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Sample records for walls nan jiang

  1. Hai Jiang | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hai Jiang Resident Associate E-mail haijiang@iastate.edu

  2. Jiang_CDFT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CDFT prediction of the complete spectrum of the capacitance vs. pore size curve for both ionic liquid (black) and organic electrolyte (red) with 0.5 nm ion diameters. FIRST Center Research Perspective: Development and application of static and dynamic classical density functional theory for capacitive energy storage De-en Jiang Oak Ridge National Laboratory Jianzhong Wu University of California, Riverside Research Summary: We have developed and applied static and dynamic classical density

  3. Wei Jiang | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wei Jiang Assistant Computational Scientist Wei Jiang Argonne National Laboratory 9700 S. Cass Avenue Building 240 - Rm. 2128 Argonne IL, 60439 630-252-8688 wjiang@alcf.anl.gov...

  4. Jie Jiang | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jie Jiang Research Aide - VIZ Team Argonne National Laboratory 9700 S. Cass Avenue Building 240 - Wkstn. 4E9A Argonne, IL 60439 jiejiang@anl...

  5. Lin Cang Lin Jiang Hydropower Development Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lin Cang Lin Jiang Hydropower Development Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lin Cang Lin Jiang Hydropower Development Co., Ltd Place: Lincang City, China Zip: 677000 Sector:...

  6. B. Jiang*, J.M. Zuo1 , J. Friis2 ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    On the consistency of QCBED structure factor measurements for TiOa (Rutile) B. Jiang*, J.M. Zuo1 , J. Friis2 and J.C.H. Spence * email: jiangb@asu.edu Department of Physics, ...

  7. HeWind Co Ltd ZheJiang Huayi Wind Energy Development | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    HeWind Co Ltd ZheJiang Huayi Wind Energy Development Jump to: navigation, search Name: HeWind Co Ltd (ZheJiang Huayi Wind Energy Development) Place: Yueqing, Zhejiang Province,...

  8. Shantou Dan Nan Wind Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shantou Dan Nan Wind Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shantou Dan Nan Wind Power Co Ltd Place: Shantou, Guangdong Province, China Zip: 515041 Sector: Wind energy...

  9. Huayuan ChunJiang Power Generation Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd Place: Hunan Province, China Zip: 416400 Sector: Hydro Product: Hunan-based small hydro project developer. References: Huayuan ChunJiang Power Generation Co., Ltd1 This...

  10. Nan Sauer named Associate Director for Chemistry, Life, and Earth...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sauer named AD for Chemistry, Life, and Earth Sciences Nan Sauer named Associate Director for Chemistry, Life, and Earth Sciences Sauer has a distinguished track record as a ...

  11. CEEG NanJing New Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    integrates services including the research, development, production, sales of polysilicon solar panel References: CEEG (NanJing) New Energy1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  12. HydroChina ZhongNan Engineering Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ZhongNan Engineering Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: HydroChina ZhongNan Engineering Corp Place: Hunan Province, China Sector: Hydro, Wind energy Product: Hunan...

  13. Henan Mingdu Wind Power Co Ltd aka He Nan Ming Du Feng Dian Limited...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mingdu Wind Power Co Ltd aka He Nan Ming Du Feng Dian Limited Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: Henan Mingdu Wind Power Co Ltd (aka He Nan Ming Du Feng Dian Limited...

  14. Wall Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-10-01

    This fact sheet provides information on advanced wall framing, including insulating walls, airtight construction, and moisture control.

  15. HEl'lORANDUtl TO: FILE DATE& ALTERNATE Ya NAnE~---

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ^I ,, ".. , ,' a . . _- HEl'lORANDUtl TO: FILE DATE& ALTERNATE Ya NAnE~--- Owner ccntacted TYPE OF OPERATION ----------_--____ 0 Research 81 Development 0 Production scale testing Cl Pilot Scale 0 Bench Scale Process 0 Theoretical Studies 0 Sample 81 Analysis -'* x Production 0 Disposal/Storage Ivp_E~EJx!!IEecI 0 Prim0 0 Subcontract& )rq Purchase Oider J4 .~ Facility Type M Manuiacturi 0 University 0 Research Or 0 Government 0 Other ----- cl Other informat + fixed fer, u f b%wm!s

  16. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Bicyclic imidazolium ionic liquids as potential electrolytes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries Liao, Chen ; Shao, Nan ; Bell, Jason R ; Guo, Bingkun ; Luo, Huimin ; Jiang, ...

  17. Wall surveyor project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullenhoff, D.J.; Johnston, B.C.; Azevedo, S.G.

    1996-02-22

    A report is made on the demonstration of a first-generation Wall Surveyor that is capable of surveying the interior and thickness of a stone, brick, or cement wall. LLNL`s Micropower Impulse Radar is used, based on emitting and detecting very low amplitude and short microwave impulses (MIR rangefinder). Six test walls were used. While the demonstrator MIR Wall Surveyor is not fieldable yet, it has successfully scanned the test walls and produced real-time images identifying the walls. It is planned to optimize and package the evaluation wall surveyor into a hand held unit.

  18. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maniscalco, James A.; Meier, Wayne R.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  19. Tokamak reactor first wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creedon, R.L.; Levine, H.E.; Wong, C.; Battaglia, J.

    1984-11-20

    This invention relates to an improved first wall construction for a tokamak fusion reactor vessel, or other vessels subjected to similar pressure and thermal stresses.

  20. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  1. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  2. Axion domain wall baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daido, Ryuji; Kitajima, Naoya; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-07-28

    We propose a new scenario of baryogenesis, in which annihilation of axion domain walls generates a sizable baryon asymmetry. Successful baryogenesis is possible for a wide range of the axion mass and decay constant, m≃10{sup 8}–10{sup 13} GeV and f≃10{sup 13}–10{sup 16} GeV. Baryonic isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed in our model, in contrast to various spontaneous baryogenesis scenarios in the slow-roll regime. In particular, the axion domain wall baryogenesis is consistent with high-scale inflation which generates a large tensor-to-scalar ratio within the reach of future CMB B-mode experiments. We also discuss the gravitational waves produced by the domain wall annihilation and its implications for the future gravitational wave experiments.

  3. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Lois; Mantha, Pallavi

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  4. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  5. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  6. The Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Sampayan, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    The Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a class of induction accelerators, employs a novel insulating beam tube to impress a longitudinal electric field on a bunch of charged particles. The surface flashover characteristics of this tube may permit the attainment of accelerating gradients on the order of 100 MV/m for accelerating pulses on the order of a nanosecond in duration. A virtual traveling wave of excitation along the tube is produced at any desired speed by controlling the timing of pulse generating modules that supply a tangential electric field to the tube wall. Because of the ability to control the speed of this virtual wave, the accelerator is capable of handling any charge to mass ratio particle; hence it can be used for electrons, protons and any ion. The accelerator architectures, key technologies and development challenges will be described.

  7. NREL: Energy Analysis - Anna Wall

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anna Wall Photo of Anna Wall Anna Wall is a member of the Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group in the Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Energy Technologies Analyst On staff since April 2014 Phone number: 303-384-6887 E-mail: anna.wall@nrel.gov Areas of expertise Geochemistry (aqueous and hard rock), with applications to geothermal resource characterization and mineral carbon sequestration Ratings methodologies and energy resource reporting standards Sustainable equity finance:

  8. Bumper wall for plasma device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coultas, Thomas A.

    1977-01-01

    Operation of a plasma device such as a reactor for controlled thermonuclear fusion is facilitated by an improved bumper wall enclosing the plasma to smooth the flow of energy from the plasma as the energy impinges upon the bumper wall. The bumper wall is flexible to withstand unequal and severe thermal shocks and it is readily replaced at less expense than the cost of replacing structural material in the first wall and blanket that surround it.

  9. MAYmw Wall0

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ,...-. ~_I : Cd.0 / ., j: ' ! -;:---- /,5l2 MAYmw Wall0 50 l/89 NE-23 NE-23 List of California Sites Hattie Carwell. SAN/NSQA Division Attached for your information is the list of California sites we identified in our search of Manhattdn Engineer District records for the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). None of the facilities listed qualified for FUSRAP,'Vhe;:only'site in California that was included in FUSRAP was Gilman Hall on the University of California-Berkeley

  10. Todd Vander Wall | Bioenergy | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vander Wall Research Scientist Todd.Vander.Wall@nrel.gov | 303-384-7783 Research Interests Todd Vander Wall comes to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from the environmental and chemical engineering industry, where he focused on environmental chemistry. He originally designed and implemented methanogenesis systems for the growth and collection of biogenic methane from municipal solid waste. Following that, he performed in-situ investigations on thermogenic methane from subsurface

  11. Oven wall panel construction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1980-04-22

    An oven roof or wall is formed from modular panels, each of which comprises an inner fabric and an outer fabric. Each such fabric is formed with an angle iron framework and somewhat resilient tie-bars or welded at their ends to flanges of the angle irons to maintain the inner and outer frameworks in spaced disposition while minimizing heat transfer by conduction and permitting some degree of relative movement on expansion and contraction of the module components. Suitable thermal insulation is provided within the module. Panels or skins are secured to the fabric frameworks and each such skin is secured to a framework and projects laterally so as slidingly to overlie the adjacent frame member of an adjacent panel in turn to permit relative movement during expansion and contraction.

  12. disrupting the plant cell wall

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    disrupting the plant cell wall - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ...

  13. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  14. Illite/Smectite diagenesis in the NanXiang, Yitong, and North China Permian-carboniferous basins: Application to petroleum exploration in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xinhua Deng; Youngchuan Sun; Xinrong Lei

    1996-02-01

    The NanXiang basin in Henan Province and the Yitong basin in Jilin Province, located in the eastern part of China, are composed mainly of Tertiary nonmarine clastic sequences that thicken to more than 4000-5000 m. The North China Permian-Carboniferous basin consists of Permian-Carboniferous systems composed of marine and nonmarine coal-bearing sequences. Clay diagenesis in these basins was studied by systematic x-ray diffraction analysis. The clay mineralogy consists of illite, smectite, mixed-layered illite/smectite (I/S), kaolinite, and chlorite. The major clay reaction is the illitization of smectite with depth and temperature. The reactions generally involve discrete smectite stage to smectite, plus the randomly interstratified I/S (R = 0 in the Reichweite nomenclature), followed by the first rapid change (1) to the ordered I/S of short-range stacking (R = 1) and the second rapid change (11) to the metastable stage (with the ordered I/S of long-range stacking-R {ge}3). The first rapid change leads to the appearance of I/S-ordered I/S and disappearance of discrete smectite. The proportion of smectite layers (Ps) in the I/S in the metastable stage remained unchanged (15-20%) over a thick burial interval. The discrete illite stage finally occurs in highly mature areas. Potassium-feldspar (K-feldspar) in rocks and K ions in present formation waters are available for the I/S reactions; I/S reactions in these areas responded mainly to temperature. The I/S transition from the randomly interstratified I/S (R = 0) to the ordered I/S occurred at 80-95{degrees}C and coincided with the onset of the oil window in source rocks and with secondary porosity enhancement of sand-stones. Integrating the I/S reactions with thermal histories, hydrological regimes, structure, sedimentation, and sandstone diagenesis of each basin allows formulation of clay diagenetic models for each specific basin.

  15. Nan Li | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    He obtained his Ph.D. in astrophysics from National Astronomical Observatory of China in ... Ph.D., National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, ...

  16. Wall Insulation; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southface Energy Institute; Tromly, K.

    2000-11-07

    Properly sealed, moisture-protected, and insulated walls help increase comfort, reduce noise, and save on energy costs. This fact sheet addresses these topics plus advanced framing techniques, insulation types, wall sheathings, and steps for effective wall construction and insulation.

  17. Security_Walls_VPP_Award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recognized for Outstanding Safety CARLSBAD, N.M., May 10, 2013 - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded Security Walls, LLC, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's (WIPP)...

  18. MHD Electrode and wall constructions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Way, Stewart; Lempert, Joseph

    1984-01-01

    Electrode and wall constructions for the walls of a channel transmitting the hot plasma in a magnetohydrodynamic generator. The electrodes and walls are made of a plurality of similar modules which are spaced from one another along the channel. The electrodes can be metallic or ceramic, and each module includes one or more electrodes which are exposed to the plasma and a metallic cooling bar which is spaced from the plasma and which has passages through which a cooling fluid flows to remove heat transmitted from the electrode to the cooling bar. Each electrode module is spaced from and electrically insulated from each adjacent module while interconnected by the cooling fluid which serially flows among selected modules. A wall module includes an electrically insulating ceramic body exposed to the plasma and affixed, preferably by mechanical clips or by brazing, to a metallic cooling bar spaced from the plasma and having cooling fluid passages. Each wall module is, similar to the electrode modules, electrically insulated from the adjacent modules and serially interconnected to other modules by the cooling fluid.

  19. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  20. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated.

  1. 2013 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wall Street Perspective on SMRs 2013 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs Summary of results of a 2013 survey on Wall Street attitudes toward small modular reactors. 2013 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs (597.12 KB) More Documents & Publications 2014 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs - Report 2014 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs 2015 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs Update

  2. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagasse, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  3. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  4. Wall System Innovations: Familiar Materials, Better Performance |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Wall System Innovations: Familiar Materials, Better Performance Wall System Innovations: Familiar Materials, Better Performance This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Technical Update meeting on April 29-30, 2013, in Denver, Colorado. wall_system_innovations_kochkin.pdf (1.48 MB) More Documents & Publications Building America New Homes Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House Building

  5. Promising Technology: Cool Paints for Exterior Walls

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cool Paints increase the solar reflectance of exterior walls. By reflecting more sunlight, the wall surface maintains a cooler temperature. This decrease in temperature leads to less heat transfer through the walls into the building. During the cooling season, the addition of cool paints can decrease the cooling load of the building.

  6. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of

  7. Mechanism of bubble detachment from vibrating walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dongjun; Park, Jun Kwon Kang, Kwan Hyoung; Kang, In Seok

    2013-11-15

    We discovered a previously unobserved mechanism by which air bubbles detach from vibrating walls in glasses containing water. Chaotic oscillation and subsequent water jets appeared when a wall vibrated at greater than a critical level. Wave forms were developed at water-air interface of the bubble by the wall vibration, and water jets were formed when sufficiently grown wave-curvatures were collapsing. Droplets were pinched off from the tip of jets and fell to the surface of the glass. When the solid-air interface at the bubble-wall attachment point was completely covered with water, the bubble detached from the wall. The water jets were mainly generated by subharmonic waves and were generated most vigorously when the wall vibrated at the volume resonant frequency of the bubble. Bubbles of specific size can be removed by adjusting the frequency of the wall's vibration.

  8. SRNL POROUS WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wicks, G; Leung Heung, L; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-15

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a new medium for storage of hydrogen and other gases. This involves fabrication of thin, Porous Walled, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), with diameters generally in the range of 1 to several hundred microns. What is unique about the glass microballons is that porosity has been induced and controlled within the thin, one micron thick walls, on the scale of 10 to several thousand Angstroms. This porosity results in interesting properties including the ability to use these channels to fill the microballons with special absorbents and other materials, thus providing a contained environment even for reactive species. Gases can now enter the microspheres and be retained on the absorbents, resulting in solid-state and contained storage of even reactive species. Also, the porosity can be altered and controlled in various ways, and even used to filter mixed gas streams within a system. SRNL is involved in about a half dozen different programs involving these PW-HGMs and an overview of some of these activities and results emerging are presented.

  9. 2014 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs 2014 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs Summary briefing on the results of a 2014 survey of Wall Street attitudes toward SMRs. 2014 New Generation Financial Survey (423.08 KB) More Documents & Publications 2014 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs - Report 2015 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs Update 2013 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs

  10. 2015 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs Update | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs Update 2015 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs Update Summary briefing on the results of a September 2015 survey of Wall Street attitudes toward SMRs. 2015 Financial Survey: Nuclear Energy (415.36 KB) More Documents & Publications 2014 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs 2014 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs - Report 2013 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs

  11. Seismic behavior of geogrid reinforced slag wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edincliler, Ayse; Baykal, Gokhan; Saygili, Altug

    2008-07-08

    Flexible retaining structures are known with their high performance under earthquake loads. In geogrid reinforced walls the performance of the fill material and the interface of the fill and geogrid controls the performance. Geosynthetic reinforced walls in seismic regions must be safe against not only static forces but also seismic forces. The objective of this study is to determine the behavior of a geogrid reinforced slag wall during earthquake by using shaking table experiments. This study is composed of three stages. In the first stage the physical properties of the material to be used were determined. In the second part, a case history involving the use of slag from steel industry in the construction of geogrid reinforced wall is presented. In the third stage, the results of shaking table tests conducted using model geogrid wall with slag are given. From the results, it is seen that slag can be used as fill material for geogrid reinforced walls subjected to earthquake loads.

  12. Textural break foundation wall construction modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Steven J.

    1990-01-01

    Below-grade, textural-break foundation wall structures are provided for inhibiting diffusion and advection of liquids and gases into and out from a surrounding hydrogeologic environment. The foundation wall structure includes a foundation wall having an interior and exterior surface and a porous medium disposed around a portion of the exterior surface. The structure further includes a modular barrier disposed around a portion of the porous medium. The modular barrier is substantially removable from the hydrogeologic environment.

  13. Panelized wall system with foam core insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, Jan; Gaskin, Sally

    2009-10-20

    A wall system includes a plurality of wall members, the wall members having a first metal panel, a second metal panel, and an insulating core between the first panel and the second panel. At least one of the first panel and the second panel include ridge portions. The insulating core can be a foam, such as a polyurethane foam. The foam can include at least one opacifier to improve the k-factor of the foam.

  14. First wall for polarized fusion reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenside, Henry S.; Budny, Robert V.; Post, Jr., Douglass E.

    1988-01-01

    Depolarization mechanisms arising from the recycling of the polarized fuel at the limiter and the first-wall of a fusion reactor are greater than those mechanisms in the plasma. Rapid depolarization of the plasma is prevented by providing a first-wall or first-wall coating formed of a low-Z, non-metallic material having a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec.sup.-1.

  15. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  16. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  17. Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

    2002-07-30

    The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

  18. First wall for polarized fusion reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenside, H.S.; Budny, R.V.; Post, D.E. Jr.

    1985-01-29

    A first-wall or first-wall coating for use in a fusion reactor having polarized fuel may be formed of a low-Z non-metallic material having slow spin relaxation, i.e., a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec/sup -1/. Materials having these properties include hydrogenated and deuterated amorphous semiconductors. A method for preventing the rapid depolarization of a polarized plasma in a fusion device may comprise the step of providing a first-wall or first-wall coating formed of a low-Z, non-metallic material having a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec/sup -1/.

  19. Living Walls | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    systems and the new field of biomimicry. Biomimicry is the science of imitating nature to solve human design problems. The Living Wall concept takes the principles behind...

  20. Water Wall Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Water Wall Turbine Region: Canada Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: www.wwturbine.com This company is listed in the Marine and Hydrokinetic...

  1. Wall, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wall, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.3936801, -79.7861577 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingser...

  2. Multiple moving wall dry coal extrusion pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2013-05-14

    A pump for transporting particulate material includes a passageway defined on each side between an inlet and an outlet by a moving wall.

  3. CXD 4606, 9831 Wall Construction Project (4606)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9831 Wall Construction Project (4606) Y-12 Site Office Oak Ridge, Anderson County, Tennessee The proposed action is to upgrade of the existing contamination area associated with an...

  4. new chemistry to break down cell walls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    new chemistry to break down cell walls - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ...

  5. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1” to 1 ½”), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  6. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1" to 1 1/2"), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  7. 2014 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs - Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs - Report 2014 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs - Report Summary of the results of a 2014 survey of Wall Street attitudes toward small modular reactors. View from Wall Street: Nuclear Energy and Small Modular Reactors (284.42 KB) More Documents & Publications 2013 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs 2014 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs 2015 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs Update

  8. Risk Assessment of Energy-Efficient Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallin, Simon B.; Hun, Diana E.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Kehrer, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    This multi-year project aims to provide the residential construction industry with energy-efficient wall designs that are moisture durable. The present work focused on the initial step of this project, which is to develop a moisture durability protocol that identifies energy efficient wall designs that have a low probability of experiencing moisture problems.

  9. Near-wall serpentine cooled turbine airfoil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2014-10-28

    A serpentine coolant flow path is formed by inner walls in a cavity between pressure and suction side walls of a turbine airfoil, the cavity partitioned by one or more transverse partitions into a plurality of continuous serpentine cooling flow streams each having a respective coolant inlet.

  10. Automotion of domain walls for spintronic interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

    2014-06-07

    We simulate “automotion,” the transport of a magnetic domain wall under the influence of demagnetization and magnetic anisotropy, in nanoscale spintronic interconnects. In contrast to spin transfer driven magnetic domain wall motion, the proposed interconnects operate without longitudinal charge current transfer, with only a transient current pulse at domain wall creation and have favorable scaling down to the 20 nm dimension. Cases of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization are considered. Analytical dependence of the velocity of domain walls on the angle of magnetization are compared with full micromagnetic simulations. Deceleration, attenuation and disappearance, and reflection of domain walls are demonstrated through simulation. Dependences of the magnetization angle on the current pulse parameters are studied. The energy and delay analysis suggests that automotion is an attractive option for spintronic logic interconnects.

  11. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates High performance walls represent a high priority...

  12. High-R Walls - Building America Top Innovation | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    America Top Innovation This photo shows two framed walls. High-performance homes require walls that cost-effectively ... R-value is almost always lower than the rated whole-wall ...

  13. Thin Wall Cast Iron: Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doru M. Stefanescu

    2005-07-21

    The development of thin-wall technology allows the designers of energy consuming equipment to select the most appropriate material based on cost/material properties considerations, and not solely on density. The technology developed in this research project will permit the designers working for the automotive industry to make a better informed choice between competing materials and thin wall cast iron, thus decreasing the overall cost of the automobile.

  14. Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of enclosed objects and ... Title: Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of enclosed objects and ...

  15. Lanzhou Great Wall Development Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wall Development Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lanzhou Great Wall Development Co., Ltd. Place: Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China Zip: 730000 Sector: Hydro Product:...

  16. YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant With Energy Efficiency Standard YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant With Energy Efficiency ...

  17. Modifications of the cell wall of yeasts grown on hexadecane...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modifications of the cell wall of yeasts grown on hexadecane and under starvation conditions Title Modifications of the cell wall of yeasts grown on hexadecane and under starvation...

  18. Wall Lake Municipal Utilities Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipal Utilities Energy Purchaser Wall Lake Municipal Utilities Location Wall Lake IA Coordinates 42.281965, -95.094098 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  19. Luminescent single-walled carbon nanotube/silica composite materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Luminescent single-walled carbon nanotubesilica composite materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Luminescent single-walled carbon nanotubesilica composite materials ...

  20. Fluorescent single walled nanotube/silica composite materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Fluorescent single walled nanotubesilica composite materials Fluorescent composites of surfactant-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were prepared by exposing ...

  1. 2014 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs - Report | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Perspectives on SMRs - Report 2014 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs - Report Summary of the results of a 2014 survey of Wall Street attitudes toward small modular reactors. PDF ...

  2. Wall of fundamental constants (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Wall of fundamental constants Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Wall of fundamental constants Authors: Olive, Keith A. ; Peloso, Marco ; Uzan, Jean-Philippe Publication ...

  3. Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes in Organic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube...

  4. MHK Technologies/Water Wall Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Water Wall Turbine.png Technology Profile Primary Organization Water Wall Turbine Technology Type Click...

  5. Solar Decathlon 2013: Raising More Than Just Walls | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Raising More Than Just Walls Solar Decathlon 2013: Raising More Than Just Walls September ... To celebrate the groundbreaking of their Solar Decathlon house, the team invited all of ...

  6. Luminescent single-walled carbon nanotube/silica composite materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Luminescent single-walled carbon nanotubesilica composite materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Luminescent single-walled carbon nanotubesilica composite materials...

  7. Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case Study Analysis Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case Study Analysis This report considers a ...

  8. Degradation of Algal Cell Walls by Enzymes and Dyes - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Degradation of Algal Cell Walls by Enzymes and Dyes National Renewable Energy Laboratory ... for extracting the oils from the cells by first weakening the cell walls using enzymes. ...

  9. Wall-E Is So Jealous Right Now: SRR Robots Help Clean Up SRS | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Wall-E Is So Jealous Right Now: SRR Robots Help Clean Up SRS Wall-E Is So Jealous Right Now: SRR Robots Help Clean Up SRS June 13, 2012 - 3:09pm Addthis What Is A PackBot? The PackBot, which is the size of a foot stool, is a versatile ground robot that efficiently navigates various terrain including rubble, narrow passages and steep grades. Multiple cameras on the robot will relay real-time images to the operator control unit. These images, coupled with a 3-D image of the PackBot

  10. Building a barrier wall through boulders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, D.R.; Mann, M.J. ); Tulett, R.C. )

    1994-10-01

    When the Occidental Chemical Co., Niagara Falls, N.Y., set out to remediate and contain wastes and ground water at its upstate New York site, they found that part of the proposed cutoff wall would be located in land reclaimed from the Niagara River. The fill was rock blasted out for a tunnel years ago, and the presence of boulders rule out conventional barrier-wall construction techniques. Occidental's first approach to containment had been a conventional soil-bentonite wall. Because of the area's geography and the location of the wastes, a portion of the wall had to be aligned along the riverbank. The company wanted to separate the plant area from the river, and decided to extend the barrier to the concrete headwall for intakes at the nearby Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant. This meant about 2,000 ft of the barrier wall would run through shot-rock fill placed during construction of the powerplant in the 1960s. Conduits for that plant were constructed by blasting rock to form open-cut tunnels several miles long. Some of the resulting shot rock was placed along the riverbank, extending the shoreline about 200 ft into the river near the now-contaminated site. The Rober Moses Parkway, a four-land highway, was constructed on the reclaimed land about 100 ft from the new shoreline.

  11. Turbine airfoil with a compliant outer wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Christian X.; Morrison, Jay A.

    2012-04-03

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation in the outer layer is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a support structure. The outer layer may be a compliant layer configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand and thereby reduce the stress within the outer layer. The outer layer may be formed from a nonplanar surface configured to thermally expand. In another embodiment, the outer layer may be planar and include a plurality of slots enabling unrestricted thermal expansion in a direction aligned with the outer layer.

  12. Wall thickness measuring method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzer, Leander J.; Bergren, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the wall thickness of a nonmagnetic article having a housing supporting a magnet and a contiguous supporting surface. The tubular article and the housing are releasably secured to the supporting surface and a support member of an optical comparator, respectively. To determine the wall thickness of the article at a selected point, a magnetically responsive ball is positioned within the tubular article over said point and retained therein by means of a magnetic field produced by the magnet. Thereafter, an optical comparator is employed to project a magnified image of the ball on a screen and the wall thickness at the selected point is calculated by using a ball surface measurement taken with the comparator in conjunction with a previously determined base line measurement.

  13. Wall thickness measuring method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzer, L.J.; Bergren, D.A.

    1987-10-06

    An apparatus for measuring the wall thickness of a nonmagnetic article having a housing supporting a magnet and a contiguous supporting surface. The tubular article and the housing are releasably secured to the supporting surface and a support member of an optical comparator, respectively. To determine the wall thickness of the article at a selected point, a magnetically responsive ball is positioned within the tubular article over said point and retained therein by means of a magnetic field produced by the magnet. Thereafter, an optical comparator is employed to project a magnified image of the ball on a screen and the wall thickness at the selected point is calculated by using a ball surface measurement taken with the comparator in conjunction with a previously determined base line measurement.

  14. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  15. Domain wall conduction in multiaxial ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliseev, E. A.; Morozovska, A. N.; Svechnikov, S. V.; Maksymovych, Petro; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2012-01-01

    The conductance of domain wall structures consisting of either stripes or cylindrical domains in multiaxial ferroelectric-semiconductors is analyzed. The effects of the flexoelectric coupling, domain size, wall tilt, and curvature on charge accumulation are analyzed using the Landau-Ginsburg Devonshire theory for polarization vector combined with the Poisson equation for charge distributions. The proximity and size effect of the electron and donor accumulation/depletion by thin stripe domains and cylindrical nanodomains are revealed. In contrast to thick domain stripes and wider cylindrical domains, in which the carrier accumulation (and so the static conductivity) sharply increases at the domain walls only, small nanodomains of radii less than 5-10 correlation lengths appeared conducting across the entire cross-section. Implications of such conductive nanosized channels may be promising for nanoelectronics.

  16. Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, GE

    2003-09-18

    The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

  17. Helium Pumping Wall for a Liquid Lithium Tokamak Richard Majeski |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Helium Pumping Wall for a Liquid Lithium Tokamak Richard Majeski This invention is designed to be a subsystem of a device, a tokamak with walls or plasma facing components of liquid lithium. This approach to constructing the lithium-bearing walls of the tokamak allows the wall to fulfill a necessary function -- helium pumping - for which a complex structure was formerly required. The primary novel feature of the invention is that a permeable wall is used to

  18. Enhancement of wall jet transport properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claunch, Scott D.; Farrington, Robert B.

    1997-01-01

    By enhancing the natural instabilities in the boundary layer and in the free shear layer of a wall jet, the boundary is minimized thereby increasing the transport of heat and mass. Enhancing the natural instabilities is accomplished by pulsing the flow of air that creates the wall jet. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct.

  19. Enhancement of wall jet transport properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claunch, S.D.; Farrington, R.B.

    1997-02-04

    By enhancing the natural instabilities in the boundary layer and in the free shear layer of a wall jet, the boundary is minimized thereby increasing the transport of heat and mass. Enhancing the natural instabilities is accomplished by pulsing the flow of air that creates the wall jet. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct. 17 figs.

  20. Standing gravitational waves from domain walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gogberashvili, Merab; Myrzakul, Shynaray; Singleton, Douglas

    2009-07-15

    We construct a plane symmetric, standing gravitational wave for a domain wall plus a massless scalar field. The scalar field can be associated with a fluid which has the properties of 'stiff' matter, i.e., matter in which the speed of sound equals the speed of light. Although domain walls are observationally ruled out in the present era, the solution has interesting features which might shed light on the character of exact nonlinear wave solutions to Einstein's equations. Additionally this solution may act as a template for higher dimensional 'brane-world' model standing waves.

  1. Cell Wall Recipe: A Lesson on Biofuels

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students will investigate how changes in the DNA sequence that codes for cell wall formation can have a favorable outcome in producing plants that have higher levels of cellulose than the parent plant. The cellulose yield is most important in the production of ethanol: the greater the amount of cellulose within the cell wall, the greater the amount of ethanol that can be produced. To engage students, the first part of this lesson has students participating in a discovery activity where they will extract DNA from wheat germ.

  2. Hot wire production of single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dillon, Anne C.; Mahan, Archie H.; Alleman, Jeffrey L.

    2010-10-26

    Apparatus (210) for producing a multi-wall carbon nanotube (213) may comprise a process chamber (216), a furnace (217) operatively associated with the process chamber (216), and at least one filament (218) positioned within the process chamber (216). At least one power supply (220) operatively associated with the at least one filament (218) heats the at least one filament (218) to a process temperature. A gaseous carbon precursor material (214) operatively associated with the process chamber (216) provides carbon for forming the multi-wall carbon nanotube (213). A metal catalyst material (224) operatively associated with the process (216) catalyzes the formation of the multi-wall carbon nanotube (213).

  3. Engineering the fusion reactor first wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurden, Glen; Scott, Willms

    2008-01-01

    Recently the National Academy of Engineering published a set of Grand Challenges in Engineering in which the second item listed was entitled 'Provide energy from fusion'. Clearly a key component of this challenge is the science and technology associated with creating and maintaining burning plasmas. This is being vigorously addressed with both magnetic and inertial approaches with various experiments such as ITER and NIF. Considerably less attention is being given to another key component of this challenge, namely engineering the first wall that will contain the burning plasma. This is a daunting problem requiring technologies and materials that can not only survive, but also perform multiple essential functions in this extreme environment. These functions are (1) shield the remainder of the device from radiation. (2) convert of neutron energy to useful heat and (3) breed and extract tritium to maintain the reactor fuel supply. The first wall must not contaminate the plasma with impurities. It must be infused with cooling to maintain acceptable temperatures on plasma facing and structural components. It must not degrade. It must avoid excessive build-up of tritium on surfaces, and, if surface deposits do form, must be receptive to cleaning techniques. All these functions and constraints must be met while being subjected to nuclear and thermal radiation, particle bombardment, high magnetic fields, thermal cycling and occasional impingement of plasma on the surface. And, operating in a nuclear environment, the first wall must be fully maintainable by remotely-operated manipulators. Elements of the first wall challenge have been studied since the 1970' s both in the US and internationally. Considerable foundational work has been performed on plasma facing materials and breeding blanket/shield modules. Work has included neutronics, materials fabrication and joining, fluid flow, tritium breeding, tritium recovery and containment, energy conversion, materials damage and

  4. Enhanced dielectric-wall linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, S.E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1998-09-22

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is enhanced by a high-voltage, fast e-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface. 6 figs.

  5. Enhanced dielectric-wall linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, Stephen E.; Caporaso, George J.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    1998-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is enhanced by a high-voltage, fast e-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  6. Building America Top Innovations 2012: High-R Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research on high-R-value walls showing the difference between rated and whole wall R values and the need for vented cladding to reduce condensation potential with some insulation types.

  7. City of Wall Lake, Iowa (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    City of Wall Lake, Iowa (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: City of Wall Lake Place: Iowa Phone Number: (712) 664-2216 Website: walllake.com?pageid40 Outage...

  8. TBU-0061- In the Matter of Misti Wall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Misti Wall (the complainant or Wall), appeals the dismissal of her complaint of retaliation filed under 10 C.F.R. Part 708, the Department of Energy (DOE) Contractor Employee Protection Program. As...

  9. Mr. Andy Wall0 The Aerospace Corporation

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    'k.f' :, , j '"; ,,' DEC 5 1984 Mr. Andy Wall0 The Aerospace Corporation suite 4000 955 L'Enfant Plaza, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20024 Dear Mr. Wallo: The Divisfon of Remedial Action Projects staff has reviewed the authority review documents for Gardinler, Inc., Tampa, Florida; Conserv (formerly Virginia-Carolina Chemical Co.), Nichols, Florida; and Blockson Chemical co., Joliet, Illinois. Based on the content therein and in consultation with Mr. Steve Miller, Office of General Counsel

  10. Diagnostics - Rotating Wall Machine - UW Plasma Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diagnostics UW Madison Line Tied Reconnection Experiment Diagnostics LTRX HomeResearch MissionLTRX DevicePhysics TopicsDiagnosticsLTRX GalleryLTRX People CPLA Home Directory Publications Links University of Wisconsin Physics Department Department of Energy National Science Foundation As the UW-LTRX was designed with the goal of employing a rotating solid wall along the boundary of the experimental volume, diagnostic access is necessarily much more constrained than in comparable devices. With the

  11. Hydrogenation of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogenation of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes A. Nikitin1), H. Ogasawara1) D. Mann2), R. Denecke1)*, Z. Zhang3), H. Dai2), KJ Cho3), A. Nilsson1,4) 1Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA 2Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA 4FYSIKUM, Stockholm University, Albanova University Center, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden In the next 20

  12. Hollow clay tile wall program summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, R.C.; Jones, W.D.

    1995-07-30

    Many of the Y-12 Plant buildings, constructed during the 1940s and 1950s, consist of steel ed concrete framing infilled with hollow clay tile (HCT). The infill was intended to provide for building enclosure and was not designed to have vertical or lateral load-carrying capacity. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, seismic and wind evaluations were performed on many of these buildings in conjunction with the preparation of a site-wide safety analysis report. This analytical work, based on the best available methodology, considered lateral load-carrying capacity of the HCT infill on the basis of building code allowable shear values. In parallel with the analysis effort, DOE initiated a program to develop natural phenomena capacity and performance criteria for existing buildings, but these criteria did not specify guidelines for determining the lateral force capacity of frames infilled with HCT. The evaluation of infills was, therefore, based on the provisions for the design of unreinforced masonry as outlined in standard masonry codes. When the results of the seismic and wind evaluations were compared with the new criteria, the projected building capacities fell short of the requirements. Apparently, if the buildings were to meet the new criteria, many millions of dollars would be required for building upgrades. Because the upgrade costs were significant, the assumptions and approaches used in the analyses were reevaluated. Four issues were identified: (1) Once the infilled walls cracked, what capacity (nonlinear response), if any, would the walls have to resist earthquake or wind loads applied in the plane of the infill (in-plane)? (2) Would the infilled walls remain within the steel or reinforced concrete framing when subjected to earthquake or high wind loads applied perpendicular to the infill (out-of-plane)? (3) What was the actual shear capacity of the HCT infill? (4) Was modeling the HCT infill as a shear wall the best approach?

  13. Is the Perfect Wall Realistic? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Is the Perfect Wall Realistic? Is the Perfect Wall Realistic? June 16, 2016 - 3:18pm Addthis Is the Perfect Wall Realistic? Eric Werling Building America Program Coordinator, Building Technologies Office Wrong question. The right question is what can we do to help builders design and construct more perfect walls without losing their shirts? At Building America, we have an idea for a tool to do this. Since 1995, Building America Program experts have developed more than 100 innovations that help

  14. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Wednesday, 29 July 2009 00:00 Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray

  15. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2015-01-01

    High performance walls represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. The primary goal in improving wall thermal performance revolves around increasing the wall framing from 2x4 to 2x6, adding more cavity and exterior rigid insulation, achieving insulation installation criteria meeting ENERGY STAR's thermal bypass checklist, and reducing the amount of wood penetrating the wall cavity.

  16. Enhanced reactive metal wall for dehalogenation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howson, Paul E.; Mackenzie, Patricia D.; Horney, David P.

    1996-01-01

    A method is provided for remediation of contaminated solutions using a tiered metal wall or column. The tiered metal wall or column has at least three zones with graduated sizes of reducing metal particles. Contaminated solutions pass through the tiered wall or column to dehalogenate contaminant halogenated hydrocarbons.

  17. Enhanced reactive metal wall for dehalogenation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howson, P.E.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Horney, D.P.

    1996-08-06

    A method is provided for remediation of contaminated solutions using a tiered metal wall or column. The tiered metal wall or column has at least three zones with graduated sizes of reducing metal particles. Contaminated solutions pass through the tiered wall or column to dehalogenate contaminant halogenated hydrocarbons. 3 figs.

  18. Cutting assembly including expanding wall segments of auger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treuhaft, Martin B.; Oser, Michael S.

    1983-01-01

    A mining auger comprises a cutting head carried at one end of a tubular shaft and a plurality of wall segments which in a first position thereof are disposed side by side around said shaft and in a second position thereof are disposed oblique to said shaft. A vane projects outwardly from each wall segment. When the wall segments are in their first position, the vanes together form a substantially continuous helical wall. A cutter is mounted on the peripheral edge of each of the vanes. When the wall segments are in their second position, the cutters on the vanes are disposed radially outward from the perimeter of the cutting head.

  19. Method of non-destructively inspecting a curved wall portion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fong, James T.

