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Sample records for wannagan black diamond

  1. Black Diamond, Washington: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Black Diamond is a city in King County, Washington. It falls under Washington's 8th congressional district.12...

  2. Diamond fiber field emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blanchet-Fincher, Graciela B. (Wilmington, DE); Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Devlin, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Eaton, David F. (Wilmington, DE); Silzars, Aris K. (Landenburg, PA); Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A field emission electron emitter comprising an electrode formed of at least one diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon composite fiber, said composite fiber having a non-diamond core and a diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon coating on said non-diamond core, and electronic devices employing such a field emission electron emitter.

  3. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swain, Greg (East Lansing, MI); Fischer, Anne (Arlington, VA),; Bennett, Jason (Lansing, MI); Lowe, Michael (Holt, MI)

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  4. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radtke, Robert P. (Kingwood, TX)

    2009-02-10

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  5. Diamond tool machining of materials which react with diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lundin, Ralph L.; Stewart, Delbert D.; Evans, Christopher J.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus for the diamond machining of materials which detrimentally react with diamond cutting tools in which the cutting tool and the workpiece are chilled to very low temperatures. This chilling halts or retards the chemical reaction between the workpiece and the diamond cutting tool so that wear rates of the diamond tool on previously detrimental materials are comparable with the diamond turning of materials which do not react with diamond.

  6. Diamond tool machining of materials which react with diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lundin, R.L.; Stewart, D.D.; Evans, C.J.

    1992-04-14

    An apparatus is described for the diamond machining of materials which detrimentally react with diamond cutting tools in which the cutting tool and the workpiece are chilled to very low temperatures. This chilling halts or retards the chemical reaction between the workpiece and the diamond cutting tool so that wear rates of the diamond tool on previously detrimental materials are comparable with the diamond turning of materials which do not react with diamond. 1 figs.

  7. Amorphous diamond films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, Steven (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions.

  8. Black Diamond Power Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 Energy Information Administration Form 8262 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 1764 Utility Location Yes Ownership I...

  9. Diamond nucleation using polyethene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morell, Gerardo; Makarov, Vladimir; Varshney, Deepak; Weiner, Brad

    2013-07-23

    The invention presents a simple, non-destructive and non-abrasive method of diamond nucleation using polyethene. It particularly describes the nucleation of diamond on an electrically viable substrate surface using polyethene via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in a gaseous environment.

  10. Amorphous diamond films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, S.

    1998-06-09

    Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions. 1 fig.

  11. Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond/Silicon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide Nanocomposites for Drill Bits Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide ...

  12. Diamond-graphite field emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A field emission electron emitter comprising an electrode of diamond and a conductive carbon, e.g., graphite, is provided.

  13. Fluidized bed deposition of diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Carroll, David W. (Los Alamos, NM); Trkula, Mitchell (Los Alamos, NM); Anderson, Wallace E. (Los Alamos, NM); Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A process for coating a substrate with diamond or diamond-like material including maintaining a substrate within a bed of particles capable of being fluidized, the particles having substantially uniform dimensions and the substrate characterized as having different dimensions than the bed particles, fluidizing the bed of particles, and depositing a coating of diamond or diamond-like material upon the substrate by chemical vapor deposition of a carbon-containing precursor gas mixture, the precursor gas mixture introduced into the fluidized bed under conditions resulting in excitation mechanisms sufficient to form the diamond coating.

  14. Lower pressure synthesis of diamond material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lueking, Angela (State College, PA); Gutierrez, Humberto (State College, PA); Narayanan, Deepa (Redmond, WA); Burgess Clifford, Caroline E. (State College, PA); Jain, Puja (King Of Prussia, PA)

    2010-07-13

    Methods of synthesizing a diamond material, particularly nanocrystalline diamond, diamond-like carbon and bucky diamond are provided. In particular embodiments, a composition including a carbon source, such as coal, is subjected to addition of energy, such as high energy reactive milling, producing a milling product enriched in hydrogenated tetrahedral amorphous diamond-like carbon compared to the coal. A milling product is treated with heat, acid and/or base to produce nanocrystalline diamond and/or crystalline diamond-like carbon. Energy is added to produced crystalline diamond-like carbon in particular embodiments to produce bucky diamonds.

  15. Conversion of fullerenes to diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1993-01-01

    A method of forming synthetic diamond on a substrate is disclosed. The method involves providing a substrate surface covered with a fullerene or diamond coating, positioning a fullerene in an ionization source, creating a fullerene vapor, ionizing fullerene molecules, accelerating the fullerene ions to energies above 250 eV to form a fullerene ion beam, impinging the fullerene ion beam on the substrate surface and continuing these steps to obtain a diamond thickness on the substrate.

  16. Conversion of fullerenes to diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1994-01-01

    A method of forming synthetic diamond on a substrate. The method involves providing a substrate surface covered with a fullerene or diamond coating, positioning a fullerene in an ionization source, creating a fullerene vapor, ionizing fullerene molecules, accelerating the fullerene ions to energies above 250 eV to form a fullerene ion beam, impinging the fullerene ion beam on the substrate surface and continuing these steps to obtain a diamond film thickness on the substrate.

  17. Diamond turning of glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  18. Conversion of fullerenes to diamonds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1995-01-01

    A method of forming synthetic diamond or diamond-like films on a substrate surface. The method involves the steps of providing a vapor selected from the group of fullerene molecules or an inert gas/fullerene molecule mixture, providing energy to the fullerene molecules consisting of carbon-carbon bonds, the energized fullerene molecules breaking down to form fragments of fullerene molecules including C.sub.2 molecules and depositing the energized fullerene molecules with C.sub.2 fragments onto the substrate with farther fragmentation occurring and forming a thickness of diamond or diamond-like films on the substrate surface.

  19. Diamond films treated with alkali-halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.W.

    1997-04-08

    A secondary electron emitter is provided and includes a substrate with a diamond film, the diamond film is treated or coated with an alkali-halide. 5 figs.

  20. Blue Diamond Ventures Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Blue Diamond Ventures Inc Place: Houston,, Texas Zip: 77071 Product: Agriculture, bio fuels and commercial development company. References: Blue Diamond Ventures Inc1 This...

  1. High efficiency diamond solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    2008-05-06

    A photovoltaic device and method of making same. A layer of p-doped microcrystalline diamond is deposited on a layer of n-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond such as by providing a substrate in a chamber, providing a first atmosphere containing about 1% by volume CH.sub.4 and about 99% by volume H.sub.2 with dopant quantities of a boron compound, subjecting the atmosphere to microwave energy to deposit a p-doped microcrystalline diamond layer on the substrate, providing a second atmosphere of about 1% by volume CH.sub.4 and about 89% by volume Ar and about 10% by volume N.sub.2, subjecting the second atmosphere to microwave energy to deposit a n-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond layer on the p-doped microcrystalline diamond layer. Electrodes and leads are added to conduct electrical energy when the layers are irradiated.

  2. Conversion of fullerenes to diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1994-01-01

    A method of forming synthetic hydrogen defect free diamond or diamond like films on a substrate. The method involves providing vapor containing fullerene molecules with or without an inert gas, providing a device to impart energy to the fullerene molecules, fragmenting at least in part some of the fullerene molecules in the vapor or energizing the molecules to incipient fragmentation, ionizing the fullerene molecules, impinging ionized fullerene molecules on the substrate to assist in causing fullerene fragmentation to obtain a thickness of diamond on the substrate.

  3. Tailoring nanocrystalline diamond film properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); McCauley, Thomas G. (Somerville, MA); Zhou, Dan (Orlando, FL); Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL)

    2003-07-15

    A method for controlling the crystallite size and growth rate of plasma-deposited diamond films. A plasma is established at a pressure in excess of about 55 Torr with controlled concentrations of hydrogen up to about 98% by volume, of unsubstituted hydrocarbons up to about 3% by volume and an inert gas of one or more of the noble gases and nitrogen up to about 98% by volume. The volume ratio of inert gas to hydrogen is preferably maintained at greater than about 4, to deposit a diamond film on a suitable substrate. The diamond film is deposited with a predetermined crystallite size and at a predetermined growth rate.

  4. Fabrication of amorphous diamond films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, S.

    1995-12-12

    Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions. 1 fig.

  5. Amorphous-diamond electron emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, Steven

    2001-01-01

    An electron emitter comprising a textured silicon wafer overcoated with a thin (200 .ANG.) layer of nitrogen-doped, amorphous-diamond (a:D-N), which lowers the field below 20 volts/micrometer have been demonstrated using this emitter compared to uncoated or diamond coated emitters wherein the emission is at fields of nearly 60 volts/micrometer. The silicon/nitrogen-doped, amorphous-diamond (Si/a:D-N) emitter may be produced by overcoating a textured silicon wafer with amorphous-diamond (a:D) in a nitrogen atmosphere using a filtered cathodic-arc system. The enhanced performance of the Si/a:D-N emitter lowers the voltages required to the point where field-emission displays are practical. Thus, this emitter can be used, for example, in flat-panel emission displays (FEDs), and cold-cathode vacuum electronics.

  6. Method of dehalogenation using diamonds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, Malvina (Roslyn Harbor, NY); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Lafayette, LA); Ladner, Edward P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Anderson, Richard R. (Brownsville, PA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for preparing olefins and halogenated olefins is provided comprising contacting halogenated compounds with diamonds for a sufficient time and at a sufficient temperature to convert the halogenated compounds to olefins and halogenated olefins via elimination reactions.

  7. Del Black

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Del Black Del Black dblack.jpg Del C. Black HPC Technician Operations Technology Group DCBlack@lbl.gov Phone: (510) 486-6821 Fax: (510) 486-4316 1 Cyclotron Road Mail Stop 943-256 Berkeley, CA 94720 Last edited: 2016-02-01 08:06:45

  8. Double bevel construction of a diamond anvil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, W.C.

    1987-02-06

    Use of double or multiple bevel culet geometry on a diamond anvil to provide increased sample pressure and stability for a given force applied to the diamond tables. 7 figs.

  9. Method of Forming Diamonds from Carbonaceous Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daulton, Tyrone; Lewis, Roy; Rehn, Lynn; Kirk, Marquis

    1999-11-30

    A method for producing diamonds is provided comprising exposing carbonaceous material to ion irradiation at ambient temperature and pressure.

  10. Method for forming diamonds from carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daulton, Tyrone (Slidell, LA); Lewis, Roy (Evanston, IL); Rehn, Lynn (LaGrange, IL); Kirk, Marquis (Hinsdale, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A method for producing diamonds is provided comprising exposing carbonaceous material to ion irradiation at ambient temperature and pressure.

  11. Ultratough single crystal boron-doped diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hemley, Russell J [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC (United States); Mao, Ho-Kwang [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC (United States); Yan, Chih-Shiue [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC (United States); Liang, Qi [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-05-05

    The invention relates to a single crystal boron doped CVD diamond that has a toughness of at least about 22 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing single crystal boron doped CVD diamond. The growth rate of the diamond can be from about 20-100 .mu.m/h.

  12. Diamond-silicon carbide composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, Jiang; Zhao, Yusheng

    2006-06-13

    Fully dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites are prepared from ball-milled microcrystalline diamond/amorphous silicon powder mixture. The ball-milled powder is sintered (P=5–8 GPa, T=1400K–2300K) to form composites having high fracture toughness. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPa.dot.m1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate that amorphous silicon is partially transformed into nanocrystalline silicon at 5 GPa/873K, and nanocrystalline silicon carbide forms at higher temperatures.

  13. Method for machining steel with diamond tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casstevens, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for machine optical quality finishes and contour accuracies of workpieces of carbon-containing metals such as steel with diamond tooling. The wear rate of the diamond tooling is significantly reduced by saturating the atmosphere at the interface of the workpiece and the diamond tool with a gaseous hydrocarbon during the machining operation. The presence of the gaseous hydrocarbon effectively eliminates the deterioration of the diamond tool by inhibiting or preventing the conversion of the diamond carbon to graphite carbon at the point of contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece.

  14. EA-1795: Diamond Green Diesel Facility in Norco, LA | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    5: Diamond Green Diesel Facility in Norco, LA EA-1795: Diamond Green Diesel Facility in Norco, LA April 1, 2011 EA-1795: Final Environmental Assessment Loan Guarantee to Diamond ...

  15. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  16. Diamond-silicon carbide composite and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yusheng (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-06-14

    Uniformly dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites having high hardness, high fracture toughness, and high thermal stability are prepared by consolidating a powder mixture of diamond and amorphous silicon. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPam.sup.1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness.

  17. Diamond turning of thermoplastic polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, E.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Single point diamond turning studies were made using a series of thermoplastic polymers with different glass transition temperatures. Variations in surface morphology and surface roughness were observed as a function of cutting speed. Lower glass transition temperatures facilitate smoother surface cuts and better surface finish. This can be attributed to the frictional heating that occurs during machining. Because of the very low glass transition temperatures in polymeric compared to inorganic glasses, the precision machining response can be very speed sensitive.

  18. Diamond Wire Technology LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wire Technology LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Diamond Wire Technology LLC Place: Colorado Springs, Colorado Zip: 80916 Sector: Solar Product: US-based manufacturer of...

  19. Diamond Walnut Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NEEDS 2006 Database Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleDiamondWalnutBiomassFacility&oldid397401" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  20. Diamond Energy Pty Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pty Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Diamond Energy Pty Ltd Place: Melbourne, Australia Zip: 3124 Product: Victoria based clean energy project developer. Coordinates:...

  1. Superconducting nanowire single photon detector on diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atikian, Haig A.; Burek, Michael J.; Choy, Jennifer T.; Lon?ar, Marko; Eftekharian, Amin; Jafari Salim, A.; Hamed Majedi, A.

    2014-03-24

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors are fabricated directly on diamond substrates and their optical and electrical properties are characterized. Dark count performance and photon count rates are measured at varying temperatures for 1310?nm and 632?nm photons. A multi-step diamond surface polishing procedure is reported, involving iterative reactive ion etching and mechanical polishing to create a suitable diamond surface for the deposition and patterning of thin film superconducting layers. Using this approach, diamond substrates with less than 300?pm Root Mean Square surface roughness are obtained.

  2. All diamond self-aligned thin film transistor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerbi, Jennifer (Champaign, IL)

    2008-07-01

    A substantially all diamond transistor with an electrically insulating substrate, an electrically conductive diamond layer on the substrate, and a source and a drain contact on the electrically conductive diamond layer. An electrically insulating diamond layer is in contact with the electrically conductive diamond layer, and a gate contact is on the electrically insulating diamond layer. The diamond layers may be homoepitaxial, polycrystalline, nanocrystalline or ultrananocrystalline in various combinations.A method of making a substantially all diamond self-aligned gate transistor is disclosed in which seeding and patterning can be avoided or minimized, if desired.

  3. Diamond film growth argon-carbon plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL); Liu, Shengzhong (Canton, MI); Pan, Xianzheng (Wuhan Hubei, CN); Zuiker, Christopher D. (LaGrange, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A method and system for manufacturing diamond film. The method involves forming a carbonaceous vapor, providing a gas stream of argon, hydrogen and hydrocarbon and combining the gas with the carbonaceous vapor, passing the combined carbonaceous vapor and gas carrier stream into a chamber, forming a plasma in the chamber causing fragmentation of the carbonaceous and deposition of a diamond film on a substrate.

  4. Diamond film growth from fullerene precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Liu, Shengzhong (Woodridge, IL); Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL); Pan, Xianzheng (Woodridge, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method and system for manufacturing diamond film. The method involves forming a fullerene vapor, providing a noble gas stream and combining the gas with the fullerene vapor, passing the combined fullerene vapor and noble gas carrier stream into a chamber, forming a plasma in the chamber causing fragmentation of the fullerene and deposition of a diamond film on a substrate.

  5. Fluorinated diamond bonded in fluorocarbon resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Gene W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01

    By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

  6. Double bevel construction of a diamond anvil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, W.C.

    1988-10-11

    A double or multiple bevel culet geometry is used on a diamond anvil in a high pressure cell apparatus to provide increased sample pressure and stability for a given force applied to the diamond tables. Double or multiple bevel culet geometries can also be used for sapphire or other hard crystal anvils. Pressures up to and above 5 Megabars can be reached. 8 figs.

  7. Self-composite comprised of nanocrystalline diamond and a non-diamond component useful for thermoelectric applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    2009-08-11

    One provides nanocrystalline diamond material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered diamond crystallites that are sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then disposes a non-diamond component within the nanocrystalline diamond material. By one approach this non-diamond component comprises an electrical conductor that is formed at the grain boundaries that separate the diamond crystallites from one another. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the nanocrystalline diamond material.

  8. Self-composite comprised of nanocrystalline diamond and a non-diamond component useful for thermoelectric applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    2012-09-04

    One provides nanocrystalline diamond material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered diamond crystallites that are sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then disposes a non-diamond component within the nanocrystalline diamond material. By one approach this non-diamond component comprises an electrical conductor that is formed at the grain boundaries that separate the diamond crystallites from one another. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the nanocrystalline diamond material.

  9. Multifrequency spin resonance in diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childress, Lilian; McIntyre, Jean

    2010-09-15

    Magnetic resonance techniques provide a powerful tool for controlling spin systems, with applications ranging from quantum information processing to medical imaging. Nevertheless, the behavior of a spin system under strong excitation remains a rich dynamical problem. In this paper, we examine spin resonance of the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond under conditions outside the regime where the usual rotating-wave approximation applies, focusing on effects of multifrequency excitation and excitation with orientation parallel to the spin quantization axis. Strong-field phenomena such as multiphoton transitions and coherent destruction of tunneling are observed in the spectra and analyzed via numerical and analytic theory. In addition to illustrating the response of a spin system to strong multifrequency excitation, these observations may inform techniques for manipulating electron-nuclear spin quantum registers.

  10. Diamond coated silicon field emitter array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Albin; W. Fu; A. Varghese; A. C. Lavarias; G. R. Myneni

    1999-07-01

    Diamond coated silicon tip arrays, with and without a self-aligned gate, were fabricated, and current-voltage characteristics of 400 tips were measured. Diamond films were grown uniformly on Si tips using microwave plasma after nucleation with 10 nm diamond suspension and substrate bias. An emission current of 57 ?A was obtained at 5 V from the ungated array tips separated from an anode at 2 ?m. In the case of the gated arrays with 1.5 ?m aperture, an emission current of 3.4 ?A was measured at a gate voltage of 80 V for an anode separation of 200 ?m. The turn-on voltages for these two types of devices were 0.2 and 40 V, respectively. Diamond coated Si tip arrays have potential applications in field emission based low voltage vacuum electronic devices and microsensors.

  11. Diamond film growth argon-carbon plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.; Krauss, A.R.; Liu, S.Z.; Pan, X.Z.; Zuiker, C.D.

    1998-12-15

    A method and system are disclosed for manufacturing diamond film. The method involves forming a carbonaceous vapor, providing a gas stream of argon, hydrogen and hydrocarbon and combining the gas with the carbonaceous vapor, passing the combined carbonaceous vapor and gas carrier stream into a chamber, forming a plasma in the chamber causing fragmentation of the carbonaceous and deposition of a diamond film on a substrate. 29 figs.

  12. Diamond film growth from fullerene precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.; Liu, S.; Krauss, A.R.; Pan, X.

    1997-04-15

    A method and system are disclosed for manufacturing diamond film. The method involves forming a fullerene vapor, providing a noble gas stream and combining the gas with the fullerene vapor, passing the combined fullerene vapor and noble gas carrier stream into a chamber, forming a plasma in the chamber causing fragmentation of the fullerene and deposition of a diamond film on a substrate. 10 figs.

  13. Diamond Based TE Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diamond Based TE Materials Diamond Based TE Materials 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon pm032_gruen_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Nanocarbon Ensembles DOE Vehicle Technologies Program 2009 Merit Review Report - Propulsion Materials Enhancing the Figure-of-Merit in Half-Heuslers for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery

  14. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Seals, R.D.; Price, R.E.

    1997-06-03

    A method and composition is disclosed for the deposition of a thick layer of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate. The softened or molten composition crystallizes on the substrate to form a thick deposition layer comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent and may include at least one secondary constituent. Preferably, the secondary constituents are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) powder and mixtures thereof. 9 figs.

  15. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Price, R. Eugene (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A method and composition for the deposition of a thick layer (10) of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition (12) including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate (20). The softened or molten composition (18) crystallizes on the substrate (20) to form a thick deposition layer (10) comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition (12) includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent (14) and may include at least one secondary constituent (16). Preferably, the secondary constituents (16) are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) powder and mixtures thereof.

  16. n-Type diamond and method for producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Richard J. (Oakland, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A new n-type semiconducting diamond is disclosed, which is doped with n-type dopant atoms. Such diamond is advantageously formed by chemical vapor deposition from a source gas mixture comprising a carbon source compound for the diamond, and a volatile hot wire filament for the n-type impurity species, so that the n-type impurity atoms are doped in the diamond during its formation. A corresponding chemical vapor deposition method of forming the n-type semiconducting diamond is disclosed. The n-type semiconducting diamond of the invention may be usefully employed in the formation of diamond-based transistor devices comprising pn diamond junctions, and in other microelectronic device applications.

  17. Study of Electron Transport and Amplification in Diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, Erik M.; Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2013-03-31

    As a successful completion of this award, my group has demonstrated world-leading electron gain from diamond for use in a diamond-amplified photocathode. Also, using high-resolution photoemission measurements we were able to uncover exciting new physics of the electron emission mechanisms from hydrogen terminated diamond. Our work, through the continued support of HEP, has resulted in a greater understanding of the diamond material science, including current limits, charge transport modeling, and spatial uniformity.

  18. First principles study of Fe in diamond: A diamond-based half metallic dilute magnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benecha, E. M.; Lombardi, E. B.

    2013-12-14

    Half-metallic ferromagnetic ordering in semiconductors, essential in the emerging field of spintronics for injection and transport of highly spin polarised currents, has up to now been considered mainly in III–V and II–VI materials. However, low Curie temperatures have limited implementation in room temperature device applications. We report ab initio Density Functional Theory calculations on the properties of Fe in diamond, considering the effects of lattice site, charge state, and Fermi level position. We show that the lattice sites and induced magnetic moments of Fe in diamond depend strongly on the Fermi level position and type of diamond co-doping, with Fe being energetically most favorable at the substitutional site in p-type and intrinsic diamond, while it is most stable at a divacancy site in n-type diamond. Fe induces spin polarized bands in the band gap, with strong hybridization between Fe-3d and C-2s,2p bands. We further consider Fe-Fe spin interactions in diamond and show that substitutional Fe{sup +1} in p-type diamond exhibits a half-metallic character, with a magnetic moment of 1.0 μ{sub B} per Fe atom and a large ferromagnetic stabilization energy of 33 meV, an order of magnitude larger than in other semiconductors, with correspondingly high Curie temperatures. These results, combined with diamond's unique properties, demonstrate that Fe doped p-type diamond is likely to be a highly suitable candidate material for spintronics applications.

  19. Vacancy induced structural changes in diamond.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnard, A.; Sternberg, M.; Univ. of Melbourne

    2008-01-01

    Although optically active defects in nanodiamond are being considered as candidates for optical labeling in biomedical applications, development in this area is being hindered the fact that suitable defects are rarely seen in diamond nanoparticles in the size regime required. These defects usually form as a complex with an impurity and a neutral of charged vacancy, so a measurable concentration of vacancy point defects is also necessary. Presented here are results of density functional tight binding computer simulations investigating the stability of vacancies in diamond nanoparticles with different surface structures. The results indicate that both neutral and charged vacancies alter the structure of as-grown diamond nanoparticles and are likely to diffuse out of the particle during synthesis or irradiation. We also find that suitable passivation of the particle may alleviate this problem, and hence facilitate the formation of defect complexes.

  20. Hard, infrared black coating with very low outgassing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmenko, P J; Behne, D M; Casserly, T; Boardman, W; Upadhyaya, D; Boinapally, K; Gupta, M; Cao, Y

    2008-06-02

    Infrared astronomical instruments require absorptive coatings on internal surfaces to trap scattered and stray photons. This is typically accomplished with any one of a number of black paints. Although inexpensive and simple to apply, paint has several disadvantages. Painted surfaces can be fragile, prone to shedding particles, and difficult to clean. Most importantly, the vacuum performance is poor. Recently a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process was developed to apply thick (30 {micro}m) diamond-like carbon (DLC) based protective coatings to the interior of oil pipelines. These DLC coatings show much promise as an infrared black for an ultra high vacuum environment. The coatings are very robust with excellent cryogenic adhesion. Their total infrared reflectivity of < 10% at normal incidence approaches that of black paints. We measured outgas rates of <10{sup -12} Torr liter/sec cm{sup 2}, comparable to bare stainless steel.

  1. STATUS OF DIAMOND SECONDARY EMISSION ENHANCED PHOTOCATHODE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAO,T.; BEN-ZVI, I.; CHANG, X.; GRIMES, J.; GROVER, R.; ISAKOVIC, A.; SMEDLEY, J.; TODD, R.; WARREN, J.; WU, Q.

    2007-05-25

    The diamond secondary emission enhanced photocathode (SEEP) provides an attractive alternative for simple photo cathodes in high average current electron injectors. It reduces the laser power required to drive the cathode, simultaneously isolating the cathode and the FW cavity from each other, thereby protecting them from contamination and increasing their life time. In this paper, we present the latest results on the secondary electron yield using pulsed thermionic and photo cathodes as primary electron sources, shaping the diamond using laser ablation and reactive ion etching as well as the theoretical underpinning of secondary electron generation and preliminary results of modeling.

  2. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.

    1999-05-11

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties is disclosed. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display. 3 figs.

  3. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downer Grove, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display.

  4. Diamond Shaving of Contaminated Concrete Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullen, Lisa K.

    2008-01-15

    Decommissioning and decontamination of existing facilities presents technological challenges. One major challenge is the removal of surface contamination from concrete floors and walls while eliminating the spread of contamination and volumetric reduction of the waste stream. Numerous methods have been tried with a varying degree of success. Recent technology has made this goal achievable and has been used successfully. This new technology is the Diamond Floor Shaver and Diamond Wall shaver. The Diamond Floor Shaver is a self-propelled, walk behind machine that literally shaves the contaminated concrete surface to specified depths. This is accomplished by using a patented system of 100 dry cutting diamond blades with offset diamond segments that interlock to provide complete shaving of the concrete surface. Grooves are eliminated which allows for a direct frisk reading to analyze results. When attached to an appropriate size vacuum, the dust produced is 100% contained. Dust is collected in drums ready for disposition and disposal. The waste produced in shaving 7,500 square feet at 1/8 inch thickness would fill a single 55 gallon drum. Production is dependent on depth of shaving but averages 100 square feet per hour. The wall shaver uses the same patented diamond drum and blades but is hydraulically driven and is deployed using a robotic arm allowing its operation to be to totally remote. It can reach ceilings as high as 20 feet. Numerous small projects were successfully completed using this technology. Large scale deployment came in 2003. Bluegrass, in conjunction with Bartlett Services, deployed this technology to support decontamination activities for closing of the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons site. Up to six floor shavers and one wall shaver were deployed in buildings B371 and B374. These buildings had up to one half-inch, fixed plutonium and beryllium contamination. Hundred-thousands of square feet of floors and walls were shaved successfully to depths of up to one half inch. Decontamination efforts were so successful the balance of the buildings could be demolished using conventional methods. The shavers helped keep the project on schedule while the vacuum system eliminated the potential for contaminants becoming airborne.

  5. Black Pine Engineering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black Pine Engineering is commercializing a disruptive technology in the turbomachinery industry. Using a patented woven composite construction, Black Pine Engineering can make turbomachines (turbines, compressors) that are cheaper and lighter than competing technologies. Using this technology, Black Pine Engineering will sell turbo-compressors which solve the problem of wasted steam in geothermal power plants.

  6. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  7. Precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, S.; Paul, H.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the effect of machine parameters and material properties on precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass. The critical grinding depth to initiate the plastic flow-to-brittle fracture regime will be directly measured using plunge-grind tests. This information will be correlated with machine parameters such as wheel bonding and diamond grain size. Multiaxis grinding tests will then be made to provide data more closely coupled with production technology. One important aspect of the material property studies involves measuring fracture toughness at the very short crack sizes commensurate with grinding damage. Short crack toughness value`s can be much less than the long-crack toughness values measured in conventional fracture tests.

  8. Methane storage capabilities of diamond analogues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haranczyk, M; Lin, LC; Lee, K; Martin, RL; Neaton, JB; Smit, B

    2013-01-01

    Methane can be an alternative fuel for vehicular usage provided that new porous materials are developed for its efficient adsorption-based storage. Herein, we search for materials for this application within the family of diamond analogues. We used density functional theory to investigate structures in which tetrahedral C atoms of diamond are separated by-CC-or-BN-groups, as well as ones involving substitution of tetrahedral C atoms with Si and Ge atoms. The adsorptive and diffusive properties of methane are studied using classical molecular simulations. Our results suggest that the all-carbon structure has the highest volumetric methane uptake of 280 VSTP/V at p = 35 bar and T = 298 K. However, it suffers from limited methane diffusion. Alternatively, the considered Si and Ge-containing analogies have fast diffusive properties but their adsorption is lower, ca. 172-179 VSTP/V, at the same conditions.

  9. Method to fabricate micro and nano diamond devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M; Anderson, Richard J; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Skinner, Jack L; Rye, Michael J

    2014-10-07

    A method including forming a diamond material on the surface of a substrate; forming a first contact and a separate second contact; and patterning the diamond material to form a nanowire between the first contact and the second contact. An apparatus including a first contact and a separate second contact on a substrate; and a nanowire including a single crystalline or polycrystalline diamond material on the substrate and connected to each of the first contact and the second contact.

  10. Ultrananocrystalline Diamond (UNCD) Seal Faces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultrananocrystalline Diamond (UNCD) Seal Faces Ultrananocrystalline Diamond (UNCD) Seal Faces New Diamond Coatings Reduce Friction and Improve Performance of Mechanical Seals Mechanical seals are used to reduce friction and prevent product leakage in a variety of industrial rotary equipment such as pumps and mixers. Traditional seal ring pairs employ a hard material such as silicon carbide (SiC) and a soft material such as carbon to achieve the best possible hardness and friction-resistant

  11. EA-1795: Diamond Green Diesel Facility in Norco, LA | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    5: Diamond Green Diesel Facility in Norco, LA EA-1795: Diamond Green Diesel Facility in Norco, LA April 1, 2011 EA-1795: Final Environmental Assessment Loan Guarantee to Diamond Green Diesel, LLC for Construction of the Diamond Green Diesel Facility in Norco, Louisiana April 18, 2011 EA-1795: Finding of No Significant Impact Loan Guarantee to Diamond Green Diesel for Construction of the Diamond Green Diesel Facility in Norco, Louisiana

  12. Bruce Diamond | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Diamond | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home

  13. Robust Diamond-Based RF Switch Yields Enhanced Communication...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Robust Diamond-Based RF Switch Yields Enhanced Communication Capabilities Technology available for licesning: A radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switch...

  14. Ultratough CVD single crystal diamond and three dimensional growth thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hemley, Russell J. (Washington, DC); Mao, Ho-kwang (Washington, DC); Yan, Chih-shiue (Washington, DC)

    2009-09-29

    The invention relates to a single-crystal diamond grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition that has a toughness of at least about 30 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention also relates to a method of producing a single-crystal diamond with a toughness of at least about 30 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a process for producing a single crystal CVD diamond in three dimensions on a single crystal diamond substrate.

  15. USES OF HYPERTHERMAL ATOMIC BEAM FOR LOW TEMPERATURE DIAMOND...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    quality of the film. An example is growing diamond films with large micrometer sized grains below 100 C. Reducing the growth temperature requires finding ways of selectively...

  16. The Best of Both Worlds: Bulk Diamond Properties Realized at...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a level of crystallographic and electronic ordering in purified HPHT nanodiamonds that matches fundamental properties of bulk diamond to the nanoscale while retaining its...

  17. Diamond Bar, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    district.12 Registered Energy Companies in Diamond Bar, California US South Coast Air Quality Management District SCAQMD References US Census Bureau Incorporated place...

  18. Substitutional Boron in Nanodiamond, Bucky-Diamond, and Nanocrystalline Diamond Grain Boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnard, Amanda S.; Sternberg, Michael G.

    2006-10-05

    Although boron has been known for many years to be a successful dopant in bulk diamond, efficient doping of nanocrystalline diamond with boron is still being developed. In general, the location, configuration, and bonding structure of boron in nanodiamond is still unknown, including the fundamental question of whether it is located within grains or grain boundaries of thin films and whether it is within the core or at the surface of nanoparticles. Presented here are density functional tight-binding simulations examining the configuration, potential energy surface, and electronic charge of substitutional boron in various types of nanocrystalline diamond. The results predict that boron is likely to be positioned at the surface of isolated particles and at the grain boundary of thin-film samples.

  19. Patterning of nanocrystalline diamond films for diamond microstructures useful in MEMS and other devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Busmann, Hans-Gerd (Bremen, DE); Meyer, Eva-Maria (Bremen, DE); Auciello, Orlando (Bolingbrook, IL); Krauss, Alan R. (late of Naperville, IL); Krauss, Julie R. (Naperville, IL)

    2004-11-02

    MEMS structure and a method of fabricating them from ultrananocrystalline diamond films having average grain sizes of less than about 10 nm and feature resolution of less than about one micron . The MEMS structures are made by contacting carbon dimer species with an oxide substrate forming a carbide layer on the surface onto which ultrananocrystalline diamond having average grain sizes of less than about 10 nm is deposited. Thereafter, microfabrication process are used to form a structure of predetermined shape having a feature resolution of less than about one micron.

  20. Diamond/diamond-like thin film growth in a butane plasma on unetched, unheated, N-type Si(100) substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, E.S.; Richardson, J.S. Jr.; Anderson, D.; Starkey, K.

    1995-06-01

    Deposition of diamond/diamond-like thin films on unetched, unheated, n-type Si(100) substrates in a butane plasma is reported. An interconnection between values of index of refraction, hydrogen flow rate, butane flow rate and Rf power was determined. The H{sub 2} and C{sub 4}H{sub 10} molecules are disassociated by Rf energy to create a plasma. Carbon from the butane forms a thin diamond/diamond-like film on a suitable substrate, which in the current investigation, is n-type Si(100).

  1. Lumens Placard (Black) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Black) Lumens Placard (Black) File lumens_placard-black.eps More Documents & Publications Lumens Placard (Black) Lumens Placard (Green) Lumens Placard (Green

  2. Electrically conductive polycrystalline diamond and particulate metal based electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swain, Greg M.; Wang, Jian

    2005-04-26

    An electrically conducting and dimensionally stable diamond (12, 14) and metal particle (13) electrode produced by electrodepositing the metal on the diamond is described. The electrode is particularly useful in harsh chemical environments and at high current densities and potentials. The electrode is particularly useful for generating hydrogen, and for reducing oxygen and oxidizing methanol in reactions which are of importance in fuel cells.

  3. Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond/Silicon Carbide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanocomposites for Drill Bits | Department of Energy Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond/Silicon Carbide Nanocomposites for Drill Bits Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond/Silicon Carbide Nanocomposites for Drill Bits PDF icon nanocomposites_drill_bits.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Nanomanufacturing: Nanomanufacturing Portfolio: Manufacturing Processes and Applications to Accelerate Commercial Use of Nanomaterials, January 2011 A History or

  4. Analyzing the performance of diamond-coated micro end mills.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, C. D.; Heaney, P. J.; Sumant, A. V.; Hamilton, M. A.; Carpick, R. W.; Pfefferkorn, F. E.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison; Univ. of Pennsylvania

    2009-06-01

    A method is presented to improve the tool life and cutting performance of 300 {micro}m diameter tungsten carbide (WC) micro end mills by applying thin (<300 nm) fine-grained diamond (FGD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings using the hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) process. The performance of the diamond-coated tools has been evaluated by comparing their performance in dry slot milling of 6061-T6 aluminum against uncoated WC micro end mills. Tool wear, coating integrity, and chip morphology were characterized using SEM and white light interferometry. The initial test results show a dramatic improvement in the tool integrity (i.e., corners not breaking off), a lower wear rate, no observable adhesion of aluminum to the diamond-coated tool, and a significant reduction in the cutting forces (>50%). Reduction of the cutting forces is attributed to the low friction and adhesion of the diamond coating. However, approximately 80% of the tools coated with the larger FGD coatings failed during testing due to delamination. Additional machining benefits were attained for the NCD films, which was obtained by using a higher nucleation density seeding process for diamond growth. This process allowed for thinner, smaller grained diamond coatings to be deposited on the micro end mills, and enabled continued operation of the tool even after the integrity of the diamond coating had been compromised. As opposed to the FGD-coated end mills, only 40% of the NCD-tools experienced delamination issues.

  5. BLACK HISTORY MONTH

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black History Month is an annual celebration of achievements by black Americans and a time for recognizing the central role of African Americans in U.S. history. The event grew out of “Negro History Week,” created by historian Carter G. Woodson and other prominent African Americans. Other countries around the world, including Canada and the United Kingdom, also devote a month to celebrating black history.

  6. Method and apparatus for diamond wire cutting of metal structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsells, Robert; Gettelfinger, Geoff; Perry, Erik; Rule, Keith

    2005-04-19

    A method and apparatus for diamond wire cutting of metal structures, such as nuclear reactor vessels, is provided. A diamond wire saw having a plurality of diamond beads with beveled or chamfered edges is provided for sawing into the walls of the metal structure. The diamond wire is guided by a plurality of support structures allowing for a multitude of different cuts. The diamond wire is cleaned and cooled by CO.sub.2 during the cutting process to prevent breakage of the wire and provide efficient cutting. Concrete can be provided within the metal structure to enhance cutting efficiency and reduce airborne contaminants. The invention can be remotely controlled to reduce exposure of workers to radioactivity and other hazards.

  7. ARM - Black Forest News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Campaign Images Black Forest News ARM Mobile Facility Completes Field Campaign in Germany January 15, 2008 Microwave Radiometers Put to the Test in Germany September 15, 2007...

  8. Diamond Shamrock nears completion of major expansions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1993-05-24

    With completion later this year of a second refined products line into Colorado, Diamond Shamrock Inc., San Antonio, will have added more than 600 miles of product and crude-oil pipeline on its system and expanded charge and production capacities at its two state-of-the-art refineries, all within 30 months. The projects aim at improving the company's ability to serve markets in the U.S. Southwest and increasing capacities and flexibility at its two refineries. The paper describes these projects under the following headings: new products service; another new line; and refineries, crude pipelines; Three Rivers expansion and Supplies for McKee.

  9. Diamond machine tool face lapping machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yetter, H.H.

    1985-05-06

    An apparatus for shaping, sharpening and polishing diamond-tipped single-point machine tools. The isolation of a rotating grinding wheel from its driving apparatus using an air bearing and causing the tool to be shaped, polished or sharpened to be moved across the surface of the grinding wheel so that it does not remain at one radius for more than a single rotation of the grinding wheel has been found to readily result in machine tools of a quality which can only be obtained by the most tedious and costly processing procedures, and previously unattainable by simple lapping techniques.

  10. Tensile properties of amorphous diamond films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavan, D.A.; Hohlfelder, R.J.; Sullivan, J.P.; Friedmann, T.A.; Mitchell, M.A.; Ashby, C.I.

    1999-12-02

    The strength and modulus of amorphous diamond, a new material for surface micromachined MEMS and sensors, was tested in uniaxial tension by pulling laterally with a flat tipped diamond in a nanoindenter. Several sample designs were attempted. Of those, only the single layer specimen with a 1 by 2 {micro}m gage cross section and a fixed end rigidly attached to the substrate was successful. Tensile load was calculated by resolving the measured lateral and normal forces into the applied tensile force and frictional losses. Displacement was corrected for machine compliance using the differential stiffness method. Post-mortem examination of the samples was performed to document the failure mode. The load-displacement data from those samples that failed in the gage section was converted to stress-strain curves using carefully measured gage cross section dimensions. Mean fracture strength was found to be 8.5 {+-} 1.4 GPa and the modulus was 831 {+-} 94 GPa. Tensile results are compared to hardness and modulus measurements made using a nanoindenter.

  11. AMF Deployment, Black Forest, Germany

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Germany Black Forest Deployment AMF Home Black Forest Home Data Plots and Baseline Instruments CERA COPS Data University of Hohenheim COPS Website COPS Update, April 2009...

  12. Implantation conditions for diamond nanocrystal formation in amorphous silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buljan, Maja; Radovic, Iva Bogdanovic; Desnica, Uros V.; Ivanda, Mile; Jaksic, Milko; Saguy, Cecile; Kalish, Rafi; Djerdj, Igor; Tonejc, Andelka; Gamulin, Ozren

    2008-08-01

    We present a study of carbon ion implantation in amorphous silica, which, followed by annealing in a hydrogen-rich environment, leads to preferential formation of carbon nanocrystals with cubic diamond (c-diamond), face-centered cubic (n-diamond), or simple cubic (i-carbon) carbon crystal lattices. Two different annealing treatments were used: furnace annealing for 1 h and rapid thermal annealing for a brief period, which enables monitoring of early nucleation events. The influence of implanted dose and annealing type on carbon and hydrogen concentrations, clustering, and bonding were investigated. Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil detection analysis, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, ultraviolet-visible absorption measurements, and Raman spectroscopy were used to study these carbon formations. These results, combined with the results of previous investigations on similar systems, show that preferential formation of different carbon phases (diamond, n-diamond, or i-carbon) depends on implantation energy, implantation dose, and annealing conditions. Diamond nanocrystals formed at a relatively low carbon volume density are achieved by deeper implantation and/or lower implanted dose. Higher volume densities led to n-diamond and finally to i-carbon crystal formation. This observed behavior is related to damage sites induced by implantation. The optical properties of different carbon nanocrystal phases were significantly different.

  13. Observation of diamond turned OFHC copper using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    Diamond turned OFHC copper samples have been observed within the past few months using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Initial results have shown evidence of artifacts which may be used to better understand the diamond turning process. The STM`s high resolution capability and three dimensional data representation allows observation and study of surface features unobtainable with conventional profilometry systems. Also, the STM offers a better quantitative means by which to analyze surface structures than the SEM. This paper discusses findings on several diamond turned OFHC copper samples having different cutting conditions. Each sample has been cross referenced using STM and SEM.

