National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for walled pressure vessel

  1. Dual shell pressure balanced vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassbender, Alexander G. (West Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

  2. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Outwater, John O. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  3. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  4. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Upton, Hubert A. (Morgan Hill, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough.

  5. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.; Upton, H.A.

    1994-10-04

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough. 2 figs.

  6. High pressure storage vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Qiang

    2013-08-27

    Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

  7. Level indicator for pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-04-28

    A liquid-level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic-field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal-processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  8. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawabe, James K. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell.

  9. Method and apparatus for detecting irregularities on or in the wall of a vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowling, Michael Keith (Blackborough Cullompton, GB)

    2000-09-12

    A method of detecting irregularities on or in the wall of a vessel by detecting localized spatial temperature differentials on the wall surface, comprising scanning the vessel surface with a thermal imaging camera and recording the position of the or each region for which the thermal image from the camera is indicative of such a temperature differential across the region. The spatial temperature differential may be formed by bacterial growth on the vessel surface; alternatively, it may be the result of defects in the vessel wall such as thin regions or pin holes or cracks. The detection of leaks through the vessel wall may be enhanced by applying a pressure differential or a temperature differential across the vessel wall; the testing for leaks may be performed with the vessel full or empty, and from the inside or the outside.

  10. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawabe, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell. 6 figures.

  11. International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Tsinghua University in Beijing co-hosted the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27–29, 2010 in Beijing, China. High pressure...

  12. Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Magnotta, F.

    1998-08-25

    A lightweight, low permeability liner is described for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using tori spherical or near tori spherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film sealed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life. 19 figs.

  13. Lightweight bladder lined pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, Fred (1125 Canton Ave., Livermore, CA 94550); Myers, Blake (4650 Almond Cir., Livermore, CA 94550); Magnotta, Frank (1206 Bacon Way, Lafayette, CA 94549)

    1998-01-01

    A lightweight, low permeability liner for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using torispherical or near torispherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film seamed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life.

  14. PURE NIOBIUM AS A PRESSURE VESSEL MATERIAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T. J.; Carter, H. F.; Foley, M. H.; Klebaner, A. L.; Nicol, T. H.; Page, T. M.; Theilacker, J. C.; Wands, R. H.; Wong-Squires, M. L.; Wu, G.

    2010-04-09

    Physics laboratories around the world are developing niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities for use in particle accelerators. These SRF cavities are typically cooled to low temperatures by direct contact with a liquid helium bath, resulting in at least part of the helium container being made from pure niobium. In the U.S., the Code of Federal Regulations allows national laboratories to follow national consensus pressure vessel rules or use of alternative rules which provide a level of safety greater than or equal to that afforded by ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Thus, while used for its superconducting properties, niobium ends up also being treated as a material for pressure vessels. This report summarizes what we have learned about the use of niobium as a pressure vessel material, with a focus on issues for compliance with pressure vessel codes. We present results of a literature search for mechanical properties and tests results, as well as a review of ASME pressure vessel code requirements and issues.

  15. Forum Agenda: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Forum Agenda: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum Forum Agenda: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum Agenda for the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum held Sept. 27-29, 2010, in Beijing, China PDF icon Forum Agenda: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum More Documents & Publications International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings Workshop Agenda: Compressed Natural Gas and

  16. Cavity closure arrangement for high pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amtmann, Hans H. (San Diego, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A closure arrangement for a pressure vessel such as the pressure vessel of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor wherein a liner is disposed within a cavity penetration in the reactor vessel and defines an access opening therein. A closure is adapted for sealing relation with an annular mounting flange formed on the penetration liner and has a plurality of radially movable locking blocks thereon having outer serrations adapted for releasable interlocking engagement with serrations formed internally of the upper end of the penetration liner so as to effect high strength closure hold-down. In one embodiment, ramping surfaces are formed on the locking block serrations to bias the closure into sealed relation with the mounting flange when the locking blocks are actuated to locking positions.

  17. Reactor pressure vessel with forged nozzles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Desai, Dilip R. (Fremont, CA)

    1993-01-01

    Inlet nozzles for a gravity-driven cooling system (GDCS) are forged with a cylindrical reactor pressure vessel (RPV) section to which a support skirt for the RPV is attached. The forging provides enhanced RPV integrity around the nozzle and substantial reduction of in-service inspection costs by eliminating GDCS nozzle-to-RPV welds.

  18. International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings Proceedings from the forum, which took place in Beijing, China, on September 27-29, 2010. PDF icon International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel...

  19. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sepelak, George R.

    1978-01-01

    A support system for nuclear reactor pressure vessels which can withstand all possible combinations of stresses caused by a postulated core disrupting accident during reactor operation. The nuclear reactor pressure vessel is provided with a flange around the upper periphery thereof, and the flange includes an annular vertical extension formed integral therewith. A support ring is positioned atop of the support ledge and the flange vertical extension, and is bolted to both members. The plug riser is secured to the flange vertical extension and to the top of a radially outwardly extension of the rotatable plug. This system eliminates one joint through which fluids contained in the vessel could escape by making the fluid flow path through the joint between the flange and the support ring follow the same path through which fluid could escape through the plug risers. In this manner, the sealing means to prohibit the escape of contained fluids through the plug risers can also prohibit the escape of contained fluid through the securing joint.

  20. Jam proof closure assembly for lidded pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cioletti, Olisse C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    An expendable closure assembly is provided for use (in multiple units) with a lockable pressure vessel cover along its rim, such as of an autoclave. This assembly is suited to variable compressive contact and locking with the vessel lid sealing gasket. The closure assembly consists of a thick walled sleeve insert for retention in the under bores fabricated in the cover periphery and the sleeve is provided with internal threading only. A snap serves as a retainer on the underside of the sleeve, locking it into an under bore retention channel. Finally, a standard elongate externally threaded bolt is sized for mating cooperation with the so positioned sleeve, whereby the location of the bolt shaft in the cover bore hole determines its compressive contact on the underlying gasket.

  1. International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings Proceedings from the forum, which took place in Beijing, China, on September 27-29, 2010. PDF icon International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum 2010 Proceedings More Documents & Publications Workshop Notes from ""Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels: Lessons Learned for the Safe Deployment of Vehicles""

  2. Simulation of Diffusive Lithium Evaporation Onto the NSTX Vessel Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stotler, D. P.; Skinner, C. H.; Blanchard, W. R.; Krstic, P. S.; Kugel, H. W.; Schneider, H.; Zakharov, L. E.

    2010-12-09

    A model for simulating the diffusive evaporation of lithium into a helium filled NSTX vacuum vessel is described and validated against an initial set of deposition experiments. The DEGAS 2 based model consists of a three-dimensional representation of the vacuum vessel, the elastic scattering process, and a kinetic description of the evaporated atoms. Additional assumptions are required to account for deuterium out-gassing during the validation experiments. The model agrees with the data over a range of pressures to within the estimated uncertainties. Suggestions are made for more discriminating experiments that will lead to an improved model.

  3. Roadmap for Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roadmap for Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessel Research and Development by the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Roadmap for Nondestructive Evaluation of ...

  4. International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum- Presentations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These presentations were given at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum held September 27–29, 2010 in Beijing, China.

  5. Stress analysis and evaluation of a rectangular pressure vessel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    States)) 42 ENGINEERING; 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; PRESSURE VESSELS; STRESS ANALYSIS; RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE;...

  6. Tokamak reactor first wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creedon, R.L.; Levine, H.E.; Wong, C.; Battaglia, J.

    1984-11-20

    This invention relates to an improved first wall construction for a tokamak fusion reactor vessel, or other vessels subjected to similar pressure and thermal stresses.

  7. Neutron shielding panels for reactor pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singleton, Norman R. (Murrysville, PA)

    2011-11-22

    In a nuclear reactor neutron panels varying in thickness in the circumferential direction are disposed at spaced circumferential locations around the reactor core so that the greatest radial thickness is at the point of highest fluence with lesser thicknesses at adjacent locations where the fluence level is lower. The neutron panels are disposed between the core barrel and the interior of the reactor vessel to maintain radiation exposure to the vessel within acceptable limits.

  8. Lightweight cryogenic-compatible pressure vessels for vehicular fuel storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aceves, Salvador; Berry, Gene; Weisberg, Andrew H.

    2004-03-23

    A lightweight, cryogenic-compatible pressure vessel for flexibly storing cryogenic liquid fuels or compressed gas fuels at cryogenic or ambient temperatures. The pressure vessel has an inner pressure container enclosing a fuel storage volume, an outer container surrounding the inner pressure container to form an evacuated space therebetween, and a thermal insulator surrounding the inner pressure container in the evacuated space to inhibit heat transfer. Additionally, vacuum loss from fuel permeation is substantially inhibited in the evacuated space by, for example, lining the container liner with a layer of fuel-impermeable material, capturing the permeated fuel in the evacuated space, or purging the permeated fuel from the evacuated space.

  9. Cryogenic Pressure Vessels: Progress and Plans | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pressure Vessels: Progress and Plans Cryogenic Pressure Vessels: Progress and Plans Presented at the R&D Strategies for Compressed, Cryo-Compressed and Cryo-Sorbent Hydrogen Storage Technologies Workshops on February 14 and 15, 2011. PDF icon compressed_hydrogen2011_9_aceves.pdf More Documents & Publications OEM Perspective on Cryogenic H2 Storage Proceedings of the 1998 U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program Review: April 28-30, 1998 Alexandria, Virginia: Volume II Technical Assessment:

  10. Stress analysis and evaluation of a rectangular pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezvani, M.A.; Ziada, H.H.; Shurrab, M.S.

    1992-10-01

    This study addresses structural analysis and evaluation of an abnormal rectangular pressure vessel, designed to house equipment for drilling and collecting samples from Hanford radioactive waste storage tanks. It had to be qualified according to ASME boiler and pressure vessel code, Section VIII; however, it had the cover plate bolted along the long face, a configuration not addressed by the code. Finite element method was used to calculate stresses resulting from internal pressure; these stresses were then used to evaluate and qualify the vessel. Fatigue is not a concern; thus, it can be built according to Section VIII, Division I instead of Division 2. Stress analysis was checked against the code. A stayed plate was added to stiffen the long side of the vessel.

  11. Report of the terawatt laser pressure vessel committee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodle, M.H.; Beauman, R.; Czajkowski, C.; Dickinson, T.; Lynch, D.; Pogorelsky, I.; Skjaritka, J.

