Diao, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA)); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (USA))

1990-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

420

A combustion/deposition entrained reactor for high?temperature/pressure studies of coal and coal minerals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion of coal and coal?derived fuels in heat engines poses significant technical challenges in terms of establishing high combustion rates and efficiencies controlling emissions and minimizing the impact of fuel contaminants on engine components. An entrained reactor has been designed and constructed to study coal particle combustion the tendency of coal ash to form deposits on heat engine components and the effects of fuel additives on residual ash composition. The reactor is designed for high temperature/pressure conditions similar to those of a coal?fired gas turbine. Optical access ports and advanced instrumentation allow the i n s i t u measurement of gas and particle temperatures and vapor phase alkali concentrations. The reactor has been used to study the deposition potential of several coals as a function of process conditions and to determine the effects of selected additives on the deposition rate.

Rodney J. Anderson; Ronald G. Logan; Charles T. Meyer; Richard A. Dennis

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "war coal ash" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

New coal dewatering technology turns sludge to powder  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Virginian Tech's College of Engineering's Roe-Hoan Yoon and his group have developed a hyperbaric centrifuge that can dewater coal as fine as talcum powder. Such coal fines presently must be discarded by even the most advanced coal cleaning plants because of their high moisture content. The new technology can be used with the Microcel technology to remove ash, to re-mine the fine coal discarded to impoundments and to help minimize waste generation. Virginia Tech has received $1 million in funding from the US Department of State to also help the Indian coal industry produce a cleaner product. 1 photo.

NONE

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

An overview of the behaviour of biomass during combustion: Part II. Ash fusion and ash formation mechanisms of biomass types  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An extended overview of the phase–mineral transformations of organic and inorganic matter during biomass combustion was conducted in Part I of the present work. The ash fusion and ash formation mechanisms of biomass types and sub-types during combustion are described in the present Part II. For that purpose the identified systematic associations based on the occurrence, content and origin of elements and phases in the biomass ash (BA) system, namely (1) Si–Al–Fe–Na–Ti (mostly glass, silicates and oxyhydroxides); (2) Ca–Mg–Mn (commonly carbonates, oxyhydroxides, glass, silicates and some phosphates and sulphates); and (3) K–P–S–Cl (normally phosphates, sulphates, chlorides, glass and some silicates and carbonates); were used as classification of \\{BAs\\} into four types (“S”, “C”, “K” and “CK”) and six sub-types with high, medium and low acid tendencies and their description was given. Then, topics related to ash fusion behaviour such as: some general considerations and observations about ash melting; ash fusion temperatures (AFTs) of biomass and their comparisons with coal; relationships between \\{AFTs\\} and inorganic composition of biomass and coal; and ash fusion mechanisms of biomass and coal are characterized. Further, issues connected with the ash formation mechanisms of BA types and sub-types are discussed. Subsequently, aspects related to potential applications of ash formation mechanisms for BA types and sub-types, namely some key technological problems (fusion, slagging and fouling predictions, low ash fusion temperatures, co-combustion and application of BA) and environmental risks (volatilization, capture and water leaching of hazardous elements) are described. Finally, it is emphasized that the application of this new classification approach based on combined phase–mineral and chemical composition of biomass and BA has not only fundamental importance, but also has potential applications in prediction of behaviour and properties connected with the innovative and sustainable utilization of biomass and BA. It is also demonstrated that the definitive utilization, technological and environmental advantages and challenges related to biomass and BA associate preferentially with their specific types and sub-types and they could be predictable to some extent by using the above or similar combined chemical and phase–mineral classification approaches.

Stanislav V. Vassilev; David Baxter; Christina G. Vassileva

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION FOR UTILIZATION OF ASH IN SOIL STABILIZATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) approved the use of coal ash in soil stabilization, indicating that environmental data needed to be generated. The overall project goal is to evaluate the potential for release of constituents into the environment from ash used in soil stabilization projects. Supporting objectives are: (1) To ensure sample integrity through implementation of a sample collection, preservation, and storage protocol to avoid analyte concentration or loss. (2) To evaluate the potential of each component (ash, soil, water) of the stabilized soil to contribute to environmental release of analytes of interest. (3) To use laboratory leaching methods to evaluate the potential for release of constituents to the environment. (4) To facilitate collection of and to evaluate samples from a field runoff demonstration effort. The results of this study indicated limited mobility of the coal combustion fly ash constituents in laboratory tests and the field runoff samples. The results presented support previous work showing little to negligible impact on water quality. This and past work indicates that soil stabilization is an environmentally beneficial CCB utilization application as encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This project addressed the regulatory-driven environmental aspect of fly ash use for soil stabilization, but the demonstrated engineering performance and economic advantages also indicate that the use of CCBs in soil stabilization can and should become an accepted engineering option.