  14. Printable, flexible and stretchable diamond for thermal management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A; Kim, Tae Ho; Choi, Won Mook; Kim, Dae Hyeong; Meitl, Matthew; Menard, Etienne; Carlisle, John

    2013-06-25

    Various heat-sinked components and methods of making heat-sinked components are disclosed where diamond in thermal contact with one or more heat-generating components are capable of dissipating heat, thereby providing thermally-regulated components. Thermally conductive diamond is provided in patterns capable of providing efficient and maximum heat transfer away from components that may be susceptible to damage by elevated temperatures. The devices and methods are used to cool flexible electronics, integrated circuits and other complex electronics that tend to generate significant heat. Also provided are methods of making printable diamond patterns that can be used in a range of devices and device components.

  15. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu

    2015-01-10

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC4889, and NGC1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production.

  16. Substitutional Nitrogen in Nanodiamond and Bucky-Diamond Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnard, Amanda S.; Sternberg, Michael G.

    2005-09-15

    The inclusion of dopants (such as nitrogen) in diamond nanoparticles is expected to be important for use in future nanodevices, such as qubits for quantum computing. Although most commercial diamond nanoparticles contain a small fraction of nitrogen, it is still unclear whether it is located within the core or at the surface of the nanoparticle. Presented here are density functional tight binding simulations examining the configuration, potential energy surface, and electronic charge of substitutional nitrogen in nanodiamond and bucky-diamond particles. The results predict that nitrogen is likely to be positioned at the surface of both hydrogenated nanodiamond and (dehydrogenated) bucky-diamond, and that the coordination of the dopants within the particles is dependent upon the surface structure.

  17. Ramp Compression of Diamond to 5 TPa: Experiments Taking Carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Ramp Compression of Diamond to 5 TPa: Experiments Taking Carbon to the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac Regime Authors: Smith, R F ; Eggert, J H ; Jeanloz, R ; Duffy, T S ; Braun, D G ; ...

  18. Diamonds are an Electronic Device’s Best Friend

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Researchers at Argonne National Lab recently devised a way to use diamonds to brighten the performance of electronic devices, which could put a bit more sparkle in everyone’s day.

  19. Blue Diamond, Nevada: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Blue Diamond is a census-designated place in Clark County, Nevada.1 References US...

  20. Plasma-assisted conversion of solid hydrocarbon to diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Trkula, Mitchell (Los Alamos, NM); Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Shah, S. Ismat (Wilmington, DE)

    1996-01-01

    A process of preparing diamond, e.g., diamond fiber, by subjecting a hydrocarbon material, e.g., a hydrocarbon fiber, to a plasma treatment in a gaseous feedstream for a sufficient period of time to form diamond, e.g., a diamond fiber is disclosed. The method generally further involves pretreating the hydrocarbon material prior to treatment with the plasma by heating within an oxygen-containing atmosphere at temperatures sufficient to increase crosslinking within said hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to melt or decompose said hydrocarbon material, followed by heating at temperatures sufficient to promote outgassing of said crosslinked hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to convert said hydrocarbon material to carbon.

  1. Slip sliding away: Graphene and diamonds prove a slippery combination...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Slip sliding away: Graphene and diamonds prove a slippery combination By Jared Sagoff * May 22, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National...

  2. Analysis of the influence of tool dynamics in diamond turning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fawcett, S.C.; Luttrell, D.E.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the progress in defining the role of machine and interface dynamics on the surface finish in diamond turning. It contains a review of literature from conventional and diamond machining processes relating tool dynamics, material interactions and tool wear to surface finish. Data from experimental measurements of tool/work piece interface dynamics are presented as well as machine dynamics for the DTM at the Center.

  3. Method for the preparation of nanocrystalline diamond thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A method and system for manufacturing nanocrystalline diamond film on a substrate such as field emission tips. The method involves forming a carbonaceous vapor, providing a gas stream of argon, hydrocarbon and possibly hydrogen, and combining the gas with the carbonaceous vapor, passing the combined carbonaceous vapor and gas carrier stream into a chamber, forming a plasma in the chamber causing fragmentation of the carbonaceous vapor and deposition of a diamond film on the field emission tip.

  4. Robust Diamond-Based RF Switch Yields Enhanced Communication Capabilities |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Robust Diamond-Based RF Switch Yields Enhanced Communication Capabilities Technology available for licesning: A radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switch based on ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) as a dielectric. A specialized radio frequency (RF) micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) switch that promises enhanced capabilities for next-generation military and commercial communication systems Robust and reliable with extremely low power

  5. Fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Gene W. (Los Alamos, NM); Roybal, Herman E. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A method of producing fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix. Simple hot pressing techniques permit the formation of such matrices from which diamond impregnated grinding tools and other articles of manufacture can be produced. Teflon fluorocarbon resins filled with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 yield grinding tools with substantially improved work-to-wear ratios over grinding wheels known in the art.

  6. Radiation hardness of three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond detectors

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Radiation hardness of three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond detectors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiation hardness of three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond detectors The three-dimensional concept in particle detection is based on the fabrication of columnar electrodes perpendicular to the surface of a solid state radiation sensor. It permits to improve the radiation resistance characteristics of a material by lowering the necessary

  7. Fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, G.W.; Roybal, H.E.

    1983-11-14

    A method of producing fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix. Simple hot pressing techniques permit the formation of such matrices from which diamond impregnated grinding tools and other articles of manufacture can be produced. Teflon fluorocarbon resins filled with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ yield grinding tools with substantially improved work-to-wear ratios over grinding wheels known in the art.

  8. Method for the preparation of nanocrystalline diamond thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.; Krauss, A.R.

    1998-06-30

    A method and system are disclosed for manufacturing nanocrystalline diamond film on a substrate such as field emission tips. The method involves forming a carbonaceous vapor, providing a gas stream of argon, hydrocarbon and possibly hydrogen, and combining the gas with the carbonaceous vapor, passing the combined carbonaceous vapor and gas carrier stream into a chamber, forming a plasma in the chamber causing fragmentation of the carbonaceous vapor and deposition of a diamond film on the field emission tip. 40 figs.

  9. BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS IN LUCKEY, OHIO October 27, 1989 Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Prepared by: R.F. Weston/Office of Technical Services BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS IN LUCKEY, OHIO INTRODUCTION The Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a program to identify and examine the radiological conditions at sites used in the early years of nuclear

  10. Diamond Green Diesel: Diversifying Our Transportation Fuel Supply |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Diamond Green Diesel: Diversifying Our Transportation Fuel Supply Diamond Green Diesel: Diversifying Our Transportation Fuel Supply January 20, 2011 - 3:48pm Addthis Jonathan Silver Jonathan Silver Executive Director of the Loan Programs Office What does this project do? Nearly triples the amount of renewable diesel produced domestically Diversifies the U.S. fuel supply Today, Secretary Chu announced the offer of a conditional commitment for a $241 million loan guarantee

  11. Study of Electron Transport and Amplification in Diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Muller, Erik

    2015-01-05

    The development of the Diamond Amplified Photocathode (DAP) has produced significant results under our previous HEP funded efforts both on the fabrication of working devices and the understanding of the underlying physics governing its performance. The results presented here substantiate the use of diamond as both a secondary electron amplifier for high-brightness, high-average-current electron sources and as a photon and particle detector in harsh radiation environments. Very high average current densities (>10A/cm2) have been transported through diamond material. The transport has been measured as a function of incident photon energy and found to be in good agreement with theoretical models. Measurements of the charge transport for photon energies near the carbon K-edge (290 eV for sp3 bonded carbon) have provided insight into carrier loss due to diffusion; modeling of this aspect of charge transport is underway. The response of diamond to nanosecond x-ray pulses has been measured; in this regime the charge transport is as expected. Electron emission from hydrogenated diamond has been measured using both electron and x-ray generated carriers; a gain of 178 has been observed for electron-generated carriers. The energy spectrum of the emitted electrons has been measured, providing insight into the electron affinity and ultimately the thermal emittance. The origin of charge trapping in diamond has been investigated for both bulk and surface trapping

  12. Diagnostic of fusion neutrons on JET tokamak using diamond detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemtsev, G.; Amosov, V.; Marchenko, N.; Meshchaninov, S.; Rodionov, R.; Popovichev, S.; Collaboration: JET EFDA Conbributors

    2014-08-21

    In 2011-2012, an experimental campaign with a significant yield of fusion neutrons was carried out on the JET tokamak. During this campaign the facility was equipped with two diamond detectors based on natural and artificial CVD diamond. These detectors were designed and manufactured in State Research Center of Russian Federation TRINITI. The detectors measure the flux of fast neutrons with energies above 0.2 MeV. They have been installed in the torus hall and the distance from the center of plasma was about 3 m. For some of the JET pulses in this experiment, the neutron flux density corresponded to the operational conditions in collimator channels of ITER Vertical Neutron Camera. The main objective of diamond monitors was the measurement of total fast neutron flux at the detector location and the estimation of the JET total neutron yield. The detectors operate as threshold counters. Additionally a spectrometric measurement channel has been configured that allowed us to distinguish various energy components of the neutron spectrum. In this paper we describe the neutron signal measuring and calibration procedure of the diamond detector. Fluxes of DD and DT neutrons at the detector location were measured. It is shown that the signals of total neutron yield measured by the diamond detector correlate with signals measured by the main JET neutron diagnostic based on fission chambers with high accuracy. This experiment can be considered as a successful test of diamond detectors in ITER-like conditions.

  13. Thrust faults of southern Diamond Mountains, central Nevada: Implications for hydrocarbons in Diamond Valley and at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, D.E.

    1993-04-01

    Overmature Mississippian hydrocarbon source rocks in the southern Diamond Mountains have been interpreted to be a klippe overlying less mature source rocks and represented as an analogy to similar conditions near Yucca Mountain (Chamberlain, 1991). Geologic evidence indicates an alternative interpretation. Paleogeologic mapping indicates the presence of a thrust fault, referred to here as the Moritz Nager Thrust Fault, with Devonian rocks emplaced over Permian to Mississippian strata folded into an upright to overturned syncline, and that the overmature rocks of the Diamond Mountains are in the footwall of this thrust. The upper plate has been eroded from most of the Diamond Mountains but remnants are present at the head of Moritz Nager Canyon and at Sentinel Mountain. Devonian rocks of the upper plate comprised the earliest landslide megabreccia. Later, megabreccias of Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks of the overturned syncline of the lower plate were deposited. By this interpretation the maturity of lower-plate source rocks in the southern Diamond Mountains, which have been increased by tectonic burial, is not indicative of conditions in Diamond Valley, adjacent to the west, where upper-plate source rocks might be present in generating conditions. The interpretation that overmature source rocks of the Diamond Mountains are in a lower plate rather than in a klippe means that this area is an inappropriate model for the Eleana Range near Yucca Mountain.

  14. Pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy in the laser-heated diamond anvil...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy in the laser-heated diamond anvil...

  15. Graphene diamond-like carbon films heterostructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Fang; Afandi, Abdulkareem; Jackman, Richard B.

    2015-03-09

    A limitation to the potential use of graphene as an electronic material is the lack of control over the 2D materials properties once it is deposited on a supporting substrate. Here, the use of Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) interlayers between the substrate and the graphene is shown to offer the prospect of overcoming this problem. The DLC films used here, more properly known as a-C:H with ?25% hydrogen content, have been terminated with N or F moieties prior to graphene deposition. It is found that nitrogen terminations lead to an optical band gap shrinkage in the DLC, whilst fluorine groups reduce the DLC's surface energy. CVD monolayer graphene subsequently transferred to DLC, N terminated DLC, and F terminated DLC has then been studied with AFM, Raman and XPS analysis, and correlated with Hall effect measurements that give an insight into the heterostructures electrical properties. The results show that different terminations strongly affect the electronic properties of the graphene heterostructures. G-F-DLC samples were p-type and displayed considerably higher mobility than the other heterostructures, whilst G-N-DLC samples supported higher carrier densities, being almost metallic in character. Since it would be possible to locally pattern the distribution of these differing surface terminations, this work offers the prospect for 2D lateral control of the electronic properties of graphene layers for device applications.

  16. Two- and three-dimensional ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) structures for a high resolution diamond-based MEMS technology.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auciello, O.; Krauss, A. R.; Gruen, D. M.; Busmann, H. G.; Meyer, E. M.; Tucek, J.; Sumant, A.; Jayatissa, A.; Moldovan, N.; Mancini, D. C.; Gardos, M. N.

    2000-01-17

    Silicon is currently the most commonly used material for the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). However, silicon-based MEMS will not be suitable for long-endurance devices involving components rotating at high speed, where friction and wear need to be minimized, components such as 2-D cantilevers that may be subjected to very large flexural displacements, where stiction is a problem, or components that will be exposed to corrosive environments. The mechanical, thermal, chemical, and tribological properties of diamond make it an ideal material for the fabrication of long-endurance MEMS components. Cost-effective fabrication of these components could in principle be achieved by coating Si with diamond films and using conventional lithographic patterning methods in conjunction with e. g. sacrificial Ti or SiO{sub 2} layers. However, diamond coatings grown by conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods exhibit a coarse-grained structure that prevents high-resolution patterning, or a fine-grained microstructure with a significant amount of intergranular non-diamond carbon. The authors demonstrate here the fabrication of 2-D and 3-D phase-pure ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) MEMS components by coating Si with UNCD films, coupled with lithographic patterning methods involving sacrificial release layers. UNCD films are grown by microwave plasma CVD using C{sub 60}-Ar or CH{sub 4}-Ar gas mixtures, which result in films that have 3--5 nm grain size, are 10--20 times smoother than conventionally grown diamond films, are extremely resistant to corrosive environments, and are predicted to have a brittle fracture strength similar to that of single crystal diamond.

  17. Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TerraTek, A Schlumberger Company

    2008-12-31

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill 'faster and deeper' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the 'ultra-high rotary speed drilling system' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm - usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document provides the progress through two phases of the program entitled 'Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling' for the period starting 30 June 2003 and concluding 31 March 2009. The accomplishments of Phases 1 and 2 are summarized as follows: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance (see Black and Judzis); (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments (See Black and Judzis). Improvements were made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs were developed to provided a more consistent product with consistent performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program was completed; (3) TerraTek concluded small-scale cutting performance tests; (4) Analysis of Phase 1 data indicated that there is decreased specific energy as the rotational speed increases; (5) Technology transfer, as part of Phase 1, was accomplished with technical presentations to the industry (see Judzis, Boucher, McCammon, and Black); (6) TerraTek prepared a design concept for the high speed drilling test stand, which was planned around the proposed high speed mud motor concept. Alternative drives for the test stand were explored; a high speed hydraulic motor concept was finally used; (7) The high speed system was modified to accommodate larger drill bits than originally planned; (8) Prototype mud turbine motors and the high speed test stand were used to drive the drill bits at high speed; (9) Three different rock types were used during the testing: Sierra White granite, Crab Orchard sandstone, and Colton sandstone. The drill bits used included diamond impregnated bits, a polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit, a thermally stable PDC (TSP) bit, and a hybrid TSP and natural diamond bit; and (10) The drill bits were run at rotary speeds up to 5500 rpm and weight on bit (WOB) to 8000 lbf. During Phase 2, the ROP as measured in depth of cut per bit revolution generally increased with increased WOB. The performance was mixed with increased rotary speed, with the depth cut with the impregnated drill bit generally increasing and the TSP and hybrid TSP drill bits generally decreasing. The ROP in ft/hr generally increased with all bits with increased WOB and rotary speed. The mechanical specific energy generally improved (decreased) with increased WOB and was mixed with increased rotary speed.

  18. Heavy-ion irradiation induced diamond formation in carbonaceous materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daulton, T. L.

    1999-01-08

    The basic mechanisms of metastable phase formation produced under highly non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions within high-energy particle tracks are investigated. In particular, the possible formation of diamond by heavy-ion irradiation of graphite at ambient temperature is examined. This work was motivated, in part, by earlier studies which discovered nanometer-grain polycrystalline diamond aggregates of submicron-size in uranium-rich carbonaceous mineral assemblages of Precambrian age. It was proposed that the radioactive decay of uranium formed diamond in the fission particle tracks produced in the carbonaceous minerals. To test the hypothesis that nanodiamonds can form by ion irradiation, fine-grain polycrystalline graphite sheets were irradiated with 400 MeV Kr ions. The ion irradiated graphite (and unirradiated graphite control) were then subjected to acid dissolution treatments to remove the graphite and isolate any diamonds that were produced. The acid residues were then characterized by analytical and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The acid residues of the ion-irradiated graphite were found to contain ppm concentrations of nanodiamonds, suggesting that ion irradiation of bulk graphite at ambient temperature can produce diamond.

  19. Hydrogen Storage in Nano-Phase Diamond at High Temperature and Its Release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tushar K Ghosh

    2008-10-13

    The objectives of this proposed research were: 91) Separation and storage of hydrogen on nanophase diamonds. It is expected that the produced hydrogen, which will be in a mixture, can be directed to a nanophase diamond system directly, which will not only store the hydrogen, but also separate it from the gas mixture, and (2) release of the stored hydrogen from the nanophase diamond.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of a nanocrystalline diamond aerogel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauzauskie, Peter J.; Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Worsley, Marcus A.; Laurence, Ted A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Wang, Yinmin; Willey, Trevor M.; Visbeck, Kenneth S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Evans, William J.; Zaug, Joseph M.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2011-07-06

    Aerogel materials have myriad scientific and technological applications due to their large intrinsic surface areas and ultralow densities. However, creating a nanodiamond aerogel matrix has remained an outstanding and intriguing challenge. Here we report the high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis of a diamond aerogel from an amorphous carbon aerogel precursor using a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Neon is used as a chemically inert, near-hydrostatic pressure medium that prevents collapse of the aerogel under pressure by conformally filling the aerogel's void volume. Electron and X-ray spectromicroscopy confirm the aerogel morphology and composition of the nanodiamond matrix. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements of recovered material reveal the formation of both nitrogen- and silicon- vacancy point-defects, suggesting a broad range of applications for this nanocrystalline diamond aerogel.

  1. Diamond-Silicon Carbide Composite And Method For Preparation Thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, Jiang (Los Alamos, NM); Zhao, Yusheng (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-09-06

    Fully dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites are prepared from ball-milled microcrystalline diamond/amorphous silicon powder mixture. The ball-milled powder is sintered (P=5-8 GPa, T=1400K-2300K) to form composites having high fracture toughness. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPa.multidot.m.sup.1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate that amorphous silicon is partially transformed into nanocrystalline silicon at 5 GPa/873K, and nanocrystalline silicon carbide forms at higher temperatures.

  2. Plasma deposited diamond-like carbon films for large neutralarrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, I.G.; Blakely, E.A.; Bjornstad, K.A.; Galvin, J.E.; Monteiro, O.R.; Sangyuenyongpipat, S.

    2004-07-15

    To understand how large systems of neurons communicate, we need to develop methods for growing patterned networks of large numbers of neurons. We have found that diamond-like carbon thin films formed by energetic deposition from a filtered vacuum arc carbon plasma can serve as ''neuron friendly'' substrates for the growth of large neural arrays. Lithographic masks can be used to form patterns of diamond-like carbon, and regions of selective neuronal attachment can form patterned neural arrays. In the work described here, we used glass microscope slides as substrates on which diamond-like carbon was deposited. PC-12 rat neurons were then cultured on the treated substrates and cell growth monitored. Neuron growth showed excellent contrast, with prolific growth on the treated surfaces and very low growth on the untreated surfaces. Here we describe the vacuum arc plasma deposition technique employed, and summarize results demonstrating that the approach can be used to form large patterns of neurons.

  3. Capacitively coupled RF diamond-like-carbon reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devlin, David James (Los Alamos, NM); Coates, Don Mayo (Santa Fe, NM); Archuleta, Thomas Arthur (Espanola, NM); Barbero, Robert Steven (Santa Cruz, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A process of coating a non-conductive fiber with diamond-like carbon, including passing a non-conductive fiber between a pair of parallel metal grids within a reaction chamber, introducing a hydrocarbon gas into the reaction chamber, forming a plasma within the reaction chamber for a sufficient period of time whereby diamond-like carbon is formed upon the non-conductive fiber, is provided together with a reactor chamber for deposition of diamond-like carbon upon a non-conductive fiber, including a vacuum chamber, a cathode assembly including a pair of electrically isolated opposingly parallel metal grids spaced apart at a distance of less than about 1 centimeter, an anode, a means of introducing a hydrocarbon gas into said vacuum chamber, and a means of generating a plasma within said vacuum chamber.

  4. Gasification of black liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA)

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  5. Black hole magnetospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathanail, Antonios; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2014-06-20

    We investigate the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole in various astrophysical settings. The solution Ψ(r, θ) depends on the distributions of the magnetic field line angular velocity ω(Ψ) and the poloidal electric current I(Ψ). These are obtained self-consistently as eigenfunctions that allow the solution to smoothly cross the two singular surfaces of the problem, the inner light surface inside the ergosphere, and the outer light surface, which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder. Magnetic field configurations that cross both singular surfaces (e.g., monopole, paraboloidal) are uniquely determined. Configurations that cross only one light surface (e.g., the artificial case of a rotating black hole embedded in a vertical magnetic field) are degenerate. We show that, similar to pulsars, black hole magnetospheres naturally develop an electric current sheet that potentially plays a very important role in the dissipation of black hole rotational energy and in the emission of high-energy radiation.

  6. Gasification of black liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

  7. Diamond turning of Si and Ge single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, P.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Single-point diamond turning studies have been completed on Si and Ge crystals. A new process model was developed for diamond turning which is based on a critical depth of cut for plastic flow-to-brittle fracture transitions. This concept, when combined with the actual machining geometry for single-point turning, predicts that {open_quotes}ductile{close_quotes} machining is a combined action of plasticity and fracture. Interrupted cutting experiments also provide a meant to directly measure the critical depth parameter for given machining conditions.

  8. Smooth diamond films as low friction, long wear surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL); Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL); Bindal, Cuma (Woodridge, IL); Zuiker, Christopher D. (LaGrange, IL)

    1999-01-01

    An article and method of manufacture of a nanocrystalline diamond film. The nanocrystalline film is prepared by forming a carbonaceous vapor, providing an inert gas containing gas stream and combining the gas stream with the carbonaceous containing vapor. A plasma of the combined vapor and gas stream is formed in a chamber and fragmented carbon species are deposited onto a substrate to form the nanocrystalline diamond film having a root mean square flatness of about 50 nm deviation from flatness in the as deposited state.

  9. Modeling electron emission and surface effects from diamond cathodes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Modeling electron emission and surface effects from diamond cathodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling electron emission and surface effects from diamond cathodes Authors: Dimitrov D. ; Ben-Zvi I. ; Cary, J. R. ; Smithe, D. ; Zhou, C. ; Rao, T. ; Smedley, J. ; Wang, E. Publication Date: 2015-05-03 OSTI Identifier: 1228864 Report Number(s): BNL--108604-2015-CP R&D Project: KBCH139; KB0202011 DOE Contract Number: SC00112704

  10. Simplified models of growth, defect formation, and thermal conductivity in diamond chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coltrin, M.E.; Dandy, D.S.

    1996-04-01

    A simplified surface reaction mechanism is presented for the CVD of diamond thin films. The mechanism also accounts for formation of point defects in the diamond lattice, an alternate, undesirable reaction pathway. Both methyl radicals and atomic C are considered as growth precursors. While not rigorous in all details, the mechanism is useful in describing the CVD diamond process over a wide range of reaction conditions. It should find utility in reactor modeling studies, for example in optimizing diamond growth rate while minimizing defect formation. This report also presents a simple model relating the diamond point-defect density to the thermal conductivity of the material.

  11. Thin Sheet of Diamond Has Worlds of Uses | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin Sheet of Diamond Has Worlds of Uses Stories of Discovery & Innovation Thin Sheet of Diamond Has Worlds of Uses Enlarge Photo Courtesy of Argonne National Laboratory These ultrananocrystalline diamond-coated pump seals garnered a 2008 R&D 100 award, which recognize the most important inventions in the previous year. They use 20% less energy during pumping. 04.01.11 Thin Sheet of Diamond Has Worlds of Uses A new technique from Argonne National Laboratory creates thin diamond films

  12. Black Pine Circle Project

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mytko, Christine

    2014-09-15

    A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

  13. Black Pine Circle Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mytko, Christine

    2014-03-31

    A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

  14. Nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films via block copolymer lithography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B.; Sumant, A. V.; Auciello, O.

    2010-07-01

    Nanopatterning of diamond surfaces is critical for the development of diamond-based microelectromechanical system/nanoelectromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS), such as resonators or switches. Micro-/nanopatterning of diamond materials is typically done using photolithography or electron beam lithography combined with reactive ion etching (RIE). In this work, we demonstrate a simple process, block copolymer (BCP) lithography, for nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films to produce nanostructures suitable for the fabrication of NEMS based on UNCD. In BCP lithography, nanoscale self-assembled polymeric domains serve as an etch mask for pattern transfer. The authors used thin films of a cylinder-forming organic-inorganic BCP, poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane), PS-b-PFS, as an etch mask on the surface of UNCD films. Orientational control of the etch masking cylindrical PFS blocks is achieved by manipulating the polymer film thickness in concert with the annealing treatment. We have observed that the surface roughness of UNCD layers plays an important role in transferring the pattern. Oxygen RIE was used to etch the exposed areas of the UNCD film underneath the BCP. Arrays of both UNCD posts and wirelike structures have been created using the same starting polymeric materials as the etch mask.

  15. Diamond Wire Saw for Precision Machining of Laser Target Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bono, M J; Bennett, D W

    2005-08-08

    The fabrication of precision laser targets requires a wide variety of specialized mesoscale manufacturing techniques. The diamond wire saw developed in this study provides the capability to precisely section meso-scale workpieces mounted on the assembly stations used by the Target Fabrication Group. This new capability greatly simplifies the fabrication of many types of targets and reduces the time and cost required to build the targets. A variety of materials are used to fabricate targets, including metals, plastics with custom designed chemical formulas, and aerogels of various densities. The materials are usually provided in the form of small pieces or cast rods that must be machined to the required shape. Many of these materials, such as metals and some plastics, can be trimmed using a parting tool on a diamond turning machine. However, other materials, such as aerogels and brittle materials, cannot be adequately cut with a parting tool. In addition, the geometry of the parts often requires that the workpieces be held in a special assembly station, which excludes the use of a parting tool. In the past, these materials were sectioned using a small, handheld coping saw that used a diamond-impregnated wire as a blade. This miniature coping saw was effective, but it required several hours to cut through certain materials. Furthermore, the saw was guided by hand and often caused significant damage to fragile aerogels. To solve these problems, the diamond wire saw shown in Figure 1 was developed. The diamond wire saw is designed to machine through materials that are mounted in the Target Fabrication Group's benchtop assembly stations. These assembly stations are the primary means of aligning and assembling target components, and there is often a need to machine materials while they are mounted in the assembly stations. Unfortunately, commercially available saws are designed for very different applications and are far too large to be used with the assembly stations. Therefore, a custom diamond wire saw was designed and constructed. The diamond wire saw cuts through workpieces using a continuous loop of diamond-impregnated wire of length 840 mm. The wire loop runs around several idler pulleys and is driven by a simple geared DC motor that rotates at 17 rpm. The linear speed of the wire is 107 inches/minute. The saw is oriented at an angle of 20{sup o} from horizontal, so the operator can view the wire through the cutout at the front end of the saw. When looking through a microscope or camera with a horizontal line of sight, the operator can clearly see the wire as it cuts through the workpiece, as shown in the right side of Figure 1. The saw is mounted on a two-axis stage that allows the operator to align the wire with the workpiece. To cut through the workpiece, the operator drives the wire through the workpiece by turning the feed micrometer. An image of the interior of the diamond wire saw appears in Figure 2. This picture was taken after removing the protective cover plate from the saw.

  16. Process for making a cesiated diamond film field emitter and field emitter formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.W.

    1999-03-30

    A process for making a cesiated diamond film comprises (a) depositing a quantity of cesium iodide on the diamond film in a vacuum of between about 10{sup {minus}4} Torr and about 10{sup {minus}7} Torr, (b) increasing the vacuum to at least about 10{sup {minus}8} Torr, and (c) imposing an electron beam upon the diamond film, said electron beam having an energy sufficient to dissociate said cesium iodide and to incorporate cesium into interstices of the diamond film. The cesiated diamond film prepared according to the process has an operating voltage that is reduced by a factor of at least approximately 2.5 relative to conventional, non-cesiated diamond film field emitters. 2 figs.

  17. Process for making a cesiated diamond film field emitter and field emitter formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F. (Batavia, IL); Kwan, Simon W. (Geneva, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A process for making a cesiated diamond film comprises (a) depositing a quantity of cesium iodide on the diamond film in a vacuum of between about 10.sup.-4 Torr and about 10.sup.-7 Torr, (b) increasing the vacuum to at least about 10.sup.-8 Torr, and (c) imposing an electron beam upon the diamond film, said electron beam having an energy sufficient to dissociate said cesium iodide and to incorporate cesium into interstices of the diamond film. The cesiated diamond film prepared according to the process has an operating voltage that is reduced by a factor of at least approximately 2.5 relative to conventional, non-cesiated diamond film field emitters.

  18. Diamond neutral particle spectrometer for fusion reactor ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasilnikov, V.; Amosov, V.; Kaschuck, Yu.; Skopintsev, D.

    2014-08-21

    A compact diamond neutral particle spectrometer with digital signal processing has been developed for fast charge-exchange atoms and neutrons measurements at ITER fusion reactor conditions. This spectrometer will play supplementary role for Neutral Particle Analyzer providing 10 ms time and 30 keV energy resolutions for fast particle spectra in non-tritium ITER phase. These data will also be implemented for independent studies of fast ions distribution function evolution in various plasma scenarios with the formation of a single fraction of high-energy ions. In tritium ITER phase the DNPS will measure 14 MeV neutrons spectra. The spectrometer with digital signal processing can operate at peak counting rates reaching a value of 10{sup 6} cps. Diamond neutral particle spectrometer is applicable to future fusion reactors due to its high radiation hardness, fast response and high energy resolution.

  19. Method for producing fluorinated diamond-like carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hakovirta, Marko J.; Nastasi, Michael A.; Lee, Deok-Hyung; He, Xiao-Ming

    2003-06-03

    Fluorinated, diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) films are produced by a pulsed, glow-discharge plasma immersion ion processing procedure. The pulsed, glow-discharge plasma was generated at a pressure of 1 Pa from an acetylene (C.sub.2 H.sub.2) and hexafluoroethane (C.sub.2 F.sub.6) gas mixture, and the fluorinated, diamond-like carbon films were deposited on silicon <100>substrates. The film hardness and wear resistance were found to be strongly dependent on the fluorine content incorporated into the coatings. The hardness of the F-DLC films was found to decrease considerably when the fluorine content in the coatings reached about 20%. The contact angle of water on the F-DLC coatings was found to increase with increasing film fluorine content and to saturate at a level characteristic of polytetrafluoroethylene.

  20. Chip-Scale Nanofabrication of Single Spins and Spin Arrays in Diamond

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Chip-Scale Nanofabrication of Single Spins and Spin Arrays in Diamond Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chip-Scale Nanofabrication of Single Spins and Spin Arrays in Diamond We demonstrate a technique to nanofabricate nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond based on broad-beam nitrogen implantation through apertures in electron beam lithography resist. This method enables high-throughput nanofabrication of single NV centers on sub-100-nm length

  1. Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond/Silicon Carbide Nanocomposites for Drill Bits

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond/Silicon Carbide Nanocomposites for Drill Bits Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Nanostructured Diamond/ Silicon Carbide Composites for Improved Drill Bit Performance Industrial drilling, mining, cutting, and grinding make heavy use of superhard materials with superior wear resistance. In the oil and gas drilling industry, the use of polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bits has become increasingly common, with PDC drill

  2. High-Current Cold Cathode Employing Diamond and Related Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2014-10-22

    The essence of this project was for diamond films to be deposited on cold cathodes to improve their emission properties. Films with varying morphology, composition, and size of the crystals were deposited and the emission properties of the cathodes that utilize such films were studied. The prototype cathodes fabricated by the methods developed during Phase I were tested and evaluated in an actual high-power RF device during Phase II. These high-power tests used the novel active RF pulse compression system and the X-band magnicon test facility at US Naval Research Laboratory. In earlier tests, plasma switches were employed, while tests under this project utilized electron-beam switching. The intense electron beams required in the switches were supplied from cold cathodes embodying diamond films with varying morphology, including uncoated molybdenum cathodes in the preliminary tests. Tests with uncoated molybdenum cathodes produced compressed X-band RF pulses with a peak power of 91 MW, and a maximum power gain of 16.5:1. Tests were also carried out with switches employing diamond coated cathodes. The pulse compressor was based on use of switches employing electron beam triggering to effect mode conversion. In experimental tests, the compressor produced 165 MW in a ~ 20 ns pulse at ~18× power gain and ~ 140 MW at ~ 16× power gain in a 16 ns pulse with a ~ 7 ns flat-top. In these tests, molybdenum blade cathodes with thin diamond coatings demonstrated good reproducible emission uniformity with a 100 kV, 100 ns high voltage pulse. The new compressor does not have the limitations of earlier types of active pulse compressors and can operate at significantly higher electric fields without breakdown.

  3. Black Forest Partners | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Black Forest Partners Jump to: navigation, search Name: Black Forest Partners Place: San Francisco, California Zip: 94111 Product: San Francisco-based project developer focused on...

  4. BlackGold Biofuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BlackGold Biofuels Jump to: navigation, search Name: BlackGold Biofuels Place: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Zip: 19107 Product: Philadelphia-based developer of a waste...

  5. Diamond Amplified Photocathode at BNL | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Diamond Amplified Photocathode at BNL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of ...

  6. Corrosive Resistant Diamond Coatings for the Acid Based Thermo-Chemical Hydrogen Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark A. Prelas

    2009-06-25

    This project was designed to test diamond, diamond-like and related materials in environments that are expected in thermochemical cycles. Our goals were to build a High Temperature Corrosion Resistance (HTCR) test stand and begin testing the corrosive properties of barious materials in a high temperature acidic environment in the first year. Overall, we planned to test 54 samples each of diamond and diamond-like films (of 1 cm x 1 cm area). In addition we use a corrosion acceleration method by treating the samples at a temperature much larger than the expected operating temperature. Half of the samples will be treated with boron using the FEDOA process.

  7. Method of forming fluorine-bearing diamond layer on substrates, including tool substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, R. P. H. (Glenview, IL); Grannen, Kevin J. (Evanston, IL)

    2002-01-01

    A method of forming a fluorine-bearing diamond layer on non-diamond substrates, especially on tool substrates comprising a metal matrix and hard particles, such as tungsten carbide particles, in the metal matrix. The substrate and a fluorine-bearing plasma or other gas are then contacted under temperature and pressure conditions effective to nucleate fluorine-bearing diamond on the substrate. A tool insert substrate is treated prior to the diamond nucleation and growth operation by etching both the metal matrix and the hard particles using suitable etchants.

  8. Black optic display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    1997-01-01

    An optical display includes a plurality of stacked optical waveguides having first and second opposite ends collectively defining an image input face and an image screen, respectively, with the screen being oblique to the input face. Each of the waveguides includes a transparent core bound by a cladding layer having a lower index of refraction for effecting internal reflection of image light transmitted into the input face to project an image on the screen, with each of the cladding layers including a cladding cap integrally joined thereto at the waveguide second ends. Each of the cores is beveled at the waveguide second end so that the cladding cap is viewable through the transparent core. Each of the cladding caps is black for absorbing external ambient light incident upon the screen for improving contrast of the image projected internally on the screen.

  9. Amorphous Diamond Flat Panel Displays - Final Report of ER-LTR CRADA project with SI Diamond Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ager III, Joel W.

    1998-05-08

    The objective of this project was to determine why diamond-based films are unusually efficient electron emitters (field emission cathodes) at room temperature. Efficient cathodes based on diamond are being developed by SI Diamond Technology (SIDT) as components for bright, sunlight-readable, flat panel displays. When the project started, it was known that only a small fraction (<1%) of the cathode area is active in electron emission and that the emission sites themselves are sub-micron in size. The critical challenge of this project was to develop new microcharacterization methods capable of examining known emission sites. The research team used a combination of cathode emission imaging (developed at SIDT), micro-Raman spectroscopy (LBNL), and electron microscopy and spectroscopy (National Center for Electron Microscopy, LBNL) to examine the properties of known emission sites. The most significant accomplishment of the project was the development at LBNL of a very high resolution scanning probe that, for the first time, measured simultaneously the topography and electrical characteristics of single emission sites. The increased understanding of the emission mechanism helped SIDT to develop a new cathode material,''nano-diamond,'' which they have incorporated into their Field Emission Picture Element (FEPix) product. SIDT is developing large-format flat panel displays based on these picture elements that will be brighter and more efficient than existing outdoor displays such as Jumbotrons. The energy saving that will be realized if field emission displays are introduced commercially is in line with the energy conservation mission of DOE. The unique characterization tools developed in this project (particularly the new scanning microscopy method) are being used in ongoing BES-funded basic research.

  10. Method of bonding diamonds in a matrix and articles thus produced

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, G.W.

    1981-01-27

    By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

  11. Thermal conductivity changes upon neutron transmutation of {sup 10}B doped diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jagannadham, K., E-mail: jag-kasichainula@ncsu.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Verghese, K. [Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Butler, J. E. [Code 6174, Naval research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States)

    2014-08-28

    {sup 10}B doped p-type diamond samples were subjected to neutron transmutation reaction using thermal neutron flux of 0.9 10{sup 13} cm{sup ?2} s{sup ?1} and fast neutron flux of 0.09 10{sup 13} cm{sup ?2} s{sup ?1}. Another sample of epilayer grown on type IIa (110) single crystal diamond substrate was subjected to equal thermal and fast neutron flux of 10{sup 14}?cm{sup ?2} s{sup ?1}. The defects in the diamond samples were previously characterized by different methods. In the present work, thermal conductivity of these diamond samples was determined at room temperature by transient thermoreflectance method. The thermal conductivity change in the samples as a function of neutron fluence is explained by the phonon scattering from the point defects and disordered regions. The thermal conductivity of the diamond samples decreased more rapidly initially and less rapidly for larger neutron fluence. In addition, the thermal conductivity in type IIb diamond decreased less rapidly with thermal neutron fluence compared to the decrease in type IIa diamond subjected to fast neutron fluence. It is concluded that the rate of production of defects during transmutation reaction is slower when thermal neutrons are used. The thermal conductivity of epilayer of diamond subjected to high thermal and fast neutron fluence is associated with the covalent carbon network in the composite structure consisting of disordered carbon and sp{sup 2} bonded nanocrystalline regions.

  12. ARM - Measurement - Black carbon concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsBlack carbon concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Black carbon concentration The concentration of carbon in its very absorbing, elemental, non-organic, non-oxide form (e.g. graphite). Categories Aerosols, Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file

  13. Vacuum encapsulated hermetically sealed diamond amplified cathode capsule and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rao, Triveni; Walsh, John; Gangone, Elizabeth

    2014-12-30

    A vacuum encapsulated, hermetically sealed cathode capsule for generating an electron beam of secondary electrons, which generally includes a cathode element having a primary emission surface adapted to emit primary electrons, an annular insulating spacer, a diamond window element comprising a diamond material and having a secondary emission surface adapted to emit secondary electrons in response to primary electrons impinging on the diamond window element, a first cold-weld ring disposed between the cathode element and the annular insulating spacer and a second cold-weld ring disposed between the annular insulating spacer and the diamond window element. The cathode capsule is formed by a vacuum cold-weld process such that the first cold-weld ring forms a hermetical seal between the cathode element and the annular insulating spacer and the second cold-weld ring forms a hermetical seal between the annular spacer and the diamond window element whereby a vacuum encapsulated chamber is formed within the capsule.

  14. Vacuum encapsulated, high temperature diamond amplified cathode capsule and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rao, Triveni; Walsh, Josh; Gangone, Elizabeth

    2015-12-29

    A vacuum encapsulated, hermetically sealed cathode capsule for generating an electron beam of secondary electrons, which generally includes a cathode element having a primary emission surface adapted to emit primary electrons, an annular insulating spacer, a diamond window element comprising a diamond material and having a secondary emission surface adapted to emit secondary electrons in response to primary electrons impinging on the diamond window element, a first high-temperature solder weld disposed between the diamond window element and the annular insulating spacer and a second high-temperature solder weld disposed between the annular insulating spacer and the cathode element. The cathode capsule is formed by a high temperature weld process under vacuum such that the first solder weld forms a hermetical seal between the diamond window element and the annular insulating spacer and the second solder weld forms a hermetical seal between the annular spacer and the cathode element whereby a vacuum encapsulated chamber is formed within the capsule.

  15. Alignment of the diamond nitrogen vacancy center by strain engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karin, Todd [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Dunham, Scott [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Fu, Kai-Mei [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    The nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a sensitive probe of magnetic field and a promising qubit candidate for quantum information processing. The performance of many NV-based devices improves by aligning the NV(s) parallel to a single crystallographic direction. Using ab initio theoretical techniques, we show that NV orientation can be controlled by high-temperature annealing in the presence of strain under currently accessible experimental conditions. We find that (89??7)% of NVs align along the [111] crystallographic direction under 2% compressive biaxial strain (perpendicular to [111]) and an annealing temperature of 970?C.

  16. Engineering shallow spins in diamond with nitrogen delta-doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohno, Kenichi; Joseph Heremans, F.; Bassett, Lee C.; Myers, Bryan A.; Toyli, David M.; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania C.; Palmstrom, Christopher J.; Awschalom, David D.

    2012-08-20

    We demonstrate nanometer-precision depth control of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center creation near the surface of synthetic diamond using an in situ nitrogen delta-doping technique during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Despite their proximity to the surface, doped NV centers with depths (d) ranging from 5 to 100 nm display long spin coherence times, T{sub 2} > 100 {mu}s at d = 5 nm and T{sub 2} > 600 {mu}s at d {>=} 50 nm. The consistently long spin coherence observed in such shallow NV centers enables applications such as atomic-scale external spin sensing and hybrid quantum architectures.