    2000-09-25

    In 1995 the ATF project sent out an RFP for a CO2 Laser System having a TeraWatt output. Eight foreign and US firms responded. The Proposal Evaluation Panel on the second round selected Optoel, a Russian firm based in St. Petersburg, on the basis of the technical criteria and cost. Prior to the award, BNL representatives including the principal scientist, cognizant engineer and a QA representative visited the Optoel facilities to assess the company's capability to do the job. The contract required Optoel to provide a x-ray preionized high pressure amplifier that included: a high pressure cell, x-ray tube, internal optics and a HV pulse forming network for the main discharge and preionizer. The high-pressure cell consists of a stainless steel pressure vessel with various ports and windows that is filled with a gas mixture operating at 10 atmospheres. In accordance with BNL Standard ESH 1.4.1 ''Pressurized Systems For Experimental Use'', the pressure vessel design criteria is required to comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code In 1996 a Preliminary Design Review was held at BNL. The vendor was requested to furnish drawings so that we could confirm that the design met the above criteria. The vendor furnished drawings did not have all dimensions necessary to completely analyze the cell. Never the less, we performed an analysis on as much of the vessel as we could with the available information. The calculations concluded that there were twelve areas of concern that had to be addressed to assure that the pressure vessel complied with the requirements of the ASME code. This information was forwarded to the vendor with the understanding that they would resolve these concerns as they continued with the vessel design and fabrication. The assembled amplifier pressure vessel was later hydro tested to 220 psi (15 Atm) as well as pneumatically to 181 psi (12.5 Atm) at the fabricator's Russian facility and was witnessed by a BNL engineer. The unit was shipped to the US and installed at the ATF. As part of the commissioning of the device the amplifier pressure vessel was disassembled several times at which time it became apparent that the vendor had not addressed 7 of the 12 issues previously identified. Closer examination of the vessel revealed some additional concerns including quality of workmanship. Although not required by the contract, the vendor furnished radiographs of a number of pressure vessel welds. A review of the Russian X-rays revealed radiographs of both poor and unreadable quality. However, a number of internal weld imperfections could be observed. All welds in question were excavated and then visually and dye penetrant inspected. These additional inspections confirmed that the weld techniques used to make some of these original welds were substandard. The applicable BNL standard, ESH 1.4.1, addresses the problem of pressure vessel non-compliance by having a committee appointed by the Department Chairman review the design and provide engineering solutions to assure equivalent safety. On January 24, 2000 Dr. M. Hart, the NSLS Chairman, appointed this committee with this charge. This report details the engineering investigations, deliberations, solutions and calculations which were developed by members of this committee to determine that with repairs, new components, appropriate NDE, and lowering the design pressure, the vessel can be considered safe to use.

  12. Threaded insert for compact cryogenic-capable pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Espinosa-Loza, Francisco; Ross, Timothy O.; Switzer, Vernon A.; Aceves, Salvador M.; Killingsworth, Nicholas J.; Ledesma-Orozco, Elias

    2015-06-16

    An insert for a cryogenic capable pressure vessel for storage of hydrogen or other cryogenic gases at high pressure. The insert provides the interface between a tank and internal and external components of the tank system. The insert can be used with tanks with any or all combinations of cryogenic, high pressure, and highly diffusive fluids. The insert can be threaded into the neck of a tank with an inner liner. The threads withstand the majority of the stress when the fluid inside the tank that is under pressure.

  13. Lessons Learned From Developing Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel Embrittlement Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John

    2010-08-01

    Materials behaviors caused by neutron irradiation under fission and/or fusion environments can be little understood without practical examination. Easily accessible material information system with large material database using effective computers is necessary for design of nuclear materials and analyses or simulations of the phenomena. The developed Embrittlement Data Base (EDB) at ORNL is this comprehensive collection of data. EDB database contains power reactor pressure vessel surveillance data, the material test reactor data, foreign reactor data (through bilateral agreements authorized by NRC), and the fracture toughness data. The lessons learned from building EDB program and the associated database management activity regarding Material Database Design Methodology, Architecture and the Embedded QA Protocol are described in this report. The development of IAEA International Database on Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials (IDRPVM) and the comparison of EDB database and IAEA IDRPVM database are provided in the report. The recommended database QA protocol and database infrastructure are also stated in the report.

  14. File:06HIGBoilerPressureVesselPermit.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    6HIGBoilerPressureVesselPermit.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:06HIGBoilerPressureVesselPermit.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599...

  15. Dual shell pressure balanced reactor vessel. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertus, R.J.; Fassbender, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Research (OER) has previously provided support for the development of several chemical processes, including supercritical water oxidation, liquefaction, and aqueous hazardous waste destruction, where chemical and phase transformations are conducted at high pressure and temperature. These and many other commercial processes require a pressure vessel capable of operating in a corrosive environment where safety and economy are important requirements. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) engineers have recently developed and patented (U.S. patent 5,167,930 December 1, 1992) a concept for a novel Dual Shell Pressure Balanced Vessel (DSPBV) which could solve a number of these problems. The technology could be immediately useful in continuing commercialization of an R&D 100 award-winning technology, Sludge-to-oil Reactor System (STORS), originally developed through funding by OER. Innotek Corporation is a small business that would be one logical end-user of the DSPBV reactor technology. Innotek is working with several major U.S. engineering firms to evaluate the potential of this technology in the disposal of wastes from sewage treatment plants. PNL entered into a CRADA with Innotek to build a bench-scale demonstration reactor and test the system to advance the economic feasibility of a variety of high pressure chemical processes. Hydrothermal processing of corrosive substances on a large scale can now be made significantly safer and more economical through use of the DSPBV. Hydrothermal chemical reactions such as wet-air oxidation and supercritical water oxidation occur in a highly corrosive environment inside a pressure vessel. Average corrosion rates from 23 to 80 miles per year have been reported by Rice (1994) and Latanision (1993).

  16. Application of Negligible Creep Criteria to Candidate Materials for HTGR Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jetter, Robert I; Sham, Sam; Swindeman, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    Two of the proposed High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) under consideration for a demonstration plant have the design object of avoiding creep effects in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during normal operation. This work addresses the criteria for negligible creep in Subsection NH, Division 1 of the ASME B&PV (Boiler and Pressure Vessel) Code, Section III, other international design codes and some currently suggested criteria modifications and their impact on permissible operating temperatures for various reactor pressure vessel materials. The goal of negligible creep could have different interpretations depending upon what failure modes are considered and associated criteria for avoiding the effects of creep. It is shown that for the materials of this study, consideration of localized damage due to cycling of peak stresses results in a lower temperature for negligible creep than consideration of the temperature at which the allowable stress is governed by creep properties. In assessing the effect of localized cyclic stresses it is also shown that consideration of cyclic softening is an important effect that results in a higher estimated temperature for the onset of significant creep effects than would be the case if the material were cyclically hardening. There are other considerations for the selection of vessel material besides avoiding creep effects. Of interest for this review are (1) the material s allowable stress level and impact on wall thickness (the goal being to minimize required wall thickness) and (2) ASME Code approval (inclusion as a permitted material in the relevant Section and Subsection of interest) to expedite regulatory review and approval. The application of negligible creep criteria to two of the candidate materials, SA533 and Mod 9Cr-1Mo (also referred to as Grade 91), and to a potential alternate, normalized and tempered 2 Cr-1Mo, is illustrated and the relative advantages and disadvantages of the materials are discussed.

  17. PRESSURIZATION OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS FROM PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    Transportation and storage of plutonium oxide is typically done using a convenience container to hold the oxide powder which is then placed inside a containment vessel. Intermediate containers which act as uncredited confinement barriers may also be used. The containment vessel is subject to an internal pressure due to several sources including; (1) plutonium oxide provides a heat source which raises the temperature of the gas space, (2) helium generation due to alpha decay of the plutonium, (3) hydrogen generation due to radiolysis of the water which has been adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide, and (4) degradation of plastic bags which may be used to bag out the convenience can from a glove box. The contributions of these sources are evaluated in a reasonably conservative manner.

  18. Weld Repair of a Stamped Pressure Vessel in a Radiologically Controlled Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannell, Gary L.; Huth, Ralph J.; Hallum, Randall T.

    2013-08-26

    In September 2012 an ASME B&PVC Section VIII stamped pressure vessel located at the DOE Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) developed a through-wall leak. The vessel, a steam/brine heat exchanger, operated in a radiologically controlled zone (by the CH2MHill PRC or CHPRC), had been in service for approximately 17 years. The heat exchanger is part of a single train evaporator process and its failure caused the entire system to be shut down, significantly impacting facility operations. This paper describes the activities associated with failure characterization, technical decision making/planning for repair by welding, logistical challenges associated with performing work in a radiologically controlled zone, performing the repair, and administrative considerations related to ASME code requirements.

  19. A Survey of Pressure Vessel Code Compliance for Superconducting RF Cryomodules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Thomas; Klebaner, Arkadiy; Nicol, Tom; Theilacker, Jay; Hayano, Hitoshi; Kako, Eiji; Nakai, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Akira; Jensch, Kay; Matheisen, Axel; Mammosser, John; /Jefferson Lab

    2011-06-07

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made from niobium and cooled with liquid helium are becoming key components of many particle accelerators. The helium vessels surrounding the RF cavities, portions of the niobium cavities themselves, and also possibly the vacuum vessels containing these assemblies, generally fall under the scope of local and national pressure vessel codes. In the U.S., Department of Energy rules require national laboratories to follow national consensus pressure vessel standards or to show ''a level of safety greater than or equal to'' that of the applicable standard. Thus, while used for its superconducting properties, niobium ends up being treated as a low-temperature pressure vessel material. Niobium material is not a code listed material and therefore requires the designer to understand the mechanical properties for material used in each pressure vessel fabrication; compliance with pressure vessel codes therefore becomes a problem. This report summarizes the approaches that various institutions have taken in order to bring superconducting RF cryomodules into compliance with pressure vessel codes. In Japan, Germany, and the U.S., institutions building superconducting RF cavities integrated in helium vessels or procuring them from vendors have had to deal with pressure vessel requirements being applied to SRF vessels, including the niobium and niobium-titanium components of the vessels. While niobium is not an approved pressure vessel material, data from tests of material samples provide information to set allowable stresses. By means of procedures which include adherence to code welding procedures, maintaining material and fabrication records, and detailed analyses of peak stresses in the vessels, or treatment of the vacuum vessel as the pressure boundary, research laboratories around the world have found methods to demonstrate and document a level of safety equivalent to the applicable pressure vessel codes.