David J. Hassett; Loreal V. Heebink

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Power, policy and war : explaining the Iran-Iraq War.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The failure of traditional analytical tools in successfully predicting the end of the Cold War has seen a series of competing methods seeking to explain… (more)

Donovan, Jerome Denis

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

The Cherokee and Crawford County Coal Field With Analyses of the Coal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The most serious objection to this method is the claim that certain non-coking coals suffer mechanical loss from the rapid heating. No evidence to support this con- tention has been submitted. 51. ASH. In the determination of ash, either a new sample... in the purchase of fuel on the B .t .u . basis. This method is used in the fuel inspection laboratory of the Bureau of Mines. ( Methods of analysing Coal and Coke, Bureau of Mines, Technical paper #8 . ) 35, CALORIFIC VALUE OF DETERMINATION. T£e calorific...

Carpenter, C.B.; Brown, H.R.

1915-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Influence of operating conditions and coal properties on \\{NOx\\} and N2O emissions in pressurized fluidized bed combustion of subbituminous coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This experimental study is aimed at finding effects of operating conditions in PFBC on nitrogen oxide emissions for subbituminous coals differing in ash content/composition, combustion/gasification reactivities and in particle size distribution. The experiments have been done on a smaller laboratory apparatus with ID=8 cm. The effects of operating pressure (0.1–1 MPa), temperature of the fluidized bed (800–900 °C), freeboard temperature and oxygen concentration (3–10 vol.%) on the nitrogen oxides emissions are relatively complex, coupled with temperature of burning coal particles. The coal ash content/composition (esp. CaO and Fe2O3) and fly ash freeboard concentration play an important role in formation/destruction chemistry of both NO and N2O. The \\{NOx\\} emissions decrease with increasing operating pressure at the same volumetric oxygen concentration and temperature. Temperature, volatile content, reactivities of coals and ash composition are the most important factors for N2O emissions. The N2O emissions are either almost constant or can exhibit a maximum at increasing operating pressure. Influence of increasing oxygen concentration on \\{NOx\\} and N2O emissions is more pronounced at lower operating pressures, esp. for the less reactive, medium ash coal. The particle size distribution of the coal (influence of coal dust) can cause characteristic changes in \\{NOx\\} and N2O emissions in PFBC, esp. at lower combustion temperatures (800–840 °C). The emission changes are dependent on ash properties/composition.

Karel Svoboda; Michael Poho?elý

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

MARKET ASSESSMENT AND TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH USE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute, in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler International, Inc. and the US Department of Energy, has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC ashes. Ashes from the Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot-scale circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, combusting (1) low-sulfur subbituminous and (2) high-sulfur bituminous coal, and ash from the AEP's high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing at WR1. The technical feasibility study examined the use of PFBC ash in construction-related applications, including its use as a cementing material in concrete and use in cement manufacturing, fill and embankment materials, soil stabilization agent, and use in synthetic aggregate production. Testing was also conducted to determine the technical feasibility of PFBC ash as a soil amendment for acidic and sodic problem soils and spoils encountered in agricultural and reclamation applications. The results of the technical feasibility testing indicated the following conclusions. PFBC ash does not meet the chemical requirements as a pozzolan for cement replacement. However, it does appear that potential may exist for its use in cement production as a pozzolan and/or as a set retardant. PFBC ash shows relatively high strength development, low expansion, and low permeability properties that make its use in fills and embankments promising. Testing has also indicated that PFBC ash, when mixed with low amounts of lime, develops high strengths, suitable for soil stabilization applications and synthetic aggregate production. Synthetic aggregate produced from PFBC ash is capable of meeting ASTM/AASHTO specifications for many construction applications. The residual calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate in the PFE3C ash has been shown to be of value in making PFBC ash a suitable soil amendment for acidic and sodic problem soils and mine spoils. In conclusion, PFBC ash represents a viable material for use in currently established applications for conventional coal combustion ashes. As such, PFBC ash should be viewed as a valuable resource, and commercial opportunities for these materials should be explored for planned PFBC installations.