  17. Refractory two-dimensional hole gas on hydrogenated diamond surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Daicho, Akira; Kurihara, Shinichiro; Yokoyama, Yuki; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2012-12-15

    Use of two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG), induced on a hydrogenated diamond surface, is a solution to overcoming one of demerits of diamond, i.e., deep energy levels of impurities. This 2DHG is affected by its environment and accordingly needs a passivation film to get a stable device operation especially at high temperature. In response to this requirement, we achieved the high-reliability passivation forming an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film on the diamond surface using an atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) method with an H{sub 2}O oxidant at 450 Degree-Sign C. The 2DHG thus protected survived air annealing at 550 Degree-Sign C for an hour, establishing a stable high-temperature operation of 2DHG devices in air. In part, this achievement is based on high stability of C-H bonds up to 870 Degree-Sign C in vacuum and above 450 Degree-Sign C in an H{sub 2}O-containing environment as in the ALD. Chemically, this stability is supported by the fact that both the thermal decomposition of C-H bonds and reaction between C-H bonds and H{sub 2}O are endothermic processes. It makes a stark contrast to the instability of Si-H bonds, which decompose even at room temperature being exposed to atomic hydrogen. In this respect, the diamond 2DHG devices are also promising as power devices expectedly being free from many instability phenomena, such as hot carrier effect and negative-bias temperature instability, associated with Si devices. As to adsorbate, which is the other prerequisite for 2DHG, it desorbed in vacuum below 250 Degree-Sign C, and accordingly some new adsorbates should have adsorbed during the ALD at 450 Degree-Sign C. As a clue to this question, we certainly confirmed that some adsorbates, other than those at room temperature, adsorbed in air above 100 Degree-Sign C and remained at least up to 290 Degree-Sign C. The identification of these adsorbates is open for further investigation.

  18. Method and apparatus for making diamond-like carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pern, Fu-Jann (Golden, CO); Touryan, Kenell J. (Indian Hills, CO); Panosyan, Zhozef Retevos (Yerevan, AM); Gippius, Aleksey Alekseyevich (Moscow, RU)

    2008-12-02

    Ion-assisted plasma enhanced deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on the surface of photovoltaic solar cells is accomplished with a method and apparatus for controlling ion energy. The quality of DLC layers is fine-tuned by a properly biased system of special electrodes and by exact control of the feed gas mixture compositions. Uniform (with degree of non-uniformity of optical parameters less than 5%) large area (more than 110 cm.sup.2) DLC films with optical parameters varied within the given range and with stability against harmful effects of the environment are achieved.

  19. Black Warrior, Nevada: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    or Black Warrior Spring coordinates Black Warrior is a property in Washoe County and Churchill County, Nevada that is south and east of Black Warrior Peak. References Nevada...

  20. Nanofabrication of sharp diamond tips by e-beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moldovan, N.; Divan, R.; Zeng, H.; Carlisle, J. A.; Advanced Diamond Tech.

    2009-12-07

    Ultrasharp diamond tips make excellent atomic force microscopy probes, field emitters, and abrasive articles due to diamond's outstanding physical properties, i.e., hardness, low friction coefficient, low work function, and toughness. Sharp diamond tips are currently fabricated as individual tips or arrays by three principal methods: (1) focused ion beam milling and gluing onto a cantilever of individual diamond tips, (2) coating silicon tips with diamond films, or (3) molding diamond into grooves etched in a sacrificial substrate, bonding the sacrificial substrate to another substrate or electrodepositing of a handling chip, followed by dissolution of the sacrificial substrate. The first method is tedious and serial in nature but does produce very sharp tips, the second method results in tips whose radius is limited by the thickness of the diamond coating, while the third method involves a costly bonding and release process and difficulties in thoroughly filling the high aspect ratio apex of molding grooves with diamond at the nanoscale. To overcome the difficulties with these existing methods, this article reports on the feasibility of the fabrication of sharp diamond tips by direct etching of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD{reg_sign}) as a starting and structural material. The UNCD is reactive ion etched using a cap-precursor-mask scheme. An optimized etching recipe demonstrates the formation of ultrasharp diamond tips ({approx} 10 nm tip radius) with etch rates of 650 nm/min.

  1. Charged rotating dilaton black strings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M.H.; Farhangkhah, N.

    2005-02-15

    In this paper we, first, present a class of charged rotating solutions in four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity with zero and Liouville-type potentials. We find that these solutions can present a black hole/string with two regular horizons, an extreme black hole or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitable. We also compute the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, and show that they satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. Second, we obtain the (n+1)-dimensional rotating solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity with Liouville-type potential. We find that these solutions can present black branes, naked singularities or spacetimes with cosmological horizon if one chooses the parameters of the solutions correctly. Again, we find that the thermodynamic quantities of these solutions satisfy the first law of thermodynamics.

  2. Quantum Criticality and Black Holes

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Sachdev, Subir [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2009-09-01

    I will describe the behavior of a variety of condensed matter systems in the vicinity of zero temperature quantum phase transitions. There is a remarkable analogy between the hydrodynamics of such systems and the quantum theory of black holes. I will show how insights from this analogy have shed light on recent experiments on the cuprate high temperature superconductors. Studies of new materials and trapped ultracold atoms are yielding new quantum phases, with novel forms of quantum entanglement. Some materials are of technological importance: e.g. high temperature superconductors. Exact solutions via black hole mapping have yielded first exact results for transport coefficients in interacting many-body systems, and were valuable in determining general structure of hydrodynamics. Theory of VBS order and Nernst effect in cuprates. Tabletop 'laboratories for the entire universe': quantum mechanics of black holes, quark-gluon plasma, neutrons stars, and big-bang physics.

  3. Large-area low-temperature ultrananocrystaline diamond (UNCD) films and integration with CMOS devices for monolithically integrated diamond MEMD/NEMS-CMOS systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumant, A.V.; Auciello, O.; Yuan, H.-C; Ma, Z.; Carpick, R. W.; Mancini, D. C.; Univ. of Wisconsin; Univ. of Pennsylvania

    2009-05-01

    Because of exceptional mechanical, chemical, and tribological properties, diamond has a great potential to be used as a material for the development of high-performance MEMS and NEMS such as resonators and switches compatible with harsh environments, which involve mechanical motion and intermittent contact. Integration of such MEMS/NEMS devices with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) microelectronics will provide a unique platform for CMOS-driven commercial MEMS/NEMS. The main hurdle to achieve diamond-CMOS integration is the relatively high substrate temperatures (600-800 C) required for depositing conventional diamond thin films, which are well above the CMOS operating thermal budget (400 C). Additionally, a materials integration strategy has to be developed to enable diamond-CMOS integration. Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), a novel material developed in thin film form at Argonne, is currently the only microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) grown diamond film that can be grown at 400 C, and still retain exceptional mechanical, chemical, and tribological properties comparable to that of single crystal diamond. We have developed a process based on MPCVD to synthesize UNCD films on up to 200 mm in diameter CMOS wafers, which will open new avenues for the fabrication of monolithically integrated CMOS-driven MEMS/NEMS based on UNCD. UNCD films were grown successfully on individual Si-based CMOS chips and on 200 mm CMOS wafers at 400 C in a MPCVD system, using Ar-rich/CH4 gas mixture. The CMOS devices on the wafers were characterized before and after UNCD deposition. All devices were performing to specifications with very small degradation after UNCD deposition and processing. A threshold voltage degradation in the range of 0.08-0.44V and transconductance degradation in the range of 1.5-9% were observed.

  4. Black hole mimickers: Regular versus singular behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2008-07-15

    Black hole mimickers are possible alternatives to black holes; they would look observationally almost like black holes but would have no horizon. The properties in the near-horizon region where gravity is strong can be quite different for both types of objects, but at infinity it could be difficult to discern black holes from their mimickers. To disentangle this possible confusion, we examine the near-horizon properties, and their connection with far away asymptotic properties, of some candidates to black mimickers. We study spherically symmetric uncharged or charged but nonextremal objects, as well as spherically symmetric charged extremal objects. Within the uncharged or charged but nonextremal black hole mimickers, we study nonextremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, of which a subclass are called black foils, and gravastars. Within the charged extremal black hole mimickers we study extremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, quasi-black holes, and wormholes on the basis of quasi-black holes from Bonnor stars. We elucidate whether or not the objects belonging to these two classes remain regular in the near-horizon limit. The requirement of full regularity, i.e., finite curvature and absence of naked behavior, up to an arbitrary neighborhood of the gravitational radius of the object enables one to rule out potential mimickers in most of the cases. A list ranking the best black hole mimickers up to the worst, both nonextremal and extremal, is as follows: wormholes on the basis of extremal black holes or on the basis of quasi-black holes, quasi-black holes, wormholes on the basis of nonextremal black holes (black foils), and gravastars. Since in observational astrophysics it is difficult to find extremal configurations (the best mimickers in the ranking), whereas nonextremal configurations are really bad mimickers, the task of distinguishing black holes from their mimickers seems to be less difficult than one could think of it.

  5. Thin film circuit fabrication on diamond substrates for high power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norwood, D.; Worobey, W.; Peterson, D.; Sweet, J.; Johnson, D.; Miller, D.; Andaleon, D.

    1995-05-01

    Sandia Laboratories has developed a thin film diamond substrate technology to meet the requirements for high power and high density circuits. Processes were developed to metallize, photopattern, laser process, and, package diamond thin film networks which were later assembled into high power multichip modules (MCMS) to test for effectiveness at removing heat. Diamond clearly demonstrated improvement in heat transfer during 20 Watt, strip heating experiments with junction-to-ambient temperature increases of less than 24 C compared to 126 C and 265 C for the aluminum nitride and ceramic versions, respectively.

  6. Preparation of W-Ta thin-film thermocouple on diamond anvil cell for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in-situ temperature measurement under high pressure (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Preparation of W-Ta thin-film thermocouple on diamond anvil cell for in-situ temperature measurement under high pressure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preparation of W-Ta thin-film thermocouple on diamond anvil cell for in-situ temperature measurement under high pressure In this paper, a W-Ta thin-film thermocouple has been integrated on a diamond anvil cell by thin-film deposition and

  7. Adhesion of diamond coatings synthesized by oxygen-acetylene flame CVD on tungsten carbide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinkovic, S.; Stankovic, S.; Dekanski, A.

    1995-12-31

    The results of a study concerned with chemical vapor deposition of diamond on tungsten carbide cutting tools using an oxygen-acetylene flame in a normal ambient environment are presented. Effects of preparation conditions on the adhesion of the coating have been investigated, including different surface treatment, different position of the flame with respect to the coated surface, effect of an intermediate poorly crystalline diamond layer, etc. In particular, effect of polishing and ultrasonic lapping with diamond powder was compared with that of a corresponding treatment with SiC powder.

  8. Lumens Placard (Black) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Lumens Placard (Black) Lumens Placard (Black) PDF icon Lumens: The new way to shop for light More Documents & Publications Lumens Placard (Green) Lighting Tip Card Lighting Tip Card

  9. Berkeley Lab Marks Black History Month

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Berkeley Lab Marks Black History Month Each February Americans celebrate Black History Month, also known as African American History Month, to recognize the importance of Black history in American history. We profile three employees - Jackie Scoggins, Matt Rice, and Thierry Nouidui - who tell their stories of how they came to Berkeley Lab.

  10. From Pinholes to Black Holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenimore, Edward E.

    2014-10-06

    Pinhole photography has made major contributions to astrophysics through the use of coded apertures. Coded apertures were instrumental in locating gamma-ray bursts and proving that they originate in faraway galaxies, some from the birth of black holes from the first stars that formed just after the big bang.

  11. Optically transparent, scratch-resistant, diamond-like carbon coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    He, Xiao-Ming; Lee, Deok-Hyung; Nastasi, Michael A.; Walter, Kevin C.; Tuszewski, Michel G.

    2003-06-03

    A plasma-based method for the deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings is described. The process uses a radio-frequency inductively coupled discharge to generate a plasma at relatively low gas pressures. The deposition process is environmentally friendly and scaleable to large areas, and components that have geometrically complicated surfaces can be processed. The method has been used to deposit adherent 100-400 nm thick DLC coatings on metals, glass, and polymers. These coatings are between three and four times harder than steel and are therefore scratch resistant, and transparent to visible light. Boron and silicon doping of the DLC coatings have produced coatings having improved optical properties and lower coating stress levels, but with slightly lower hardness.

  12. Nucleation of nanocrystalline diamond by fragmentation of fullerene precursors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruen, D. M.

    1998-05-04

    Growth of diamond films from C{sub 60}/Ar microwave discharges results in a nanocrystalline microstructure with crystallite sizes in the range 3-10 nm. Heterogeneous nucleation rates of 10{sup 10} cm{sup {minus}2} sec are required to account for the results. The nucleation mechanism presented here fulfills this requirement and is based on the insertion of carbon dimer, C{sub 2}, molecules, produced by fragmentation of C{sub 60}, into the n-bonded dimer rows of the reconstructed (100) surface of diamond. Density functional theory is used to calculate the energetic of C{sub 2} insertion into carbon clusters that model the (100) surface. The reaction of singlet C{sub 2} with the double bond of the C{sub 9}H{sub 12} cluster leads to either carbene structures or a cyclobutynelike structure. At the HF/6-31G* level, the carbene product has a C{sub 2v} structure, while at the B3LYP/6-31G* levels of theory, it has a C{sub s} structure with the inserted C{sub 2} tilted. No barrier for insertion into the C=C double bond of the C{sub 9}H{sub 12} cluster was found at the HF/6-31G* and B3LYP/6-31G* levels of theory. Thus, calculations including correlation energy and geometry optimization indicate that insertion of C{sub 2} into a C=C double bond leads to a large energy lowering, {approximately}120 kcal/mol for a C{sub 9}H{sub 12} cluster, and there is no barrier for insertion.

  13. The semi-empirical tight-binding model for carbon allotropes between diamond and graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lytovchenko, V.; Kurchak, A.; Strikha, M.

    2014-06-28

    The new carbon allotropes between diamond and graphite have come under intensive examination during the last decade due to their numerous technical applications. The modification of energy gap in thin films of these allotropes was studied experimentally using optical methods. The proposed simple model of carbon clusters with variable lengths of chemical bonds allows us to imitate the transfer from diamond and diamond-like to graphite-like structures, as well as the corresponding modification of hybridization sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} for diamond-like and sp{sub z} for graphite-like phases. This enables us to estimate various allotropes parameters, like the gap E{sub g}, energies of valence E{sub v}, and conduction E{sub c} band edges, and the value of electronic affinity, i.e., optical work function X, which are all of practical importance. The obtained estimations correspond to the experimental data.

  14. Electrochemically grafted polypyrrole changes photoluminescence of electronic states inside nanocrystalline diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gal?, P. Mal, P.; ?ermk, J.; Kromka, A.; Rezek, B.

    2014-12-14

    Hybrid diamond-organic interfaces are considered attractive for diverse applications ranging from electronics and energy conversion to medicine. Here we use time-resolved and time-integrated photoluminescence spectroscopy in visible spectral range (380700?nm) to study electronic processes in H-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films (NCD) with 150?nm thin, electrochemically deposited polypyrrole (PPy) layer. We observe changes in dynamics of NCD photoluminescence as well as in its time-integrated spectra after polymer deposition. The effect is reversible. We propose a model where the PPy layer on the NCD surface promotes spatial separation of photo-generated charge carriers both in non-diamond carbon phase and in bulk diamond. By comparing different NCD thicknesses we show that the effect goes as much as 200?nm deep inside the NCD film.

  15. High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered diamonds

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered diamonds Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered diamonds Authors: Gasc, Julien ; Wang, Yanbin ; Yu, Tony ; Benea, Ion C. ; Rosczyk, Benjamin R. ; Shinmei, Toru ; Irifune, Tetsuo [1] ; Engis) [2] ; Ehime U) [2] ; Tokyo I) [2] + Show Author Affiliations (UC) ( Publication Date: 2016-02-12 OSTI Identifier:

  16. In Focus: Dented Diamonds, Carbon Cages, and Exceptional Potential | U.S.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE Office of Science (SC) In Focus: Dented Diamonds, Carbon Cages, and Exceptional Potential Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News EFRC Events DOE Announcements Publications History Contact BES Home 08.27.12 In Focus: Dented Diamonds, Carbon Cages, and Exceptional Potential Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Office of Science supported researchers develop new material with amazing hardness and

  17. Diamond formation due to a pH drop during fluid–rock interactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A.; Huang, Fang

    2015-11-03

    Diamond formation has typically been attributed to redox reactions during precipitation from fluids or magmas. Either the oxidation of methane or the reduction of carbon dioxide has been suggested, based on simplistic models of deep fluids consisting of mixtures of dissolved neutral gas molecules without consideration of aqueous ions. The role of pH changes associated with water–silicate rock interactions during diamond formation is unknown. Here we show that diamonds could form due to a drop in pH during water–rock interactions. We use a recent theoretical model of deep fluids that includes ions, to show that fluid can react irreversibly withmore » eclogite at 900 °C and 5.0 GPa, generating diamond and secondary minerals due to a decrease in pH at almost constant oxygen fugacity. Overall, our results constitute a new quantitative theory of diamond formation as a consequence of the reaction of deep fluids with the rock types that they encounter during migration. Diamond can form in the deep Earth during water–rock interactions without changes in oxidation state.« less

  18. Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kagan, Harris; Kass, Richard; Gan, K.K.

    2014-01-23

    With the LHC upgrades in 2013, and further LHC upgrades scheduled in 2018, most LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require more radiation hard technologies than presently available. At present all LHC experiments now have some form of diamond detector. As a result Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of all LHC experiments. Moreover CVD diamond is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the HL-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications. Our accomplishments include: Developed a two U.S.companies to produce electronic grade diamond, Worked with companies and acquired large area diamond pieces, Performed radiation hardness tests using various proton energies: 70 MeV (Cyric, Japan), 800 MeV (Los Alamos), and 24 GeV (CERN).

  19. Diamond formation due to a pH drop during fluid–rock interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A.; Huang, Fang

    2015-11-03

    Diamond formation has typically been attributed to redox reactions during precipitation from fluids or magmas. Either the oxidation of methane or the reduction of carbon dioxide has been suggested, based on simplistic models of deep fluids consisting of mixtures of dissolved neutral gas molecules without consideration of aqueous ions. The role of pH changes associated with water–silicate rock interactions during diamond formation is unknown. Here we show that diamonds could form due to a drop in pH during water–rock interactions. We use a recent theoretical model of deep fluids that includes ions, to show that fluid can react irreversibly with eclogite at 900 °C and 5.0 GPa, generating diamond and secondary minerals due to a decrease in pH at almost constant oxygen fugacity. Overall, our results constitute a new quantitative theory of diamond formation as a consequence of the reaction of deep fluids with the rock types that they encounter during migration. Diamond can form in the deep Earth during water–rock interactions without changes in oxidation state.

  20. Close encounters of three black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campanelli, Manuela; Lousto, Carlos O.; Zlochower, Yosef

    2008-05-15

    We present the first fully relativistic long-term numerical evolutions of three equal-mass black holes in a system consisting of a third black hole in a close orbit about a black-hole binary. These close-three-black-hole systems have very different merger dynamics from black-hole binaries; displaying complex trajectories, a redistribution of energy that can impart substantial kicks to one of the holes, distinctive waveforms, and suppression of the emitted gravitational radiation. In one configuration the binary is quickly disrupted and the individual holes follow complicated trajectories and merge with the third hole in rapid succession, while in another, the binary completes a half-orbit before the initial merger of one of the members with the third black hole, and the resulting two-black-hole system forms a highly elliptical, well separated binary that shows no significant inspiral for (at least) the first t{approx}1000M of evolution.

  1. Adsorptive Separation and Sequestration of Krypton, I and C14 on Diamond Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, Tushar; Loyalka, Sudarsha; Prelas, Mark; Viswanath, Dabir

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this research proposal was to address the separation and sequestration of Kr and I from each other using nano-sized diamond particles and retaining these in diamond until they decay to the background level or can be used as a byproduct. Following removal of Kr and I, an adsorbent will be used to adsorb and store CO2 from the CO2 rich stream. A Field Enhanced Diffusion with Optical Activation (FEDOA-a large scale process that takes advantage of thermal, electrical, and optical activation to enhance the diffusion of an element into diamond structure) was used to load Kr and I on micron or nano sized particles having a larger relative surface area. The diamond particles can be further increased by doping it with boron followed by irradiation in a neutron flux. Previous studies showed that the hydrogen storage capacity could be increased significantly by using boron-doped irradiated diamond particles. Diamond powders were irradiated for a longer time by placing them in a quartz tube. The surface area was measured using a Quantachrome Autosorb system. No significant increase in the surface area was observed. Total surface area was about 1.7 m2/g. This suggests the existence of very minimal pores. Interestingly it showed hysteresis upon desorption. A reason for this may be strong interaction between the surface and the nitrogen molecules. Adsorption runs at higher temperatures did not show any adsorption of krypton on diamond. Use of a GC with HID detector to determine the adsorption capacity from the breakthrough curves was attempted, but experimental difficulties were encountered.

  2. Science and technology of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films for multifunctional devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auciello, O.; Krauss, A. R.; Gruen, D. M.; Jayatissa, A.; Sumant, A.; Tucek, J.; Mancini, D.; Molodvan, N.; Erdemir, A.; Ersoy, D.; Gardos, M. N.; Busman, H. G.; Meyer, E. M.

    2000-08-24

    MEMS devices are currently fabricated primarily in silicon because of the available surface machining technology. However, Si has poor mechanical and tribological properties, and practical MEMS devices are currently limited primarily to applications involving only bending and flexural motion, such as cantilever accelerometers and vibration sensors. However, because of the poor flexural strength and fracture toughness of Si, and the tendency of Si to adhere to hydrophyllic surfaces, even these simple devices have limited dynamic range. Future MEMS applications that involve significant rolling or sliding contact will require the use of new materials with significantly improved mechanical and tribological properties, and the ability to perform well in harsh environments. Diamond is a superhard material of high mechanical strength, exceptional chemical inertness, and outstanding thermal stability. The brittle fracture strength is 23 times that of Si, and the projected wear life of diamond MEMS moving mechanical assemblies (MEMS-MMAs) is 10,000 times greater than that of Si MMAs. However, as the hardest known material, diamond is notoriously difficult to fabricate. Conventional CVD thin film deposition methods offer an approach to the fabrication of ultra-small diamond structures, but the films have large grain size, high internal stress, poor intergranular adhesion, and very rough surfaces, and are consequently ill-suited for MEMS-MMA applications. A thin film deposition process has been developed that produces phase-pure nanocrystalline diamond with morphological and mechanical properties that are ideally suited for MEMS applications in general, and MMA use in particular. The authors have developed lithographic techniques for the fabrication of diamond microstructure including cantilevers and multi-level devices, acting as precursors to micro-bearings and gears, making nanocrystalline diamond a promising material for the development of high performance MEMS devices.

  3. Diamond detector for high rate monitors of fast neutrons beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giacomelli, L.; Rebai, M.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Tardocchi, M.; Fazzi, A.; Andreani, C.; Pietropaolo, A.; Frost, C. D.; Rhodes, N.; Schooneveld, E.; Gorini, G.

    2012-06-19

    A fast neutron detection system suitable for high rate measurements is presented. The detector is based on a commercial high purity single crystal diamond (SDD) coupled to a fast digital data acquisition system. The detector was tested at the ISIS pulsed spallation neutron source. The SDD event signal was digitized at 1 GHz to reconstruct the deposited energy (pulse amplitude) and neutron arrival time; the event time of flight (ToF) was obtained relative to the recorded proton beam signal t{sub 0}. Fast acquisition is needed since the peak count rate is very high ({approx}800 kHz) due to the pulsed structure of the neutron beam. Measurements at ISIS indicate that three characteristics regions exist in the biparametric spectrum: i) background gamma events of low pulse amplitudes; ii) low pulse amplitude neutron events in the energy range E{sub dep}= 1.5-7 MeV ascribed to neutron elastic scattering on {sup 12}C; iii) large pulse amplitude neutron events with E{sub n} < 7 MeV ascribed to {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}){sup 9}Be and 12C(n,n')3{alpha}.

  4. The Nanoscience Beamline (I06) at Diamond Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhesi, S. S.; Cavill, S. A.; Potenza, A.; Marchetto, H.; Mott, R. A.; Steadman, P.; Peach, A.; Shepherd, E. L.; Ren, X.; Wagner, U. H.; Reininger, R.

    2010-06-23

    The Nanoscience beamline (I06) is one of seven Diamond Phase-I beamlines which has been operational since January 2007 delivering polarised soft x-rays, for a PhotoEmission Electron Microscope (PEEM) and branchline, in the energy range 80-2100 eV. The beamline is based on a collimated plane grating monochromator with sagittal focusing elements, utilising two APPLE II helical undulator sources, and has been designed for high flux density at the PEEM sample position. A {approx}5 {mu}m ({sigma}) diameter beam is focussed onto the sample in the PEEM allowing a range of experiments using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) as contrast mechanisms. The beamline is also equipped with a branchline housing a 6T superconducting magnet for XMCD and XMLD experiments. The magnet is designed to move on and off the branchline which allows a diverse range of experiments.

  5. Modeling electron emission and surface effects from diamond cathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dimitrov, D. A.; Smithe, D.; Cary, J. R.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Wang, E.

    2015-02-05

    We developed modeling capabilities, within the Vorpal particle-in-cell code, for three-dimensional (3D) simulations of surface effects and electron emission from semiconductor photocathodes. They include calculation of emission probabilities using general, piece-wise continuous, space-time dependent surface potentials, effective mass and band bending field effects. We applied these models, in combination with previously implemented capabilities for modeling charge generation and transport in diamond, to investigate the emission dependence on applied electric field in the range from approximately 2 MV/m to 17 MV/m along the [100] direction. The simulation results were compared to experimental data. For the considered parameter regime, conservation of transversemore » electron momentum (in the plane of the emission surface) allows direct emission from only two (parallel to [100]) of the six equivalent lowest conduction band valleys. When the electron affinity χ is the only parameter varied in the simulations, the value χ = 0.31 eV leads to overall qualitative agreement with the probability of emission deduced from experiments. Including band bending in the simulations improves the agreement with the experimental data, particularly at low applied fields, but not significantly. In this study, using surface potentials with different profiles further allows us to investigate the emission as a function of potential barrier height, width, and vacuum level position. However, adding surface patches with different levels of hydrogenation, modeled with position-dependent electron affinity, leads to the closest agreement with the experimental data.« less

  6. Diamond Wire Cutting of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith Rule; Erik Perry; Robert Parsells

    2003-01-31

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a one-of-a-kind, tritium-fueled fusion research reactor that ceased operation in April 1997. As a result, decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The 100 cubic meter volume of the donut-shaped reactor makes it the second largest fusion reactor in the world. The deuterium-tritium experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 MeV neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies, while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the tokamak present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Engineers at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) decided to investigate an alternate, innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR vacuum vessel: diamond wire cutting technology. In August 1999, this technology was successfully demonstrated and evaluated on vacuum vessel surrogates. Subsequently, the technology was improved and redesigned for the actual cutting of the vacuum vessel. Ten complete cuts were performed in a 6-month period to complete the removal of this unprecedented type of D&D (Decontamination and Decommissioning) activity.

  7. DIAMOND WIRE CUTTING OF THE TOKAMAK FUSION TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rule, Keith; Perry, Erik; Parsells, Robert

    2003-02-27

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a one-of-a-kind, tritium-fueled fusion research reactor that ceased operation in April 1997. As a result, decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The 100 cubic meter volume of the donut-shaped reactor makes it the second largest fusion reactor in the world. The deuterium-tritium experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Engineers at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) decided to investigate an alternate, innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR vacuum vessel: diamond wire cutting technology. In August 1999, this technology was successfully demonstrated and evaluated on vacuum vessel surrogates. Subsequently, the techno logy was improved and redesigned for the actual cutting of the vacuum vessel. 10 complete cuts were performed in a 6-month period to complete the removal of this unprecedented type of D&D activity.

  8. Boson shells harboring charged black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Laemmerzahl, Claus; List, Meike

    2010-11-15

    We consider boson shells in scalar electrodynamics coupled to Einstein gravity. The interior of the shells can be empty space, or harbor a black hole or a naked singularity. We analyze the properties of these types of solutions and determine their domains of existence. We investigate the energy conditions and present mass formulae for the composite black hole-boson shell systems. We demonstrate that these types of solutions violate black hole uniqueness.

  9. Multi-clad black display panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY); Biscardi, Cyrus (Bellport, NY); Brewster, Calvin (North Patchogue, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A multi-clad black display panel, and a method of making a multi-clad black display panel, are disclosed, wherein a plurality of waveguides, each of which includes a light-transmissive core placed between an opposing pair of transparent cladding layers and a black layer disposed between transparent cladding layers, are stacked together and sawed at an angle to produce a wedge-shaped optical panel having an inlet face and an outlet face.

  10. Black hole birth captured by cosmic voyeurs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Black hole birth captured by cosmic voyeurs Black hole birth captured by cosmic voyeurs The RAPTOR system is a network of small robotic observatories that scan the skies for optical anomalies such as flashes emanating from a star in its death throes as it collapses and becomes a black hole. November 21, 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory astrophysicist Tom Vestrand poses with a telescope array that is part of the RAPTOR (RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response) system. RAPTOR is an intelligent

  11. Black carbon contribution to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Kou, L.; Wong, J.

    1996-12-31

    Before the onset of industrial revolution the only important source of black carbon in the atmosphere was biomass burning. Today, black carbon production is divided between the biomass and fossil fuel burning. Black carbon is a major agent responsible for absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols. Thus black carbon makes other aerosols less efficient in their role of reflecting solar radiation and cooling the earth-atmosphere system. Black carbon also contributes to the absorption of solar radiation by clouds and snow cover. The authors present the results of black carbon concentrations measurements in the atmosphere, in cloud water, in rain and snow melt water collected during the 1992--1996 time period over the southern Nova Scotia. Their results are put into the global and historical perspective by comparing them with the compilation of past measurements at diverse locations and with their measurements of black carbon concentrations in the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Black carbon contribution to the global warming is estimated, and compared to the carbon dioxide warming, using the radiative forcing caused by the black carbon at the top of the atmosphere.

  12. National Conference of Black Mayors, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The cooperative agreement enhances the National Conference of Black Mayors, Inc., members' capacity for energy and environmental planning through computer-based technology, Internet access, and a...

  13. Black Mountain Insulation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mountain Insulation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Black Mountain Insulation Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product: UK-based manufacturer of sheeps wool insulation which...

  14. Black Hills Energy (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heater: 450 Refrigerator: 30unit Freezer: 30unit Dishwasher: 30unit Television: 25unit CFLLED Bulbs: In-store rebates Summary Black Hills Energy (BHE) offers...

  15. Strengthening Our Partnerships with Historically Black Colleges...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities and President of Hampton University, as well as Langston University President JoAnn Haysbert and Morgan State...

  16. Black Coral Capital | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coral Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name: Black Coral Capital Address: 55 Union Street, 3rd Floor Place: Boston, Massachusetts Zip: 02108 Region: Greater Boston Area Product:...

  17. Diamond-anvil high-pressure cell with improved x-ray collimation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiferl, D.; Olinger, B.W.; Livingston, R.W.

    1984-03-30

    An adjustable x-ray collimation system for a diamond-anvil high-pressure cell of the type including a cooperable piston and cylinder and a pair of opposing diamonds located between the head of the piston and the head of the cylinder. The x-ray collimation system includes a tubular insert which contains an x-ray collimator. The insert is engageable in the bore of the piston. The collimator is mounted within the insert by means of an elastomeric o-ring at the end closest the opposed diamonds, and by means of a set of adjustable set screws at the opposite end. By adjustment of the set screws the collimator can be pivoted about the o-ring and brought into alignment with the opposed diamonds and the sample contained therein. In the preferred embodiment there is further provided a set of plugs which are insertable in the bore of the collimator. The plugs have bores of different diameters. By successively inserting plugs of progressively smaller bore diameters and adjusting the alignment of the collimator with each plug, the collimator can be quickly brought into accurate alignment with the diamonds. The collimation system allows alignment of the collimator either before or after the cell has been loaded and pressurized.

  18. Diamond-anvil high-pressure cell with improved X-ray collimation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiferl, David (Los Alamos, NM); Olinger, Barton W. (Santa Fe, NM); Livingston, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01

    An adjustable X-ray collimation system for a diamond-anvil high-pressure cell of the type including a cooperable piston and cylinder and a pair of opposing diamonds located between the head of the piston and the head of the cylinder. The X-ray collimation system includes a tubular insert which contains an X-ray collimator. The insert is engageable in the bore of the piston. The collimator is mounted within the insert by means of an elastomeric O-ring at the end closest the opposed diamonds, and by means of a set of adjustable set screws at the opposite end. By adjustment of the set screws the collimator can be pivoted about the O-ring and brought into alignment with the opposed diamonds and the sample contained therein. In the preferred embodiment there is further provided a set of plugs which are insertable in the bore of the collimator. The plugs have bores of different diameters. By successively inserting plugs of progressively smaller bore diameters and adjusting the alignment of the collimator with each plug, the collimator can be quickly brought into accurate alignment with the diamonds. The collimation system allows alignment of the collimator either before or after the cell has been loaded and pressurized.

  19. Fabrication of layered self-standing diamond film by dc arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G. C.; Dai, F. W.; Li, B.; Lan, H.; Askari, J.; Tang, W. Z.; Lu, F. X.

    2007-01-15

    Layered self-standing diamond films, consisting of an upper layer, buffer layer, and a lower layer, were fabricated by fluctuating the ratio of methane to hydrogen in high power dc arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition. There were micrometer-sized columnar diamond crystalline grains in both upper layer and lower layer. The size of the columnar diamond crystalline grains was bigger in the upper layer than that in the lower layer. The orientation of the upper layer was (110), while it was (111) for the lower layer. Raman results showed that no sp{sup 3} peak shift was found in the upper layer, but it was found and blueshifted in the lower layer. This indicated that the internal stress within the film body could be tailored by this layered structure. The buffer layer with nanometer-sized diamond grains formed by secondary nucleation was necessary in order to form the layered film. Growth rate was over 10 {mu}m/h in layered self-standing diamond film fabrication.

  20. Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain; Greg M.

    2009-04-13

    The original funding under this project number was awarded for a period 12/1999 until 12/2002 under the project title Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications. The project was extended until 06/2003 at which time a renewal proposal was awarded for a period 06/2003 until 06/2008 under the project title Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes. The work under DE-FG02-01ER15120 was initiated about the time the PI moved his research group from the Department of Chemistry at Utah State University to the Department of Chemistry at Michigan State University. This DOE-funded research was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder.

  1. Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

    2009-01-07

    The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

  2. Extraordinary vacuum black string solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai

    2008-01-15

    In addition to the boosted static solution there are two other classes of stationary stringlike solutions of the vacuum Einstein equation in (4+1) dimensions. Each class is characterized by three parameters of mass, tension, and momentum flow along the fifth coordinate. We analyze the metric properties of one of the two classes, which was previously assumed to be naked singular, and show that the solution spectrum contains black string and wormhole in addition to the known naked singularity as the momentum flow to mass ratio increases. Interestingly, there does not exist new zero momentum solution in these cases.

  3. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-03-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. This report covers Task 1.3, Simulative corrosion of candidate materials developed by refractory producers and in the laboratory based on the results of Task 1.1 and Task 1.2. Refractories provided by in-kind sponsors were tested by cup testing, density/porosity determinations, chemical analysis and microscopy. The best performing materials in the cup testing were fused cast materials. However, 2 castables appear to outperforming any of the previously tested materials and may perform better than the fused cast materials in operation. The basis of the high performance of these materials is the low open porosity and permeability to black liquor smelt.

  4. Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris Kagan; K.K. Gan; Richard Kass

    2009-03-31

    Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2009, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2013, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

  5. Ultraviolet photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- and nano-crystalline diamond

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mendoza, Frank; Makarov, Vladimir; Hidalgo, Arturo; Weiner, Brad; Morell, Gerardo

    2011-06-06

    The room-temperature photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- (MCD), submicro- (SMCD) and nano- (NCD) crystalline diamond films synthesized by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition was studied. The structure and composition of these diamond materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The UV sensitivity and response time were studied for the three types of diamond materials using a steady state broad UV excitation source and two pulsed UV laser radiations. It was found that they have high sensitivity in the UV region, as high as 109 sec-1mV-1 range, linear response in a broad spectral range below 320 nm, photocurrentsmore » around ~10-5 A, and short response time better than 100 ns, which is independent of fluency intensity. A phenomenological model was applied to help understand the role of defects and dopant concentration on the materials’ photosensitivity.« less

  6. Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg M. Swain, PI

    2009-03-10

    The DOE-funded research conducted by the Swain group was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder. (Note: All potentials are reported versus Ag/AgCl (sat'd KCl) and cm{sup 2} refers to the electrode geometric area, unless otherwise stated).

  7. Ultraviolet photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- and nano-crystalline diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza, Frank; Makarov, Vladimir; Hidalgo, Arturo; Weiner, Brad; Morell, Gerardo

    2011-06-06

    The room-temperature photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- (MCD), submicro- (SMCD) and nano- (NCD) crystalline diamond films synthesized by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition was studied. The structure and composition of these diamond materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The UV sensitivity and response time were studied for the three types of diamond materials using a steady state broad UV excitation source and two pulsed UV laser radiations. It was found that they have high sensitivity in the UV region, as high as 109 sec-1mV-1 range, linear response in a broad spectral range below 320 nm, photocurrents around ~10-5 A, and short response time better than 100 ns, which is independent of fluency intensity. A phenomenological model was applied to help understand the role of defects and dopant concentration on the materials photosensitivity.

  8. Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rainer Wallny

    2012-10-15

    Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2010, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2015, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed and operational in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

  9. Development of Designer Diamond Technology for High Pressure High Temperature Experiments in Support of Stockpile Stewardship Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vohra, Yogesh, K.

    2009-10-28

    The role of nitrogen in the fabrication of designer diamond was systematically investigated by adding controlled amount of nitrogen in hydrogen/methane/oxygen plasma. This has led to a successful recipe for reproducible fabrication of designer diamond anvils for high-pressure high-temperature research in support of stockpile stewardship program. In the three-year support period, several designer diamonds fabricated with this new growth chemistry were utilized in high-pressure experiments at UAB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The designer diamond anvils were utilized in high-pressure studies on heavy rare earth metals, high pressure melting studies on metals, and electrical resistance measurements on iron-based layered superconductors under high pressures. The growth chemistry developed under NNSA support can be adapted for commercial production of designer diamonds.

  10. The Development of Open Water-lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD) Thrust Bearings for Use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, Craig, H.; Khonsari, Michael,, M; Lingwall, Brent

    2012-11-28

    Polycrstalline diamond (PCD) bearings were designed, fabricated and tested for marine-hydro-kinetic (MHK) application. Bearing efficiency and life were evaluated using the US Synthetic bearing test facility. Three iterations of design, build and test were conducted to arrive at the best bearing design. In addition life testing that simulated the starting and stopping and the loading of real MHK applications were performed. Results showed polycrystalline diamond bearings are well suited for MHK applications and that diamond bearing technology is TRL4 ready. Based on life tests results bearing life is estimated to be at least 11.5 years. A calculation method for evaluating the performance of diamond bearings of round geometry was also investigated and developed. Finally, as part of this effort test bearings were supplied free of charge to the University of Alaska for further evaluation. The University of Alaska test program will subject the diamond bearings to sediment laden lubricating fluid.

  11. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical and physical properties and chemical stability; and are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development was divided into 2 tasks: Task 1 was development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO2 and SiC. Task 2 was finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  12. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  13. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development were divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  14. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-08-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  15. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  16. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  17. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  18. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-01-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  19. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert E. Moore; William L. Headrick; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-03-31

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  20. Science and technology of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films for multifunctional devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auciello, O.; Gruen, D. M.; Krauss, A. R.; Jayatissa, A.; Sumant, A.; Tucek, J.; Mancini, D.; Moldovan, N.; Erdemir, A.; Ersoy, D.; Gardos, M. N.; Busmann, H. G.; Meyer, E. M.

    2000-11-15

    MEMS devices are currently fabricated primarily in silicon because of the available surface machining technology. However, Si has poor mechanical and tribological properties, and practical MEMS devices are currently limited primarily to applications involving only bending and flexural motion, such as cantilever accelerometers and vibration sensors, However, because of the poor flexural strength and fracture toughness of Si, and the tendency of Si to adhere to hydrophyllic surfaces, even these simple devices have limited dynamic range. Future MEMS applications that involve significant rolling or sliding contact will require the use of new materials with significantly improved mechanical and tribological properties, and the ability to perform well in harsh environments. Diamond is a superhard material of high mechanical strength, exceptional chemical inertness, and outstanding thermal stability. The brittle fracture strength is 23 times that of Si, and the projected wear life of diamond MEMS moving mechanical assemblies (MEMS-MMAS) is 10,000 times greater than that of Si MMAs. However, as the hardest known material, diamond is notoriously difficult to fabricate. Conventional CVD thin film deposition methods offer an approach to the fabrication of ultra-small diamond structures, but the films have large grain size, high internal stress, poor intergranular adhesion, and very rough surfaces, and are consequently ill-suited for MEMS-MMA applications. A thin film deposition process has been developed that produces phase-pure ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) with morphological and mechanical properties that are ideally suited for MEMS applications in general, and MMA use in particular. We have developed lithographic techniques for the fabrication of diamond microstructure including cantilevers and multi-level devices, acting as precursors to micro-bearings and gears, making UNCD a promising material for the development of high performance MEMS devices.