  20. Structural design, analysis, and code evaluation of an odd-shaped pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezvani, M.A.; Ziada, H.H.

    1992-12-01

    This paper is the result of an effort to design, analyze and evaluate a rectangular pressure vessel. Normally pressure vessels are designed in circular or spherical shapes to prevent stress concentrations. In this case, because of operational limitations, the choice of vessels was limited to a rectangular pressure box with a removable cover plate. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is used as a guideline for pressure containments whose width or depth exceeds 15.24 cm (6.0 in.) and where pressures will exceed 103.4 KPa (15.0 lbf/in[sup 2]). This evaluation used Section VIII of this Code, hereafter referred to as the Code. The dimensions and working pressure of the subject vessel fall within the pressure vessel category of the Code. The Code design guidelines and rules do not directly apply to this vessel. Therefore, finite-element methodology was used to analyze the pressure vessel, and the Code then was used in qualifying the vessel to be stamped to the Code. Section VIII, Division 1 of the Code was used for evaluation. This action was justified by selecting a material for which fatigue damage would not be a concern. The stress analysis results were then chocked against the Code, and the thicknesses adjusted to satisfy Code requirements. Although not directly applicable, the Code design formulas for rectangular vessels were also considered and presented in this study.

  1. Structural design, analysis, and code evaluation of an odd-shaped pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezvani, M.A.; Ziada, H.H.

    1992-12-01

    This paper is the result of an effort to design, analyze and evaluate a rectangular pressure vessel. Normally pressure vessels are designed in circular or spherical shapes to prevent stress concentrations. In this case, because of operational limitations, the choice of vessels was limited to a rectangular pressure box with a removable cover plate. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is used as a guideline for pressure containments whose width or depth exceeds 15.24 cm (6.0 in.) and where pressures will exceed 103.4 KPa (15.0 lbf/in{sup 2}). This evaluation used Section VIII of this Code, hereafter referred to as the Code. The dimensions and working pressure of the subject vessel fall within the pressure vessel category of the Code. The Code design guidelines and rules do not directly apply to this vessel. Therefore, finite-element methodology was used to analyze the pressure vessel, and the Code then was used in qualifying the vessel to be stamped to the Code. Section VIII, Division 1 of the Code was used for evaluation. This action was justified by selecting a material for which fatigue damage would not be a concern. The stress analysis results were then chocked against the Code, and the thicknesses adjusted to satisfy Code requirements. Although not directly applicable, the Code design formulas for rectangular vessels were also considered and presented in this study.

  2. Low Temperature Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John

    2015-08-01

    The embrittlement trend curve development project for HFIR reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels was carried out with three major tasks. Which are (1) data collection to match that used in HFIR steel embrittlement trend published in 1994 Journal Nuclear Material by Remec et. al, (2) new embrittlement data of A212B steel that are not included in earlier HFIR RPV trend curve, and (3) the adjustment of nil-ductility-transition temperature (NDTT) shift data with the consideration of the irradiation temperature effect. An updated HFIR RPV steel embrittlement trend curve was developed, as described below. NDTT( C) = 23.85 log(x) + 203.3 log (x) + 434.7, with 2- uncertainty of 34.6 C, where parameter x is referred to total dpa. The developed update HFIR RPV embrittlement trend curve has higher embrittlement rate compared to that of the trend curve developed in 1994.

  3. Protective interior wall and attach8ing means for a fusion reactor vacuum vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, Richard D. (Greeley, CO); Upham, Gerald A. (Valley Center, CA); Anderson, Paul M. (San Diego, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An array of connected plates mounted on the inside wall of the vacuum vessel of a magnetic confinement reactor in order to provide a protective surface for energy deposition inside the vessel. All fasteners are concealed and protected beneath the plates, while the plates themselves share common mounting points. The entire array is installed with torqued nuts on threaded studs; provision also exists for thermal expansion by mounting each plate with two of its four mounts captured in an oversize grooved spool. A spool-washer mounting hardware allows one edge of a protective plate to be torqued while the other side remains loose, by simply inverting the spool-washer hardware.

  4. D-Zero Central Calorimeter Pressure Vessel and Vacuum Vessel Safety Notes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rucinski, R.; Luther, R.; /Fermilab

    1990-10-25

    The relief valve and relief piping capacity was calculated to be 908 sefm air. This exceeds all relieving conditions. The vessel also has a rupture disc with a 2640 scfm air stamped capacity. In order to significantly decrease the amount of time required to fill the cryostats, it is desired to raise the setpoint of the 'operating' relief valve on the argon storage dewar to 20 psig from its existing 16 psig setting. This additional pressure increases the flow to the cryostats and will overwhelm the relief capacity if the temperature of the modules within these vessels is warm enough. Using some conservative assumptions and simple calculations within this note, the maximum average temperature that the modules within each cryostat can be at prior to filling from the storage dewar with liquid argon is at least 290 K. The average temperature of the module mass for any of the three cryostats can be as high as 290 K prior to filling that particular cryostat. This should not be confused with the average temperature of a single type or location which is useful in protecting the modules-not necessarily the vessel itself. A few modules of each type and at different elevations should be used in an average which would account for the different weights of each module. Note that at 290 K, the actual flow of argon through the relief valve and the rupture disk was under the maximum theoretical flows for each relief device. This means that the bulk temperature could actually have been raised to flow argon through the reliefs at their maximum capacity. Therefore, the temperature of 290 K is a conservative value for the calculated flow rate of 12.3 gpm. Safeguards in addition to and used in conjunction with operating procedures shall be implemented in such a way so that the above temperature limitation is not exceeded and such that it is exclusive of the programmable logic controller (PLC). One suggestion is using a toggle switch for each cryostat mounted in the PLC I/O box which would maintain control of the signals to open the cold fill valves of each cryostat. With the safeguards in place while carefully monitoring the temperatures during a cooldown cycle in each cryostat, the set pressure in the argon storage dewar can safely be increased to 20 psig.

  5. High-pressure Storage Vessels for Hydrogen, Natural Gas and Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 – 29, 2010, in Beijing, China.

  6. Improved mechanical properties of A 508 class 3 steel for nuclear pressure vessel through steelmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J.T.; Kwon, H.K.; Kim, K.C.; Kim, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    The present work is concerned with the steelmaking practices which improve the mechanical properties of the A 508 class 3 steel for reactor pressure vessel. Three kinds of steelmaking practices were applied to manufacture the forged heavy wall shell for reactor pressure vessel, that is, the vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD), modified VCD containing aluminum and silicon-killing. The segregation of the chemical elements through the thickness was quite small so that the variations of the tensile properties at room temperature were small and the anisotropy of the impact properties was hardly observed regardless of the steelmaking practices. The Charpy V-notch impact properties and the reference nil-ductile transition temperature by drop weight test were significantly improved by the modified VCD and silicon-killing as compared with those of the steel by VCD. Moreover, the plane strain fracture toughness values of the materials by modified VCD and silicon-killing practices was much higher than those of the steel by VCD. These were resulted from the fining of austenite grain size. It was observed that the grain size was below 20 {micro}m (ASTM No. 8.5) when using the modified VCD and silicon-killing, compared to 50 {micro}m (ASTM No. 7.0) when using VCD.

  7. Creep of A508/533 Pressure Vessel Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Wright

    2014-08-01

    ABSTRACT Evaluation of potential Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels has been carried out as part of the pre-conceptual Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design studies. These design studies have generally focused on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code status of the steels, temperature limits, and allowable stresses. Initially, three candidate materials were identified by this process: conventional light water reactor (LWR) RPV steels A508 and A533, 2¼Cr-1Mo in the annealed condition, and Grade 91 steel. The low strength of 2¼Cr-1Mo at elevated temperature has eliminated this steel from serious consideration as the VHTR RPV candidate material. Discussions with the very few vendors that can potentially produce large forgings for nuclear pressure vessels indicate a strong preference for conventional LWR steels. This preference is based in part on extensive experience with forging these steels for nuclear components. It is also based on the inability to cast large ingots of the Grade 91 steel due to segregation during ingot solidification, thus restricting the possible mass of forging components and increasing the amount of welding required for completion of the RPV. Grade 91 steel is also prone to weld cracking and must be post-weld heat treated to ensure adequate high-temperature strength. There are also questions about the ability to produce, and very importantly, verify the through thickness properties of thick sections of Grade 91 material. The availability of large components, ease of fabrication, and nuclear service experience with the A508 and A533 steels strongly favor their use in the RPV for the VHTR. Lowering the gas outlet temperature for the VHTR to 750°C from 950 to 1000°C, proposed in early concept studies, further strengthens the justification for this material selection. This steel is allowed in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for nuclear service up to 371°C (700°F); certain excursions above that temperature are allowed by Code Case N-499-2 (now incorporated as an appendix to Section III Division 5 of the Code). This Code Case was developed with a rather sparse data set and focused primarily on rolled plate material (A533 specification). Confirmatory tests of creep behavior of both A508 and A533 are described here that are designed to extend the database in order to build higher confidence in ensuring the structural integrity of the VHTR RPV during off-normal conditions. A number of creep-rupture tests were carried out at temperatures above the 371°C (700°F) Code limit; longer term tests designed to evaluate minimum creep behavior are ongoing. A limited amount of rupture testing was also carried out on welded material. All of the rupture data from the current experiments is compared to historical values from the testing carried out to develop Code Case N-499-2. It is shown that the A508/533 basemetal tested here fits well with the rupture behavior reported from the historical testing. The presence of weldments significantly reduces the time to rupture. The primary purpose of this report is to summarize and record the experimental results in a single document.

  8. A DISLOCATION-BASED CLEAVAGE INITIATION MODEL FOR PRESSURE VESSEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, Kristine B; Erickson, Marjorie A; Williams, Paul T; Klasky, Hilda B; Bass, Bennett Richard

    2012-01-01

    Efforts are under way to develop a theoretical, multi-scale model for the prediction of fracture toughness of ferritic steels in the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) region that accounts for temperature, irradiation, strain rate, and material condition (chemistry and heat treatment) effects. This new model is intended to address difficulties associated with existing empirically-derived models of the DBTT region that cannot be extrapolated to conditions for which data are unavailable. Dislocation distribution equations, derived from the theories of Yokobori et al., are incorporated to account for the local stress state prior to and following initiation of a microcrack from a second-phase particle. The new model is the basis for the DISlocation-based FRACture (DISFRAC) computer code being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of this code is to permit fracture safety assessments of ferritic structures with only tensile properties required as input. The primary motivation for the code is to assist in the prediction of radiation effects on nuclear reactor pressure vessels, in parallel with the EURATOM PERFORM 60 project.