    1996-01-01

    A method of non-destructively inspecting a curved wall portion of a large and thick walled vessel for a defect by computed tomography is provided. A collimated source of radiation is placed adjacent one side of the wall portion and an array of detectors for the radiation is placed on the other side adjacent the source. The radiation from the source passing through the wall portion is then detected with the detectors over a limited angle, dependent upon the curvature of the wall of the vessel, to obtain a dataset. The source and array are then coordinately moved relative to the wall portion in steps and a further dataset is obtained at each step. The plurality of datasets obtained over the limited angle is then processed to produce a tomogram of the wall portion to determine the presence of a defect therein. In a preferred embodiment, the curved wall portion has a center of curvature so that the source and the array are positioned at each step along a respective arc curved about the center. If desired, the detector array and source can be reoriented relative to a new wall portion and an inspection of the new wall portion can be easily obtained. Further, the source and detector array can be indexed in a direction perpendicular to a plane including the limited angle in a plurality of steps so that by repeating the detecting and moving steps at each index step, a three dimensional image can be created of the wall portion.

  20. Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics Stability Spectrum with a Resistive Wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. P. Smith; Jardin, S. C.

    2008-05-01

    We show that the eigenvalue equations describing a cylindrical ideal magnetophydrodynamicsw (MHD) plasma interacting with a thin resistive wall can be put into the standard mathematical form: Α•χ = λΒ• χ. This is accomplished by using a finite element basis for the plasma, and by adding an extra degree of freedom corresponding to the electrical current in the thin wall. The standard form allows the use of linear eigenvalue solvers, without additional interations, to compute the complete spectrum of plasma modes in the presence of a surrounding restrictive wall at arbitrary separation. We show that our method recovers standard results in the limits of (1) an infinitely resistive wall (no wall), and (2) a zero resistance wall (ideal wall).

  1. Gas turbine bucket wall thickness control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stathopoulos, Dimitrios; Xu, Liming; Lewis, Doyle C.

    2002-01-01

    A core for use in casting a turbine bucket including serpentine cooling passages is divided into two pieces including a leading edge core section and a trailing edge core section. Wall thicknesses at the leading edge and the trailing edge of the turbine bucket can be controlled independent of each other by separately positioning the leading edge core section and the trailing edge core section in the casting die. The controlled leading and trailing edge thicknesses can thus be optimized for efficient cooling, resulting in more efficient turbine operation.

  2. STATUS OF THE DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y; Sampayan, S; Akana, G; Anaya, R; Blackfield, D; Carroll, J; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Guethlein, G; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Hickman, B; Holmes, C; Horner, A; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J; Weir, J

    2009-04-22

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) system being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses fast switched high voltage transmission lines to generate pulsed electric fields on the inside of a high gradient insulating (HGI) acceleration tube. High electric field gradients are achieved by the use of alternating insulators and conductors and short pulse times. The system is capable of accelerating any charge to mass ratio particle. Applications of high gradient proton and electron versions of this accelerator will be discussed. The status of the developmental new technologies that make the compact system possible will be reviewed. These include, high gradient vacuum insulators, solid dielectric materials, photoconductive switches and compact proton sources.

  3. Intense Magnetized Plasma-Wall Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Bruno S.; Fuelling, Stephan

    2013-11-30

    This research project studied wall-plasma interactions relevant to fusion science. Such interactions are a critical aspect of Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) because flux compression by a pusher material, in particular the metal for the liner approach to MIF, involves strong eddy current heating on the surface of the pusher, and probably interactions and mixing of the pusher with the interior fuel during the time when fusion fuel is being burned. When the pusher material is a metal liner, high-energy-density conditions result in fascinating behavior. For example, "warm dense matter" is produced, for which material properties such as resistivity and opacity are not well known. In this project, the transformation into plasma of metal walls subjected to pulsed megagauss magnetic fields was studied with an experiment driven by the UNR 1 MA Zebra generator. The experiment was numerically simulated with using the MHRDR code. This simple, fundamental high-energy-density physics experiment, in a regime appropriate to MIF, has stimulated an important and fascinating comparison of numerical modeling codes and tables with experiment. In addition, we participated in developing the FRCHX experiment to compress a field-reversed-configuration (FRC) plasma with a liner, in collaboration with researchers from Air Force Research Laboratory and Los Alamos National Lab, and we helped develop diagnostics for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL. Last, but not least, this project served to train students in high-energy-density physics.

  4. Inflationary power asymmetry from primordial domain walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jazayeri, Sadra; Akrami, Yashar; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Solomon, Adam R.; Wang, Yi E-mail: yashar.akrami@astro.uio.no E-mail: a.r.solomon@damtp.cam.ac.uk

    2014-11-01

    We study the asymmetric primordial fluctuations in a model of inflation in which translational invariance is broken by a domain wall. We calculate the corrections to the power spectrum of curvature perturbations; they are anisotropic and contain dipole, quadrupole, and higher multipoles with non-trivial scale-dependent amplitudes. Inspired by observations of these multipole asymmetries in terms of two-point correlations and variance in real space, we demonstrate that this model can explain the observed anomalous power asymmetry of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky, including its characteristic feature that the dipole dominates over higher multipoles. We test the viability of the model and place approximate constraints on its parameters by using observational values of dipole, quadrupole, and octopole amplitudes of the asymmetry measured by a local-variance estimator. We find that a configuration of the model in which the CMB sphere does not intersect the domain wall during inflation provides a good fit to the data. We further derive analytic expressions for the corrections to the CMB temperature covariance matrix, or angular power spectra, which can be used in future statistical analysis of the model in spherical harmonic space.

  5. Dynamic load test of Arquin-designed CMU wall.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Richard Pearson

    2010-02-01

    The Arquin Corporation has developed a new method of constructing CMU (concrete masonry unit) walls. This new method uses polymer spacers connected to steel wires that serve as reinforcing as well as a means of accurately placing the spacers so that the concrete block can be dry stacked. The hollows of the concrete block are then filled with grout. As part of a New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program (NMSBA), Sandia National Laboratories conducted a series of tests that dynamically loaded wall segments to compare the performance of walls constructed using the Arquin method to a more traditional method of constructing CMU walls. A total of four walls were built, two with traditional methods and two with the Arquin method. Two of the walls, one traditional and one Arquin, had every third cell filled with grout. The remaining two walls, one traditional and one Arquin, had every cell filled with grout. The walls were dynamically loaded with explosive forces. No significant difference was noted between the performance of the walls constructed by the Arquin method when compared to the walls constructed by the traditional method.

  6. Hollow porous-wall glass microspheres for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K.; Schumacher, Ray F.; Wicks, George G.

    2010-02-23

    A porous wall hollow glass microsphere is provided having a diameter range of between 1 to 200 microns, a density of between 1.0 to 2.0 gm/cc, a porous-wall structure having wall openings defining an average pore size of between 10 to 1000 angstroms, and which contains therein a hydrogen storage material. The porous-wall structure facilitates the introduction of a hydrogen storage material into the interior of the porous wall hollow glass microsphere. In this manner, the resulting hollow glass microsphere can provide a membrane for the selective transport of hydrogen through the porous walls of the microsphere, the small pore size preventing gaseous or liquid contaminants from entering the interior of the hollow glass microsphere.

  7. Thermal Performance of Uninsulated and Partially Filled Wall Cavities: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridouane, E. H.; Bianchi, M.

    2011-08-01

    Low-rise, wood-framed homes are the most common type of residential structures in the United States. Wood wall construction supports roofs efficiently and provides a stable frame for attaching interior and exterior wall coverings. Wall cavities are prevalent and increase thermal resistance, particularly when they are filled with insulating material. This paper describes detailed computational fluid dynamics modeling to evaluate the thermal performance of uninsulated or partially filled wall cavities and accounts for conduction through framing, convection, and radiation. Parameters are ambient outdoor temperature, cavity surface emissivity, cavity aspect ratio, and insulation height. Understanding the thermal performance of uninsulated or partially insulated wall cavities is essential for conserving energy in residential buildings. The results can serve as input for building energy simulation tools such as DOE2 and EnergyPlus for modeling the temperature dependent energy performance of new and older homes with uninsulated or partially insulated walls.

  8. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy images by a Berkeley Lab-University of Hamburg group has now revealed that

  9. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy images by a Berkeley Lab-University of Hamburg group has now revealed that

  10. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy images by a Berkeley Lab-University of Hamburg group has now revealed that

  11. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy images by a Berkeley Lab-University of Hamburg group has now revealed that

  12. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy images by a Berkeley Lab-University of Hamburg group has now revealed that

  13. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy images by a Berkeley Lab-University of Hamburg group has now revealed that

  14. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy images by a Berkeley Lab-University of Hamburg group has now revealed that

  15. Monitoring of Double Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.

    2015-03-01

    Double-stud walls insulated with cellulose or low-density spray foam can have R-values of 40 or higher. However, double stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage, when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing.; Moisture conditions in double stud walls were monitored in Zone 5A (Massachusetts); three double stud assemblies were compared.

  16. Moisture Management of High-R Walls (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  17. DOE Publishes GATEWAY Report on Successful LED Wall Washer Retrofit...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    while retaining the quality of light when LED modules replaced 87 halogen lamps in existing wall washers at the University of Maryland's (UMD) Clarice Smith Performing Arts Center. ...

  18. Structural Studies of Complex Carbohydrates of Plant Cell Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darvill, Alan; Hahn, Michael G.; O'Neill, Malcolm A.; York, William S.

    2015-02-17

    Most of the solar energy captured by land plants is converted into the polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin) that are the predominant components of the cell wall. These walls, which account for the bulk of plant biomass, have numerous roles in the growth and development of plants. Moreover, these walls have a major impact on human life as they are a renewable source of biomass, a source of diverse commercially useful polymers, a major component of wood, and a source of nutrition for humans and livestock. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms that lead to wall assembly and how cell walls and their component polysaccharides contribute to plant growth and development is essential to improve and extend the productivity and value of plant materials. The proposed research will develop and apply advanced analytical and immunological techniques to study specific changes in the structures and interactions of the hemicellulosic and pectic polysaccharides that occur during differentiation and in response to genetic modification and chemical treatments that affect wall biosynthesis. These new techniques will make it possible to accurately characterize minute amounts of cell wall polysaccharides so that subtle changes in structure that occur in individual cell types can be identified and correlated to the physiological or developmental state of the plant. Successful implementation of this research will reveal fundamental relationships between polysaccharide structure, cell wall architecture, and cell wall functions.

  19. Thermal performance of concrete masonry unit wall systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.

    1995-12-31

    New materials, modern building wall technologies now available in the building marketplace, and unique, more accurate, methods of thermal analysis of wall systems create an opportunity to design and erect buildings where thermal envelopes that use masonry wall systems can be more efficient. Thermal performance of the six masonry wall systems is analyzed. Most existing masonry systems are modifications of technologies presented in this paper. Finite difference two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer modeling and unique methods of the clear wall and overall thermal analysis were used. In the design of thermally efficient masonry wall systems is t to know how effectively the insulation material is used and how the insulation shape and its location affect the wall thermal performance. Due to the incorrect shape of the insulation or structural components, hidden thermal shorts cause additional heat losses. In this study, the thermal analysis of the clear wall was enriched with the examination of the thermal properties of the wall details and the study of a quantity defined herein the Thermal Efficiency of the insulation material.

  20. Wall and laser spot motion in cylindrical hohlraums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huser, G.; Courtois, C.; Monteil, M.-C.

    2009-03-15

    Wall and laser spot motion measurements in empty, propane-filled and plastic (CH)-lined gold coated cylindrical hohlraums were performed on the Omega laser facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Wall motion was measured using axial two-dimensional (2D) x-ray imaging and laser spot motion was perpendicularly observed through a thinned wall using streaked hard x-ray imaging. Experimental results and 2D hydrodynamic simulations show that while empty targets exhibit on-axis plasma collision, CH-lined and propane-filled targets inhibit wall expansion, corroborated with perpendicular streaked imaging showing a slower motion of laser spots.

  1. CBEI: Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CBEI: Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Mugdha Mokashi, Bayer Materials View the Presentation ...

  2. COLLOQUIUM: Assessing First Wall Materials at the Atomic Scale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wall Materials at the Atomic Scale and Energy Writ Large at Princeton Professor Emily Carter Princeton University Colloquium Committee: The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory...

  3. Modification of Lignin Content of Plant Cell Walls - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Modification of Lignin Content of Plant Cell Walls Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About ...

  4. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concept called a racetrack memory, for example, the electron spin provides the driving force that moves a domain wall (boundary between regions of different magnetization) down...

  5. Evaluation of Wall Boundary Condition Parameters for Gas-Solids

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... constitutive relations for antigranulocytes-materials, with application to plane shearing. ... Study of wall boundary condition in numerical simulations of 2D bubbling fluidized beds. ...

  6. Template Directed Formation of Nanoparticle Decorated Multi-Walled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon Nanotube Bundles with Uniform Diameter Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Template Directed Formation of Nanoparticle Decorated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube ...

  7. SSL Demonstration: Wall Washers at the University of Maryland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-07-31

    GATEWAY program report brief summarizing a demonstration of LED wall washers at the Clarice Smith Performing Arts Center at the University of Maryland.

  8. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  9. Effects of wall electrodes on Hall effect thruster plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langendorf, S. Walker, M.; Xu, K.

    2015-02-15

    This paper investigates the physical mechanisms that cause beneficial and detrimental performance effect observed to date in Hall effect thrusters with wall electrodes. It is determined that the wall electrode sheath can reduce ion losses to the wall if positioned near the anode (outside the dense region of the plasma) such that an ion-repelling sheath is able to form. The ability of the wall electrode to form an ion-repelling sheath is inversely proportional to the current drawn—if the wall electrode becomes the dominant sink for the thruster discharge current, increases in wall electrode bias result in increased local plasma potential rather than an ion-repelling sheath. A single-fluid electron flow model gives results that mimic the observed potential structures and the current-sharing fractions between the anode and wall electrodes, showing that potential gradients in the presheath and bulk plasma come at the expense of current draw to the wall electrodes. Secondary electron emission from the wall electrodes (or lack thereof) is inferred to have a larger effect if the electrodes are positioned near the exit plane than if positioned near the anode, due to the difference in energy deposition from the plasma.

  10. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    walls and opens a path to further technological developments in spintronics applications. ... included under the umbrella of "spintronics," a technology based on using the ...

  11. Pure Optical Dephasing Dynamics in Semiconducting Single-Walled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Pure Optical Dephasing Dynamics in Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Citation ... We report a detailed study of ultrafast exciton dephasing ...

  12. Technology Solutions Case Study: Moisture Management of High-Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-12-01

    Moisture management of high-R walls is important to ensure optimal performance. This case study, developed by Building America team Building Science Corporation, focuses on how eight high-R walls handle the three main sources of moistureconstruction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leaks.

  13. Disruption of cell walls for enhanced lipid recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knoshaug, Eric P; Donohoe, Bryon S; Gerken, Henri; Laurens, Lieve; Van Wychen, Stefanie Rose

    2015-03-24

    Presented herein are methods of using cell wall degrading enzymes for recovery of internal lipid bodies from biomass sources such as algae. Also provided are algal cells that express at least one exogenous gene encoding a cell wall degrading enzyme and methods for recovering lipids from the cells.

  14. Resistive and ferritic-wall plasma dynamos in a sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalzov, I. V.; Brown, B. P.; Kaplan, E. J.; Katz, N.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Rahbarnia, K.; Forest, C. B. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Center for Magnetic Self Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas (United States); Spence, E. J. [Center for Magnetic Self Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    We numerically study the effects of varying electric conductivity and magnetic permeability of the bounding wall on a kinematic dynamo in a sphere for parameters relevant to Madison plasma dynamo experiment. The dynamo is excited by a laminar, axisymmetric flow of von Karman type. The flow is obtained as a solution to the Navier-Stokes equation for an isothermal fluid with a velocity profile specified at the sphere's boundary. The properties of the wall are taken into account as thin-wall boundary conditions imposed on the magnetic field. It is found that an increase in the permeability of the wall reduces the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm{sub cr}. An increase in the conductivity of the wall leaves Rm{sub cr} unaffected but reduces the dynamo growth rate.

  15. Side wall cooling for nozzle segments for a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A nozzle vane segment includes outer and inner band portions with a vane extending therebetween and defining first and second cavities separated by an impingement plate for flowing cooling medium for impingement cooling of nozzle side walls. The side wall of each nozzle segment has an undercut region. The impingement plate has an inturned flange with a plurality of openings. Cooling inserts or receptacles having an open end are received in the openings and the base and side walls of the receptacles have apertures for receiving cooling medium from the first cavity and directing the cooling medium for impingement cooling of the side wall of the nozzle segment and a portion of the nozzle wall.

  16. Thermal effects on transverse domain wall dynamics in magnetic nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leliaert, J.; Van de Wiele, B.; Vandermeulen, J.; Coene, A.; Dupré, L.; Vansteenkiste, A.; Waeyenberge, B. Van; Laurson, L.; Durin, G.

    2015-05-18

    Magnetic domain walls are proposed as data carriers in future spintronic devices, whose reliability depends on a complete understanding of the domain wall motion. Applications based on an accurate positioning of domain walls are inevitably influenced by thermal fluctuations. In this letter, we present a micromagnetic study of the thermal effects on this motion. As spin-polarized currents are the most used driving mechanism for domain walls, we have included this in our analysis. Our results show that at finite temperatures, the domain wall velocity has a drift and diffusion component, which are in excellent agreement with the theoretical values obtained from a generalized 1D model. The drift and diffusion component are independent of each other in perfect nanowires, and the mean square displacement scales linearly with time and temperature.

  17. Methods for degrading or converting plant cell wall polysaccharides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berka, Randy; Cherry, Joel

    2008-08-19

    The present invention relates to methods for converting plant cell wall polysaccharides into one or more products, comprising: treating the plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into the one or more products. The present invention also relates to methods for producing an organic substance, comprising: (a) saccharifying plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into saccharified material; (b) fermenting the saccharified material of step (a) with one or more fermenting microoganisms; and (c) recovering the organic substance from the fermentation.

  18. Pneumatic wall-locking geophone system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuhlman, Harland L.; Cumerlato, Calvin L.; Tweeton, Daryl R.

    1991-01-01

    A seismic signal receiving system is provided for use in boreholes to receive seismic waves in carrying out geophysical investigations. The system includes three pairs of opposed plates, each of the pairs of plates including oppositely facing outer surfaces for engagement with opposite sides of a borehole. A seismic receiver is mounted on the inner surface of each of the plates for receiving seismic signals. A double-acting, fluid-operated actuator selectively causes relative movement of the plates of the pairs of plates away from each other to provide expansion thereof so as to enable the plates to engage the walls of a borehole and selectively causes relative movement of the plates of the pairs of plates toward each other to provide retraction thereof so as to enable the system to be removed from a borehole. The pairs of plates each comprise a relatively long plate and a relatively short plate. An expandable linkage interconnects the long plates at the distal ends thereof. The plates are mechanically biassed into the retracted state so that the plates return to this state in the event of a system failure.

  19. Double wall vacuum tubing and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, Charles R.; Gibson, Michael A.; Knudsen, Christian W.

    1989-01-01

    An evacuated double wall tubing is shown together with a method for the manufacture of such tubing which includes providing a first pipe of predetermined larger diameter and a second pipe having an O.D. substantially smaller than the I.D. of the first pipe. An evacuation opening is then in the first pipe. The second pipe is inserted inside the first pipe with an annular space therebetween. The pipes are welded together at one end. A stretching tool is secured to the other end of the second pipe after welding. The second pipe is then prestressed mechanically with the stretching tool an amount sufficient to prevent substantial buckling of the second pipe under normal operating conditions of the double wall pipe. The other ends of the first pipe and the prestressed second pipe are welded together, preferably by explosion welding, without the introduction of mechanical spacers between the pipes. The annulus between the pipes is evacuated through the evacuation opening, and the evacuation opening is finally sealed. The first pipe is preferably of steel and the second pipe is preferably of titanium. The pipes may be of a size and wall thickness sufficient for the double wall pipe to be structurally load bearing or may be of a size and wall thickness insufficient for the double wall pipe to be structurally load bearing, and the double wall pipe positioned with a sliding fit inside a third pipe of a load-bearing size.

  20. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    This report explains the moisture-related concerns for high R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. In this project, hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones. The modeling program assessed the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage; the report presents results of the study.

  1. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Huang, Y.Y.

    1998-07-28

    Methods are disclosed for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physical sorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics. 17 figs.

  2. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H.; Huang, Yin-Yan

    1998-01-01

    Methods for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physisorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics.

  3. Paducah Wall Display Unveiled at DOE Headquarters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Wall Display Unveiled at DOE Headquarters Paducah Wall Display Unveiled at DOE Headquarters September 11, 2015 - 3:48pm Addthis Federal, state and local Kentucky officials joined Secretary of Energy Dr. Ernest Moniz (third from left) and Senate Majority Mitch McConnell on September 10, 2015 as they cut the ribbon introducing the new Paducah Site wall display on the Fifth Floor of DOE’s Forrestal Building in Washington, D.C. Pictured (left-right) are: U.S. Rep. Ed Whitfield, Sen. McConnell,

  4. Chest wall invasion by lung cancer: limitations of CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennes, D.R.; Glazer, G.M.; Wimbish, K.J.; Gross, B.H.; Long, R.W.; Orringer, M.B.

    1985-03-01

    Thirty-three patients with peripheral pulmonary malignancies contiguous with a pleural surface were evaluated for chest wall invasion by computed tomography (CT). CT criteria included pleural thickening adjacent to the tumor, encroachment on or increased density of the extrapleural fat, asymmetry of the extrapleural soft tissues adjacent to the tumor, apparent mass invading the chest wall, and rib destruction. The CT scans were classified as positive, negative, or equivocal for invasion, and a decision matrix was constructed comparing CT results with pathologic data. CT scanning has low accuracy in assessing chest wall invasion in patients with peripheral lung cancers.

  5. Cosmic bubble and domain wall instabilities II: fracturing of colliding walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braden, Jonathan; Bond, J. Richard; Mersini-Houghton, Laura

    2015-08-26

    We study collisions between nearly planar domain walls including the effects of small initial nonplanar fluctuations. These perturbations represent the small fluctuations that must exist in a quantum treatment of the problem. In a previous paper, we demonstrated that at the linear level a subset of these fluctuations experience parametric amplification as a result of their coupling to the planar symmetric background. Here we study the full three-dimensional nonlinear dynamics using lattice simulations, including both the early time regime when the fluctuations are well described by linear perturbation theory as well as the subsequent stage of fully nonlinear evolution. We find that the nonplanar fluctuations have a dramatic effect on the overall evolution of the system. Specifically, once these fluctuations begin to interact nonlinearly the split into a planar symmetric part of the field and the nonplanar fluctuations loses its utility. At this point the colliding domain walls dissolve, with the endpoint of this being the creation of a population of oscillons in the collision region. The original (nearly) planar symmetry has been completely destroyed at this point and an accurate study of the system requires the full three-dimensional simulation.

  6. Advanced Metal Fiber Wall-Flow DPF For Diesel Emission Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal Fiber Wall-Flow DPF For Diesel Emission Control Advanced Metal Fiber Wall-Flow DPF For Diesel Emission Control A new metal fiber wall-flow DPF with up to 99% efficiency and ...

  7. Near wall cooling for a highly tapered turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, George

    2011-03-08

    A turbine blade having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall connected at chordally spaced leading and trailing edges to define a cooling cavity. Pressure and suction side inner walls extend radially within the cooling cavity and define pressure and suction side near wall chambers. A plurality of mid-chord channels extend radially from a radially intermediate location on the blade to a tip passage at the blade tip for connecting the pressure side and suction side near wall chambers in fluid communication with the tip passage. In addition, radially extending leading edge and trailing edge flow channels are located adjacent to the leading and trailing edges, respectively, and cooling fluid flows in a triple-pass serpentine path as it flows through the leading edge flow channel, the near wall chambers and the trailing edge flow channel.

  8. Method and apparatus for constructing an underground barrier wall structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Stewart, Willis E.; Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for constructing a underground barrier wall structure using a jet grout injector subassembly comprising a pair of primary nozzles and a plurality of secondary nozzles, the secondary nozzles having a smaller diameter than the primary nozzles, for injecting grout in directions other than the primary direction, which creates a barrier wall panel having a substantially uniform wall thickess. This invention addresses the problem of the weak "bow-tie" shape that is formed during conventional jet injection when using only a pair of primary nozzles. The improvement is accomplished by using at least four secondary nozzles, of smaller diameter, located on both sides of the primary nozzles. These additional secondary nozzles spray grout or permeable reactive materials in other directions optimized to fill in the thin regions of the bow-tie shape. The result is a panel with increased strength and substantially uniform wall thickness.

  9. Ultrasonic probe for inspecting double-wall tube. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, K.V.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.; Murrin, H.T.

    1981-05-29

    An ultrasonic probe for inspecting the interface between the walls of a double-wall tube comprises a cylindrical body member having two cavities axially spaced apart thereon. The probe is placed in the tube and ultrasonic energy is transmitted from a transducer in its body member to a reflector in one of its cavities and thence into the inner wall of the tube. A second transducer in the probe body member communicates with the second cavity through a collimation passage in the body member, and the amount of ultrasonic energy reflected from the interface between the walls of the tube to a second reflector through the collimation passage to the second transducer depends upon the characteristics of said interface.

  10. Determining heat fluxes from temperature measurements made in massive walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Hedstrom, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    A technique is described for determining heat fluxes at the surfaces of masonry walls or floors using temperature data measured at two points within the wall, usually near the surfaces. The process consists of solving the heat diffusion equation in one dimension using finite difference techniques given two measured temperatures as input. The method is fast and accurate and also allows for an in-situ measurement of wall thermal diffusivity if a third temperature is measured. The method is documented in sufficient detail so that it can be readily used by the reader. Examples are given for heat flow through walls. Annual results for two cases are presented. The method has also been used to determine heat flow into floors.

  11. Performance of a selective surfaced water wall retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arasteh, D.; Harrje, D.T.; Nall, D.H.; Settles, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a successful passive water wall design and implementation in a suburban central New Jersey home are presented. The unique aspects of this work include the use of a selective surface coating on the exterior face of the thermal mass, the use of low-cost materials, and detailed performance measurements of the wall and home. The overall approach was to evaluate the retrofit possibilities of such a passive solar addition. Material costs of approximately $650 make this water wall design an attractive candidate for the do-it-yourself home retrofit. The wall performed well in supplying almost 20% of the winter heating requrements for the entire house. Compared to night insulation, the selective surface proved to be slightly less effective but much more economical.

  12. Liquid Wall Chambers (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by approx10 x x, so that steel ...

  13. CBEI - Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solutions for Small and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Start date & Planned end date: Phase(PH) I June 1st, 2013 to Oct. 1st, 2014 ... buildings with masonry construction(concrete mass walls) account for energy ...

  14. Conserval aka SolarWall | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Conserval (aka SolarWall) Place: Toronto, Ontario, Canada Zip: M3J2N5 Sector: Solar Product: Makes solar passive heating and cooling products,...

  15. "Self Cooled Recirculating Liquid Metal Plasma Facing Wall System...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is intended for implementation in a tokamak. The design employs JxB forces to form a free-surface flow along a guide wall at the outer boundary of the plasma. The...

  16. Quantified reduction of wall material influx during Hohlraum experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batha, Steven H.; Fincke, James R.

    2004-10-01

    Heating the gold walls of a Hohlraum with intense laser beams produces a rapidly expanding gold plasma. Eventually, the wall material will converge on the axis of the Hohlraum with a density sufficient to be opaque to any standard radiography source. The gold expansion makes radiography of the back wall through the laser entrance hole of a Hohlraum driven from one side difficult. This experiment demonstrates a reduction of Au influx when the Hohlraum walls are coated with 0.44 {mu}m of parylene-N. The reduction is quantified, using an x-ray framing camera, in a cylindrical Hohlraum driven by 6.8 kJ of laser light.

  17. Repairing Walls & Floors: How To's for the Handy Homeowner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-01-09

    This brochure provides handy homeowners with tips on how to properly repair walls and floors in their homes that sustained damage during a hurricane. This publications is a part of the How To's for the Handy Homeowner Series.

  18. The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material bottles coated with deuterated polystryene Ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) from the LANSCE super-thermal ...

  19. Ultrasonic probe for inspecting double-wall tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Kenneth V.; Cunningham, Jr., Robert A.; Murrin, Horace T.

    1983-01-01

    An ultrasonic probe for inspecting the interface between the walls of a double-wall tube comprises a cylindrical body member having two cavities axially spaced apart thereon. The probe is placed in the tube and ultrasonic energy is transmitted from a transducer in its body member to a reflector in one of its cavities and thence into the inner wall of the tube. A second transducer in the probe body member communicates with the second cavity through a collimation passage in the body member, and the amount of ultrasonic energy reflected from the interface between the walls of the tube to a second reflector through the collimation passage to the second transducer depends upon the characteristics of said interface.

  20. Metered Evaporator for Tokamak Wall Conditioning --- Inventor(s): Charles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H. Skinner, Dennis Mansfield, Henry Kugel, Hans Schneider and Lane Roquemore | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Metered Evaporator for Tokamak Wall Conditioning --- Inventor(s): Charles H. Skinner, Dennis Mansfield, Henry Kugel, Hans Schneider and Lane Roquemore A novel lithium evaporator for the controlled introduction of lithium into tokamaks for wall conditioning is described. The concept uses a Li granule injector with a heated in-vessel yttrium crucible to evaporate a controlled amount of

  1. Moisture Management of High-R Walls (Fact Sheet), Building America...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Management of High-R Walls PROJECT APPLICATION Construction: Existing homes with vapor open wall assemblies Type: Residential Climate Zones: All TECHNICAL PARAMETERS Moisture ...

  2. A Bioinformatic Analysis of NAC Genes for Plant Cell Wall Development...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plant Cell Wall Development in Relation to Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Bioinformatic Analysis of NAC Genes for Plant Cell Wall ...

  3. Erosion/corrosion-induced pipe wall thinning in US Nuclear Power...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Erosioncorrosion-induced pipe wall thinning in US Nuclear Power Plants Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Erosioncorrosion-induced pipe wall thinning in US Nuclear Power ...

  4. Delocalization and occupancy effects of 5f orbitals in plutonium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Booth, C. H. ; Medling, S. A. ; Jiang, Yu ; Bauer, E. D. ; Tobash, P. H. ; Mitchell, J. N. ; Veirs, D. K. ; Wall, M. A. ; Allen, P. G. ; Kas, J. J. ; Sokaras, D. ; ...

  5. Self-irradiation damage to the local structure of plutonium and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Booth, C. H. ; Jiang, Yu ; Medling, S. A. ; Wang, D. L. ; Costello, A. L. ; Schwartz, D. S. ; Mitchell, J. N. ; Tobash, P. H. ; Bauer, E. D. ; McCall, S. K. ; Wall, M. A. ...

  6. LiveWall Operational Evaluation: Seattle Law Enforcement Pilot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Burtner, Edwin R.; Stein, Steven L.

    2013-10-01

    The LiveWall concept envisioned as an outgrowth of the Precision Information Environment (PIE) project allows communications between separate groups using interactive video, audio, and a shared desktop environment; this allows everyone to participate and collaborate in real time, regardless of location. The LiveWall concept provides a virtual window to other locations, where all parties can interact and collaboratively work with each other. This functionality is intended to improve multi-site coordination amongst emergency operations centers (EOC), field operations sites and across organizations and jurisdictions to accommodate communications during routine and emergency events. For the initial LiveWall operational evaluation PNNL partnered with the Seattle Police Department (SPD). This partnership allowed for the creation of an excellent LiveWall test bed specific to law enforcement. This partnership made it possible to test the LiveWall concept with scenarios involving the many facets of the law enforcement work done by SPD. PNNL and SPD agreed that integrating the systems into operations for a real event would be the best test of the technology and give SPD staff greater visibility into the functionality and benefits offered by the LiveWall concept.

  7. Spokane Wall Insulation Project: a field study of moisture damage in walls insulated without a vapor barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsongas, G.

    1985-09-01

    Considerable uncertainty has existed over whether or not the addition of wall insulation without a vapor barrier might increase the risk of moisture damage to the structure. Although it was concluded from a 1979 field study that there is no such risk in mild climates like that of Portland, Oregon (4792 degree-days), it was not clear if a problem might exist in colder climates. Thus, a second major field study was undertaken in Spokane, Washington (6835 degree-days) aimed at finding out if such a moisture problem really exists. This report describes that study and its results and conclusions. During the study the exterior walls of 103 homes were opened, of which 79 had retrofitted cellulose, rock wool, or fiberglass, and 24 were uninsulated as a control group. Field and laboratory test results are presented which, contrary to diffusion theory predictions, show the absence of moisture accumulation and consequent moisture damage caused by the addition of retrofitted wall insulation. Infrared thermography results giving the percentage of wall insulation void area for 30 of the test homes are also presented. The study strongly concludes that the addition of wall insulation without a vapor barrier does not cause moisture problems in existing homes in climates similar to that of Spokane. Future research needs are described, and the overall advisability of future retrofitting of wall insulation is discussed. 23 refs., 7 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. A new alternative in vertical barrier wall construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawl, G.F.

    1997-12-31

    A new proprietary vertical barrier wall system has been developed to revolutionize the construction process by eliminating many of the concerns of conventional installation method`s with respect to performance, installation constraints and costs. Vertical barrier walls have been used in the environmental and construction industries for a variety of purposes, usually for cut-off or containment. The typical scenario involves a groundwater contamination problem, in which a vertical barrier wall is utilized to contain or confine the spread of contaminants below the ground surface. Conventional construction techniques have been adequate in many applications, but often fall short of their intended purposes due to physical constraints. In many instances, the economics of these conventional methods have limited the utilization of physical barrier walls. Polywall, the trade name for this new barrier wall technology, was subsequently developed to meet these needs and offer a number of distinct advantages in a variety of scenarios by maximizing confinement and minimizing installation costs. Polywall is constructed from chemically resistant high density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic. It has proven in a half-dozen projects to date to be the most cost-effective and technically sound approach to many containment situations. This paper will cover the development of the technology and will provide a brief synopsis of several installations.

  9. Magnetoelectric domain wall dynamics and its implications for magnetoelectric memory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Belashchenko, K. D.; Tchernyshyov, O.; Kovalev, Alexey A.; Tretiakov, O. A.

    2016-03-30

    Domain wall dynamics in a magnetoelectric antiferromagnet is analyzed, and its implications for magnetoelectric memory applications are discussed. Cr2O3 is used in the estimates of the materials parameters. It is found that the domain wall mobility has a maximum as a function of the electric field due to the gyrotropic coupling induced by it. In Cr2O3, the maximal mobility of 0.1 m/(s Oe) is reached at E≈0.06 V/nm. Fields of this order may be too weak to overcome the intrinsic depinning field, which is estimated for B-doped Cr2O3. These major drawbacks for device implementation can be overcome by applying amore » small in-plane shear strain, which blocks the domain wall precession. Domain wall mobility of about 0.7 m/(s Oe) can then be achieved at E = 0.2 V/nm. Furthermore, a split-gate scheme is proposed for the domain-wall controlled bit element; its extension to multiple-gate linear arrays can offer advantages in memory density, programmability, and logic functionality.« less

  10. Domain wall and isocurvature perturbation problems in axion models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yoshino, Kazuyoshi; Yanagida, Tsutomu T. E-mail: tsutomu.tyanagida@ipmu.jp

    2013-11-01

    Axion models have two serious cosmological problems, domain wall and isocurvature perturbation problems. In order to solve these problems we investigate the Linde's model in which the field value of the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) scalar is large during inflation. In this model the fluctuations of the PQ field grow after inflation through the parametric resonance and stable axionic strings may be produced, which results in the domain wall problem. We study formation of axionic strings using lattice simulations. It is found that in chaotic inflation the axion model is free from both the domain wall and the isocurvature perturbation problems if the initial misalignment angle ?{sub a} is smaller than O(10{sup ?2}). Furthermore, axions can also account for the dark matter for the breaking scale v ? 10{sup 12?16}GeV and the Hubble parameter during inflation H{sub inf}?<10{sup 11?12}GeV in general inflation models.

  11. Material options for a commercial fusion reactor first wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabiri, A.E.

    1986-05-01

    A study has been conducted to evaluate the potential of various materials for use as first walls in high-power-density commercial fusion reactors. Operating limits for each material were obtained based on a number of criteria, including maximum allowable structural temperatures, critical heat flux, ultimate tensile strength, and design-allowable stress. The results with water as a coolant indicate that a modified alloy similar to HT-9 may be a suitable candidate for low- and medium-power-density reactor first walls with neutron loads of up to 6 MW/m/sup 2/. A vanadium or copper alloy must be used for high-power-density reactors. The neutron wall load limit for vanadium alloys is about 14 MW/sup 2/, provided a suitable coating material is chosen. The extremely limited data base for radiation effects hinders any quantitative assessment of the limits for copper alloys.

  12. Studies of Resistive Wall Heating at JLAB FEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Rui; Benson, Stephen V.

    2013-06-01

    When the JLAB FEL is under CW operation, it had been observed that temperature rises over the wiggler vacuum chamber, presumably as the result of the power deposition on the resistive wall of the wiggler chamber. Previous analyses have been done on the resistive wall impedance for various cases, such as DC, AC, and anomalous skin effects*. Here we report an investigation on the beam kinetic energy losses for each of these cases. This study includes the non-ultrarelativistic effect on resistive wall loss, for both round pipe and parallel plates. We will present the comparison of our results with the measured data obtained during CW operation of the JLAB FEL. Other possible factors contributing to the measured heating will also be discussed.

  13. Self-contained instrument for measuring subterranean tunnel wall deflection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, Donald Edgar; Hof, Jr., Peter John

    1978-01-01

    The deflection of a subterranean tunnel is measured with a rod-like, self-contained instrument that is adapted to be inserted into a radially extending bore of the tunnel adjacent an end of the tunnel where the tunnel is being dug. One end of the instrument is anchored at the end of the bore remote from the tunnel wall, while the other end of the intrument is anchored adjacent the end of the wall in proximity to the tunnel wall. The two ends of the instrument are linearly displaceable relative to each other; the displacement is measured by a transducer means mounted on the instrument. Included in the instrument is a data storage means including a paper tape recorder periodically responsive to a parallel binary signal indicative of the measured displacement.

  14. Lower bound on the electroweak wall velocity from hydrodynamic instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín; Sánchez, Alejandro D.

    2015-03-27

    The subsonic expansion of bubbles in a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition is a convenient scenario for electroweak baryogenesis. For most extensions of the Standard Model, stationary subsonic solutions (i.e., deflagrations) exist for the propagation of phase transition fronts. However, deflagrations are known to be hydrodynamically unstable for wall velocities below a certain critical value. We calculate this critical velocity for several extensions of the Standard Model and compare with an estimation of the wall velocity. In general, we find a region in parameter space which gives stable deflagrations as well as favorable conditions for electroweak baryogenesis.

  15. Earth melter with rubble walls and method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Chris C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an improvement to the earth melter described and claimed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,443,618. The improvement is the use of rubble for retaining walls. More specifically, the retaining walls rest on ground level and extend above ground level piling rubble around a melt zone. A portion of the melter may be below grade wherein sidewalls are formed by the relatively undisturbed native soil or rock, and the rubble may be used as a backfill liner for the below grade sidewalls.