  1. The Nanoscience Beamline at Diamond, Optical Design Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reininger, Ruben; Dhesi, Sarnjeet

    2007-01-19

    The main requirement of the Nanoscience Beamline at Diamond is to deliver the highest possible flux at the sample position of a PEEM with a resolving power of about 5000 in the energy range 80-2000 eV. The source of the beamline is a couple of APPLE II helical undulators in tandem that can also be used separately to allow for faster switching of the circular polarization. Based on its versatility, a collimated plane grating monochromator using sagittally focusing elements was chosen to cover the required energy range with three gratings. The operation of this monochromator requires a collimated beam incident on the grating along the dispersion direction. This can be achieved either with a toroid, focusing with its major radius along the non-dispersive direction at the exit slit, or with a sagittal cylinder. The former option uses a sagittal cylinder after the grating to focus the collimated beam at the exit slit. In the latter case, a toroid after the grating is used to focus in both directions at the exit slit. The advantage of the toroid downstream the grating is the higher horizontal demagnification. This configuration fulfills the Nanoscience Beamline's required resolving power but cannot be used to achieve very high resolution due to the astigmatic coma aberration of the toroidal mirror. The focusing at the sample position is performed with a KB pair of plane elliptical mirrors. Assuming achievable values for the errors on all the optical surfaces, the expected spots FWHW in the horizontal and vertical directions are 10 {mu}m and 3 {mu}m, respectively. The calculated photon flux at this spot at 5000 resolving power is >1012 photons/sec between 80 and 1600 eV for linearly polarized light and between 106 and 1200 eV for circularly polarized light. The beamline is expected to be operational in January 2007.

  2. Field emission from bias-grown diamond thin films in a microwave plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL); Ding, Ming Q. (Beijing, CN); Auciello, Orlando (Bolinbrook, IL)

    2002-01-01

    A method of producing diamond or diamond like films in which a negative bias is established on a substrate with an electrically conductive surface in a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition system. The atmosphere that is subjected to microwave energy includes a source of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen. The negative bias is maintained on the substrate through both the nucleation and growth phase of the film until the film is continuous. Biases between -100V and -200 are preferred. Carbon sources may be one or more of CH.sub.4, C.sub.2 H.sub.2 other hydrocarbons and fullerenes.

  3. Synthesis of new Diamond-like B-C Phases under High Pressure and Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ming, L. C.; Zinin, P. V.; Sharma, S. K.

    2014-04-22

    A cubic BC3 (c-BC3) phase was synthesized by direct transformation from graphitic phases at a pressure of 39 GPa and temperature of 2200 K in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (DAC). A combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron diffraction (ED), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements lead us to conclude that the obtained phase is hetero-nano-diamond, c-BC3. The EELS measurements show that the atoms inside the cubic structure are bonded by sp3 bonds.

  4. Photo-stimulated low electron temperature high current diamond film field emission cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shurter; Roger Philips (Los Alamos, NM), Devlin; David James (Santa Fe, NM), Moody; Nathan Andrew (Los Alamos, NM), Taccetti; Jose Martin (Santa Fe, NM), Russell; Steven John (Los Alamos, NM)

    2012-07-24

    An electron source includes a back contact surface having a means for attaching a power source to the back contact surface. The electron source also includes a layer comprising platinum in direct contact with the back contact surface, a composite layer of single-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in platinum in direct contact with the layer comprising platinum. The electron source also includes a nanocrystalline diamond layer in direct contact with the composite layer. The nanocrystalline diamond layer is doped with boron. A portion of the back contact surface is removed to reveal the underlying platinum. The electron source is contained in an evacuable container.

  5. Cuttings Analysis At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  6. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. This report covers Task 1.4, Industrial Trial of candidate materials developed by refractory producers and in the laboratory based on the results of Task 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3. Refractories provided by in-kind sponsors to industrial installations tested by cup testing, density/porosity determinations, chemical analysis and microscopy. None of the materials produced in this program have been tried in high temperature gasifiers, but the mortar developed Morcocoat SP-P is outperforming other mortars tested at ORNL. MORCO PhosGun M-90-O has shown in laboratory testing to be an acceptable candidate for hot and cold repairs of existing high temperature gasifiers. It may prove to be an acceptable lining material.

  7. Propagation and absorption of high-intensity femtosecond laser radiation in diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kononenko, V V; Konov, V I; Gololobov, V M; Zavedeev, E V

    2014-12-31

    Femtosecond interferometry has been used to experimentally study the photoexcitation of the electron subsystem of diamond exposed to femtosecond laser pulses of intensity 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2}. The carrier concentration has been determined as a function of incident intensity for three harmonics of a Ti : sapphire laser (800, 400 and 266 nm). The results demonstrate that, in a wide range of laser fluences (up to those resulting in surface and bulk graphitisation), a well-defined multiphoton absorption prevails. We have estimated nonlinear absorption coefficients for pulsed radiation at λ = 800 nm (four-photon transition) and at 400 and 266 nm (indirect and direct two-photon transitions, respectively). It has also been shown that, at any considerable path length of a femtosecond pulse in diamond (tens of microns or longer), the laser beam experiences a severe nonlinear transformation, determining the amount of energy absorbed by the lattice, which is important for the development of technology for diamond photostructuring by ultrashort pulses. The competition between wave packet self-focusing and the plasma defocusing effect is examined as a major mechanism governing the propagation of intense laser pulses in diamond. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  8. Method to grow pure nanocrystalline diamond films at low temperatures and high deposition rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlisle, John A. (Plainfield, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Auciello, Orlando (Bolingbrook, IL); Xiao, Xingcheng (Woodridge, IL)

    2009-07-07

    A method of depositing nanocrystalline diamond film on a substrate at a rate of not less than about 0.2 microns/hour at a substrate temperature less than about 500.degree. C. The method includes seeding the substrate surface with nanocrystalline diamond powder to an areal density of not less than about 10.sup.10sites/cm.sup.2, and contacting the seeded substrate surface with a gas of about 99% by volume of an inert gas other than helium and about 1% by volume of methane or hydrogen and one or more of acetylene, fullerene and anthracene in the presence of a microwave induced plasma while maintaining the substrate temperature less than about 500.degree. C. to deposit nanocrystalline diamond on the seeded substrate surface at a rate not less than about 0.2 microns/hour. Coatings of nanocrystalline diamond with average particle diameters of less than about 20 nanometers can be deposited with thermal budgets of 500.degree. C.-4 hours or less onto a variety of substrates such as MEMS devices.

  9. Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westerfield, Curtis L.; Morris, John S.; Agnew, Stephen F.

    1997-01-01

    Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear. A cell is described which, in combination with Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, permits the spectroscopic investigation of boundary layers under conditions of high temperature, high pressure and shear.

  10. Characterization of diamond film and bare metal photocathodes as a function of temperature and surface preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shurter, R.P.; Moir, D.C.; Devlin, D.J.

    1996-07-01

    High current photocathodes using bare metal and polycrystalline diamond films illuminated by ultraviolet lasers are being developed at Los Alamos for use in a new generation of linear induction accelerators. These photocathodes must be able to produce multiple 60 ns pulses separated by several to tens of nanoseconds. The vacuum environment in which the photocathodes must operate is 10{sup -5} torr.

  11. Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond/Silicon Carbide Nanocomposites for Drill Bits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and produce in quantity novel superhard and ultratough thermally stable polycrystalline (TSP) diamond/SiC nanocomposites reinforced with SiC/C nanofibers for drill-bit applications and multiple industrial functions.

  12. N-type droping of nanocrystalline diamond films with nitrogen and electrodes made therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Krauss, Alan R. (late of Naperville, IL); Auciello, Orlando H. (Bolingbrook, IL); Carlisle, John A. (Plainfield, IL)

    2004-09-21

    An electrically conducting n-type ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) having no less than 10.sup.19 atoms/cm.sup.3 of nitrogen is disclosed. A method of making the n-doped UNCD. A method for predictably controlling the conductivity is also disclosed.

  13. Diamond anvil cell for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westerfield, C.L.; Morris, J.S.; Agnew, S.F.

    1997-01-14

    Diamond anvil cell is described for spectroscopic investigation of materials at high temperature, high pressure and shear. A cell is described which, in combination with Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, permits the spectroscopic investigation of boundary layers under conditions of high temperature, high pressure and shear. 4 figs.

  14. High quality factor nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators limited by thermoelastic damping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najar, Hadi; Chan, Mei-Lin; Yang, Hsueh-An; Lin, Liwei; Cahill, David G.; Horsley, David A.

    2014-04-14

    We demonstrate high quality factor thin-film nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators with quality factors limited by thermoelastic damping. Cantilevers, single-anchored and double-anchored double-ended tuning forks, were fabricated from 2.5??m thick in-situ boron doped nanocrystalline diamond films deposited using hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Thermal conductivity measured by time-domain thermoreflectance resulted in 24??3?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1} for heat transport through the thickness of the diamond film. The resonant frequencies of the fabricated resonators were 46?kHz8?MHz and showed a maximum measured Q???86?000 at f{sub n}?=?46.849?kHz. The measured Q-factors are shown to be in good agreement with the limit imposed by thermoelastic dissipation calculated using the measured thermal conductivity. The mechanical properties extracted from resonant frequency measurements indicate a Young's elastic modulus of ?788?GPa, close to that of microcrystalline diamond.

  15. Large improvement of phosphorus incorporation efficiency in n-type chemical vapor deposition of diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohtani, Ryota; Yamamoto, Takashi; Janssens, Stoffel D.; Yamasaki, Satoshi

    2014-12-08

    Microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is a promising way to generate n-type, e.g., phosphorus-doped, diamond layers for the fabrication of electronic components, which can operate at extreme conditions. However, a deeper understanding of the doping process is lacking and low phosphorus incorporation efficiencies are generally observed. In this work, it is shown that systematically changing the internal design of a non-commercial chemical vapor deposition chamber, used to grow diamond layers, leads to a large increase of the phosphorus doping efficiency in diamond, produced in this device, without compromising its electronic properties. Compared to the initial reactor design, the doping efficiency is about 100 times higher, reaching 10%, and for a very broad doping range, the doping efficiency remains highly constant. It is hypothesized that redesigning the deposition chamber generates a higher flow of active phosphorus species towards the substrate, thereby increasing phosphorus incorporation in diamond and reducing deposition of phosphorus species at reactor walls, which additionally reduces undesirable memory effects.

  16. Department of Energy Research Opportunities for Historically Black Colleges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Universities | Department of Energy Department of Energy Research Opportunities for Historically Black Colleges and Universities Department of Energy Research Opportunities for Historically Black Colleges and Universities Information about the Department's laboratories, funding opportunities, partnerships with Historically Black Colleges and Universities, WDTS Program Mission. PDF icon Department of Energy Research Opportunities for Historically Black Colleges and Universities More

  17. black out | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dc(266) Contributor 31 October, 2014 - 10:58 What do you know about the grid? black out brown out bulk power system electricity grid future grid grid history security Smart Grid...

  18. Spectral line broadening in magnetized black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Shoom, Andrey A.; Tzounis, Christos E-mail: ashoom@ualberta.ca

    2014-07-01

    We consider weakly magnetized non-rotating black holes. In the presence of a regular magnetic field the motion of charged particles in the vicinity of a black hole is modified. As a result, the position of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) becomes closer to the horizon. When the Lorentz force is repulsive (directed from the black hole) the ISCO radius can reach the gravitational radius. In the process of accretion charged particles (ions) of the accreting matter can be accumulated near their ISCO, while neutral particles fall down to the black hole after they reach 6M radius. The sharp spectral line Fe α, emitted by iron ions at such orbits, is broadened when the emission is registered by a distant observer. In this paper we study this broadening effect and discuss how one can extract information concerning the strength of the magnetic field from the observed spectrum.

  19. Hanford Site Black-tailed Jackrabbit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Hanford Site Black-tailed Jackrabbit Monitoring Report for Fiscal Year 2013 C. Lindsey, J. Nugent, J. Wilde, and S. Johnson Mission Support Alliance Date Published February 2014...

  20. Black Emerald Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Black Emerald Group Address: 4 Park Place Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: SW1A 1LP Product: Investment banking firm specializing in...

  1. Black Silicon Etching - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Black Silicon Etching Award-winning, efficient, and inexpensive photovoltaic technology National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Three silicon wafers, showing absorbed light: (left) micron-scale texture, (center) NREL&rsquo;s Black Silicon Etch, and (right) micron-scale texture with an antireflective coating. Three silicon wafers, showing absorbed light: (left) micron-scale texture,

  2. The compressibility of cubic white, orthorhombic black and rhombohedral

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    black phosphorus (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: The compressibility of cubic white, orthorhombic black and rhombohedral black phosphorus Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The compressibility of cubic white, orthorhombic black and rhombohedral black phosphorus The effect of pressure on the crystal structure of white phosphorus has been studied up to 22.4 GPa. The {alpha} phase was found to transform into the {alpha}' phase at 0.87 {+-} 0.04 GPa with a volume

  3. Systematic studies of the nucleation and growth of ultrananocrystalline diamond films on silicon substrates coated with a tungsten layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Yueh-Chieh; Jiang, Gerald; Tu, Chia-Hao; Chang Chi; Liu, Chuan-pu; Ting, Jyh-Ming; Lee, Hsin-Li; Tzeng, Yonhua; Auciello, Orlando

    2012-06-15

    We report on effects of a tungsten layer deposited on silicon surface on the effectiveness for diamond nanoparticles to be seeded for the deposition of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD). Rough tungsten surface and electrostatic forces between nanodiamond seeds and the tungsten surface layer help to improve the adhesion of nanodiamond seeds on the tungsten surface. The seeding density on tungsten coated silicon thus increases. Tungsten carbide is formed by reactions of the tungsten layer with carbon containing plasma species. It provides favorable (001) crystal planes for the nucleation of (111) crystal planes by Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD) in argon diluted methane plasma and further improves the density of diamond seeds/nuclei. UNCD films grown at different gas pressures on tungsten coated silicon which is pre-seeded by nanodiamond along with heteroepitaxially nucleated diamond nuclei were characterized by Raman scattering, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy.

  4. High-pressure generation using double stage micro-paired diamond anvils shaped by focused ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakai, Takeshi Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Yagi, Takehiko; Irifune, Tetsuo; Ohishi, Yasuo; Hirao, Naohisa; Suzuki, Yuya; Kuroda, Yasushi; Asakawa, Takayuki; Kanemura, Takashi

    2015-03-15

    Micron-sized diamond anvils with a 3 ?m culet were successfully processed using a focused ion beam (FIB) system and the generation of high pressures was confirmed using the double stage diamond anvil cell technique. The difficulty of aligning two second-stage micro-anvils was solved via the paired micro-anvil method. Micro-manufacturing using a FIB system enables us to control anvil shape, process any materials, including nano-polycrystalline diamond and single crystal diamond, and assemble the sample exactly in a very small space between the second-stage anvils. This method is highly reproducible. High pressures over 300 GPa were achieved, and the pressure distribution around the micro-anvil culet was evaluated by using a well-focused synchrotron micro-X-ray beam.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED DRILL COMPONENTS FOR BHA USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY INCORPORATING CARBIDE, DIAMOND COMPOSITES AND FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinesh Agrawal; Rustum Roy

    2003-01-01

    The microwave processing of materials is a new emerging technology with many attractive advantages over the conventional methods. The advantages of microwave technology for various ceramic systems has already been demonstrated and proven. The recent developments at Penn State have succeeded in applying the microwave technology for the commercialization of WC/Co and diamond based cutting and drilling tools, effectively sintering of metallic materials, and fabrication of transparent ceramics for advanced applications. In recent years, the Microwave Processing and Engineering Center at Penn State University in collaboration with our industrial partner, Dennis Tool Co. has succeeded in commercializing the developed microwave technology partially funded by DOE for WC/Co and diamond based cutting and drilling tools for gas and oil exploration operations. In this program we have further developed this technology to make diamond-carbide composites and metal-carbide-diamond functionally graded materials. Several actual product of diamond-carbide composites have been processed in microwave with better performance than the conventional product. The functionally graded composites with diamond as one of the components has been for the first time successfully developed. These are the highlights of the project.

  6. Rotating black hole thermodynamics with a particle probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon

    2011-10-15

    The thermodynamics of Myers-Perry black holes in general dimensions are studied using a particle probe. When undergoing particle absorption, the changes of the entropy and irreducible mass are shown to be dependent on the particle radial momentum. The black hole thermodynamic behaviors are dependent on dimensionality for specific rotations. For a 4-dimensional Kerr black hole, its black hole properties are maintained for any particle absorption. 5-dimensional black holes can avoid a naked ring singularity by absorbing a particle in specific momenta ranges. Black holes over 6 dimensions become ultraspinning black holes through a specific form of particle absorption. The microscopical changes are interpreted in limited cases of Myers-Perry black holes using Kerr/CFT correspondence. We systematically describe the black hole properties changed by particle absorption in all dimensions.

  7. T-534: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry Attachment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PROBLEM: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry Attachment Service for the BlackBerry Enterprise Server. PLATFORM: * BlackBerry Enterprise Server Express version...

  8. Nucleation of diamond by pure carbon ion bombardment--a transmission electron microscopy study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, Y.; Liao, M.Y.; Wang, Z.G.; Lifshitz, Y.; Lee, S.

    2005-08-08

    A cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) study of a film deposited by a 1 keV mass-selected carbon ion beam onto silicon held at 800 deg. C is presented. Initially, a graphitic film with its basal planes perpendicular to the substrate is evolving. The precipitation of nanodiamond crystallites in upper layers is confirmed by HRTEM, selected area electron diffraction, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The nucleation of diamond on graphitic edges as predicted by Lambrecht et al. [W. R. L. Lambrecht, C. H. Lee, B. Segall, J. C. Angus, Z. Li, and M. Sunkara, Nature, 364 607 (1993)] is experimentally confirmed. The results are discussed in terms of our recent subplantation-based diamond nucleation model.

  9. Low-temperature electrical transport in B-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Lin; Zhao, Jing; Hu, Zhaosheng; Quan, Baogang; Li, Junjie Gu, Changzhi

    2014-05-05

    B-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films are grown using hot-filament chemical vapor deposition method, and their electrical transport properties varying with temperature are investigated. When the B-doped concentration of UNCD film is low, a step-like increase feature of the resistance is observed with decreasing temperature, reflecting at least three temperature-modified electronic state densities at the Fermi level according to three-dimensional Mott's variable range hopping transport mechanism, which is very different from that of reported B-doped nanodiamond. With increasing B-doped concentration, a superconductive transformation occurs in the UNCD film and the highest transformation temperature of 5.3?K is observed, which is higher than that reported for superconducting nanodiamond films. In addition, the superconducting coherence length is about 0.63?nm, which breaks a reported theoretical and experimental prediction about ultra-nanoscale diamond's superconductivity.

  10. Efficient graphite ring heater suitable for diamond-anvil cells to 1300 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du Zhixue; Amulele, George; Lee, Kanani K. M.; Miyagi, Lowell

    2013-02-15

    In order to generate homogeneous high temperatures at high pressures, a ring-shaped graphite heater has been developed to resistively heat diamond-anvil cell (DAC) samples up to 1300 K. By putting the heater in direct contact with the diamond anvils, this graphite heater design features the following advantages: (1) efficient heating: sample can be heated to 1300 K while the DAC body temperature remains less than 800 K, eliminating the requirement of a special alloy for the DAC; (2) compact design: the sample can be analyzed with in situ measurements, e.g., x-ray, optical, and electrical probes are possible. In particular, the side access of the heater allows for radial x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in addition to traditional axial XRD.

  11. The Best of Both Worlds: Bulk Diamond Properties Realized at the Nanoscale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource The Best of Both Worlds: Bulk Diamond Properties Realized at the Nanoscale Friday, August 9, 2013 - 10:30am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Abraham Wolcott, Department of Chemistry, Columbia University High-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) nanodiamonds with nitrogen vacancy centers represent a unique class of fluorophores due to their long-lived electron spin properties, all-carbon matrix, and long-term photostability. While this class

  12. Demonstration of a high heat removal CVD diamond substrate edge-cooled multichip module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, D.W.; Sweet, J.N.; Andaleon, D.D.; Renzi, R.F.; Johnson, D.R.

    1994-05-01

    A single substrate intended for a 3-dimensional (3D) edge-cooled multichip module (MCM) has been built and thermally tested. The substrate, with dimensions 1.9 in. by 2 in., is mounted in a fluid cooled block at one end. To test this cooling architecture and verify the accuracy of thermal models, the authors constructed thermal test modules using alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), aluminum nitride (AlN), and CVD diamond substrate materials. Each module was populated with an array of 16 Sandia ATC03 test chips with resistive heaters and temperature sensing diode thermometers. Comparative measurements of the 3 substrates were made in which the top row of 4 die were heated at 5 W each for a total of 20 W. The maximum temperature differences between the heated die and the interface with the cold chuck, {delta}T{sub js}, were 24, 126, and 265{degrees}C for diamond, AIN and alumina, respectively. Measurements on the diamond thermal test module, uniformly heated at a total power of 40 W, gave a measured junction-to-sink temperature of {delta}T{sub js} = 18{degrees}C. This result indicates that the diamond edge-cooled substrate could dissipate a total power {approximately}200 W for a maximum {delta}T{sub js} {approximately}100{degrees}C. If multiple substrates were mounted in the fluid cooled block, spaced 0.075 in. apart, the volumetric power density would be about 880 W/in.

  13. Laser generation and detection of longitudinal and shear acoustic waves in a diamond anvil cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chigarev, Nikolay; Zinin, Pavel; Ming Lichung; Amulele, George; Bulou, Alain; Gusev, Vitalyi

    2008-11-03

    Laser ultrasonics in a point-source-point-receiver configuration is applied for the evaluation of elastic properties of nontransparent materials in a diamond anvil cell at high pressures. Measurement of both longitudinal and shear acoustic wave velocities in an iron foil at pressures up to 23 GPa does not require any information in addition to the one obtained by all-optical pump-probe technique.

  14. New Superhard Form of Carbon Dents Diamond | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    (SC) New Superhard Form of Carbon Dents Diamond Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) ASCR Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of ASCR Funding Opportunities Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) Community Resources Contact Information Advanced Scientific Computing Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-21/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-7486 F: (301) 903-4846 E: Email Us More Information »

  15. New Superhard Form of Carbon Dents Diamond | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    (SC) New Superhard Form of Carbon Dents Diamond Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 08.01.12 New Superhard Form of Carbon Dents

  16. Diamond Amplified Photocathode at BNL | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Diamond Amplified Photocathode at BNL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Small Business Innovation / Technology Transfer Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301)

  17. US Synthetic Corp (TRL 4 Component)- The Development of Open, Water Lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond Thrust Bearings for use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    US Synthetic Corp (TRL 4 Component) - The Development of Open, Water Lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond Thrust Bearings for use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines

  18. Ferromagnetic ordering of Cr and Fe doped p-type diamond: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benecha, E. M.; Lombardi, E. B.

    2014-02-21

    Ferromagnetic ordering of transition metal dopants in semiconductors holds the prospect of combining the capabilities of semiconductors and magnetic systems in single hybrid devices for spintronic applications. Various semiconductors have so far been considered for spintronic applications, but low Curie temperatures have hindered room temperature applications. We report ab initio DFT calculations on the stability and magnetic properties of Fe and Cr impurities in diamond, and show that their ground state magnetic ordering and stabilization energies depend strongly on the charge state and type of co-doping. We predict that divacancy Cr{sup +2} and substitutional Fe{sup +1} order ferromagnetically in p-type diamond, with magnetic stabilization energies (and magnetic moment per impurity ion) of 16.9 meV (2.5 μ{sub B}) and 33.3 meV (1.0 μ{sub B}), respectively. These magnetic stabilization energies are much larger than what has been achieved in other semiconductors at comparable impurity concentrations, including the archetypal dilute magnetic semiconductor GaAs:Mn. In addition, substitutional Fe{sup +1} exhibits a strong half-metallic character, with the Fermi level crossing bands in only the spin down channel. These results, combined with diamond’s extreme properties, demonstrate that Cr or Fe dopedp-type diamond may successfully be considered in the search for room temperature spintronic materials.

  19. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated rapidly by laser-generated ion beams

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Vold, E. L.; Cordoba, M. A. Santiago; Hamilton, C. E.; Fernández, J. C.

    2015-09-22

    With the development of several novel heating sources, scientists can now heat a small sample isochorically above 10,000 K. Although matter at such an extreme state, known as warm dense matter, is commonly found in astrophysics (e.g., in planetary cores) as well as in high energy density physics experiments, its properties are not well understood and are difficult to predict theoretically. This is because the approximations made to describe condensed matter or high-temperature plasmas are invalid in this intermediate regime. A sufficiently large warm dense matter sample that is uniformly heated would be ideal for these studies, but has beenmore » unavailable to date. We have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils uniformly and isochorically. For the first time, we visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperature of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics.« less

  20. Rotating black lens solution in five dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Yu; Teo, Edward

    2008-09-15

    It has recently been shown that a stationary, asymptotically flat vacuum black hole in five space-time dimensions with two commuting axial symmetries must have an event horizon with either a spherical, ring or lens-space topology. In this paper, we study the third possibility, a so-called black lens with L(n,1) horizon topology. Using the inverse scattering method, we construct a black-lens solution with the simplest possible rod structure, and possessing a single asymptotic angular momentum. Its properties are then analyzed; in particular, it is shown that there must either be a conical singularity or a naked curvature singularity present in the space-time.

  1. Direct observation of electron emission from the grain boundaries of chemical vapour deposition diamond films by tunneling atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Vijay; Harniman, Robert; May, Paul W.; Barhai, P. K.

    2014-04-28

    The emission of electrons from diamond in vacuum occurs readily as a result of the negative electron affinity of the hydrogenated surface due to features with nanoscale dimensions, which can concentrate electric fields high enough to induce electron emission from them. Electrons can be emitted as a result of an applied electric field (field emission) with possible uses in displays or cold-cathode devices. Alternatively, electrons can be emitted simply by heating the diamond in vacuum to temperatures as low as 350?C (thermionic emission), and this may find applications in solar energy generation or energy harvesting devices. Electron emission studies usually use doped polycrystalline diamond films deposited onto Si or metallic substrates by chemical vapor deposition, and these films have a rough, faceted morphology on the micron or nanometer scale. Electron emission is often improved by patterning the diamond surface into sharp points or needles, the idea being that the field lines concentrate at the points lowering the barrier for electron emission. However, there is little direct evidence that electrons are emitted from these sharp tips. The few reports in the literature that have studied the emission sites suggested that emission came from the grain boundaries and not the protruding regions. We now present direct observation of the emission sites over a large area of polycrystalline diamond using tunneling atomic force microscopy. We confirm that the emission current comes mostly from the grain boundaries, which is consistent with a model for emission in which the non-diamond phase is the source of electrons with a threshold that is determined by the surrounding hydrogenated diamond surface.

  2. Black River Farm Solar Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Project Facility Black River Farm Solar Project Sector Solar Facility Type Fixed Tilt Ground-Mount & Roof-Mount Owner EnXco Developer EnXco Energy Purchaser Black River Farm...

  3. In Celebration of Black History Month, Energy Secretary Moniz...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In Celebration of Black History Month, Energy Secretary Moniz and Director of the National Museum of African Art Dr. Cole Discuss the Art of Science In Celebration of Black History ...

  4. Gravitational waves found, black-hole models led the way

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gravitational waves found, black-hole models led the way Gravitational waves found, black-hole models led the way Gravitational waves were predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity in 1916, and now, almost exactly 100 years later, the faint ripples across space-time have been found. February 11, 2016 A simulation of two merging black holes, creating gravitational waves. Photo courtesy of LIGO. A simulation of two merging black holes, creating gravitational waves. Photo courtesy of

  5. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Black & Veatch | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Black & Veatch Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Black & Veatch Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Black & Veatch Black & Veatch is an independent engineering, consulting, and construction firm working in water, energy and telecommunications. The company supported the design and construction of the world's largest DC fast charging network in North America with its experience with utility and distributed generation systems. The company has made plug-in electric vehicle

  6. Bubbling supertubes and foaming black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bena, Iosif; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2006-09-15

    We construct smooth BPS three-charge geometries that resolve the zero-entropy singularity of the U(1)xU(1) invariant black ring. This singularity is resolved by a geometric transition that results in geometries without any branes sources or singularities but with nontrivial topology. These geometries are both ground states of the black ring, and nontrivial microstates of the D1-D5-P system. We also find the form of the geometries that result from the geometric transition of N zero-entropy black rings, and argue that, in general, such geometries give a very large number of smooth bound-state three-charge solutions, parametrized by 6N functions. The generic microstate solution is specified by a four-dimensional hyper-Kaehler geometry of a certain signature, and contains a 'foam' of nontrivial two-spheres. We conjecture that these geometries will account for a significant part of the entropy of the D1-D5-P black hole, and that Mathur's conjecture might reduce to counting certain hyper-Kaehler manifolds.

  7. T-534: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry Attachment Service for the BlackBerry Enterprise Server

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BlackBerry advisory describes a security issue that the BlackBerry Attachment Service component of the BlackBerry Enterprise Server is susceptible to. The issue relates to a known vulnerability in the PDF distiller component of the BlackBerry Attachment Service that affects how the BlackBerry Attachment Service processes PDF files.

  8. Trumpet-puncture initial data for black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Immerman, Jason D.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.

    2009-09-15

    We propose a new approach, based on the puncture method, to construct black hole initial data in the so-called trumpet geometry, i.e. on slices that asymptote to a limiting surface of nonzero areal radius. Our approach is easy to implement numerically and, at least for nonspinning black holes, does not require any internal boundary conditions. We present numerical results, obtained with a uniform-grid finite-difference code, for boosted black holes and binary black holes. We also comment on generalizations of this method for spinning black holes.

  9. Electron emission and defect formation in the interaction of slow,highly charged ions with diamond surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Shrivastava, S.; Rebuli, D.B.; Persaud, A.; Schneider, D.H.; Schenkel, T.

    2006-05-31

    We report on electron emission and defect formation in theinteraction between slow (v~;0.3 vBohr) highly charged ions (SHCI) withinsulating (type IIa) and semiconducting (type IIb) diamonds. Electronemission induced by 31Pq+ (q=5 to 13), and 136Xeq+ (q=34 to 44) withkinetic energies of 9 kVxq increase linearly with the ion charge states,reaching over 100 electrons per ion for high xenon charge states withoutsurface passivation of the diamond with hydrogen. Yields from bothdiamond types are up to a factor of two higher then from reference metalsurfaces. Crater like defects with diameters of 25 to 40 nm are formed bythe impact of single Xe44+ ions. High secondary electron yields andsingle ion induced defects enable the formation of single dopant arrayson diamond surfaces.

  10. Recursive polarization of nuclear spins in diamond at arbitrary magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pagliero, Daniela; Laraoui, Abdelghani; Henshaw, Jacob D.; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2014-12-15

    We introduce an alternate route to dynamically polarize the nuclear spin host of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. Our approach articulates optical, microwave, and radio-frequency pulses to recursively transfer spin polarization from the NV electronic spin. Using two complementary variants of the same underlying principle, we demonstrate nitrogen nuclear spin initialization approaching 80% at room temperature both in ensemble and single NV centers. Unlike existing schemes, our approach does not rely on level anti-crossings and is thus applicable at arbitrary magnetic fields. This versatility should prove useful in applications ranging from nanoscale metrology to sensitivity-enhanced NMR.

  11. Fabrication of triangular nanobeam waveguide networks in bulk diamond using single-crystal silicon hard masks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayn, I.; Mouradian, S.; Li, L.; Goldstein, J. A.; Schrder, T.; Zheng, J.; Chen, E. H.; Gaathon, O.; Englund, Dirk; Lu, M.; Stein, A.; Ruggiero, C. A.; Salzman, J.; Kalish, R.

    2014-11-24

    A scalable approach for integrated photonic networks in single-crystal diamond using triangular etching of bulk samples is presented. We describe designs of high quality factor (Q?=?2.51??10{sup 6}) photonic crystal cavities with low mode volume (V{sub m}?=?1.062??(?/n){sup 3}), which are connected via waveguides supported by suspension structures with predicted transmission loss of only 0.05?dB. We demonstrate the fabrication of these structures using transferred single-crystal silicon hard masks and angular dry etching, yielding photonic crystal cavities in the visible spectrum with measured quality factors in excess of Q?=?3??10{sup 3}.

  12. Cleaning of diamond nanoindentation probes with oxygen plasma and carbon dioxide snow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Dylan J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, 100 Bureau Drive, Mail Stop 8520, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8520 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Diamond nanoindentation probes may perform thousands of indentations over years of service life. There is a broad agreement that the probes need frequent cleaning, but techniques for doing so are mostly anecdotes shared between experimentalists. In preparation for the measurement of the shape of a nanoindentation probe by a scanning probe microscope, cleaning by carbon dioxide snow jets and oxygen plasma was investigated. Repeated indentation on a thumbprint-contaminated surface formed a compound that was very resistant to removal by solvents, CO{sub 2} snow, and plasma. CO{sub 2} snow cleaning is found to be a generally effective cleaning procedure.

  13. Pretreatment process for forming a smooth surface diamond film on a carbon-coated substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Z.; Brewer, M.; Brown, I.; Komvopoulos, K.

    1994-05-03

    A process is disclosed for the pretreatment of a carbon-coated substrate to provide a uniform high density of nucleation sites thereon for the subsequent deposition of a continuous diamond film without the application of a bias voltage to the substrate. The process comprises exposing the carbon-coated substrate, in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system, to a mixture of hydrogen-methane gases, having a methane gas concentration of at least about 4% (as measured by partial pressure), while maintaining the substrate at a pressure of about 10 to about 30 Torr during the pretreatment. 6 figures.

  14. Pretreatment process for forming a smooth surface diamond film on a carbon-coated substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Zhu (Albany, CA); Brewer, Marilee (Goleta, CA); Brown, Ian (Berkeley, CA); Komvopoulos, Kyriakos (Orinda, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the pretreatment of a carbon-coated substrate to provide a uniform high density of nucleation sites thereon for the subsequent deposition of a continuous diamond film without the application of a bias voltage to the substrate. The process comprises exposing the carbon-coated substrate, in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system, to a mixture of hydrogen-methane gases, having a methane gas concentration of at least about 4% (as measured by partial pressure), while maintaining the substrate at a pressure of about 10 to about 30 Torr during the pretreatment.

  15. Possible Diamond-Like Nanoscale Structures Induced by Slow Highly-Charged Ions on Graphite (HOPG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Schenkel, T.; Shrivastava, S.; Makgato, T.; Batra, A.; Weis, C. D.; Persaud, A.; Erasmus, R.; Mwakikunga, B.

    2009-01-06

    The interaction between slow highly-charged ions (SHCI) of different charge states from an electron-beam ion trap and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces is studied in terms of modification of electronic states at single-ion impact nanosizeareas. Results are presented from AFM/STM analysis of the induced-surface topological features combined with Raman spectroscopy. I-V characteristics for a number of different impact regions were measured with STM and the results argue for possible formation of diamond-like nanoscale structures at the impact sites.

  16. Addressing a single spin in diamond with a macroscopic dielectric microwave cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Floch, J.-M.; Tobar, M. E.; Bradac, C.; Nand, N.; Volz, T.; Castelletto, S.

    2014-09-29

    We present a technique for addressing single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center spins in diamond over macroscopic distances using a tunable dielectric microwave cavity. We demonstrate optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) for a single negatively charged NV center (NV{sup }) in a nanodiamond (ND) located directly under the macroscopic microwave cavity. By moving the cavity relative to the ND, we record the ODMR signal as a function of position, mapping out the distribution of the cavity magnetic field along one axis. In addition, we argue that our system could be used to determine the orientation of the NV{sup } major axis in a straightforward manner.

  17. Ramp Compression of Diamond at 5 TPa (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    at 5 TPa Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ramp Compression of Diamond at 5 TPa Authors: Smith, R F ; Eggert, J H ; Jeanloz, R ; Duffy, T S ; Braun, D G ; Patterson, J R ; Rudd, R E ; Biener, J ; Lazicki, A E ; Hamza, A V ; Wang, J ; Braun, T ; Benedict, L X ; Celliers, P M ; Collins, G W Publication Date: 2014-03-13 OSTI Identifier: 1169258 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-651775 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Nature,

  18. Ramp Compression of Diamond to 5 TPa: Experiments Taking Carbon to the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thomas-Fermi-Dirac Regime (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect to 5 TPa: Experiments Taking Carbon to the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac Regime Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ramp Compression of Diamond to 5 TPa: Experiments Taking Carbon to the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac Regime Authors: Smith, R F ; Eggert, J H ; Jeanloz, R ; Duffy, T S ; Braun, D G ; Patterson, J R ; Rudd, R E ; Biener, J ; Lazicki, A E ; Hamza, A V ; Wang, J ; Braun, T ; Benedict, L X ; Celliers, P M ; Collins, G W Publication

  19. Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J.R.; Tracy, C.E.; King, D.E.; Stanley, J.T.

    1994-09-13

    An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp[sup 3]-bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprises: (a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H[sub 2] reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and (b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm[sup 2] through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750 C to about 950 C to activate deposition of the film on said substrate. 11 figs.

  20. Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Stanley, James T. (Beaverton, OR)

    1994-01-01

    An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp.sup.3 -bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprising: a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H.sub.2 reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm.sup.2 through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. to activate deposition of the film on said substrate.

  1. Chip-Scale Nanofabrication of Single Spins and Spin Arrays in Diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toyli, David M.; Weis, Christoph D.; Fuchs, D.; Schenkel, Thomas; Awschalom, David D.

    2010-07-02

    We demonstrate a technique to nanofabricate nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond based on broad-beam nitrogen implantation through apertures in electron beam lithography resist. This method enables high-throughput nanofabrication of single NV centers on sub-100-nm length scales. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements facilitate depth profiling of the implanted nitrogen to provide three-dimensional characterization of the NV center spatial distribution. Measurements of NV center coherence with on-chip coplanar waveguides suggest a pathway for incorporating this scalable nanofabrication technique in future quantum applications.

  2. Stability of B-H and B-D complexes in diamond under electron beam excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barjon, J.; Mehdaoui, A.; Jomard, F.; Chevallier, J.; Mer, C.; Nesladek, M.; Bergonzo, P.; Pernot, J.; Omnes, F.; Deneuville, A.

    2008-08-11

    The substitution of hydrogen by deuterium is generally known to increase the stability of the defect passivation in semiconductors, occasionally giving rise to giant isotope effects. In this work, the stability under an electron beam irradiation of boron-hydrogen and boron-deuterium pairs in diamond are compared. The dissociation kinetics was followed in situ by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. Surprisingly, B-H complexes are more stable than B-D complexes under electron beam at low temperature ({approx}100 K), with a dissociation rate about twice smaller. These experimental results are coherent with a dissociation mechanism involving a cumulative vibrational excitation of the complexes.

  3. Stabilizing shallow color centers in diamond created by nitrogen delta-doping using SF{sub 6} plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osterkamp, Christian; Lang, Johannes; Scharpf, Jochen; Mller, Christoph; McGuinness, Liam Paul; Naydenov, Boris Jelezko, Fedor; Diemant, Thomas; Behm, R. Jrgen

    2015-03-16

    Here we report the fabrication of stable, shallow (<5?nm) nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond by nitrogen delta doping at the last stage of the chemical vapor deposition growth process. The NVs are stabilized after treating the diamond in SF{sub 6} plasma, otherwise the color centers are not observed, suggesting a strong influence from the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show the presence of only fluorine atoms on the surface, in contrast to previous studies, indicating very good surface coverage. We managed to detect hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance signal from protons in the immersion oil, revealing a depth of the NVs of about 5?nm.

  4. An ultra-thin diamond membrane as a transmission particle detector and vacuum window for external microbeams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Jaki?, M.; Pomorski, M.; Kada, W.; Iwamoto, N.; Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T.

    2013-12-09

    Several applications of external microbeam techniques demand a very accurate and controlled dose delivery. To satisfy these requirements when post-sample ion detection is not feasible, we constructed a transmission single-ion detector based on an ultra-thin diamond membrane. The negligible intrinsic noise provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and enables a hit-detection efficiency of close to 100%, even for energetic protons, while the small thickness of the membrane limits beam spreading. Moreover, because of the superb mechanical stiffness of diamond, this membrane can simultaneously serve as a vacuum window and allow the extraction of an ion microbeam into the atmosphere.

  5. Astrophysical black holes in screened modified gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul; Muir, Jessica; Gregory, Ruth E-mail: r.a.w.gregory@durham.ac.uk E-mail: jlmuir@umich.edu

    2014-08-01

    Chameleon, environmentally dependent dilaton, and symmetron gravity are three models of modified gravity in which the effects of the additional scalar degree of freedom are screened in dense environments. They have been extensively studied in laboratory, cosmological, and astrophysical contexts. In this paper, we present a preliminary investigation into whether additional constraints can be provided by studying these scalar fields around black holes. By looking at the properties of a static, spherically symmetric black hole, we find that the presence of a non-uniform matter distribution induces a non-constant scalar profile in chameleon and dilaton, but not necessarily symmetron gravity. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effects of these profiles on in-falling test particles will be sub-leading compared to gravitational waves and hence observationally challenging to detect.

  6. Microsoft PowerPoint - 7 Paul Black

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    December 2015 Quality Assurance for Performance Assessment Modeling John Tauxe, Paul Black, Mike Sully, Dan Levitt 2 Performance and Risk Assessment Community of Practice * December 2015 Motivation for QA in PA The overarching motivation for Performance Assessment work is defensible decision making, and that requires: * a defensible basis for modeling, * transparent and intelligible modeling, and * effective communication of modeling approaches and results These are goals shared by the CoP. 3

  7. Kelvin probe characterization of buried graphitic microchannels in single-crystal diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernardi, E. Battiato, A.; Olivero, P.; Vittone, E.; Picollo, F.

    2015-01-14

    In this work, we present an investigation by Kelvin Probe Microscopy (KPM) of buried graphitic microchannels fabricated in single-crystal diamond by direct MeV ion microbeam writing. Metal deposition of variable-thickness masks was adopted to implant channels with emerging endpoints and high temperature annealing was performed in order to induce the graphitization of the highly-damaged buried region. When an electrical current was flowing through the biased buried channel, the structure was clearly evidenced by KPM maps of the electrical potential of the surface region overlying the channel at increasing distances from the grounded electrode. The KPM profiling shows regions of opposite contrast located at different distances from the endpoints of the channel. This effect is attributed to the different electrical conduction properties of the surface and of the buried graphitic layer. The model adopted to interpret these KPM maps and profiles proved to be suitable for the electronic characterization of buried conductive channels, providing a non-invasive method to measure the local resistivity with a micrometer resolution. The results demonstrate the potential of the technique as a powerful diagnostic tool to monitor the functionality of all-carbon graphite/diamond devices to be fabricated by MeV ion beam lithography.