  9. Forum Agenda: International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop Agenda: Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels, Lesssons Learned for the Safe Deployment of Vehicles R&D of Large Stationary HydrogenCNGHCNG Storage Vessels

  10. ADDITIONAL STRESS AND FRACTURE MECHANICS ANALYSES OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL NOZZLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, Matthew; Yin, Shengjun; Stevens, Gary; Sommerville, Daniel; Palm, Nathan; Heinecke, Carol

    2012-01-01

    In past years, the authors have undertaken various studies of nozzles in both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) located in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) adjacent to the core beltline region. Those studies described stress and fracture mechanics analyses performed to assess various RPV nozzle geometries, which were selected based on their proximity to the core beltline region, i.e., those nozzle configurations that are located close enough to the core region such that they may receive sufficient fluence prior to end-of-life (EOL) to require evaluation of embrittlement as part of the RPV analyses associated with pressure-temperature (P-T) limits. In this paper, additional stress and fracture analyses are summarized that were performed for additional PWR nozzles with the following objectives: To expand the population of PWR nozzle configurations evaluated, which was limited in the previous work to just two nozzles (one inlet and one outlet nozzle). To model and understand differences in stress results obtained for an internal pressure load case using a two-dimensional (2-D) axi-symmetric finite element model (FEM) vs. a three-dimensional (3-D) FEM for these PWR nozzles. In particular, the ovalization (stress concentration) effect of two intersecting cylinders, which is typical of RPV nozzle configurations, was investigated. To investigate the applicability of previously recommended linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) hand solutions for calculating the Mode I stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack for pressure loading for these PWR nozzles. These analyses were performed to further expand earlier work completed to support potential revision and refinement of Title 10 to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 50, Appendix G, Fracture Toughness Requirements, and are intended to supplement similar evaluation of nozzles presented at the 2008, 2009, and 2011 Pressure Vessels and Piping (PVP) Conferences. This work is also relevant to the ongoing efforts of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, Section XI, Working Group on Operating Plant Criteria (WGOPC) efforts to incorporate nozzle fracture mechanics solutions into a revision to ASME B&PV Code, Section XI, Nonmandatory Appendix G.

  11. Stress-intensity-factor influence coefficients for semielliptical inner-surface flaws in clad pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeney, J.A.; Bryson, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    A problem of particular interest in pressure vessel technology is the calculation of accurate stress-intensity factors for semielliptical surface cracks in cylinders. Computing costs for direct solution techniques can be prohibitive when applied to three-dimensional (3-D) geometries with time-varying boundary conditions such as those associated with pressurized thermal shock. An alternative superposition technique requires the calculation of a set of influence coefficients for a given 3-D crack model that can be superimposed to obtain mode-I stress-intensity factors. This paper presents stress-intensity-factor influence coefficients (SIFICs) for axially and circumferentially oriented finite-length semielliptical inner-surface flaws with aspect ratios (total crack length (2c) to crack depth (a)) of 2, 6, and 10 for clad cylinders having an internal radius to wall thickness (t) ratio of 10. SIFICs are computed for flaw depths in the range of 0.01 {le} a/t {le} 0.5 and two cladding thicknesses. The incorporate of this SIFIC data base in fracture mechanics codes will facilitate the generation of fracture mechanics solutions for a wide range of flaw geometries as may be required in structural integrity assessments of pressurized-water and boiling-water reactors.

  12. A wall-crawling robot for reactor vessel inspection in advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spelt, P.F.; Crane, C.; Feng, L.; Abidi, M.; Tosunoglu, S.

    1994-06-01

    A consortium of four universities and the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has designed a prototype wall-crawling robot to perform weld inspection in advanced nuclear reactors. Design efforts for the reactor vessel inspection robot (RVIR) concentrated on the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor because it presents the most demanding environment in which such a robot must operate. The RVIR consists of a chassis containing two sets of suction cups that can alternately grasp the side of the vessel being inspected, providing both locomotion and steering functions. Sensors include three CCD cameras and a weld inspection device based on new shear-wave technology. The restrictions of the inspection environment presented major challenges to the team. These challenges were met in the prototype, which has been tested in a non-radiation, room-temperature mockup of the robot work environment and shown to perform as expected.

  13. Photoacoustic sample vessel and method of elevated pressure operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Autrey, Tom; Yonker, Clement R.

    2004-05-04

    An improved photoacoustic vessel and method of photoacoustic analysis. The photoacoustic sample vessel comprises an acoustic detector, an acoustic couplant, and an acoustic coupler having a chamber for holding the acoustic couplant and a sample. The acoustic couplant is selected from the group consisting of liquid, solid, and combinations thereof. Passing electromagnetic energy through the sample generates an acoustic signal within the sample, whereby the acoustic signal propagates through the sample to and through the acoustic couplant to the acoustic detector.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF ASME SECTION X CODE RULES FOR HIGH PRESSURE COMPOSITE HYDROGEN PRESSURE VESSELS WITH NON-LOAD SHARING LINERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawls, G.; Newhouse, N.; Rana, M.; Shelley, B.; Gorman, M.

    2010-04-13

    The Boiler and Pressure Vessel Project Team on Hydrogen Tanks was formed in 2004 to develop Code rules to address the various needs that had been identified for the design and construction of up to 15000 psi hydrogen storage vessel. One of these needs was the development of Code rules for high pressure composite vessels with non-load sharing liners for stationary applications. In 2009, ASME approved new Appendix 8, for Section X Code which contains the rules for these vessels. These vessels are designated as Class III vessels with design pressure ranging from 20.7 MPa (3,000 ps)i to 103.4 MPa (15,000 psi) and maximum allowable outside liner diameter of 2.54 m (100 inches). The maximum design life of these vessels is limited to 20 years. Design, fabrication, and examination requirements have been specified, included Acoustic Emission testing at time of manufacture. The Code rules include the design qualification testing of prototype vessels. Qualification includes proof, expansion, burst, cyclic fatigue, creep, flaw, permeability, torque, penetration, and environmental testing.

  15. Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Assessment of High Value Surveillance Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a light-water reactor (LWR) represents the first line of defense against a release of radiation in case of an accident. Thus, regulations that govern the...

  16. Stress and Fracture Mechanics Analyses of Boiling Water Reactor and Pressurized Water Reactor Pressure Vessel Nozzles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Shengjun; Bass, Bennett Richard; Stevens, Gary; Kirk, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes stress analysis and fracture mechanics work performed to assess boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) nozzles located in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) adjacent to the core beltline region. Various RPV nozzle geometries were investigated: 1. BWR recirculation outlet nozzle; 2. BWR core spray nozzle3 3. PWR inlet nozzle; ; 4. PWR outlet nozzle; and 5. BWR partial penetration instrument nozzle. The above nozzle designs were selected based on their proximity to the core beltline region, i.e., those nozzle configurations that are located close enough to the core region such that they may receive sufficient fluence prior to end-of-license (EOL) to require evaluation as part of establishing the allowed limits on heatup, cooldown, and hydrotest (leak test) conditions. These nozzles analyzed represent one each of the nozzle types potentially requiring evaluation. The purpose of the analyses performed on these nozzle designs was as follows: To model and understand differences in pressure and thermal stress results using a two-dimensional (2-D) axi-symmetric finite element model (FEM) versus a three-dimensional (3-D) FEM for all nozzle types. In particular, the ovalization (stress concentration) effect of two intersecting cylinders, which is typical of RPV nozzle configurations, was investigated; To verify the accuracy of a selected linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) hand solution for stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack for both thermal and pressure loading for all nozzle types; To assess the significance of attached piping loads on the stresses in the nozzle corner region; and To assess the significance of applying pressure on the crack face with respect to the stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack.

  17. Stress analysis and evaluation of a rectangular pressure vessel. [For equipment for sampling Hanford tank radwaste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezvani, M.A.; Ziada, H.H. ); Shurrab, M.S. )

    1992-10-01

    This study addresses structural analysis and evaluation of an abnormal rectangular pressure vessel, designed to house equipment for drilling and collecting samples from Hanford radioactive waste storage tanks. It had to be qualified according to ASME boiler and pressure vessel code, Section VIII; however, it had the cover plate bolted along the long face, a configuration not addressed by the code. Finite element method was used to calculate stresses resulting from internal pressure; these stresses were then used to evaluate and qualify the vessel. Fatigue is not a concern; thus, it can be built according to Section VIII, Division I instead of Division 2. Stress analysis was checked against the code. A stayed plate was added to stiffen the long side of the vessel.

  18. Advanced Models of LWR Pressure Vessel Embrittlement for Low Flux-HighFluence Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odette, G. Robert; Yamamoto, Takuya

    2013-06-17

    Neutron embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is an unresolved issue for light water reactor life extension, especially since transition temperature shifts (TTS) must be predicted for high 80-year fluence levels up to approximately 1,020 n/cm{sup 2}, far beyond the current surveillance database. Unfortunately, TTS may accelerate at high fluence, and may be further amplified by the formation of late blooming phases that result in severe embrittlement even in low-copper (Cu) steels. Embrittlement by this mechanism is a potentially significant degradation phenomenon that is not predicted by current regulatory models. This project will focus on accurately predicting transition temperature shifts at high fluence using advanced physically based, empirically validated and calibrated models. A major challenge is to develop models that can adjust test reactor data to account for flux effects. Since transition temperature shifts depend on synergistic combinations of many variables, flux-effects cannot be treated in isolation. The best current models systematically and significantly under-predict transition temperature at high fluence, although predominantly for irradiations at much higher flux than actual RPV service. This project will integrate surveillance, test reactor and mechanism data with advanced models to address a number of outstanding RPV embrittlement issues. The effort will include developing new databases and preliminary models of flux effects for irradiation conditions ranging from very low (e.g., boiling water reactor) to high (e.g., accelerated test reactor). The team will also develop a database and physical models to help predict the conditions for the formation of Mn-Ni-Si late blooming phases and to guide future efforts to fully resolve this issue. Researchers will carry out other tasks on a best-effort basis, including prediction of transition temperature shift attenuation through the vessel wall, remediation of embrittlement by annealing, and fracture toughness master curve issues.