  16. Unified first wall-blanket structure for plasma device applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1987-01-01

    A plasma device for use in controlling nuclear reactions within the plasma including a first wall and blanket formed in a one-piece structure composed of a solid solution containing copper and lithium and melting above about 500.degree. C.

  17. Heat exchanger with leak detecting double wall tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bieberbach, George; Bongaards, Donald J.; Lohmeier, Alfred; Duke, James M.

    1981-01-01

    A straight shell and tube heat exchanger utilizing double wall tubes and three tubesheets to ensure separation of the primary and secondary fluid and reliable leak detection of a leak in either the primary or the secondary fluids to further ensure that there is no mixing of the two fluids.

  18. Unified first wall - blanket structure for plasma device applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.

    A plasma device is described for use in controlling nuclear reactions within the plasma including a first wall and blanket formed in a one-piece structure composed of a solid solution containing copper and lithium and melting above about 500/sup 0/C.

  19. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Walls with Gas Filled Panel Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer; Atchley, Jerald Allen

    2014-11-01

    Gas filled insulation panels (GFP) are very light weight and compact (when uninflated) advanced insulation products. GFPs consist of multiple layers of thin, low emittance (low-e) metalized aluminum. When expanded, the internal, low-e aluminum layers form a honeycomb structure. These baffled polymer chambers are enveloped by a sealed barrier and filled with either air or a low-conductivity gas. The sealed exterior aluminum foil barrier films provide thermal resistance, flammability protection, and properties to contain air or a low conductivity inert gas. This product was initially developed with a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy. The unexpanded product is nearly flat for easy storage and transport. Therefore, transportation volume and weight of the GFP to fill unit volume of wall cavity is much smaller compared to that of other conventional insulation products. This feature makes this product appealing to use at Army Contingency Basing, when transportation cost is significant compared to the cost of materials. The objective of this study is to evaluate thermal performance of walls, similar to those used at typical Barracks Hut (B-Hut) hard shelters, when GFPs are used in the wall cavities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) tested performance of the wall in the rotatable guarded hotbox (RGHB) according to the ASTM C 1363 standard test method.

  20. Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor salt deposition studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haroldsen, B.L.; Mills, B.E.; Ariizumi, D.Y.; Brown, B.G.

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with Foster Wheeler Development Corp. and GenCorp, Aerojet to develop and evaluate a new supercritical water oxidation reactor design using a transpiring wall liner. In the design, pure water is injected through small pores in the liner wall to form a protective boundary layer that inhibits salt deposition and corrosion, effects that interfere with system performance. The concept was tested at Sandia on a laboratory-scale transpiring wall reactor that is a 1/4 scale model of a prototype plant being designed for the Army to destroy colored smoke and dye at Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas. During the tests, a single-phase pressurized solution of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was heated to supercritical conditions, causing the salt to precipitate out as a fine solid. On-line diagnostics and post-test observation allowed us to characterize reactor performance at different flow and temperature conditions. Tests with and without the protective boundary layer demonstrated that wall transpiration provides significant protection against salt deposition. Confirmation tests were run with one of the dyes that will be processed in the Pine Bluff facility. The experimental techniques, results, and conclusions are discussed.

  1. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN); Fine, H. Alan (Lexington, KY)

    1995-01-01

    An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head.

  2. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kollie, T.G.; Thacker, L.H.; Fine, H.A.

    1993-10-05

    An instrument is described for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets, the packets having a wall sufficiently thin that it can be deformed by the application of an external vacuum to small area thereof. The instrument has a detector head for placement against the deformable wall of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector. An abrupt change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the vacuum applied through the head to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum reference plate is placed beneath the packet to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface of the packet. A packet production line model is also described. 3 figures.

  3. Mitigation of wind tunnel wall interactions in subsonic cavity flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2015-03-06

    In this study, the flow over an open aircraft bay is often represented in a wind tunnel with a cavity. In flight, this flow is unconfined, though in experiments, the cavity is surrounded by wind tunnel walls. If untreated, wind tunnel wall effects can lead to significant distortions of cavity acoustics in subsonic flows. To understand and mitigate these cavitytunnel interactions, a parametric approach was taken for flow over an L/D = 7 cavity at Mach numbers 0.60.8. With solid tunnel walls, a dominant cavity tone was observed, likely due to an interaction with a tunnel duct mode. Furthermore, an acoustic liner opposite the cavity decreased the amplitude of the dominant mode and its harmonics, a result observed by previous researchers. Acoustic dampeners were also placed in the tunnel sidewalls, which further decreased the dominant mode amplitudes and peak amplitudes associated with nonlinear interactions between cavity modes. This then indicates that cavity resonance can be altered by tunnel sidewalls and that spanwise coupling should be addressed when conducting subsonic cavity experiments. Though mechanisms for dominant modes and nonlinear interactions likely exist in unconfined cavity flows, these effects can be amplified by the wind tunnel walls.

  4. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, Marc; Springer, David; Dakin, Bill; German, Alea

    2015-01-01

    High performance walls represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. The primary goal in improving wall thermal performance revolves around increasing the wall framing from 2x4 to 2x6, adding more cavity and exterior rigid insulation, achieving insulation installation criteria meeting ENERGY STAR's thermal bypass checklist. To support this activity, in 2013 the Pacific Gas & Electric Company initiated a project with Davis Energy Group (lead for the Building America team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation) to solicit builder involvement in California to participate in field demonstrations of high performance wall systems. Builders were given incentives and design support in exchange for providing site access for construction observation, cost information, and builder survey feedback. Information from the project was designed to feed into the 2016 Title 24 process, but also to serve as an initial mechanism to engage builders in more high performance construction strategies. This Building America project utilized information collected in the California project.

  5. Mitigation of wind tunnel wall interactions in subsonic cavity flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2015-03-06

    In this study, the flow over an open aircraft bay is often represented in a wind tunnel with a cavity. In flight, this flow is unconfined, though in experiments, the cavity is surrounded by wind tunnel walls. If untreated, wind tunnel wall effects can lead to significant distortions of cavity acoustics in subsonic flows. To understand and mitigate these cavity–tunnel interactions, a parametric approach was taken for flow over an L/D = 7 cavity at Mach numbers 0.6–0.8. With solid tunnel walls, a dominant cavity tone was observed, likely due to an interaction with a tunnel duct mode. Furthermore, an acoustic liner opposite the cavity decreased the amplitude of the dominant mode and its harmonics, a result observed by previous researchers. Acoustic dampeners were also placed in the tunnel sidewalls, which further decreased the dominant mode amplitudes and peak amplitudes associated with nonlinear interactions between cavity modes. This then indicates that cavity resonance can be altered by tunnel sidewalls and that spanwise coupling should be addressed when conducting subsonic cavity experiments. Though mechanisms for dominant modes and nonlinear interactions likely exist in unconfined cavity flows, these effects can be amplified by the wind tunnel walls.

  6. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Thacker, Louis H.; Fine, H. Alan

    1993-01-01

    An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 sufficiently thin that it can be deformed by the application of an external vacuum to small area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. An abrupt change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the vacuum applied through the head 18 to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum Within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum reference plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A packet production line model is also described.

  7. Mitigation of wind tunnel wall interactions in subsonic cavity flows

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2015-03-06

    In this study, the flow over an open aircraft bay is often represented in a wind tunnel with a cavity. In flight, this flow is unconfined, though in experiments, the cavity is surrounded by wind tunnel walls. If untreated, wind tunnel wall effects can lead to significant distortions of cavity acoustics in subsonic flows. To understand and mitigate these cavity–tunnel interactions, a parametric approach was taken for flow over an L/D = 7 cavity at Mach numbers 0.6–0.8. With solid tunnel walls, a dominant cavity tone was observed, likely due to an interaction with a tunnel duct mode. Furthermore, anmore » acoustic liner opposite the cavity decreased the amplitude of the dominant mode and its harmonics, a result observed by previous researchers. Acoustic dampeners were also placed in the tunnel sidewalls, which further decreased the dominant mode amplitudes and peak amplitudes associated with nonlinear interactions between cavity modes. This then indicates that cavity resonance can be altered by tunnel sidewalls and that spanwise coupling should be addressed when conducting subsonic cavity experiments. Though mechanisms for dominant modes and nonlinear interactions likely exist in unconfined cavity flows, these effects can be amplified by the wind tunnel walls.« less

  8. Microfabricated alkali vapor cell with anti-relaxation wall coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straessle, R.; Ptremand, Y.; Briand, D.; Rooij, N. F. de; Pellaton, M.; Affolderbach, C.; Mileti, G.

    2014-07-28

    We present a microfabricated alkali vapor cell equipped with an anti-relaxation wall coating. The anti-relaxation coating used is octadecyltrichlorosilane and the cell was sealed by thin-film indium-bonding at a low temperature of 140?C. The cell body is made of silicon and Pyrex and features a double-chamber design. Depolarizing properties due to liquid Rb droplets are avoided by confining the Rb droplets to one chamber only. Optical and microwave spectroscopy performed on this wall-coated cell are used to evaluate the cell's relaxation properties and a potential gas contamination. Double-resonance signals obtained from the cell show an intrinsic linewidth that is significantly lower than the linewidth that would be expected in case the cell had no wall coating but only contained a buffer-gas contamination on the level measured by optical spectroscopy. Combined with further experimental evidence this proves the presence of a working anti-relaxation wall coating in the cell. Such cells are of interest for applications in miniature atomic clocks, magnetometers, and other quantum sensors.

  9. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kollie, T.G.; Thacker, L.H.; Fine, H.A.

    1995-04-18

    An instrument is disclosed for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets, the packets having a wall that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head for placement against the deformable wall of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate is placed beneath the packet to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head. 4 figs.

  10. Method of controlling the side wall thickness of a turbine nozzle segment for improved cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and a vane extending therebetween. Each band has a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band has an inturned flange defining with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The outer surface of the side wall is provided with a step prior to welding the cover to the side wall. A thermal barrier coating is applied in the step and, after the cover is welded to the side wall, the side wall is finally machined to a controlled thickness removing all, some or none of the coating.

  11. Modification of near-wall coherent structures by inertial particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richter, David H.; Sullivan, Peter P.

    2014-10-15

    Direct numerical simulations are combined with two-way coupled Lagrangian point particles to study the effect of Reynolds number on particle-turbulence interaction. Turbulent planar Couette flow is simulated at a constant dispersed phase mass loading of ϕ{sub m} = 0.25 for particle Stokes numbers of St{sub K} = [O(1), O(10), O(100)] (based on the Stokes time scale of the particle and the Kolmogorov time scale of the flow) and bulk Reynolds numbers of Re{sub b} = [8100, 24000, 72000] (based on the plate velocity difference and separation distance). Statistics of swirling strength |λ{sub ci}| are used to evaluate the impact of particles on near-wall motions which are responsible for turbulent, wall-normal momentum transport. Instantaneously, the number of high-strength swirling motions near the wall decreases significantly in the presence of particles, and this trend is enhanced with increasing Re{sub b}. Conditional averages are computed using linear stochastic estimation, providing the average structures responsible for ejection events near the wall. These conditional eddies are weakened substantially by the presence of the dispersed phase, and this effect is again enhanced with increasing Re{sub b}. We propose a mechanism where particles, by interfering with the hairpin regeneration process near the wall, can influence turbulent fluxes in a way that increases with Re{sub b} despite only having direct interaction with scales on the same order as their small physical size. At the same time, turbulent momentum flux concentrated at higher wavenumbers with increasing Re{sub b} allows small particles to be effective agents for altering turbulent transport.

  12. CeO2 Thin Films Nan Yang, Alex Belianinov...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... transfer 3 of ions and energy can take place, especially upon variation of the gas environment. In addition, in the case of our thin films, the large in-plane geometry factor ...

  13. Concrete as secondary containment for interior wall embedded waste lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C.L.

    1993-10-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex are numerous facilities that handle hazardous waste solutions. Secondary containment of tank systems and their ancillary piping is a major concern for existing facilities. The Idaho Division of Environmental Quality was petitioned in 1990 for an Equivalent Device determination regarding secondary containment of waste lines embedded in interior concrete walls. The petition was granted, however it expires in 1996. To address the secondary containment issue, additional studies were undertaken. One study verified the hypothesis that an interior wall pipe leak would follow the path of least resistance through the naturally occurring void found below a rigidly supported pipe and pass into an adjacent room where detection could occur, before any significant deterioration of the concrete takes place. Other tests demonstrated that with acidic waste solutions rebar and cold joints are not an accelerated path to the environment. The results from these latest studies confirm that the subject configuration meets all the requirements of secondary containment

  14. Design of SC walls and slabs for impulsive loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varma, Amit H.

    2015-11-11

    Reinforced concrete (RC) structures have historically been the preferred choice for blast resistant structures because of their mass and the ductility provided by steel reinforcement. Steel-plate composite (SC) walls are a viable alternative to RC for protecting the infrastructure against explosive threats. SC structures consist of two steel faceplates with a plain concrete core between them. The steel faceplates are anchored to the concrete using stud anchors and connected to each other using tie bars. SC structures provide mass from the concrete infill and ductility from the continuous external steel faceplates. This dissertation presents findings and recommendations from experimental and analytical investigations of the performance of SC walls subjected to far-field blast loads.

  15. Mesoporous organosilica nanotubes containing a chelating ligand in their walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiao; Goto, Yasutomo; Maegawa, Yoshifumi; Inagaki, Shinji

    2014-11-01

    We report the synthesis of organosilica nanotubes containing 2,2?-bipyridine chelating ligands within their walls, employing a single-micelle-templating method. These nanotubes have an average pore diameter of 7.8 nm and lengths of several hundred nanometers. UV-vis absorption spectra and scanning transmission electron microscopy observations of immobilized nanotubes with an iridium complex on the bipyridine ligands showed that the 2,2?-bipyridine groups were homogeneously distributed in the benzene-silica walls. The iridium complex, thus, immobilized on the nanotubes exhibited efficient catalytic activity for water oxidation using Ce{sup 4+}, due to the ready access of reactants to the active sites in the nanotubes.

  16. Reducing wall plasma expansion with gold foam irradiated by laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Lu; Ding, Yongkun Jiang, Shaoen Yang, Jiamin; Li, Hang; Kuang, Longyu; Lin, Zhiwei; Jing, Longfei; Li, Liling; Deng, Bo; Yuan, Zheng; Chen, Tao; Yuan, Guanghui; Tan, Xiulan; Li, Ping

    2015-11-15

    The experimental study on the expanding plasma movement of low-density gold foam (∼1% solid density) irradiated by a high power laser is reported in this paper. Experiments were conducted using the SG-III prototype laser. Compared to solid gold with 19.3 g/cc density, the velocities of X-ray emission fronts moving off the wall are much smaller for gold foam with 0.3 g/cc density. Theoretical analysis and MULTI 1D simulation results also show less plasma blow-off, and that the density contour movement velocities of gold foam are smaller than those of solid gold, agreeing with experimental results. These results indicate that foam walls have advantages in symmetry control and lowering plasma fill when used in ignition hohlraum.

  17. Shock wave convergence in water with parabolic wall boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanuka, D.; Shafer, D.; Krasik, Ya.

    2015-04-28

    The convergence of shock waves in water, where the cross section of the boundaries between which the shock wave propagates is either straight or parabolic, was studied. The shock wave was generated by underwater electrical explosions of planar Cu wire arrays using a high-current generator with a peak output current of ?45?kA and rise time of ?80?ns. The boundaries of the walls between which the shock wave propagates were symmetric along the z axis, which is defined by the direction of the exploding wires. It was shown that with walls having a parabolic cross section, the shock waves converge faster and the pressure in the vicinity of the line of convergence, calculated by two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper, is also larger.

  18. A Novel Approach to Wall Model Treatment for Large Eddy Simulations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Novel Approach to Wall Model Treatment for Large Eddy Simulations. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Novel Approach to Wall Model Treatment for Large Eddy Simulations. ...

  19. Apparatus for impingement cooling a side wall adjacent an undercut region of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and vanes therebetween. Each band includes a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. Slots are formed through the inturned flange along the nozzle side wall. A plate having through-apertures extending between opposite edges thereof is disposed in each slot, the slots and plates being angled such that the cooling medium exiting the apertures in the second cavity lie close to the side wall for focusing and targeting cooling medium onto the side wall.

  20. Where are the walls? Spatial variation in the fine-structure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Where are the walls? Spatial variation in the fine-structure constant Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Where are the walls? Spatial variation in the fine-structure ...

  1. Where are the walls? Spatial variation in the fine-structure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Where are the walls? Spatial variation in the fine-structure constant Prev Next Title: Where are the walls? Spatial variation in the fine-structure constant Authors: Olive, ...

  2. ENCAPSULATION OF PALLADIUM IN POROUS WALL HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heung, L; George Wicks, G; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-09

    A new encapsulation method was investigated in an attempt to develop an improved palladium packing material for hydrogen isotope separation. Porous wall hollow glass microspheres (PWHGMs) were produced by using a flame former, heat treating and acid leaching. The PWHGMs were then filled with palladium salt using a soak-and-dry process. The palladium salt was reduced at high temperature to leave palladium inside the microspheres.

  3. Moisture and Structural Analysis for High Performance Hybrid Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, A.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-09-01

    Based on past experience in the Building America program, BSC has found that combinations of materials and approachesin other words, systemsusually provide optimum performance. Integration is necessary, as described in this research project. The hybrid walls analyzed utilize a combination of exterior insulation, diagonal metal strapping, and spray polyurethane foam and leave room for cavity-fill insulation. These systems can provide effective thermal, air, moisture, and water barrier systems in one assembly and provide structure.

  4. Microsoft Word - FINAL News Release - Security Walls VPP.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Security Contractor Receives DOE Voluntary Protection Program Award CARLSBAD, N.M., October 24, 2012- Security Walls, LLC, the security contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), recently received the DOE Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Legacy Star award. The DOE-VPP legacy star award is the highest level of recognition possible in the VPP. To be eligible for this award, the recipient must achieve and maintain the DOE-VPP star of excellence award

  5. Titanium dioxide, single-walled carbon nanotube composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yao, Yuan; Li, Gonghu; Gray, Kimberly; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2015-07-14

    The present invention provides titanium dioxide/single-walled carbon nanotube composites (TiO.sub.2/SWCNTs), articles of manufacture, and methods of making and using such composites. In certain embodiments, the present invention provides membrane filters and ceramic articles that are coated with TiO.sub.2/SWCNT composite material. In other embodiments, the present invention provides methods of using TiO.sub.2/SWCNT composite material to purify a sample, such as a water or air sample.

  6. Production of single-walled carbon nanotube grids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hauge, Robert H; Xu, Ya-Qiong; Pheasant, Sean

    2013-12-03

    A method of forming a nanotube grid includes placing a plurality of catalyst nanoparticles on a grid framework, contacting the catalyst nanoparticles with a gas mixture that includes hydrogen and a carbon source in a reaction chamber, forming an activated gas from the gas mixture, heating the grid framework and activated gas, and controlling a growth time to generate a single-wall carbon nanotube array radially about the grid framework. A filter membrane may be produced by this method.

  7. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1998-04-01

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation`s (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. Moisture Durability Assessment of Selected Well-insulated Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallin, Simon B.; Boudreaux, Philip R.; Kehrer, Manfred; Hun, Diana E.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2015-12-01

    This report presents the results from studying the hygrothermal performance of two well-insulated wall assemblies, both complying with and exceeding international building codes (IECC 2015 2014, IRC 2015). The hygrothermal performance of walls is affected by a large number of influential parameters (e.g., outdoor and indoor climates, workmanship, material properties). This study was based on a probabilistic risk assessment in which a number of these influential parameters were simulated with their natural variability. The purpose of this approach was to generate simulation results based on laboratory chamber measurements that represent a variety of performances and thus better mimic realistic conditions. In total, laboratory measurements and 6,000 simulations were completed for five different US climate zones. A mold growth indicator (MGI) was used to estimate the risk of mold which potentially can cause moisture durability problems in the selected wall assemblies. Analyzing the possible impact on the indoor climate due to mold was not part of this study. The following conclusions can be reached from analyzing the simulation results. In a hot-humid climate, a higher R-value increases the importance of the airtightness because interior wall materials are at lower temperatures. In a cold climate, indoor humidity levels increase with increased airtightness. Air leakage must be considered in a hygrothermal risk assessment, since air efficiently brings moisture into buildings from either the interior or exterior environment. The sensitivity analysis of this study identifies mitigation strategies. Again, it is important to remark that MGI is an indicator of mold, not an indicator of indoor air quality and that mold is the most conservative indicator for moisture durability issues.

  9. COLLOQUIUM: Handling Plasma Wall Interactions on ITER | Princeton Plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Lab June 8, 2015, 4:15pm to 6:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: Handling Plasma Wall Interactions on ITER Dr. Richard Pitts ITER Although the ITER machine design is essentially complete, with almost all major systems into the procurement phase, there are many physics issues which remain open and require continued investigation during the machine construction years in preparation for both early operation and the high performance burning plasma phases. Boundary physics and the

  10. Composites of Doped Semiconducting Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fluorene-based Polymers for Thermoelectric Power Conversion - Energy Innovation Portal Composites of Doped Semiconducting Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes and Fluorene-based Polymers for Thermoelectric Power Conversion National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Thermoelectric materials are materials which are able to create electricity when exposed to a heat source. This phenomenon is caused by the flow of electrons from heated regions

  11. Three-component borehole wall-locking seismic detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    A seismic detector for boreholes is described that has an accelerometer sensor block for sensing vibrations in geologic formations of the earth. The density of the seismic detector is approximately matched to the density of the formations in which the detector is utilized. A simple compass is used to orient the seismic detector. A large surface area shoe having a radius approximately equal to the radius of the borehole in which the seismic detector is located may be pushed against the side of the borehole by actuating cylinders contained in the seismic detector. Hydraulic drive of the cylinders is provided external to the detector. By using the large surface area wall-locking shoe, force holding the seismic detector in place is distributed over a larger area of the borehole wall thereby eliminating concentrated stresses. Borehole wall-locking forces up to ten times the weight of the seismic detector can be applied thereby ensuring maximum detection frequency response up to 2,000 hertz using accelerometer sensors in a triaxial array within the seismic detector.

  12. Metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes and production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dillon, Anne C.; Heben, Michael J.; Gennett, Thomas; Parilla, Philip A.

    2007-01-09

    Metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes and production thereof. The metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes may be produced according to one embodiment of the invention by combining single-walled carbon nanotube precursor material and metal in a solution, and mixing the solution to incorporate at least a portion of the metal with the single-walled carbon nanotube precursor material. Other embodiments may comprise sputter deposition, evaporation, and other mixing techniques.

  13. Method of manufacturing hollow members having uniform wall thickness through use of ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Paul R.; Downs, Raymond L.; Henderson, Timothy M.

    1982-01-01

    A method of manufacturing a hollow structure of uniform wall thickness comprising the steps of selecting or forming a precursor having one wall surface of desired geometry, treating a portion of the precursor consisting of the one wall surface and a uniform depth of material beneath the wall surface to increase resistance to ablation, and then removing by ablation and discarding the remaining or untreated portion of the precursor.

  14. Sustainable wall construction and exterior insulation retrofit technology process and structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vohra, Arun

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost process for exterior wall insulation retrofit, or new wall construction by stacking layers of fabric tube filled with insulating material against a wall and covering them with mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value.

  15. Four-wall turbine airfoil with thermal strain control for reduced cycle fatigue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cambell, Christian X

    2013-09-17

    A turbine airfoil (20B) with a thermal expansion control mechanism that increases the airfoil camber (60, 61) under operational heating. The airfoil has four-wall geometry, including pressure side outer and inner walls (26, 28B), and suction side outer and inner walls (32, 34B). It has near-wall cooling channels (31F, 31A, 33F, 33A) between the outer and inner walls. A cooling fluid flow pattern (50C, 50W, 50H) in the airfoil causes the pressure side inner wall (28B) to increase in curvature under operational heating. The pressure side inner wall (28B) is thicker than walls (26, 34B) that oppose it in camber deformation, so it dominates them in collaboration with the suction side outer wall (32), and the airfoil camber increases. This reduces and relocates a maximum stress area (47) from the suction side outer wall (32) to the suction side inner wall (34B, 72) and the pressure side outer wall (26).

  16. Protective interior wall and attaching means for a fusion reactor vacuum vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, R.D.; Upham, G.A.; Anderson, P.M.

    1985-03-01

    The wall basically consists of an array of small rectangular plates attached to the existing walls with threaded fasteners. The protective wall effectively conceals and protects all mounting hardware beneath the plate array, while providing a substantial surface area that will absorb plasma energy.

  17. Propagating and reflecting of spin wave in permalloy nanostrip with 360 domain wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Senfu; Mu, Congpu; Zhu, Qiyuan; Zheng, Qi; Liu, Xianyin; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2014-01-07

    By micromagnetic simulation, we investigated the interaction between propagating spin wave (or magnonic) and a 360 domain wall in a nanostrip. It is found that propagating spin wave can drive a 360 domain wall motion, and the velocity and direction are closely related to the transmission coefficient of the spin wave of the domain wall. When the spin wave passes through the domain wall completely, the 360 domain wall moves toward the spin wave source. When the spin wave is reflected by the domain wall, the 360 domain wall moves along the spin wave propagation direction. Moreover, when the frequency of the spin wave is coincident with that of the 360 domain wall normal mode, the 360 domain wall velocity will be resonantly enhanced no matter which direction the 360 DW moves along. On the other hand, when the spin wave is reflected from the moving 360 domain wall, we observed the Doppler effect clearly. After passing through a 360 domain wall, the phase of the spin wave is changed, and the phase shift is related to the frequency. Nevertheless, phase shift could be manipulated by the number of 360 domain walls that spin wave passing through.

  18. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Double-Stud Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomis, H.; Pettit, B.

    2015-06-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution that provides insulation to the interior of the wall assembly with the use of a double stud wall. The guide describes two approaches to retrofitting the existing the walls: one involving replacement of the existing cladding, and the other that leaves the existing cladding in place. It discusses the design principles related to the use of various insulation types, and provides strategies and procedures for implementing the double stud wall retrofit. It also evaluates important moisture-related and indoor air quality measures that need to be implemented to achieve a durable, high performance wall.

  19. Apparatus and methods for impingement cooling of a side wall of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and a vane therebetween. Each band includes a nozzle wall, a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and the nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The impingement plate has a turned flange welded to the inturned flange. A backing plate overlies the turned flange and aligned apertures are formed through the backing plate and turned flange to direct and focus cooling flow onto the side wall of the nozzle segment.

  20. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; and others

    2015-05-15

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  1. Tin-wall hollow ceramic spheres from slurries. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, A.T.; Cochran, J.K.

    1992-12-31

    The overall objective of this effort was to develop a process for economically fabricating thin-wall hollow ceramic spheres from conventional ceramic powders using dispersions. This process resulted in successful production of monosized spheres in the mm size range which were point contact bonded into foams. Thin-wall hollow ceramic spheres of small (one to five millimeter) diameter have novel applications as high-temperature insulation and light structural materials when bonded into monolithic foams. During Phase 1 of this program the objective as to develop a process for fabricating thin-wall hollow spheres from powder slurries using the coaxial nozzle fabrication method. Based on the success during Phase 1, Phase 2 was revised to emphasize the assessment of the potential structural and insulation applications for the spheres and modeling of the sphere formation process was initiated. As more understanding developed, it was clear that to achieve successful structural application, the spheres had to be bonded into monolithic foams and the effort was further expanded to include both bonding into structures and finite element mechanical modeling which became the basis of Phase 3. Successful bonding techniques and mechanical modeling resulted but thermal conductivities were higher than desired for insulating activities. In addition, considerable interest had been express by industry for the technology. Thus the final Phase 4 concentrated on methods to reduce thermal conductivity by a variety of techniques and technology transfer through individualized visits. This program resulted in three Ph.D. theses and 10 M.S. theses and they are listed in the appropriate technical sections.

  2. Active control of the resistive wall mode with power saturation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Li; Liu Yue [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Liu Yueqiang [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    An analytic model of non-linear feedback stabilization of the resistive wall mode is presented. The non-linearity comes from either the current or the voltage saturation of the control coil power supply. For the so-called flux-to-current control, the current saturation of active coils always results in the loss of control. On the contrary, the flux-to-voltage control scheme tolerates certain degree of the voltage saturation. The minimal voltage limit is calculated, below which the control will be lost.

  3. LiWall Fusion - The New Concept of Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Zakharov

    2011-01-12

    Utilization of the outstanding abilities of a liquid lithium layer in pumping hydrogen isotopes leads to a new approach to magnetic fusion, called the LiWall Fusion. It relies on innovative plasma regimes with low edge density and high temperature. The approach combines fueling the plasma by neutral injection beams with the best possible elimination of outside neutral gas sources, which cools down the plasma edge. Prevention of cooling the plasma edge suppresses the dominant, temperature gradient related turbulence in the core. Such an approach is much more suitable for controlled fusion than the present practice, relying on high heating power for compensating essentially unlimited turbulent energy losses.

  4. Characterizing the Plasma of the Resistive Wall Machine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma of the Rotating Wall Machine by David A. Hannum A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Physics) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison 2010 Copyright ©2010 David A. Hannum. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts,

  5. Operating and maintenance benefits of automated oven wall temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leuchtmann, K.P.; Hinz, D.; Bergbau, D.; Platts, M.

    1997-12-31

    For a very long time and regardless of all shortcomings associated with it, the manual measurement of the heating flue temperature has been the only method of monitoring the temperature prevailing in a coke oven battery and discovering weak points in the heating system. In the course of the last few years a number of automated temperature measuring systems have been developed that are intended to replace or supplement the manual heating flue measurement system. These measuring systems and their advantages/disadvantages are briefly described in this paper. Additionally, operational experience gathered with the oven chamber wall temperature measuring system is discussed in detail.

  6. Go model Berhanu, W. M.; Jiang, P.; Hansmann, U. H. E. Not Available

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    None USDOE United States 2013-01-01 English Journal Article Journal Name: Physical Review E; Journal Volume: 87; Journal Issue: 1 Medium: X OSTI ID: 1101879, Legacy ID: OSTI...

  7. Rivulet Flow In Vertical Parallel-Wall Channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. Mc Creery; P. Meakin

    2006-04-01

    In comparison with studies of rivulet flow over external surfaces, rivulet flow confined by two surfaces has received almost no attention. Fully-developed rivulet flow in vertical parallel-wall channels was characterized, both experimentally and analytically for flows intermediate between a lower flow limit of drop flow and an upper limit where the rivulets meander. Although this regime is the most simple rivulet flow regime, it does not appear to have been previously investigated in detail. Experiments were performed that measured rivulet widths for aperture spacing ranging from 0.152 mm to 0.914 mm. The results were compared with a simple steadystate analytical model for laminar flow. The model divides the rivulet cross-section into an inner region, which is dominated by viscous and gravitational forces and where essentially all flow is assumed to occur, and an outer region, dominated by capillary forces, where the geometry is determined by the contact angle between the fluid and the wall. Calculations using the model provided excellent agreement with data for inner rivulet widths and good agreement with measurements of outer rivulet widths.

  8. POLAR DISK GALAXY FOUND IN WALL BETWEEN VOIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanonik, K.; Van Gorkom, J. H.; Platen, E.; Van de Weygaert, R.; Van der Hulst, J. M.; Aragon-Calvo, M. A.; Peebles, P. J. E.

    2009-05-01

    We have found an isolated polar disk galaxy in what appears to be a cosmological wall situated between two voids. This void galaxy is unique as its polar disk was discovered serendipitously in an H I survey of SDSS void galaxies, with no optical counterpart to the H I polar disk. Yet the H I mass in the disk is comparable to the stellar mass in the galaxy. This suggests slow accretion of the H I material at a relatively recent time. There is also a hint of a warp in the outer parts of the H I disk. The central, stellar disk appears relatively blue, with faint near-UV emission, and is oriented (roughly) parallel to the surrounding wall, implying gas accretion from the voids. The considerable gas mass and apparent lack of stars in the polar disk, coupled with the general underdensity of the environment, supports recent theories of cold flow accretion as an alternate formation mechanism for polar disk galaxies.

  9. Metals attenuation in minerally-enhanced slurry walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J.C.; Prince, M.J.; Adams, T.L.

    1997-12-31

    In current practice, a soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff wall is a mixture of water, soil, and bentonite that is designed to serve as a passive barrier to ground water and contaminant transport. This study evaluated the transformation of a passive slurry trench cutoff wall barrier to an active barrier system. Conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers presently serve as passive barriers to contaminated ground water. An active barrier will not only fulfill the functions of the present passive barrier system, but also retard contaminant transport by adsorptive processes. Attapulgite, Na-chabazite, and Ca-chabazite were added to {open_quotes}activate{close_quotes} the conventional soil-bentonite backfill. Batch extraction tests were performed to determine the partitioning coefficients of cadmium and zinc between the liquid and solid phase when in contact with the backfill mixes. Batch extraction and mathematical modeling results demonstrate the ability of an active barrier to retard the transport of cadmium and zinc. The reactivity of the soil-bentonite vertical barrier depends heavily on the inorganic being adsorbed. The reactivity of the barrier also depends on the adsorptive capabilities of the clay minerals added to the conventional soil-bentonite vertical barrier. The results of laboratory studies suggest that passive barrier systems can be transformed to active systems. Further, the data suggests that although conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers are presently designed as passive barriers, they already have adsorptive capacity associated with active barriers.

  10. Experimental study of a fiber absorber-suppressor modified Trombe wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, D; Birkebak, R C

    1982-12-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to ascertain the effects of introducing fiber bed absorbers on Trombe wall passive solar collectors. Two identical, Trombe wall passive solar units were constructed that incorporate the basic components of masonry collector-storage walls: glazings, masonry and thermal insulation. Both units were extensively instrumented with thermocouples and heat flux transducers. Ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and insolation are also measured. In the first part of the study the two Trombe wall units were tested with a single glass cover. The thermal performance of both units was found to be virtually identical. In the second part of the study a single cover Trombe wall unit was compared with a double cover unit and the latter was found to have higher air gap and masonry wall temperatures and heat fluxes. In the final phase of the experiment, an absorbing, scattering and emitting fiberglass-like material was placed in the air gap of the single gazed wall. Tests were conducted to compare the solar-thermal performance, heat loss and gain characteristics between the units with and without the fiber absorber-suppressor. This experiment showed that the fiber bed served to decouple the wall at night from its exterior environment and to reduce the heat losses. The modified Trombe wall with the fiber absorber-suppressor out-performed the double glazed Trombe wall system by approximately ten percent gain in useable thermal energy. Also, the fiber bed eliminates one glazing thereby reducing system cost as well.

  11. The Envelope Thermal Test Unit (ETTU): Full Measurement of WallPerform ance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.C.; Sherman, M.H.; Adams, J.W.

    1981-10-01

    There are many ways of calculating the dynamic thermal performance of walls and many ways of measuring the performance of walls in the laboratory, relatively few field measurements have been made of the dynamic performance of wall in situ. Measuring the thermal performance of walls in situ poses two separate problems: measuring the heat fluxes and surface temperatures of the wall, and reducing this data set into usable parameters. We have solved the first problem by developing the Envelope Thermal Test Unit (ETTU). ETTU consists of two specially constructed polystyrene blankets, 1.2m square, placed on either side of the test wall that both control and measure the surface fluxes and surface temperatures of the wall. To solve the second problem we have developed a simplified dynamic model that describes the thermal performance of a wall in terms of its steady-state conductance, a time constant, and some storage terms. We have used ETTU in the field to measure the thermal performance of walls, and have applied our simplified analysis to calculate simplified thermal parameters from this data set. In this report, we present the in-situ measurements made to date using ETTU, and the resulting model predictions. The agreement between measured and predicted surface fluxes demonstrates the ability of our test unit and analytic model to describe the dynamic performance of walls in situ.

  12. Superinsulation in walls of factory-built homes. Final CRADA report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkes, K. |

    1997-04-28

    This project sought to evaluate the thermal performance of wall sections containing powder-filled evacuated panel superinsulations. The project would result in practical designs for the use of superinsulations in wall cavities, thermal performance data for superinsulated wall sections, and a cost/benefit analysis of the use of superinsulated walls. Superinsulation inserts provided by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) were to be installed in three types of wall elements designed and fabricated by Hal-Bilt Homes. These wall panels were then to be evaluated in a guarded or calibrated hot-box. Economic evaluation of the panels was to be performed by Hal-Bilt. This CRADA was terminated in January 1995 as a result of the Partner`s bankruptcy and prior to any significant work by the Partner on this agreement.

  13. Local wall heat flux/temperature meter for convective flow and method of utilizing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Ronald D.; Ekhlassi, Ali; Cofie, Penrose

    2004-11-30

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a method includes providing a conduit having a fluid flowing therethrough, disposing a plurality of temperature measurement devices inside a wall of the conduit, positioning at least some of the temperature measurement devices proximate an inside surface of the wall of the conduit, positioning at least some of the temperature measurement devices at different radial positions at the same circumferential location within the wall, measuring a plurality of temperatures of the wall with respective ones of the temperature measurement devices to obtain a three-dimensional temperature topology of the wall, determining the temperature dependent thermal conductivity of the conduit, and determining a multi-dimensional thermal characteristic of the inside surface of the wall of the conduit based on extrapolation of the three-dimensional temperature topology and the temperature dependent thermal conductivities.

  14. Post-cast EDM method for reducing the thickness of a turbine nozzle wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Raymond Joseph; Bojappa, Parvangada Ganapathy; Kirkpatrick, Francis Lawrence; Schotsch, Margaret Jones; Rajan, Rajiv; Wei, Bin

    2002-01-01

    A post-cast EDM process is used to remove material from the interior surface of a nozzle vane cavity of a turbine. A thin electrode is passed through the cavity between opposite ends of the nozzle vane and displaced along the interior nozzle wall to remove the material along a predetermined path, thus reducing the thickness of the wall between the cavity and the external surface of the nozzle. In another form, an EDM process employing a profile as an electrode is disposed in the cavity and advanced against the wall to remove material from the wall until the final wall thickness is achieved, with the interior wall surface being complementary to the profile surface.

  15. Fabrication of thin-wall hollow nickel spheres and low density syntactic foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clancy, R.B.; Sanders, T.H. Jr.; Cochran, J.K.

    1991-12-31

    A process has been developed to fabricate thin-wall hollow spheres from conventional oxide powders at room temperature. The polymer- bonded powder shells are fired in air to sinter the walls, leaving the shells either impervious or porous. Alternatively, the oxide shells can be preferentially reduced to produce thin-wall hollow metal spheres which can be bonded together to produce an ultra light weight closed-cell foam. Processing and properties of this class of low density structures will be discussed.

  16. Measure Guideline. Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Interior Insulation of Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musunuru, S.; Pettit, B.

    2015-04-30

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution for insulating mass masonry buildings from the interior. It describes the retrofit assembly, technical details, and installation sequence for retrofitting masonry walls. Interior insulation of masonry retrofits might adversely affect the durability of the wall. This guideline includes a review of decision criteria pertinent to retrofitting masonry walls from the interior and the possible risk of freeze-thaw damage.