  8. A diamond based neutron spectrometer for diagnostics of deuterium-tritium fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cazzaniga, C., E-mail: carlo.cazzaniga@mib.infn.it; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G. [University of Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, via Roberto Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Rebai, M.; Giacomelli, L. [University of Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano (Italy); Tardocchi, M.; Croci, G.; Grosso, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, via Roberto Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Calvani, P.; Girolami, M.; Trucchi, D. M. [CNR-ISM, Research Area Roma 1, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015-Monterotondo Scalo (Rm) (Italy); Griesmayer, E. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Pillon, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Single crystal Diamond Detectors (SDD) are being increasingly exploited for neutron diagnostics in high power fusion devices, given their significant radiation hardness and high energy resolution capabilities. The geometrical efficiency of SDDs is limited by the size of commercially available crystals, which is often smaller than the dimension of neutron beams along collimated lines of sight in tokamak devices. In this work, we present the design and fabrication of a 14 MeV neutron spectrometer consisting of 12 diamond pixels arranged in a matrix, so to achieve an improved geometrical efficiency. Each pixel is equipped with an independent high voltage supply and read-out electronics optimized to combine high energy resolution and fast signals (<30 ns), which are essential to enable high counting rate (>1 MHz) spectroscopy. The response function of a prototype SDD to 14 MeV neutrons has been measured at the Frascati Neutron Generator by observation of the 8.3 MeV peak from the {sup 12}C(n, ?){sup 9}Be reaction occurring between neutrons and {sup 12}C nuclei in the detector. The measured energy resolution (2.5% FWHM) meets the requirements for neutron spectroscopy applications in deuterium-tritium plasmas.

  9. Grain size dependent mechanical properties of nanocrystalline diamond films grown by hot-filament CVD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiora, M; Bruehne, K; Floeter, A; Gluche, P; Willey, T M; Kucheyev, S O; Van Buuren, A W; Hamza, A V; Biener, J; Fecht, H

    2008-08-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films with a thickness of {approx}6 {micro}m and with average grain sizes ranging from 60 to 9 nm were deposited on silicon wafers using a hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) process. These samples were then characterized with the goal to identify correlations between grain size, chemical composition and mechanical properties. The characterization reveals that our films are phase pure and exhibit a relatively smooth surface morphology. The levels of sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon and hydrogen impurities are low, and showed a systematic variation with the grain size. The hydrogen content increases with decreasing grain size, whereas the sp{sup 2} carbon content decreases with decreasing grain size. The material is weaker than single crystalline diamond, and both stiffness and hardness decrease with decreasing grain size. These trends suggest gradual changes of the nature of the grain boundaries, from graphitic in the case of the 60 nm grain size material to hydrogen terminated sp{sup 3} carbon for the 9 nm grain size material. The films exhibit low levels of internal stress and freestanding structures with a length of several centimeters could be fabricated without noticeable bending.

  10. Optimizing a dynamical decoupling protocol for solid-state electronic spin ensembles in diamond

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Farfurnik, D.; Jarmola, A.; Pham, L. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Dobrovitski, V. V.; Walsworth, R. L.; Budker, D.; Bar-Gill, N.

    2015-08-24

    In this study, we demonstrate significant improvements of the spin coherence time of a dense ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond through optimized dynamical decoupling (DD). Cooling the sample down to 77 K suppresses longitudinal spin relaxation T1 effects and DD microwave pulses are used to increase the transverse coherence time T2 from ~0.7ms up to ~30ms. Furthermore, we extend previous work of single-axis (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill) DD towards the preservation of arbitrary spin states. Following a theoretical and experimental characterization of pulse and detuning errors, we compare the performance of various DD protocols. We also identify that the optimal controlmore » scheme for preserving an arbitrary spin state is a recursive protocol, the concatenated version of the XY8 pulse sequence. The improved spin coherence might have an immediate impact on improvements of the sensitivities of ac magnetometry. Moreover, the protocol can be used on denser diamond samples to increase coherence times up to NV-NV interaction time scales, a major step towards the creation of quantum collective NV spin states.« less

  11. Optimizing a dynamical decoupling protocol for solid-state electronic spin ensembles in diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfurnik, D.; Jarmola, A.; Pham, L. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Dobrovitski, V. V.; Walsworth, R. L.; Budker, D.; Bar-Gill, N.

    2015-08-24

    In this study, we demonstrate significant improvements of the spin coherence time of a dense ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond through optimized dynamical decoupling (DD). Cooling the sample down to 77 K suppresses longitudinal spin relaxation T1 effects and DD microwave pulses are used to increase the transverse coherence time T2 from ~0.7ms up to ~30ms. Furthermore, we extend previous work of single-axis (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill) DD towards the preservation of arbitrary spin states. Following a theoretical and experimental characterization of pulse and detuning errors, we compare the performance of various DD protocols. We also identify that the optimal control scheme for preserving an arbitrary spin state is a recursive protocol, the concatenated version of the XY8 pulse sequence. The improved spin coherence might have an immediate impact on improvements of the sensitivities of ac magnetometry. Moreover, the protocol can be used on denser diamond samples to increase coherence times up to NV-NV interaction time scales, a major step towards the creation of quantum collective NV spin states.

  12. Dosimetry of cone-defined stereotactic radiosurgery fields with a commercial synthetic diamond detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morales, Johnny E.; Crowe, Scott B.; Trapp, J. V.; Hill, Robin; Freeman, Nigel

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Small field x-ray beam dosimetry is difficult due to lack of lateral electronic equilibrium, source occlusion, high dose gradients, and detector volume averaging. Currently, there is no single definitive detector recommended for small field dosimetry. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of a new commercial synthetic diamond detector, namely, the PTW 60019 microDiamond, for the dosimetry of small x-ray fields as used in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: Small field sizes were defined by BrainLAB circular cones (430 mm diameter) on a Novalis Trilogy linear accelerator and using the 6 MV SRS x-ray beam mode for all measurements. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) were measured and compared to an IBA SFD and a PTW 60012 E diode. Cross profiles were measured and compared to an IBA SFD diode. Field factors, ?{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}}, were calculated by Monte Carlo methods using BEAMnrc and correction factors, k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}}, were derived for the PTW 60019 microDiamond detector. Results: For the small fields of 430 mm diameter, there were dose differences in the PDDs of up to 1.5% when compared to an IBA SFD and PTW 60012 E diode detector. For the cross profile measurements the penumbra values varied, depending upon the orientation of the detector. The field factors, ?{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}}, were calculated for these field diameters at a depth of 1.4 cm in water and they were within 2.7% of published values for a similar linear accelerator. The corrections factors, k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}}, were derived for the PTW 60019 microDiamond detector. Conclusions: The authors conclude that the new PTW 60019 microDiamond detector is generally suitable for relative dosimetry in small 6 MV SRS beams for a Novalis Trilogy linear equipped with circular cones.

  13. Does the Use of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating and Organophosphate Lubricant Additive Together Cause Excessive Tribochemical Material Removal?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Yan; Leonard, Donovan N.; Meyer, Harry M.; Luo, Huimin; Qu, Jun

    2015-08-22

    We observe unexpected wear increase on a steel surface that rubbed against diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings only when lubricated by phosphate-based antiwear additives. Contrary to the literature hypothesis of a competition between zinc dialkyldithiophosphate produced tribofilms and DLC-induced carbon transfer, here a new wear mechanism based on carbon-catalyzed tribochemical interactions supported by surface characterization is proposed

  14. The Black Mesa coal/water slurry pipeline system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brolick, H.J.

    1994-12-31

    The Black Mesa Pipeline is a 273 mile (439 km) long, 18-inch (457 mm) coal/water slurry pipeline, originating on the Black Mesa in the Northeastern part of Arizona, USA. The system delivers coal from the Peabody Coal Company`s Black Mesa open pit mine to the Mohave Generating Station which is a 1580 mw steam powered electric generating plant located in Laughlin, Nevada.

  15. Variation of the radiative properties during black carbon aging:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    theoretical and experimental intercomparison (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Variation of the radiative properties during black carbon aging: theoretical and experimental intercomparison Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Variation of the radiative properties during black carbon aging: theoretical and experimental intercomparison A theoretical black carbon (BC) aging model is developed to account for three typical evolution stages, namely, freshly emitted aggregates, coated BC by

  16. Variation of the radiative properties during black carbon aging:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    theoretical and experimental intercomparison (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Variation of the radiative properties during black carbon aging: theoretical and experimental intercomparison Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Variation of the radiative properties during black carbon aging: theoretical and experimental intercomparison A theoretical black carbon (BC) aging model is developed to account for three typical evolution stages, namely, freshly emitted aggregates, BC coated by

  17. Fossil Energy Acting Assistant Secretary Recognized at Black Engineer of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Year Awards | Department of Energy Fossil Energy Acting Assistant Secretary Recognized at Black Engineer of the Year Awards Fossil Energy Acting Assistant Secretary Recognized at Black Engineer of the Year Awards February 19, 2013 - 8:54am Addthis Director Dot Harris presents Chris Smith, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary and Acting Assistant Secretary of Fossil Energy, with a professional achievement award at the Black Engineer of the Year Awards conference this February. Photo

  18. Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    sq ft. Infiltration Control: 70% of installed cost Doors: 25 or 50 Pool Cover: 250 Spa Cover: 50 Summary Black Hills Energy offers commercial and industrial customers...

  19. File:EIA-BlackWarrior-GAS.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    applicationpdf) Description Black Warrior Basin By 2001 Gas Reserve Class Sources Energy Information Administration Authors Samuel H. Limerick; Lucy Luo; Gary Long; David F....

  20. Black Hawk County, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solutions Places in Black Hawk County, Iowa Cedar Falls, Iowa Dunkerton, Iowa Elk Run Heights, Iowa Evansdale, Iowa Gilbertville, Iowa Hudson, Iowa Janesville, Iowa Jesup,...

  1. Black Forest, Colorado: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Black Forest, Colorado: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 39.0130484, -104.7008083 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappi...

  2. Black Hills Energy (Electric)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black Hills Energy also offers the custom rebate program to commercial and industrial customers for projects that reduce energy usage. Eligible projects include chillers, unitary HVAC equipment,...

  3. Variation of the radiative properties during black carbon aging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A theoretical black carbon (BC) aging model is developed to account for three typical evolution stages, namely, freshly emitted aggregates, coated BC by soluble material, and BC ...

  4. Bianchi Attractors: A Classification of Extremal Black Brane...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Classification of Extremal Black Brane Geometries Authors: Iizuka, Norihiro ; CERN ; Kachru, Shamit ; Stanford U., ITP SLAC ; Kundu, Nilay ; Narayan, Prithvi ; Sircar,...

  5. BlackLight Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: BlackLight Power Inc Place: Cranbury, New Jersey Zip: 8512 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Researching a means of producing energy by catalysing the reaction of...

  6. San Juan Montana Thrust Belt WY Thrust Belt Black Warrior

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    San Juan Montana Thrust Belt WY Thrust Belt Black Warrior Paradox - San Juan NW (2) Uinta- Piceance Paradox - San Juan SE (2) Florida Peninsula Appalachian- NY (1) Appalachian...

  7. Paleoecology of the Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 03 NATURAL GAS; 04 OIL SHALES AND TAR SANDS; BLACK SHALES; GEOLOGY; PALEONTOLOGY; KENTUCKY; DEVONIAN PERIOD; FOSSILS; GEOLOGIC HISTORY; BITUMINOUS...

  8. Experimental Evaluation of Beam to Diamond Box Column Connection with Through Plate in Moment Frames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keshavarzi, Farhad; Torabian, Shahabeddin; Imanpour, Ali; Mirghaderi, Rasoul

    2008-07-08

    Moment resisting frames with built up section have very enhanced features due to high bending stiffness and strength characteristics in two principal axes and access to column faces for beam to column easy connections. But due to proper transfer of beam stresses to column faces there were always some specific controvertibly issues that how to make the load transfer through and in plane manner in order to mobilize the forces in column faces. Using diamond column instead of box column provide possibility to mobilize the load transfer mechanism in column faces. This section as a column has considerable benefit such as high plastic to elastic section modulus ratio which is an effective factor for force controlled components. Typical connection has no chance to be applied with diamond column.This paper elucidates the seismic behavior of through-plates moment connections to diamond box columns for use in steel moment resisting frames. This connection has a lot of economical benefits such as no need to horizontal continuity plates and satisfying the weak beam--strong column criteria in the connection region. They might serve as panel zone plates as well. According to high shear demand in panel zone of beam to column joint one should use the doublers plates in order to decrease the shear strength demand in this sensitive part of structure but these plates have no possibility to mobilize the load transfer mechanism in column web and transfer them to column flanges. In this type of connection, column faces have effective role in order to decrease the demands on through plate and they are impressive factors for improving the performance of the connection.Experimental analysis was conducted to elucidate the seismic behavior of this connection. The results of Experimental analysis established the effectiveness of the through plate in mitigating local stress concentrations and forming the plastic hinge zone in the beam away from the beam to column interface. The moment-rotation graphs form sub-assemblage show a desirable seismic performance of this connection.

  9. T-602: BlackBerry Enterprise Server Input Validation Flaw in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    02: BlackBerry Enterprise Server Input Validation Flaw in BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager Permits Cross-Site Scripting Attacks T-602: BlackBerry Enterprise Server Input Validation...

  10. T-579: BlackBerry Device Software Bug in WebKit Lets Remote Users...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    or instant messages. BlackBerry has described a workaround (disabling the use of JavaScript in the BlackBerry Browser) in their advisory. BlackBerry Device storage space...

  11. BLACK HOLE FORAGING: FEEDBACK DRIVES FEEDING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehnen, Walter; King, Andrew, E-mail: wd11@leicester.ac.uk, E-mail: ark@astro.le.ac.uk [Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)] [Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-10

    We suggest a new picture of supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth in galaxy centers. Momentum-driven feedback from an accreting hole gives significant orbital energy, but little angular momentum to the surrounding gas. Once central accretion drops, the feedback weakens and swept-up gas falls back toward the SMBH on near-parabolic orbits. These intersect near the black hole with partially opposed specific angular momenta, causing further infall and ultimately the formation of a small-scale accretion disk. The feeding rates into the disk typically exceed Eddington by factors of a few, growing the hole on the Salpeter timescale and stimulating further feedback. Natural consequences of this picture include (1) the formation and maintenance of a roughly toroidal distribution of obscuring matter near the hole; (2) random orientations of successive accretion disk episodes; (3) the possibility of rapid SMBH growth; (4) tidal disruption of stars and close binaries formed from infalling gas, resulting in visible flares and ejection of hypervelocity stars; (5) super-solar abundances of the matter accreting on to the SMBH; and (6) a lower central dark-matter density, and hence annihilation signal, than adiabatic SMBH growth implies. We also suggest a simple subgrid recipe for implementing this process in numerical simulations.

  12. Imaging shock waves in diamond with both high temporal and spatial resolution at an XFEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schropp, Andreas; Hoppe, Robert; Meier, Vivienne; Patommel, Jens; Seiboth, Frank; Ping, Yuan; Hicks, Damien G.; Beckwith, Martha A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Higginbotham, Andrew; Wark, Justin S.; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob; Galtier, Eric C.; Arnold, Brice; Zastrau, Ulf; Hastings, Jerome B.; Schroer, Christian G.

    2015-06-18

    The advent of hard x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has opened up a variety of scientific opportunities in areas as diverse as atomic physics, plasma physics, nonlinear optics in the x-ray range, and protein crystallography. In this article, we access a new field of science by measuring quantitatively the local bulk properties and dynamics of matter under extreme conditions, in this case by using the short XFEL pulse to image an elastic compression wave in diamond. The elastic wave was initiated by an intense optical laser pulse and was imaged at different delay times after the optical pump pulse using magnified x-ray phase-contrast imaging. The temporal evolution of the shock wave can be monitored, yielding detailed information on shock dynamics, such as the shock velocity, the shock front width, and the local compression of the material. The method provides a quantitative perspective on the state of matter in extreme conditions.

  13. Coherent spin control of a nanocavity-enhanced qubit in diamond

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Luozhou; Lu, Ming; Schroder, Tim; Chen, Edward H.; Walsh, Michael; Bayn, Igal; Goldstein, Jordan; Gaathon, Ophir; Trusheim, Matthew E.; Mower, Jacob; et al

    2015-01-28

    A central aim of quantum information processing is the efficient entanglement of multiple stationary quantum memories via photons. Among solid-state systems, the nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond has emerged as an excellent optically addressable memory with second-scale electron spin coherence times. Recently, quantum entanglement and teleportation have been shown between two nitrogen-vacancy memories, but scaling to larger networks requires more efficient spin-photon interfaces such as optical resonators. Here we report such nitrogen-vacancy nanocavity systems in strong Purcell regime with optical quality factors approaching 10,000 and electron spin coherence times exceeding 200 µs using a silicon hard-mask fabrication process. This spin-photon interfacemore » is integrated with on-chip microwave striplines for coherent spin control, providing an efficient quantum memory for quantum networks.« less

  14. SU-F-BRE-02: Characterization of a New Commercial Single Crystal Diamond Detector in Photon, Electron and Proton Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akino, Y; Das, I

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Diamond detectors even with superior characteristics have become obsolete due to poor design, selection of crystal and cost. Recently, microDiamond using synthetic single crystal diamond detector (SCDD) is commercially available which is characterized in various radiation beams in this study. Methods: The characteristics of a commercial SCDD model 60019 (PTW) to a 6- and 15-MV photon beams, 6- and 20-MeV electron beams, and 208 MeV proton beams were investigated and compared to the pre-characterized detectors: TN31010 (0.125 cm{sup 3}) and TN30006 (pinpoint) ionization chambers (PTW), EDGE detector (Sun Nuclear Corp), and SFD Stereotactic Dosimetry Diode Detector (IBA). The depth-dose and profiles data were collected for various field sizes and depths. The dose linearity and dose rate dependency were also evaluated. To evaluate the effects of the preirradiation, the diamond detector which had not been irradiated on the day was set up in the water tank and the response to 100 MU was measured every 20 s. The temperature dependency was tested for the range of 460 C. Angular dependency was evaluated in water phantom by rotating the SCDD. Results: For all radiation types and field sizes, the depth-dose data of the diamond chamber showed identical curve to those of ionization chambers. The profile of the diamond detector was very similar to those of the Edge and SFD detectors, although the 0.125 cm{sup 3} and pinpoint chambers showed averaging effects in the penumbrae region. The temperature dependency was within 0.7% in the range of 441C. A dose of 900 cGy and 1200 cGy were needed to stabilize the chamber to the level within 0.5% and 0.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The type 60019 SCDD detector showed suitable characteristics for depth-dose and profile measurements for wide range of field sizes. However, at least 1000 cGy of pre-irradiation is needed for accurate measurements.

  15. Gas Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Black...

  16. U-228: BlackBerry Tablet OS Flash Player Multiple Vulnerabilities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addthis PROBLEM: BlackBerry Tablet OS Flash Player Multiple Vulnerabilities PLATFORM: Adobe Flash Player versions included with BlackBerry PlayBook tablet software versions...

  17. Flow Test At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Flow Test At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Black Warrior...

  18. 2-M Probe At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: 2-M Probe At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Black...

  19. Slim Holes At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

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    Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  20. Core Analysis At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Core Analysis At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  1. Growth, microstructure, and field-emission properties of synthesized diamond film on adamantane-coated silicon substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiwari, Rajanish N.; Chang Li

    2010-05-15

    Diamond nucleation on unscratched Si surface is great importance for its growth, and detailed understanding of this process is therefore desired for many applications. The pretreatment of the substrate surface may influence the initial growth period. In this study, diamond films have been synthesized on adamantane-coated crystalline silicon {l_brace}100{r_brace} substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition from a gaseous mixture of methane and hydrogen gases without the application of a bias voltage to the substrates. Prior to adamantane coating, the Si substrates were not pretreated such as abraded/scratched. The substrate temperature was {approx}530 deg. C during diamond deposition. The deposited films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These measurements provide definitive evidence for high-crystalline quality diamond film, which is synthesized on a SiC rather than clean Si substrate. Characterization through atomic force microscope allows establishing fine quality criteria of the film according to the grain size of nanodiamond along with SiC. The diamond films exhibit a low-threshold (55 V/{mu}m) and high current-density (1.6 mA/cm{sup 2}) field-emission (FE) display. The possible mechanism of formation of diamond films and their FE properties have been demonstrated.

  2. Inerfacial Characterization and Residual Stress Analysis in Diamond films on LiNbO3 (Prop. 2004-050)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, Thomas R; Lance, Michael J; Kasichainula, Jagannadham

    2006-01-01

    Diamond films were deposited via microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition on lithium niobate (LN) substrates. Characterization of the interfacial regions formed between diamond films and LN substrates was carried out by several techniques. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to determine the depth profiles of carbon, lithium, niobium, and oxygen in the LN substrate covered with diamond nuclei and in the substrate without nucleation. Results indicate that the diamond nuclei promoted growth of diamond, and in addition, a reduced depth of the lithium deficient zone formed in the LN substrate was observed. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observations corroborated the results obtained by SIMS. Residual stresses determined experimentally by an x-ray method or by the shift in the characteristic diamond peak in Raman spectroscopy were much smaller than the calculated thermal residual stresses. The results further emphasize that the interfacial phases are responsible for relieving the thermal stresses generated during cooling of the layered structure. The thickness of the interfacial region was found to be well below for attenuation of the surface acoustic waves in the gigahertz frequency surface acoustic wave devices.

  3. Charged black holes in generalized teleparallel gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodrigues, M.E.; Houndjo, M.J.S.; Tossa, J.; Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, R. E-mail: sthoundjo@yahoo.fr E-mail: d.momeni@yahoo.com

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we investigate charged static black holes in 4D for generalized teleparallel models of gravity, based on torsion as the geometric object for describing gravity according to the equivalence principle. As a motivated idea, we introduce a set of non-diagonal tetrads and derive the full system of non linear differential equations. We prove that the common Schwarzschild gauge is applicable only when we study linear f(T) case. We reobtain the Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter (or RN-AdS) solution for the linear case of f(T) and perform a parametric cosmological reconstruction for two nonlinear models. We also study in detail a type of the no-go theorem in the framework of this modified teleparallel gravity.

  4. Nonuniform black strings in various dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorkin, Evgeny

    2006-11-15

    The nonuniform black-strings branch, which emerges from the critical Gregory-Laflamme string, is numerically constructed in dimensions 6{<=}D{<=}11 and extended into the strongly nonlinear regime. All the solutions are more massive and less entropic than the marginal string. We find the asymptotic values of the mass, the entropy and other physical variables in the limit of large horizon deformations. By explicit metric comparison we verify that the local geometry around the waist of our most nonuniform solutions is conelike with less than 10% deviation. We find evidence that in this regime the characteristic length scale has a power-law dependence on a parameter along the branch of the solutions, and estimate the critical exponent.

  5. Low temperature synthesis of diamond-based nano-carbon composite materials with high electron field emission properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saravanan, A.; Huang, B. R.; Yeh, C. J.; Leou, K. C.; Lin, I. N.

    2015-06-08

    A diamond-based nano-carbon composite (d/NCC) material, which contains needle-like diamond grains encased with the nano-graphite layers, was synthesized at low substrate temperature via a bias enhanced growth process using CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} plasma. Such a unique granular structure renders the d/NCC material very conductive (??=?714.8?S/cm), along with superior electron field emission (EFE) properties (E{sub 0}?=?4.06?V/?m and J{sub e}?=?3.18?mA/cm{sup 2}) and long lifetime (??=?842?min at 2.41?mA/cm{sup 2}). Moreover, the electrical conductivity and EFE behavior of d/NCC material can be tuned in a wide range that is especially useful for different kind of applications.

  6. A neutral oxygen-vacancy center in diamond: A plausible qubit candidate and its spintronic and electronic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y. G.; Tang, Z. Zhao, X. G.; Cheng, G. D.; Tu, Y.; Cong, W. T.; Zhu, Z. Q.; Chu, J. H.; Peng, W.

    2014-08-04

    Spintronic and electronic properties of a neutral oxygen-vacancy (O-V) center, an isoelectronic defect similar to the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, were studied by combining first-principles calculations and a mean-field theory for spin hyperfine interaction. It is elucidated that the neutral O-V center is stable in the p-type diamond and possesses an S = 1 triplet ground state and four spin-conserved excited states with the spin coherence times in an order of second at T = 0 K. The results indicate that the neutral O-V center is another promising candidate for spin coherent manipulation and qubit operation.

  7. Levitation and collection of diamond fine particles in the rf plasma chamber equipped with a hot filament

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimizu, S.; Shimizu, T.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Jacob, W.

    2011-11-15

    We demonstrate the levitation of diamond fine particles in a H{sub 2} rf plasma chamber equipped with a hot filament and heated electrodes. The levitation conditions should be carefully chosen to compensate the strong thermophoretic forces caused by the filament and the electrodes. This levitation technique with the existence of a hot filament can be applied, e.g., for the efficient growth of diamond layers on seed particles injected and levitated in an rf plasma with reactive gases, e.g., CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}. Additionally, the method for direct capture of levitated particles on a planar substrate was established, which is useful if it is necessary to analyze the particles after the levitation.

  8. Direct observation and mechanism for enhanced field emission sites in platinum ion implanted/post-annealed ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panda, Kalpataru E-mail: phy.kalpa@gmail.com; Inami, Eiichi; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Sankaran, Kamatchi J.; Tai, Nyan Hwa; Lin, I-Nan

    2014-10-20

    Enhanced electron field emission (EFE) properties for ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films upon platinum (Pt) ion implantation and subsequent post-annealing processes is reported, viz., low turn-on field of 4.17?V/?m with high EFE current density of 5.08?mA/cm{sup 2} at an applied field of 7.0?V/?m. Current imaging tunneling spectroscopy (CITS) mode in scanning tunneling spectroscopy directly revealed the increased electron emission sites density for Pt ion implanted/post-annealed UNCD films than the pristine one. The high resolution CITS mapping and local currentvoltage characteristic curves demonstrated that the electrons are dominantly emitted from the diamond grain boundaries and Pt nanoparticles.

  9. Direct first-principles simulation of a high-performance electron emitter: Lithium-oxide-coated diamond surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: yoshi-miyamoto@aist.go.jp; Miyazaki, Takehide [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Takeuchi, Daisuke; Yamasaki, Satoshi [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); JST, ALCA, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2014-09-28

    We examined the field emission properties of lithium(Li)/oxygen(O)-co-terminated diamond (001) surface [C(001)-LiO] through real-time electron dynamics simulation under an applied field. The current emitted from this surface was found to be more than four-fold that emitted by an H-terminated (001) surface, the latter being a typical negative electron affinity system. This high performance is attributed to the Li layer, which bends the potential wall of O-induced electron pockets down in the direction of vacuum, thus facilitating electron emission. Detailed analysis of the emitted electrons and the profile of the self-consistent potential elucidated that the role of O atoms changes from an electron barrier on OH-terminated diamond surfaces to an outlet for electron emission on C(001)-LiO.

  10. Optimisation of NSLS-II Blade X-ray Beam Position Monitors: from Photoemission type to Diamond Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ILINSKI P.

    2012-07-10

    Optimisation of blade type x-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) was performed for NSLS-II undulator IVU20. Blade material, con and #64257;guration and operation principle was analysed in order to improve XBPM performance. Optimisation is based on calculation of the XBPM signal spatial distribution. Along with standard photoemission type XBPM a Diamond Detector Blades (DDB) were analysed as blades for XBPMs. DDB XBPMs can help to overcome drawbacks of the photoemission blade XBPMs.

  11. Core-Shell Diamond as a Support for Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saini, Gaurav; Jensen, David S.; Wiest, Landon A.; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Lee, Milton L.; Shutthanandan, V.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2010-06-01

    We report the formation of core-shell diamond particles for solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) made by layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition. Their synthesis begins with the amine functionalization of microdiamond by its immersion in an aqueous solution of a primary amine-containing polymer (polyallylamine (PAAm)). The amine-terminated microdiamond is then immersed in an aqueous suspension of nanodiamond, which leads to adsorption of the nanodiamond. Alternating (self-limiting) immersions in the solutions of the amine-containing polymer and the suspension of nanodiamond are continued until the desired number of nanodiamond layers is formed around the microdiamond. Finally, the core-shell particles are cross-linked with 1,2,5,6-diepoxycyclooctane or reacted with 1,2-epoxyoctadecane. Layer-by-layer deposition of PAAm and nanodiamond is also studied on planar Si/SiO2 surfaces, which were characterized by SEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Core-shell particles are characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area and pore size measurements. Larger (ca. 50 ?m) core-shell diamond particles have much higher surface areas, and analyte loading capacities in SPE than nonporous solid diamond particles. Smaller (ca. 3 ?m), normal and reversed phase, core-shell diamond particles have been used for HPLC, with 36,300 plates per meter for mesitylene in a separation of benzene and alkyl benzenes on a C18 adsorbent, and 54,800 plates per meter for diazinon in a similar separation of two pesticides.

  12. Varying fine structure 'constant' and charged black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Schiffer, Marcelo

    2009-12-15

    Speculation that the fine-structure constant {alpha} varies in spacetime has a long history. We derive, in 4-D general relativity and in isotropic coordinates, the solution for a charged spherical black hole according to the framework for dynamical {alpha} J. D. Bekenstein, Phys. Rev. D 25, 1527 (1982).. This solution coincides with a previously known one-parameter extension of the dilatonic black hole family. Among the notable properties of varying-{alpha} charged black holes are adherence to a 'no hair' principle, the absence of the inner (Cauchy) horizon of the Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, the nonexistence of precisely extremal black holes, and the appearance of naked singularities in an analytic extension of the relevant metric. The exteriors of almost extremal electrically (magnetically) charged black holes have simple structures which makes their influence on applied magnetic (electric) fields transparent. We rederive the thermodynamic functions of the modified black holes; the otherwise difficult calculation of the electric potential is done by a shortcut. We confirm that variability of {alpha} in the wake of expansion of the universe does not threaten the generalized second law.

  13. Back reaction on a Reissner-Nordstro''m black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bobo; Huang, Chao-guang

    2001-06-15

    The perturbed (''dressed'') metric of the conformally invariant scalar field in a Reissner-Nordstroem (RN) black hole is given by solving the semiclassical Einstein and Maxwell equations according to York's back-reaction approach. Some properties of the ''dressed'' black hole are obtained, such as its ''dressed'' mass, the location of the event horizon, and its surface gravity. It will also be found that the hypersurfaces of r{sub +} and r{sub {minus}} which are the event and Cauchy horizons in the ''naked'' RN black hole, become spacelike in the perturbed geometry.

  14. ARM - Field Campaign - Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsCharacterization of Black Carbon Mixing State ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State 2012.11.01 - 2013.06.14 Lead Scientist : Arthur Sedlacek For data sets, see below. Abstract The objective of the proposed experiments was to characterize the mixing state of black carbon produced in biomass burning using the single particle soot photometer

  15. Safeguards Approaches for Black Box Processes or Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz-Marcano, Helly; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Miller, Erin; Wylie, Joann

    2013-09-25

    The objective of this study is to determine whether a safeguards approach can be developed for black box processes or facilities. These are facilities where a State or operator may limit IAEA access to specific processes or portions of a facility; in other cases, the IAEA may be prohibited access to the entire facility. The determination of whether a black box process or facility is safeguardable is dependent upon the details of the process type, design, and layout; the specific limitations on inspector access; and the restrictions placed upon the design information that can be provided to the IAEA. This analysis identified the necessary conditions for safeguardability of black box processes and facilities.

  16. Paramont's Black Bear No. 4 mine does it right, again

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanda, A.

    2007-07-15

    The Paramont Coal Company Virginia, LLC, a subsidiary of Alpha Natural Resources, recently won the '2007 overall award for excellence in mining and reclamation from the Virginia Division of Mined Land Reclamation and the Virginia Mining Association. Coal People Magazine recently visited Black Bear No. 4 mine where a settling pond was being removed and stream bed placed to drain the area, part of the 451-acre award winning reclamation project. The article recounts discussions with mining engineers about the company's operations with emphasis on the Black Bear No. 4 mine. Black Bear No. 1 mine won five state and national awards last year for conservation and land management practices. 8 photos.

  17. Surface chemistry and bonding configuration of ultrananocrystalline diamond surfaces and their effects on nanotribological properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumant, A. V.; Grierson, D. S.; Carpick, R. W.; Gerbi, J. E.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.

    2007-12-15

    We present a comprehensive study of surface composition and nanotribology for ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) surfaces, including the influence of film nucleation on these properties. We describe a methodology to characterize the underside of the films as revealed by sacrificial etching of the underlying substrate. This enables the study of the morphology and composition resulting from the nucleation and initial growth of the films, as well as the characterization of nanotribological properties which are relevant for applications including micro-/nanoelectromechanical systems. We study the surface chemistry, bonding configuration, and nanotribological properties of both the topside and the underside of the film with synchrotron-based x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy to identify the bonding state of the carbon atoms, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the surface chemical composition, Auger electron spectroscopy to further verify the composition and bonding configuration, and quantitative atomic force microscopy to study the nanoscale topography and nanotribological properties. The films were grown on SiO{sub 2} after mechanically polishing the surface with detonation synthesized nanodiamond powder, followed by ultrasonication in a methanol solution containing additional nanodiamond powder. The sp{sup 2} fraction, morphology, and chemistry of the as-etched underside are distinct from the topside, exhibiting a higher sp{sup 2} fraction, some oxidized carbon, and a smoother morphology. The nanoscale single-asperity work of adhesion between a diamond nanotip and the as-etched UNCD underside is far lower than for a silicon-silicon interface (59.2{+-}2 vs 826{+-}186 mJ/m{sup 2}, respectively). Exposure to atomic hydrogen dramatically reduces nanoscale adhesion to 10.2{+-}0.4 mJ/m{sup 2}, at the level of van der Waals' interactions and consistent with recent ab initio calculations. Friction is substantially reduced as well, demonstrating a direct link between the surface chemistry and nanoscale friction. The proposed mechanism, supported by the detailed surface spectroscopic analysis, is the elimination of reactive (e.g., C*-), polar (e.g., C=O), and {pi}-bonded (C=C) surface groups, which are replaced by fully saturated, hydrogen-terminated surface bonds to produce an inert surface that interacts minimally with the contacting counterface.

  18. Surface chemistry and bonding configuration of ultrananocrystalline diamond surfaces and their effects on nanotribological properties.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumant, A. V.; Grierson, D. S.; Gerbi, J. E.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Carpick, R. W.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison

    2007-12-01

    We present a comprehensive study of surface composition and nanotribology for ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) surfaces, including the influence of film nucleation on these properties. We describe a methodology to characterize the underside of the films as revealed by sacrificial etching of the underlying substrate. This enables the study of the morphology and composition resulting from the nucleation and initial growth of the films, as well as the characterization of nanotribological properties which are relevant for applications including micro-/nanoelectromechanical systems. We study the surface chemistry, bonding configuration, and nanotribological properties of both the topside and the underside of the film with synchrotron-based x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy to identify the bonding state of the carbon atoms, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the surface chemical composition, Auger electron spectroscopy to further verify the composition and bonding configuration, and quantitative atomic force microscopy to study the nanoscale topography and nanotribological properties. The films were grown on SiO{sub 2} after mechanically polishing the surface with detonation synthesized nanodiamond powder, followed by ultrasonication in a methanol solution containing additional nanodiamond powder. The sp{sup 2} fraction, morphology, and chemistry of the as-etched underside are distinct from the topside, exhibiting a higher sp{sup 2} fraction, some oxidized carbon, and a smoother morphology. The nanoscale single-asperity work of adhesion between a diamond nanotip and the as-etched UNCD underside is far lower than for a silicon-silicon interface (59.2 {+-} 2 vs 826 {+-} 186 mJ/m{sup 2}, respectively). Exposure to atomic hydrogen dramatically reduces nanoscale adhesion to 10.2 {+-} 0.4 mJ/m{sup 2}, at the level of van der Waals interactions and consistent with recent ab initio calculations. Friction is substantially reduced as well, demonstrating a direct link between the surface chemistry and nanoscale friction. The proposed mechanism, supported by the detailed surface spectroscopic analysis, is the elimination of reactive (e.g., C*-), polar (e.g., C-O), and {pi}-bonded (C-C) surface groups, which are replaced by fully saturated, hydrogen-terminated surface bonds to produce an inert surface that interacts minimally with the contacting counterface.

  19. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fourth meeting held July 28--30, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emerson, D. B.; Whitworth, B. A.

    1987-10-01

    Research programs, presented at the black liquor review meeting are described. Research topics include the following: Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery; Black Liquor Physical Properties; Viscosity of Strong Black Liquor; Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor; Molecular Weight Distribution of Kraft Lignin; Black Liquor Droplet Formation Project; Fundamental Studies of Black Liquor Combustion; Black Liquor Combustion Sensors; Flash X-ray Imagining of Black Liquor Sprays; Laser Induced Fluorescence For Process Control In The Pulp and Paper Industry; Recovery Boiler Optimization; Black Liquor Gasification and Use of the Products in Combined-Cycle Cogeneration; Black Liquor Steam Plasma Automization; The B and W Pyrosonic 2000R System; Monsteras Boiler Control System; and Cooperative Program Project Reviews. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  20. Black hole evaporation in a noncommutative charged Vaidya model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharif, M. Javed, W.

    2012-06-15

    We study the black hole evaporation and Hawking radiation for a noncommutative charged Vaidya black hole. For this purpose, we determine a spherically symmetric charged Vaidya model and then formulate a noncommutative Reissner-Nordstroem-like solution of this model, which leads to an exact (t - r)-dependent metric. The behavior of the temporal component of this metric and the corresponding Hawking temperature are investigated. The results are shown in the form of graphs. Further, we examine the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon. We find that the tunneling amplitude is modified due to noncommutativity. Also, it turns out that the black hole evaporates completely in the limits of large time and horizon radius. The effect of charge is to reduce the temperature from a maximum value to zero. We note that the final stage of black hole evaporation is a naked singularity.

  1. Black Hills Energy (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    70% of cost Duct Repair and Sealing: 70% of cost Doors: 25 Summary Black Hills Energy (BHE) offers a variety of rebates for residential Colorado customers who purchase and...

  2. The Role of Circulation Features on Black Carbon Transport into...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Role of Circulation Features on Black Carbon Transport into the Arctic in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Role of ...

  3. MLK Day/Black History Month DOE Celebration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join us as the Department honors both Dr. King and Black History Month with a dialogue on the history of civil rights for all. Secretary Ernest Moniz will open our program.

  4. WBA-15-0009- In the Matter of Sandra Black

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On December 31, 2015, OHA denied an Appeal involving a Complaint filed by Sandra Black against Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC (SRNS) under the DOE’s Contractor Employee Protection Program,...

  5. Choice of an equivalent black body solar temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parrott, J.E. )

    1993-09-01

    In the course of modeling the performance of photovoltaic solar cells for space use, it became desirable to set up a black body spectrum equivalent to the standard Air Mass Zero (AMO) solar spectrum. A method of calculating the equivalent black body solar surface temperature, based on irradiance and photon number flux derived from the AMO spectrum, is presented. It does not require knowledge of the angle subtended by the sun at the earth's surface. The value obtained is 5730 +/- 90 K.

  6. Savannah River National Laboratory Meets with Historically Black Colleges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Universities | Department of Energy Savannah River National Laboratory Meets with Historically Black Colleges and Universities Savannah River National Laboratory Meets with Historically Black Colleges and Universities February 1, 2013 - 9:00am Addthis South Carolina State University students William Dumpson, left, and Alejandra Chirino, center, talk with Savannah River National Laboratory Director Dr. Terry Michalske at a recent research exchange involving the laboratory and seven

  7. Effective theories and black hole production in warped compactifications

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Effective theories and black hole production in warped compactifications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effective theories and black hole production in warped compactifications We investigate aspects of the four-dimensional (4D) effective description of brane world scenarios based on warped compactification on anti-de Sitter space. The low-energy dynamics is described by visible matter gravitationally coupled to a ''dark'' conformal field

  8. Bianchi Attractors: A Classification of Extremal Black Brane Geometries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Bianchi Attractors: A Classification of Extremal Black Brane Geometries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bianchi Attractors: A Classification of Extremal Black Brane Geometries Authors: Iizuka, Norihiro ; /CERN ; Kachru, Shamit ; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC ; Kundu, Nilay ; Narayan, Prithvi ; Sircar, Nilanjan ; Trivedi, Sandip P. ; /Tata Inst. Publication Date: 2013-07-10 OSTI Identifier: 1087393 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15686 arXiv:1201.4861 DOE

  9. Drum drying of black liquor using superheated steam impinging jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiravi, A.H.; Mujumdar, A.S.; Kubes, G.J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-05-01

    A novel drum dryer for black liquor utilizing multiple impinging jets of superheated steam was designed and built to evaluate the performance characteristics and effects of various operating parameters thereon. Appropriate ranges of parameters such as steam jet temperature and velocity were examined experimentally to quantify the optimal operating conditions for the formation of black liquor film on the drum surface as well as the drying kinetics.

  10. Students, Faculty from Historically Black Colleges and Universities Share

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Research with EM Laboratory in Successful Exchange | Department of Energy Students, Faculty from Historically Black Colleges and Universities Share Research with EM Laboratory in Successful Exchange Students, Faculty from Historically Black Colleges and Universities Share Research with EM Laboratory in Successful Exchange February 5, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis South Carolina State University students William Dumpson, left, and Alejandra Chirino, center, talk with Savannah River National

  11. Black History Month: Former Energy Secretary Broke Barriers and Advanced

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Clean Energy | Department of Energy Black History Month: Former Energy Secretary Broke Barriers and Advanced Clean Energy Black History Month: Former Energy Secretary Broke Barriers and Advanced Clean Energy February 19, 2015 - 1:30pm Addthis Former Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary greets contestants of the Solar Car Challenge Competition in 1995. O’Leary was the first Energy Secretary to link energy policy decisions to the health and quality of the environment. | Photo by Warren Gretz,

  12. Funds Awarded to Historically Black Colleges and Universities for Fossil

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Research | Department of Energy Funds Awarded to Historically Black Colleges and Universities for Fossil Energy Research Funds Awarded to Historically Black Colleges and Universities for Fossil Energy Research October 7, 2014 - 10:26am Addthis Washington, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected four research projects that will provide educational and research training opportunities for minority students while advancing key technical areas in fossil fuel utilization.