  19. Cryogenic Pressure Vessels for H2 Vehicles Rapidly Refueled by LH2 pump to 700 bar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cryogenic Pressure Vessels for H 2 Vehicles Rapidly Refueled by LH 2 pump to 700 bar Salvador Aceves, Gene Berry, Guillaume Petitpas, Vernon Switzer Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CAMX meeting October 29 th , 2015 LLNL-PRES-678629 * Cryogenic H 2 Onboard Storage * Temperature as a Degree of Freedom in H 2 storage * LLNL Cryocompressed Project History * 350 Bar Test Vehicle Park & Drive Results * Current Project * 700 bar prototype (cryogenic) vessels * Refueling with LH 2 Pump * Test

  20. Reactor pressure vessel head vents and methods of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gels, John L; Keck, David J; Deaver, Gerald A

    2014-10-28

    Internal head vents are usable in nuclear reactors and include piping inside of the reactor pressure vessel with a vent in the reactor upper head. Piping extends downward from the upper head and passes outside of the reactor to permit the gas to escape or be forcibly vented outside of the reactor without external piping on the upper head. The piping may include upper and lowers section that removably mate where the upper head joins to the reactor pressure vessel. The removable mating may include a compressible bellows and corresponding funnel. The piping is fabricated of nuclear-reactor-safe materials, including carbon steel, stainless steel, and/or a Ni--Cr--Fe alloy. Methods install an internal head vent in a nuclear reactor by securing piping to an internal surface of an upper head of the nuclear reactor and/or securing piping to an internal surface of a reactor pressure vessel.

  1. Fast neutron fluence of yonggwang nuclear unit 1 reactor pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, C.; Km, B.; Chang, K.; Leeand, S.; Park, J.

    2006-07-01

    The Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 50, Appendix H, requires that the neutron dosimetry be present to monitor the reactor vessel throughout plant life. The Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry System has been installed for Yonggwang Nuclear Unit 1 after complete withdrawal of all six in-vessel surveillance capsules. This system has been installed in the reactor cavity annulus in order to measure the fast neutron spectrum coming out through the reactor pressure vessel. Cycle specific neutron transport calculations were performed to obtain the energy dependent neutron flux throughout the reactor geometry including dosimetry positions. Comparisons between calculations and measurements were performed for the reaction rates of each dosimetry sensors and results show good agreements. (authors)

  2. Development of design criteria for a high pressure vessel construction code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mraz, G.J.

    1987-05-01

    Out of concern for public safety, most legal jurisdictions now require unfired pressure vessel construction to comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Because the present two divisions of Section VIII of that Code are not well suited for high pressure design, a new division is needed. The currently anticipated main design criteria of the proposed division are full plastic flow or full overstrain pressure, stress intensity in the bore, fatigue, and fracture mechanics. The rules are expected to allow better utilization of high strength steels already included in the present Section VIII. At the same time materials of even higher strength are introduced. The benefits of compressive prestress are recognized. Construction methods allowing it's achievement, such as autofrettage, shrink fitting and wire winding are included. Reasons for selection of the criteria are given.

  3. Reactor Pressure Vessel Temperature Analysis for Prismatic and Pebble-Bed VHTR Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. D. Gougar; C. B. Davis

    2006-04-01

    Analyses were performed to determine maximum temperatures in the reactor pressure vessel for two potential Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs during normal operation and during a depressurized conduction cooldown accident. The purpose of the analyses was to aid in the determination of appropriate reactor vessel materials for the VHTR. The designs evaluated utilized both prismatic and pebble-bed cores that generated 600 MW of thermal power. Calculations were performed for fluid outlet temperatures of 900 and 950 °C, corresponding to the expected range for the VHTR. The analyses were performed using the RELAP5-3D and PEBBED-THERMIX computer codes. Results of the calculations were compared with preliminary temperature limits derived from the ASME pressure vessel code.

  4. Structural integrity assessment of type 201LN stainless steel cryogenic pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana, M.D.; Zawierucha, R.

    1995-12-01

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Committee approved the Code Case 2123 in 1992 which allows the use of Type 201LN stainless steel in the construction of ASME Section VIII, Division 1 and Division 2 pressure vessels for -320{degrees}F applications. Type 201LN stainless steel is a nitrogen strengthened modified version of ASTM A240, Type 201 stainless steel with a restricted chemistry. The Code allowable design stresses for Type 201LN for Division 1 vessels are approximately 27% higher than Type 304 stainless steel and equal to that of the 5 Ni and 9 Ni steels. This paper discusses the important features of the Code Case 2123 and the structural integrity assessment of Type 201LN stainless steel cryogenic vessels. Tensile, Charpy-V-notch and fracture properties have been obtained on several heats of this steel including weldments. A linear-elastic fracture mechanics analysis has been conducted to assess the expected fracture mode and the fracture-critical crack sizes. The results have been compared with Type 304 stainless steel, 5 Ni and 9 Ni steel vessels.

  5. A Multiscale Modeling Approach to Analyze Filament-Wound Composite Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2013-07-22

    A multiscale modeling approach to analyze filament-wound composite pressure vessels is developed in this article. The approach, which extends the Nguyen et al. model [J. Comp. Mater. 43 (2009) 217] developed for discontinuous fiber composites to continuous fiber ones, spans three modeling scales. The microscale considers the unidirectional elastic fibers embedded in an elastic-plastic matrix obeying the Ramberg-Osgood relation and J2 deformation theory of plasticity. The mesoscale behavior representing the composite lamina is obtained through an incremental Mori-Tanaka type model and the Eshelby equivalent inclusion method [Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A241 (1957) 376]. The implementation of the micro-meso constitutive relations in the ABAQUS finite element package (via user subroutines) allows the analysis of a filament-wound composite pressure vessel (macroscale) to be performed. Failure of the composite lamina is predicted by a criterion that accounts for the strengths of the fibers and of the matrix as well as of their interface. The developed approach is demonstrated in the analysis of a filament-wound pressure vessel to study the effect of the lamina thickness on the burst pressure. The predictions are favorably compared to the numerical and experimental results by Lifshitz and Dayan [Comp. Struct. 32 (1995) 313].

  6. Protective interior wall and attaching means for a fusion reactor vacuum vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, R.D.; Upham, G.A.; Anderson, P.M.

    1985-03-01

    The wall basically consists of an array of small rectangular plates attached to the existing walls with threaded fasteners. The protective wall effectively conceals and protects all mounting hardware beneath the plate array, while providing a substantial surface area that will absorb plasma energy.

  7. Fabrication Flaw Density and Distribution in the Repairs of Reactor Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuster, George J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Simonen, Fredric A.

    2006-02-15

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a generalized flaw size and density distribution for the population of U.S. reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The purpose of the generalized flaw distribution is to predict vessel specific flaw rates for use in probabilistic fracture mechanics calculations that estimate vessel failure probability. Considerable progress has been made on the construction of an engineering data base of fabrication flaws in U.S. nuclear RPVs. The fabrication processes and product forms used to construct U.S. RPVs are represented in the data base. A validation methodology has been developed for characterizing the flaws for size, shape, orientation, and composition. The relevance of construction records has been established for describing fabrication processes and product forms. The fabrication flaws were detected in material removed from cancelled nuclear power plants using high sensitivity nondestructive ultrasonic testing, and validated by other nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, and complemented by destructive testing. This paper describes research that has generated data on welding flaws, which indicated that the largest flaws occur in weld repairs. Recent research results confirm that repair flaws are complex in composition and may include cracks on the repair ends. Section III of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for nuclear power plant components requires radiographic examinations (RT) of welds and requires repairs for RT indications that exceed code acceptable sizes. PNNL has previously obtained the complete construction records for two RPVs. Analysis of these records show a significant change in repair frequency.

  8. Pressure vessel sliding support unit and system using the sliding support unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Breach, Michael R.; Keck, David J.; Deaver, Gerald A.

    2013-01-15

    Provided is a sliding support and a system using the sliding support unit. The sliding support unit may include a fulcrum capture configured to attach to a support flange, a fulcrum support configured to attach to the fulcrum capture, and a baseplate block configured to support the fulcrum support. The system using the sliding support unit may include a pressure vessel, a pedestal bracket, and a plurality of sliding support units.

  9. Fabrication Flaw Density and Distribution In Repairs to Reactor Pressure Vessel and Piping Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GJ Schuster, FA Simonen, SR Doctor

    2008-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a generalized fabrication flaw distribution for the population of nuclear reactor pressure vessels and for piping welds in U.S. operating reactors. The purpose of the generalized flaw distribution is to predict component-specific flaw densities. The estimates of fabrication flaws are intended for use in fracture mechanics structural integrity assessments. Structural integrity assessments, such as estimating the frequency of loss-of-coolant accidents, are performed by computer codes that require, as input, accurate estimates of flaw densities. Welds from four different reactor pressure vessels and a collection of archived pipes have been studied to develop empirical estimates of fabrication flaw densities. This report describes the fabrication flaw distribution and characterization in the repair weld metal of vessels and piping. This work indicates that large flaws occur in these repairs. These results show that repair flaws are complex in composition and sometimes include cracks on the ends of the repair cavities. Parametric analysis using an exponential fit is performed on the data. The relevance of construction records is established for describing fabrication processes and product forms. An analysis of these records shows there was a significant change in repair frequency over the years when these components were fabricated. A description of repair flaw morphology is provided with a discussion of fracture mechanics significance. Fabrication flaws in repairs are characterized using optimized-access, high-sensitivity nondestructive ultrasonic testing. Flaw characterizations are then validated by other nondestructive evaluation techniques and complemented by destructive testing.

  10. Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Initial Assessment of Thermal Annealing Needs and Challenges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The most life-limiting structural component in light-water reactors (LWR) is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) because replacement of the RPV is not considered a viable option at this time. LWR...