  17. Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case Study Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case Study Analysis Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case Study Analysis This report considers a number of promising wall systems with improved thermal control to improve plant-wide performance. Unlike previous studies, it considers performance in a more realistic matter, including some true three-dimensional heat flow and the relative risk of moisture damage. Building America Special

  18. CBEI: Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium Sized

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review | Department of Energy Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Mugdha Mokashi, Bayer Materials View the Presentation CBEI: Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review (1.25 MB) More Documents &

  19. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Interior Insulation of Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musunuru, S.; Pettit, B.

    2015-04-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution for insulating mass masonry buildings from the interior. It describes the retrofit assembly, technical details, and installation sequence for retrofitting masonry walls. Interior insulation of masonry retrofits has the potential to adversely affect the durability of the wall; this document includes a review of decision criteria pertinent to retrofitting masonry walls from the interior and the possible risk of freeze-thaw damage.

  20. Monitoring of Double-Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.

    2015-03-01

    Double-stud walls insulated with cellulose or low-density spray foam can have R-values of 40 or higher. However, double-stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing. Moisture conditions in double-stud walls were monitored in Zone 5A (Massachusetts); three double-stud assemblies were compared.

  1. Depinning transition of a domain wall in ferromagnetic films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xi, Bin; Luo, Meng -Bo; Vinokur, Valerii M.; Hu, Xiao

    2015-09-14

    We report first principle numerical study of domain wall (DW) depinning in two-dimensional magnetic film, which is modeled by 2D random-field Ising system with the dipole-dipole interaction. We observe non-conventional activation-type motion of DW and reveal the fractal structure of DW near the depinning transition. We determine scaling functions describing critical dynamics near the transition and obtain universal exponents establishing connection between thermal softening of pinning potential and critical dynamics. In addition, we observe that tuning the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction switches DW dynamics between two different universality classes, corresponding to two distinct dynamic regimes characterized by non-Arrhenius andmore » conventional Arrhenius-type DW motions.« less

  2. Effect of chlorine on furnace wall corrosion in utility boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kung, S.C.; Daniel, P.L.; Seeley, R.R.

    1996-08-01

    The corrosion resistance of several commercial alloys was investigated in laboratory retort tests under a reducing/sulfidizing mixed gas at 700 and 900 F (371 and 482 C) for 1,000 hours. The test conditions were designed to simulate the corrosion of furnace walls in the combustion zone of utility boilers burning sulfur/chlorine-bearing coal substoichiometrically. Corrosion rates of these alloys were determined and compared to those obtained from a previous study in which the same alloys were evaluated under chlorine-free substoichiometric combustion environments. Results of the two studies reveal that the presence of chlorine in the reducing/sulfidizing mixed gas has a negligible effect on the corrosion behavior of these alloys in this gas at 700 F (371 C), whereas a beneficial effect was observed at 900 F (482 C). The beneficial effect implies that the presence of HCl may impede the sulfidation attack by H{sub 2}S under certain substoichiometric combustion environments.

  3. Fluorescent single walled nanotube/silica composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M.; Gupta, Gautam; Duque, Juan G.; Doorn, Stephen K.; Hamilton, Christopher E.; DeFriend Obrey, Kimberly A.

    2013-03-12

    Fluorescent composites of surfactant-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were prepared by exposing suspensions of surfactant-wrapped carbon nanotubes to tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) vapor. Sodium deoxycholate (DOC) and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) were the surfactants. No loss in emission intensity was observed when the suspension of DOC-wrapped SWNTs were exposed to the TMOS vapors, but about a 50% decrease in the emission signal was observed from the SDS-wrapped SWNTs nanotubes. The decrease in emission was minimal by buffering the SDS/SWNT suspension prior to forming the composite. Fluorescent xerogels were prepared by adding glycerol to the SWNT suspensions prior to TMOS vapor exposure, followed by drying the gels. Fluorescent aerogels were prepared by replacing water in the gels with methanol and then exposing them to supercritical fluid drying conditions. The aerogels can be used for gas sensing.

  4. Parametric study of cantilever walls subjected to seismic loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comina, Cesare; Foti, Sebastiano; Lancellotta, Renato; Leuzzi, Francesco; Pettiti, Alberto; Corigliano, Mirko; Lai, Carlo G.; Nicosia, Giovanni Li Destri; Psarropoulos, Prodromos N.; Paolucci, Roberto; Zanoli, Omar

    2008-07-08

    The design of flexible earth retaining structures under seismic loading is a challenging geotechnical problem, the dynamic soil-structure interaction being of paramount importance for this kind of structures. Pseudo-static approaches are often adopted but do not allow a realistic assessment of the performance of the structure subjected to the seismic motions. The present paper illustrates a numerical parametric study aimed at estimating the influence of the dynamic soil-structure interaction in the design. A series of flexible earth retaining walls have been preliminary designed according to the requirements of Eurocode 7 and Eurocode 8--Part 5; their dynamic behaviour has been then evaluated by means of dynamic numerical simulations in terms of bending moments, accelerations and stress state. The results obtained from dynamic analyses have then been compared with those determined using the pseudo-static approach.

  5. Investigation of dominant spin wave modes by domain walls collision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramu, M.; Purnama, I.; Goolaup, S.; Chandra Sekhar, M.; Lew, W. S.

    2014-06-28

    Spin wave emission due to field-driven domain wall (DW) collision has been investigated numerically and analytically in permalloy nanowires. The spin wave modes generated are diagonally symmetric with respect to the collision point. The non-propagating mode has the highest amplitude along the middle of the width. The frequency of this mode is strongly correlated to the nanowire geometrical dimensions and is independent of the strength of applied field within the range of 0.1?mT to 1?mT. For nanowire with film thickness below 5?nm, a second spin wave harmonic mode is observed. The decay coefficient of the spin wave power suggests that the DWs in a memory device should be at least 300?nm apart for them to be free of interference from the spin waves.

  6. Depinning transition of a domain wall in ferromagnetic films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xi, Bin; Luo, Meng -Bo; Vinokur, Valerii M.; Hu, Xiao

    2015-09-14

    We report first principle numerical study of domain wall (DW) depinning in two-dimensional magnetic film, which is modeled by 2D random-field Ising system with the dipole-dipole interaction. We observe non-conventional activation-type motion of DW and reveal the fractal structure of DW near the depinning transition. We determine scaling functions describing critical dynamics near the transition and obtain universal exponents establishing connection between thermal softening of pinning potential and critical dynamics. In addition, we observe that tuning the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction switches DW dynamics between two different universality classes, corresponding to two distinct dynamic regimes characterized by non-Arrhenius and conventional Arrhenius-type DW motions.

  7. The Kelastic variable wall mining machine. Interim final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-12

    This machine cuts coal along a longwall face extending up to 500 feet by a rotating auger with bits. The machine also transports the coal that is cut acting as screw conveyor. By virtue of an integral shroud comprising part of the conveyor the machine is also amenable to a separation of the zones where men work from air being contaminated by dust and methane gas by the cutting action. Beginning as single intake air courses, the air separates at the working section where one split provides fresh air to the Occupied Zone (OZ) for human needs and the other split purges and carries away dust and methane from face fragmentation in the Cutting Zone (CZ). The attractiveness of the Variable Wall Mining Machine is that it addresses the limitations of current longwall mining equipment: it can consistently out-produce continuous mining machines and most longwall shearing machines. It also is amenable to configuring an environment, the dual-duct system, where the air for human breathing is separated from dust-laden ventilating air with methane mixtures. The objective of the research was to perform a mathematical and experimental study of the interrelationships of the components of the system so that a computer model could demonstrate the workings of the system in an animation program. The analysis resulted in the compilation of the parameters for three different configurations of a dual aircourse system of ventilating underground mines. In addressing the goal of an inherently safe mining system the dual-duct adaptation to the Variable Wall Mining Machine appears to offer the path to solution. The respirable dust problem is solvable; the explosive dust problem is nearly solvable; and the explosive methane problem can be greatly reduced. If installed in a highly gassy mine, the dual duct models would also be considerably less costly.

  8. Center for Applications of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resasco, Daniel E

    2008-02-21

    This report describes the activities conducted under a Congressional Direction project whose goal was to develop applications for Single-walled carbon nanotubes, under the Carbon Nanotube Technology Center (CANTEC), a multi-investigator program that capitalizes on OUs advantageous position of having available high quality carbon nanotubes. During the first phase of CANTEC, 11 faculty members and their students from the College of Engineering developed applications for carbon nanotubes by applying their expertise in a number of areas: Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Nanotube synthesis, Surfactants, Colloid Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry, Spectroscopy, Tissue Engineering, Biosensors, Biochemical Engineering, Cell Biology, Thermal Transport, Composite Materials, Protein synthesis and purification, Molecular Modeling, Computational Simulations. In particular, during this phase, the different research groups involved in CANTEC made advances in the tailoring of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNT) of controlled diameter and chirality by Modifying Reaction Conditions and the Nature of the catalyst; developed kinetic models that quantitatively describe the SWNT growth, created vertically oriented forests of SWNT by varying the density of metal nanoparticles catalyst particles, and developed novel nanostructured SWNT towers that exhibit superhydrophobic behavior. They also developed molecular simulations of the growth of Metal Nanoparticles on the surface of SWNT, which may have applications in the field of fuell cells. In the area of biomedical applications, CANTEC researchers fabricated SWNT Biosensors by a novel electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition method, which may have an impact in the control of diabetes. They also functionalized SWNT with proteins that retained the proteins biological activity and also retained the near-infrared light absorbance, which finds applications in the treatment of cancer.

  9. Plant cell walls throughout evolution: towards a molecular understanding of their design principles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, Purbasha; Bosneaga, Elena; Auer, Manfred

    2009-02-16

    Throughout their life, plants typically remain in one location utilizing sunlight for the synthesis of carbohydrates, which serve as their sole source of energy as well as building blocks of a protective extracellular matrix, called the cell wall. During the course of evolution, plants have repeatedly adapted to their respective niche,which is reflected in the changes of their body plan and the specific design of cell walls. Cell walls not only changed throughout evolution but also are constantly remodelled and reconstructed during the development of an individual plant, and in response to environmental stress or pathogen attacks. Carbohydrate-rich cell walls display complex designs, which together with the presence of phenolic polymers constitutes a barrier for microbes, fungi, and animals. Throughout evolution microbes have co-evolved strategies for efficient breakdown of cell walls. Our current understanding of cell walls and their evolutionary changes are limited as our knowledge is mainly derived from biochemical and genetic studies, complemented by a few targeted yet very informative imaging studies. Comprehensive plant cell wall models will aid in the re-design of plant cell walls for the purpose of commercially viable lignocellulosic biofuel production as well as for the timber, textile, and paper industries. Such knowledge will also be of great interest in the context of agriculture and to plant biologists in general. It is expected that detailed plant cell wall models will require integrated correlative multimodal, multiscale imaging and modelling approaches, which are currently underway.

  10. Tether No More: A Revised Model for Plant Cell Walls | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    To test this model, Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation EFRC researchers at Pennsylvania State University assessed the biomechanical properties of the cell wall. ...

  11. Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of minute hollow spherical shells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinman, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of hollow microspheres or shells wherein terminal velocities of shells traveling in fluid-filled conduits of differing diameters are measured. A wall-effect factor is determined as a ratio of the terminal velocities, and shell outside diameter may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of wall-effect factor. For shells of known outside diameter, wall thickness may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of terminal velocity in either conduit.

  12. A Novel Approach to Wall Model Treatment for Large Eddy Simulations

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the national interest Sandia National Laboratories A Novel Approach to Wall Model Treatment for Large Eddy Simulations Myra Blaylock Sandia National Laboratories is a ...

  13. Go No-Go Decision: Pure, Undoped, Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This document provides information about the go/no-go decision on pure, undoped single walled carbon nanotubes for vehicular hydrogen storage.

  14. Secretary Chu's Op-Ed on Small Modular Reactors in the Wall Street Journal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Chu's Op-Ed on Small Modular Reactors in the Wall Street Journal Secretary Chu's Op-Ed on Small Modular Reactors in the Wall Street Journal March 23, 2010 - 12:24pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - Today, the Wall Street Journal published an op-ed by U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu on small modular reactors. The op-ed can be found here. The text of the op-ed is below: Small modular reactors will expand the ways we use atomic power. By Steven Chu, Secretary of Energy Wall

  15. Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of minute hollow spherical shells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinman, D.A.

    1980-05-30

    Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of hollow microspheres or shells wherein terminal velocities of shells traveling in fluid-filled conduits of differing diameters are measured. A wall-effect factor is determined as a ratio of the terminal velocities, and shell outside diameter may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of wall-effect factor. For shells of known outside diameter, wall thickness may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of terminal velocity in either conduit.

  16. Existence and uniqueness of domain wall solitons in a Maxwell–Chern–Simons model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ruifeng; College of Mathematics and Information Science, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 ; Li, Fangfang

    2014-02-15

    We present some sharp existence and uniqueness theorems for the domain wall solutions of the basic governing equations of a self-dual Maxwell–Chern–Simons model.

  17. Detecting Cellulase Penetration Into Corn Stover Cell Walls by Immuno-Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donohoe, B. S.; Selig, M. J.; Viamajala, S.; Vinzant, T. B.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.

    2009-06-15

    In general, pretreatments are designed to enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymes, allowing for more efficient conversion. In this study, we have detected the penetration of major cellulases present in a commercial enzyme preparation (Spezyme CP) into corn stem cell walls following mild-, moderate- and high-severity dilute sulfuric acid pretreatments. The Trichoderma reesei enzymes, Cel7A (CBH I) and Cel7B (EG I), as well as the cell wall matrix components xylan and lignin were visualized within digested corn stover cell walls by immuno transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using enzyme- and polymer-specific antibodies. Low severity dilute-acid pretreatment (20 min at 100 C) enabled <1% of the thickness of secondary cell walls to be penetrated by enzyme, moderate severity pretreatment at (20 min at 120 C) allowed the enzymes to penetrate {approx}20% of the cell wall, and the high severity (20 min pretreatment at 150 C) allowed 100% penetration of even the thickest cell walls. These data allow direct visualization of the dramatic effect dilute-acid pretreatment has on altering the condensed ultrastructure of biomass cell walls. Loosening of plant cell wall structure due to pretreatment and the subsequently improved access by cellulases has been hypothesized by the biomass conversion community for over two decades, and for the first time, this study provides direct visual evidence to verify this hypothesis. Further, the high-resolution enzyme penetration studies presented here provide insight into the mechanisms of cell wall deconstruction by cellulolytic enzymes.

  18. Glass-coating and cleaning system to prevent carbon deposition on coke oven walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahira, Takuya; Ando, Takeshi; Kasaoka, Shizuki; Yamauchi, Yutaka

    1997-12-31

    The new technology for protecting the coking chamber bricks from damage by hard-pushing is described. The technology consists of the glass coating on the wall bricks and a wall cleaner to blow deposited carbon. For the glass coating, a specially developed glaze is sprayed onto the wall bricks by a spraying device developed to completely spray one coking chamber in a few minutes. The wall cleaner is installed on a pusher ram in the facility to automatically blow air at a sonic speed during coke pushing. The life of the glazed layer is estimated to be over two years.

  19. Erosion/Corrosion-Induced Pipe Wall Thinning in U.S. Nuclear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... has established a plant-specific history of pipe wall thinning, including failure ... safety-related and non-safety-related carbon steel provide for qualification or ...

  20. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Double-Stud Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomis, H.; Pettit, B.

    2015-06-22

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution that provides insulation to the interior of the wall assembly with the use of a double-stud wall. The guide describes two approaches to retrofitting the existing walls—one that involves replacing the existing cladding and the other that leaves the cladding in place. This guideline also covers the design principles related to the use of various insulation types and provides strategies and procedures for implementing the double-stud wall retrofit. It also includes an evaluation of important moisture-related and indoor air quality measures that need to be implemented to achieve a durable high-performance wall.

  1. Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallay, Dave; Wiehagen, Joseph; Kochkin, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders.

  2. Magnetic shielding of walls from the unmagnetized ion beam in a Hall thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2013-01-14

    We demonstrate by numerical simulations and experiments that the unmagnetized ion beam formed in a Hall thruster can be controlled by an applied magnetic field in a manner that reduces by 2-3 orders of magnitude deleterious ion bombardment of the containing walls. The suppression of wall erosion in Hall thrusters to such low levels has remained elusive for decades.

  3. Photovoltaic device using single wall carbon nanotubes and method of fabricating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biris, Alexandru S.; Li, Zhongrui

    2012-11-06

    A photovoltaic device and methods for forming the same. In one embodiment, the photovoltaic device has a silicon substrate, and a film comprising a plurality of single wall carbon nanotubes disposed on the silicon substrate, wherein the plurality of single wall carbon nanotubes forms a plurality of heterojunctions with the silicon in the substrate.

  4. Current-driven vortex domain wall motion in wire-tube nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espejo, A. P.; Vidal-Silva, N.; López-López, J. A.; Goerlitz, D.; Nielsch, K.; Escrig, J.

    2015-03-30

    We have investigated the current-driven domain wall motion in nanostructures comprised of a pair of nanotube and nanowire segments. Under certain values of external magnetic fields, it is possible to pin a vortex domain wall in the transition zone between the wire and tube segments. We explored the behavior of this domain wall under the action of an electron flow applied in the opposite direction to the magnetic field. Thus, for a fixed magnetic field, it is possible to release a domain wall pinned simply by increasing the intensity of the current density, or conversely, for a fixed current density, it is possible to release the domain wall simply decreasing the magnetic external field. When the domain wall remains pinned due to the competition between the current density and the magnetic external field, it exhibits a oscillation frequency close to 8 GHz. The amplitude of the oscillations increases with the current density and decreases over time. On the other hand, when the domain wall is released and propagated through the tube segment, this shows the standard separation between a steady and a precessional regime. The ability to pin and release a domain wall by varying the geometric parameters, the current density, or the magnetic field transforms these wire-tube nanostructures in an interesting alternative as an on/off switch nano-transistor.

  5. Consolidated pretreatment and hydrolysis of plant biomass expressing cell wall degrading enzymes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raab, R. Michael; Zhang, Dongcheng; Bougri, Oleg

    2016-02-02

    Methods for consolidated pretreatment and hydrolysis of genetically engineered plants expressing cell wall degrading enzymes are provided. Expression cassettes and vectors for making transgenic plants are described. Plants engineered to express one or more cell wall degrading enzymes using expression cassettes and vectors of the invention are also provided.

  6. Size, Shape, and Arrangement of Cellulose Microfibril in Higher Plant Cell Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, S. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Plant cell walls from maize (Zea mays L.) are imaged using atomic force microscopy (AFM) at the sub-nanometer resolution. We found that the size and shape of fundamental cellulose elementary fibril (CEF) is essentially identical in different cell wall types, i.e., primary wall (PW), parenchyma secondary wall (pSW), and sclerenchyma secondary wall (sSW), which is consistent with previously proposed 36-chain model (Ding et al., 2006, J. Agric. Food Chem.). The arrangement of individual CEFs in these wall types exhibits two orientations. In PW, CEFs are horizontally associated through their hydrophilic faces, and the planar faces are exposed, forming ribbon-like macrofibrils. In pSW and sSW, CEFs are vertically oriented, forming layers, in which hemicelluloses are interacted with the hydrophobic faces of the CEF and serve as spacers between CEFs. Lignification occurs between CEF-hemicelluloses layers in secondary walls. Furthermore, we demonstrated quantitative analysis of plant cell wall accessibility to and digestibility by different cellulase systems at real-time using chemical imaging (e.g., stimulated Raman scattering) and fluorescence microscopy of labeled cellulases (Ding et al., 2012, Science, in press).

  7. Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Solar Cells | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes in Organic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes in Organic Solar Cells

  8. Support pedestals for interconnecting a cover and nozzle band wall in a gas turbine nozzle segment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael; Webbon, Waylon Willard; Bagepalli, Radhakrishna; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Kellock, Iain Robertson

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner band portions. Each band portion includes a nozzle wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through the apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. Structural pedestals interconnect the cover and nozzle wall and pass through holes in the impingement plate to reduce localized stress otherwise resulting from a difference in pressure within the chamber of the nozzle segment and the hot gas path and the fixed turbine casing surrounding the nozzle stage. The pedestals may be cast or welded to the cover and nozzle wall.

  9. Method and apparatus for detecting irregularities on or in the wall of a vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowling, Michael Keith (Blackborough Cullompton, GB)

    2000-09-12

    A method of detecting irregularities on or in the wall of a vessel by detecting localized spatial temperature differentials on the wall surface, comprising scanning the vessel surface with a thermal imaging camera and recording the position of the or each region for which the thermal image from the camera is indicative of such a temperature differential across the region. The spatial temperature differential may be formed by bacterial growth on the vessel surface; alternatively, it may be the result of defects in the vessel wall such as thin regions or pin holes or cracks. The detection of leaks through the vessel wall may be enhanced by applying a pressure differential or a temperature differential across the vessel wall; the testing for leaks may be performed with the vessel full or empty, and from the inside or the outside.

  10. Sheath oscillation characteristics and effect on near-wall conduction in a krypton Hall thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Fengkui Kong, Lingyi; Li, Chenliang; Yang, Haiwei; Li, Wei

    2014-11-15

    Despite its affordability, the krypton Hall-effect thruster in applications always had problems in regard to performance. The reason for this degradation is studied from the perspective of the near-wall conductivity of electrons. Using the particle-in-cell method, the sheath oscillation characteristics and its effect on near-wall conduction are compared in the krypton and xenon Hall-effect thrusters both with wall material composed of BNSiO{sub 2}. Comparing these two thrusters, the sheath in the krypton-plasma thruster will oscillate at low electron temperatures. The near-wall conduction current is only produced by collisions between electrons and wall, thereby causing a deficiency in the channel current. The sheath displays spatial oscillations only at high electron temperature; electrons are then reflected to produce the non-oscillation conduction current needed for the krypton-plasma thruster. However, it is accompanied with intensified oscillations.

  11. Apparatus and methods for impingement cooling of an undercut region adjacent a side wall of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC)

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands. Each band includes a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The inturned flange has a plurality of apertures for directing cooling steam to cool the side wall between adjacent nozzle segments.

  12. Power Supply Changes for NSTX Resistive Wall Mode Coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramakrishnan, S S.

    2013-06-28

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. Prior to 2004, the NSTX power system was feeding twelve (12) circuits in the machine. In 2004 the Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) Coils were installed on the machine to correct error fields. There are six of these coils installed around the machine in the mid-plane. Since these coils need fast and accurate controls, a Switching Power Amplifier (SPA) with three sub-units was procured, installed and commissioned along with other power loop components. Two RWM Coils were connected in series and fed from one SPA sub-unit. After the initial RWM campaign, operational requirements evolved such that each of the RWM coils now requires separate power and control. Hence a second SPA with three sub-units has been procured and installed. The second unit is of improved design and has the controls and power components completely isolated. The existing thyristor rectifier is used as DC Link to both of the Switching Power Amplifiers. The controls for the RWM are integrated into the overall computer control of the DC Power systems for NSTX. This paper describes the design changes in the RWM Power system for NSTX.

  13. Optical properties of armchair (7, 7) single walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gharbavi, K.; Badehian, H.

    2015-07-15

    Full potential linearized augmented plane waves method with the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation potential was applied to calculate the optical properties of (7, 7) single walled carbon nanotubes. The both x and z directions of the incident photons were applied to estimate optical gaps, dielectric function, electron energy loss spectroscopies, optical conductivity, optical extinction, optical refractive index and optical absorption coefficient. The results predict that dielectric function, ε (ω), is anisotropic since it has higher peaks along z-direction than x-direction. The static optical refractive constant were calculated about 1.4 (z-direction) and 1.1 (x- direction). Moreover, the electron energy loss spectroscopy showed a sharp π electron plasmon peaks at about 6 eV and 5 eV for z and x-directions respectively. The calculated reflection spectra show that directions perpendicular to the tube axis have further optical reflection. Moreover, z-direction indicates higher peaks at absorption spectra in low range energies. Totally, increasing the diameter of armchair carbon nanotubes cause the optical band gap, static optical refractive constant and optical reflectivity to decrease. On the other hand, increasing the diameter cause the optical absorption and the optical conductivity to increase. Moreover, the sharp peaks being illustrated at optical spectrum are related to the 1D structure of CNTs which confirm the accuracy of the calculations.

  14. Menu driven heat treatment control of thin walled bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kothmann, Richard E.; Booth, Jr., Russell R.; Grimm, Noel P.; Batenburg, Abram; Thomas, Vaughn M.

    1992-01-01

    A process for controlling the heating of a thin-walled body according to a predetermined temperature program by means of electrically controllable heaters, comprising: disposing the heaters adjacent one surface of the body such that each heater is in facing relation with a respective zone of the surface; supplying heat-generating power to each heater and monitoring the temperature at each surface zone; and for each zone: deriving (16,18,20), on the basis of the temperature values obtained in the monitoring step, estimated temperature values of the surface at successive time intervals each having a first selected duration; generating (28), on the basis of the estimated temperature values derived in each time interval, representations of the temperature, THSIFUT, which each surface zone will have, based on the level of power presently supplied to each heater, at a future time which is separated from the present time interval by a second selected duration; determining (30) the difference between THSIFUT and the desired temperature, FUTREFTVZL, at the future time which is separated from the present time interval by the second selected duration; providing (52) a representation indicating the power level which sould be supplied to each heater in order to reduce the difference obtained in the determining step; and adjusting the power level supplied to each heater by the supplying step in response to the value of the representation provided in the providing step.

  15. First wall and limiter surfaces for plasma devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R.; Gruen, Dieter M.

    1983-01-01

    For a plasma device, a surface of a first wall or limiter with reduced loss of metal by erosion is provided by forming a monolayer of an alkali or alkaline earth metal on a substrate of a more negative metal. The surface exhibits a reduced loss of metal by erosion and particularly by sputtering and an increased secondary ion/neutral ratio resulting in a greater return of atoms escaping from the surface. In another aspect of the invention, the substrate includes a portion of the second metal and serves to replenish the surface layer with atoms of the second metal. In one process associated with self-generating desired surface, the metals as an alloy are selected to provide a first layer having a high concentration of the second metal in contrast to a very low concentration in the second layer and bulk to result in a surface with a monolayer of the second metal. When the combination of metals results in an intermetallic compound, selective removal of the first metal during an initial bombardment stage provides the surface layer with a predominance of the second metal.

  16. Magnetic bead detection using domain wall-based nanosensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corte-León, H.; Krzysteczko, P.; Schumacher, H. W.; Manzin, A.; Cox, D.; Antonov, V.; Kazakova, O.

    2015-05-07

    We investigate the effect of a single magnetic bead (MB) on the domain wall (DW) pinning/depinning fields of a DW trapped at the corner of an L-shaped magnetic nanodevice. DW propagation across the device is investigated using magnetoresistance measurements. DW pinning/depinning fields are characterized in as-prepared devices and after placement of a 1 μm-sized MB (Dynabeads{sup ®} MyOne{sup ™}) at the corner. The effect of the MB on the DW dynamics is seen as an increase in the depinning field for specific orientations of the device with respect to the external magnetic field. The shift of the depinning field, ΔB{sub dep} = 4.5–27.0 mT, is highly stable and reproducible, being significantly above the stochastic deviation which is about 0.5 mT. The shift in the deppinning field is inversely proportional to the device width and larger for small negative angles between the device and the external magnetic field. Thus, we demonstrate that DW-based devices can be successfully used for detection of single micron size MB.

  17. A time-domain estimation of wall conduction transfer function coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, M.G.

    1996-11-01

    The wall and roof transfer function coefficients, b{sub n} and d{sub n}, listed in the 1993 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook, have up to now been derived using laplace and Z-transform methods. This paper shows that they can be readily evaluated using straightforward time-domain solutions of the Fourier continuity equation. These include the response of a wall to a ramp increase in temperature and its transient response. The values of d{sub n} can be found from the first few terms in the series of wall decay times in the transient solution. The solutions are combined using a form of Fourier analysis. Appropriate layer transmission matrices enable one to find the wall`s overall characteristics readily. The wall response factors {phi}{sub j} can thus be found. The b{sub n} transfer coefficients are related to the {phi}{sub j} and d{sub n} values. The approach is illustrated using the data for wall group 6. Allowing for conversion from I-P to SI units, the present approach gives results that are almost identical to those listed. It shows, however, that the performance of the coefficients is very specific to the wall from which they were derived. The b{sub n} and d{sub n} values listed in the Handbook permit an estimate to be made of the wall response factors, including the time of peak flow and the first decay time. For heavy walls, however, values beyond d{sub 6} may be needed.

  18. Jet-wall interaction effects on diesel combustion and soot formation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickett, Lyle M.; Lopez, J. Javier

    2004-09-01

    The effects of wall interaction on combustion and soot formation processes of a diesel fuel jet were investigated in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel at experimental conditions typical of a diesel engine. At identical ambient and injector conditions, soot processes were studied in free jets, plane wall jets, and 'confined' wall jets (a box-shaped geometry simulating secondary interaction with adjacent walls and jets in an engine). The investigation showed that soot levels are significantly lower in a plane wall jet compared to a free jet. At some operating conditions, sooting free jets become soot-free as plane wall jets. Possible mechanisms to explain the reduced or delayed soot formation upon wall interaction include an increased fuel-air mixing rate and a wall-jet-cooling effect. However, in a confined-jet configuration, there is an opposite trend in soot formation. Jet confinement causes combustion gases to be redirected towards the incoming jet, causing the lift-off length to shorten and soot to increase. This effect can be avoided by ending fuel injection prior to the time of significant interaction with redirected combustion gases. For a fixed confined-wall geometry, an increase in ambient gas density delays jet interaction, allowing longer injection durations with no increase in soot. Jet interaction with redirected combustion products may also be avoided using reduced ambient oxygen concentration because of an increased ignition delay. Although simplified geometries were employed, the identification of important mechanisms affecting soot formation after the time of wall interaction is expected to be useful for understanding these processes in more complex and realistic diesel engine geometries.

  19. Benchmarking kinetic calculations of resistive wall mode stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berkery, J. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Liu, Y. Q.; Betti, R.

    2014-05-15

    Validating the calculations of kinetic resistive wall mode (RWM) stability is important for confidently predicting RWM stable operating regions in ITER and other high performance tokamaks for disruption avoidance. Benchmarking the calculations of the Magnetohydrodynamic Resistive SpectrumKinetic (MARS-K) [Y. Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 112503 (2008)], Modification to Ideal Stability by Kinetic effects (MISK) [B. Hu et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 057301 (2005)], and Perturbed Equilibrium Nonambipolar Transport (PENT) [N. Logan et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 122507 (2013)] codes for two Solov'ev analytical equilibria and a projected ITER equilibrium has demonstrated good agreement between the codes. The important particle frequencies, the frequency resonance energy integral in which they are used, the marginally stable eigenfunctions, perturbed Lagrangians, and fluid growth rates are all generally consistent between the codes. The most important kinetic effect at low rotation is the resonance between the mode rotation and the trapped thermal particle's precession drift, and MARS-K, MISK, and PENT show good agreement in this term. The different ways the rational surface contribution was treated historically in the codes is identified as a source of disagreement in the bounce and transit resonance terms at higher plasma rotation. Calculations from all of the codes support the present understanding that RWM stability can be increased by kinetic effects at low rotation through precession drift resonance and at high rotation by bounce and transit resonances, while intermediate rotation can remain susceptible to instability. The applicability of benchmarked kinetic stability calculations to experimental results is demonstrated by the prediction of MISK calculations of near marginal growth rates for experimental marginal stability points from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)].

  20. Installing Windows with Foam Sheathing on a Wood-Frame Wall: January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-05-01

    In most wall assemblies, connection details around windows have been the source of problems with water penetration into the building. This report describes how to install a window into a wall with insulating sheathing as an integrated drainage plane.

  1. Immuno and Affinity Cytochemical Analysis of Cell Wall Composition in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Berry, Elizabeth A.; Tran, Mai L.; Dimos, Christos S.; Budziszek, Michael J.; Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R.; Roberts, Alison W.

    2016-03-08

    In contrast to homeohydric vascular plants, mosses employ a poikilohydric strategy for surviving in the dry aerial environment. A detailed understanding of the structure, composition, and development of moss cell walls can contribute to our understanding of not only the evolution of overall cell wall complexity, but also the differences that have evolved in response to selection for different survival strategies. The model moss species Physcomitrella patens has a predominantly haploid lifecycle consisting of protonemal filaments that regenerate from protoplasts and enlarge by tip growth, and leafy gametophores composed of cells that enlarge by diffuse growth and differentiate into severalmore » different types. Advantages for genetic studies include methods for efficient targeted gene modification and extensive genomic resources. Immuno and affinity cytochemical labeling were used to examine the distribution of polysaccharides and proteins in regenerated protoplasts, protonemal filaments, rhizoids, and sectioned gametophores of P. patens. The cell wall composition of regenerated protoplasts was also characterized by flow cytometry. Crystalline cellulose was abundant in the cell walls of regenerating protoplasts and protonemal cells that developed on media of high osmolarity, whereas homogalactuonan was detected in the walls of protonemal cells that developed on low osmolarity media and not in regenerating protoplasts. Mannan was the major hemicellulose detected in all tissues tested. Arabinogalactan proteins were detected in different cell types by different probes, consistent with structural heterogneity. The results reveal developmental and cell type specific differences in cell wall composition and provide a basis for analyzing cell wall phenotypes in knockout mutants.« less

  2. Technology Solutions Case Study: Monitoring of Double Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast, Devens, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-01

    Double stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing. In this project, Building Science Corporation monitored moisture conditions in double-stud walls from 2011 through 2014 at a new production house located in Devens, Massachusetts. The builder, Transformations, Inc., has been using double-stud walls insulated with 12 in. of open cell polyurethane spray foam (ocSPF); however, the company has been considering a change to netted and blown cellulose insulation for cost reasons. Cellulose is a common choice for double-stud walls because of its lower cost (in most markets). However, cellulose is an air-permeable insulation, unlike spray foams, which increases interior moisture risks. The team compared three double-stud assemblies: 12 in. of ocSPF, 12 in. of cellulose, and 5-½ in. of ocSPF at the exterior of a double-stud wall (to approximate conventional 2 × 6 wall construction and insulation levels, acting as a control wall). These assemblies were repeated on the north and south orientations, for a total of six assemblies.

  3. Thermal control system and method for a passive solar storage wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortega, Joseph K. E.

    1984-01-01

    The invention provides a system and method for controlling the storing and elease of thermal energy from a thermal storage wall wherein said wall is capable of storing thermal energy from insolation of solar radiation. The system and method includes a device such as a plurality of louvers spaced a predetermined distance from the thermal wall for regulating the release of thermal energy from the thermal wall. This regulating device is made from a material which is substantially transparent to the incoming solar radiation so that when it is in any operative position, the thermal storage wall substantially receives all of the impacting solar radiation. The material in the regulating device is further capable of being substantially opaque to thermal energy so that when the device is substantially closed, thermal release of energy from the storage wall is substantially minimized. An adjustment device is interconnected with the regulating mechanism for selectively opening and closing it in order to regulate the release of thermal energy from the wall.

  4. Technology Solutions Case Study: Hygrothermal Performance of a Double-Stud Cellulose Wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    Moisture problems within the building shell can be caused by a number of factors including excess interior moisture that is transported into the wall through air leakage and vapor drive, bulk water intrusion from leaks and wind-driven rain, capillary action from concrete to wood connections, and through wetted building materials such as siding wetted from rain splash back. With the increasing thickness of walls, moisture issues could increase. Several builders have successfully used “double-wall” systems to more practically achieve higher R-values in thicker framed walls. A double wall typically consists of a load-bearing external frame wall constructed with 2 × 4 framing at 16 in. on center using conventional methods. After the building is enclosed, an additional frame wall is constructed several inches inside the load-bearing wall. Several researchers have used moisture modeling software to conduct extensive analysis of these assemblies; however, little field research has been conducted to validate the results. In this project, the Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored a double-stud assembly in climate zone 5A to determine the accu¬racy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable and efficient assemblies.

  5. Case study installation of a HDPE curtain wall with sheetpile tie-in on both ends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schindler, R.M.; Maltese, P.C.

    1997-12-31

    The plans for eliminating the off-site migration of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) from a refinery into a nearby river included the installation of a High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) curtain wall and an underdrain system. A 640 m (2100 lineal feet) HDPE Curtain Wall was installed along the river boundary, tying into an existing sheet pile wall on both ends. The wall varied from approximately 4.5 m (15 feet) deep at the northern end to about 7 m (23 feet) deep at the southern end, running approximately 3 to 3.6 m (10 to 12 feet) inland of an existing wooden bulkhead. The curtain wall was successfully installed through a slurry supported trench. A 930 m (3050 lineal feet) interception/collection trench was installed parallel to the HDPE Curtain Wall, continuing on beyond the curtain wall on the southern end. The depth of the trench varied from approximately 3 to 4 m (10 to 13 feet) deep. A 20.32 cm (8 inch) diameter perforated HDPE header pipe was placed in the trench to convey groundwater and product to two sumps. The trench is 53.34 cm (21 inches) wide and contained aggregate to approximately 0.9 m (3 feet) below ground. This work was accomplished using the bio-polymer slurry drainage trench (BP Drain) technique. This paper briefly describes the construction methods utilized during this project, specifically HDPE curtain wall installation thru a bentonite slurry and tie-in to the existing sheet pile wall.

  6. Response to Comment on Velocity boundary conditions at a tokamak resistive wall [Phys. Plasmas 21, 094701 (2014)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strauss, H. R.

    2014-09-15

    A response is given to Comment on Velocity boundary conditions at a tokamak resistive wall? [Phys. Plasmas 21, 094701 (2014)].

  7. OTVE combustor wall condition monitoring. Final report, November 1986-September 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szemenyei, B.; Nelson, R.S.; Barkhoudarian, S.

    1989-08-01

    Conventional ultrasonics, eddy current, and electromagnetic acoustic transduction (EMAT) technologies were evaluated to determine their capability of measuring wall thickness/wear of individual cooling channels in test specimens simulating conditions in the throat region of an OTVE combustion chamber liner. Quantitative results are presented for the eddy current technology, which was shown to measure up to the optimum 20-mil wall thickness with near single channel resolution. Additional results demonstrate the capability of the conventional ultrasonics and EMAT technologies to detect a thinning or cracked wall. Recommendations for additional eddy current and EMAT development tests are presented.