  13. Historically Black Colleges and Universities Receive Funds for Fossil

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Research | Department of Energy Historically Black Colleges and Universities Receive Funds for Fossil Energy Research Historically Black Colleges and Universities Receive Funds for Fossil Energy Research August 15, 2013 - 1:18pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - Five fossil energy-related projects that will help maintain the nation's energy portfolio while also providing educational and research training opportunities for tomorrow's scientists and engineers have been selected for funding by

  14. Celebrating Black History Month with DOE's Christopher Smith | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy Black History Month with DOE's Christopher Smith Celebrating Black History Month with DOE's Christopher Smith February 16, 2011 - 12:08pm Addthis Christopher A. Smith Christopher A. Smith Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy Throughout the month of February, we've been introducing remarkable African Americans who are working to advance the President's clean energy agenda. This week we're highlighting Christopher Smith, the Department's Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oil and

  15. Commemorating Black History: Contributions of African Americans to the

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Manhattan Project | Department of Energy Commemorating Black History: Contributions of African Americans to the Manhattan Project Commemorating Black History: Contributions of African Americans to the Manhattan Project February 21, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis July 20, 1944 July 20, 1944 September 21, 1944 September 21, 1944 March 24, 1944 March 24, 1944 June 27, 1944 June 27, 1944 July 20, 1944 September 21, 1944 March 24, 1944 June 27, 1944 The Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned an exhibit

  16. X-ray diffraction in the pulsed laser heated diamond anvil cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncharov, Alexander F.; Struzhkin, Viktor V.; Dalton, D. Allen; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Kantor, Innokenty; Rivers, Mark L.

    2010-11-15

    We have developed in situ x-ray synchrotron diffraction measurements of samples heated by a pulsed laser in the diamond anvil cell at pressure up to 60 GPa. We used an electronically modulated 2-10 kHz repetition rate, 1064-1075 nm fiber laser with 1-100 {mu}s pulse width synchronized with a gated x-ray detector (Pilatus) and time-resolved radiometric temperature measurements. This enables the time domain measurements as a function of temperature in a microsecond time scale (averaged over many events, typically more than 10 000). X-ray diffraction data, temperature measurements, and finite element calculations with realistic geometric and thermochemical parameters show that in the present experimental configuration, samples 4 {mu}m thick can be continuously temperature monitored (up to 3000 K in our experiments) with the same level of axial and radial temperature uniformities as with continuous heating. We find that this novel technique offers a new and convenient way of fine tuning the maximum sample temperature by changing the pulse width of the laser. This delicate control, which may also prevent chemical reactivity and diffusion, enables accurate measurement of melting curves, phase changes, and thermal equations of state.

  17. Imaging shock waves in diamond with both high temporal and spatial resolution at an XFEL

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schropp, Andreas; Hoppe, Robert; Meier, Vivienne; Patommel, Jens; Seiboth, Frank; Ping, Yuan; Hicks, Damien G.; Beckwith, Martha A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Higginbotham, Andrew; et al

    2015-06-18

    The advent of hard x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has opened up a variety of scientific opportunities in areas as diverse as atomic physics, plasma physics, nonlinear optics in the x-ray range, and protein crystallography. In this article, we access a new field of science by measuring quantitatively the local bulk properties and dynamics of matter under extreme conditions, in this case by using the short XFEL pulse to image an elastic compression wave in diamond. The elastic wave was initiated by an intense optical laser pulse and was imaged at different delay times after the optical pump pulse using magnifiedmore » x-ray phase-contrast imaging. The temporal evolution of the shock wave can be monitored, yielding detailed information on shock dynamics, such as the shock velocity, the shock front width, and the local compression of the material. The method provides a quantitative perspective on the state of matter in extreme conditions.« less

  18. Bandgap properties of diamond structure photonic crystal heterostructures with inclined and curved interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Haitao; Li, Yong; Wang, Hong, E-mail: hwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education and International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2014-06-14

    The 3D (dimensional) diamond structure photonic crystal heterostructures with different lattice constants were prepared using rapid prototyping and gel casting with alumina. In this paper, heterostructures with inclined and curved interfaces were designed and its bandgap properties were studied. The normalized resonant intensity of electromagnetic wave in heterostructure with inclined and curved interface is stronger than that in the ordinary heterostructure without modified interface. The influence of curved interface on transmission properties of electromagnetic wave was investigated with the radius of curvature ranging from 17?mm to 37?mm at 5?mm interval. The results show that two resonant modes appear in the photonic band gap, being similar to the band gap characteristics of the photonic crystals with two defects inside. With the increasing of the radius of curvature, the resonant mode shift to higher frequency. In the structure with a radius of curvature of 32?mm, a guiding band appears in the photonic band gap. Further increase in the radius of curvature, the guiding band will split into two resonant modes again and the two resonant modes shift to lower frequencies.

  19. Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Cantilever Wide Dynamic Range Acceleration/Vibration /Pressure Sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R.; Gruen, Dieter M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Auciello, Orlando

    2003-09-02

    An ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) element formed in a cantilever configuration is used in a highly sensitive, ultra-small sensor for measuring acceleration, shock, vibration and static pressure over a wide dynamic range. The cantilever UNCD element may be used in combination with a single anode, with measurements made either optically or by capacitance. In another embodiment, the cantilever UNCD element is disposed between two anodes, with DC voltages applied to the two anodes. With a small AC modulated voltage applied to the UNCD cantilever element and because of the symmetry of the applied voltage and the anode-cathode gap distance in the Fowler-Nordheim equation, any change in the anode voltage ratio V1/V2 required to maintain a specified current ratio precisely matches any displacement of the UNCD cantilever element from equilibrium. By measuring changes in the anode voltage ratio required to maintain a specified current ratio, the deflection of the UNCD cantilever can be precisely determined. By appropriately modulating the voltages applied between the UNCD cantilever and the two anodes, or limit electrodes, precise independent measurements of pressure, uniaxial acceleration, vibration and shock can be made. This invention also contemplates a method for fabricating the cantilever UNCD structure for the sensor.

  20. Ultrananocrystalline diamond cantilever wide dynamic range acceleration/vibration/pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R.; Gruen, Dieter M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Auciello, Orlando

    2002-07-23

    An ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) element formed in a cantilever configuration is used in a highly sensitive, ultra-small sensor for measuring acceleration, shock, vibration and static pressure over a wide dynamic range. The cantilever UNCD element may be used in combination with a single anode, with measurements made either optically or by capacitance. In another embodiment, the cantilever UNCD element is disposed between two anodes, with DC voltages applied to the two anodes. With a small AC modulated voltage applied to the UNCD cantilever element and because of the symmetry of the applied voltage and the anode-cathode gap distance in the Fowler-Nordheim equation, any change in the anode voltage ratio V1/N2 required to maintain a specified current ratio precisely matches any displacement of the UNCD cantilever element from equilibrium. By measuring changes in the anode voltage ratio required to maintain a specified current ratio, the deflection of the UNCD cantilever can be precisely determined. By appropriately modulating the voltages applied between the UNCD cantilever and the two anodes, or limit electrodes, precise independent measurements of pressure, uniaxial acceleration, vibration and shock can be made. This invention also contemplates a method for fabricating the cantilever UNCD structure for the sensor.

  1. Planar ultrananocrystalline diamond field emitter in accelerator radio frequency electron injector: Performance metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baryshev, Sergey V. Antipov, Sergey; Jing, Chunguang; Qiu, Jiaqi; Shao, Jiahang; Liu, Wanming; Gai, Wei; Prez Quintero, Kenneth J.; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Kanareykin, Alexei D.

    2014-11-17

    A case performance study of a planar field emission cathode (FEC) based on nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond, (N)UNCD, was carried out in an RF 1.3?GHz electron gun. The FEC was a 100?nm (N)UNCD film grown on a 20?mm diameter stainless steel disk with a Mo buffer layer. At surface gradients 4565?MV/m, peak currents of 180?mA (equivalent to 0.325?mA/cm{sup 2}) were achieved. Imaging with two YAG screens confirmed emission from the (N)UNCD surface with (1) the beam emittance of 1.5?mm??mrad/mm-rms and (2) longitudinal FWHM and rms widths of non-Gaussian energy spread of 0.7% and 11% at an electron energy of 2?MeV. Current stability was tested over the course of 36??10{sup 3} RF pulses (equivalent to 288??10{sup 6?}GHz oscillations)

  2. Mechanical properties of reconstituted Australian black coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasinge, D.; Ranjith, P.G.; Choi, S.K.; Kodikara, J.; Arthur, M.; Li, H.

    2009-07-15

    Coal is usually highly heterogeneous. Great variation in properties can exist among samples obtained even at close proximity within the same seam or within the same core sample. This makes it difficult to establish a correlation between uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and point load index for coal. To overcome this problem, a method for making reconstituted samples for laboratory tests was developed. Samples were made by compacting particles of crushed coal mixed with cement and water. These samples were allowed to cure for four days. UCS and point load tests were performed to measure the geomechanical properties of the reconstituted coal. After four days curing, the average UCS was found to be approximately 4 MPa. This technical note outlines some experimental results and correlations that were developed to predict the mechanical properties of the reconstituted black coal samples. By reconstituting the samples from crushed coal, it is hoped that the samples will retain the important mechanical and physicochemical properties of coal, including the swelling, fluid transport, and gas sorption properties of coal. The aim is to be able to produce samples that are homogeneous with properties that are highly reproducible, and the reconstituted coal samples can be used for a number of research areas related to coal, including the long-term safe storage of CO{sub 2} in coal seams.

  3. Thermodynamics of Sultana-Dyer black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2014-05-01

    The thermodynamical entities on the dynamical horizon are not naturally defined like the usual static cases. Here I find the temperature, Smarr formula and the first law of thermodynamics for the Sultana-Dyer metric which is related to the Schwarzschild spacetime by a time dependent conformal factor. To find the temperature (T), the chiral anomaly expressions for the two dimensional spacetime are used. This shows an application of the anomaly method to study Hawking effect for a dynamical situation. Moreover, the analysis singles out one expression for temperature among two existing expressions in the literature. Interestingly, the present form satisfies the first law of thermodynamics. Also, it relates the Misner-Sharp energy (Ē) and the horizon entropy ( S-bar ) by an algebraic expression Ē = 2 S-bar T which is the general form of the Smarr formula. This fact is similar to the usual static black hole cases in Einstein's gravity where the energy is identified as the Komar conserved quantity.

  4. Spectroscopic analysis of H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} microwave plasma and fast growth rate of diamond single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derkaoui, N.; Rond, C. Hassouni, K.; Gicquel, A.

    2014-06-21

    One of the best ways to increase the diamond growth rate is to couple high microwave power to the plasma. Indeed, increasing the power density leads to increase gas temperature the atomic hydrogen density in the plasma bulk, and to produce more hydrogen and methyl at the diamond surface. Experimental and numerical approaches were used to study the microwave plasma under high power densities conditions. Gas temperature was measured by optical emission spectroscopy and H-atom density using actinometry. CH{sub 3}-radical density was obtained using a 1D model that describes temperatures and plasma composition from the substrate to the top of the reactor. The results show that gas temperature in the plasma bulk, atomic hydrogen, and methyl densities at the diamond surface highly increase with the power density. As a consequence, measurements have shown that diamond growth rate also increases. At very high power density, we measured a growth rate of 40??m/h with an H-atom density of 5 10{sup 17} cm{sup ?3} which corresponds to a H{sub 2} dissociation rate higher than 50%. Finally, we have shown that the growth rate can be framed between a lower and an upper limit as a function depending only on the maximum of H-atom density measured or calculated in the plasma bulk. The results also demonstrated that increasing fresh CH{sub 4} by an appropriate injection into the boundary layer is a potential way to increase the diamond growth rates.

  5. Method to grow carbon thin films consisting entirely of diamond grains 3-5 nm in size and high-energy grain boundaries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlisle, John A.; Auciello, Orlando; Birrell, James

    2006-10-31

    An ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) having an average grain size between 3 and 5 nanometers (nm) with not more than about 8% by volume diamond having an average grain size larger than 10 nm. A method of manufacturing UNCD film is also disclosed in which a vapor of acetylene and hydrogen in an inert gas other than He wherein the volume ratio of acetylene to hydrogen is greater than 0.35 and less than 0.85, with the balance being an inert gas, is subjected to a suitable amount of energy to fragment at least some of the acetylene to form a UNCD film having an average grain size of 3 to 5 nm with not more than about 8% by volume diamond having an average grain size larger than 10 nm.

  6. A nitrogen doped low-dislocation density free-standing single crystal diamond plate fabricated by a lift-off process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mokuno, Yoshiaki Kato, Yukako; Tsubouchi, Nobuteru; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Yamada, Hideaki; Shikata, Shinichi

    2014-06-23

    A nitrogen-doped single crystal diamond plate with a low dislocation density is fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a high pressure high temperature synthetic type IIa seed substrate by ion implantation and lift-off processes. To avoid sub-surface damage, the seed surface was subjected to deep ion beam etching. In addition, we introduced a nitrogen flow during the CVD step to grow low-strain diamond at a relatively high growth rate. This resulted in a plate with low birefringence and a dislocation density as low as 400?cm{sup ?2}, which is the lowest reported value for a lift-off plate. Reproducing this lift-off process may allow mass-production of single crystal CVD diamond plates with low dislocation density and consistent quality.

  7. Pulsed-Laser Deposited Amorphous Diamond and Related Materials: Synthesis, Characterization, and Field Emission Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, L.R.; Geohegan, D.B.; Jellison, G.E., Jr.; Lowndes, D.H.; Merkulov, V.I.; Puretzky, A.A.

    1999-01-23

    Amorphous carbon films with variable sp{sup 3} content were produced by ArF (193nm) pulsed laser deposition. An in-situ ion probe was used to measure kinetic energy of C{sup +} ions. In contrast to measurements made as a function of laser fluence, ion probe measurements of kinetic energy are a convenient as well as more accurate and fundamental method for monitoring deposition conditions, with the advantage of being readily transferable for inter-laboratory comparisons. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements reveal that tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films with the most diamond-like properties are obtained at the C ion kinetic energy of {approximately}90 eV. Film properties are uniform within a 12-15{degree} angle from the plume centerline. Tapping-mode atomic force microscope measurements show that films deposited at near-optimum kinetic energy are extremely smooth, with rms roughness of only {approximately} 1 {angstrom} over distances of several hundred nm. Field emission (FE) measurements show that ta-C does not appear to be a good electron emitter. After conditioning of ta-C films deposited on n-type Si a rather high turn-on voltage of {approximately}50 V/{micro}m was required to draw current of {approximately}1 nA to the probe. The emission was unstable and typically ceased after a few minutes of operation. The FE tests of ta-C and other materials strongly suggest that surface morphology plays a dominant role in the FE process, in agreement with conventional Fowler-Nordheim theory.

  8. Study of TFTR D-T neutron spectra using natural diamond detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roquemore, A.L.; Krasilnikov, A.V., Gorelenkov, N.N.

    1996-12-31

    Three Natural Diamond Detector (NDD) based spectrometers have been used for neutron spectra measurement during Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) experiments using high power Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) and Ton Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) in 1996. A 2-3 % energy resolution coupled with the high radiation resistance of NDDs (5 x 10{sup 14}n/cm{sup 2}) makes them ideal for measuring the D-T neutron spectra in the high radiation environment of TFTR tritium experiments. The compact size of the NDD made it possible to insert one of the detectors into one of the center channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator to provide a vertical view perpendicular to the vessel midplane, Two other detectors were placed inside shields in TFTR test cell and provide measurements of the neutrons having angles of emission of 110- 180{degrees} and 60-12-{degrees} with respect to the direction of the plasma current. By using a 0.25 {mu}s shaping time of the Ortec 673 spectroscopy amplifier we were able to accumulate useful spectrometry data at count rates up to 1.5 x 10{sup 3} counts/sec. To model the D- T neutron spectra measured by each of three NDD`s the Neutron Source post TRANSP (NST) code and semi-analytical model were developed. A set of D-T and D-D plasmas is analyzed for the dynamics of D-T neutron spectral broadening for each of three NDD cones of view. The application of three NDD based D-T neutron -spectrometer array demonstrated the anisotropy of the ion distribution function. and provided a mature of the dynamics of the effective ion temperatures for each detector view, and determined the tangential velocity of resonant tritons during ICRH.

  9. Relationship between the structure and electrical characteristics of diamond-like carbon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takabayashi, Susumu Otsuji, Taiichi; Yang, Meng; Ogawa, Shuichi; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Jeko, Radek; Takakuwa, Yuji

    2014-09-07

    To elucidate the relationship between the structure and the electrical characteristics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, DLC films were synthesized in a well-controlled glow discharge with the aid of photoelectrons in an argon/methane atmosphere. The dielectric constant and breakdown strength of the films exhibited opposite behaviors, depending on the total pressure during the synthesis. The product of these two values decreased monotonically as the pressure increased. The Raman spectra were analyzed with a Voigt-type formula. Based on the results, the authors propose the sp{sup 2} cluster model for the DLC structure. This model consists of conductive clusters of sp{sup 2} carbons surrounded by a dielectric matrix sea of sp{sup 2} carbon, sp{sup 3} carbon, and hydrogen, and indicates that the dielectric constant of the whole DLC film is determined by the balance between the dielectric constant of the matrix and the total size of the clusters, while the breakdown strength is determined by the reciprocal of the cluster size. The model suggests that a high-? DLC film can be synthesized at a middle pressure and consists of well-grown sp{sup 2} clusters and a dense matrix. A low-? DLC film can be synthesized both at low and high pressures. The sp{sup 2} cluster model explains that a low-? DLC film synthesized at low pressure consists of a dense matrix and a low density of sp{sup 2} clusters, and exhibits a high breakdown strength. On the other hand, a low-? film synthesized at high pressure consists of a coarse matrix and a high density of clusters and exhibits a low breakdown strength.

  10. Mn-Stabilized Zirconia: From Imitation Diamonds to a New Potential High-T{sub C} Ferromagnetic Spintronics Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostanin, S.; Ernst, A.; Sandratskii, L. M.; Bruno, P.; Daene, M.; Hergert, W.; Mertig, I.; Hughes, I. D.; Staunton, J. B.; Kudrnovsky, J.

    2007-01-05

    From the basis of ab initio electronic structure calculations which include the effects of thermally excited magnetic fluctuations, we predict Mn-stabilized cubic zirconia to be ferromagnetic above 500 K. We find this material, which is well known both as an imitation diamond and as a catalyst, to be half-metallic with the majority and minority spin Mn impurity states lying in zirconia's wide gap. The Mn concentration can exceed 40%. The high-T{sub C} ferromagnetism is robust to oxygen vacancy defects and to how the Mn impurities are distributed on the Zr fcc sublattice. We propose this ceramic as a promising future spintronics material.

  11. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun

    2005-08-15

    Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Topological black holes in Lovelock-Born-Infeld gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M. H.; Alinejadi, N.; Hendi, S. H.

    2008-05-15

    In this paper, we present topological black holes of third order Lovelock gravity in the presence of cosmological constant and nonlinear electromagnetic Born-Infeld field. Depending on the metric parameters, these solutions may be interpreted as black hole solutions with inner and outer event horizons, an extreme black hole or naked singularity. We investigate the thermodynamics of asymptotically flat solutions and show that the thermodynamic and conserved quantities of these black holes satisfy the first law of thermodynamic. We also endow the Ricci flat solutions with a global rotation and calculate the finite action and conserved quantities of these class of solutions by using the counterterm method. We compute the entropy through the use of the Gibbs-Duhem relation and find that the entropy obeys the area law. We obtain a Smarr-type formula for the mass as a function of the entropy, the angular momenta, and the charge, and compute temperature, angular velocities, and electric potential and show that these thermodynamic quantities coincide with their values which are computed through the use of geometry. Finally, we perform a stability analysis for this class of solutions in both the canonical and the grand-canonical ensemble and show that the presence of a nonlinear electromagnetic field and higher curvature terms has no effect on the stability of the black branes, and they are stable in the whole phase space.

  13. Transport properties of ultrathin black phosphorus on hexagonal boron nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doganov, Rostislav A.; zyilmaz, Barbaros; Koenig, Steven P.; Yeo, Yuting; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2015-02-23

    Ultrathin black phosphorus, or phosphorene, is a two-dimensional material that allows both high carrier mobility and large on/off ratios. Similar to other atomic crystals, like graphene or layered transition metal dichalcogenides, the transport behavior of few-layer black phosphorus is expected to be affected by the underlying substrate. The properties of black phosphorus have so far been studied on the widely utilized SiO{sub 2} substrate. Here, we characterize few-layer black phosphorus field effect transistors on hexagonal boron nitridean atomically smooth and charge trap-free substrate. We measure the temperature dependence of the field effect mobility for both holes and electrons and explain the observed behavior in terms of charged impurity limited transport. We find that in-situ vacuum annealing at 400?K removes the p-doping of few-layer black phosphorus on both boron nitride and SiO{sub 2} substrates and reduces the hysteresis at room temperature.

  14. Black liquor gasification phase 2D final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohl, A.L.; Stewart, A.E.

    1988-06-01

    This report covers work conducted by Rockwell International under Amendment 5 to Subcontract STR/DOE-12 of Cooperative Agreement DE-AC-05-80CS40341 between St. Regis Corporation (now Champion International) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The work has been designated Phase 2D of the overall program to differentiate it from prior work under the same subcontract. The overall program is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of and providing design data for the Rockwell process for gasifying Kraft black liquor. In this process, concentrated black liquor is converted into low-Btu fuel gas and reduced melt by reaction with air in a specially designed gasification reactor.

  15. Greybody factors for MyersPerry black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Chatrabhuti, Auttakit Ngampitipan, Tritos; Visser, Matt

    2014-11-15

    The MyersPerry black holes are higher-dimensional generalizations of the usual (3+1)-dimensional rotating Kerr black hole. They are of considerable interest in KaluzaKlein models, specifically within the context of brane-world versions thereof. In the present article, we shall consider the greybody factors associated with scalar field excitations of the MyersPerry spacetimes, and develop some rigorous bounds on these greybody factors. These bounds are of relevance for characterizing both the higher-dimensional Hawking radiation, and the super-radiance, that is expected for these spacetimes.

  16. We the Geeks: Celebrating Black History Month | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Geeks: Celebrating Black History Month We the Geeks: Celebrating Black History Month February 24, 2014 - 9:40am Addthis President Barack Obama talks with Evan Jackson, 10, Alec Jackson, 8, and Caleb Robinson, 8, from McDonough, Ga., while looking at exhibits at the White House Science Fair in the State Dining Room, April 22, 2013. The sports-loving grade-schoolers created a new product concept to keep athletes cool and helps players maintain safe body temperatures on the field. | Official

  17. Elastic properties, sp fraction, and Raman scattering in low and high pressure synthesized diamond-like boron rich carbides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinin, Pavel V.; Burgess, Katherine; Jia, Ruth; Sharma, Shiv; Ming, Li-Chung; Liu, Yongsheng; Ciston, Jim; Hong, Shiming

    2014-10-07

    Dense BC{sub x} phases with high boron concentration are predicted to be metastable, superhard, and conductors or superconductors depending on boron concentration. However, up to this point, diamond-like boron rich carbides BC{sub x} (dl-BC{sub x}) phases have been thought obtainable only through high pressure and high temperature treatment, necessitating small specimen volume. Here, we use electron energy loss spectroscopy combined with transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, surface Brillouin scattering, laser ultrasonics (LU) technique, and analysis of elastic properties to demonstrate that low pressure synthesis (chemical vapor deposition) of BC{sub x} phases may also lead to the creation of diamond-like boron rich carbides. The elastic properties of the dl-BC{sub x} phases depend on the carbon spversus sp content, which decreases with increasing boron concentration, while the boron bonds determine the shape of the Raman spectra of the dl-BC{sub x} after high pressure-high temperature treatment. Using the estimation of the density value based on the sp fraction, the shear modulus ? of dl-BC?, containing 10% carbon atoms with sp bonds, and dl-B?C?, containing 38% carbon atoms with sp bonds, were found to be ? = 19.3 GPa and ? = 170 GPa, respectively. The presented experimental data also imply that boron atoms lead to a creation of sp bonds during the deposition processes.

  18. Investigation of free charge carrier dynamics in single-crystalline CVD diamond by two-photon absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivakin, E V; Kisialiou, I G [B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus); Ralchenko, V G; Bolshakov, A P; Ashkinazi, E E [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sharonov, G V [A.N. Sevchenko Research Institute of Applied Physics Problems, Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)

    2014-11-30

    By using the methods of transient gratings (TGs) and induced absorption, we have studied the kinetics of plasma of free charge carriers (FCCs) created by the action of a picosecond laser pulse in two high-purity diamond single crystals synthesised from the gas phase. The gratings with different spatial periods have been excited at the wavelengths of 266 or 213 nm (above and below the fundamental absorption edge in diamond) and probed with continuous-wave radiation in the visible region. At the moderate FCC concentrations (?7 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}), the coefficient of ambipolar diffusion and the carrier recombination time of two crystals are 20.3 and 18.9 cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} and 30 and 190 ns, respectively. The increase in the carrier concentration up to 5 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} reduces the TG lifetime. We have determined the conditions under which the relaxation of the grating of carriers leads to the formation of a thermal grating, with the amplitude sufficient for its experimental observation. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  19. The effect of grain boundaries and adsorbates on the electrical properties of hydrogenated ultra nano crystalline diamond.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, L.; Bolker, A.; Saguy, C.; Kalish, R.; Tan, D. L.; Tay, B. K.; Gruen, D.; Bruno, P.; Materials Science Division; Technion Haifa; Nanyang Technological Univ.

    2009-02-26

    The results of a comprehensive study on the temperature dependence of the electrical properties of hydrogenated and air exposed undoped UNCD layers following heating/cooling cycles are presented. The results clearly show that, in contrast to hydrogenated and air exposed single crystal type IIa diamond, which exhibits a clear highly conductive p-type surface layer, the electrical properties of hydrogen and H{sub 2}O exposure of UNCD are determined by the properties of the entire layer. The changes in the electrical conductivity of UNCD as a result of heating are governed by two different processes: (i) Loss of water from the external surface that takes place at about 150 C. This process is reversible, reviving the electrical properties upon exposure to humidity, just like in single crystalline diamond.(ii) Modification of the inter-grain material, which occurs at higher temperatures possibly due to H diffusion and passivation of some dangling bonds in the inter-grain material. This increases the resistivity in an irreversible manner. The conduction mechanism in the inter-grain material is characterized by variable range hopping in band tails thus indirectly proving that the material between the grains is some kind of amorphous carbon.

  20. V-069: BlackBerry Tablet OS Adobe Flash Player and Samba Multiple...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: BlackBerry Tablet OS Adobe Flash Player and Samba Multiple Vulnerabilities V-069: BlackBerry Tablet OS Adobe Flash Player and Samba Multiple Vulnerabilities January 15, 2013 -...

  1. Surface geometry of a rotating black hole in a magnetic field...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surface geometry of a rotating black hole in a magnetic field Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Surface geometry of a rotating black hole in a magnetic field We study the ...

  2. Black Warrior: Sub-soil gas and fluid inclusion exploration and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Black Warrior: Sub-soil gas and fluid inclusion exploration and slim well drilling Black Warrior: Sub-soil gas and fluid inclusion exploration and slim well drilling DOE Geothermal ...

  3. NREL's Black Silicon Increases Solar Cell Efficiency by Reducing Reflected Sunlight (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    A fact sheet detailing the R&D 100 Award-winning Black Silicon Nanocatalytic Wet-Chemical Etch technology.

  4. SEARCH FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SPECTROSCOPIC SAMPLE (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SEARCH FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY SPECTROSCOPIC SAMPLE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SEARCH FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY SPECTROSCOPIC SAMPLE Supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries are expected in a ΛCDM cosmology given that most (if not all) massive galaxies contain a massive black hole (BH) at their center. So far, however, direct

  5. Highly c-axis oriented GaN films grown on free-standing diamond substrates for high-power devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, D. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bian, J.M., E-mail: jmbian@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Qin, F.W.; Wang, J.; Pan, L. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, J.M. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Y.; Bai, Y.Z. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Du, G.T. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} GaN films are deposited on diamond substrates by ECR-PEMOCVD. {yields} Influence of deposition temperature on the properties of samples is investigated. {yields} Properties of GaN films are dependent on the deposition temperature. -- Abstract: GaN films with highly c-axis preferred orientation are deposited on free-standing thick diamond films by low temperature electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced metal organic chemical vapor deposition (ECR-PEMOCVD). The TMGa and N{sub 2} are applied as precursors of Ga and N, respectively. The quality of as-grown GaN films are systematically investigated as a function of deposition temperature by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Hall Effect measurement (HL), room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the dense and uniformed GaN films with highly c-axis preferred orientation are successfully achieved on free-standing diamond substrates under optimized deposition temperature of 400 {sup o}C, and the room temperature PL spectra of the optimized GaN film show a intense ultraviolet near band edge emission and a weak yellow luminescence. The obtained GaN/diamond structure has great potential for the development of high-power semiconductor devices due to its excellent heat dissipation nature.

  6. Entanglement entropy of two black holes and entanglement entropic force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiba, Noburo

    2011-03-15

    We study the entanglement entropy S{sub C} of the massless free scalar field on the outside region C of two black holes A and B whose radii are R{sub 1} and R{sub 2} and how it depends on the distance r(>>R{sub 1},R{sub 2}) between two black holes. If we can consider the entanglement entropy as thermodynamic entropy, we can see the entropic force acting on the two black holes from the r dependence of S{sub C}. We develop the computational method based on that of Bombelli et al. to obtain the r dependence of S{sub C} of scalar fields whose Lagrangian is quadratic with respect to the scalar fields. First, we study S{sub C} in (d+1)-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. In this case the state of the massless free scalar field is the Minkowski vacuum state, and we replace two black holes by two imaginary spheres and take the trace over the degrees of freedom residing in the imaginary spheres. We obtain the leading term of S{sub C} with respect to 1/r. The result is S{sub C}=S{sub A}+S{sub B}+(1/r{sup 2d-2})G(R{sub 1},R{sub 2}), where S{sub A} and S{sub B} are the entanglement entropy on the inside region of A and B, respectively, and G(R{sub 1},R{sub 2}){<=}0. We do not calculate G(R{sub 1},R{sub 2}) in detail, but we show how to calculate it. In the black hole case we use the method used in the Minkowski spacetime case with some modifications. We show that S{sub C} can be expected to be the same form as that in the Minkowski spacetime case. But in the black hole case, S{sub A} and S{sub B} depend on r, so we do not fully obtain the r dependence of S{sub C}. Finally, we assume that the entanglement entropy can be regarded as thermodynamic entropy and consider the entropic force acting on two black holes. We argue how to separate the entanglement entropic force from other forces and how to cancel S{sub A} and S{sub B} whose r dependences are not obtained. Then we obtain the physical prediction, which can be tested experimentally in principle.

  7. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and procurement of facility upgrades. Chemrec AB is also operating a pressurized, O2-blown gasifier pilot facility in Piteaa, Sweden. There was an exchange of knowledge with the pressurized projects including utilization of the experimental results from facilities in Piteaa, Sweden. Resources at the Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC, a.k.a., the Institute of Paper Science and Technology) were employed primarily to conduct the fundamental investigations on scaling and plugging mechanisms and characterization of green liquor dregs. The project also tapped GTRC expertise in the development of the critical underlying black liquor gasification rate subroutines employed in the CFD code. The actual CFD code development and application was undertaken by Process Simulation, Ltd (PSL) and Simulent, Ltd. PSL focused on the overall integrated gasifier CFD code, while Simulent focused on modeling the black liquor nozzle and description of the black liquor spray. For nozzle development and testing Chemrec collaborated with ETC (Energy Technology Centre) in Piteae utilizing their test facility for nozzle spray investigation. GTI (Gas Technology Institute), Des Plains, IL supported the team with advanced gas analysis equipment during the gasifier test period in June 2005.

  8. Phlogopite and Quartz Lamellae in Diamond-bearing Diopside from Marbles of the Kokchetav Massif Kazakhstan: Exsolution or Replacement Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L Dobrzhinetskaya; R Wirth; D Rhede; Z Liu; H Green

    2011-12-31

    Exsolution lamellae of pyroxene in garnet (grt), coesite in titanite and omphacite from UHPM terranes are widely accepted as products of decompression. However, interpretation of oriented lamellae of phyllosilicates, framework silicates and oxides as a product of decompression of pyroxene is very often under debate. Results are presented here of FIB-TEM, FEG-EMP and synchrotron-assisted infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies of phlogopite (Phlog) and phlogopite + quartz (Qtz) lamellae in diamond-bearing clinopyroxene (Cpx) from ultra-high pressure (UHP) marble. These techniques allowed collection of three-dimensional information from the grain boundaries of both the single (phlogopite), two-phase lamellae (phlogopite + quartz), and fluid inclusions inside of diamond included in K-rich Cpx and understanding their relationships and mechanisms of formation. The Cpx grains contain in their cores lamellae-I, which are represented by topotactically oriented extremely thin lamellae of phlogopite (that generally are two units cell wide but locally can be seen to be somewhat broader) and microdiamond. The core composition is: (Ca{sub 0.94}K{sub 0.04}Na{sub 0.02})(Al{sub 0.06}Fe{sub 0.08}Mg{sub 0.88})(Si{sub 1.98}Al{sub 0.02})O{sub 6.00}. Fluid inclusions rich in K and Si are recognized in the core of the Cpx, having no visible connections to the lamellae-I. Lamellar-II inclusions consist of micron-size single laths of phlogopite and lens-like quartz or slightly elongated phlogopite + quartz intergrowths; all are situated in the rim zone of the Cpx. The composition of the rim is (Ca{sub 0.95}Fe{sub 0.03}Na{sub 0.02})(Al{sub 0.05}Fe{sub 0.05}Mg{sub 0.90})Si{sub 2}O{sub 6}, and the rim contains more Ca, Mg than the core, with no K there. Such chemical tests support our microstructural observations and conclusion that the phlogopite lamellae-I are exsolved from the K-rich Cpx-precursor during decompression. It is assumed that Cpx-precursor was also enriched in H{sub 2}O, because diamond included in the core of this Cpx contains fluid inclusions. The synchrotron IR spectra of such diamond record the presence of OH{sup -} stretching and H{sub 2}O bending motion regions. Lamellar-II inclusions are interpreted as forming partly because of modification of the lamellae-i in the presence of fluid enriched in K, Fe and Si during deformation of the host diopside; the latter is probably related to the shallower stage of exhumation of the UHP marble. This study emphasizes that in each case to understand the mechanism of lamellar inclusion formation more detailed studies are needed combining both compositional, structural and three-dimensional textural features of lamellar inclusions and their host.

  9. Sub-Kelvin magnetic and electrical measurements in a diamond anvil cell with in-situ tunability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Palmer, Alexander; Silevitch, Daniel; Feng, Yejun; Wang, Yishu; Jaramillo, R.; Banerjee, Arnab; Ren, Yang; Rosenbaum, Thomas F.

    2015-09-04

    We discuss techniques for performing continuous measurements across a wide range of pressure-field-temperature phase space, combining the milli-Kelvin temperatures of a helium dilution refrigerator with that of the giga-Pascal pressures of a diamond anvil cell and the Tesla magnetic fields of a superconducting magnet. With a view towards minimizing remnant magnetic fields and background magnetic susceptibility, we then characterize high-strength superalloy materials for the pressure cell assembly, which allows high fidelity measurements of low-field phenomena such as superconductivity below 100 mK at pressures above 10 GPa. In situ tunability and measurement of the pressure permit experiments over a wide rangemore » of pressure, while at the same time making possible precise steps across abrupt phase transitions such as that from insulator to metal.« less

  10. Superlinear generation of exciton and related paramagnetism induced by forward current in a diamond p-i-n junction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natori, Kenji

    2015-02-07

    The concentration of excitons generated in a high-quality diamond p-i-n junction is investigated considering the forward current characteristics of the junction. As the forward current in the junction increases, the exciton concentration increases superlinearly, contrary to the linear increases of the electron and hole concentration. This tendency suggests a superlinear increase in emission intensity due to exciton recombination. The increase rate is more radical than quadratic, in accordance with the observed increase of the integrated intensity of free exciton emission. To estimate the concentration of triplet excitons generated in the p-i-n junction, observation of the paramagnetism due to the exciton spin moment is proposed. The magnetic susceptibility superlinearly increases with the increase in the forward current, unlike any other magnetic property of the device.

  11. Nickel nano-particle modified nitrogen-doped amorphous hydrogenated diamond-like carbon film for glucose sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Aiping; Jin, Chunyan; Cho, Sang-Jin; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Young Dok; Lim, Dong Chan; Kim, Doo Hwan; Hong, Byungyou; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2012-10-15

    Electrochemical method has been employed in this work to modify nitrogen-doped hydrogen amorphous diamond-like carbon (N-DLC) film to fabricate nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes has been characterized at the presence of glucose in electrolyte. Meanwhile, the N-DLC film structure and the morphology of metal nano-particles on the N-DLC surface have been investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrode exhibits a high catalytic activity and low background current. This result shows that the nickel nano-particle deposition on N-DLC surface could be a promising method to fabricate novel electrode materials for glucose sensing.

  12. Status review of the science and technology of Ultrananoscrystalline Diamond (UNCD (sup {trademark}) films and application to multifunctional devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auciello, O.; Sumant, A. V.

    2010-07-01

    This review focuses on a status report on the science and technology of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films developed and patented at Argonne National Laboratory. The UNCD material has been developed in thin film form and exhibit multifunctionalities applicable to a broad range of macro to nanoscale multifunctional devices. UNCD thin films are grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) or hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) using new patented Ar-rich/CH4 or H2/CH4 plasma chemistries. UNCD films exhibit a unique nanostructure with 2-5 nm grain size (thus the trade name UNCD) and grain boundaries of 0.4-0.6 nm for plain films, and grain sizes of 7-10 nm and grain boundaries of 2-4 nm when grown with nitrogen introduced in the Ar-rich/CH4 chemistry, to produce UNCD films incorporated with nitrogen, which exhibit electrical conductivity up to semi-metallic level. This review provides a status report on the synthesis of UNCD films via MPCVD and integration with dissimilar materials like oxides for piezoactuated MEMS/NEMS, metal films for contacts, and biological matter for a new generation of biomedical devices and biosensors. A broad range of applications from macro to nanoscale multifunctional devices is reviewed, such as coatings for mechanical pumps seals, field-emission cold cathodes, RF MEMS/NEMS resonators and switches for wireless communications and radar systems, NEMS devices, biomedical devices, biosensors, and UNCD as a platform for developmental biology, involving biological cells growth on the surface. Comparisons with nanocrystalline diamond films and technology are made when appropriate.

  13. T-668: Vulnerability in a BlackBerry Enterprise Server component could allow information disclosure and partial denial of service

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This advisory describes a security issue in the BlackBerry Administration API component. Successful exploitation of the vulnerability could result in information disclosure and partial denial of service (DoS). The BlackBerry Administration API is a BlackBerry Enterprise Server component that is installed on the server that hosts the BlackBerry Administration Service. The BlackBerry Administration API contains multiple web services that receive API requests from client applications. The BlackBerry Administration API then translates requests into a format that the BlackBerry Administration Service can process.

  14. Instability of black hole formation in gravitational collapse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Pankaj S.; Malafarina, Daniele

    2011-01-15

    We consider here the classic scenario given by Oppenheimer, Snyder, and Datt, for the gravitational collapse of a massive matter cloud, and examine its stability under the introduction of small tangential stresses. We show, by offering an explicit class of physically valid tangential stress perturbations, that an introduction of tangential pressure, however small, can qualitatively change the final fate of collapse from a black hole final state to a naked singularity. This shows instability of black hole formation in collapse and sheds important light on the nature of cosmic censorship hypothesis and its possible formulations. The key effect of these perturbations is to alter the trapped surface formation pattern within the collapsing cloud and the apparent horizon structure. This allows the singularity to be visible, and implications are discussed.

  15. Void morphology in polyethylene/carbon black composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, D.W.M.; Wartenberg, M.; Schwartz, K.B.

    1996-12-31

    A combination of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and contrast matching techniques is used to determine the size and quantity of voids incorporated during fabrication of polyethylene/carbon black composites. The analysis used to extract void morphology from SANS data is based on the three-phase model of microcrack determination via small angle x-rayscattering (SAXS) developed by W.Wu{sup 12} and applied to particulate reinforced composites.

  16. Efficient Nanostructured Silicon (Black Silicon) PV Devices - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Efficient Nanostructured Silicon (Black Silicon) PV Devices National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Antireflective (AR) coatings on solar cells increase the efficiency of the cells by suppressing reflection, which allows more photons to enter a silicon (Si) wafer and increases the flow of electricity. Traditional AR coatings however, add significant cost to the solar cell manufacturing process. NREL scientists

  17. COLLOQUIUM: Binary Black Hole and Neutron Star Collisions | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab December 16, 2015, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG AUDITORIUM COLLOQUIUM: Binary Black Hole and Neutron Star Collisions Dr. Frans Pretorius Princeton University Binary compact object mergers are among the primary gravitational wave sources expected to be observed by the next generation of ground-based gravitational wave detectors. Mergers where one or both compact objects are neutron stars will further produce electromagnetic emission, and coincident observation of this

  18. KCP's Carey honored as 2014 Black Achiever | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration KCP's Carey honored as 2014 Black Achiever | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs

  19. Global solutions for higher-dimensional stretched small black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.-M.; Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Ohta, Nobuyoshi; Orlov, Dmitry G.