  11. Measurement of Fatigue Crack Growth Relationships in Hydrogen Gas for Pressure Swing Adsorber Vessel Steels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Somerday, Brian P.; Barney, Monica

    2014-12-04

    We measured the hydrogen-assisted fatigue crack growth rates (da/dN) for SA516 Grade 70 steel as a function of stress-intensity factor range (ΔK) and load-cycle frequency to provide life-prediction data relevant to pressure swing adsorber (PSA) vessels. For ΔK values up to 18.5 MPa m1/2, the baseline da/dN versus ΔK relationship measured at 1Hz in 2.8 MPa hydrogen gas represents an upper bound with respect to crack growth rates measured at lower frequency. However, at higher ΔK values, we found that the baseline da/dN data had to be corrected to account for modestly higher crack growth rates at the lower frequenciesmore » relevant to PSA vessel operation.« less

  12. D-Zero Central Calorimeter Technical Appendix to Cryogenic Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulholland, G.T.; Rucinski, R.A.; /Fermilab

    1990-11-19

    DO (D Zero) is a large Liquid Argon (LAr) HEP Calorimeter designed to function in the laboratories P-Pbar collider at the DO section of the Tevatron accelerator. It contains 5,000 gls. of LAr in the CC cryostat, and 3,000 gls. in each of two, a north and south, EC cryostats. These low pressure vessels are filled with detector modules built of stainless steel, copper and depleted uranium. The LAr functions as the ionization medium, and the spatial and temporal of the collection of the charge of the electrons produced signals the passsage of charged particles. The collection of these charges in 4 pi is related to the energy of the particles, and their measurement is called calorimetry. The contained LAr (T=90K) is isolated from the ambient temperatures in specially designed, vacuum and superinsulated, vessels (cryostats) provided with liquid nitrogen, heat of vaporization, cooling.

  13. Measurement of Fatigue Crack Growth Relationships in Hydrogen Gas for Pressure Swing Adsorber Vessel Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somerday, Brian P.; Barney, Monica

    2014-12-04

    We measured the hydrogen-assisted fatigue crack growth rates (da/dN) for SA516 Grade 70 steel as a function of stress-intensity factor range (?K) and load-cycle frequency to provide life-prediction data relevant to pressure swing adsorber (PSA) vessels. For ?K values up to 18.5 MPa m1/2, the baseline da/dN versus ?K relationship measured at 1Hz in 2.8 MPa hydrogen gas represents an upper bound with respect to crack growth rates measured at lower frequency. However, at higher ?K values, we found that the baseline da/dN data had to be corrected to account for modestly higher crack growth rates at the lower frequencies relevant to PSA vessel operation.

  14. Prestressed-concrete pressure vessels and their applicability to advanced-energy-system concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naus, D.J

    1983-01-01

    Prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) are, in essence, spaced steel structures since their strength is derived from a multitude of steel elements made up of deformed reinforcing bars and prestressing tendons which are present in sufficient quantities to carry tension loads imposed on the vessel. Other major components of a PCPV include the concrete, liner and cooling system, and insulation. PCPVs exhibit a number of advantages which make them ideally suited for application to advanced energy concepts: fabricability in virtually any size and shape using available technology, improved safety, reduced capital costs, and a history of proven performance. PCPVs have many applications to both nuclear- and non-nuclear-based energy systems concepts. Several of these concepts will be discussed as well as the research and development activities conducted at ORNL in support of PCPV development.

  15. Welding and brazing qualifications (supplement to ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    This standard supplements the requirements of the 1980 edition of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section IX. When this standard is invoked or referenced, the applicable subsections of Section IX of the Code are also invoked or referenced. The paragraph numbers in this standard apply only to the 1980 edition of Section IX and its addenda. The user of this standard is responsible for obtaining and applying the edition and revision of this standard that supplement the edition and addenda of Section IX that are in legal effect at the time of use.

  16. Welding and brazing qualifications (supplement to ASME boiler and pressure vessel code, Section IX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This standard supplements the requirements of the 1977 edition of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section IX. When this standard is invoked or referenced, the applicable subsections of Section IX of the Code are also invoked or referenced. The paragraph numbers apply only to the 1977 edition of Section IX and its addenda. The user of this standard is responsible for obtaining and applying the edition and revision of this standard that supplement the edition and Addenda of Section IX that are in legal effect at the time of use.

  17. Supplementary neutron-flux calculations for the ORNL Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maudlin, P.J.; Maerker, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculation using the MORSE code was performed to validate a procedure previously adopted in the ORNL discrete ordinate analysis of measurements made in the ORNL Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Facility. The results of these flux calculations agree, within statistical undertainties of about 5%, with those obtained from a discrete ordinate analysis employing the same procedure. This study therefore concludes that the procedure for combining several one- and two-dimensional discrete ordinate calculations into a three-dimensional flux is sufficiently accurate that it does not account for the existing discrepancies observed between calculations and measurements in this facility.

  18. Review of the Palisades pressure vessel accumulated fluence estimate and of the least squares methodology employed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, P.J.

    1998-05-01

    This report provides a review of the Palisades submittal to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission requesting endorsement of their accumulated neutron fluence estimates based on a least squares adjustment methodology. This review highlights some minor issues in the applied methodology and provides some recommendations for future work. The overall conclusion is that the Palisades fluence estimation methodology provides a reasonable approach to a {open_quotes}best estimate{close_quotes} of the accumulated pressure vessel neutron fluence and is consistent with the state-of-the-art analysis as detailed in community consensus ASTM standards.

  19. Containment of explosions in spherical vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, T.A.; Greene, J.M. ); Baker, W.E. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Lewis, B.B. )

    1992-01-01

    A correlation of the experimentally recorded dynamic response of a spherical containment vessel with theoretical finite element calculations is presented. Three experiments were performed on the 6-ft-diameter steel vessel using centrally located 12-lb. and 40-lb. high explosive charges. Pressure-time loading on the inner wall of the vessel was recorded for each test using pressure transducers. Resulting dynamic response of the vessel was recorded for each test using strain gages mounted at selected locations on the outer surface of the vessel. Response of the vessel was primarily elastic. A finite element model of the vessel was run using DYNA3D, a dynamic structural analysis code. Pressure loading for the finite element model was based on results from a one-dimensional reactive hydrodynamics code. Correlations between experiments and analysis were generally good for the tests for frequency and strain magnitude at most locations. Comparisons of experimental and calculated pressure-time histories were less satisfactory.

  20. Containment of explosions in spherical vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, T.A.; Greene, J.M.; Baker, W.E.; Lewis, B.B.

    1992-12-31

    A correlation of the experimentally recorded dynamic response of a spherical containment vessel with theoretical finite element calculations is presented. Three experiments were performed on the 6-ft-diameter steel vessel using centrally located 12-lb. and 40-lb. high explosive charges. Pressure-time loading on the inner wall of the vessel was recorded for each test using pressure transducers. Resulting dynamic response of the vessel was recorded for each test using strain gages mounted at selected locations on the outer surface of the vessel. Response of the vessel was primarily elastic. A finite element model of the vessel was run using DYNA3D, a dynamic structural analysis code. Pressure loading for the finite element model was based on results from a one-dimensional reactive hydrodynamics code. Correlations between experiments and analysis were generally good for the tests for frequency and strain magnitude at most locations. Comparisons of experimental and calculated pressure-time histories were less satisfactory.

  1. High-R Walls for New Construction Structural Performance. Wind Pressure Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeRenzis, A.; Kochkin, V.

    2013-01-01

    This technical report is focused primarily on laboratory testing that evaluates wind pressure performance characteristics for wall systems constructed with exterior insulating sheathing. This research and test activity will help to facilitate the ongoing use of non-structural sheathing options and provide a more in-depth understanding of how wall system layers perform in response to high wind perturbations normal to the surface.

  2. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Novel Steel/Concrete Composite Vessel for Stationary Storage of High-Pressure Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jy-An John; Ren, Fei

    2012-09-01

    A novel, low-cost, high-pressure, steel/concrete composite vessel (SCCV) technology for stationary storage of compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH2) is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sponsored by DOE s Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program. The SCCV technology uses commodity materials including structural steels and concretes for achieving cost, durability and safety requirements. In particular, the hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength low-alloy steels, a major safety and durability issue for current industry-standard pressure vessel technology, is mitigated through the use of a unique layered steel shell structure. This report presents the cost analysis results of the novel SCCV technology. A high-fidelity cost analysis tool is developed, based on a detailed, bottom-up approach which takes into account the material and labor costs involved in each of the vessel manufacturing steps. A thorough cost study is performed to understand the SCCV cost as a function of the key vessel design parameters, including hydrogen pressure, vessel dimensions, and load-carrying ratio. The major conclusions include: The SCCV technology can meet the technical/cost targets set forth by DOE s FCT Program for FY2015 and FY2020 for all three pressure levels (i.e., 160, 430 and 860 bar) relevant to the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. Further vessel cost reduction can benefit from the development of advanced vessel fabrication technologies such as the highly automated friction stir welding (FSW). The ORNL-patented multi-layer, multi-pass FSW can not only reduce the amount of labor needed for assembling and welding the layered steel vessel, but also make it possible to use even higher strength steels for further cost reductions and improvement of vessel structural integrity. It is noted the cost analysis results demonstrate the significant cost advantage attainable by the SCCV technology for different pressure levels when compared to the industry-standard pressure vessel technology. The real-world performance data of SCCV under actual operating conditions is imperative for this new technology to be adopted by the hydrogen industry for stationary storage of CGH2. Therefore, the key technology development effort in FY13 and subsequent years will be focused on the fabrication and testing of SCCV mock-ups. The static loading and fatigue data will be generated in rigorous testing of these mock-ups. Successful tests are crucial to enabling the near-term impact of the developed storage technology on the CGH2 storage market, a critical component of the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. In particular, the SCCV has high potential for widespread deployment in hydrogen fueling stations.

  3. Irradiation effects in low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steels (Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program Series 4 and 5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, R.G.; McGowan, J.J.; Menke, B.H.; Nanstad, R.K.; Thoms, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    Multiple testing is done at two laboratories of typical nuclear pressure vessel materials (both irradiated and unirradiated) and statistical analyses of the test results. Multiple tests are conducted at each of several test temperatures for each material, standard deviations are determined, and results from the two laboratories are compared. The Fourth Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Irradiation Series, almost completed, was aimed at elastic-plastic and fully plastic fracture toughness of low-copper weldments (current practice welds). A typical nuclear pressure vessel plate steel was included for statistical purposes. The Fifth HSST Irradiation Series, now in progress, is aimed at determining the shape of the K/sub IR/ curve after significant radiation-induced shift of the transition temperatures. This series includes irradiated test specimens of thicknesses up to 100 mm and weldment compositions typical of early nuclear power reactor pressure vessel welds.