  8. X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires Print The quest to increase both computer data-storage density and the speed at which one can read and write the information remains unconsummated. One novel concept is based on the use of a local electric current to push magnetic domain walls along a thin nanowire. A German, Korean, Berkeley Lab team has used the x-ray microscope XM-1 at the ALS to demonstrate that magnetic domain walls in curved permalloy nanowires can be

  9. X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires Print The quest to increase both computer data-storage density and the speed at which one can read and write the information remains unconsummated. One novel concept is based on the use of a local electric current to push magnetic domain walls along a thin nanowire. A German, Korean, Berkeley Lab team has used the x-ray microscope XM-1 at the ALS to demonstrate that magnetic domain walls in curved permalloy nanowires can be

  10. X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires Print The quest to increase both computer data-storage density and the speed at which one can read and write the information remains unconsummated. One novel concept is based on the use of a local electric current to push magnetic domain walls along a thin nanowire. A German, Korean, Berkeley Lab team has used the x-ray microscope XM-1 at the ALS to demonstrate that magnetic domain walls in curved permalloy nanowires can be

  11. X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires Print The quest to increase both computer data-storage density and the speed at which one can read and write the information remains unconsummated. One novel concept is based on the use of a local electric current to push magnetic domain walls along a thin nanowire. A German, Korean, Berkeley Lab team has used the x-ray microscope XM-1 at the ALS to demonstrate that magnetic domain walls in curved permalloy nanowires can be

  12. X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires Print Wednesday, 26 September 2007 00:00 The quest to increase both computer data-storage density and the speed at which one can read and write the information remains unconsummated. One novel concept is based on the use of a local electric current to push magnetic domain walls along a thin nanowire. A German, Korean, Berkeley Lab team has used the x-ray

  13. X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires Print The quest to increase both computer data-storage density and the speed at which one can read and write the information remains unconsummated. One novel concept is based on the use of a local electric current to push magnetic domain walls along a thin nanowire. A German, Korean, Berkeley Lab team has used the x-ray microscope XM-1 at the ALS to demonstrate that magnetic domain walls in curved permalloy nanowires can be

  14. X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires Print The quest to increase both computer data-storage density and the speed at which one can read and write the information remains unconsummated. One novel concept is based on the use of a local electric current to push magnetic domain walls along a thin nanowire. A German, Korean, Berkeley Lab team has used the x-ray microscope XM-1 at the ALS to demonstrate that magnetic domain walls in curved permalloy nanowires can be

  15. X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires Print The quest to increase both computer data-storage density and the speed at which one can read and write the information remains unconsummated. One novel concept is based on the use of a local electric current to push magnetic domain walls along a thin nanowire. A German, Korean, Berkeley Lab team has used the x-ray microscope XM-1 at the ALS to demonstrate that magnetic domain walls in curved permalloy nanowires can be

  16. DYNA3D Finite Element Analysis of Steam Explosion Loads on a Pedestal Wall Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noble, C R

    2007-01-18

    The objective of this brief report is to document the ESBWR pedestal wall finite element analyses that were performed as a quick turnaround effort in July 2005 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and describe the assumptions and failure criteria used for these analyses [Ref 4]. The analyses described within are for the pedestal wall design that included an internal steel liner. The goal of the finite element analyses was to assist in determining the load carrying capacity of the ESBWR pedestal wall subjected to an impulsive pressure generated by a steam explosion.

  17. Evolution of domain wall networks: The Press-Ryden-Spergel algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sousa, L.; Avelino, P. P.

    2010-04-15

    The Press-Ryden-Spergel (PRS) algorithm is a modification to the field theory equations of motion, parametrized by two parameters ({alpha} and {beta}), implemented in numerical simulations of cosmological domain wall networks, in order to ensure a fixed comoving resolution. In this paper we explicitly demonstrate that the PRS algorithm provides the correct domain wall dynamics in (N+1)-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes if {alpha}+{beta}/2=N, fully validating its use in numerical studies of cosmic domain evolution. We further show that this result is valid for generic thin featureless domain walls, independently of the Lagrangian of the model.

  18. Domain wall motion driven by spin Hall effect—Tuning with in-plane magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rushforth, A. W.

    2014-04-21

    This letter investigates the effects of in-plane magnetic anisotropy on the current induced motion of magnetic domain walls in systems with dominant perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, where accumulated spins from the spin Hall effect in an adjacent heavy metal layer are responsible for driving the domain wall motion. It is found that that the sign and magnitude of the domain wall velocity in the uniform flow regime can be tuned significantly by the in-plane magnetic anisotropy. These effects are sensitive to the ratio of the adiabatic and non-adiabatic spin transfer torque parameters and are robust in the presence of pinning and thermal fluctuations.

  19. Incorporation of Catalytic Compounds in the Porosity of SiC Wall...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Incorporation of Catalytic Compounds in the Porosity of SiC Wall Flow Filters - 4 Way Catalyst and DeNOx Application examples Incorporation of Catalytic Compounds in the Porosity ...

  20. Six Thousand Electrochemical Cycles of Double-Walled Silicon Nanotube Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, H

    2011-08-18

    Despite remarkable progress, lithium ion batteries still need higher energy density and better cycle life for consumer electronics, electric drive vehicles and large-scale renewable energy storage applications. Silicon has recently been explored as a promising anode material for high energy batteries; however, attaining long cycle life remains a significant challenge due to materials pulverization during cycling and an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase. Here, we report double-walled silicon nanotube electrodes that can cycle over 6000 times while retaining more than 85% of the initial capacity. This excellent performance is due to the unique double-walled structure in which the outer silicon oxide wall confines the inner silicon wall to expand only inward during lithiation, resulting in a stable solid-electrolyte interphase. This structural concept is general and could be extended to other battery materials that undergo large volume changes.

  1. 2012 PLANT CELL WALLS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE AND GORDON RESEARCH SEMINAR, AUGUST 4-10, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Jocelyn

    2012-08-10

    The sub-theme of this year’s meeting, ‘Cell Wall Research in a Post-Genome World’, will be a consideration of the dramatic technological changes that have occurred in the three years since the previous cell wall Gordon Conference in the area of DNA sequencing. New technologies are providing additional perspectives of plant cell wall biology across a rapidly growing number of species, highlighting a myriad of architectures, compositions, and functions in both "conventional" and specialized cell walls. This meeting will focus on addressing the knowledge gaps and technical challenges raised by such diversity, as well as our need to understand the underlying processes for critical applications such as crop improvement and bioenergy resource development.

  2. Building America Case Study: High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wall framing types of 2 6 (16- and 24-in. on center o.c.) and double stud were ... builder partners had a framing contractor willing to build with 24-in. o.c. framing. ...

  3. Magnetic shielding of the channel walls in a Hall plasma accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.; Grys, Kristi de; Mathers, Alex

    2011-03-15

    In a qualification life test of a Hall thruster it was found that the erosion of the acceleration channel practically stopped after {approx}5600 h. Numerical simulations using a two-dimensional axisymmetric plasma solver with a magnetic field-aligned mesh reveal that when the channel receded from its early-in-life to its steady-state configuration the following changes occurred near the wall: (1) reduction of the electric field parallel to the wall that prohibited ions from acquiring significant impact kinetic energy before entering the sheath, (2) reduction of the potential fall in the sheath that further diminished the total energy ions gained before striking the material, and (3) reduction of the ion number density that decreased the flux of ions to the wall. All these changes, found to have been induced by the magnetic field, constituted collectively an effective shielding of the walls from any significant ion bombardment. Thus, we term this process in Hall thrusters 'magnetic shielding'.

  4. Dynamic measurement of heat loss coefficients through Trombe wall glazing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A Trombe wall presents a unique opportunity to measure the heat-loss coefficient through the glazing system because the wall itself can be used as a heat meter. Since the instantaneous heat flux through the outer wall surface can be determined, the heat loss coefficient at night can be calculated by dividing by the wall surface-to-ambient temperature difference. This technique has been used to determine heat-loss coefficients for Los Alamos test rooms during the winter of 1980-1981. Glazing systems studied include single and double glazing both with and without night insulation used in conjunction with a flat black paint, and both single and double glazing used in conjunction with a selective surface.

  5. In Situ Chemical Imaging of Plant Cell Walls Using CARS/SRS Microscopy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Y.; Liu, Y. S.; Saar, B. G.; Xie, X. S.; Chen, F.; Dixon, R. A.; Himmel, M. E.; Ding S. Y.

    2009-06-01

    This poster demonstrates coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and stimulated Raman scattering of plant cell walls. It includes simultaneous chemical imaging of lignin and cellulose (corn stover) during acidic pretreatment.

  6. SU-C-BRD-06: Results From a 5 Patient in Vivo Rectal Wall Dosimetry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SU-C-BRD-06: Results From a 5 Patient in Vivo Rectal Wall Dosimetry Study Using Plastic Scintillation Detectors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SU-C-BRD-06: Results From...

  7. YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant With Energy Efficiency Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Enforcement issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination (Notice) on October 11, 2012, to YMGI Group, LLC (YMGI) regarding through-the-wall split system...

  8. Technology Solutions Case Study: High-Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-04-01

    In this project,the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) team worked with builders in California to implement wall assemblies meeting a U-value lower than 0.050 Btu/h-ft2-°F. ARBI and its project team members helped builders identify preferred wall designs that met the requirements of their architects, structural engineers, and purchasing agents and that were acceptable to their subcontractors. Construction methods were observed and documented and construction costs obtained from builders were used to inform cost estimates for a range of advanced wall system types and insulation types. Wall framing types of 2 × 6 (16- and 24-in. on center [o.c.]) and double stud were modeled in Building Energy Optimization (BEopt™) software with cavity insulation levels ranging from R-19 to R-33 (double stud) and exterior rigid insulation of R-4, R-6, and R-8.

  9. Technology Solutions Case Study: Retrofit Measures for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Ueno

    2015-10-01

    In this project, the Building Science Corporation team studied a historic brick building in Lawrence, Massachusetts, which is being renovated into 10 condominium units and adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings.

  10. Studying plant cell walls for better biofuels | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Studying plant cell walls for better biofuels Home > Groups > OpenEI Community Central Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(2017) Super contributor 27 July, 2010 - 10:49...

  11. Analysis of molten debris freezing and wall erosion during a severe RIA test. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Moore, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A one-dimensional physical model was developed to study the transient freezing of the molten debris layer (a mixture of UO/sub 2/ fuel and zircaloy cladding) produced in a severe reactivity initiated accident in-pile test and deposited on the inner surface of the test shroud wall. The wall had a finite thickness and was cooled along its outer surface by coolant bypass flow. Analyzed are the effects of debris temperature, radiation cooling at the debris layer surface, zircaloy volume ratio within the debris, and initial wall temperature on the transient freezing of the debris layer and the potential melting of the wall. The governing equations of this two-component, simultaneous freezing and melting problem in a finite geometry were solved using a one-dimensional finite element code based on the method of weighted residuals.

  12. High-R Walls for New Construction Structural Performance. Wind Pressure Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeRenzis, A.; Kochkin, V.

    2013-01-01

    This technical report is focused primarily on laboratory testing that evaluates wind pressure performance characteristics for wall systems constructed with exterior insulating sheathing. This research and test activity will help to facilitate the ongoing use of non-structural sheathing options and provide a more in-depth understanding of how wall system layers perform in response to high wind perturbations normal to the surface.

  13. COLLOQUIUM: Assessing First Wall Materials at the Atomic Scale and Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Writ Large at Princeton | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab 0, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG AUDITORIUM COLLOQUIUM: Assessing First Wall Materials at the Atomic Scale and Energy Writ Large at Princeton Professor Emily Carter Princeton University Quantum mechanics based computer simulations can help provide insights into the survivability of first wall and divertor materials. I will present results of research aimed at assessing how hydrogen isotopes interact with solid tungsten and liquid

  14. Radial force on the vacuum chamber wall during thermal quench in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pustovitov, V. D.

    2015-12-15

    The radial force balance during a thermal quench in tokamaks is analyzed. As a rule, the duration τ{sub tp} of such events is much shorter than the resistive time τ{sub w} of the vacuum chamber wall. Therefore, the perturbations of the magnetic field B produced by the evolving plasma cannot penetrate the wall, which makes different the magnetic pressures on its inner and outer sides. The goal of this work is the analytical estimation of the resulting integral radial force on the wall. The plasma is considered axially symmetric; for the description of radial forces on the wall, the results of V.D. Shafranov’s classical work [J. Nucl. Energy C 5, 251 (1963)] are used. Developed for tokamaks, the standard equilibrium theory considers three interacting systems: plasma, poloidal field coils, and toroidal field coils. Here, the wall is additionally incorporated with currents driven by ∂B/∂t≠0 accompanying the fast loss of the plasma thermal energy. It is shown that they essentially affect the force redistribution, thereby leading to large loads on the wall. The estimates prove that these loads have to be accounted for in the disruptive scenarios in large tokamaks.

  15. Extended Plate and Beam Wall System: Concept Investigation and Initial Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2015-08-01

    A new and innovative High-R wall design, referred to as the Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B), is under development. The EP&B system uniquely integrates foam sheathing insulation with wall framing such that wood structural panels are installed exterior of the foam sheathing, enabling the use of standard practices for installation of drainage plane, windows and doors, claddings, cavity insulation, and the standard exterior foam sheathing installation approach prone to damage of the foam during transportation of prefabricated wall panels. As part of the ongoing work, the EP&B wall system concept has undergone structural verification testing and has been positively vetted by a group of industry stakeholders. Having passed these initial milestone markers, the advanced wall system design has been analyzed to assess cost implications relative to other advanced wall systems, undergone design assessment to develop construction details, and has been evaluated to develop representative prescriptive requirements for the building code. This report summarizes the assessment steps conducted to-date and provides details of the concept development.

  16. Response of a partial wall to an external perturbation of rotating plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atanasiu, C. V.; Zakharov, L. E.

    2013-09-15

    In this paper, we present the response of a 3D thin multiply connected wall to an external kink mode perturbation in axisymmetric tokamak configurations. To calculate the contribution of the plasma perturbed magnetic field in the vacuum region, we have made use of the concept of surface currents [following C. V. Atanasiu, A. H. Boozer, L. E. Zakharov, and A. A. Subbotin, Phys. Plasmas 6, 2781 (1999)]. The wall response is expressed in terms of a stream function of the wall surface currents, which are obtained by solving a diffusion type equation, taking into account the contribution of the wall currents themselves iteratively. The use of stream function makes the approach applicable for both well-studied earlier Resistive Wall Modes and for Wall Touching Kink Modes, which were discovered recently as a key phenomenon in disruptions [L. E. Zakharov, S. A. Galkin, and S. N. Gerasimov, Phys. Plasmas 19, 055703 (2012)]. New analytical expressions, suitable for numerical calculations of toroidal harmonics of the vacuum magnetic fields from the surface currents on axisymmetric shells, are derived.

  17. A comparison of hydrogen vs. helium glow discharge effects on fusion device first-wall conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dylla, H.F.

    1989-09-01

    Hydrogen- and deuterium-fueled glow discharges are used for the initial conditioning of magnetic fusion device vacuum vessels following evacuation from atmospheric pressure. Hydrogenic glow discharge conditioning (GDC) significantly reduces the near-surface concentration of simple adsorbates, such as H/sub 2/O, CO, and CH/sub 4/, and lowers ion-induced desorption coefficients by typically three orders of magnitude. The time evolution of the residual gas production observed during hydrogen-glow discharge conditioning of the carbon first-wall structure of the TFTR device is similar to the time evolution observed during hydrogen GDC of the initial first-wall configuration in TFTR, which was primarily stainless steel. Recently, helium GDC has been investigated for several wall-conditioning tasks on a number of tokamaks including TFTR. Helium GDC shows negligible impurity removal with stainless steel walls. For impurity conditioning with carbon walls, helium GDC shows significant desorption of H/sub 2/O, CO, and CO/sub 2/; however, the total desorption yield is limited to the monolayer range. In addition, helium GDC can be used to displace hydrogen isotopes from the near-surface region of carbon first-walls in order to lower hydrogenic retention and recycling. 38 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Influence of wall impedance and self-fields on the cyclotron maser instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalilzadeh, Elnaz; Maraghechi, Behrouz; Chakhmachi, Amir

    2009-09-01

    The compound influence of wall impedance and self-fields on the cyclotron maser instability is investigated for a hollow electron beam. A stability analysis is carried out using the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations, under the assumption that the beam thickness is small compared to the beam radius. A dispersion relation is derived and solved numerically to study the effects of the wall impedance and self-fields on the cyclotron maser instability. These effects lead to the elliptical motion of the equilibrium configuration. The growth rate decreases due to the wall resistivity and self-fields. It has been shown that the interaction between the self-field and impedance effects is in the lower reduction in the growth rate when they are both present compared to their separate effects added together. The instability bandwidth increases due to the wall impedance and decreases due to the self fields. In the presence of self-fields, a very small increase in the wall impedance causes an increase in the instability bandwidth. This shows that the widening effect of the bandwidth due to the wall impedance is dominant and prevails over the narrowing effect of the self-field.

  19. Process for forming a long gas turbine engine blade having a main wall with a thin portion near a tip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Christian X; Thomaidis, Dimitrios

    2014-05-13

    A process is provided for forming an airfoil for a gas turbine engine involving: forming a casting of a gas turbine engine airfoil having a main wall and an interior cavity, the main wall having a wall thickness extending from an external surface of the outer wall to the interior cavity, an outer section of the main wall extending from a location between a base and a tip of the airfoil casting to the tip having a wall thickness greater than a final thickness. The process may further involve effecting movement, using a computer system, of a material removal apparatus and the casting relative to one another such that a layer of material is removed from the casting at one or more radial portions along the main wall of the casting.

  20. SIMULATION AND MOCKUP OF SNS JET-FLOW TARGET WITH WALL JET FOR CAVITATION DAMAGE MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendel, Mark W; Geoghegan, Patrick J; Felde, David K

    2014-01-01

    Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory induce cavitation damage on the stainless steel target container. The cavitation damage is thought to limit the lifetime of the target for power levels at and above 1 MW. Severe through-wall cavitation damage on an internal wall near the beam entrance window has been observed in spent-targets. Surprisingly though, there is very little damage on the walls that bound an annular mercury channel that wraps around the front and outside of the target. The mercury flow through this channel is characterized by smooth, attached streamlines. One theory to explain this lack of damage is that the uni-directional flow biases the direction of the collapsing cavitation bubble, reducing the impact pressure and subsequent damage. The theory has been reinforced by in-beam separate effects data. For this reason, a second-generation SNS mercury target has been designed with an internal wall jet configuration intended to protect the concave wall where damage has been observed. The wall jet mimics the annular flow channel streamlines, but since the jet is bounded on only one side, the momentum is gradually diffused by the bulk flow interactions as it progresses around the cicular path of the target nose. Numerical simulations of the flow through this jet-flow target have been completed, and a water loop has been assembled with a transparent test target in order to visualize and measure the flow field. This paper presents the wall jet simulation results, as well as early experimental data from the test loop.

  1. A self-consistent two-fluid model of a magnetized plasma-wall transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gyergyek, T.; Kovačič, J.

    2015-09-15

    A self-consistent one-dimensional two-fluid model of the magnetized plasma-wall transition is presented. The model includes magnetic field, elastic collisions between ions and electrons, and creation/annihilation of charged particles. Two systems of differential equations are derived. The first system describes the whole magnetized plasma-wall transition region, which consists of the pre-sheath, the magnetized pre-sheath (Chodura layer), and the sheath, which is not neutral, but contains a positive space charge. The second system of equations describes only the neutral part of the plasma-wall transition region—this means only the pre-sheath and the Chodura layer, but not also the sheath. Both systems are solved numerically. The first system of equations has two singularities. The first occurs when ion velocity in the direction perpendicularly to the wall drops below the ion thermal velocity. The second occurs when the electron velocity in the direction perpendicularly to the wall exceeds the electron thermal velocity. The second system of differential equations only has one singularity, which has also been derived analytically. For finite electron to ion mass ratio, the integration of the second system always breaks down before the Bohm criterion is fulfilled. Some properties of the first system of equations are examined. It is shown that the increased collision frequency demagnetizes the plasma. On the other hand, if the magnetic field is so strong that the ion Larmor radius and the Debye length are comparable, the electron velocity in the direction perpendicularly to the wall reaches the electron thermal velocity before the ion velocity in the direction perpendicularly to the wall reaches the ion sound velocity. In this case, the integration of the model equations breaks down before the Bohm criterion is fulfilled and the sheath is formed.

  2. Determining the U-value of a wall from field measurements of heat flux and surface temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modera, M.P.; Sherman, M.H.; Sonderegger, R.C.

    1986-05-01

    Thermal conductances (U-values) and thermal resistances (R-values) are discussed throughout the literature as the appropriate parameters for characterizing heat transfer through walls. Because the quoted numbers are usually determined from the handbook values of material properties, they have several drawbacks: (1) they do not take into account degradation effects, (2) they ignore construction irregularities, and (3) they do not take into account multi-dimensional heat flow. This paper examines the use of field measurements of heat flow and surface temperatures to determine the U-values of walls. The effects of thermal mass on measurements of wall U-values are described in detail, using two data interpretation techniques to estimate the U-values of insulated and uninsulated cavity walls, with and without brick facing. The errors in U-value estimation are determined by comparison with an analytical model of wall thermal performance. For each wall, the error in the U-value determination is plotted as a function of test length for several typical weather conditions. For walls with low thermal mass, such as an fiberglass-insulated cavity wall, it appears that, under favorable test conditions, a 6-hour measurement is adequate to measure the U-value within about 10% uncertainty. For masonary walls, the measurement time required is considerably longer than 6 hours. It is shown that for masonry walls, and in general, the optimal measurement time is a multiple of 24 hours due to the effects of diurnal weather fluctuations.

  3. Potential Energy Savings Due to Phase Change Material in a Building Wall Assembly: An Examination of Two Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, Kenneth W; Stovall, Therese K

    2012-03-01

    Phase change material (PCM), placed in an exterior wall, alters the temperature profile within the wall and thus influences the heat transport through the wall. This may reduce the net energy transport through the wall via interactions with diurnal temperature swings in the external environment or reduce the electricity needed to meet the net load through the wall by shifting the time of the peak load to a time when the cooling system operates more efficiently. This study covers a broad range of parameters that can influence the effectiveness of such a merged thermal storage-thermal insulation system. These parameters included climate, PCM location within the wall, amount of PCM, midpoint of the PCM melting and freezing range relative to the indoor setpoint temperature, temperature range over which phase change occurs, and the wall orientation. Two climates are investigated using finite difference and optimization analyses: Phoenix and Baltimore, with two utility rate schedules. Although potential savings for a PCM with optimized properties were greater when the PCM was concentrated near the inside wall surface, other considerations described here lead to a recommendation for a full-thickness application. An examination of the temperature distribution within the walls also revealed the potential for this system to reduce the amount of energy transported through the wall framing. Finally, economic benefits can exceed energy savings when time-of-day utility rates are in effect, reflecting the value of peak load reductions for the utility grid.

  4. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate. Of primary interest is the influence of the ICF walls on developing an effective air sealing strategy and selecting an appropriate heating and cooling equipment type and capacity. The domestic water heating system is analyzed for costs and savings to investigate options for higher efficiency electric water heating. A method to ensure mechanical ventilation air flows is examined. The final solution package includes high-R mass walls, very low infiltration rates, multi-stage heat pump heating, solar thermal domestic hot water system, and energy recovery ventilation. This solution package can be used for homes to exceed 2012 International Energy Conservation Code requirements throughout all climate zones and achieves the DOE Challenge Home certification.

  5. Jet grouting for a groundwater cutoff wall in difficult glacial soil deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, R.F.; Pepe, F. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Jet grouting is being used as part of a groundwater cutoff wall system in a major New York City subway construction project to limit drawdowns in an adjacent PCB contamination plume. A circular test shaft of jet grout columns was conducted during the design phase to obtain wall installation parameters. The test program also included shaft wall mapping, and measurements of; inflows, piezometric levels, ground heave and temperature, and jet grout hydraulic conductivity. An axisymmetric finite element method groundwater model was established to back calculate the in-situ hydraulic conductivities of both the surrounding glacial soils and the jet grout walls by matching observed inflows and piezometric levels. The model also verified the use of packer permeability test as a tool in the field to evaluate the hydraulic conductivities of jet grout columns. Both the test program and analytic studies indicated that adjustments to the construction procedures would be required to obtain lower hydraulic conductivities of the jet grout walls for construction. A comparison is made with the conductivities estimated from the test program/analytic studies with those from the present construction.

  6. Double Wall Framing Technique An Example of High Performance, Sustainable Building Envelope Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, Dr. Jan; Asiz, Andi; Shrestha, Som S; Biswas, Kaushik; Nitin, Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Double wall technologies utilizing wood framing have been well-known and used in North American buildings for decades. Most of double wall designs use only natural materials such as wood products, gypsum, and cellulose fiber insulation, being one of few building envelope technologies achieving high thermal performance without use of plastic foams or fiberglass. Today, after several material and structural design modifications, these technologies are considered as highly thermally efficient, sustainable option for new constructions and sometimes, for retrofit projects. Following earlier analysis performed for U.S. Department of Energy by Fraunhofer CSE, this paper discusses different ways to build double walls and to optimize their thermal performance to minimize the space conditioning energy consumption. Description of structural configuration alternatives and thermal performance analysis are presented as well. Laboratory tests to evaluate thermal properties of used insulation and whole wall system thermal performance are also discussed in this paper. Finally, the thermal loads generated in field conditions by double walls are discussed utilizing results from a joined project performed by Zero Energy Building Research Alliance and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which made possible evaluation of the market viability of low-energy homes built in the Tennessee Valley. Experimental data recorded in two of the test houses built during this field study is presented in this work.

  7. Fatigue cracking of a bare steel first wall in an inertial confinement fusion chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, R. M.; Abbott, R. P.; Havstad, M. A.; Dunne, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    Inertial confinement fusion power plants will deposit high energy X-rays onto the outer surfaces of the first wall many times a second for the lifetime of the plant. These X-rays create brief temperature spikes in the first few microns of the wall, which cause an associated highly compressive stress response on the surface of the material. The periodicity of this stress pulse is a concern due to the possibility of fatigue cracking of the wall. We have used finite element analyses to simulate the conditions present on the first wall in order to evaluate the driving force of crack propagation on fusion-facing surface cracks. Analysis results indicate that the X-ray induced plastic compressive stress creates a region of residual tension on the surface between pulses. This tension film will likely result in surface cracking upon repeated cycling. Additionally, the compressive pulse may induce plasticity ahead of the crack tip, leaving residual tension in its wake. However, the stress amplitude decreases dramatically for depths greater than 80100 ?m into the fusion-facing surface. Crack propagation models as well as stress-life estimates agree that even though small cracks may form on the surface of the wall, they are unlikely to propagate further than 100 ?m without assistance from creep or grain erosion phenomena.

  8. Detection of ferromagnetic domain wall pinning and depinning with a semiconductor device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malec, Chris E.; Bennett, Brian R.; Johnson, Mark B.

    2015-12-21

    We demonstrate the detection of a ferromagnetic domain wall using a nanoscale Hall cross. A narrow permalloy wire is defined lithographically on top of a Hall cross fabricated from an InAs quantum well. The width of the Hall cross (500 nm–1 μm) is similar to the width of the ferromagnetic wire (200–500 nm), and a geometric pinning site is fabricated in the ferromagnetic wire to trap a domain wall within the area of the Hall cross. The devices provide a signal that is often the same order of magnitude as the offset Hall voltage when a domain wall is located above the Hall cross, and may be useful for memory applications. Different geometries for the Hall cross and ferromagnetic wire are tested, and radiofrequency pulses are sent into the wire to demonstrate current driven domain wall motion. Further changes to the Hall bar geometry with respect to the wire geometry are investigated by numerical computation. A large gain in signal is seen for Hall bars only slightly wider than the ferromagnetic wires as compared to those twice as wide, as well as a larger sensitivity to the exact position of the domain wall with respect to the center of the Hall cross.

  9. Influence of wall plasma on microwave frequency and power in relativistic backward wave oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Jun; Cao, Yibing; Teng, Yan; Zhang, Yuchuan; Chen, Changhua; Wu, Ping

    2015-07-15

    The RF breakdown of the slow wave structure (SWS), which will lead to the generation of the wall plasma, is an important cause for pulse shortening in relativistic backward wave oscillators. Although many researchers have performed profitable studies about this issue, the influence mechanism of this factor on the microwave generation still remains not-so-clear. This paper simplifies the wall plasma with an “effective” permittivity and researches its influence on the microwave frequency and power. The dispersion relation of the SWS demonstrates that the introduction of the wall plasma will move the dispersion curves upward to some extent, which is confirmed by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations and experiments. The plasma density and volume mainly affect the dispersion relation at the upper and lower frequency limits of each mode, respectively. Meanwhile, PIC simulations show that even though no direct power absorption exists since the wall plasma is assumed to be static, the introduction of the wall plasma may also lead to the decrease in microwave power by changing the electrodynamic property of the SWS.

  10. A wall and edge guarded hot box for thermal transmittance measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gatland, S.D. II; Miller, R.G.; Goss, W.P.; Baumgardner, R.L.; Williams, R.G.

    1997-11-01

    A unique guarded hot box designed for thermal testing of fenestration products incorporates several new design concepts from guarded hot plates, namely wall and edge guards, is described in detail. The wall and edge guarded hot box was built to meet the test methodologies specified in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test Methods C 236-89, Standard Test Method for Measuring the Steady-State Thermal Performance of Building Assemblies by Means of a Guarded Hot Box, C 976-90, Standard Test Method for Measuring the Steady-State Thermal Performance of Building Assemblies by Means of a Calibrated Hot Box and C 1199-91, Standard Test Method for Measuring the Steady-State Thermal Transmittance of Fenestration Systems Using Hot Box Methods. Calibration test results for the box wall and specimen frame flanking are presented. Results from calibration transfer standard tests are compared with theoretical calculations and discussed.

  11. Pigments with or without organic binder? A survey of wall painting techniques during Antiquity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, P.

    1996-01-01

    The identification of ancient artistic techniques is based on laboratory studies and, for historical cases, also on literary sources. An analytical approach using the techniques of physical chemistry reveals the technical expertise of the artists, right at the dawn of art. In the case of prehistoric parietal art, we show that the artists prepared their pigments with different ground and mixed minerals. They applied their material onto the wall and the particles remained embedded in the superficial calcite layer. Later, the prehistoric people prepared a real paint with the proper pigment, an extender and an organic binder to fix the paint on the wall. During Antiquity, new techniques appear. The paint is applied to the natural or artificial wall and is executed, either directly or on a previously applied plaster. The aim of this paper is to describe the evolution of the techniques. The underlying chemistry provides some interesting clues on the technical choices. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate.

  13. Turbine airfoil with dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell; Christian X. , Morrison; Jay A.

    2011-12-20

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure. The compliant structure may be configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand without limitation by the inner layer. The compliant structure may be formed from a plurality of pedestals positioned generally parallel with each other. The pedestals may include a first foot attached to a first end of the pedestal and extending in a first direction aligned with the outer layer, and may include a second foot attached to a second end of the pedestal and extending in a second direction aligned with the inner layer.

  14. Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigorian, Leonid; Hornyak, Louis; Dillon, Anne C; Heben, Michael J

    2014-09-23

    The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

  15. Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grigorian, Leonid; Hornyak, Louis; Dillon, Anne C; Heben, Michael J

    2008-10-07

    The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

  16. Scaling of the plasma sheath in a magnetic field parallel to the wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasheninnikova, Natalia S.; Tang Xianzhu; Roytershteyn, Vadim S.

    2010-05-15

    Motivated by the magnetized target fusion [R. E. Siemon et al., Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 18, 363 (1999)] experiment, a systematic investigation of the scaling of a one-dimensional plasma sheath with a magnetic field parallel to the wall was carried out using analytical theory and the particle-in-cell code VPIC [K. J. Bowers et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 055703 (2008)]. Starting with a uniform Maxwellian distribution in three-dimensional velocity space, plasma consisting of collisionless electrons, and ions of the same temperature interacts with a perfectly absorbing wall. A much larger ion Larmor radius causes the wall to be charged positively, creating an electric field that tends to repel the ions and attract the electrons, which is the opposite of the conventional Bohm sheath [D. Bohm, Characteristics of Electrical Discharges in Magnetic Fields (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1949)]. This manifests in the form of gyro-orbit modification by this spatially varying electric field, the degree of which is found to intricately depend on the relation between three parameters: electron and ion thermal Larmor radii and plasma Debye length: rho{sub the}, rho{sub thi}, and lambda{sub D}. Furthermore, the study of the sheath width scaling through the analysis of the full width at half max of electric field, x{sub Eh}, elucidates three distinct types of behavior of x{sub Eh}, corresponding to three different regimes: rho{sub thi}wall potential phi{sub Wall}, as well as the role of the ion mass and charge Z are investigated. The results of this analytical and computational approach can also be useful in studying the plasma sheath in the conventional magnetic confinement devices, in particular at the first wall of tokamaks.

  17. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK 18 AND TANK 19 WALL SAMPLER PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R.; Thaxton, D.; Minichan, R.; France, T.; Steeper, T.; Corbett, J.; Martin, B.; Vetsch, B.

    2009-12-19

    A sampling tool was required to evaluate residual activity ({mu}Curies per square foot) on the inner wall surfaces of underground nuclear waste storage tanks. The tool was required to collect a small sample from the 3/8 inch thick tank walls. This paper documents the design, testing, and deployment of the remotely operated sampling device. The sampler provides material from a known surface area to estimate the overall surface contamination in the tank prior to closure. The sampler consisted of a sampler and mast assembly mast assembly, control system, and the sampler, or end effector, which is defined as the operating component of a robotic arm. The mast assembly consisted of a vertical 30 feet long, 3 inch by 3 inch, vertical steel mast and a cantilevered arm hinged at the bottom of the mast and lowered by cable to align the attached sampler to the wall. The sampler and mast assembly were raised and lowered through an opening in the tank tops, called a riser. The sampler is constructed of a mounting plate, a drill, springs to provide a drive force to the drill, a removable sampler head to collect the sample, a vacuum pump to draw the sample from the drill to a filter, and controls to operate the system. Once the sampler was positioned near the wall, electromagnets attached it to the wall, and the control system was operated to turn on the drill and vacuum to remove and collect a sample from the wall. Samples were collected on filters in removable sampler heads, which were readily transported for further laboratory testing.

  18. Building America Case Study: Monitoring of Double Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast, Devens, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    Double-stud walls insulated with cellulose or low-density spray foam can have R-values of 40 or higher. However, double stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage, when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing. Moisture conditions in double stud walls were monitored in Zone 5A (Massachusetts); three double stud assemblies were compared.

  19. Cell Wall Ultrastructure of Stem Wood, Roots, and Needles of a Conifer Varies in Response to Moisture Availability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Ingwers, Miles W.; Victoriano, Olivia L.; Kandemkavil, Sindhu; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O.; Aubrey, Doug P.

    2016-06-24

    The composition, integrity, and architecture of the macromolecular matrix of cell walls, collectively referred to as cell wall ultrastructure, exhibits variation across species and organs and among cell types within organs. Indirect approaches have suggested that modifications to cell wall ultrastructure occur in response to abiotic stress; however, modifications have not been directly observed. Glycome profiling was used to study cell wall ultrastructure by examining variation in composition and extractability of non-cellulosic glycans in cell walls of stem wood, roots, and needles of loblolly pine saplings exposed to high and low soil moisture. Soil moisture influenced physiological processes and themore » overall composition and extractability of cell wall components differed as a function of soil moisture treatments. The strongest response of cell wall ultrastructure to soil moisture was increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in the low soil moisture treatment. The higher abundance of these pectic backbone epitopes in the oxalate extract indicate that the loosening of cell wall pectic components could be associated with the release of pectic signals as a stress response. The increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in response to low soil moisture availability was more pronounced in stem wood than in roots or needles. Additional responses to low soil moisture availability were observed in lignin associated carbohydrates released in chlorite extracts of stem wood, including an increased abundance of pectic arabinogalactan epitopes. Overall, these results indicate that cell walls of loblolly pine organs undergo changes in their ultrastructural composition and extractability as a response to soil moisture availability and that cell walls of the stem wood are more responsive to low soil moisture availability compared to cell walls of roots and needles. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence, delineated by

  20. Catalytic Growth of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes: An {ital Ab Initio} Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y.H.; Kim, S.G.; Tomanek, D.; Lee, Y.H.

    1997-03-01

    We propose a catalytic growth mechanism of single-wall carbon nanotubes based on density functional total energy calculations. Our results indicate nanotubes with an {open_quotes}armchair{close_quotes} edge to be energetically favored over {open_quotes}zigzag{close_quotes} nanotubes. We also suggest that highly mobile Ni catalyst atoms adsorb at the growing edge of the nanotube, where they catalyze the continuing assembly of hexagons from carbon feedstock diffusing along the nanotube wall. In a concerted exchange mechanism, Ni atoms anneal carbon pentagons that would initiate a dome closure of the nanotube. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Evaluating the Influence of Wall-Roughness on Fracture Transmissivity with CT Scanning and Flow Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, Dustin; Bromhal, Grant; McIntyre, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    Combining CT imaging of geomaterials with computational fluid dynamics provides substantial benefits to researchers. With simulations, geometric parameters can be varied in systematic ways that are not possible in the lab. This paper details the conversion of micro-CT images of a physical fracture in Berea sandstone to several tractable finite volume meshes. By computationally varying the level of detail captured from the scans we produced several realistic fracture geometries with different degrees of wall-roughness and various geometric properties. Simulations were performed and it was noted that increasing roughness increased the resistance to fluid flow. Also, as the distance between walls was increased the mean aperture approached the effective aperture.

  2. Electric field driven magnetic domain wall motion in ferromagnetic-ferroelectric heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van de Wiele, Ben; Laurson, Lasse; Franke, Kvin J. A.; Dijken, Sebastiaan van

    2014-01-06

    We investigate magnetic domain wall (MDW) dynamics induced by applied electric fields in ferromagnetic-ferroelectric thin-film heterostructures. In contrast to conventional driving mechanisms where MDW motion is induced directly by magnetic fields or electric currents, MDW motion arises here as a result of strong pinning of MDWs onto ferroelectric domain walls (FDWs) via local strain coupling. By performing extensive micromagnetic simulations, we find several dynamical regimes, including instabilities such as spin wave emission and complex transformations of the MDW structure. In all cases, the time-averaged MDW velocity equals that of the FDW, indicating the absence of Walker breakdown.

  3. Method of fabricating thin-walled articles of tungsten-nickel-iron alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hovis, V.M. Jr.; Northcutt, W.G. Jr.

    The present invention relates to a method for fabricating thin-walled high-density structures of tungsten-nickel-iron alloys. A powdered blend of the selected alloy constituents is plasma sprayed onto a mandrel having the desired article configuration. The sprayed deposit is removed from the mandrel and subjected to liquid phase sintering to provide the alloyed structure. The formation of the thin-walled structure by plasma spraying significantly reduces shrinkage, and cracking while increasing physical properties of the structure over that obtainable by employing previously known powder metallurgical procedures.

  4. L3:THM.P9.03 Integrated Lift- and Wall-

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Integrated Lift- and Wall- Force Closures in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) Thomas Daly and Art Ruggles University of Tennessee-Knoxville Sreekanth Pannala Oak Ridge National Laboratory August 29, 2014 CASL-U-2014-0170-000 CASL-U-2014-0170-000 Integrated Lift- and Wall-Force Closures in CMFD CASL Internal Report Thomas Daly tdaly1@utk.edu Sreekanth Pannala pannalas@ornl.gov Art Ruggles aruggles@utk.edu August 29, 2014 CASL-U-2014-0170-000 1 Introduction and Background to Lift Forces in

  5. Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vortices Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic Vortices Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic Vortices Print Wednesday, 27 August 2008 00:00 Soft magnetic, micron-sized thin-film structures with magnetic vortices are intriguing systems that may one day be used in ultrafast computer memories. In such systems, the otherwise in-plane magnetization turns perpendicular to the plane at the center of the vortex, forming the vortex core.