    2010-01-15

    Small black holes in heterotic string theory have a vanishing horizon area at the supergravity level, but the horizon is stretched to the finite radius AdS{sub 2}xS{sup D-2} geometry once higher curvature corrections are turned on. This has been demonstrated to give good agreement with microscopic entropy counting. Previous considerations, however, were based on the classical local solutions valid only in the vicinity of the event horizon. Here we address the question of global existence of extremal black holes in the D-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory with the Gauss-Bonnet term introducing a variable dilaton coupling a as a parameter. We show that asymptotically flat black holes exist only in a bounded region of the dilaton couplings 0=}5 (but not for D=4) the allowed range of a includes the heterotic string values. For a>a{sub cr} numerical solutions meet weak naked singularities at finite radii r=r{sub cusp} (spherical cusps), where the scalar curvature diverges as |r-r{sub cusp}|{sup -1/2}. For D{>=}7 cusps are met in pairs, so that solutions can be formally extended to asymptotically flat infinity choosing a suitable integration variable. We show, however, that radial geodesics cannot be continued through the cusp singularities, so such a continuation is unphysical.

  20. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, Tate

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) Study was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in Barrow, AK. The carbonaceous component was characterized via measurement of the organic and black carbon (OC and BC) components of the total PM. To facilitate complete characterization of the particulate matter, filter-based collections were used, including a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) particulate matter fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 sampler operated with minimal maintenance during the 12 month campaign. The PM10 sampler used for the BBCSI used standard Tisch hi-vol motors which have a known lifetime of ~1 month under constant use; this necessitated monthly maintenance and it is suggested that the motors be upgraded to industrial blowers for future deployment in the Arctic. The BBCSI sampling campaign successfully collected and archived 87 ambient atmospheric particulate matter samples from Barrow, AK from July 2012 to June 2013. Preliminary analysis of the organic and black carbon concentrations has been completed. This campaign confirmed known trends of high BC lasting from the winter through to spring haze periods and low BC concentrations in the summer.

  1. Method and article of manufacture corresponding to a composite comprised of ultra nonacrystalline diamond, metal, and other nanocarbons useful for thermoelectric and other applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    2010-05-18

    One provides (101) disperse ultra-nanocrystalline diamond powder material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered crystallites that are each sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then reacts (102) these crystallites with a metallic component. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also substantially preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the disperse ultra-nanocrystalline diamond powder material. The reaction process can comprise combining (201) the crystallites with one or more metal salts in an aqueous solution and then heating (203) that aqueous solution to remove the water. This heating can occur in a reducing atmosphere (comprising, for example, hydrogen and/or methane) to also reduce the salt to metal.

  2. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (2/3)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  3. Does the mass of a black hole decrease due to the accretion of phantom energy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao Changjun; Chen Xuelei; Faraoni, Valerio; Shen Yougen

    2008-07-15

    According to Babichev et al., the accretion of a phantom test fluid onto a Schwarzschild black hole will induce the mass of the black hole to decrease, however the backreaction was ignored in their calculation. Using new exact solutions describing black holes in a background Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, we find that the physical black hole mass may instead increase due to the accretion of phantom energy. If this is the case, and the future universe is dominated by phantom dark energy, the black hole apparent horizon and the cosmic apparent horizon will eventually coincide and, after that, the black hole singularity will become naked in finite comoving time before the big rip occurs, violating the cosmic censorship conjecture.

  4. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (3/3)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  5. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (1/3)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  6. Fabrication and testing of diamond-machined gratings in ZnSe, GaP, and bismuth germanate for the near infrared and visible

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmenko, P J; Little, S L; Ikeda, Y; Kobayashi, N

    2008-06-22

    High quality immersion gratings for infrared applications have been demonstrated in silicon and germanium. To extend this technology to shorter wavelengths other materials must be investigated. We selected three materials, zinc selenide, gallium phosphide and bismuth germanate (Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}), based on high refractive index, good visible transmission and commercial availability in useful sizes. Crystal samples were diamond turned on an ultra-precision lathe to identify preferred cutting directions. Using this information we diamond-flycut test gratings over a range of feed rates to determine the optimal cutting conditions. For both ZnSe and GaP good surface quality was achieved at feed rates up to 1.0 cm/minute using a special compound angle diamond tool with negative rake angles on both cutting surfaces. The surface roughness of the groove facets was about 4 nm. A Zygo interferometer measured grating wavefront errors in reflection. For the ZnSe the RMS error was < {lambda}/20 at 633nm. More extensive testing was performed with a HeNe laser source and a cooled CCD camera. These measurements demonstrated high relative diffraction efficiency (> 80%), low random groove error (2.0 nm rms), and Rowland ghost intensities at < 0.1%. Preliminary tests on bismuth germanate show high tool wear.

  7. Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb solar radiation, and are generally held to exacerbate global warming through exerting a

  8. Generalized uncertainty principle in f(R) gravity for a charged black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Said, Jackson Levi; Adami, Kristian Zarb

    2011-02-15

    Using f(R) gravity in the Palatini formularism, the metric for a charged spherically symmetric black hole is derived, taking the Ricci scalar curvature to be constant. The generalized uncertainty principle is then used to calculate the temperature of the resulting black hole; through this the entropy is found correcting the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in this case. Using the entropy the tunneling probability and heat capacity are calculated up to the order of the Planck length, which produces an extra factor that becomes important as black holes become small, such as in the case of mini-black holes.

  9. Gas Flux Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  10. Five-dimensional black strings in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2005-04-15

    We consider black-string-type solutions in five-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. Numerically constructed solutions under static, axially symmetric and translationally invariant metric ansatz are presented. The solutions are specified by two asymptotic charges: mass of a black string and a scalar charge associated with the radion part of the metric. Regular black string solutions are found if and only if the two charges satisfy a fine-tuned relation, and otherwise the spacetime develops a singular event horizon or a naked singularity. We can also generate bubble solutions from the black strings by using a double Wick rotation.

  11. Higgs production and decay from TeV scale black holes at the LHC (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Higgs production and decay from TeV scale black holes at the LHC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Higgs production and decay from TeV scale black holes at the LHC We perform a detailed study of the Higgs production and decay, when Higgs is emitted from the black holes produced in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. We show that black hole production can significantly enhance the signal for the Higgs search at the LHC. We evaluate

  12. V-158: BlackBerry Tablet OS Flash Player Multiple Vulnerabilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Multiple vulnerabilities have been reported in BlackBerry Tablet OS, which can be exploited by malicious people to bypass certain security restrictions and compromise a user's system.

  13. Black Warrior: Sub-soil Gas and Fluid Inclusion Exploration and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    up flow zone drilling targets in a blind geothermal prospect at Black Warrior, Churchill and Washoe Counties, Nevada. Awardees (Company Institution) Nevada Geothermal...

  14. Space X-ray Solves Mysteries of Black Holes | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Space X-ray Solves Mysteries of Black Holes Space X-ray Solves Mysteries of Black Holes March 13, 2013 - 3:57pm Addthis Space X-ray Solves Mysteries of Black Holes Anne M. Stark Senior Public Information Officer, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory "We know that black holes have a strong link to their host galaxy." Astrophysicist Bill Craig, a member of the LLNL team An international team including Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory scientists has definitively measured the spin

  15. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, Tate

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact campaign was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility site in Barrow, Alaska. The carbonaceous component was characterized by measuring the organic and black carbon (OC and BC) components of the total PM. To facilitate complete characterization of the PM, filter-based collections were used, including a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine PM fractions (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) PM fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 sampler operated with minimal maintenance during the 12 month campaign. The PM10 sampler used for the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) study used standard Tisch “hi-vol” motors that have a known lifetime of approximately 1 month under constant use; this necessitated monthly maintenance, and it is suggested that, for future deployment in the Arctic, the motors be upgraded to industrial blowers. The BBCSI sampling campaign successfully collected and archived 87 ambient atmospheric PM samples from Barrow, Alaska, from July 2012 to June 2013. Preliminary analysis of the OC and BC concentrations has been completed. This campaign confirmed known trends of high BC lasting from the winter through to spring haze periods and low BC concentrations in the summer. However, the annual OC concentrations had a very different seasonal pattern with the highest concentrations during the summer, lowest concentrations during the fall, and increased concentrations during the winter and spring (Figure 1).

  16. Minimum length, extra dimensions, modified gravity and black hole remnants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maziashvili, Michael

    2013-03-01

    We construct a Hilbert space representation of minimum-length deformed uncertainty relation in presence of extra dimensions. Following this construction, we study corrections to the gravitational potential (back reaction on gravity) with the use of correspondingly modified propagator in presence of two (spatial) extra dimensions. Interestingly enough, for r?0 the gravitational force approaches zero and the horizon for modified Schwarzschild-Tangherlini space-time disappears when the mass approaches quantum-gravity energy scale. This result points out to the existence of zero-temperature black hole remnants in ADD brane-world model.

  17. Black hole temperature: Minimal coupling vs conformal coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fazel, Mohamadreza; Mirza, Behrouz; Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini

    2014-05-15

    In this article, we discuss the propagation of scalar fields in conformally transformed spacetimes with either minimal or conformal coupling. The conformally coupled equation of motion is transformed into a one-dimensional Schrdinger-like equation with an invariant potential under conformal transformation. In a second stage, we argue that calculations based on conformal coupling yield the same Hawking temperature as those based on minimal coupling. Finally, it is conjectured that the quasi normal modes of black holes are invariant under conformal transformation.

  18. Experimental Approach to Controllably Vary Protein Oxidation While Minimizing Electrode Adsorption for Boron-Doped Diamond Electrochemical Surface Mapping Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClintock, Carlee; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative protein surface mapping has become a powerful approach for measuring the solvent accessibility of folded protein structures. A variety of techniques exist for generating the key reagent hydroxyl radicals for these measurements; however, many of these approaches require use of radioactive sources or caustic oxidizing chemicals. The purpose of this research was to evaluate and optimize the use of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrochemistry as a highly accessible tool for producing hydroxyl radicals as a means to induce a controllable level of oxidation on a range of intact proteins. These experiments utilize a relatively high flow rates to reduce protein residence time inside the electrochemical flow chamber, along with a unique cell activation approach to improve control over the intact protein oxidation yield. Studies were conducted to evaluate the level of protein adsorption onto the electrode surface. This report demonstrates a robust protocol for the use of BDD electrochemistry and high performance LC-MS/MS as a high-throughput experimental pipeline for probing higher order protein structure, and illustrates how it is complementary to predictive computational modeling efforts.

  19. X-ray imaging of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials at the Diamond Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eakins, D. E. Chapman, D. J.

    2014-12-15

    In this paper, we describe a new approach enabling study of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials using the unique combination of high-energy synchrotron X-rays, a hybrid bunch structure, and a new dynamic loading platform. We detail the design and operation of the purpose-built, portable small bore gas-gun, which was installed on the I12 high-energy beamline at the Diamond Light Source and used to drive compression waves into solid and porous metal targets. Using a hybrid bunch structure and broadband X-ray pulses of up to 300 keV, radiographic snapshots were captured during various dynamic deformation processes in cm-scale specimens, thereby contributing to a more complete understanding of the evolution of mesoscale damage. Importantly, we highlight strategies for overcoming the challenges associated with using high-energy X-rays, and suggest areas for improvement needed to advance dynamic imaging through large-scale samples of relevance to engineering scenarios. These preliminary measurements demonstrate the feasibility of probing highly transient phenomena using the presented methodology.

  20. Bent Diamond Crystals and Multilayer Based Optics at the new 5-Station Protein Crystallography Beamline 'Cassiopeia' at MAX-lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mammen, Christian B.; Als-Nielsen, Jens; Ursby, Thomas; Thunnissen, Marjolein

    2004-05-12

    A new 5-station beamline for protein crystallography is being commissioned at the Swedish synchrotron light source MAX-II at Lund University. Of the 2K/{gamma} = 14 mrad horizontal wiggler fan, the central 2 mrad are used and split in three parts. The central 1 mrad will be used for a station optimized for MAD experiments and on each side of the central fan, from 0.5 mrad to 1 mrad, there are two fixed energy stations using different energies of the same part of the beam. These, in total five stations, can be used simultaneously and independently for diffraction data collection. The two upstream monochromators for the side stations are meridionally bent asymmetric diamond(111) crystals in Laue transmission geometry. The monochromators for the downstream side stations are bent Ge(111) crystals in asymmetric Bragg reflection geometry. Curved multilayer mirrors inserted in the monochromatic beams provide focusing in the vertical plane. The first side station is under commissioning, and a preliminary test protein data set has been collected.

  1. Functionalization of Hydrogen-free Diamond-like Carbon Films using Open-air Dielectric Barrier Discharge Atmospheric Plasma Treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Instituto de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Quimica-Fisica"Rocasolano"C.S.I.C., 28006 Madrid, Spain; Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44150, Thailand; CASTI, CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory, L'Aquila 67100, Italy; SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA; Endrino, Jose; Endrino, J. L.; Marco, J. F.; Poolcharuansin, P.; Phani, A.R.; Allen, M.; Albella, J. M.; Anders, A.

    2007-12-28

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) technique has been employed to produce uniform atmospheric plasmas of He and N2 gas mixtures in open air in order to functionalize the surface of filtered-arc deposited hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. XPS measurements were carried out on both untreated and He/N2 DBD plasma treated DLC surfaces. Chemical states of the C 1s and N 1s peaks were collected and used to characterize the surface bonds. Contact angle measurements were also used to record the short- and long-term variations in wettability of treated and untreated DLC. In addition, cell viability tests were performed to determine the influence of various He/N2 atmospheric plasma treatments on the attachment of osteoblast MC3T3 cells. Current evidence shows the feasibility of atmospheric plasmas in producing long-lasting variations in the surface bonding and surface energy of hydrogen-free DLC and consequently the potential for this technique in the functionalization of DLC coated devices.

  2. GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SIGNATURES IN BLACK HOLE FORMING CORE COLLAPSE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerd-Durn, Pablo; DeBrye, Nicolas; Aloy, Miguel A.; Font, Jos A.; Obergaulinger, Martin

    2013-12-20

    We present general relativistic numerical simulations of collapsing stellar cores. Our initial model consists of a low metallicity rapidly-rotating progenitor which is evolved in axisymmetry with the latest version of our general relativistic code CoCoNuT, which allows for black hole formation and includes the effects of a microphysical equation of state (LS220) and a neutrino leakage scheme to account for radiative losses. The motivation of our study is to analyze in detail the emission of gravitational waves in the collapsar scenario of long gamma-ray bursts. Our simulations show that the phase during which the proto-neutron star (PNS) survives before ultimately collapsing to a black hole is particularly optimal for gravitational wave emission. The high-amplitude waves last for several seconds and show a remarkable quasi-periodicity associated with the violent PNS dynamics, namely during the episodes of convection and the subsequent nonlinear development of the standing-accretion shock instability (SASI). By analyzing the spectrogram of our simulations we are able to identify the frequencies associated with the presence of g-modes and with the SASI motions at the PNS surface. We note that the gravitational waves emitted reach large enough amplitudes to be detected with third-generation detectors such as the Einstein Telescope within a Virgo Cluster volume at rates ? 0.1yr{sup 1}.

  3. CALIBRATING C-IV-BASED BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Daeseong; Woo, Jong-Hak; Shin, Jaejin [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Denney, Kelly D., E-mail: pds2001@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: jjshin@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: kelly@dark-cosmology.dk [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)

    2013-06-20

    We present the single-epoch black hole mass estimators based on the C IV {lambda}1549 broad emission line, using the updated sample of the reverberation-mapped active galactic nuclei and high-quality UV spectra. By performing multi-component spectral fitting analysis, we measure the C IV line widths (FWHM{sub C{sub IV}} and line dispersion, {sigma}{sub C{sub IV}}) and the continuum luminosity at 1350 A (L{sub 1350}) to calibrate the C-IV-based mass estimators. By comparing with the H{beta} reverberation-based masses, we provide new mass estimators with the best-fit relationships, i.e., M{sub BH}{proportional_to}L{sub 1350}{sup 0.50{+-}0.07}{sigma}{sub C{sub IV}{sup 2}} and M{sub BH}{proportional_to}L{sub 1350}{sup 0.52{+-}0.09} FWHM{sub C{sub IV}{sup 0.56{+-}0.48}}. The new C-IV-based mass estimators show significant mass-dependent systematic difference compared to the estimators commonly used in the literature. Using the published Sloan Digital Sky Survey QSO catalog, we show that the black hole mass of high-redshift QSOs decreases on average by {approx}0.25 dex if our recipe is adopted.

  4. Strengthening Our Partnerships with Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Secretary Chu meets with Annie Whatley, Acting Chief of Staff in the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity, and Dr. William Harvey. Last February, President Obama renewed the White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities to encourage collaboration between government agencies, educational associations, philanthropic organizations, the private sector and others to increase the capacity of HBCUs to provide high-quality education to a greater number of students.  The Department of Energy is committed to supporting education at HBCUs and has partnered with HBCUs on a variety of projects. As part of that commitment, today I met with Dr. William Harvey, Chairman of the President’s Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities and President of Hampton University, as well as Langston University President JoAnn Haysbert and Morgan State University President David Wilson. The presidents and I discussed how the Department can better engage HBCUs in our science and laboratory projects, and what lessons we can learn from the many ongoing and successful partnerships we have in place.

  5. Effects of intermediate mass black holes on nuclear star clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastrobuono-Battisti, Alessandra; Perets, Hagai B.; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-11-20

    Nuclear star clusters (NSCs) are dense stellar clusters observed in galactic nuclei, typically hosting a central massive black hole. Here we study the possible formation and evolution of NSCs through the inspiral of multiple star clusters hosting intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs). Using an N-body code, we examine the dynamics of the IMBHs and their effects on the NSC. We find that IMBHs inspiral to the core of the newly formed NSC and segregate there. Although the IMBHs scatter each other and the stars, none of them is ejected from the NSC. The IMBHs are excited to high eccentricities and their radial density profile develops a steep power-law cusp. The stars also develop a power-law cusp (instead of the central core that forms in their absence), but with a shallower slope. The relaxation rate of the NSC is accelerated due to the presence of IMBHs, which act as massive perturbers. This in turn fills the loss cone and boosts the tidal disruption rate of stars both by the MBH and the IMBHs to a value excluded by rate estimates based on current observations. Rate estimates of tidal disruptions can therefore provide a cumulative constraint on the existence of IMBHs in NSCs.

  6. Hawking radiation of scalar particles from accelerating and rotating black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillani, Usman A.; Rehman, Mudassar; Saifullah, K. E-mail: mudassar051@yahoo.com

    2011-06-01

    Hawking radiation of uncharged and charged scalar particles from accelerating and rotating black holes is studied. We calculate the tunneling probabilities of these particles from the rotation and acceleration horizons of these black holes. Using this method we recover the correct Hawking temperature as well.

  7. X-ray technology behind NASA's black-hole hunter (NuSTAR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, Bill

    2013-09-10

    Livermore Lab astrophysicist Bill Craig describes his team's role in developing X-ray imaging technology for the NASA Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission. The black-hole-hunting spacecraft bagged its first 10 supermassive black holes this week

  8. X-ray technology behind NASA's black-hole hunter (NuSTAR)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Craig, Bill

    2014-05-22

    Livermore Lab astrophysicist Bill Craig describes his team's role in developing X-ray imaging technology for the NASA Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission. The black-hole-hunting spacecraft bagged its first 10 supermassive black holes this week

  9. The genome of black cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa (Torr.&Gray)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuskan, G.A.; DiFazio, S.; Jansson, S.; Bohlmann, J.; Grigoriev,I.; Hellsten, U.; Putnam, N.; Ralph, S.; Rombauts, S.; Salamov, A.; Schein, J.; Sterck, L.; Aerts, A.; Bhalerao, R.R.; Bhalerao, R.P.; Blaudez, D.; Boerjan, W.; Brun, A.; Brunner, A.; Busov, V.; Campbell, M.; Carlson, J.; Chalot, M.; Chapman, J.; Chen, G.-L.; Cooper, D.; Coutinho,P.M.; Couturier, J.; Covert, S.; Cronk, Q.; Cunningham, R.; Davis, J.; Degroeve, S.; Dejardin, A.; dePamphillis, C.; Detter, J.; Dirks, B.; Dubchak, I.; Duplessis, S.; Ehiting, J.; Ellis, B.; Gendler, K.; Goodstein, D.; Gribskov, M.; Grimwood, J.; Groover, A.; Gunter, L.; Hamberger, B.; Heinze, B.; Helariutta, Y.; Henrissat, B.; Holligan, D.; Holt, R.; Huang, W.; Islam-Faridi, N.; Jones, S.; Jones-Rhoades, M.; Jorgensen, R.; Joshi, C.; Kangasjarvi, J.; Karlsson, J.; Kelleher, C.; Kirkpatrick, R.; Kirst, M.; Kohler, A.; Kalluri, U.; Larimer, F.; Leebens-Mack, J.; Leple, J.-C.; Locascio, P.; Lou, Y.; Lucas, S.; Martin,F.; Montanini, B.; Napoli, C.; Nelson, D.R.; Nelson, D.; Nieminen, K.; Nilsson, O.; Peter, G.; Philippe, R.; Pilate, G.; Poliakov, A.; Razumovskaya, J.; Richardson, P.; Rinaldi, C.; Ritland, K.; Rouze, P.; Ryaboy, D.; Schmutz, J.; Schrader, J.; Segerman, B.; Shin, H.; Siddiqui,A.; Sterky, F.; Terry, A.; Tsai, C.; Uberbacher, E.; Unneberg, P.; Vahala, J.; Wall, K.; Wessler, S.; Yang, G.; Yin, T.; Douglas, C.; Marra,M.; Sandberg, G.; Van der Peer, Y.; Rokhsar, D.

    2006-09-01

    We report the draft genome of the black cottonwood tree, Populus trichocarpa. Integration of shotgun sequence assembly with genetic mapping enabled chromosome-scale reconstruction of the genome. Over 45,000 putative protein-coding genes were identified. Analysis of the assembled genome revealed a whole-genome duplication event, with approximately 8,000 pairs of duplicated genes from that event surviving in the Populus genome. A second, older duplication event is indistinguishably coincident with the divergence of the Populus and Arabidopsis lineages. Nucleotide substitution, tandem gene duplication and gross chromosomal rearrangement appear to proceed substantially slower in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Populus has more protein-coding genes than Arabidopsis, ranging on average between 1.4-1.6 putative Populus homologs for each Arabidopsis gene. However, the relative frequency of protein domains in the two genomes is similar. Overrepresented exceptions in Populus include genes associated with disease resistance, meristem development, metabolite transport and lignocellulosic wall biosynthesis.

  10. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network operated from November 1985 through December 1996. The six-station network provided 5-minute averaged measurements of global and diffuse horizontal solar irradiance. The data were processed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to improve the assessment of the solar radiation resources in the southeastern United States. Three of the stations also measured the direct-normal solar irradiance with a pyrheliometer mounted in an automatic sun tracker. All data are archived in the Standard Broadband Format (SBF) with quality-assessment indicators. Monthly data summaries and plots are also available for each month. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of the CONFRRM solar monitoring network.

  11. Recoiling supermassive black holes: a search in the nearby universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lena, D.; Robinson, A.; Axon, D. J.; Merritt, D.; Marconi, A.; Capetti, A.; Batcheldor, D.

    2014-11-10

    The coalescence of a binary black hole can be accompanied by a large gravitational recoil due to anisotropic emission of gravitational waves. A recoiling supermassive black hole (SBH) can subsequently undergo long-lived oscillations in the potential well of its host galaxy, suggesting that offset SBHs may be common in the cores of massive ellipticals. We have analyzed Hubble Space Telescope archival images of 14 nearby core ellipticals, finding evidence for small (? 10 pc) displacements between the active galactic nucleus (AGN; the location of the SBH) and the center of the galaxy (the mean photocenter) in 10 of them. Excluding objects that may be affected by large-scale isophotal asymmetries, we consider six galaxies to have detected displacements, including M87, where a displacement was previously reported by Batcheldor et al. In individual objects, these displacements can be attributed to residual gravitational recoil oscillations following a major or minor merger within the last few gigayears. For plausible merger rates, however, there is a high probability of larger displacements than those observed, if SBH coalescence took place in these galaxies. Remarkably, the AGN-photocenter displacements are approximately aligned with the radio source axis in four of the six galaxies with displacements, including three of the four having relatively powerful kiloparsec-scale jets. This suggests intrinsic asymmetries in radio jet power as a possible displacement mechanism, although approximate alignments are also expected for gravitational recoil. Orbital motion in SBH binaries and interactions with massive perturbers can produce the observed displacement amplitudes but do not offer a ready explanation for the alignments.

  12. RECOILING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN SPIN-FLIP RADIO GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, F. K.; Wang Dong; Chen Xian

    2012-02-20

    Numerical relativity simulations predict that coalescence of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries leads not only to a spin flip but also to a recoiling of the merger remnant SMBHs. In the literature, X-shaped radio sources are popularly suggested to be candidates for SMBH mergers with spin flip of jet-ejecting SMBHs. Here we investigate the spectral and spatial observational signatures of the recoiling SMBHs in radio sources undergoing black hole spin flip. Our results show that SMBHs in most spin-flip radio sources have mass ratio q {approx}> 0.3 with a minimum possible value q{sub min} {approx_equal} 0.05. For major mergers, the remnant SMBHs can get a kick velocity as high as 2100 km s{sup -1} in the direction within an angle {approx}< 40 Degree-Sign relative to the spin axes of remnant SMBHs, implying that recoiling quasars are biased to be with high Doppler-shifted broad emission lines while recoiling radio galaxies are biased to large apparent spatial off-center displacements. We also calculate the distribution functions of line-of-sight velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacements for spin-flip radio sources with different apparent jet reorientation angles. Our results show that the larger the apparent jet reorientation angle is, the larger the Doppler-shifting recoiling velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacement will be. We investigate the effects of recoiling velocity on the dust torus in spin-flip radio sources and suggest that recoiling of SMBHs would lead to 'dust-poor' active galactic nuclei. Finally, we collect a sample of 19 X-shaped radio objects and for each object give the probability of detecting the predicted signatures of recoiling SMBH.

  13. Preparation of W-Ta thin-film thermocouple on diamond anvil cell for in-situ temperature measurement under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Jie; Li Ming; Zhang Honglin; Gao Chunxiao

    2011-04-15

    In this paper, a W-Ta thin-film thermocouple has been integrated on a diamond anvil cell by thin-film deposition and photolithography methods. The thermocouple was calibrated and its thermal electromotive force was studied under high pressure. The results indicate that the thermal electromotive force of the thermocouple exhibits a linear relationship with temperature and is not associated with pressure. The resistivity measurement of ZnS powders under high pressure at different temperatures shows that the phase transition pressure decreases as the temperature increases.

  14. Formation of carbon black as a byproduct of pyrolysis of light hydrocarbons in plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H.G.; Zhang, X.B.; Li, F.; Xie, K.C.; Dai, B.; Fan, Y.S.

    1997-12-31

    The light hydrocarbons undergo a complex reaction of flash hydropyrolysis in a DC arc H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet at atmospheric pressure and average temperatures between 1,500 K and 4,000 K. The raw material was LPG. Acetylene is the major product. Carbon black is a byproduct. Carbon black is characterized with XRD, TEM, and adsorption-and-desorption of liquid nitrogen, respectively. The present work proposes to use the plasma process to replace the classical thermal process in order to produce acetylene directly from LPG with carbon black being a byproduct.

  15. General Nonextremal Rotating Black Holes in Minimal Five-Dimensional Gauged Supergravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chong, Z.-W.; Lue, H.; Pope, C.N.; Cvetic, M.

    2005-10-14

    We construct the general solution for nonextremal charged rotating black holes in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity. They are characterized by four nontrivial parameters: namely, the mass, the charge, and the two independent rotation parameters. The metrics in general describe regular rotating black holes, providing the parameters lie in appropriate ranges so that naked singularities and closed timelike curves (CTCs) are avoided. We calculate the conserved energy, angular momenta, and charge for the solutions, and show how supersymmetric solutions arise in a Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield limit. These have naked CTCs in general, but for special choices of the parameters we obtain new regular supersymmetric black holes or smooth topological solitons.

  16. Navy legend Carl Brashear speaks at JLab's Black History Month event |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Carl Brashear poster Carl Brashear will speak at JLab's Black History Month event on Wednesday, February 19 at 2p.m. Navy legend Carl Brashear speaks at JLab's Black History Month event February 6, 2003 U.S. Naval legend Carl Brashear will be at Jefferson Lab on Wednesday, February 19, as the Lab's guest speaker for Black History Month Directions to the Lab Enter through Onnes Dr. from Jefferson Ave. Anyone 16 or older must show picture ID Vehicles & hand carried items are

  17. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  18. ARM - PI Product - Black Carbon aerosol mass concentration in snow and rain

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    samples over Barrow in the Arctic ProductsBlack Carbon aerosol mass concentration in snow and rain samples over Barrow in the Arctic ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Black Carbon aerosol mass concentration in snow and rain samples over Barrow in the Arctic [ ARM research ] Deposition of black carbon aerosol (BC) on snow (i.e. wet deposition) is considered to lower snow albedo and

  19. Legendary Tuskegee Airmen to Speak at Jefferson Lab's Black History Month

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Event | Jefferson Lab Legendary Tuskegee Airmen to Speak at Jefferson Lab's Black History Month Event February 3, 2004 Three members of the legendary, World War II era Tuskegee Airmen will speak at Jefferson Lab's Black History Month celebration at 2:30 p.m. on Thursday, Feb. 19. The public is invited to the event. The program will start with footage from the 1996 movie based on the true story of the Tuskegee Airmen, the first squadron of black American pilots to defend their country in

  20. The Role of Circulation Features on Black Carbon Transport into the Arctic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5) (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The Role of Circulation Features on Black Carbon Transport into the Arctic in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Role of Circulation Features on Black Carbon Transport into the Arctic in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5) Current climate models generally under-predict the surface concentration of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic due to

  1. An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TerraTek

    2007-06-30

    A deep drilling research program titled 'An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration' was conducted at TerraTek's Drilling and Completions Laboratory. Drilling tests were run to simulate deep drilling by using high bore pressures and high confining and overburden stresses. The purpose of this testing was to gain insight into practices that would improve rates of penetration and mechanical specific energy while drilling under high pressure conditions. Thirty-seven test series were run utilizing a variety of drilling parameters which allowed analysis of the performance of drill bits and drilling fluids. Five different drill bit types or styles were tested: four-bladed polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC), 7-bladed PDC in regular and long profile, roller-cone, and impregnated. There were three different rock types used to simulate deep formations: Mancos shale, Carthage marble, and Crab Orchard sandstone. The testing also analyzed various drilling fluids and the extent to which they improved drilling. The PDC drill bits provided the best performance overall. The impregnated and tungsten carbide insert roller-cone drill bits performed poorly under the conditions chosen. The cesium formate drilling fluid outperformed all other drilling muds when drilling in the Carthage marble and Mancos shale with PDC drill bits. The oil base drilling fluid with manganese tetroxide weighting material provided the best performance when drilling the Crab Orchard sandstone.

  2. Superradiance and black hole bomb in five-dimensional minimal ungauged supergravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliev, Alikram N.

    2014-11-01

    We examine the black hole bomb model which consists of a rotating black hole of five-dimenensional minimal ungauged supergravity and a reflecting mirror around it. For low-frequency scalar perturbations, we find solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation in the near-horizon and far regions of the black hole spacetime. To avoid solutions with logarithmic terms, we assume that the orbital quantum number l takes on nearly, but not exactly, integer values and perform the matching of these solutions in an intermediate region. This allows us to calculate analytically the frequency spectrum of quasinormal modes, taking the limits as l approaches even or odd integers separately. We find that all l modes of scalar perturbations undergo negative damping in the regime of superradiance, resulting in exponential growth of their amplitudes. Thus, the model under consideration would exhibit the superradiant instability, eventually behaving as a black hole bomb in five dimensions.

  3. SUPER-CRITICAL GROWTH OF MASSIVE BLACK HOLES FROM STELLAR-MASS SEEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madau, Piero; Haardt, Francesco; Dotti, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    We consider super-critical accretion with angular momentum onto stellar-mass black holes as a possible mechanism for growing billion-solar-mass black holes from light seeds at early times. We use the radiatively inefficient ''slim disk'' solutionadvective, optically thick flows that generalize the standard geometrically thin disk modelto show how mildly super-Eddington intermittent accretion may significantly ease the problem of assembling the first massive black holes when the universe was less than 0.8Gyr old. Because of the low radiative efficiencies of slim disks around non-rotating as well as rapidly rotating black holes, the mass e-folding timescale in this regime is nearly independent of the spin parameter. The conditions that may lead to super-critical growth in the early universe are briefly discussed.

  4. Thermodynamics of black holes in (n+1)-dimensional Einstein-Born-Infeld-dilaton gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheykhi, A.; Riazi, N.

    2007-01-15

    We construct a new class of (n+1)-dimensional (n{>=}3) black hole solutions in Einstein-Born-Infeld-dilaton gravity with Liouville-type potential for the dilaton field and investigate their properties. These solutions are neither asymptotically flat nor (anti)-de Sitter. We find that these solutions can represent black holes, with inner and outer event horizons, an extreme black hole, or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitably. We compute the thermodynamic quantities of the black hole solutions and find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We also perform a stability analysis and investigate the effect of dilaton on the stability of the solutions.

  5. Hidden symmetries, null geodesics, and photon capture in the Sen black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hioki, Kenta; Miyamoto, Umpei

    2008-08-15

    Important classes of null geodesics and hidden symmetries in the Sen black hole are investigated. First, we obtain the principal null geodesics and circular photon orbits. Then, an irreducible rank-two Killing tensor and a conformal Killing tensor are derived, which represent the hidden symmetries. Analyzing the properties of Killing tensors, we clarify why the Hamilton-Jacobi and wave equations are separable in this spacetime. We also investigate the gravitational capture of photons by the Sen black hole and compare the result with those by the various charged/rotating black holes and naked singularities in the Kerr-Newman family. For these black holes and naked singularities, we show the capture regions in a two dimensional impact parameter space (or equivalently the 'shadows' observed at infinity) to form a variety of shapes such as the disk, circle, dot, arc, and their combinations.

  6. Thermodynamics of asymptotically flat charged black holes in third order Lovelock gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M.H.; Shamirzaie, M.

    2005-12-15

    We present a new class of asymptotically flat charge static solutions in third order Lovelock gravity. These solutions present black hole solutions with two inner and outer event horizons, extreme black holes, or naked singularities provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitable. We find that the uncharged asymptotically flat solutions can present black holes with two inner and outer horizons. This kind of solution does not exist in Einstein or Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and it is a special effect in third order Lovelock gravity. We compute temperature, entropy, charge, electric potential, and mass of the black hole solutions, and find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We also perform a stability analysis by computing the determinant of the Hessian matrix of the mass with respect to its thermodynamic variables in both the canonical and the grand-canonical ensembles, and show that there exists only an intermediate stable phase.

  7. File:Black.Warrior.Basin usgs.map.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    usgs.map.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Black Warrior Basin Province of Alabama and Mississippi Size...

  8. BINARY DISRUPTION BY MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: HYPERVELOCITY STARS, S STARS, AND TIDAL DISRUPTION EVENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bromley, Benjamin C.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Brown, Warren R. E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu

    2012-04-20

    We examine whether disrupted binary stars can fuel black hole growth. In this mechanism, tidal disruption produces a single hypervelocity star (HVS) ejected at high velocity and a former companion star bound to the black hole. After a cluster of bound stars forms, orbital diffusion allows the black hole to accrete stars by tidal disruption at a rate comparable to the capture rate. In the Milky Way, HVSs and the S star cluster imply similar rates of 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -3} yr{sup -1} for binary disruption. These rates are consistent with estimates for the tidal disruption rate in nearby galaxies and imply significant black hole growth from disrupted binaries on 10 Gyr timescales.

  9. Thin-layer black phosphorous/GaAs heterojunction p-n diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gehring, Pascal; Urcuyo, Roberto; Duong, Dinh Loc; Burghard, Marko; Kern, Klaus

    2015-06-08

    Owing to its high carrier mobility and thickness-tunable direct band gap, black phosphorous emerges as a promising component of optoelectronic devices. Here, we evaluate the device characteristics of p-n heterojunction diodes wherein thin black phosphorous layers are interfaced with an underlying, highly n-doped GaAs substrate. The p-n heterojunctions exhibit close-to-ideal diode behavior at low bias, while under illumination they display a photoresponse that is evenly distributed over the entire junction area, with an external quantum efficiency of up to 10% at zero bias. Moreover, the observed maximum open circuit voltage of 0.6 V is consistent with the band gap estimated for a black phosphorous sheet with a thickness on the order of 10?nm. Further analysis reveals that the device performance is limited by the structural quality of the black phosphorous surface.

  10. Final/Technical Report on The National Conference of Black Physics Students

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Elvira

    2001-06-01

    The 14th Annual Conference of the Society of Black Physics Students (NCBPS) was held March 16-19, 2000 at North Carolina A&T State University. The conference was held jointly with the National Society of Black Physicists. The students had the opportunity to interact and network with each other and the members of the profesional organization (NSBP). There are two attachments: Findings from the survey of participants of the 14th Annual National Conference of Black Physics Students, and XXVII Day of Scientific Lectures and 23rd Annual Meeting of The National Society of Black Physicists, March 15-18, 2000. The theme of the meeting was 'Physics: The science that shapes the future.'

  11. Causal extraction of black hole rotational energy by various kinds of electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koide, Shinji; Baba, Tamon

    2014-09-10

    Recent general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations have suggested that relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been powered by the rotational energy of central black holes. Some mechanisms for extraction of black hole rotational energy have been proposed, like the Penrose process, Blandford-Znajek mechanism, MHD Penrose process, and superradiance. The Blandford-Znajek mechanism is the most promising mechanism for the engines of the relativistic jets from AGNs. However, an intuitive interpretation of this mechanism with causality is not yet clarified, while the Penrose process has a clear interpretation for causal energy extraction from a black hole with negative energy. In this paper, we present a formula to build physical intuition so that in the Blandford-Znajek mechanism, as well as in other electromagnetic processes, negative electromagnetic energy plays an important role in causal extraction of the rotational energy of black holes.

  12. Analysis of the Sultana-Dyer cosmological black hole solution of the Einstein equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2009-08-15

    The Sultana-Dyer solution of general relativity representing a black hole embedded in a special cosmological background is analyzed. We find an expanding (weak) spacetime singularity instead of the reported conformal Killing horizon, which is covered by an expanding black hole apparent horizon (internal to a cosmological apparent horizon) for most of the history of the Universe. This singularity was naked early on. The global structure of the solution is studied as well.

  13. Holography of Dyonic Dilaton Black Branes (Journal Article) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Holography of Dyonic Dilaton Black Branes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Holography of Dyonic Dilaton Black Branes Authors: Goldstein, Kevin ; /Witwatersrand U. ; Iizuka, Norihiro ; /CERN ; Kachru, Shamit ; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC ; Prakash, Shiroman ; Trivedi, Sandip P. ; /Tata Inst. ; Westphal, Alexander ; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC Publication Date: 2013-06-20 OSTI Identifier: 1084277 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15621 arXiv:1007.2490 DOE Contract Number:

  14. Energy Department Announces New Technical Review to Assess Black Cells at

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant | Department of Energy Technical Review to Assess Black Cells at Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant Energy Department Announces New Technical Review to Assess Black Cells at Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant August 2, 2012 - 12:15pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Department of Energy announced today that Secretary of Energy Steven Chu has assembled a group of independent technical experts to assess the Hanford Site's Waste

  15. Gravitational Waves from Coalescing Binary Black Holes: Theoretical and Experimental Challenges

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    A network of ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors (LIGO/VIRGO/GEO/...) is currently taking data near its planned sensitivity. Coalescing black hole binaries are among the most promising, and most exciting, gravitational wave sources for these detectors. The talk will review the theoretical and experimental challenges that must be met in order to successfully detect gravitational waves from coalescing black hole binaries, and to be able to reliably measure the physical parameters of the source (masses, spins, ...).

  16. Black Warrior: Sub-soil gas and fluid inclusion exploration and slim well

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    drilling | Department of Energy Black Warrior: Sub-soil gas and fluid inclusion exploration and slim well drilling Black Warrior: Sub-soil gas and fluid inclusion exploration and slim well drilling DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project Objectives: Discover a blind, low-moderate temperature resource: Apply a combination of detailed sub-soil gas, hydrocarbon, and isotope data to define possible upflow areas; Calibrate the sub-soil chemistry with down-hole fluid inclusion

  17. Wet-chemical systems and methods for producing black silicon substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yost, Vernon; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Page, Matthew

    2015-05-19

    A wet-chemical method of producing a black silicon substrate. The method comprising soaking single crystalline silicon wafers in a predetermined volume of a diluted inorganic compound solution. The substrate is combined with an etchant solution that forms a uniform noble metal nanoparticle induced Black Etch of the silicon wafer, resulting in a nanoparticle that is kinetically stabilized. The method comprising combining with an etchant solution having equal volumes acetonitrile/acetic acid:hydrofluoric acid:hydrogen peroxide.

  18. Energy Department Announces New Technical Review to Assess Black Cells at

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant | Department of Energy Announces New Technical Review to Assess Black Cells at Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant Energy Department Announces New Technical Review to Assess Black Cells at Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant August 2, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact 202-586-4940 WASHINGTON, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy announced today that Secretary of Energy Steven Chu has assembled a group of independent technical experts to assess the Hanford Site's

  19. Live Q&A: Celebrating Black History Month and STEM Education | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy Q&A: Celebrating Black History Month and STEM Education Live Q&A: Celebrating Black History Month and STEM Education February 22, 2013 - 3:14pm Q&A What questions do you have about STEM education & careers? Ask our experts Addthis Join our Google+ Hangout on increasing diversity in science, technology, engineering & math disciplines. | Infographic by Sarah Gerrity. Join our Google+ Hangout on increasing diversity in science, technology, engineering & math

  20. T-602: BlackBerry Enterprise Server Input Validation Flaw in BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager Permits Cross-Site Scripting Attacks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager not properly filter HTML code from user-supplied input before displaying the input. A remote user can cause arbitrary scripting code to be executed by the target user's browser. The code will originate from the site running the BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager software and will run in the security context of that site. As a result, the code will be able to access the target user's cookies (including authentication cookies), if any, associated with the site, access data recently submitted by the target user via web form to the site, or take actions on the site acting as the target user.