  4. Assemblies and methods for mitigating effects of reactor pressure vessel expansion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.; Gou, P.F.; Chu, C.L.; Oliver, R.P.

    1999-07-27

    Support assemblies for allowing RPV radial expansion while simultaneously limiting horizontal, vertical, and azimuthal movement of the RPV within a nuclear reactor are described. In one embodiment, the support assembly includes a support block and a guide block. The support block includes a first portion and a second portion, and the first portion is rigidly coupled to the RPV adjacent the first portion. The guide block is rigidly coupled to a reactor pressure vessel support structure and includes a channel sized to receive the second portion of the support block. The second portion of the support block is positioned in the guide block channel to movably couple the guide block to the support block. 6 figs.

  5. Assemblies and methods for mitigating effects of reactor pressure vessel expansion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Chu, Cherk Lam (San Jose, CA); Oliver, Robert P. (Topsham, ME)

    1999-01-01

    Support assemblies for allowing RPV radial expansion while simultaneously limiting horizontal, vertical, and azimuthal movement of the RPV within a nuclear reactor are described. In one embodiment, the support assembly includes a support block and a guide block. The support block includes a first portion and a second portion, and the first portion is rigidly coupled to the RPV adjacent the first portion. The guide block is rigidly coupled to a reactor pressure vessel support structure and includes a channel sized to receive the second portion of the support block. The second portion of the support block is positioned in the guide block channel to movably couple the guide block to the support block.

  6. The effect of an anisotropic pressure of thermal particles on resistive wall mode stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berkery, J. W. Sabbagh, S. A.; Betti, R.; Guazzotto, L.; Manickam, J.

    2014-11-15

    The effect of an anisotropic pressure of thermal particles on resistive wall mode stability in tokamak fusion plasmas is derived through kinetic theory and assessed through calculation with the MISK code [B. Hu et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 0?57301 (2005)]. The fluid anisotropy is treated as a small perturbation on the plasma equilibrium and modeled with a bi-Maxwellian distribution function. A complete stability treatment without an assumption of high frequency mode rotation leads to anisotropic kinetic terms in the dispersion relation in addition to anisotropy corrections to the fluid terms. With the density and the average pressure kept constant, when thermal particles have a higher temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field than parallel, the fluid pressure-driven ballooning destabilization term is reduced. Additionally, the stabilizing kinetic effects of the trapped thermal ions can be enhanced. Together these two effects can lead to a modest increase in resistive wall mode stability.

  7. Overview of new rules and recent changes in ASME code, Section VIII, pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farr, J.R.

    1995-12-01

    In this presentation, some of the new rules and recent changes to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 8, Divisions 1 and 2, are reviewed. On July 1, 1995, the 1995 Edition of the ASME Code was issued. This 1995 Edition incorporates those items which were added of changed in the 1992, 1993, and 1994 Addenda to the 1992 Edition of the Code. The 1995 Edition contains no new items which were not included in the previous edition and three addenda. With the possibility of an extended time before some of the new rules are able to appear in the addenda, the recent trend is to put the rules in Code Cases which are approved earlier. Consequently, it is necessary to review new Code Cases as well as Code changes. Updates continue for impact requirements for standard components as well as for materials other than UCS, carbon steel and low alloys. Extensive changes have been made for UHA, high-alloy, materials regarding impact requirements. Example problems have been revised to include these effects. Significant changes are reviewed.

  8. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2803)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. K. Wright; R. N. Wright

    2008-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic, or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development Program is responsible for performing research and development on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. Studies of potential Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels have been carried out as part of the pre-conceptual design studies. These design studies generally focus on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code status of the steels, temperature limits, and allowable stresses. Three realistic candidate materials have been identified by this process: conventional light water reactor RPV steels A508/533, 2¼Cr-1Mo in the annealed condition, and modified 9Cr 1Mo ferritic martenistic steel. Based on superior strength and higher temperature limits, the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel has been identified by the majority of design engineers as the preferred choice for the RPV. All of the vendors have concluded, however, that with adequate engineered cooling of the vessel, the A508/533 steels are also acceptable.

  9. Effect of dielectric wall temperature on plasma plume in an argon atmospheric pressure discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jian; Huo, Yuxin; Wang, Youyin; Yu, Daren, E-mail: yudaren@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Tang, Jingfeng; Wei, Liqiu [Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-10-15

    In this letter, the effect of the dielectric wall temperature on the length and volume of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is investigated using a single-electrode configuration driven with an AC power supply. To distinguish the APPJ status from the argon flow rate, the three modes, laminar, transition, and turbulent, are separated. When the dielectric wall is heated, the APPJ length and volume are enhanced. Also, the transition regions remarkably expand over a large range of flow rates. The results indicate that different factors contribute to the expansion of the transition region. The increase in the radial and axial velocities is the main cause of the expansion of the transition region to the low-velocity region. The expansion to the high-velocity region is dominantly induced by a change in the viscosity.

  10. Effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kausik, S. S.; Kakati, B.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)] [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)

    2013-05-15

    The effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma has been studied in a dusty plasma experimental setup by applying electrostatic field to each channel of a multicusp magnetic cage. Argon plasma is produced by hot cathode discharge method at a pressure of 510{sup ?4} millibars and is confined by a full line cusped magnetic field confinement system. Silver dust grains are produced by gas-evaporation technique and move upward in the form of a collimated dust beam due to differential pressure maintained between the dust and plasma chambers. The charged grains in the beam after coming out from the plasma column enter into the diagnostic chamber and are deflected by a dc field applied across a pair of deflector plates at different confining potentials. Both from the amount of deflection and the floating potential, the number of charges collected by the dust grains is calculated. Furthermore, the collimated dust beam strikes the Faraday cup, which is placed above the deflector plates, and the current (?pA) so produced is measured by an electrometer at different confining potentials. The experimental results demonstrate the significant effect of confining wall potential on charging of dust grains.

  11. Design practices in Japan for the super high pressure vessels and comparison with the ASME Code Sect. VIII Div. 3 (under preparation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onozawa, Tsutomu; Tahara, Takayasu

    1995-12-01

    Recently, super high pressure facilities have been increasing in the industrial area so that to establish the regulatory standard to regulate the super high pressure vessels is a matter of great urgency world widely to keep the industrial safety. Under such a situation, the author shows respect to the ASME Code Committee for their efforts to publish the super high pressure vessel code. Mr. Leslie P. Antalffy, Fluor Daniel, Incorporated, Houston, Texas presented a paper during the 1993 and 1994 ASME PVP Conferences that ASME Code Committee has been preparing the rules of Division 3 of Section 8 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and explained its outline. In this paper, the authors shows the current super high pressure vessel design practices in Japan and explain the merit and problem area of these formulas comparing with the ASME formula and necessary conditions for the fatigue analysis.

  12. Preliminary materials selection issues for the next generation nuclear plant reactor pressure vessel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Majumdar, S.; Shankar, P. S.; Shah, V. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-03-21

    In the coming decades, the United States and the entire world will need energy supplies to meet the growing demands due to population increase and increase in consumption due to global industrialization. One of the reactor system concepts, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), with helium as the coolant, has been identified as uniquely suited for producing hydrogen without consumption of fossil fuels or the emission of greenhouse gases [Generation IV 2002]. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected this system for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, to demonstrate emissions-free nuclear-assisted electricity and hydrogen production within the next 15 years. The NGNP reference concepts are helium-cooled, graphite-moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactors with a design goal outlet helium temperature of {approx}1000 C [MacDonald et al. 2004]. The reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. The use of molten salt coolant, especially for the transfer of heat to hydrogen production, is also being considered. The NGNP is expected to produce both electricity and hydrogen. The process heat for hydrogen production will be transferred to the hydrogen plant through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). The basic technology for the NGNP has been established in the former high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) and demonstration plants (DRAGON, Peach Bottom, AVR, Fort St. Vrain, and THTR). In addition, the technologies for the NGNP are being advanced in the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) project, and the South African state utility ESKOM-sponsored project to develop the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Furthermore, the Japanese HTTR and Chinese HTR-10 test reactors are demonstrating the feasibility of some of the planned components and materials. The proposed high operating temperatures in the VHTR place significant constraints on the choice of material selected for the reactor pressure vessel for both the PBMR and prismatic design. The main focus of this report is the RPV for both design concepts with emphasis on material selection.

  13. Evaluation on the Feasibility of Using Ultrasonic Testing of Reactor Pressure Vessel Welds for Assessing Flaw Density/Distribution per 10 CFR 50.61a, Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Edmund J.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2014-06-10

    This technical letter report provides the status of an assessment undertaken by PNNL at the request of the NRC to verify the capability of periodic ASME-required volumetric examinations of reactor vessels to characterize the density and distribution of flaws of interest for applying §50.61a on a plant-by-plant basis. The PTS rule, described in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Section 50.61 (§50.61), "Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events," establishes screening criteria to ensure that the potential for a reactor vessel to fail due to a PTS event is deemed to be acceptably low. Recently, the NRC completed a research program that concluded that the risk of through-wall cracking due to a PTS event is much lower than previously estimated. The NRC subsequently developed and promulgated an alternate PTS rule, §50.61a, that can be implemented by PWR licensees. The §50.61a rule differs from §50.61 in that it requires licensees who choose to follow this alternate method to analyze the results from periodic volumetric examinations required by the ASME Code, Section XI, Rules for Inservice Inspection (ISI) of Nuclear Power Plants.

  14. Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Milestone Report on Materials and Machining of Specimens for the ATR-2 Experiment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a light-water reactor (LWR) represents the first line of defense against a release of radiation in case of an accident. Thus, regulations, which govern the...

  15. Radial pressure flange seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Batzer, Thomas H. (Livermore, CA); Call, Wayne R. (Tracy, CA)

    1989-01-01

    This invention provides an all metal seal for vacuum or pressure vessels or systems. This invention does not use gaskets. The invention uses a flange which fits into a matching groove. Fluid pressure is applied in a chamber in the flange causing at least one of the flange walls to radially press against a side of the groove creating the seal between the flange wall and the groove side.

  16. Radial pressure flange seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1989-01-24

    This invention provides an all metal seal for vacuum or pressure vessels or systems. This invention does not use gaskets. The invention uses a flange which fits into a matching groove. Fluid pressure is applied in a chamber in the flange causing at least one of the flange walls to radially press against a side of the groove creating the seal between the flange wall and the groove side. 5 figs.