  6. Joseph S. Wall, 1988 | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Joseph S. Wall, 1988 The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award Lawrence Award Home Nomination & Selection Guidelines Award Laureates 2010's 2000's 1990's 1980's 1970's 1960's Ceremony The Life of Ernest Orlando Lawrence Contact Information The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award U.S. Department of Energy SC-2/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-2411 E: Email Us 1980's Joseph S. Wall, 1988 Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Life Sciences: For his singular

  7. Structural evaluation of W-211 flexible receiver platforms and tank pit walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrivastava, H.P.

    1997-11-03

    This document is a structural analysis of the Flexible Receiver Platforms and the tank-pit wall during removal of equipment and during a accidental drop of that equipment. The platform and the pit walls must withstand a accidental drop of a mixer and transfer pumps in specific pits in tanks 102-AP and 104-AP. A mixer pump will be removed from riser 11 in pit 2A on tank 241-AP-102. A transfer pump will be removed from riser 13 in pit 2D on tank 241-AP-102 and another transfer pump will be removed from riser 3A in pit 4A on tank 241-AP-104.

  8. Method of fabricating thin-walled articles of tungsten-nickel-iron alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hovis, Jr., Victor M.; Northcutt, Jr., Walter G.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for fabricating thin-walled high-density structures oftungsten-nickel-iron alloys. A powdered blend of the selected alloy constituents is plasma sprayed onto a mandrel having the desired article configuration. The sprayed deposit is removed from the mandrel and subjected to liquid phase sintering to provide the alloyed structure. The formation of the thin-walled structure by plasma spraying significantly reduces shrinkage, and cracking while increasing physical properties of the structure over that obtainable by employing previously known powder metallurgical procedures.

  9. Gravitational waves from domain walls in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadota, Kenji; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Saikawa, Ken’ichi

    2015-10-16

    The next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model predicts the formation of domain walls due to the spontaneous breaking of the discrete Z{sub 3}-symmetry at the electroweak phase transition, and they collapse before the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis if there exists a small bias term in the potential which explicitly breaks the discrete symmetry. Signatures of gravitational waves produced from these unstable domain walls are estimated and their parameter dependence is investigated. It is shown that the amplitude of gravitational waves becomes generically large in the decoupling limit, and that their frequency is low enough to be probed in future pulsar timing observations.

  10. High-R Walls for New Construction Structural Performance: Integrated Rim Header Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeRenzis, A.; Kochkin, V.; Wiehagen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Two prominent approaches within the Building America Program to construct higher R-value walls have included use of larger dimension framing and exterior rigid foam insulation. These approaches have been met with some success; however for many production builders, where the cost of changing framing systems is expensive, the changes have been slow to be realized. In addition, recent building code changes have raised some performance issues for exterior sheathing and raised heel trusses, for example, that indicates a need for continued performance testing for wall systems.

  11. Single bunch intensity monitoring system using an improved wall current monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, C.D.; Crisp, J.; Howard, D.; Kerns, Q.; Martin, P.; McConnell, D.; Michals, P.; Payne, J.; Tawzer, S.; Webber, R.

    1989-03-01

    Important parameters in collider operations are the length and intensity of individual beam bunches. A system to automatically measure these parameters has been developed using a wall current monitor signal digitized by a 1 GHz sampling oscilloscope under microprocessor control. Bunch length and intensity are computed by the microprocessor and presented to the host computer. To verify the required accuracy, attention has been paid to the calibration and frequency response of the system. Design and performance of a new wall current monitor with improved bandwidth is presented. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Incorporation of Catalytic Compounds in the Porosity of SiC Wall Flow

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Filters - 4 Way Catalyst and DeNOx Application examples | Department of Energy Incorporation of Catalytic Compounds in the Porosity of SiC Wall Flow Filters - 4 Way Catalyst and DeNOx Application examples Incorporation of Catalytic Compounds in the Porosity of SiC Wall Flow Filters - 4 Way Catalyst and DeNOx Application examples 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's

  13. Measure Guideline. Incorporating Thick Layers of Exterior Rigid Insulation on Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lstiburek, Joseph; Baker, Peter

    2015-04-09

    This measure guideline, written by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America team Building Science Corporation, provides information about the design and construction of wall assemblies that use layers of rigid exterior insulation thicker than 1-½ in. and that require a secondary cladding attachment location exterior to the insulation. The guideline is separated into several distinct sections that cover: (1) fundamental building science principles relating to the use of exterior insulation on wall assemblies; (2) design principles for tailoring this use to the specific project goals and requirements; and (3) construction detailing to increase understanding about implementing the various design elements.

  14. Measure Guideline: Incorporating Thick Layers of Exterior Rigid Insulation on Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lstiburek, Joseph; Baker, Peter

    2015-04-01

    This measure guideline provides information about the design and construction of wall assemblies that use layers of rigid exterior insulation thicker than 1-½ inches and that require a secondary cladding attachment location exterior to the insulation. The guideline is separated into several distinct sections that cover: fundamental building science principles relating to the use of exterior insulation on wall assemblies; design principles for tailoring this use to the specific project goals and requirements; and construction detailing to increase understanding about implementing the various design elements.

  15. Diagnostic techniques for measuring temperature transients and stress transients in the first wall of an ICF reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melamed, N.T.; Taylor, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    The primary challenge in the design of an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) power reactor is to make the first wall survive the frequent explosions of the pellets. Westinghouse has proposed a dry wall design consisting of steel tubes coated with tantalum. This report describes the design of a test chamber and two diagnostic procedures for experimentally determining the reliability of the Westinghouse design. The test chamber simulates the x-ray and ion pulse irradiation of the wall due to a pellet explosion. The diagnostics consist of remote temperature sensing and surface deformation measurements. The chamber and diagnostics can also be used to test other first-wall designs.

  16. Chamber wall interactions with HBr/Cl{sub 2}/O{sub 2} plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Ashutosh K.; Ohashi, Tomohiro; Donnelly, Vincent M.

    2015-07-15

    The authors have studied the interaction of HBr/Cl{sub 2}/O{sub 2} inductively coupled plasmas with reactor chamber wall deposits, with and without Si etching, using the spinning wall technique. The spinning wall is part of the reactor chamber walls, allowing near-real-time analysis of the composition of surface layers via Auger electron spectrometry and determination of species desorbing off the walls by mass spectrometry. In HBr plasmas with no bias voltage on the Si substrate, and hence no Si etching, HBr is ?30% dissociated, and H{sub 2} and Br{sub 2} form in the plasma. Layers deposited on the reactor chamber contained little if any Br under these conditions. Adding O{sub 2} to an HBr plasma leads to formation of H{sub 2}O and increased Br{sub 2} (compared to a pure HBr plasma) products that desorb from the spinning wall. H{sub 2}O has a very long residence time on the surface. With bias voltage applied to the Si substrate in an HBr plasma, mass spectrometer signals are prominent for SiBr and SiBr{sub 3}, and weaker for SiBr{sub 2}, SiBr{sub 4}, Si{sub 2}Br{sub 4}, Si{sub 2}Br{sub 5}, and Si{sub 2}OBr{sub 5}. Under these conditions, a SiO{sub x}Br{sub y} layer deposits on the spinning wall. Adding 20% O{sub 2} to HBr stops etching and eliminates Br from the surface layer, indicating that Br on the reactor walls is a result of SiBr{sub x} impingement and not from bromination by impinging Br. With HBr/Cl{sub 2} plasmas and no bias on the stage, a SiO{sub x}Cl{sub y} layer deposits, and no Br is detected. HCl, BrCl, and Br{sub 2} were detected in the line-of-sight leak, around the spinning wall, of a HBr/Cl{sub 2} (1:1) gas mixture in the absence of a plasma. Residence time analysis of species in the chamber and a change in the product distribution with a change in the composition of the layer deposited on the chamber wall suggest that reactions forming these products in the absence of a plasma occur on the reactor walls. With a plasma and bias on the Si

  17. Measure Guideline. Installing Rigid Foam Insulation on the Interior of Existing Brick Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natarajan, Hariharan; Klocke, Steve; Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2012-06-01

    This measure guideline provides information on an effective method to insulate the interior of existing brick masonry walls with extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation board. The guide outlines step-by-step design and installation procedures while explaining the benefits and tradeoffs where applicable. The authors intend that this document be useful to a varied audience that includes builders,remodelers, contractors and homeowners.

  18. Expert Meeting Report: Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Van Straaten, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011 at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. This report outlines the extensive information that was presented on assessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such risks.

  19. Expert Meeting Report. Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Van Straaten, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011, at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. This report outlines the extensive information that was presented on assessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such risks.

  20. Gas-lubricated seal for sealing between a piston and a cylinder wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoult, David P.

    1985-01-01

    A piston-cylinder seal uses gas for a lubricant and has a runner supported on a gapless structure and placed in the space between the piston and the cylinder wall. The runner is deformed elastically under the influence of the operating pressures to follow and compensate for variations in the piston-cylinder fit and maintain a seal.

  1. Current methods to handle wall conduction and room internal heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, M.G.

    1999-07-01

    This paper reviews methods of handling wall conduction and room internal heat exchange adopted by ASHRAE (1993 Handbook of Fundamentals and later developments), CIBSE (1986 Guide and current proposals), and the CEN/TC89/WG6 proposals to calculate heating and cooling loads and related topics.

  2. 8th Annual Glycoscience Symposium: Integrating Models of Plant Cell Wall Structure, Biosynthesis and Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azadi, Paratoo

    2015-09-24

    The Complex Carbohydrate Research Center (CCRC) of the University of Georgia holds a symposium yearly that highlights a broad range of carbohydrate research topics. The 8th Annual Georgia Glycoscience Symposium entitled “Integrating Models of Plant Cell Wall Structure, Biosynthesis and Assembly” was held on April 7, 2014 at the CCRC. The focus of symposium was on the role of glycans in plant cell wall structure and synthesis. The goal was to have world leaders in conjunction with graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and research scientists to propose the newest plant cell wall models. The symposium program closely followed the DOE’s mission and was specifically designed to highlight chemical and biochemical structures and processes important for the formation and modification of renewable plant cell walls which serve as the basis for biomaterial and biofuels. The symposium was attended by both senior investigators in the field as well as students including a total attendance of 103, which included 80 faculty/research scientists, 11 graduate students and 12 Postdoctoral students.

  3. An open-walled ionization chamber appropriate to tritium monitoring for glovebox

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Zhilin; Chang Ruiming; Mu Long; Song Guoyang; Wang Heyi; Wu Guanyin; Wei Xiye

    2010-07-15

    An open-walled ionization chamber is developed to monitor the tritium concentration in gloveboxes in tritium processing systems. Two open walls are used to replace the sealed wall in common ionization chambers, through which the tritium gas can diffuse into the chamber without the aid of pumps and pipelines. Some basic properties of the chamber are examined to evaluate its performance. Results turn out that an open-walled chamber of 1 l in volume shows a considerably flat plateau over 700 V for a range of tritium concentration. The chamber also gives a good linear response to gamma fields over 4 decades under a pressure condition of 1 atm. The pressure dependence characteristics show that the ionization current is only sensitive at low pressures. The pressure influence becomes weaker as the pressure increases mainly due to the decrease in the mean free path of {beta} particles produced by tritium decay. The minimum detection limit of the chamber is 3.7x10{sup 5} Bq/m{sup 3}.

  4. Three-Dimensional Numerical Evaluation of Thermal Performance of Uninsulated Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridouane, El Hassan; Bianchi, Marcus V.A.

    2011-11-01

    This study describes a detailed 3D computational fluid dynamics model that evaluates the thermal performance of uninsulated wall assemblies. It accounts for conduction through framing, convection, and radiation and allows for material property variations with temperature. This research was presented at the ASME 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exhibition; Denver, Colorado; November 11-17, 2011

  5. Gas-lubricated seal for sealing between a piston and a cylinder wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoult, D.P.

    1985-09-10

    A piston-cylinder seal uses gas for a lubricant and has a runner supported on a gapless structure and placed in the space between the piston and the cylinder wall. The runner is deformed elastically under the influence of the operating pressures to follow and compensate for variations in the piston-cylinder fit and maintain a seal. 4 figs.

  6. Production of vertical arrays of small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hauge, Robert H; Xu, Ya-Qiong

    2013-08-13

    A hot filament chemical vapor deposition method has been developed to grow at least one vertical single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). In general, various embodiments of the present invention disclose novel processes for growing and/or producing enhanced nanotube carpets with decreased diameters as compared to the prior art.

  7. Technology Solutions Case Study: Stud Walls with Continuous Exterior Insulation for Factory Built Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  8. Plasma-wall interaction: how atomic processes influence the performance of fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Ralf

    2007-08-02

    Plasma edge physics is one of the major challenges in fusion plasmas. The need for power and particle exhaust for any reactor inspired a lot of theoretical and experimental work. Understanding this physics requires a multi-scale ansatz bringing together also several physics and numerical models.The plasma edge of fusion experiments is characterized by atomic and molecular processes. Hydrogenic ions and neutrals hit material walls with energies from several eV up to 1000s of eV. They saturate the wall materials and due to physical or chemical processes neutrals are released from the wall, both atomic and molecular. They determine via interaction with the plasma strongly its properties. These processes can be beneficial for a fusion experiment by using radiation losses to minimize the power load problem of target plates, but also can create severe problems if the dilution of the plasma gets too large or condensation radiation instabilities can be created.A complete physics model for the plasma-wall interaction processes alone is already rather challenging (and still missing): it requires e.g. inclusion of collision cascades, chemical formation of molecules, diffusion in strongly 3D systems. A full description needs a multi-scale model combining quite different numerical techniques like molecular dynamics, binary collisions, kinetic Monte Carlo and mixed conduction/convection equations in strongly anisotropic systems.

  9. Contributing to Net Zero Building: High Energy Efficient EIFS Wall Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbary, Lawrence D.; Perkins, Laura L.; Serino, Roland; Preston, Bill; Kosny, Jan

    2014-01-29

    The team led by Dow Corning collaborated to increase the thermal performance of exterior insulation and finishing systems (EIFS) to reach R-40 performance meeting the needs for high efficiency insulated walls. Additionally, the project helped remove barriers to using EIFS on retrofit commercial buildings desiring high insulated walls. The three wall systems developed within the scope of this project provide the thermal performance of R-24 to R-40 by incorporating vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) into an expanded polystyrene (EPS) encapsulated vacuum insulated sandwich element (VISE). The VISE was incorporated into an EIFS as pre-engineered insulation boards. The VISE is installed using typical EIFS details and network of trained installers. These three wall systems were tested and engineered to be fully code compliant as an EIFS and meet all of the International Building Code structural, durability and fire test requirements for a code compliant exterior wall cladding system. This system is being commercialized under the trade name Dryvit® Outsulation® HE system. Full details, specifications, and application guidelines have been developed for the system. The system has been modeled both thermally and hygrothermally to predict condensation potential. Based on weather models for Baltimore, MD; Boston, MA; Miami, FL; Minneapolis, MN; Phoenix, AZ; and Seattle, WA; condensation and water build up in the wall system is not a concern. Finally, the team conducted a field trial of the system on a building at the former Brunswick Naval Air Station which is being redeveloped by the Midcoast Regional Redevelopment Authority (Brunswick, Maine). The field trial provided a retrofit R-30 wall onto a wood frame construction, slab on grade, 1800 ft2 building, that was monitored over the course of a year. Simultaneous with the façade retrofit, the building’s windows were upgraded at no charge to this program. The retrofit building used 49% less natural gas during the winter of

  10. Inertia-driven particle migration and mixing in a wall-bounded laminar suspension flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loisel, V.; Abbas, M. Masbernat, O.; Climent, E.

    2015-12-15

    Laminar pressure-driven suspension flows are studied in the situation of neutrally buoyant particles at finite Reynolds number. The numerical method is validated for homogeneous particle distribution (no lateral migration across the channel): the increase of particle slip velocities and particle stress with inertia and concentration is in agreement with former works in the literature. In the case of a two-phase channel flow with freely moving particles, migration towards the channel walls due to the Segré-Silberberg effect is observed, leading to the development of a non-uniform concentration profile in the wall-normal direction (the concentration peaks in the wall region and tends towards zero in the channel core). The particle accumulation in the region of highest shear favors the shear-induced particle interactions and agitation, the profile of which appears to be correlated to the concentration profile. A 1D model predicting particle agitation, based on the kinetic theory of granular flows in the quenched state regime when Stokes number St = O(1) and from numerical simulations when St < 1, fails to reproduce the agitation profile in the wall normal direction. Instead, the existence of secondary flows is clearly evidenced by long time simulations. These are composed of a succession of contra-rotating structures, correlated with the development of concentration waves in the transverse direction. The mechanism proposed to explain the onset of this transverse instability is based on the development of a lift force induced by spanwise gradient of the axial velocity fluctuations. The establishment of the concentration profile in the wall-normal direction therefore results from the combination of the mean flow Segré-Silberberg induced migration, which tends to stratify the suspension and secondary flows which tend to mix the particles over the channel cross section.

  11. Porous wall hollow glass microspheres as a medium or substrate for storage and formation of novel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G; Serkiz, Steven M.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Heung, Leung K.

    2014-06-24

    Porous wall hollow glass microspheres are provided as a template for formation of nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, In addition, the carbon nanotubes in combination with the porous wall hollow glass microsphere provides an additional reaction template with respect to carbon nanotubes.

  12. Temperature dependence of carrier spin polarization determined from current-induced domain wall motion in a Co/Ni nanowire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueda, K.; Koyama, T.; Hiramatsu, R.; Kobayashi, K.; Ono, T.; Chiba, D.; Fukami, S.; Tanigawa, H.; Suzuki, T.; Ohshima, N.; Ishiwata, N.; Nakatani, Y.

    2012-05-14

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of the current-induced magnetic domain wall (DW) motion in a perpendicularly magnetized Co/Ni nanowire at various temperatures and with various applied currents. The carrier spin polarization was estimated from the measured domain wall velocity. We found that it decreased more with increasing temperature from 100 K to 530 K than the saturation magnetization did.

  13. LIFE Materials: Topical Assessment Report for LIFE Volume 1 TOPIC: Solid First Wall and Structural Components TASK: Radiation Effects on First Wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caro, A

    2008-11-26

    This report consists of the following chapters: CHAPTER A: LIFE Requirements for Materials. Part 1: The structure of the First Wall--Basic requirements; A qualitative view of the challenge; The candidate materials; and Base-line material's properties. CHAPTER B: Summary of Existing Knowledge--Brief historical introduction; Design window; The temperature window; Evolution of the design window with damage; Damage calculations; He and H production; Swelling resistance; Incubation dose for swelling; Design criterion No. 1, Strength; Design criterion No. 2, Corrosion resistance; Design criterion No. 3, Creep resistance; Design criterion No. 4, Radiation induced embrittlement; and Conclusions. CHAPTER C: Identification of Gaps in Knowledge & Vulnerabilities. CHAPTER D: Strategy and Future Work.

  14. Method and apparatus for active control of combustion rate through modulation of heat transfer from the combustion chamber wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, Jr., Charles E.; Chadwell, Christopher J.

    2004-09-21

    The flame propagation rate resulting from a combustion event in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is controlled by modulation of the heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls. In one embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is mechanically modulated by a movable member that is inserted into, or withdrawn from, the combustion chamber thereby changing the shape of the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber wall surface area. In another embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is modulated by cooling the surface of a portion of the combustion chamber wall that is in close proximity to the area of the combustion chamber where flame speed control is desired.

  15. Boundary conditions at the walls with thermionic electron emission in two temperature modeling of “thermal” plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekker, Leonid; Hussary, Nakhleh

    2015-08-15

    In this paper, we propose new boundary conditions for the electric potential, the electron energy equation, and the energy equation for heavy particles (ions and neutrals) at the hot walls with thermionic electron emission for two-temperature thermal arc models. The derived boundary conditions assume that the walls are made from refractory metals and, consequently, the erosion of the wall is small and can be neglected. In these boundary conditions, the plasma sheath formed at the electrode is viewed as the interface between the plasma and the wall. The derived boundary conditions allow the calculation of the heat flux to the walls from the plasma. This allows the calculation of the thermionic electron current that makes the model of electrode-plasma interaction self-consistent.

  16. Rarefied gas flow in a rectangular enclosure induced by non-isothermal walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargas, Manuel; Tatsios, Giorgos; Valougeorgis, Dimitris; Stefanov, Stefan

    2014-05-15

    The flow of a rarefied gas in a rectangular enclosure due to the non-isothermal walls with no synergetic contributions from external force fields is investigated. The top and bottom walls are maintained at constant but different temperatures and along the lateral walls a linear temperature profile is assumed. Modeling is based on the direct numerical solution of the Shakhov kinetic equation and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Solving the problem both deterministically and stochastically allows a systematic comparison and verification of the results as well as the exploitation of the numerical advantages of each approach in the investigation of the involved flow and heat transfer phenomena. The thermally induced flow is simulated in terms of three dimensionless parameters characterizing the problem, namely, the reference Knudsen number, the temperature ratio of the bottom over the top plates, and the enclosure aspect ratio. Their effect on the flow configuration and bulk quantities is thoroughly examined. Along the side walls, the gas flows at small Knudsen numbers from cold-to-hot, while as the Knudsen number is increased the gas flows from hot-to-cold and the thermally induced flow configuration becomes more complex. These flow patterns with the hot-to-cold flow to be extended to the whole length of the non-isothermal side walls may exist even at small temperature differences and then, they are enhanced as the temperature difference between the top and bottom plates is increased. The cavity aspect ratio also influences this flow configuration and the hot-to-cold flow is becoming more dominant as the depth compared to the width of the cavity is increased. To further analyze the flow patterns a novel solution decomposition into ballistic and collision parts is introduced. This is achieved by accordingly modifying the indexing process of the typical DSMC algorithm. The contribution of each part of the solution is separately examined and a physical

  17. Wall loss of atomic nitrogen determined by ionization threshold mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sode, M. Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Jacob, W.; Kersten, H.

    2014-11-21

    In the afterglow of an inductively coupled N{sub 2} plasma, relative N atom densities are measured by ionization threshold mass spectrometry as a function of time in order to determine the wall loss time t{sub wN} from the exponential decay curves. The procedure is performed with two mass spectrometers on different positions in the plasma chamber. t{sub wN} is determined for various pressures, i.e., for 3.0, 5.0, 7.5, and 10?Pa. For this conditions also the internal plasma parameters electron density n{sub e} and electron temperature T{sub e} are determined with the Langmuir probe and the rotational temperature T{sub rot}{sup N{sub 2}} of N{sub 2} is determined with the optical emission spectroscopy. For T{sub rot}{sup N{sub 2}}, a procedure is presented to evaluate the spectrum of the transition ?{sup ?}=0??{sup ?}=2 of the second positive system (C{sup 3}?{sub u}?B{sup 3}?{sub g}) of N{sub 2}. With this method, a gas temperature of 610?K is determined. For both mass spectrometers, an increase of the wall loss times of atomic nitrogen with increasing pressure is observed. The wall loss time measured with the first mass spectrometer in the radial center of the cylindrical plasma vessel increases linearly from 0.31?ms for 3?Pa to 0.82?ms for 10?Pa. The wall loss time measured with the second mass spectrometer (further away from the discharge) is about 4 times higher. A model is applied to describe the measured t{sub wN.} The main loss mechanism of atomic nitrogen for the considered pressure is diffusion to the wall. The surface loss probability ?{sub N} of atomic nitrogen on stainless steel was derived from t{sub wN} and is found to be 1 for the present conditions. The difference in wall loss times measured with the mass spectrometers on different positions in the plasma chamber is attributed to the different diffusion lengths.

  18. Stability of a pinned magnetic domain wall as a function of its internal configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montaigne, F.; Duluard, A.; Briones, J.; Lacour, D.; Hehn, M.; Childress, J. R.

    2015-01-14

    It is shown that there are many stable configurations for a domain wall pinned by a notch along a magnetic stripe. The stability of several of these configurations is investigated numerically as a function of the thickness of the magnetic film. The depinning mechanism depends on the structure of the domain wall and on the thickness of the magnetic film. In the case of a spin-valve structure, it appears that the stray fields emerging from the hard layer at the notch location influence the stability of the micromagnetic configuration. Different depinning mechanisms are thus observed for the same film thickness depending on the magnetization orientation of the propagating domain. This conclusion qualitatively explains experimental magnetoresistance measurements.

  19. Effect of dielectric wall temperature on plasma plume in an argon atmospheric pressure discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jian; Huo, Yuxin; Wang, Youyin; Yu, Daren, E-mail: yudaren@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Tang, Jingfeng; Wei, Liqiu [Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-10-15

    In this letter, the effect of the dielectric wall temperature on the length and volume of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is investigated using a single-electrode configuration driven with an AC power supply. To distinguish the APPJ status from the argon flow rate, the three modes, laminar, transition, and turbulent, are separated. When the dielectric wall is heated, the APPJ length and volume are enhanced. Also, the transition regions remarkably expand over a large range of flow rates. The results indicate that different factors contribute to the expansion of the transition region. The increase in the radial and axial velocities is the main cause of the expansion of the transition region to the low-velocity region. The expansion to the high-velocity region is dominantly induced by a change in the viscosity.

  20. APEX ADVANCED FERRITIC STEEL, FLIBE SELF-COOLED FIRST WALL AND BLANKET DESIGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WONG,CPC; MALANG,S; SAWAN,M; SVIATOSLAVSKY,I; MOGAHED,E; SMOLENTSEV,S; MAJUMDAR,S; MERRILL,B; MATTAS,R; FRIEND,M; BOLIN,J; SHARAFAT,S

    2003-11-01

    OAK-B135 As an element in the US Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) program, they evaluated the design option of using advanced nanocomposite ferritic steel (AFS) as the structural material and Flibe as the tritium breeder and coolant. They selected the recirculating flow configuration as the reference design. Based on the material properties of AFS, they found that the reference design can handle a maximum surface heat flux of 1 MW/m{sup 2}, and a maximum neutron wall loading of 5.4 MW/m{sup 2}, with a gross thermal efficiency of 47%, while meeting all the tritium breeding and structural design requirements. This paper covers the results of the following areas of evaluation: materials selection, first wall and blanket design configuration, materials compatibility, components fabrication, neutronics analysis, thermal hydraulics analysis including MHD effects, structural analysis, molten salt and helium closed cycle power conversion system, and safety and waste disposal of the recirculating coolant design.

  1. Single walled carbon nanotube networkTetrahedral amorphous carbon composite film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iyer, Ajai Liu, Xuwen; Koskinen, Jari; Kaskela, Antti; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Johansson, Leena-Sisko

    2015-06-14

    Single walled carbon nanotube network (SWCNTN) was coated by tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) using a pulsed Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc system to form a SWCNTNta-C composite film. The effects of SWCNTN areal coverage density and ta-C coating thickness on the composite film properties were investigated. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements prove the presence of high quality sp{sup 3} bonded ta-C coating on the SWCNTN. Raman spectroscopy suggests that the single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) forming the network survived encapsulation in the ta-C coating. Nano-mechanical testing suggests that the ta-C coated SWCNTN has superior wear performance compared to uncoated SWCNTN.

  2. Method of measuring material properties of rock in the wall of a borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Overmier, David K.

    1985-01-01

    To measure the modulus of elasticity of the rock in the wall of a borehole, a plug is cut in the borehole wall. The plug, its base attached to the surrounding rock, acts as a short column in response to applied forces. A loading piston is applied to the top of the plug and compression of the plug is measured as load is increased. Measurement of piston load and plug longitudinal deformation are made to determine the elastic modulus of the plug material. Poisson's ratio can be determined by simultaneous measurements of longitudinal and lateral deformation of the plug in response to loading. To determine shear modulus, the top of the plug is twisted while measurements are taken of torsional deformation.

  3. Method of measuring material properties of rock in the wall of a borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Overmier, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    To measure the modulus of elasticity of the rock in the wall of a borehole, a plug is cut in the borehole wall. The plug, its base attached to the surrounding rock, acts as a short column in response to applied forces. A loading piston is applied to the top of the plug and compression of the plug is measured as load is increased. Measurements of piston load and plug longitudinal deformation are made to determine the elastic modulus of the plug material. Poisson's ratio can be determined by simultaneous measurements of longitudinal and lateral deformation of the plug in response to loading. To determine shear modulus, the top of the plug is twisted while measurements are taken of torsional deformation.

  4. Identification and genetic characterization of maize cell wall variation for improved biorefinery feedstock characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauly, Markus; Hake, Sarah

    2013-10-31

    The objectives of this program are to 1) characterize novel maize mutants with altered cell walls for enhanced biorefinery characteristics and 2) find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to biorefinery characteristics by taking advantage of the genetic diversity of maize. As a result a novel non-transgenic maize plant (cal1) has been identified, whose stover (leaves and stalk) contain more glucan in their walls leading to a higher saccharification yield, when subjected to a standard enzymatic digestion cocktail. Stacking this trait with altered lignin mutants yielded evene higher saccharification yields. Cal-1 mutants do not show a loss of kernel and or biomass yield when grown in the field . Hence, cal1 biomass provides an excellent feedstock for the biofuel industry.

  5. Method and apparatus for coupling seismic sensors to a borehole wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B.

    2005-03-15

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  6. Nonlinear propagation of ultraintense and ultrashort laser pulses in a plasma channel limited by metallic walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sid, A.; Debbache, D.; Bendib, A.

    2006-08-15

    The nonlinear propagation of an ultraintense and ultrashort (UIUS) laser pulse in a metallic capillary is investigated using a classical model which takes into account the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption (IBA) in the formed plasma. The attenuation of the laser pulse due to the IBA in the plasma and to the laser energy dissipation in the metallic walls is shown. The guiding length and the twist of the laser pulse temporal envelope are presented for several values of the parameters of the plasma, the laser pulse and the metal. The numerical treatment shows that the guiding length increases when the pulse duration becomes shorter. This calculus shows also that in the case of moderate electronic densities, n{sub e}<10{sup 17} m{sup -3}, the formed plasma has a negligible effect compared to that of the metallic walls.

  7. The effect of an anisotropic pressure of thermal particles on resistive wall mode stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berkery, J. W. Sabbagh, S. A.; Betti, R.; Guazzotto, L.; Manickam, J.

    2014-11-15

    The effect of an anisotropic pressure of thermal particles on resistive wall mode stability in tokamak fusion plasmas is derived through kinetic theory and assessed through calculation with the MISK code [B. Hu et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 0?57301 (2005)]. The fluid anisotropy is treated as a small perturbation on the plasma equilibrium and modeled with a bi-Maxwellian distribution function. A complete stability treatment without an assumption of high frequency mode rotation leads to anisotropic kinetic terms in the dispersion relation in addition to anisotropy corrections to the fluid terms. With the density and the average pressure kept constant, when thermal particles have a higher temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field than parallel, the fluid pressure-driven ballooning destabilization term is reduced. Additionally, the stabilizing kinetic effects of the trapped thermal ions can be enhanced. Together these two effects can lead to a modest increase in resistive wall mode stability.

  8. Development of a Thin-Wall Magnesium side door Inner Panel for Automobiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jekl, J.; Auld, J.; Sweet, C.; Carter, Jon; Resch, Steve; Klarner, A.; Brevick, J.; Luo, A.

    2015-05-17

    Cast magnesium side door inner panels can provide a good combination of weight, functional, manufacturing and economical requirements. However, several challenges exist including casting technology for thin-wall part design, multi-material incompatibility and relatively low strength vs steel. A project has been initiated, supported by the US Department of Energy, to design and develop a lightweight frame-under-glass door having a thin-wall, full die-cast, magnesium inner panel. This development project is the first of its kind within North America. Phase I of the project is now complete and the 2.0mm magnesium design, through casting process enablers, has met or exceeded all stiffness requirements, with significant mass reduction and part consolidation. In addition, a corrosion mitigation strategy has been established using industry-accepted galvanic isolation methods and coating technologies.

  9. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  10. High-R Walls for New Construction Structural Performance: Integrated Rim Header Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeRenzis, A.; Kochkin, V.; Wiehagen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Two prominent approaches within the Building America Program to construct higher R-value walls have included use of larger dimension framing and exterior rigid foam insulation. These approaches have been met with some success; however for many production builders, where the cost of changing framing systems is expensive, the changes have been slow to be realized. In addition, recent building code changes have raised some performance issues for exterior sheathing and raised heel trusses, for example, that indicates a need for continued performance testing for wall systems. The testing methods presented in this report evaluate structural rim header designs over openings up to 6 ft wide and applicable to one- and two-story homes.

  11. Building America Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House, Mount Joy, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of a innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders. The EP&B design combines optimized framing with integrated rigid foam sheathing to increase the wall system's R-value and reduce thermal bridging. The foam sheathing is installed between the wall studs and structural wood sheathing. The exterior wood sheathing is attached directly to a framing extension formed by extended top and bottom plates. The exterior wood sheathing can dry to the exterior and provides bracing, a clear drainage plane and flashing surface for window and door openings, and a nailing surface for siding attachment. With support of the DOE Building America program, Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with Lancaster County Career and Technology Center (LCCTC) to build a NCTH in Lancaster, PA to demonstrate the EP&B wall design in a cold climate (IECC climate zone 5A). The results of the study confirmed the benefits of the systems and the viability of its integration into the house construction process.

  12. NREL's CelA Catalyzes Plant Cell Walls Faster - News Feature | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL's CelA Catalyzes Plant Cell Walls Faster January 12, 2015 Close-up photo of a scientist in safety glasses examining small items in plastic containers. NREL Senior Scientist Roman Brunecky examines the molecular weight of the enzyme CelA on a gel in the Protein Chemistry Lab in the Field Test Laboratory Building on NREL's Golden, Colorado, campus. Photo by Dennis Schroeder Scientists at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have developed an enzyme that could

  13. NREL's Cybersecurity Initiative Aims to Wall Off the Smart Grid from

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hackers - News Feature | NREL NREL's Cybersecurity Initiative Aims to Wall Off the Smart Grid from Hackers January 4, 2016 Photo of a group of people working on computers From left to right, NREL's Brian Miller works with David Cronin of DC Systems, Duane Petersen (then with Scitor Corporation), Brandon Hjella of FireEye, and NREL's Erfan Ibrahim to build the Test Bed for Secure Distributed Grid Management, a hardware system that mimics the communications, power systems, and cybersecurity

  14. Effect of residual catalyst on the vibrational modes of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, L.E.; Park, H.; Lu, J.P.; Peters, M.J.

    2004-11-01

    Raman scattering measurements of single-walled carbon nanotubes prepared by laser ablation with Ni/Co catalyst show that samples that have not been purified have a graphitic mode frequency that is 8 cm{sup -1} lower than that of samples from which most of the catalyst has been removed. The shift is attributed to charge transfer from the catalyst particles to the nanotubes. The charge transfer from the residual catalyst also affects the temperature dependence of the radial breathing mode.

  15. Ordered Mesoporous CMK-5 Carbon with Ultra-Thin Pore Walls and Highly Dispersed Nickel Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulvio, Pawquale F; Liang, Chengdu; Dai, Sheng; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2009-01-01

    Ordered mesoporous CMK-5 carbons with ultra-thin carbon pore walls and highly dispersed Ni nanoparticles have been successfully prepared by using two different SBA-15 silicas as hard templates and 2, 3-di-hydroxynaphtalene (DHN) as a carbon precursor. The nickel precursor was a concentrated nickel nitrate hexahydrate [Ni(NO3)2.6H2O] solution in isopropanol added to the carbon-silica nanocomposites prior to thermal treatments. The samples studied were analyzed by thermogravimetry (TG), nitrogen adsorption at -196 C, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and in situ electron diffraction X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). While TG revealed carbon contents lower than 30 wt%, nitrogen adsorption provided information about homogeneity of carbon thin film deposited onto mesopore walls of ordered silica templates, SBA-15. The templates, carbon-silica nanocomposites and carbon inverse replicas with nickel nanoparticles exhibited uniform pores, high surface areas and large pore volumes. Graphitic carbon was identified by the presence of a characteristic G band on Raman spectra, whereas the diffraction peak attributed to the stacking of graphene planes was not observed by powder XRD.The presence of ordered domains in the carbon materials studied was confirmed by small angle XRD and STEM imaging. In addition, the STEM images revealed that the nickel nanoparticles were uniform in size, ~3nm, and were homogeneously dispersed within ordered tubular carbon walls. A few larger clusters of nickel, ~60nm, present on the external surface, were identified by powder XRD as metallic Ni. The in situ EDX revealed that the small nanoparticles were largely composed of Ni with traces of NiO. Similar nanoparticles dispersions have been reported only for Ni-containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), whereas previously reported ordered mesoporous carbons possessed larger Ni/NiO nanoparticles within CMK-3 nanostructure.

  16. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The team evaluated a market-available through-wall air transfer fan system that provides air to the bedrooms.The relative ability of this system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability.

  17. Loosen Up Cell Walls and Get the Sugars Out | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (SC) Loosen Up Cell Walls and Get the Sugars Out Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301)

  18. In situ micro-spectroscopic investigation of lignin in poplar cell walls pretreated by maleic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Yining; Zhao, Shuai; Wei, Hui; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Meilan, Richard; Ding, Shi -You

    2015-08-27

    In higher plant cells, lignin provides necessary physical support for plant growth and resistance to attack by microorganisms. For the same reason, lignin is considered to be a major impediment to the process of deconstructing biomass to simple sugars by hydrolytic enzymes. Furthermore, the in situ variation of lignin in plant cell walls is important for better understanding of the roles lignin play in biomass recalcitrance.

  19. Wall-associated kinase-like polypeptide mediates nutritional status perception and response

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhenbiao; Karr, Stephen

    2014-02-11

    The disclosure relates to methods for modulating plant growth and organogenesis using dominant-negative receptor-like kinases. The disclosure further provides a method for increasing plant yield relative to corresponding wild type plants comprising modulating the expression in a plant of a nucleic acid encoding a Wall-Associated Kinase-like 14 polypeptide or a homolog thereof, and selecting for plants having increased yield or growth on a nutrient deficient substrate.

  20. Expert Meeting Report: Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies K. Ueno and R. Van Straaten Building Science Corporation (BSC) February 2012 ii NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information,

  1. Quantum Decay of the 'False Vacuum' and Pair Creation of Soliton Domain Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, John H. Jr.

    2011-03-28

    Quantum decay of metastable states ('false vacua') has been proposed as a mechanism for bubble nucleation of new universes and phase transitions in the early universe. Experiments indicate the occurrence of false vacuum decay, within a region bounded by soliton domain walls that nucleate via quantum tunneling, in a highly anisotropic condensed matter system. This phenomenon provides a compelling example of false vacuum decay in the laboratory.

  2. Structure and Characterization of Vertically Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Bundles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Márquez, Francisco; López, Vicente; Morant, Carmen; Roque-Malherbe, Rolando; Domingo, Concepción; Elizalde, Eduardo; Zamora, Félix

    2010-01-01

    Arrmore » ays of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube bundles, SWCNTs, have been synthesized by simple alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition process, carried out at 800°C. The formed SWCNTs are organized in small groups perpendicularly aligned and attached to the substrate. These small bundles show a constant diameter of ca. 30 nm and are formed by the adhesion of no more than twenty individual SWCNTs perfectly aligned along their length.« less

  3. Hotter All The Way: Lithium Wall Contains Plasma Without Cooling It | U.S.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE Office of Science (SC) Hotter All The Way: Lithium Wall Contains Plasma Without Cooling It Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) FES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of FES Funding Opportunities Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Fusion Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-24/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-4941 F: (301) 903-8584 E: Email Us More Information »

  4. Technology Solutions Case Study: Cold Climate Foundation Wall Hygrothermal Research Facility, Cloquet, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    This case study describes the University of Minnesota’s Cloquet Residential Research Facility (CRRF) in northern Minnesota, which features more than 2,500 ft2 of below-grade space for building systems foundation hygrothermal research. Here, the NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team researches ways to improve the energy efficiency of the building envelope, including wall assemblies, basements, roofs, insulation, and air leakage.