  1. Black Carbon Radiative Forcing over the Tibetan Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Cenlin; Li, Qinbin; Liou, K. N.; Takano, Y.; Gu, Yu; Qi, L.; Mao, Yuhao; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-11-28

    We estimate the snow albedo forcing and direct radiative forcing (DRF) of black carbon (BC) in the Tibetan Plateau using a global chemical transport model in conjunction with a stochastic snow model and a radiative transfer model. Our best estimate of the annual BC snow albedo forcing in the Plateau is 2.9 W m-2 (uncertainty: 1.55.0 W m-226 ). We find that BC-snow internal mixing increases the albedo forcing by 40-60% compared with external mixing and coated BC increases the forcing by 30-50% compared with uncoated BC, whereas Koch snowflakes reduce the forcing by 20-40% relative to spherical snow grains. Our best estimate of the annual BC DRF at the top of the atmosphere is 2.3 W m-2 (uncertainty: 0.74.3 W m-230 ) in the Plateau after scaling the modeled BC absorption optical depth to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations. The BC forcings are attributed to emissions from different regions.

  2. Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Beig, Gufran; Sahu, Saroj; Fasullo, John; Orlikowski, Daniel

    2010-04-15

    Recent thinning of glaciers over the Himalayas (sometimes referred to as the third polar region) have raised concern on future water supplies since these glaciers supply water to large river systems that support millions of people inhabiting the surrounding areas. Black carbon (BC) aerosols, released from incomplete combustion, have been increasingly implicated as causing large changes in the hydrology and radiative forcing over Asia and its deposition on snow is thought to increase snow melt. In India BC emissions from biofuel combustion is highly prevalent and compared to other regions, BC aerosol amounts are high. Here, we quantify the impact of BC aerosols on snow cover and precipitation from 1990 to 2010 over the Indian subcontinental region using two different BC emission inventories. New estimates indicate that Indian BC emissions from coal and biofuel are large and transport is expected to expand rapidly in coming years. We show that over the Himalayas, from 1990 to 2000, simulated snow/ice cover decreases by {approx}0.9% due to aerosols. The contribution of the enhanced Indian BC to this decline is {approx}36%, similar to that simulated for 2000 to 2010. Spatial patterns of modeled changes in snow cover and precipitation are similar to observations (from 1990 to 2000), and are mainly obtained with the newer BC estimates.

  3. The mass of the black hole in LMC X-3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orosz, Jerome A.; Steiner, James F.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Buxton, Michelle M.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Steeghs, Danny; Guberman, Alec; Torres, Manuel A. P. E-mail: jsteiner@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: michelle.buxton@yale.edu E-mail: D.T.H.Steeghs@warwick.ac.uk E-mail: M.Torres@sron.nl

    2014-10-20

    We analyze a large set of new and archival photometric and spectroscopic observations of LMC X-3 to arrive at a self-consistent dynamical model for the system. Using echelle spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle instrument on the 6.5 m Magellan Clay telescope and the UVES instrument on the second 8.2 m Very Large Telescope, we find a velocity semiamplitude for the secondary star of K {sub 2} = 241.1 6.2 km s{sup 1}, where the uncertainty includes an estimate of the systematic error caused by X-ray heating. Using the spectra, we also find a projected rotational velocity of V {sub rot}sin i = 118.5 6.6 km s{sup 1}. From an analysis of archival B and V light curves as well as new B and V light curves from the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope, we find an inclination of i = 69.84 0.37 for models that do not include X-ray heating and an inclination of i = 69.24 0.72 for models that incorporate X-ray heating. Adopting the latter inclination measurement, we find masses of 3.63 0.57 M {sub ?} and 6.98 0.56 M {sub ?} for the companion star and the black hole, respectively. We briefly compare our results with earlier work and discuss some of their implications.

  4. WHAT'S INSIDE THE BLACK BOX - EXPLAINING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT TO STAKEHOLDERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seitz, R; Elmer Wilhite, E

    2009-01-06

    The performance assessment (PA) process is being applied to support an increasing variety of waste management decisions that involve the whole spectrum of stakeholders. As with many technical tools, the PA process can be seen as a black box, which can be difficult to understand when implemented. Recognizing the increasing use of PA and the concerns about difficulties with understanding, the Savannah River Site Citizens Advisory Board (CAB) made a recommendation that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provide a Public Educational Forum on PAs. The DOE-Headquarters Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Office of Compliance and the DOE-Savannah River (DOE-SR) responded to this recommendation by supporting the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in developing several presentation modules that can be used to describe different aspects of the PA process. For the Public Educational Forum, the PA modules were combined with presentations on DOE perspectives, historical modeling efforts at the Savannah River Site, and review perspectives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The overall goals are to help the public understand how PAs are implemented and the rigor that is applied, and to provide insight into the use of PAs for waste management decision-making.

  5. Linking the spin evolution of massive black holes to galaxy kinematics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sesana, A.; Barausse, E.; Dotti, M.; Rossi, E. M. E-mail: barausse@iap.fr E-mail: emr@strw.leidenuniv.nl

    2014-10-20

    We present the results of a semianalytical model that evolves the masses and spins of massive black holes together with the properties of their host galaxies across the cosmic history. As a consistency check, our model broadly reproduces a number of observations, e.g., the cosmic star formation history; the black hole mass, luminosity, and galaxy mass functions at low redshift; the black hole-bulge mass relation; and the morphological distribution at low redshift. For the first time in a semianalytical investigation, we relax the simplifying assumptions of perfect coherency or perfect isotropy of the gas fueling the black holes. The dynamics of gas is instead linked to the morphological properties of the host galaxies, resulting in different spin distributions for black holes hosted in different galaxy types. We compare our results with the observed sample of spin measurements obtained through broad K? iron line fitting. The observational data disfavor both accretion along a fixed direction and isotropic fueling. Conversely, when the properties of the accretion flow are anchored to the kinematics of the host galaxy, we obtain a good match between theoretical expectations and observations. A mixture of coherent accretion and phases of activity in which the gas dynamics is similar to that of the stars in bulges (i.e., with a significant velocity dispersion superimposed to a net rotation) best describes the data, adding further evidence in support of the coevolution of massive black holes and their hosts.

  6. Observing the shadow of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao E-mail: liuyx@lzu.edu.cn

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, the shadows cast by Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion black hole and naked singularity are studied. The shadow of a rotating black hole is found to be a dark zone covered by a deformed circle. For a fixed value of the spin a, the size of the shadow decreases with the dilaton parameter b. The distortion of the shadow monotonically increases with b and takes its maximal when the black hole approaches to the extremal case. Due to the optical properties, the area of the black hole shadow is supposed to equal to the high-energy absorption cross section. Based on this assumption, the energy emission rate is investigated. For a naked singularity, the shadow has a dark arc and a dark spot or straight, and the corresponding observables are obtained. These results show that there is a significant effect of the spin a and dilaton parameter b on these shadows. Moreover, we examine the observables of the shadow cast by the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, which is very useful for us to probe the nature of the black hole through the astronomical observations in the near future.

  7. Selection and Characterization of Carbon Black and Surfactants for Development of Small Scale Uranium Oxicarbide Kernels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contescu, Cristian I

    2006-01-01

    This report supports the effort for development of small scale fabrication of UCO (a mixture of UO{sub 2} and UC{sub 2}) fuel kernels for the generation IV high temperature gas reactor program. In particular, it is focused on optimization of dispersion conditions of carbon black in the broths from which carbon-containing (UO{sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O + C) gel spheres are prepared by internal gelation. The broth results from mixing a hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and urea solution with an acid-deficient uranyl nitrate (ADUN) solution. Carbon black, which is previously added to one or other of the components, must stay dispersed during gelation. The report provides a detailed description of characterization efforts and results, aimed at identification and testing carbon black and surfactant combinations that would produce stable dispersions, with carbon particle sizes below 1 {micro}m, in aqueous HMTA/urea and ADUN solutions. A battery of characterization methods was used to identify the properties affecting the water dispersability of carbon blacks, such as surface area, aggregate morphology, volatile content, and, most importantly, surface chemistry. The report introduces the basic principles for each physical or chemical method of carbon black characterization, lists the results obtained, and underlines cross-correlations between methods. Particular attention is given to a newly developed method for characterization of surface chemical groups on carbons in terms of their acid-base properties (pK{sub a} spectra) based on potentiometric titration. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the identity of surfactants, both ionic and non-ionic. In addition, background information on carbon black properties and the mechanism by which surfactants disperse carbon black in water is also provided. A list of main physical and chemical properties characterized, samples analyzed, and results obtained, as well as information on the desired trend or range of values generally associated with better dispersability, is provided in the Appendix. Special attention was given to characterization of several surface-modified carbon blacks produced by Cabot Corporation through proprietary diazonium salts chemistry. As demonstrated in the report, these advanced carbons offer many advantages over traditional dispersions. They disperse very easily, do not require intensive mechanical shearing or sonication, and the particle size of the dispersed carbon black aggregates is in the target range of 0.15-0.20 {micro}m. The dispersions in water and HMTA/urea solutions are stable for at least 30 days; in conditions of simulated broth, the dispersions are stable for at least 6 hours. It is proposed that the optimization of the carbon black dispersing process is possible by replacing traditional carbon blacks and surfactants with surface-modified carbon blacks having suitable chemical groups attached on their surface. It is recognized that the method advanced in this report for optimizing the carbon black dispersion process is based on a limited number of tests made in aqueous and simulated broth conditions. The findings were corroborated by a limited number of tests carried out with ADUN solutions by the Nuclear Science and Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). More work is necessary, however, to confirm the overall recommendation based on the findings discussed in this report: namely, that the use of surface-modified carbon blacks in the uranium-containing broth will not adversely impact the chemistry of the gelation process, and that high quality uranium oxicarbide (UCO) kernels will be produced after calcination.

  8. Linearity of Climate Response to Increases in Black Carbon Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahajan, Salil; Evans, Katherine J.; Hack, James J.; Truesdale, John

    2013-04-19

    The impact of absorbing aerosols on global climate are not completely understood. Here, we present results of idealized experiments conducted with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) coupled to a slab ocean model (CAM4-SOM) to simulate the climate response to increases in tropospheric black carbon aerosols (BC) by direct and semi-direct effects. CAM4-SOM was forced with 0, 1x, 2x, 5x and 10x an estimate of the present day concentration of BC while maintaining their estimated present day global spatial and vertical distribution. The top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing of BC in these experiments is positive (warming) and increases linearly as the BC burden increases. The total semi-direct effect for the 1x experiment is positive but becomes increasingly negative for higher BC concentrations. The global average surface temperature response is found to be a linear function of the TOA radiative forcing. The climate sensitivity to BC from these experiments is estimated to be 0.42 K $ W^{-1} m^{2}$ when the semi-direct effects are accounted for and 0.22 K $ W^{-1} m^{2}$ with only the direct effects considered. Global average precipitation decreases linearly as BC increases, with a precipitation sensitivity to atmospheric absorption of 0.4 $\\%$ $W^{-1}m^{2}$ . The hemispheric asymmetry of BC also causes an increase in southward cross-equatorial heat transport and a resulting northward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in the simulations at a rate of 4$^{\\circ}$N $ PW^{-1}$. Global average mid- and high-level clouds decrease, whereas the low-level clouds increase linearly with BC. The increase in marine stratocumulus cloud fraction over the south tropical Atlantic is caused by increased BC-induced diabatic heating of the free troposphere.

  9. Diamond Pixel Luminosity Telescopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halyo, Valerie

    2014-12-23

    In this document, Halyo summaries her key contributions to CMS at the LHC and provide an explanation of their importance and her role in each project. At the end Halyo describes her recent research interest that includes GPU/MIC Acceleration of the High Level Trigger (HLT) to Extend the Physics Research at the LHC. A descriptionof her work the recent promising results that she accomplished and the deliverable are also elaborated. These contribution were only possible thanks to DOE support of junior faculty research and their clear goal to promote research and innovations. #3;Princeton University i

  10. Nano-hillock formation in diamond-like carbon induced by swift heavy projectiles in the electronic stopping regime: Experiments and atomistic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwen, D.; Bringa, E.; Krauser, J.; Weidinger, A.; Trautmann, C.; Hofsaess, H.

    2012-09-10

    The formation of surface hillocks in diamond-like carbon is studied experimentally and by means of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations with 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} atoms combined with a thermal spike model. The irradiation experiments with swift heavy ions cover a large electronic stopping range between {approx}12 and 72 keV/nm. Both experiments and simulations show that beyond a stopping power threshold, the hillock height increases linearly with the electronic stopping, and agree extremely well assuming an efficiency of approximately 20% in the transfer of electronic energy to the lattice. The simulations also show a transition of sp{sup 3} to sp{sup 2} bonding along the tracks with the hillocks containing almost no sp{sup 3} contribution.

  11. U-012: BlackBerry Enterprise Server Collaboration Service Bug Lets Remote Users Impersonate Intra-organization Messages

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vulnerability was reported in BlackBerry Enterprise Server. A remote user can impersonate another messaging user within the same organization.

  12. High-reliability passivation of hydrogen-terminated diamond surface by atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daicho, Akira Saito, Tatsuya; Kurihara, Shinichiro; Kawarada, Hiroshi; Hiraiwa, Atsushi

    2014-06-14

    Although the two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) of a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface provides a unique p-type conducting layer for high-performance transistors, the conductivity is highly sensitive to its environment. Therefore, the surface must be passivated to preserve the 2DHG, especially at high temperature. We passivated the surface at high temperature (450?C) without the loss of C-H surface bonds by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and investigated the thermal reliability of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film. As a result, C-H bonds were preserved, and the hole accumulation effect appeared after the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition by ALD with H{sub 2}O as an oxidant. The sheet resistivity and hole density were almost constant between room temperature and 500?C by the passivation with thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film thicker than 38?nm deposited by ALD at 450?C. After the annealing at 550?C in air The sheet resistivity and hole density were preserved. These results indicate the possibility of high-temperature application of the C-H surface diamond device in air. In the case of lower deposition temperatures, the sheet resistivity increased after air annealing, suggesting an insufficient protection capability of these films. Given the result of sheet resistivity after annealing, the increase in the sheet resistivity of these samples was not greatly significant. However, bubble like patterns were observed in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films formed from 200 to 400?C by air annealing at 550?C for 1 h. On the other hand, the patterns were no longer observed at 450?C deposition. Thus, this 450?C deposition is the sole solution to enabling power device application, which requires high reliability at high temperatures.

  13. Reservoir heterogeneity in Carboniferous sandstone of the Black Warrior basin. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.; Irvin, G.D.; Moore, H.E.

    1994-04-01

    Although oil production in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama is declining, additional oil may be produced through improved recovery strategies, such as waterflooding, chemical injection, strategic well placement, and infill drilling. High-quality characterization of reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin is necessary to utilize advanced technology to recover additional oil and to avoid premature abandonment of fields. This report documents controls on the distribution and producibility of oil from heterogeneous Carboniferous reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report summarizes the structural and depositional evolution of the Black Warrior basin and establishes the geochemical characteristics of hydrocarbon source rocks and oil in the basin. This second part characterizes facies heterogeneity and petrologic and petrophysical properties of Carter and Millerella sandstone reservoirs. This is followed by a summary of oil production in the Black Warrior basin and an evaluation of seven improved-recovery projects in Alabama. In the final part, controls on the producibility of oil from sandstone reservoirs are discussed in terms of a scale-dependent heterogeneity classification.

  14. Transition from adiabatic inspiral to plunge into a spinning black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kesden, Michael

    2011-05-15

    A test particle of mass {mu} on a bound geodesic of a Kerr black hole of mass M>>{mu} will slowly inspiral as gravitational radiation extracts energy and angular momentum from its orbit. This inspiral can be considered adiabatic when the orbital period is much shorter than the time scale on which energy is radiated, and quasicircular when the radial velocity is much less than the azimuthal velocity. Although the inspiral always remains adiabatic provided {mu}<black hole's spin changes following a test-particle merger, and can be extrapolated to help predict the mass and spin of the final black hole produced in finite-mass-ratio black-hole mergers. Our new contribution is particularly important for nearly maximally spinning black holes, as it can affect whether a merger produces a naked singularity.

  15. Reservoir heterogeneity in carboniferous sandstone of the Black Warrior basin. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.; Irvin, G.D.; Moore, H.E.

    1994-06-01

    Although oil production in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama is declining, additional oil may be produced through improved recovery strategies, such as waterflooding, chemical injection, strategic well placement, and infill drilling. High-quality characterization of reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin is necessary to utilize advanced technology to recover additional oil and to avoid premature abandonment of fields. This report documents controls on the distribution and producibility of oil from heterogeneous Carboniferous reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report summarizes the structural and depositional evolution of the Black Warrior basin and establishes the geochemical characteristics of hydrocarbon source rocks and oil in the basin. This second part characterizes facies heterogeneity and petrologic and petrophysical properties of Carter and Millerella sandstone reservoirs. This is followed by a summary of oil production in the Black Warrior basin and an evaluation of seven improved-recovery projects in Alabama. In the final part, controls on the producibility of oil from sandstone reservoirs are discussed in terms of a scale-dependent heterogeneity classification.

  16. Evaluation of Black Carbon Estimations in Global Aerosol Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D.; Schulz, M.; Kinne, Stefan; McNaughton, C. S.; Spackman, J. R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T.; Bond, Tami C.; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, M.; Clarke, A. D.; De Luca, N.; Dentener, F.; Diehl, T.; Dubovik, O.; Easter, Richard C.; Fahey, D. W.; Feichter, J.; Fillmore, D.; Freitag, S.; Ghan, Steven J.; Ginoux, P.; Gong, S.; Horowitz, L.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Klimont, Z.; Kondo, Yutaka; Krol, M.; Liu, Xiaohong; Miller, R.; Montanaro, V.; Moteki, N.; Myhre, G.; Penner, J.; Perlwitz, Ja; Pitari, G.; Reddy, S.; Sahu, L.; Sakamoto, H.; Schuster, G.; Schwarz, J. P.; Seland, O.; Stier, P.; Takegawa, Nobuyuki; Takemura, T.; Textor, C.; van Aardenne, John; Zhao, Y.

    2009-11-27

    We evaluate black carbon (BC) model predictions from the AeroCom model intercomparison project by considering the diversity among year 2000 model simulations and comparing model predictions with available measurements. These model-measurement intercomparisons include BC surface and aircraft concentrations, aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) from AERONET and OMI retrievals and BC column estimations based on AERONET. In regions other than Asia, most models are biased high compared to surface concentration measurements. However compared with (column) AAOD or BC burden retreivals, the models are generally biased low. The average ratio of model to retrieved AAOD is less than 0.7 in South American and 0.6 in African biomass burning regions; both of these regions lack surface concentration measurements. In Asia the average model to observed ratio is 0.6 for AAOD and 0.5 for BC surface concentrations. Compared with aircraft measurements over the Americas at latitudes between 0 and 50N, the average model is a factor of 10 larger than observed, and most models exceed the measured BC standard deviation in the mid to upper troposphere. At higher latitudes the average model to aircraft BC is 0.6 and underestimate the observed BC loading in the lower and middle troposphere associated with springtime Arctic haze. Low model bias for AAOD but overestimation of surface and upper atmospheric BC concentrations at lower latitudes suggests that most models are underestimating BC absorption and should improve estimates for refractive index, particle size, and optical effects of BC coating. Retrieval uncertainties and/or differences with model diagnostic treatment may also contribute to the model-measurement disparity. Largest AeroCom model diversity occurred in northern Eurasia and the remote Arctic, regions influenced by anthropogenic sources. Changing emissions, aging, removal, or optical properties within a single model generated a smaller change in model predictions than the range represented by the full set of AeroCom models. Upper tropospheric concentrations of BC mass from the aircraft measurements are suggested to provide a unique new benchmark to test scavenging and vertical dispersion of BC in global models.

  17. Violation of the first law of black hole thermodynamics in f(T) gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miao, Rong-Xin; Li, Miao; Miao, Yan-Gang E-mail: mli@itp.ac.cn

    2011-11-01

    We prove that, in general, the first law of black hole thermodynamics, ?Q = T?S, is violated in f(T) gravity. As a result, it is possible that there exists entropy production, which implies that the black hole thermodynamics can be in non-equilibrium even in the static spacetime. This feature is very different from that of f(R) or that of other higher derivative gravity theories. We find that the violation of first law results from the lack of local Lorentz invariance in f(T) gravity. By investigating two examples, we note that f''(0) should be negative in order to avoid the naked singularities and superluminal motion of light. When f''(T) is small, the entropy of black holes in f(T) gravity is approximatively equal to f'(T)/4 A.

  18. Gravitational waves from the collision of tidally disrupted stars with massive black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    East, William E.

    2014-11-10

    We use simulations of hydrodynamics coupled with full general relativity to investigate the gravitational waves produced by a star colliding with a massive black hole when the star's tidal disruption radius lies far outside of the black hole horizon. We consider both main-sequence and white-dwarf compaction stars, and nonspinning black holes, as well as those with near-extremal spin. We study the regime in between where the star can be accurately modeled by a point particle, and where tidal effects completely suppress the gravitational wave signal. We find that nonnegligible gravitational waves can be produced even when the star is strongly affected by tidal forces, as well as when it collides with large angular momentum. We discuss the implications that these results have for the potential observation of gravitational waves from these sources with future detectors.

  19. SPIN-PRECESSION: BREAKING THE BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR DEGENERACY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatziioannou, Katerina; Cornish, Neil; Klein, Antoine; Yunes, Nicols

    2015-01-01

    Mergers of compact stellar remnants are prime targets for the LIGO/Virgo gravitational wave detectors. The gravitational wave signals from these merger events can be used to study the mass and spin distribution of stellar remnants, and provide information about black hole horizons and the material properties of neutron stars. However, it has been suggested that degeneracies in the way that the star's mass and spin are imprinted in the waveforms may make it impossible to distinguish between black holes and neutron stars. Here we show that the precession of the orbital plane due to spin-orbit coupling breaks the mass-spin degeneracy, and allows us to distinguish between standard neutron stars and alternative possibilities, such as black holes or exotic neutron stars with large masses and spins.

  20. A population of relic intermediate-mass black holes in the halo of the Milky Way

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rashkov, Valery; Madau, Piero

    2014-01-10

    If 'seed' central black holes were common in the subgalactic building blocks that merged to form present-day massive galaxies, then relic intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) should be present in the Galactic bulge and halo. We use a particle tagging technique to dynamically populate the N-body Via Lactea II high-resolution simulation with black holes, and assess the size, properties, and detectability of the leftover population. The method assigns a black hole to the most tightly bound central particle of each subhalo at infall according to an extrapolation of the M {sub BH}-?{sub *} relation, and self-consistently follows the accretion and disruption of Milky Way progenitor dwarfs and their holes in a cosmological 'live' host from high redshift to today. We show that, depending on the minimum stellar velocity dispersion, ? {sub m}, below which central black holes are assumed to be increasingly rare, as many as ?2000 (? {sub m} = 3 km s{sup 1}) or as few as ?70 (? {sub m} = 12 km s{sup 1}) IMBHs may be left wandering in the halo of the Milky Way today. The fraction of IMBHs forced from their hosts by gravitational recoil is ? 20%. We identify two main Galactic subpopulations, 'naked' IMBHs, whose host subhalos were totally destroyed after infall, and 'clothed' IMBHs residing in dark matter satellites that survived tidal stripping. Naked IMBHs typically constitute 40%-50% of the total and are more centrally concentrated. We show that, in the ? {sub m} = 12 km s{sup 1} scenario, the clusters of tightly bound stars that should accompany naked IMBHs would be fainter than m{sub V} = 16 mag, spatially resolvable, and have proper motions of 0.1-10 mas yr{sup 1}. Their detection may provide an observational tool to constrain the formation history of massive black holes in the early universe.

  1. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

    1998-05-01

    The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

  2. Hidden conformal symmetry of rotating black holes in minimal five-dimensional gauged supergravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setare, M. R.; Kamali, V.

    2010-10-15

    In the present paper we show that for a low frequency limit the wave equation of a massless scalar field in the background of nonextremal charged rotating black holes in five-dimensional minimal gauged and ungauged supergravity can be written as the Casimir of an SL(2,R) symmetry. Our result shows that the entropy of the black hole is reproduced by the Cardy formula. Also the absorption cross section is consistent with the finite temperature absorption cross section for a two-dimensional conformal field theory.

  3. Are You Planning to Buy Energy-Efficient Products on Black Friday? |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Planning to Buy Energy-Efficient Products on Black Friday? Are You Planning to Buy Energy-Efficient Products on Black Friday? November 23, 2011 - 5:09am Addthis This week, Chris gave us some great information on shopping for energy-efficient products. He reminded us that the cost to run appliances and home office and electronics is just as important as the purchase price, and posted a new Energy Savers graphic that shows you how to read the EnergyGuide and Energy Star

  4. In Celebration of Black History Month, Energy Secretary Moniz and Director

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the National Museum of African Art Dr. Cole Discuss the Art of Science | Department of Energy In Celebration of Black History Month, Energy Secretary Moniz and Director of the National Museum of African Art Dr. Cole Discuss the Art of Science In Celebration of Black History Month, Energy Secretary Moniz and Director of the National Museum of African Art Dr. Cole Discuss the Art of Science February 23, 2015 - 1:50am Addthis News Media Contact 202 586 4940 RSVP@hq.doe.gov In Celebration of

  5. Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System: A Scientific Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Tami C.; Doherty, Sarah J.; Fahey, D. W.; Forster, Piers; Berntsen, T.; DeAngelo, B. J.; Flanner, M. G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Karcher, B.; Koch, Dorothy; Kinne, Stefan; Kondo, Yutaka; Quinn, P. K.; Sarofim, Marcus; Schultz, Martin; Schulz, M.; Venkataraman, C.; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Bellouin, N.; Guttikunda, S. K.; Hopke, P. K.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Kaiser, J. W.; Klimont, Z.; Lohmann, U.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Shindell, Drew; Storelvmo, Trude; Warren, Stephen G.; Zender, C. S.

    2013-06-06

    Black carbon aerosol plays a unique and important role in Earth’s climate system. Black carbon is a type of carbonaceous material with a unique combination of physical properties. Predominant sources are combustion related; namely, fossil fuels for transportation, solid fuels for industrial and residential uses, and open burning of biomass. Total global emissions of black carbon using bottom-up inventory methods are 7500 Gg yr-1 in the year 2000 with an uncertainty range of 2000 to 29000. This assessment provides an evaluation of black-carbon climate forcing that is comprehensive in its inclusion of all known and relevant processes and that is quantitative in providing best estimates and uncertainties of the main forcing terms: direct solar absorption, influence on liquid, mixed-phase, and ice clouds, and deposition on snow and ice. These effects are calculated with models, but when possible, they are evaluated with both microphysical measurements and field observations. Global atmospheric absorption attributable to black carbon is too low in many models, and should be increased by about about 60%. After this scaling, the best estimate for the industrial-era (1750 to 2005) direct radiative forcing of black carbon is +0.43 W m-2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of (+0.17, +0.68) W m-2. Total direct forcing by all black carbon sources in the present day is estimated as +0.49 (+0.20, +0.76) W m-2. Direct radiative forcing alone does not capture important rapid adjustment mechanisms. A framework is described and used for quantifying climate forcings and their rapid responses and feedbacks. The best estimate of industrial-era (1750 to 2005) climate forcing of black carbon through all forcing mechanisms is +0.77 W m-2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of +-0.06 to +1.53 W m-2. Thus, there is a 96% probability that black carbon emissions, independent of co-emitted species, have a positive forcing and warm the climate. With a value of +0.77 W m-2, black carbon is likely the second most important individual climate-forcing agent in the industrial era, following carbon dioxide. Sources that emit black carbon also emit other short- lived species that may either cool or warm climate. Climate forcings from co-emitted species are estimated and used in the framework described herein. When the principal effects of co- emissions, including cooling agents such as sulfur dioxide, are included in net forcing, energy-related sources (fossil-fuel and biofuel) have a net climate forcing of +0.004 (-0.62 to +0.57) W m-2 during the first year after emission. For a few of these sources, such as diesel engines and possibly residential biofuels, warming is strong enough that eliminating all emissions from these sources would reduce net climate forcing (i.e., produce cooling). When open burning emissions, which emit high levels of organic matter, are included in the total, the best estimate of net industrial-era climate forcing by all black- carbon-rich sources becomes slightly negative (-0.08 W m-2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of -1.23 to +0.81 W m-2). The uncertainties in net climate forcing from black-carbon-rich sources are substantial, largely due to lack of knowledge about cloud interactions with both black carbon and co-emitted organic carbon. In prioritizing potential black-carbon mitigation actions, non-science factors, such as technical feasibility, costs, policy design, and implementation feasibility play important roles. The major sources of black carbon are presently in different stages with regard to the feasibility for near-term mitigation. This assessment, by evaluating the large number and complexity of the associated physical and radiative processes in black-carbon climate forcing, sets a baseline from which to improve future climate forcing estimates.

  6. Near Zero Friction from Nanoscale Lubricants | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22Germantown ... nanoscroll; green underlying graphene on silica; black diamond-like carbon surface. ...

  7. Cold black holes in the Harlow–Hayden approach to firewalls

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ong, Yen Chin; McInnes, Brett; Chen, Pisin

    2014-12-31

    Firewalls are controversial principally because they seem to imply departures from general relativistic expectations in regions of spacetime where the curvature need not be particularly large. One of the virtues of the Harlow–Hayden approach to the firewall paradox, concerning the time available for decoding of Hawking radiation emanating from charged AdS black holes, is precisely that it operates in the context of cold black holes, which are not strongly curved outside the event horizon. Here we clarify this point. The approach is based on ideas borrowed from applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence to the quark–gluon plasma. Firewalls aside, our workmore » presents a detailed analysis of the thermodynamics and evolution of evaporating charged AdS black holes with flat event horizons. We show that, in one way or another, these black holes are always eventually destroyed in a time which, while long by normal standards, is short relative to the decoding time of Hawking radiation.« less

  8. Overspinning a nearly extreme black hole and the weak cosmic censorship conjecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richartz, Mauricio; Saa, Alberto

    2008-10-15

    We revisit here the recent proposal for overspinning a nearly extreme black hole by means of a quantum tunneling process. We show that electrically neutral massless fermions evade possible backreaction effects related to superradiance, confirming the view that it would be indeed possible to form a naked singularity due to quantum effects.

  9. Time delay and magnification centroid due to gravitational lensing by black holes and naked singularities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virbhadra, K. S.; Keeton, C. R.

    2008-06-15

    We model the massive dark object at the center of the Galaxy as a Schwarzschild black hole as well as Janis-Newman-Winicour naked singularities, characterized by the mass and scalar charge parameters, and study gravitational lensing (particularly time delay, magnification centroid, and total magnification) by them. We find that the lensing features are qualitatively similar (though quantitatively different) for Schwarzschild black holes, weakly naked, and marginally strongly naked singularities. However, the lensing characteristics of strongly naked singularities are qualitatively very different from those due to Schwarzschild black holes. The images produced by Schwarzschild black hole lenses and weakly naked and marginally strongly naked singularity lenses always have positive time delays. On the other hand, strongly naked singularity lenses can give rise to images with positive, zero, or negative time delays. In particular, for a large angular source position the direct image (the outermost image on the same side as the source) due to strongly naked singularity lensing always has a negative time delay. We also found that the scalar field decreases the time delay and increases the total magnification of images; this result could have important implications for cosmology. As the Janis-Newman-Winicour metric also describes the exterior gravitational field of a scalar star, naked singularities as well as scalar star lenses, if these exist in nature, will serve as more efficient cosmic telescopes than regular gravitational lenses.

  10. Thermodynamics of rotating charged black branes in third order lovelock gravity and the counterterm method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M.H.; Mann, R.B.

    2006-05-15

    We generalize the quasilocal definition of the stress-energy tensor of Einstein gravity to the case of third order Lovelock gravity, by introducing the surface terms that make the action well-defined. We also introduce the boundary counterterm that removes the divergences of the action and the conserved quantities of the solutions of third order Lovelock gravity with zero curvature boundary at constant t and r. Then, we compute the charged rotating solutions of this theory in n+1 dimensions with a complete set of allowed rotation parameters. These charged rotating solutions present black hole solutions with two inner and outer event horizons, extreme black holes or naked singularities provided the parameters of the solutions are suitably chosen. We compute temperature, entropy, charge, electric potential, mass and angular momenta of the black hole solutions, and find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We find a Smarr-type formula and perform a stability analysis by computing the heat capacity and the determinant of Hessian matrix of mass with respect to its thermodynamic variables in both the canonical and the grand-canonical ensembles, and show that the system is thermally stable. This is commensurate with the fact that there is no Hawking-Page phase transition for black objects with zero curvature horizon.

  11. Black holes in an asymptotically safe gravity theory with higher derivatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Yi-Fu; Easson, Damien A. E-mail: easson@asu.edu

    2010-09-01

    We present a class of spherically symmetric vacuum solutions to an asymptotically safe theory of gravity containing high-derivative terms. We find quantum corrected Schwarzschild-(anti)-de Sitter solutions with running gravitational coupling parameters. The evolution of the couplings is determined by their corresponding renormalization group flow equations. These black holes exhibit properties of a classical Schwarzschild solution at large length scales. At the center, the metric factor remains smooth but the curvature singularity, while softened by the quantum corrections, persists. The solutions have an outer event horizon and an inner Cauchy horizon which equate when the physical mass decreases to a critical value. Super-extremal solutions with masses below the critical value correspond to naked singularities. The Hawking temperature of the black hole vanishes when the physical mass reaches the critical value. Hence, the black holes in the asymptotically safe gravitational theory never completely evaporate. For appropriate values of the parameters such stable black hole remnants make excellent dark matter candidates.

  12. Entropy of near-extremal black holes in AdS5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, Joan; Balasubramanian, Vijay; de Boer, Jan; Jejjala, Vishnu; Simon, Joan

    2007-07-24

    We construct the microstates of near-extremal black holes in AdS_5 x S5 as gases of defects distributed in heavy BPS operators in the dual SU(N) Yang-Mills theory. These defects describe open strings on spherical D3-branes in the S5, and we show that they dominate the entropy by directly enumerating them and comparing the results with a partition sum calculation. We display new decoupling limits in which the field theory of the lightest open strings on the D-branes becomes dual to a near-horizon region of the black hole geometry. In the single-charge black hole we find evidence for an infrared duality between SU(N) Yang-Mills theories that exchanges the rank of the gauge group with an R-charge. In the two-charge case (where pairs of branes intersect on a line), the decoupled geometry includes an AdS_3 factor with a two-dimensional CFT dual. The degeneracy in this CFT accounts for the black hole entropy. In the three-charge case (where triples of branes intersect at a point), the decoupled geometry contains an AdS_2 factor. Below a certain critical mass, the two-charge system displays solutions with naked timelike singularities even though they do not violate a BPS bound. We suggest a string theoretic resolution of these singularities.

  13. Summation over histories for a particle in spherical orbit around a black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernido, C.C.; Aguarte, G.

    1997-08-01

    An exact path integral treatment of a relativistic scalar particle in a spherical orbit around a Reissner-Nordstr{umlt o}m and Schwarzschild black hole is presented. A closed form for the Green function and the energy spectrum are obtained. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Synthesis and characterization of black, red and yellow nanoparticles pigments from the iron sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mufti, Nandang Atma, T. Fuad, A.; Sutadji, E.

    2014-09-25

    The aim of this research is to synthesize nanoparticles of black pigment of Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), red pigment of hematite (?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and yellow pigment of ghoetite (?-FeOOH) from the iron sand. The black pigment of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the yellow pigment ?-FeOOH nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method with variation of pH. Whereas, the red pigment Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was synthesized by sintering Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles at temperature between 400 C and 700 7C for 1 hour. All the pigments has been characterized using X-ray diffraction and SEM. The XRD results shown that the particle size of the black pigmen Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, red pigment Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and yellow pigment ?-FeOOH are around 12, 32, and 30 nm respectively. The particle size of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles increase by increasing sintering temperature from 32 nm at 400 C to 39 nm at 700 C. For yellow pigment of ?-FeOOH, the particle size increase by increasing pH from 30,54 nm at pH 4 to 48,60 nm at pH 7. The SEM results shown that the morphologies of black, yellow and red pigments are aglomarated.

  15. Cold black holes in the HarlowHayden approach to firewalls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, Yen Chin; McInnes, Brett; Chen, Pisin

    2014-12-31

    Firewalls are controversial principally because they seem to imply departures from general relativistic expectations in regions of spacetime where the curvature need not be particularly large. One of the virtues of the HarlowHayden approach to the firewall paradox, concerning the time available for decoding of Hawking radiation emanating from charged AdS black holes, is precisely that it operates in the context of cold black holes, which are not strongly curved outside the event horizon. Here we clarify this point. The approach is based on ideas borrowed from applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence to the quarkgluon plasma. Firewalls aside, our work presents a detailed analysis of the thermodynamics and evolution of evaporating charged AdS black holes with flat event horizons. We show that, in one way or another, these black holes are always eventually destroyed in a time which, while long by normal standards, is short relative to the decoding time of Hawking radiation.

  16. Paleoecology of the Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence in eastern Kentucky with an atlas of some common fossils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barron, L.S.; Ettensohn, F.R.

    1981-04-01

    The Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence of eastern North America is a distinctive stratigraphic interval generally characterized by low clastic influx, high organic production in the water column, anaerobic bottom conditions, and the relative absence of fossil evidence for biologic activity. The laminated black shales which constitute most of the black-shale sequence are broken by two major sequences of interbedded greenish-gray, clayey shales which contain bioturbation and pyritized micromorph invertebrates. The black shales contain abundant evidence of life from upper parts of the water column such as fish fossils, conodonts, algae and other phytoplankton; however, there is a lack of evidence of benthic life. The rare brachiopods, crinoids, and molluscs that occur in the black shales were probably epiplanktic. A significant physical distinction between the environment in which the black sediments were deposited and that in which the greenish-gray sediments were deposited was the level of dissolved oxygen. The laminated black shales point to anaerobic conditions and the bioturbated greenish-gray shales suggest dysaerobic to marginally aerobic-dysaerobic conditions. A paleoenvironmental model in which quasi-estuarine circulation compliments and enhances the effect of a stratified water column can account for both depletion of dissolved oxygen in the bottom environments and the absence of oxygen replenishment during black-shale deposition. Periods of abundant clastic influx from fluvial environments to the east probably account for the abundance of clays in the greenish-gray shale as well as the small amounts of oxygen necessary to support the depauparate, opportunistic, benthic faunas found there. These pulses of greenish-gray clastics were short-lived and eventually were replaced by anaerobic conditions and low rates of clastic sedimentation which characterized most of black-shale deposition.

  17. Complete characterization by Raman spectroscopy of the structural properties of thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films exposed to rapid thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Franck Wang, Na; Smith, Robert; Xiao, Qi-Fan; Dai, Qing; Marchon, Bruno; Inaba, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Toru; Saito, Yoko; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Mangolini, Filippo; Carpick, Robert W.

    2014-09-28

    We have demonstrated that multi-wavelength Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies are sufficient to completely characterize the structural properties of ultra-thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC:H) films subjected to rapid thermal annealing (RTA, 1 s up to 659 C) and to resolve the structural differences between films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, facing target sputtering and filtered cathodic vacuum arc with minute variations in values of mass density, hydrogen content, and sp fraction. In order to distinguish unequivocally between films prepared with different density, thickness, and RTA treatment, a new method for analysis of Raman spectra was invented. This newly developed analysis method consisted of plotting the position of the Raman G band of carbon versus its full width at half maximum. Moreover, we studied the passivation of non-radiative recombination centers during RTA by performing measurements of the increase in photoluminescence in conjunction with the analysis of DLC:H networks simulated by molecular dynamics. The results show that dangling bond passivation is primarily a consequence of thermally-induced sp clustering rather than hydrogen diffusion in the film.

  18. Gold nanoparticle formation in diamond-like carbon using two different methods: Gold ion implantation and co-deposition of gold and carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Araujo, W. W. R.; Sgubin, L. G.; Cattani, M.; Spirin, R. E.; Brown, I. G.

    2012-10-01

    We describe work in which gold nanoparticles were formed in diamond-like carbon (DLC), thereby generating a Au-DLC nanocomposite. A high-quality, hydrogen-free DLC thin film was formed by filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition, into which gold nanoparticles were introduced using two different methods. The first method was gold ion implantation into the DLC film at a number of decreasing ion energies, distributing the gold over a controllable depth range within the DLC. The second method was co-deposition of gold and carbon, using two separate vacuum arc plasma guns with suitably interleaved repetitive pulsing. Transmission electron microscope images show that the size of the gold nanoparticles obtained by ion implantation is 3-5 nm. For the Au-DLC composite obtained by co-deposition, there were two different nanoparticle sizes, most about 2 nm with some 6-7 nm. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the implanted sample contains a smaller fraction of sp{sup 3} bonding for the DLC, demonstrating that some sp{sup 3} bonds are destroyed by the gold implantation.

  19. Null geodesics and shadow of a rotating black hole in extended Chern-Simons modified gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amarilla, Leonardo; Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Giribet, Gaston

    2010-06-15

    The Chern-Simons modification to general relativity in four dimensions consists of adding to the Einstein-Hilbert term a scalar field that couples to the first-class Pontryagin density. In this theory, which has attracted considerable attention recently, the Schwarzschild metric persists as an exact solution, and this is why this model resists several observational constraints. In contrast, the spinning black hole solution of the theory is not given by the Kerr metric but by a modification of it, so far only known for slow rotation and small coupling constant. In the present paper, we show that, in this approximation, the null geodesic equation can be integrated, and this allows us to investigate the shadow cast by a black hole. We discuss how, in addition to the angular momentum of the solution, the coupling to the Chern-Simons term deforms the shape of the shadow.

  20. Thermodynamics of charged rotating black branes in Brans-Dicke theory with quadratic scalar field potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M. H.; Pakravan, J.; Hendi, S. H.

    2006-11-15

    We construct a class of charged rotating solutions in (n+1)-dimensional Maxwell-Brans-Dicke theory with flat horizon in the presence of a quadratic potential and investigate their properties. These solutions are neither asymptotically flat nor (anti)-de Sitter. We find that these solutions can present black brane, with inner and outer event horizons, an extreme black brane or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitably. We compute the finite Euclidean action through the use of counterterm method, and obtain the conserved and thermodynamic quantities by using the relation between the action and free energy in grand-canonical ensemble. We find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics, and the entropy does not follow the area law.