A.E. Bland; T.H. Brown

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Improved Combustion of Asphaltite Coals in a Rotating Head Combustor with Various Air Supply Arrangements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A small amount of ash is drifted via combustion gas in fine particles while great deal of it flow into the ash pit in the form of clinker from the open side of combustion head. ... In this study, it was shown that the swelling coals that were difficult to burn in conventional stokers could be burned using a rotating head combustor in high efficiencies without any ash problem. ... In this work, a rotating head combustor, which has been designed for burning the coking coals effectively, was deployed to burn a range of coals available in Turkey under agitation conditions with secondary air delivery. ...

Cengiz Öner; ?ehmus Altun

2014-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

429

EFFECTS OF FLY ASH ON MERCURY OXIDATION DURING POST COMBUSTION CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests were performed in simulated flue gas streams using two fly ash samples from the electrostatic precipitators of two full-scale utility boilers. One fly ash was derived from a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, while the other was derived from Blacksville coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 seam). The tests were performed at temperatures of 120 and 180 C under different gas compositions using whole fly ash samples as well as magnetic and nonmagnetic concentrates from sized fly ash. Only the Blacksville ash contained magnetic phases. The whole and fractionated fly ash samples were analyzed for morphology, chemical composition, mineralogical composition, total organic carbon, porosity, and surface area. Mineralogically, the Blacksville ash was composed predominantly of magnetite, hematite, quartz, and mullite, while the PRB ash contained mostly quartz with lesser amounts of lime, periclase, and calcium aluminum oxide. The iron oxides in the Blacksville ash were concentrated almost entirely in the largest size fraction. As anticipated, there was not a clean separation of magnetic (Fe-rich) and nonmagnetic (aluminosilicate-rich) phases for the Blacksville ash. The Blacksville ash had a significantly higher surface area and a much higher unburned carbon content than the PRB ash. Elemental mercury (Hg) streams were injected into the simulated flue gas and passed over filters (housed in a convection oven) loaded with fly ash. Concentrations of total, oxidized, and elemental Hg downstream from the ash samples were determined by the Ontario Hydro Method. The gas stream composition and whether or not ash was present in the gas stream were the two most important variables. Based on the statistical analyses, the presence of HCl, NO, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} and all two-way gas interactions were significant. In addition, it appears that even four-factor interactions between those gases are significant. The HCl, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} were critical gases resulting in Hg oxidation, while the presence of NO appeared to suppress oxidation. The Blacksville fly ash tended to show slightly more catalytic activity than the PRB fly ash, but this could be largely due to the higher surface area of the Blacksville ash. Temperature was not a statistically important factor. The magnetic (Fe-rich) phases did not appear to be more catalytically active than the nonmagnetic phases, and unburned carbon did not appear to play a critical role in oxidation chemistry.

Unknown

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

High-performance, high-volume fly ash concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This booklet offers the construction professional an in-depth description of the use of high-volume fly ash in concrete. Emphasis is placed on the need for increased utilization of coal-fired power plant byproducts in lieu of Portland cement materials to eliminate increased CO{sub 2} emissions during the production of cement. Also addressed is the dramatic increase in concrete performance with the use of 50+ percent fly ash volume. The booklet contains numerous color and black and white photos, charts of test results, mixtures and comparisons, and several HVFA case studies.

NONE

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

High-Sulfur Coal for Generating Electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-Sulfur...FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTORS, COMBUSTION...MAY FLUE GAS DES S E...1971 ). High-sulfur...was brief. Natural gas became...overdependent on natural gas and oil to...elevated pressure with a downward...coals of high ash-fusion...