  5. Solar-Thermal Fluid-Wall Reaction Processing - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Solar-Thermal Fluid-Wall Reaction Processing University of Colorado National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact CU About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Currently most hydrogen is produced through a process of heating natural gas with water vapor called steam reforming. This process requires energy to heat the gasses and produces greenhouse gases such as CO2 as its byproducts. These conditions

  6. Dispersionless propagation of electron wavepackets in single-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosati, Roberto; Rossi, Fausto; Dolcini, Fabrizio

    2015-06-15

    We investigate the propagation of electron wavepackets in single-walled carbon nanotubes via a Lindblad-based density-matrix approach that enables us to account for both dissipation and decoherence effects induced by various phonon modes. We show that, while in semiconducting nanotubes the wavepacket experiences the typical dispersion of conventional materials, in metallic nanotubes its shape remains essentially unaltered, even in the presence of the electron-phonon coupling, up to micron distances at room temperature.

  7. Concept for Reducing Hall Thruster Chamber Wall Erosion with Lithium Vapor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shielding. | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Concept for Reducing Hall Thruster Chamber Wall Erosion with Lithium Vapor Shielding. Hall thrusters have been established as a compact and reliable means for satellite applications. Erosion of the surfaces of such thrusters, however, has been a serious factor in limiting their lifetimes. Replacing eroded surfaces by replenishing them is generally unattractive because of the mechanical complexity and added weight that could be required. This

  8. Control of linear modes in cylindrical resistive magnetohydrodynamics with a resistive wall, plasma rotation, and complex gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennan, D. P.; Finn, J. M.

    2014-10-15

    Feedback stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes in a tokamak is studied in a cylindrical model with a resistive wall, plasma resistivity, viscosity, and toroidal rotation. The control is based on a linear combination of the normal and tangential components of the magnetic field just inside the resistive wall. The feedback includes complex gain, for both the normal and for the tangential components, and it is known that the imaginary part of the feedback for the former is equivalent to plasma rotation [J. M. Finn and L. Chacon, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1866 (2004)]. The work includes (1) analysis with a reduced resistive MHD model for a tokamak with finite ? and with stepfunction current density and pressure profiles, and (2) computations with a full compressible visco-resistive MHD model with smooth decreasing profiles of current density and pressure. The equilibria are stable for ??=?0 and the marginal stability values ?{sub rp,rw}?wall; resistive plasma, ideal wall; ideal plasma, resistive wall; and ideal plasma, ideal wall) are computed for both models. The main results are: (a) imaginary gain with normal sensors or plasma rotation stabilizes below ?{sub rp,iw} because rotation suppresses the diffusion of flux from the plasma out through the wall and, more surprisingly, (b) rotation or imaginary gain with normal sensors destabilizes above ?{sub rp,iw} because it prevents the feedback flux from entering the plasma through the resistive wall to form a virtual wall. A method of using complex gain G{sub i} to optimize in the presence of rotation in this regime with ??>??{sub rp,iw} is presented. The effect of imaginary gain with tangential sensors is more complicated but essentially destabilizes above and below ?{sub rp,iw}.

  9. Performance of reduced wall EPR insulated medium voltage power cables. Pat 1: Electrical characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cinquemani, P.L.; Wen, Y.; Kuchta, F.L.; Doench, C.

    1997-04-01

    Paper insulated lead covered cables (PILC) have had a long and successful heritage. After almost 100 years, this design of cable is still in operation and continues to be manufactured. However, utilities are now looking for a reliable replacement for PILC cables. This is due to two primary reasons: (1) difficulty in installing and maintaining this type of cable and (2) increasing pressure to replace these cables due to environmental concerns. To date diameter limitations of conventional extruded dielectric cables has impeded their replacement in existing PILC conduits. This paper describes a study for the evaluation for reliably reducing the insulation thickness to achieve a lower diameter cable to effectively replace PILC cable in existing conduits. Part 1 of the investigation reviews the theory of insulation wall determination and the test program carried out to evaluate electrical performance of reduced wall EPR cables. Additionally, cable design concepts and constructions are discussed. In Part 2 the mechanical performance on conventional and reduced wall EPR insulated cables are evaluated. This is reported in a separate paper.

  10. Numerical simulations examining the relationship between wall-roughness and fluid flow in rock fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, Dustin; Bromhal, Grant; Karpyn, Zuleima T.

    2010-07-01

    Understanding how fracture wall-roughness affects fluid flow is important when modeling many subsurface transport problems. Computed tomography scanning provides a unique view of rock fractures, allowing the measurement of fracture wall-roughness, without destroying the initial rock sample. For this computational fluid dynamics study, we used several different methods to obtain three-dimensional meshes of a computed tomography scanned fracture in Berea sandstone. These volumetric meshes had different wall-roughnesses, which we characterized using the Joint Roughness Coefficient and the fractal dimension of the fracture profiles. We then related these macroscopic roughness parameters to the effective flow through the fractures, as determined from Navier-Stokes numerical models. Thus, we used our fracture meshes to develop relationships between the observed roughness properties of the fracture geometries and flow parameters that are of importance for modeling flow through fractures in field scale models. Fractures with high Joint Roughness Coefficients and fractal dimensions were shown to exhibit tortuous flow paths, be poorly characterized by the mean geometric aperture, and have a fracture transmissivity 35 times smaller than the smoother modeled fracture flows.

  11. Simulation of X-ray Irradiation on Optics and Chamber Wall Materials for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Stein, W

    2003-09-10

    We have used the ABLATOR code to analyze the effect of the x-ray emission from direct drive targets on the optics and the first wall of a conceptual laser Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plant. For this purpose, the ABLATOR code has been modified to incorporate the predicted x-ray spectrum from a generic direct drive target. We have also introduced elongation calculations in ABLATOR to predict the thermal stresses in the optic and first wall materials. These results have been validated with thermal diffusion calculations, using the LLNL heat transfer and dynamic structural finite element codes Topaz3d and Dyna3d. One of the most relevant upgrades performed in the ABLATOR code consists of the possibility to accommodate multi-material simulations. This new feature allows for a more realistic modeling of typical IFE optics and first wall materials, which may have a number of different layers. Finally, we have used the XAPPER facility, at LLNL, to develop our predictive capability and validate the results. The ABLATOR code will be further modified, as necessary, to predict the effects of x-ray irradiation in both the IFE real case and our experiments on the XAPPER facility.

  12. Effect of nitrogen-containing groups on enhanced capacitive behaviors of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ji-Il; Park, Soo-Jin

    2011-08-15

    In this work, electrochemical properties of surface treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are studied in supercapacitors. Nitrogen and oxygen functional groups containing MWNTs are prepared by urea and acidic treatments, respectively. The surface properties of the MWNTs are confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zeta-potential measurements. The textural properties are characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherm at 77 K using the BET eqaution, BJH method, and HK method. The electrochemical properties of the MWNTs are accumulated by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectra, and charge-discharge cycling performance in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at room temperature. As a result, the functionalized MWNTs lead to an increase in capacitance as compared with pristine MWNTs. It suggests that the pyridinic and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen species have effects on the specific capacitance due to the positive charge, and thus an improved electron transfer at high current loads results, the most important functional groups affecting capacitive behaviors. - Graphical Abstract: The N{sub 1s} spectra of nitrogen functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes are measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Highlights: > Facile method of increasing elemental composition of nitrogen functional groups on carbon materials. > Increased specific capacitance multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) for electrode materials as high as general chemical activation process. > Enhanced capacitive behaviors via introducing pyridinic and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen species onto the MWNTs. > Improvement of electron transfer at high current loads.

  13. Comprehensive kinetic analysis of the plasma-wall transition layer in a strongly tilted magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tskhakaya, D. D.; Kos, L.

    2014-10-15

    The magnetized plasma-wall transition (MPWT) layer at the presence of the obliquity of the magnetic field to the wall consists of three sub-layers: the Debye sheath (DS), the magnetic pre-sheath (MPS), and the collisional pre-sheath (CPS) with characteristic lengths ?{sub D} (electron Debye length), ?{sub i} (ion gyro-radius), and ? (the smallest relevant collision length), respectively. Tokamak plasmas are usually assumed to have the ordering ?{sub D}??{sub i}??, when the above-mentioned sub-layers can be distinctly distinguished. In the limits of ?{sub Dm}(?{sub D}/?{sub i})?0 and ?{sub mc}(?{sub i}/?)?0 (asymptotic three-scale (A3S) limits), these sub-layers are precisely defined. Using the smallness of the tilting angle of the magnetic field to the wall, the ion distribution functions are found for three sub-regions in the analytic form. The equations and characteristic length-scales governing the transition (intermediate) regions between the neighboring sub-layers (CPS MPS and MPS DS) are derived, allowing to avoid the singularities arising from the ?{sub Dm}?0 and ?{sub mc}?0 approximations. The MPS entrance and the related kinetic form of the BohmChodura condition are successfully defined for the first time. At the DS entrance, the Bohm condition maintains its usual form. The results encourage further study and understanding of physics of the MPWT layers in the modern plasma facilities.

  14. Understanding Free and Complexed Enzyme Mechanisms and Factors Contributing to Cell Wall Recalcitrance (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resch, M.; Donohoe, B.; Katahira, R.; Ashutosh, M.; Beckham, G.; Himmel, M.; Decker, S.

    2014-04-01

    Fungal free enzymes and bacterial complexed cellulosomes deconstruct biomass using different physical mechanisms. Free enzymes, which typically contain a large proportion of GH7 cellobiohydrolase, diffuse throughout the substrate and hydrolyze primarily from the cellulose reducing end, resulting in 'sharpened' macrofibrils. In contrast, complexed cellulosomes contain a diverse array of carbohydrate binding modules and multiple catalytic specificities leading to delamination and physical peeling of the cellulose macrofibril structures. To investigate how cellulose structure contributes to recalcitrance, we compared the deconstruction of cellulose I, II, and III; using free and complexed enzyme systems. We also evaluated both systems on Clean Fractionation and alkaline pretreated biomass, which remove much of the lignin, to determine the impact on enzyme loading reduction. Free fungal enzymes demonstrated a swelling of the outer surface of the plant cell walls while removing localized disruptions, resulting in a smooth surface appearance. Cellulosomes produced cell wall surfaces with localized areas of disruption and little surface layer swelling. These studies contribute to the overall understanding of biomass recalcitrance and how combining different enzymatic paradigms may lead to the formulation of new enzyme cocktails to reduce the cost of producing sugars from plant cell wall carbohydrates.

  15. Study of the effects of corrugated wall structures due to blanket modules around ICRH antennas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dumortier, Pierre; Louche, Fabrice; Messiaen, André; Vervier, Michel

    2014-02-12

    In future fusion reactors, and in ITER, the first wall will be covered by blanket modules. These blanket modules, whose dimensions are of the order of the ICRF wavelengths, together with the clearance gaps between them will constitute a corrugated structure which will interact with the electromagnetic waves launched by ICRF antennas. The conditions in which the grooves constituted by the clearance gaps between the blanket modules can become resonant are studied. Simple analytical models and numerical simulations show that mushroom type structures (with larger gaps at the back than at the front) can bring down the resonance frequencies, which could lead to large voltages in the gaps between the blanket modules and perturb the RF properties of the antenna if they are in the ICRF operating range. The effect on the wave propagation along the wall structure, which is acting as a spatially periodic (toroidally and poloidally) corrugated structure, and hence constitutes a slow wave structure modifying the wall boundary condition, is examined.

  16. Monitoring of Refractory Wall recession using high temperature impact echo instrumentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of Dayton

    2004-04-30

    Regression of refractory linings of furnaces occurs due to a variety of mechanisms. The specific mechanism selected for investigation during this program is the regression of refractories which are in direct contact with a liquid corrodant. Examples include the melting of glass, the production of pig iron and steel, and the melting of aluminum. The rates of regression to a wall thickness which requires reline or extensive reconstruction vary widely, from less than a year to over ten years depending on the specific service environment. This program investigated the feasibility of measuring refractory wall thickness with an impact-echo method while at operating temperature (wall temperatures exceeding 500 C). The impact-echo method uses the impact of a small sphere with the surface of the test object to send a stress wave into the object. In a plate-like structure, the stress wave reflects back to the front surface, reverberating in the structure and causing a periodic surface displacement whose frequency is inversely proportional to the thickness of the test object. Impact-echo testing was chosen because it requires access to only one side of the test object and could be performed during the operation of a refractory structure. Commercially-available impact-echo instrumentation is available for room temperature use for a variety of tests on concrete. The enabling technology for this work was to use a high-temperature piezoelectric material, aluminum nitride, as the receiving sensor for the stress waves, allowing its use on refractories during furnace operation.

  17. Pinoresinol reductase 1 impacts lignin distribution during secondary cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Qiao; Zeng, Yining; Yin, Yanbin; Pu, Yunqiao; Jackson, Lisa A.; Engle, Nancy L.; Martin, Madhavi Z.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ding, Shi-You; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; et al

    2014-08-05

    In this paper, pinoresinol reductase (PrR) catalyzes the conversion of the lignan (-)-pinoresinol to (-)-lariciresinol in Arabidopsis thaliana, where it is encoded by two genes, PrR1 and PrR2, that appear to act redundantly. PrR1 is highly expressed in lignified inflorescence stem tissue, whereas PrR2 expression is barely detectable in stems. Co-expression analysis has indicated that PrR1 is co-expressed with many characterized genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis, whereas PrR2 expression clusters with a different set of genes. The promoter of the PrR1 gene is regulated by the secondary cell wall related transcription factors SND1 and MYB46. The loss-of-function mutantmore » of PrR1 shows, in addition to elevated levels of pinoresinol, significantly decreased lignin content and a slightly altered lignin structure with lower abundance of cinnamyl alcohol end groups. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy analysis indicated that the lignin content of the prr1-1 loss-of-function mutant is similar to that of wild-type plants in xylem cells, which exhibit a normal phenotype, but is reduced in the fiber cells. Finally, together, these data suggest an association of the lignan biosynthetic enzyme encoded by PrR1 with secondary cell wall biosynthesis in fiber cells.« less

  18. Method for braze-joining spirally wound tapes to inner walls of heat exchanger tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrison, Melton E.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of fabricating heat exchanger tubes in which twisted tapes are utilized for promoting turbulence and heat transfer. The method of the present invention provides for the brazing of the tapes to the inner walls of the tubes for enhancing heat transfer between the fluid within the conduit and a fluid medium outside of the conduit by conduction through the tape. The braze joint of the present invention is coextensive with the tape over the entire length thereof within the conduit. The practice of the present invention is achieved by placing a filler wire of brazing metal along the tape at a location removed from the side walls and then heating the conduit and tape sufficiently to effect the displacement of the filler metal by wicking to the contact point between the tape and the conduit wall to form a braze joint coextensive with the length of the tape within the conduit. This arrangement provides maximum heat transfer and assures that the tape is in contact with the conduit over the entire common length thereof.

  19. Method for braze-joining spirally wound tapes to inner walls of heat exchanger tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrison, M.E.

    1982-09-03

    The present invention is directed to a method of fabricating heat exchanger tubes in which twisted tapes are utilized for promoting turbulence and heat transfer. The method of the present invention provides for the brazing of the tapes to the inner walls of the tubes for enhancing heat transfer between the fluid within the conduit and a fluid medium outside of the conduit by conduction through the tape. The braze joint of the present invention is coextensive with the tape over the entire length thereof within the conduit. The practice of the present invention is achieved by placing a filler wire of brazing metal along the tape at a location removed from the side walls and then heating the conduit and tape sufficiently to effect the displacement of the filler metal by wicking to the contact point between the tape and the conduit wall to form a braze joint coextensive with the length of the tape within the conduit. This arrangement provides maximum heat transfer and assures that the tape is in contact with the conduit over the entire common length thereof.

  20. THE REAL ISSUE WITH WALL DEPOSITS IN CLOSED FILTER CASSETTES - WHAT'S THE SAMPLE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brisson, M.

    2009-09-12

    The measurement of aerosol dusts has long been utilized to assess the exposure of workers to metals. Tools used to sample and measure aerosol dusts have gone through many transitions over the past century. In particular, there have been several different techniques used to sample for beryllium, not all of which might be expected to produce the same result. Today, beryllium samples are generally collected using filters housed in holders of several different designs, some of which are expected to produce a sample that mimics the human capacity for dust inhalation. The presence of dust on the interior walls of cassettes used to hold filters during metals sampling has been discussed in the literature for a number of metals, including beryllium, with widely varying data. It appears that even in the best designs, particulates can enter the sampling cassette and deposit on the interior walls rather than on the sampling medium. The causes are not well understood but are believed to include particle bounce, electrostatic forces, particle size, particle density, and airflow turbulence. Historically, the filter catch has been considered to be the sample, but the presence of wall deposits, and the potential that the filter catch is not representative of the exposure to the worker, puts that historical position into question. This leads to a fundamental question: What is the sample? This article reviews the background behind the issue, poses the above-mentioned question, and discusses options and a possible path forward for addressing that question.

  1. A review of whole cell wall NMR by the direct-dissolution of biomass

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Foston, Marcus B.; Samuel, Reichel; He, Jian; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2016-01-19

    To fully realize the potential of lignocellulosic biomass as a renewable resource for the production of fuels, chemicals, and materials, an improved understanding of the chemical and molecular structures within biomass and how those structures are formed during biosynthesis and transformed during (thermochemical and biological) conversion must be developed. This effort will require analytical techniques which are not only in-depth, rapid, and cost-effective, but also leave native cell wall features intact. Whole plant cell wall nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis facilitates unparalleled structural characterization of lignocellulosic biomass without causing (or with minimal) structural modification. The objective of this review ismore » to summarize research pertaining to solution- or gel-state whole plant cell wall NMR analysis of biomass, demonstrating the capability of NMR to delineate the structural features and transformations of biomass. In particular, this review will focus on the application of a two-dimensional solution-state NMR technique and perdeuterated ionic liquid based organic electrolyte solvents for the direct dissolution and analysis of biomass. Furthermore, we believe this type of analysis will be critical to advancing biofuel research, improving bioprocessing methodology, and enhancing plant bioengineering efforts.« less

  2. Wall current probe: A non-invasive in situ plasma diagnostic for space and time resolved current density distribution measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baude, R.; Gaboriau, F.; Hagelaar, G. J. M. [Universit de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion dnergie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France and CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062, Toulouse (France)] [Universit de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion dnergie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France and CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062, Toulouse (France)

    2013-08-15

    In the context of low temperature plasma research, we propose a wall current probe to determine the local charged particle fluxes flowing to the chamber walls. This non-intrusive planar probe consists of an array of electrode elements which can be individually biased and for which the current can be measured separately. We detail the probe properties and present the ability of the diagnostic to be used as a space and time resolved measurement of the ion and electron current density at the chamber walls. This diagnostic will be relevant to study the electron transport in magnetized low-pressure plasmas.

  3. Development of EEM based siliconwater and silicawater wall potentials for non-reactive molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Junghan; Iype, Eldhose; Frijns, Arjan J.H.; Nedea, Silvia V.; Steenhoven, Anton A. van

    2014-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of heat transfer in gases are computationally expensive when the wall molecules are explicitly modeled. To save computational time, an implicit boundary function is often used. Steele's potential has been used in studies of fluidsolid interface for a long time. In this work, the conceptual idea of Steele's potential was extended in order to simulate watersilicon and watersilica interfaces. A new wall potential model is developed by using the electronegativity-equalization method (EEM), a ReaxFF empirical force field and a non-reactive molecular dynamics package PumMa. Contact angle simulations were performed in order to validate the wall potential model. Contact angle simulations with the resulting tabulated wall potentials gave a siliconwater contact angle of 129, a quartzwater contact angle of 0, and a cristobalitewater contact angle of 40, which are in reasonable agreement with experimental values.

  4. Steady-state domain wall motion driven by adiabatic spin-transfer torque with assistance of microwave field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xi-guang; Guo, Guang-hua Nie, Yao-zhuang; Xia, Qing-lin; Tang, Wei; Wang, D.; Zeng, Zhong-ming

    2013-12-23

    We have studied the current-induced displacement of a 180° Bloch wall by means of micromagnetic simulation and analytical approach. It is found that the adiabatic spin-transfer torque can sustain a steady-state domain wall (DW) motion in the direction opposite to that of the electron flow without Walker Breakdown when a transverse microwave field is applied. This kind of motion is very sensitive to the microwave frequency and can be resonantly enhanced by exciting the domain wall thickness oscillation mode. A one-dimensional analytical model was established to account for the microwave-assisted wall motion. These findings may be helpful for reducing the critical spin-polarized current density and designing DW-based spintronic devices.

  5. Control of domain wall pinning by localised focused Ga {sup +} ion irradiation on Au capped NiFe nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burn, D. M. Atkinson, D.

    2014-10-28

    Understanding domain wall pinning and propagation in nanowires are important for future spintronics and nanoparticle manipulation technologies. Here, the effects of microscopic local modification of the magnetic properties, induced by focused-ion-beam intermixing, in NiFe/Au bilayer nanowires on the pinning behavior of domain walls was investigated. The effects of irradiation dose and the length of the irradiated features were investigated experimentally. The results are considered in the context of detailed quasi-static micromagnetic simulations, where the ion-induced modification was represented as a local reduction of the saturation magnetization. Simulations show that domain wall pinning behavior depends on the magnitude of the magnetization change, the length of the modified region, and the domain wall structure. Comparative analysis indicates that reduced saturation magnetisation is not solely responsible for the experimentally observed pinning behavior.

  6. Micro-Spectroscopic Imaging of Lignin-Carbohydrate Complexes in Plant Cell Walls and Their Migration During Biomass Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Yining; Zhao, Shuai; Wei, Hui; Tucker, Melvin P.; Johnson, David K.; Himmel, Michael E.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Meilan, Richard; Ding, Shi-You

    2015-04-27

    In lignocellulosic biomass, lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer. In plant cell walls, lignin is associated with polysaccharides to form lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC). LCC have been considered to be a major factor that negatively affects the process of deconstructing biomass to simple sugars by cellulosic enzymes. Here, we report a micro-spectroscopic approach that combines fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and Stimulated Raman Scattering microscopy to probe in situ lignin concentration and conformation at each cell wall layer. This technique does not require extensive sample preparation or any external labels. Using poplar as a feedstock, for example, we observe variation of LCC in untreated tracheid poplar cell walls. The redistribution of LCC at tracheid poplar cell wall layers is also investigated when the chemical linkages between lignin and hemicellulose are cleaved during pretreatment. Our study would provide new insights into further improvement of the biomass pretreatment process.

  7. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: High-Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this project, Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation worked with builders in California to implement wall assemblies meeting a U-value lower than 0.050 Btu/h-ft2-°F. ARBI and its project team members helped builders identify preferred wall designs that met the requirements of their architects, structural engineers, and purchasing agents and that were acceptable to their subcontractors. Construction methods were observed and documented and construction costs obtained from builders were used to inform cost estimates for a range of advanced wall system types and insulation types. Wall framing types of 2 × 6 (16- and 24-in. on center [o.c.]) and double stud were modeled in Building Energy Optimization (BEopt™) software with cavity insulation levels ranging from R-19 to R-33 (double stud) and exterior rigid insulation of R-4, R-6, and R-8.

  8. Narrowing of the coherent population trapping resonance under zone pumping in cells with different characteristics of the wall coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazakov, G A; Litvinov, A N; Matisov, B G [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-28

    It is shown that when coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance is excited by a narrow laser beam, the presence of elastic collisions with the cell wall significantly affects the line shape of the CPT-resonance. We have constructed a theoretical model, which is based on averaging over the random Ramsey sequences of the atom dwell time in the beam and dark zones and takes into account the probability of elastic bounce of an atom from the wall.

  9. L3:THM.CLS.P7.09 Advancements on Wall Boiling Modeling in CFD: Leveraging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Advancements on Wall Boiling Modeling in CFD: Leveraging New Understanding from MIT Flow Boiling Facility Lindsey Gilman, Emilio Baglietto MIT Completed: August 30, 2013 CASL-8-2013-0185-000 ADVANCEMENTS ON WALL BOILING MODELING IN CFD: LEVERAGING NEW UNDERSTANDING FROM MIT FLOW BOILING FACILITY Lindsey Gilman, Emilio Baglietto August 30, 2013 (Rev. 0) Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA, USA August 2013 CASL-U-2013-0185-000 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This milestone introduces advanced

  10. Measure Guideline: Wall Air Sealing and Insulation Methods in Existing Homes; An Overview of Opportunity and Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2012-09-01

    This guide provides renovators and retrofit contractors an overview of considerations when including wall air sealing and insulation in an energy retrofit project. It also outlines the potential project risks, various materials for insulating, possible field inspections needed, installation procedures, as well as the benefits and drawbacks. The purpose of this document is to provide the outline of the overview and process of insulating and air sealing walls so that home retrofit professionals can identify approaches to air sealing and insulation measures.

  11. Structural behavior and dynamics of an anomalous fluid between attractive and repulsive walls: Templating, molding, and superdiffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leoni, Fabio; Franzese, Giancarlo

    2014-11-07

    Confinement can modify the dynamics, the thermodynamics, and the structural properties of liquid water, the prototypical anomalous liquid. By considering a generic model for anomalous liquids, suitable for describing solutions of globular proteins, colloids, or liquid metals, we study by molecular dynamics simulations the effect that an attractive wall with structure and a repulsive wall without structure have on the phases, the crystal nucleation, and the dynamics of the fluid. We find that at low temperatures the large density of the attractive wall induces a high-density, high-energy structure in the first layer (templating effect). In turn, the first layer induces a molding effect on the second layer determining a structure with reduced energy and density, closer to the average density of the system. This low-density, low-energy structure propagates further through the layers by templating effect and can involve all the existing layers at the lowest temperatures investigated. Therefore, although the high-density, high-energy structure does not self-reproduce further than the first layer, the structured wall can have a long-range influence thanks to a sequence of templating, molding, and templating effects through the layers. We find that the walls also have an influence on the dynamics of the liquid, with a stronger effect near the attractive wall. In particular, we observe that the dynamics is largely heterogeneous (i) among the layers, as a consequence of the sequence of structures caused by the walls presence, and (ii) within the same layer, due to superdiffusive liquid veins within a frozen matrix of particles near the walls at low temperature and high density. Hence, the partial freezing of the first layer does not correspond necessarily to an effective reduction of the channel's section in terms of transport properties, as suggested by other authors.

  12. Changes in Cell Wall Properties Coincide with Overexpression of Extensin Fusion Proteins in Suspension Cultured Tobacco Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tan, Li; Pu, Yunqiao; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Avci, Utku; Qian, Jin; Arter, Allison; Chen, Liwei; Hahn, Michael G.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Kieliszewski, Marcia J.

    2014-12-23

    Extensins are one subfamily of the cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, containing characteristic SerHyp4 glycosylation motifs and intermolecular cross-linking motifs such as the TyrXaaTyr sequence. Extensins are believed to form a cross-linked network in the plant cell wall through the tyrosine-derivatives isodityrosine, pulcherosine, and di-isodityrosine. Overexpression of three synthetic genes encoding different elastin-arabinogalactan protein-extensin hybrids in tobacco suspension cultured cells yielded novel cross-linking glycoproteins that shared features of the extensins, arabinogalactan proteins and elastin. The cell wall properties of the three transgenic cell lines were all changed, but in different ways. One transgenic cell line showed decreased cellulose crystallinity and increasedmore » wall xyloglucan content; the second transgenic cell line contained dramatically increased hydration capacity and notably increased cell wall biomass, increased di-isodityrosine, and increased protein content; the third transgenic cell line displayed wall phenotypes similar to wild type cells, except changed xyloglucan epitope extractability. In conclusion, these data indicate that overexpression of modified extensins may be a route to engineer plants for bioenergy and biomaterial production.« less

  13. Changes in Cell Wall Properties Coincide with Overexpression of Extensin Fusion Proteins in Suspension Cultured Tobacco Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Li; Pu, Yunqiao; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Avci, Utku; Qian, Jin; Arter, Allison; Chen, Liwei; Hahn, Michael G.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Kieliszewski, Marcia J.

    2014-12-23

    Extensins are one subfamily of the cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, containing characteristic SerHyp4 glycosylation motifs and intermolecular cross-linking motifs such as the TyrXaaTyr sequence. Extensins are believed to form a cross-linked network in the plant cell wall through the tyrosine-derivatives isodityrosine, pulcherosine, and di-isodityrosine. Overexpression of three synthetic genes encoding different elastin-arabinogalactan protein-extensin hybrids in tobacco suspension cultured cells yielded novel cross-linking glycoproteins that shared features of the extensins, arabinogalactan proteins and elastin. The cell wall properties of the three transgenic cell lines were all changed, but in different ways. One transgenic cell line showed decreased cellulose crystallinity and increased wall xyloglucan content; the second transgenic cell line contained dramatically increased hydration capacity and notably increased cell wall biomass, increased di-isodityrosine, and increased protein content; the third transgenic cell line displayed wall phenotypes similar to wild type cells, except changed xyloglucan epitope extractability. In conclusion, these data indicate that overexpression of modified extensins may be a route to engineer plants for bioenergy and biomaterial production.

  14. The modelling of wall condensation with noncondensable gases for the containment codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leduc, C.; Coste, P.; Barthel, V.; Deslandes, H.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents several approaches in the modelling of wall condensation in the presence of noncondensable gases for containment codes. The lumped-parameter modelling and the local modelling by 3-D codes are discussed. Containment analysis codes should be able to predict the spatial distributions of steam, air, and hydrogen as well as the efficiency of cooling by wall condensation in both natural convection and forced convection situations. 3-D calculations with a turbulent diffusion modelling are necessary since the diffusion controls the local condensation whereas the wall condensation may redistribute the air and hydrogen mass in the containment. A fine mesh modelling of film condensation in forced convection has been in the developed taking into account the influence of the suction velocity at the liquid-gas interface. It is associated with the 3-D model of the TRIO code for the gas mixture where a k-{xi} turbulence model is used. The predictions are compared to the Huhtiniemi`s experimental data. The modelling of condensation in natural convection or mixed convection is more complex. As no universal velocity and temperature profile exist for such boundary layers, a very fine nodalization is necessary. More simple models integrate equations over the boundary layer thickness, using the heat and mass transfer analogy. The model predictions are compared with a MIT experiment. For the containment compartments a two node model is proposed using the lumped parameter approach. Heat and mass transfer coefficients are tested on separate effect tests and containment experiments. The CATHARE code has been adapted to perform such calculations and shows a reasonable agreement with data.

  15. Testing of and model development for double-walled thermal tubular

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satchwell, R.M.; Johnson, L.A. Jr.

    1992-08-01

    Insulated tubular products have become essential for use in steam injection projects. In a steam injection project, steam is created at the surface by either steam boilers or generators. During this process, steam travels from a boiler through surface lines to the wellhead, down the wellbore to the sandface, and into the reservoir. For some projects to be an economic success, cost must be reduced and oil recoveries must be increased by reducing heat losses in the wellbore. With reduced heats losses, steam generation costs are lowered and higher quality steam can be injected into the formation. To address this need, work under this project consisted of the design and construction of a thermal flow loop, testing a double-walled tubular product that was manufactured by Inter-Mountain Pipe Company, and the development and verification of a thermal hydraulic numerical simulator for steam injection. Four different experimental configurations of the double-walled pipe were tested. These configurations included: (1) bare pipe case, (2) bare pipe case with an applied annular vacuum, (3) insulated annular pipe case, and (4) insulated annular pipe case with an applied annular vacuum. Both the pipe body and coupling were tested with each configuration. The results of the experimental tests showed that the Inter-Mountain Pipe Company double-walled pipe body achieved a 98 percent reduction in heat loss when insulation was applied to the annular portion of the pipe. The application of insulation to the annular portion of the coupling reduced the heat losses by only 6 percent. In tests that specified the use of a vacuum in the annular portion of the pipe, leaks were detected and the vacuum could not be held.

  16. High-resolution genetic mapping of allelic variants associated with cell wall chemistry in Populus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Muchero, Wellington; Guo, Jianjun; Difazio, Stephen P.; Chen, Jay; Ranjan, Priya; Slavov, Gancho; Gunter, Lee E.; Jawdy, Sara; Bryan, Anthony C.; Sykes, Robert; et al

    2015-01-23

    We report the identification of six genetic loci and the allelic-variants associated with Populus cell wall phenotypes determined independently using pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (pyMBMS), saccharification assay and wet chemistry in two partially overlapping populations of P. trichocarpa genotypes sampled from multiple environments in the Pacific Northwest of North America. All 6 variants co-located with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) hotspot on chromosome XIV for lignin content, syringyl to guaiacyl (S/G) ratio, 5- and 6- carbon sugars identified in an interspecific P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides pseudo-backcross mapping pedigree. Genomic intervals containing an amino acid transporter, a MYB transcriptionmore » factor, an angustifolia CtBP transcription factor, a copper transport protein ATOX1-related, a Ca2+ transporting ATPase and a protein kinase were identified within 5 QTL regions. Each interval contained single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were significantly associated to cell-wall phenotypes, with associations exceeding the chromosome-wise Bonferroni-adjusted p-values in at least one environment. cDNA sequencing for allelic variants of 3 of the 6 genes identified polymorphisms leading to premature stop codons in the MYB transcription factor and protein kinase. On the other hand, variants of the Angustifolia CtBP transcription factor exhibited a polyglutamine (PolyQ) length polymorphism. Results from transient protoplast assays suggested that each of the polymorphisms conferred allelic differences in activation of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin pathway marker genes, with truncated and short PolyQ alleles exhibiting significantly reduced marker gene activation. Genes identified in this study represent novel targets for reducing cell wall recalcitrance for lignocellulosic biofuels production using plant biomass.« less

  17. Multi-Institutional Review of Repeat Irradiation of Chest Wall and Breast for Recurrent Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Andrew O.; Rademaker, Alfred; Kiel, Krystyna D.; Jones, Ellen L.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Croog, Victoria; McCormick, Beryl M.; Hirsch, Arica; Karkar, Ami; Motwani, Sabin B.; Tereffe, Welela; Yu, T.-K.; Sher, David; Silverstein, Joshua; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Kesslering, Christy; Freedman, Gary M.; Small, William

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To review the toxicity and clinical outcomes for patients who underwent repeat chest wall or breast irradiation (RT) after local recurrence. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2005, 81 patients underwent repeat RT of the breast or chest wall for locally recurrent breast cancer at eight institutions. The median dose of the first course of RT was 60 Gy and was 48 Gy for the second course. The median total radiation dose was 106 Gy (range, 74.4-137.5 Gy). At the second RT course, 20% received twice-daily RT, 54% were treated with concurrent hyperthermia, and 54% received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: The median follow-up from the second RT course was 12 months (range, 1-144 months). Four patients developed late Grade 3 or 4 toxicity. However, 25 patients had follow-up >20 months, and no late Grade 3 or 4 toxicities were noted. No treatment-related deaths occurred. The development of Grade 3 or 4 late toxicity was not associated with any repeat RT variables. The overall complete response rate was 57%. No repeat RT parameters were associated with an improved complete response rate, although a trend was noted for an improved complete response with the addition of hyperthermia that was close to reaching statistical significance (67% vs. 39%, p = 0.08). The 1-year local disease-free survival rate for patients with gross disease was 53% compared with 100% for those without gross disease (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The results of our study have shown that repeat RT of the chest wall for patients with locally recurrent breast cancer is feasible, because it is associated with acceptable acute and late morbidity and encouraging local response rates.

  18. High-resolution genetic mapping of allelic variants associated with cell wall chemistry in Populus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Guo, Jianjun [ORNL; Difazio, Stephen P. [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Chen, Jay [ORNL; Ranjan, Priya [ORNL; Slavov, Gancho [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Jawdy, Sara [ORNL; Bryan, Anthony C [ORNL; Sykes, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Ziebell, Angela L [ORNL; Porth, Ilga [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Skyba, Oleksandr [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Unda, Faride [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; El-Kassaby, Yousry [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Douglas, Carl [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mansfield, Shawn [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Martin, Joel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Schackwitz, Wendy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Evans, Luke M [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    We report the identification of six genetic loci and the allelic-variants associated with Populus cell wall phenotypes determined independently using pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (pyMBMS), saccharification assay and wet chemistry in two partially overlapping populations of P. trichocarpa genotypes sampled from multiple environments in the Pacific Northwest of North America. All 6 variants co-located with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) hotspot on chromosome XIV for lignin content, syringyl to guaiacyl (S/G) ratio, 5- and 6- carbon sugars identified in an interspecific P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides pseudo-backcross mapping pedigree. Genomic intervals containing an amino acid transporter, a MYB transcription factor, an angustifolia CtBP transcription factor, a copper transport protein ATOX1-related, a Ca2+ transporting ATPase and a protein kinase were identified within 5 QTL regions. Each interval contained single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were significantly associated to cell-wall phenotypes, with associations exceeding the chromosome-wise Bonferroni-adjusted p-values in at least one environment. cDNA sequencing for allelic variants of 3 of the 6 genes identified polymorphisms leading to premature stop codons in the MYB transcription factor and protein kinase. On the other hand, variants of the Angustifolia CtBP transcription factor exhibited a polyglutamine (PolyQ) length polymorphism. Results from transient protoplast assays suggested that each of the polymorphisms conferred allelic differences in activation of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin pathway marker genes, with truncated and short PolyQ alleles exhibiting significantly reduced marker gene activation. Genes identified in this study represent novel targets for reducing cell wall recalcitrance for lignocellulosic biofuels production using plant biomass.

  19. High-resolution genetic mapping of allelic variants associated with cell wall chemistry in Populus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muchero, Wellington; Guo, Jianjun; Difazio, Stephen P.; Chen, Jay; Ranjan, Priya; Slavov, Gancho; Gunter, Lee E.; Jawdy, Sara; Bryan, Anthony C.; Sykes, Robert; Ziebell, Angela L.; Klapste, Jaroslav; Porth, Ilga; Skyba, Oleksandr; Unda, Faride; El-Kassaby, Yousry; Douglas, Carl; Mansfield, Shawn; Martin, Joel; Schackwitz, Wendy; Evans, Luke M.; Czarnecki, Olaf; Tuskan, Gerald A.