James T. Dunham; Carl Rampacek; T. A. Henrie

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

432

Distribution of arsenic and mercury in lime spray dryer ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The partitioning of As and Hg in various components of lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples from a coal-fired boiler was characterized to better understand the form and fate of these elements in flue gas desulfurization byproducts. LSD ash samples, collected from the McCracken Power Plant on the Ohio State University campus, were separated by a 140-mesh (106 {mu}m) sieve into two fractions: a fly-ash-/unburned-carbon-enriched fraction (> 106 {mu}m) and a calcium-enriched fraction (< 106 {mu}m). Unburned carbon and fly ash in the material > 106 {mu}m were subsequently separated by density using a lithium heteropolytungstate solution. The concentrations of As and Hg were significant in all fractions. The level of As was consistently greater in the calcium-enriched fraction, while Hg was evenly distributed in all components of LSD ash. Specific surface area was an important factor controlling the distribution of Hg in the different components of LSD ash, but not for As. Comparing the LSD ash data to samples collected from the economizer suggests that As was effectively captured by fly ash at 600{sup o}C, while Hg was not. Leaching tests demonstrated that As and Hg were more stable in the calcium-enriched fraction than in the fly-ash- or carbon-enriched fractions, potentially because of the greater pH of the leachate and subsequently greater stability of small amounts of calcium solids containing trace elements in these fractions. 37 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Panuwat Taerakul; Ping Sun; Danold W. Golightly; Harold W. Walker; Linda K. Weavers [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

Western economies and the Gulf war  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A prolonged Iran/Iraq war could mean economic and even political-military disaster for western countries dependent on Persian Gulf oil. The percentage of gross national product loss that the US, western Europe, and Japan would suffer is estimated for three levels of interruption and illustrates how global effects can be felt even when direct imports are not involved. Although the US has few options for projecting power into the Gulf region, a long-run expansion of military capability is essential. The economic damage of continued disruptions can be eased by using more coal, nuclear power, and natural gas even if it means removing some environmental and economic barriers. A combination of financial incentives and additions to the strategic oil and gas storage would help, but important change will come from a reappraisal of our military position. (DCK)

Rowen, H.S.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Deashing of coal liquids by sonically assisted filtration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project seeks to improve the effectiveness and reduce the cost of coal liquefaction by novel applications of sonic and ultrasonic energy. The specific purpose of this project is to develop and improve means for the economical removal of dispersed solid particles of ash, unreacted coal, and spent catalyst from direct and indirect coal liquefaction resids by using sonic or ultrasonic waves. Product streams containing solids are generated in both direct and indirect coal liquefaction processes. Direct coal liquefaction processes generate liquid products which contain solids including coal-originated mineral matter, unreacted coal, and spent dispersed catalyst. The removal of these solids from a product stream is one of the most difficult problems in direct coal liquefaction processes. On this report, results are discussed for sonically assisted crossflow filtration of V-1067 resid, diluted with No. 2 fuel oil, and sonically assisted batch filtrations of solids concentrates from continuous cross-flow filtration experiments.

Slomka, B.J.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

WAR & PEACE & WAR THE LIFE CYCLES OF IMPERIAL NATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WAR & PEACE & WAR THE LIFE CYCLES OF IMPERIAL NATIONS PETER TURCHIN A Review of Chapters 13 & 14: Strong North-South gradient · North: Piedemont, Lombardia in Po Valley · South: Calabria, Sicily OF IMPERIAL NATIONS because, "we still make babies the old-fashioned way, we kill each

White, Douglas R.

436

From old wars to new wars and global terrorism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Even before 9/11 there were claims that the nature of war had changed fundamentally. The 9/11 attacks created an urgent need to understand contemporary wars and their relationship to older conventional and terrorist wars, both of which exhibit remarkable regularities. The frequency-intensity distribution of fatalities in "old wars", 1816-1980, is a power-law with exponent 1.80. Global terrorist attacks, 1968-present, also follow a power-law with exponent 1.71 for G7 countries and 2.5 for non-G7 countries. Here we analyze two ongoing, high-profile wars on opposite sides of the globe - Colombia and Iraq. Our analysis uses our own unique dataset for killings and injuries in Colombia, plus publicly available data for civilians killed in Iraq. We show strong evidence for power-law behavior within each war. Despite substantial differences in contexts and data coverage, the power-law coefficients for both wars are tending toward 2.5, which is a value characteristic of non-G7 terrorism as opposed to old wars. We prop...

Johnson, N; Restrepo, J; Bohorquez, J; Suárez, N; Restrepo, E; Zarama, R

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Coal pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

American prisoner of war policy and practice from the Revolutionary War to the War on Terror  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the Geneva Convention of 1929. This multinational agreement heavily modified international law regarding prisoners and the changes were reflected in some nations? treatment of 5 prisoners during World War II. The chapter also compares the treatment... system for prisoners of future conflicts.5 Immediately after the Vietnam War, A. J. Barker argued that modern war, involving the struggle for survival of competing ideologies, had complicated the problems of POWs and reduced the humanitarian component...

Springer, Paul Joseph

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

439

Construction of an embankment with a fly and bottom ash mixture: field performance study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash and bottom ash are coal combustion by-products (CCBPs) that are generated in large quantities throughout the world. It is often economical to dispose ash as mixtures rather than separately; that notwithstanding, only a few studies have been performed to investigate the behavior of fly and bottom ash mixtures, particularly those with high contents of fly ash. Also, there is very limited data available in the literature on the field performance of structures constructed using ash mixtures. This paper describes the construction and the instrumentation of a demonstration embankment built with an ash mixture (60:40 by weight of fly ash:bottom ash) on State Road 641, Terre Haute, Ind. Monitoring of the demonstration embankment was conducted for a period of 1 year from the start of construction of the embankment. The settlement of the embankment stabilized approximately 5 months after the end of its construction. According to horizontal inclinometer readings, the differential settlement at the top of the embankment is about 5 mm. Results from field quality control tests performed during construction of the demonstration embankment and monitoring data from vertical and horizontal inclinometers and settlement plates indicate that the ash mixture investigated can be considered an acceptable embankment construction material.

Yoon, S.; Balunaini, U.; Yildirim, I.Z.; Prezzi, M.; Siddiki, N.Z. [Louisiana Transportation Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

Investigations of ash fouling with cattle wastes as reburn fuel in a small-scale boiler burner under transient conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fouling behavior under reburn conditions was investigated with cattle wastes (termed as feedlot biomass, FB) and coal as reburn fuels under a transient condition and short-time operation. A small-scale (30 kW or 100,000 Btu/hr) boiler burner research facility was used for the reburn experiments. The fuels considered for these experiments were natural gas (NG) for the ashless case, pure coal, pure FB, and blends of coal and FB. Two parameters that were used to characterize the ash 'fouling' were (1) the overall heat-transfer coefficient (OHTC) when burning NG and solid fuels as reburn fuels, and (2) the combustible loss through ash deposited on the surfaces of heat exchanger tubes and the bottom ash in the ash port. A new methodology is presented for determining ash fouling behavior under transient conditions. Results on the OHTCs for solid reburn fuels are compared with the OHTCs for NG. It was found that the growth of the layer of ash depositions over longer periods typically lowers OHTC, and the increased concentration of ash in gas phase promotes radiation in high-temperature zones during initial periods while decreasing the heat transfer in low-temperature zones. The ash analyses indicated that the bottom ash in the ash port contained a smaller percentage of combustibles with a higher FB percentage in the fuels, indicating better performance compared with coal because small particles in FB burn faster and the FB has higher volatile matter on a dry ash-free basis promoting more burn out. 16 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

Hyukjin Oh; Kalyan Annamalai; John M. Sweeten [Texas A& amp; M University, College Station, TX (United States). Department of Mechanical Engineering

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

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441

Development of a stack plume opacity index for subbituminous coal-fired utility boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Powder River Basin subbituminous coals were burned using conventional and low-NO{sub x} combustion conditions in a drop-tube furnace equipped with a multicyclone ash collection device. Fine ash fractions (< 2 {micro}m in diameter) collected during the tests were analyzed using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM). Advances in particulate sample preparation methods enabled the CCSEM analysis of individual ash particles with submicron diameters as small as 0.1 {micro}m. The fine ash samples produced from the conventional combustion of coal consisted of discrete spherical particles, whereas particle agglomerates were characteristic of the low-NO{sub x} ash samples. Particle-size distributions of the low-NO{sub x} fine ash fractions were coarser because of the agglomeration. Theoretical light-scattering calculations indicate that for a given coal, the ash produced in low-NO{sub x} conditions causes less opacity as compared to conventional combustion conditions. The following phases were abundant in the ashes: Ca aluminosilicate, Ca aluminate, aluminosilicate, silica, (Ca, Mg)O, CaSO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2} SO{sub 4}, and (Na, K)Cl. Primary mechanisms that produced the fine ash include the thermal metamorphism of small (0.1 to 5 {micro}m) mineral grains and the vaporization and subsequent condensation of organically bound Na, Mg, and Ca, Empirical equations for estimating the concentration of fine ash produced from burning subbituminous coals were formulated into an opacity index based on CCSEM coal mineral and fine ash analyses and on drop-tube furnace testing results. The effects of ash electrical resistivity on electrostatic precipitator collection efficiency are also considered in the index.