    2015-01-23

    We report the identification of six genetic loci and the allelic-variants associated with Populus cell wall phenotypes determined independently using pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (pyMBMS), saccharification assay and wet chemistry in two partially overlapping populations of P. trichocarpa genotypes sampled from multiple environments in the Pacific Northwest of North America. All 6 variants co-located with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) hotspot on chromosome XIV for lignin content, syringyl to guaiacyl (S/G) ratio, 5- and 6- carbon sugars identified in an interspecific P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides pseudo-backcross mapping pedigree. Genomic intervals containing an amino acid transporter, a MYB transcription factor, an angustifolia CtBP transcription factor, a copper transport protein ATOX1-related, a Ca2+ transporting ATPase and a protein kinase were identified within 5 QTL regions. Each interval contained single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were significantly associated to cell-wall phenotypes, with associations exceeding the chromosome-wise Bonferroni-adjusted p-values in at least one environment. cDNA sequencing for allelic variants of 3 of the 6 genes identified polymorphisms leading to premature stop codons in the MYB transcription factor and protein kinase. On the other hand, variants of the Angustifolia CtBP transcription factor exhibited a polyglutamine (PolyQ) length polymorphism. Results from transient protoplast assays suggested that each of the polymorphisms conferred allelic differences in activation of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin pathway marker genes, with truncated and short PolyQ alleles exhibiting significantly reduced marker gene activation. Genes identified in this study represent novel targets for reducing cell wall recalcitrance for lignocellulosic biofuels production using plant biomass.

  20. X-ray crystal spectrometer upgrade for ITER-like wall experiments at JET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shumack, A. E.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Chernyshova, M.; Czarski, T.; Karpinski, L.; Jakubowska, K.; Scholz, M.; Byszuk, A.; Cieszewski, R.; Kasprowicz, G.; Pozniak, K.; Wojenski, A.; Zabolotny, W.; Dominik, W.; Conway, N. J.; Dalley, S.; Tyrrell, S.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Figueiredo, J. [EFDA-CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB; Associação EURATOM and others

    2014-11-15

    The high resolution X-Ray crystal spectrometer at the JET tokamak has been upgraded with the main goal of measuring the tungsten impurity concentration. This is important for understanding impurity accumulation in the plasma after installation of the JET ITER-like wall (main chamber: Be, divertor: W). This contribution provides details of the upgraded spectrometer with a focus on the aspects important for spectral analysis and plasma parameter calculation. In particular, we describe the determination of the spectrometer sensitivity: important for impurity concentration determination.

  1. Carbon charge exchange analysis in the ITER-like wall environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menmuir, S.; Giroud, C.; Hawkes, N. C.; Biewer, T. M.; Coffey, I. H.; Delabie, E.; Sertoli, M.

    2014-11-15

    Charge exchange spectroscopy has long been a key diagnostic tool for fusion plasmas and is well developed in devices with Carbon Plasma-Facing Components. Operation with the ITER-like wall at JET has resulted in changes to the spectrum in the region of the Carbon charge exchange line at 529.06 nm and demonstrates the need to revise the core charge exchange analysis for this line. An investigation has been made of this spectral region in different plasma conditions and the revised description of the spectral lines to be included in the analysis is presented.

  2. Electronic Durability of Flexible Transparent Films from Type-Specific Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J; Iyer, S; Bernhardt, A; Huh, JY; Hudson, S; Fagan, J; Hobbie, E.

    2011-12-11

    The coupling between mechanical flexibility and electronic performance is evaluated for thin films of metallic and semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) deposited on compliant supports. Percolated networks of type-purified SWCNTs are assembled as thin conducting coatings on elastic polymer substrates, and the sheet resistance is measured as a function of compression and cyclic strain through impedance spectroscopy. The wrinkling topography, microstructure and transparency of the films are independently characterized using optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and optical absorption spectroscopy. Thin films made from metallic SWCNTs show better durability as flexible transparent conductive coatings, which we attribute to a combination of superior mechanical performance and higher interfacial conductivity.

  3. Fabrication and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotube channel and graphene electrode based transistors arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y. H.; Yun, H.; McAllister, K.; Lee, S. W.; Na, J.; Kim, G. T.; Lee, B. J.; Kim, J. J.; Jeong, G. H.; Lee, I.; Kim, K. S.

    2015-07-20

    A transistor structure composed of an individual single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) channel with a graphene electrode was demonstrated. The integrated arrays of transistor devices were prepared by transferring patterned graphene electrode patterns on top of the aligned SWNT along one direction. Both single and multi layer graphene were used for the electrode materials; typical p-type transistor and Schottky diode behavior were observed, respectively. Based on our fabrication method and device performances, several issues are suggested and discussed to improve the device reliability and finally to realize all carbon based future electronic systems.

  4. Study of Plant Cell Wall Polymers Affected by Metal Accumulation Using Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Shi-You

    2015-03-02

    This project aims to employ newly-developed chemical imaging techniques to measure, in real-time, the concentration, dynamics and spatial distribution of plant cell wall polymers during biomass growth with inoculation of transgenic symbiotic fungi, and to explore a new pathway of delivering detoxified metal to plant apoplast using transgenic symbiotic fungi, which will enhance metal accumulation from soil, and potentially these metals may in turn be used as catalysts to improve the efficiency of biomass conversion to biofuels. The proposed new pathway of biomass production will: 1) benefit metal and radionuclide contaminant mobility in subsurface environments, and 2) potentially improve biomass production and process for bioenergy

  5. IFE thick liquid wall chamber dynamics: Governing mechanisms andmodeling and experimental capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raffray, A.R.; Meier, W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.; Bonazza, R.; Calderoni, P.; Debonnel, C.S.; Dragojlovic, Z.; El-Guebaly, L.; Haynes,D.; Latkowski, J.; Olson, C.; Peterson, P.F.; Reyes, S.; Sharpe, P.; Tillack, M.S.; Zaghloul, M.

    2005-01-24

    For thick liquid wall concepts, it is important to understand the different mechanisms affecting the chamber dynamics and the state of the chamber prior to each shot a compared with requirements from the driver and target. These include ablation mechanisms, vapor transport and control, possible aerosol formation, as well as protective jet behavior. This paper was motivated by a town meeting on this subject which helped identify the major issues, assess the latest results, review the capabilities of existing modeling and experimental facilities with respect to addressing remaining issues, and helping guide future analysis and R&D efforts; the paper covers these exact points.

  6. Direct evaluation of ballistic phonon transport in a multi-walled carbon nanotube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Koji; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Nishiyama, Takashi; Takata, Yasuyuki; Zhang, Xing

    2014-03-17

    Phonon confinement and in situ thermal conductance measurements in an individual multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) are reported. Focused ion beam (FIB) irradiation was used to successively shorten a 4.8??m long MWNT, eventually yielding a 0.3??m long MWNT. After the first FIB irradiation, a 41% reduction in conductance was achieved, compared with that of the pristine MWNT. This was because the contributions from phonons with long free paths were excluded by scattering at FIB-induced defects. Phonon transport in linked multiple-length nanotubes was also investigated.

  7. Magnetic domain wall manipulation in (Ga,Mn)As nanostructures for spintronic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wosinski, Tadeusz; Andrearczyk, Tomasz; Figielski, Tadeusz; Olender, Karolina; Wrobel, Jerzy

    2014-02-21

    Ring-shaped nanostructures have been designed and fabricated by electron-beam lithography patterning and chemical etching from thin epitaxial layers of the ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As. The nanostructures, in a form of planar rings with a slit, were supplied with four electrical terminals and subjected to magneto-transport studies under planar weak magnetic field. Magnetoresistive effects caused by manipulation of magnetic domain walls and magnetization reversal in the nanostructures have been investigated and possible applications of the nanostructures as four-terminal spintronic devices are discussed.

  8. Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vortices Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic Vortices Print Soft magnetic, micron-sized thin-film structures with magnetic vortices are intriguing systems that may one day be used in ultrafast computer memories. In such systems, the otherwise in-plane magnetization turns perpendicular to the plane at the center of the vortex, forming the vortex core. Because such a core has two possible polarizations (up or down) and can be switched between these two states

  9. Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vortices Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic Vortices Print Soft magnetic, micron-sized thin-film structures with magnetic vortices are intriguing systems that may one day be used in ultrafast computer memories. In such systems, the otherwise in-plane magnetization turns perpendicular to the plane at the center of the vortex, forming the vortex core. Because such a core has two possible polarizations (up or down) and can be switched between these two states

  10. Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vortices Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic Vortices Print Soft magnetic, micron-sized thin-film structures with magnetic vortices are intriguing systems that may one day be used in ultrafast computer memories. In such systems, the otherwise in-plane magnetization turns perpendicular to the plane at the center of the vortex, forming the vortex core. Because such a core has two possible polarizations (up or down) and can be switched between these two states

  11. Effective permittivity of single-walled carbon nanotube composites: Two-fluid model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moradi, Afshin; Zangeneh, Hamid Reza; Moghadam, Firoozeh Karimi

    2015-12-15

    We develop an effective medium theory to obtain effective permittivity of a composite of two-dimensional (2D) aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. Electronic excitations on each nanotube surface are modeled by an infinitesimally thin layer of a 2D electron gas represented by two interacting fluids, which takes into account different nature of the σ and π electrons. Calculations of both real and imaginary parts of the effective dielectric function of the system are presented, for different values of the filling factor and radius of carbon nanotubes.

  12. Flat Bogomolnyi-Prasad-Sommerfeld domain walls on two-dimensional Kaehler-Ricci soliton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunara, Bobby Eka; Zen, Freddy Permana

    2009-06-15

    In this paper we address several aspects of flat Bogomolnyi-Prasad-Sommerfeld (BPS) domain walls together with their Lorentz invariant vacua of four-dimensional N=1 supergravity coupled to a chiral multiplet. The scalar field spans a one-parameter family of two-dimensional Kaehler manifolds satisfying a Kaehler-Ricci flow equation. We find that BPS equations and the scalar potential deform with respect to the real parameter related to the Kaehler-Ricci soliton. In addition, the analysis using gradient and renormalization group flows is carried out to ensure the existence of Lorentz invariant vacua related to anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence.

  13. Axial couplings of heavy hadrons from domain-wall lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Detmold, C.J.D. Lin, S. Meinel

    2011-12-01

    We calculate matrix elements of the axial current for static-light mesons and baryons in lattice QCD with dynamical domain wall fermions. We use partially quenched heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory in a finite volume to extract the axial couplings g{sub 1}, g{sub 2}, and g{sub 3} from the data. These axial couplings allow the prediction of strong decay rates and enter chiral extrapolations of most lattice results in the b sector. Our calculations are performed with two lattice spacings and with pion masses down to 227 MeV.

  14. Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vortices Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic Vortices Print Soft magnetic, micron-sized thin-film structures with magnetic vortices are intriguing systems that may one day be used in ultrafast computer memories. In such systems, the otherwise in-plane magnetization turns perpendicular to the plane at the center of the vortex, forming the vortex core. Because such a core has two possible polarizations (up or down) and can be switched between these two states

  15. Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vortices Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic Vortices Print Soft magnetic, micron-sized thin-film structures with magnetic vortices are intriguing systems that may one day be used in ultrafast computer memories. In such systems, the otherwise in-plane magnetization turns perpendicular to the plane at the center of the vortex, forming the vortex core. Because such a core has two possible polarizations (up or down) and can be switched between these two states

  16. Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vortices Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic Vortices Print Soft magnetic, micron-sized thin-film structures with magnetic vortices are intriguing systems that may one day be used in ultrafast computer memories. In such systems, the otherwise in-plane magnetization turns perpendicular to the plane at the center of the vortex, forming the vortex core. Because such a core has two possible polarizations (up or down) and can be switched between these two states

  17. Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vortices Influence of Domain Wall Pinning on the Dynamic Behavior of Magnetic Vortices Print Soft magnetic, micron-sized thin-film structures with magnetic vortices are intriguing systems that may one day be used in ultrafast computer memories. In such systems, the otherwise in-plane magnetization turns perpendicular to the plane at the center of the vortex, forming the vortex core. Because such a core has two possible polarizations (up or down) and can be switched between these two states

  18. Protective interior wall and attach8ing means for a fusion reactor vacuum vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, Richard D.; Upham, Gerald A.; Anderson, Paul M.

    1988-01-01

    An array of connected plates mounted on the inside wall of the vacuum vessel of a magnetic confinement reactor in order to provide a protective surface for energy deposition inside the vessel. All fasteners are concealed and protected beneath the plates, while the plates themselves share common mounting points. The entire array is installed with torqued nuts on threaded studs; provision also exists for thermal expansion by mounting each plate with two of its four mounts captured in an oversize grooved spool. A spool-washer mounting hardware allows one edge of a protective plate to be torqued while the other side remains loose, by simply inverting the spool-washer hardware.

  19. On the charge transfer between single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Rahul Pierce, Neal; Dasgupta, Archi

    2014-08-18

    It is important to understand the electronic interaction between single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphene in order to use them efficiently in multifunctional hybrid devices. Here, we deposited SWNT bundles on graphene-covered copper and SiO{sub 2} substrates by chemical vapor deposition and investigated the charge transfer between them by Raman spectroscopy. Our results revealed that, on both copper and SiO{sub 2} substrates, graphene donates electrons to the SWNTs, resulting in p-type doped graphene and n-type doped SWNTs.

  20. Advanced In-Furnace NOx Control for Wall and Cyclone-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Sarv

    2009-02-28

    A NO{sub x} minimization strategy for coal-burning wall-fired and cyclone boilers was developed that included deep air staging, innovative oxygen use, reburning, and advanced combustion control enhancements. Computational fluid dynamics modeling was applied to refine and select the best arrangements. Pilot-scale tests were conducted by firing an eastern high-volatile bituminous Pittsburgh No.8 coal at 5 million Btu/hr in a facility that was set up with two-level overfire air (OFA) ports. In the wall-fired mode, pulverized coal was burned in a geometrically scaled down version of the B and W DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} burner. At a fixed overall excess air level of 17%, NO{sub x} emissions with single-level OFA ports were around 0.32 lb/million Btu at 0.80 burner stoichiometry. Two-level OFA operation lowered the NO{sub x} levels to 0.25 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment in the staged burner reduced the NO{sub x} values to 0.21 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment plus reburning and 2-level OFA operation further curbed the NO{sub x} emissions to 0.19 lb/million Btu or by 41% from conventional air-staged operation with single-level OFA ports. In the cyclone firing arrangement, oxygen enrichment of the cyclone combustor enabled high-temperature and deeply staged operation while maintaining good slag tapping. Firing the Pittsburgh No.8 coal in the optimum arrangement generated 112 ppmv NO{sub x} (0.15 lb/million Btu) and 59 ppmv CO. The optimum emissions results represent 88% NO{sub x} reduction from the uncontrolled operation. Levelized costs for additional NO{sub x} removal by various in-furnace control methods in reference wall-fired or cyclone-fired units already equipped with single-level OFA ports were estimated and compared with figures for SCR systems achieving 0.1 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu. Two-level OFA ports could offer the most economical approach for moderate NO{sub x} control, especially for smaller units. O{sub 2} enrichment in combination with 2-level

  1. Insights into plant cell wall structure, architecture, and integrity using glycome profiling of native and AFEXTM -pre-treated biomass

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G.; Dale, Bruce E.; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.

    2015-04-23

    We report that cell walls, which constitute the bulk of plant biomass, vary considerably in their structure, composition, and architecture. Studies on plant cell walls can be conducted on both native and pre-treated plant biomass samples, allowing an enhanced understanding of these structural and compositional variations. Here glycome profiling was employed to determine the relative abundance of matrix polysaccharides in several phylogenetically distinct native and pre-treated plant biomasses. Eight distinct biomass types belonging to four different subgroups (i.e. monocot grasses, woody dicots, herbaceous dicots, and softwoods) were subjected to various regimes of AFEX™ (ammonia fiber expansion) pre-treatment [AFEX is amore » trademark of MBI, Lansing (http://www.mbi.org]. This approach allowed detailed analysis of close to 200 cell wall glycan epitopes and their relative extractability using a high-throughput platform. In general, irrespective of the phylogenetic origin, AFEX™ pre-treatment appeared to cause loosening and improved accessibility of various xylan epitope subclasses in most plant biomass materials studied. For most biomass types analysed, such loosening was also evident for other major non-cellulosic components including subclasses of pectin and xyloglucan epitopes. The studies also demonstrate that AFEX™ pre-treatment significantly reduced cell wall recalcitrance among diverse phylogenies (except softwoods) by inducing structural modifications to polysaccharides that were not detectable by conventional gross composition analyses. Lastly, we found that monitoring changes in cell wall glycan compositions and their relative extractability for untreated and pre-treated plant biomass can provide an improved understanding of variations in structure and composition of plant cell walls and delineate the role(s) of matrix polysaccharides in cell wall recalcitrance.« less

  2. Field study of moisture damage in walls insulated without a vapor barrier. Final report for the Oregon Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsongas, G.A.

    1980-05-01

    Considerable uncertainty has existed over whether or not wall insulation installed without a vapor barrier causes an increased risk of moisture damage (wood decay) within walls. This report describes the results of one of the first major studies in the country aimed at finding out if such a moisture problem really exists. The exterior walls of a total of 96 homes in Portland, Oregon were opened, of which 70 had retrofitted insulation and 26 were uninsulated and were a control group. The types of insulation included urea-formaldehyde foam (44), mineral wool (16), and cellulose (10). In each opened wall cavity the moisture content of wood was measured and insulation and wood samples were taken for laboratory analysis of moisture content and for the determination of the presence of absence of decay fungi. Foam shrinkage was also measured. To evaluate the possible influence of the relative air tightness of the homes, fan depressurization tests were run using a door blower unit. The field and laboratory test results indicating the lack of a moisture damage problem in existing homes with wood siding in climates similar to that of western Oregon are described along with results of a statistical analysis of the data. Related problems of interest to homeowners and insulation installers are noted. The standard operating procedures used throughout the study are discussed, including the home selection process, quantitative and qualitative techniques used to identify wall locations with the highest moisture content, wall opening and data/sample collection methodology, laboratory analysis of samples, data processing and analysis, and applicability of the results. Recommendations for furutre tests are made. Finally, the potential and desirability for future retrofitting of wall insulation is explored.

  3. Decorating multi-walled carbon nanotubes with nickel nanoparticles for selective hydrogenation of citral

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang Yuechao; Yang Dong; Qin Feng; Hu Jianhua; Wang Changchun; Xu Hualong

    2009-08-15

    The nanocomposites of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) decorated with nickel nanoparticles were conveniently prepared by a chemical reduction of nickel salt in the present of poly(acrylic acid) grafted MWNTs (PAA-g-MWNTs). Due to the strong interaction between Ni{sup 2+} and -COOH, PAA-g-MWNTs became an excellent supporting material for Ni nanoparticles. The morphology and distribution of Ni nanoparticles on the surface of MWNTs were greatly influenced by the reduction temperatures, the experimental results also showed that the distribution of Ni nanoparticles was greatly improved while the MWNTs were modified by poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). The hydrogenation activity and selectivity of MWNTs decorated with Ni nanoparticles (Ni-MWNTs) for alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehyde (citral) were also studied, and the experimental results showed that the citronellal, an important raw material for flavoring and perfumery industries, is the favorable product with a percentage as high as 86.9%, which is 7 times higher than that of catalyst by Ni-supported active carbon (Ni-AC). - Abstract: Nickel nanoparticles decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Ni-MWNTs) nanocomposites were conveniently prepared by a chemical reduction of nickel salt in the present of poly(acrylic acid) grafted MWNTs (PAA-g-MWNTs). These nanocomposites possessed excellent catalytic activity and selectivity for hydrogenation of citral.

  4. The influence of an ITER-like wall on disruptions at JET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vries, P. C. de Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Baruzzo, M.; Murari, A.; Jachmich, S.; Lomas, P. J.; Matthews, G. F.; Pütterich, T.; Vega, J.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-05-15

    In order to preserve the integrity of large tokamaks such as ITER, the number of disruptions has to be limited. JET has operated previously with a low frequency of disruptions (i.e., disruption rate) of 3.4% [P. C. de Vries et al., Nucl. Fusion 51, 053018 (2011)]. The start of operations with the new full-metal ITER-like wall at JET showed a marked rise in the disruption rate to 10%. A full survey was carried out to identify the root causes, the chain-of-events and classifying each disruption, similar to a previous analysis for carbon-wall operations. It showed the improvements made to avoid various disruption classes, but also indicated those disruption types responsible for the enhanced disruption rate. The latter can be mainly attributed to disruptions due to too high core radiation but also due to density control issues and error field locked modes. Detailed technical and physics understanding of disruption causes is essential for devising optimized strategies to avoid or mitigate these events.

  5. Mechanism of Synthesis of Ultra-Long Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes in Arc Discharge Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keidar, Michael

    2013-06-23

    In this project fundamental issues related to synthesis of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), which is relationship between plasma parameters and SWNT characteristics were investigated. Given that among plasma-based techniques arc discharge stands out as very advantageous in several ways (fewer defects, high flexibility, longer lifetime) this techniques warrants attention from the plasma physics and plasma technology standpoint. Both experimental and theoretical investigations of the plasma and SWNTs synthesis were conducted. Experimental efforts focused on plasma diagnostics, measurements of nanostructures parameters, and nanoparticle characterization. Theoretical efforts focused to focus on multi-dimensional modeling of the arc discharge and single wall nanotube synthesis in arc plasmas. It was demonstrated in experiment and theoretically that controlling plasma parameters can affect nanostucture synthesis altering SWNT properties (length and diameter) and leading to synthesis of new structures such as a few-layer graphene. Among clearly identified parameters affecting synthesis are magnetic and electric fields. Knowledge of the plasma parameters and discharge characteristics is crucial for ability to control synthesis process by virtue of both magnetic and electric fields. New graduate course on plasma engineering was introduced into curriculum. 3 undergraduate students were attracted to the project and 3 graduate students (two are female) were involved in the project. Undergraduate student from Historically Black University was attracted and participated in the project during Summer 2010.

  6. Structural stability of transparent conducting films assembled from length purified single-wall carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. M. Harris; G. R. S. Iyer; D. O. Simien; J. A. Fagan; J. Y. Huh; J. Y. Chung; S. D. Hudson; J. Obrzut; J. F. Douglas; C. M. Stafford; E. K. Hobbie

    2011-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films show significant promise for transparent electronics applications that demand mechanical flexibility, but durability remains an outstanding issue. In this work, thin membranes of length purified single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are uniaxially and isotropically compressed by depositing them on prestrained polymer substrates. Upon release of the strain, the topography, microstructure, and conductivity of the films are characterized using a combination of optical/fluorescence microscopy, light scattering, force microscopy, electron microscopy, and impedance spectroscopy. Above a critical surface mass density, films assembled from nanotubes of well-defined length exhibit a strongly nonlinear mechanical response. The measured strain dependence reveals a dramatic softening that occurs through an alignment of the SWCNTs normal to the direction of prestrain, which at small strains is also apparent as an anisotropic increase in sheet resistance along the same direction. At higher strains, the membrane conductivities increase due to a compression-induced restoration of conductive pathways. Our measurements reveal the fundamental mode of elasto-plastic deformation in these films and suggest how it might be suppressed.

  7. Highly mobile ferroelastic domain walls in compositionally graded ferroelectric thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Damodaran, Anoop; Okatan, M. B.; Kacher, J.; Gammer, C.; Vasudevan, Rama; Pandya, S.; Dedon, L. R.; Mangalam, R. V.; Jesse, Stephen; Balke, Nina; et al

    2016-02-15

    Domains and domain walls are critical in determining the response of ferroelectrics, and the ability to controllably create, annihilate, or move domains is essential to enable a range of next-generation devices. Whereas electric-field control has been demonstrated for ferroelectric 180° domain walls, similar control of ferroelastic domains has not been achieved. Here, using controlled composition and strain gradients, we demonstrate deterministic control of ferroelastic domains that are rendered highly mobile in a controlled and reversible manner. Through a combination of thin-film growth, transmission-electron-microscopy-based nanobeam diffraction and nanoscale band-excitation switching spectroscopy, we show that strain gradients in compositionally graded PbZr1-xTixO3 heterostructuresmore » stabilize needle-like ferroelastic domains that terminate inside the film. These needle-like domains are highly labile in the out-of-plane direction under applied electric fields, producing a locally enhanced piezoresponse. This work demonstrates the efficacy of novel modes of epitaxy in providing new modalities of domain engineering and potential for as-yet-unrealized nanoscale functional devices.« less

  8. Material migration studies with an ITER first wall panel proxy on EAST

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ding, R.; Pitts, R. A.; Borodin, D.; Carpentier, S.; Ding, F.; Gong, X. Z.; Guo, H. Y.; Kirschner, A.; Kocan, M.; Li, J. G.; et al

    2015-01-23

    The ITER beryllium (Be) first wall (FW) panels are shaped to protect leading edges between neighbouring panels arising from assembly tolerances. This departure from a perfectly cylindrical surface automatically leads to magnetically shadowed regions where eroded Be can be re-deposited, together with co-deposition of tritium fuel. To provide a benchmark for a series of erosion/re-deposition simulation studies performed for the ITER FW panels, dedicated experiments have been performed on the EAST tokamak using a specially designed, instrumented test limiter acting as a proxy for the FW panel geometry. Carbon coated molybdenum plates forming the limiter front surface were exposed tomore » the outer midplane boundary plasma of helium discharges using the new Material and Plasma Evaluation System (MAPES). Net erosion and deposition patterns are estimated using ion beam analysis to measure the carbon layer thickness variation across the surface after exposure. The highest erosion of about 0.8 µm is found near the midplane, where the surface is closest to the plasma separatrix. No net deposition above the measurement detection limit was found on the proxy wall element, even in shadowed regions. The measured 2D surface erosion distribution has been modelled with the 3D Monte Carlo code ERO, using the local plasma parameter measurements together with a diffusive transport assumption. In conclusion, excellent agreement between the experimentally observed net erosion and the modelled erosion profile has been obtained.« less

  9. Material migration studies with an ITER first wall panel proxy on EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, R.; Pitts, R. A.; Borodin, D.; Carpentier, S.; Ding, F.; Gong, X. Z.; Guo, H. Y.; Kirschner, A.; Kocan, M.; Li, J. G.; Luo, G. -N.; Mao, H. M.; Qian, J. P.; Stangeby, P. C.; Wampler, W. R.; Wang, H. Q.; Wang, W. Z.; Chen, J. L.; Gan, K. F.

    2015-01-23

    The ITER beryllium (Be) first wall (FW) panels are shaped to protect leading edges between neighbouring panels arising from assembly tolerances. This departure from a perfectly cylindrical surface automatically leads to magnetically shadowed regions where eroded Be can be re-deposited, together with co-deposition of tritium fuel. To provide a benchmark for a series of erosion/re-deposition simulation studies performed for the ITER FW panels, dedicated experiments have been performed on the EAST tokamak using a specially designed, instrumented test limiter acting as a proxy for the FW panel geometry. Carbon coated molybdenum plates forming the limiter front surface were exposed to the outer midplane boundary plasma of helium discharges using the new Material and Plasma Evaluation System (MAPES). Net erosion and deposition patterns are estimated using ion beam analysis to measure the carbon layer thickness variation across the surface after exposure. The highest erosion of about 0.8 µm is found near the midplane, where the surface is closest to the plasma separatrix. No net deposition above the measurement detection limit was found on the proxy wall element, even in shadowed regions. The measured 2D surface erosion distribution has been modelled with the 3D Monte Carlo code ERO, using the local plasma parameter measurements together with a diffusive transport assumption. In conclusion, excellent agreement between the experimentally observed net erosion and the modelled erosion profile has been obtained.

  10. Probing Xylan-Specific Raman Bands for Label-Free Imaging Xylan in Plant Cell Wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Yining; Yarbrough, John M.; Mittal, Ashutosh; Tucker, Melvin P.; Vinzant, Todd; Himmel, Michael E.

    2015-06-15

    Xylan constitutes a significant portion of biomass (e.g. 22% in corn stover used in this study). Xylan is also an important source of carbohydrates, besides cellulose, for renewable and sustainable energy applications. Currently used method for the localization of xylan in biomass is to use fluorescence confocal microscope to image the fluorescent dye labeled monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to xylan. With the rapid adoption of the Raman-based label-free chemical imaging techniques in biology, identifying Raman bands that are unique to xylan would be critical for the implementation of the above label-free techniques for in situ xylan imaging. Unlike lignin and cellulose that have long be assigned fingerprint Raman bands, specific Raman bands for xylan remain unclear. The major challenge is the cellulose in plant cell wall, which has chemical units highly similar to that of xylan. Here we report using xylanase to specifically remove xylan from feedstock. Under various degree of xylan removal, with minimum impact to other major cell wall components, i.e. lignin and cellulose, we have identified Raman bands that could be further tested for chemical imaging of xylan in biomass in situ.

  11. Photoinduced Spontaneous Free-Carrier Generation in Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jaehong; Reid, Obadiah G.; Blackburn, Jeffrey L.; Rumbles, Garry

    2015-11-04

    The strong quantum confinement and low dielectric screening impart single-walled carbon nanotubes with exciton-binding energies substantially exceeding kBT at room temperature. Despite these large binding energies, reported photoluminescence quantum yields are typically low and some studies suggest that photoexcitation of carbon nanotube excitonic transitions can produce free charge carriers. Here we report the direct measurement of long-lived free-carrier generation in chirality-pure, single-walled carbon nanotubes in a low dielectric solvent. Time-resolved microwave conductivity enables contactless and quantitative measurement of the real and imaginary photoconductance of individually suspended nanotubes. We found that the conditions of the microwave conductivity measurement allow us to avoid the complications of most previous measurements of nanotube free-carrier generation, including tube–tube/tube–electrode contact, dielectric screening by nearby excitons and many-body interactions. At low photon fluence (approximately 0.05 excitons per μm length of tubes), we directly observe free carriers on excitation of the first and second carbon nanotube exciton transitions.

  12. Photoinduced Spontaneous Free-Carrier Generation in Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Park, Jaehong; Reid, Obadiah G.; Blackburn, Jeffrey L.; Rumbles, Garry

    2015-11-04

    The strong quantum confinement and low dielectric screening impart single-walled carbon nanotubes with exciton-binding energies substantially exceeding kBT at room temperature. Despite these large binding energies, reported photoluminescence quantum yields are typically low and some studies suggest that photoexcitation of carbon nanotube excitonic transitions can produce free charge carriers. Here we report the direct measurement of long-lived free-carrier generation in chirality-pure, single-walled carbon nanotubes in a low dielectric solvent. Time-resolved microwave conductivity enables contactless and quantitative measurement of the real and imaginary photoconductance of individually suspended nanotubes. We found that the conditions of the microwave conductivity measurement allow us tomore » avoid the complications of most previous measurements of nanotube free-carrier generation, including tube–tube/tube–electrode contact, dielectric screening by nearby excitons and many-body interactions. At low photon fluence (approximately 0.05 excitons per μm length of tubes), we directly observe free carriers on excitation of the first and second carbon nanotube exciton transitions.« less

  13. PRODUCTION OF HIGHER STRENGTH THIN WALLED GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER SHELLS FOR CRYOGENIC EXPERIMENTS AT OMEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NIKROO,A; CZECHOWICZ,DG; CASTILLO,ER; PONTELANDOLFO,JM

    2002-04-01

    OAK A271 PRODUCTION OF HIGHER STRENGTH THIN WALLED GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER SHELLS FOR CRYOGENIC EXPERIMENTS AT OMEGA. Thin walled polymer shells are needed for OMEGA cryogenic laser experiments. These capsules need to be about 900 {micro}m in diameter and as thin as possible (approx 1-2 {micro}m), while having enough strength to be filled with DT as fast as possible to about 1000 atm. The authors have found that by optimizing the coating parameters in the glow discharge polymer (GDP) deposition system, traditionally used for making ICF targets, they can routinely make robust, {approx} 1.5 {micro}m thick, 900 {micro}m diameter GDP shells with buckle strengths of over 0.3 atm. This is twice the strength of shells made prior to the optimization and is comparable to values quoted for polyimide shells. In addition, these shells were found to be approximately three times more permeable and over 20% denser than previously made GDP shells. The combination of higher strength and permeability is ideal for direct drive cryogenic targets at OMEGA. Shells as thin as 0.5 {micro}m have been made. In this paper, the authors discuss the shell fabrication process, effects of modifying various GDP deposition parameters on shell properties and chemical composition.

  14. Theory and simulation of short intense laser pulse propagation in capillary tubes with wall ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veysman, M.; Cros, B.; Andreev, N.E.; Maynard, G.

    2006-05-15

    The theory and simulations of short intense laser pulses propagating in capillary tubes, whose properties are changed in time and space under the action of the laser field, are presented. A hybrid approach has been used in which the dynamics of fields inside the capillary tube is described analytically, whereas the ionization, heating, and expansion of the plasma created at the inner wall of the tube under the action of the transverse energy flux are calculated by numerical simulation. This hybrid method has allowed to determine the behavior of high laser fluxes guided over large distances. The threshold value for the incident intensity at which plasma creation plays a significant role has been estimated analytically and confirmed by numerical results. For intensities above the threshold, the transmission becomes highly sensitive to the energy of the laser pulse, being minimum at the intensity level for which the electron temperature of the capillary wall slightly exceeds the Fermi level and the electron collision frequency has a maximum.

  15. Progress on a Cavity with Beryllium Walls for Muon Ionization Cooling Channel R&D.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowring, D. L.; DeMello, A. J.; Lambert, A. R.; Li, D.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Kaplan, D.; Palmer, R. B.

    2012-05-20

    The Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) collaboration is working to develop an ionization cooling channel for muon beams. An ionization cooling channel requires the operation of high-gradient, normal-conducting RF cavities in multi-Tesla solenoidal magnetic fields. However, experiments conducted at Fermilab?s MuCool Test Area (MTA) show that increasing the solenoidal field strength reduces the maximum achievable cavity gradient. This gradient limit is characterized by an RF breakdown process that has caused significant damage to copper cavity interiors. The damage may be caused by field-emitted electrons, focused by the solenoidal magnetic field onto small areas of the inner cavity surface. Local heating may then induce material fatigue and surface damage. Fabricating a cavity with beryllium walls would mitigate this damage due to beryllium?s low density, low thermal expansion, and high electrical and thermal conductivity. We address the design and fabrication of a pillbox RF cavity with beryllium walls, in order to evaluate the performance of high-gradient cavities in strong magnetic fields.

  16. Effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kausik, S. S.; Kakati, B.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)] [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)

    2013-05-15

    The effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma has been studied in a dusty plasma experimental setup by applying electrostatic field to each channel of a multicusp magnetic cage. Argon plasma is produced by hot cathode discharge method at a pressure of 510{sup ?4} millibars and is confined by a full line cusped magnetic field confinement system. Silver dust grains are produced by gas-evaporation technique and move upward in the form of a collimated dust beam due to differential pressure maintained between the dust and plasma chambers. The charged grains in the beam after coming out from the plasma column enter into the diagnostic chamber and are deflected by a dc field applied across a pair of deflector plates at different confining potentials. Both from the amount of deflection and the floating potential, the number of charges collected by the dust grains is calculated. Furthermore, the collimated dust beam strikes the Faraday cup, which is placed above the deflector plates, and the current (?pA) so produced is measured by an electrometer at different confining potentials. The experimental results demonstrate the significant effect of confining wall potential on charging of dust grains.

  17. Redistribution of Xylan in Maize Cell Walls During Dilute Acid Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunecky, R.; Vinzant, T. B.; Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Johnson, D. K.; Himmel, M. E.

    2009-04-15

    Developing processes for the conversion of biomass for use in transportation fuels production is becoming a critically important economic and engineering challenge. Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising technology for increasing the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. However, a deeper understanding of the pretreatability of biomass is needed so that the rate of formation and yields of sugars can be increased. Xylan is an important hemicellulosic component of the plant cell wall and acts as a barrier to cellulose, essentially blocking cellulase action. To better understand xylan hydrolysis in corn stover, we have studied changes in the distribution of xylan caused by dilute acid pretreatment using correlative microscopy. A dramatic loss of xylan antibody signal from the center of the cell wall and an increase or retention of xylan at the plasma membrane interface and middle lamella of the cell were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). We also observed a reduction in xylan fluorescence signal by CLSM that is generally consistent with the decrease in xylan content measured experimentally in the bulk sample, however, the compartmentalization of this xylan retention was not anticipated.

  18. Crack opening area estimates in pressurized through-wall cracked elbows under bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franco, C.; Gilles, P.; Pignol, M.

    1997-04-01

    One of the most important aspects in the leak-before-break approach is the estimation of the crack opening area corresponding to potential through-wall cracks at critical locations during plant operation. In order to provide a reasonable lower bound to the leak area under such loading conditions, numerous experimental and numerical programs have been developed in USA, U.K. and FRG and widely discussed in literature. This paper aims to extend these investigations on a class of pipe elbows characteristic of PWR main coolant piping. The paper is divided in three main parts. First, a new simplified estimation scheme for leakage area is described, based on the reference stress method. This approach mainly developed in U.K. and more recently in France provides a convenient way to account for the non-linear behavior of the material. Second, the method is carried out for circumferential through-wall cracks located in PWR elbows subjected to internal pressure. Finite element crack area results are presented and comparisons are made with our predictions. Finally, in the third part, the discussion is extended to elbows under combined pressure and in plane bending moment.

  19. Oscillatory motion based measurement method and sensor for measuring wall shear stress due to fluid flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armstrong, William D.; Naughton, Jonathan; Lindberg, William R.

    2008-09-02

    A shear stress sensor for measuring fluid wall shear stress on a test surface is provided. The wall shear stress sensor is comprised of an active sensing surface and a sensor body. An elastic mechanism mounted between the active sensing surface and the sensor body allows movement between the active sensing surface and the sensor body. A driving mechanism forces the shear stress sensor to oscillate. A measuring mechanism measures displacement of the active sensing surface relative to the sensor body. The sensor may be operated under periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor measurably changes the amplitude or phase of the motion of the active sensing surface, or changes the force and power required from a control system in order to maintain constant motion. The device may be operated under non-periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor change the transient motion of the active sensor surface or change the force and power required from a control system to maintain a specified transient motion of the active sensor surface.

  20. Wall-Friction Support of Vertical Loads in Submerged Sand and Gravel Columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walton, O. R.; Vollmer, H. J.; Hepa, V. S.

    2015-08-25

    Laboratory studies of the ‘floor-loads’ under submerged vertical columns of sand and/or gravel indicate that such loads can be approximated by a buoyancy-corrected Janssen-silo-theory-like relationship. Similar to conditions in storage silos filled with dry granular solids, most of the weight of the sand or gravel is supported by wall friction forces. Laboratory measurements of the loads on the floor at the base of the water-filled columns (up to 25-diameters tall) indicate that the extra floor-load from the addition of the granular solid never exceeded the load that would exist under an unsupported (wide) bed of submerged sand or gravel that has a total depth corresponding to only two column-diameters. The measured floorloads reached an asymptotic maximum value when the depth of granular material in the columns was only three or four pipe-diameters, and never increased further as the columns were filled to the top (e.g. up to heights of 10 to 25 diameters). The floor-loads were stable and remained the same for days after filling. Aggressive tapping (e.g. hitting the containing pipe on the outside, manually with a wrench up and down the height and around the circumference) could increase (and occasionally decrease) the floor load substantially, but there was no sudden collapse or slumping to a state without significant wall friction effects. Considerable effort was required, repeatedly tapping over almost the entire column wall periphery, in order to produce floor-loads that corresponded to the total buoyancy-corrected weight of granular material added to the columns. Projecting the observed laboratory behavior to field conditions would imply that a stable floor-load condition, with only a slightly higher total floor pressure than the preexisting hydrostatic-head, would exist after a water-filled bore-hole is filled with sand or gravel. Significant seismic vibration (either a large nearby event or many micro-seismic events over an extended period) would likely