Galbreath, K.C.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; McCollor, D.P.; Toman, D.L. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

442

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. This first project period, experiments were carried out to better understand the fundamental nature of the ozonation effect on ash. Carbon surfaces were characterized by surfactant adsorption, and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy before and after oxidation, both by air at 440 C and by ozone at room temperature. The results strongly suggest that the beneficial effect of ozonation is in large part due to chemical modification of the carbon surfaces.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth

2001-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

443

STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the present project was to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific issues addressed included: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity based on pilot-plant studies; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This laboratory data has provided scientific and engineering support and underpinning for parallel process development activities. The development work on the ash ozonation process has now transitioned into a scale-up and commercialization project involving a multi-industry team and scheduled to begin in 2004. This report describes and documents the laboratory and pilot-scale work in the above three areas done at Brown University and the University of Utah during this three-year project.

Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen; Indrek Kulaots

2004-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

444

Fine Anthracite Coal Washing Using Spirals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spiral performed well in cleaning the coarse 8 x 16 mesh size fraction, as demonstrated by the Ep ranging from 0.091 to 0.177. This is in line with typical spiral performance. In addition, the presence of the coarser size fraction did not significantly affect spiral performance on the typical 16 x 100 mesh fraction, in which the Ep ranged from 0.144 to 0.250. Changes in solids concentration and flow rate did not show a clear correlation with spiral performance. However, for difficult-to-clean coals with high near-gravity material, such as this anthracite, a single-stage spiral cleaning such a wide size fraction may not be able to achieve the clean coal ash and yield specifications required. In the first place, while the performance of the spiral on the coarse 8 x 16 mesh fraction is good with regard to Ep, the cutpoints (SG50s) are high (1.87 to 1.92), which may result in a clean coal with a higher-than-desired ash content. And second, the combination of the spiral's higher overall cutpoint (1.80) with the high near-gravity anthracite results in significant misplaced material that increases the clean coal ash error. In a case such as this, one solution may be to reclean the clean coal and middlings from the first-stage spiral in a second stage spiral.

R.P. Killmeyer; P.H. Zandhuis; M.V. Ciocco; W. Weldon; T. West; D. Petrunak

2001-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

445

A Dynamic Theory of Resource Wars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop a dynamic theory of resource wars and study the conditions under which such wars can be prevented. The interaction between the scarcity of resources and the incentives for war in the presence of limited commitment ...

Aceoglu, Daron

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

446

A Dynamic Theory of Resource Wars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop a dynamic theory of resource wars and study the conditions under which such wars can be prevented. Our focus is on the interaction between the scarcity of resources and the incentives for war in the presence of ...

Acemoglu, Daron

447

Toxicological assessments of Gulf War veterans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...appendix B, Gulf War and health: volume 1. Depleted uranium, pyridostigmine bromide...factors Gulf War and health: volume 1. Depleted uranium, pyridostigmine bromide...IOM's report Gulf War Health: volume 1. Depleted uranium, pyridostigmine bromide...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

An All Women's Response to War  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

war and aggression in Iraq are on the forefront of manyfifth anniversary of the war in Iraq, the issue Masculinistand occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq; and the use of war,

Dean, Rebecca

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Process for coal liquefaction in staged dissolvers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a pasting oil, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. In accordance with the improved process, the first dissolver is operated at a higher temperature than the second dissolver. This temperature sequence produces improved product selectivity and permits the incorporation of sufficient hydrogen in the solvent for adequate recycle operations.

Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Development of a coal cleaning control system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy selected the Battelle-Electric Power Research Institute-Science Applications International Corporation team to evaluate and develop on-line slurry ash, percent solids, and sulfur analysis instrumentation and process control technology. The project's objectives were (1) to develop an accurate, versatile, easy to use, on-line coal slurry analyzer and (2) to develop control strategies for analysis, control, and optimization of advanced and conventional coal-cleaning plant. The project's scope included (1) the installation of a slurry test loop, ash, percent solids, and sulfur instruments; (2) evaluation of instrument accuracy with various coals, under various slurry conditions; and (3) assessment of the cost and benefits to be derived from on-line analysis and control 12 refs., 40 figs., 16 tabs.

Conkle, H.N.; Barnes, R.H.; Orban, J.E.; Webb, P.R.

1990-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

451