  17. Prediction and Monitoring Systems of Creep-Fracture Behavior of 9Cr-1Mo Steels for Teactor Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potirniche, Gabriel; Barlow, Fred D.; Charit, Indrajit; Rink, Karl

    2013-11-26

    A recent workshop on next-generation nuclear plant (NGNP) topics underscored the need for research studies on the creep fracture behavior of two materials under consideration for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) applications: 9Cr-1Mo and SA-5XX steels. This research project will provide a fundamental understanding of creep fracture behavior of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel welds for through modeling and experimentation and will recommend a design for an RPV structural health monitoring system. Following are the specific objectives of this research project: • Characterize metallurgical degradation in welded modified 9Cr-1Mo steel resulting from aging processes and creep service conditions. • Perform creep tests and characterize the mechanisms of creep fracture process. • Quantify how the microstructure degradation controls the creep strength of welded steel specimens. • Perform finite element (FE) simulations using polycrystal plasticity to understand how grain texture affects the creep fracture properties of welds. • Develop a microstructure-based creep fracture model to estimate RPVs service life . • Manufacture small, prototypic, cylindrical pressure vessels, subject them to degradation by aging, and measure their leak rates. • Simulate damage evolution in creep specimens by FE analyses. • Develop a model that correlates gas leak rates from welded pressure vessels with the amount of microstructural damage. • Perform large-scale FE simulations with a realistic microstructure to evaluate RPV performance at elevated temperatures and creep strength. • Develop a fracture model for the structural integrity of RPVs subjected to creep loads. • Develop a plan for a non-destructive structural health monitoring technique and damage detection device for RPVs.

  18. TECHNICAL BASIS AND APPLICATION OF NEW RULES ON FRACTURE CONTROL OF HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN VESSEL IN ASME SECTION VIII, DIVISION 3 CODE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawls, G

    2007-04-30

    As a part of an ongoing activity to develop ASME Code rules for the hydrogen infrastructure, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Committee approved new fracture control rules for Section VIII, Division 3 vessels in 2006. These rules have been incorporated into new Article KD-10 in Division 3. The new rules require determining fatigue crack growth rate and fracture resistance properties of materials in high pressure hydrogen gas. Test methods have been specified to measure these fracture properties, which are required to be used in establishing the vessel fatigue life. An example has been given to demonstrate the application of these new rules.

  19. Creep behavior of a nuclear pressure vessel under severe accident conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beghini, M.; Bertini, L.; Vitale, E.

    1996-12-31

    The results of a study on the creep behavior of the vessel lower head under severe accident conditions are reported. An experimental program aimed at the evaluation of the creep properties of A533grB steel at high temperature (800--1,100 C) and under biaxial loading is summarized and the main results reported. A Finite Element simulation of the lower head under severe accident conditions allows to show the effect of the main parameters affecting the time to rupture.

  20. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2803)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. K. Wright; R. N. Wright

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production, with an outlet gas temperature in the range of 750°C, and a design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic, or pebble bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. This technology development plan details the additional research and development (R&D) required to design and license the NGNP RPV, assuming that A 508/A 533 is the material of construction. The majority of additional information that is required is related to long-term aging behavior at NGNP vessel temperatures, which are somewhat above those commonly encountered in the existing database from LWR experience. Additional data are also required for the anticipated NGNP environment. An assessment of required R&D for a Grade 91 vessel has been retained from the first revision of the R&D plan in Appendix B in somewhat less detail. Considerably more development is required for this steel compared to A 508/A 533 including additional irradiation testing for expected NGNP operating temperatures, high-temperature mechanical properties, and extensive studies of long-term microstructural stability.

  1. Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharbaugh, John E. (Bullskin Township, Fayette County, PA)

    1987-01-01

    An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. The reactor vessel has an open top end, a closed flat bottom end wall and a continuous cylindrical closed side wall interconnecting the top end and bottom end wall. The reactor also has a generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and being formed by a cylindrical side wall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and a flat base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall. A central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and extends upwardly therefrom to the reactor vessel and upwardly therefrom to the reactor core so as to support the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and the lower end of the reactor core in spaced apart relationship above the containment structure base mat. Also, an annular reinforced support structure is disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall thereof and extends about the lower end of the core so as to support the periphery thereof. In addition, an annular support ring having a plurality of inward radially extending linear members is disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and is connected to and supports the reactor vessel at its bottom end on the containment structure base mat so as to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event. The reactor construction also includes a bed of insulating material in sand-like granular form, preferably being high density magnesium oxide particles, disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment structure base mat so as to insulate the reactor vessel bottom end wall from the containment structure base mat and allow the reactor vessel bottom end wall to freely expand as it heats up while providing continuous support thereof. Further, a deck is supported upon the side wall of the containment structure above the top open end of the reactor vessel, and a plurality of serially connected extendible and retractable annular bellows extend between the deck and the top open end of the reactor vessel and flexibly and sealably interconnect the reactor vessel at its top end to the deck. An annular guide ring is disposed on the containment structure and extends between its side wall and the top open end of the reactor vessel for providing lateral support of the reactor vessel top open end by limiting imposition of lateral loads on the annular bellows by the occurrence of a lateral seismic event.

  2. Safety Evaluation Report: Development of Improved Composite Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage, Lincoln Composites, Lincoln, NE, May 25, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fort, III, William C.; Kallman, Richard A.; Maes, Miguel; Skolnik, Edward G.; Weiner, Steven C.

    2010-12-22

    Lincoln Composites operates a facility for designing, testing, and manufacturing composite pressure vessels. Lincoln Composites also has a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to develop composite tanks for high-pressure hydrogen storage. The initial stage of this project involves testing the permeation of high-pressure hydrogen through polymer liners. The company recently moved and is constructing a dedicated research/testing laboratory at their new location. In the meantime, permeation tests are being performed in a corner of a large manufacturing facility. The safety review team visited the Lincoln Composites site on May 25, 2010. The project team presented an overview of the company and project and took the safety review team on a tour of the facility. The safety review team saw the entire process of winding a carbon fiber/resin tank on a liner, installing the boss and valves, and curing and painting the tank. The review team also saw the new laboratory that is being built for the DOE project and the temporary arrangement for the hydrogen permeation tests.

  3. Effects of Pore Distributions on Ductility of Thin-Walled High Pressure Die-Cast Magnesium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Li, Dongsheng; Sun, Xin; Li, Mei; Allison, John

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, a microstructure-based three-dimensional (3D) finite element modeling method is adopted to investigate the effects of porosity in thin-walled high pressure die-cast (HPDC) Magnesium alloys on their ductility. For this purpose, the cross-sections of AM60 casting samples are first examined using optical microscope and X-ray tomography to obtain the general information on the pore distribution features. The experimentally observed pore distribution features are then used to generate a series of synthetic microstructure-based 3D finite element models with different pore volume fractions and pore distribution features. Shear and ductile damage models are adopted in the finite element analyses to induce the fracture by element removal, leading to the prediction of ductility. The results in this study show that the ductility monotonically decreases as the pore volume fraction increases and that the effect of skin region on the ductility is noticeable under the condition of same local pore volume fraction in the center region of the sample and its existence can be beneficial for the improvement of ductility. The further synthetic microstructure-based 3D finite element analyses are planned to investigate the effects of pore size and pore size distribution.

  4. Experimental results of direct containment heating by high-pressure melt ejection into the Surtsey vessel: The DCH-3 and DCH-4 tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.; Brockmann, J.E.; Tarbell, W.W. ); Nichols, R.T. ); Sweet, D.W. )

    1991-08-01

    Two experiments, DCH-3 and DCH-4, were performed at the Surtsey test facility to investigate phenomena associated with a high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) reactor accident sequence resulting in direct containment heating (DCH). These experiments were performed using the same experimental apparatus with identical initial conditions, except that the Surtsey test vessel contained air in DCH-3 and argon in DCH-4. Inerting the vessel with argon eliminated chemical reactions between metallic debris and oxygen. Thus, a comparison of the pressure response in DCH-3 and DCH-4 gave an indication of the DCH contribution due to metal/oxygen reactions. 44 refs., 110 figs., 43 tabs.

  5. TEMP-STRESS analysis of a reinforced concrete vessel under internal pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchertas, A.H.; Kennedy, J.M.; Pfeiffer, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Prediction of the response of the Sandia National laboratory 1/6-scale reinforced concrete containment model test was obtained by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) employing a computer program developed by ANL. The test model was internally pressurized to failure. The two-dimensional code TEMP-STRESS (1-5) has been developed at ANL for stress analysis of plane and axisymmetric 2-D reinforced structures under various thermal conditions. The program is applicable to a wide variety of nonlinear problems, and is utilized in the present study. The comparison of these pretest computations with test data on the containment model should be a good indication of the state of the code.

  6. Pressure and concentration dependences of the autoignition temperature for normal butane + air mixtures in a closed vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandraratna, M.R.; Griffiths, J.F. . School of Chemistry)

    1994-12-01

    The condition at which autoignition occurs in lean premixed n-butane + air mixtures over the composition range 0.2%--2.5% n-butane by volume (0.06 < [phi] < 0.66) were investigated experimentally. Total reactant pressure from 0.1 to 0.6 MPa (1--6 atm) were studied in a spherical, stainless-steel, closed vessel (0.5 dm[sup 3]). There is a critical transition from nonignition to ignition, at pressures above 0.1 MPa, as the mixture is enriched in the vicinity of 1% fuel vapor by volume. There is also a region of multiplicity, which exhibits three critical temperatures at a given composition. Chemical analyses show that partially oxygenated components,including many o-heterocyclic compounds, are important products of the lean combustion of butane at temperatures up to 800 K. The critical conditions for autoignition are discussed with regard to industrial ignition hazards, especially in the context of the autoignition temperature of alkanes given by ASTM or BS tests. The differences between the behavior of n-butane and the higher n-alkanes are explained. The experimental results are also used as a basis for testing a reduced kinetic model to represent the oxidation and autoignition of n-butane or other alkanes.

  7. Composition and chemistry of particulates from the Tidd Clean Coal Demonstration Plant pressurized fluidized bed combustor, cyclone, and filter vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.H.; Grimm, U.; Haddad, G.

    1995-12-31

    In a Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC)/cyclone/filter system ground coal and sorbent are injected as pastes into the PFBC bed; the hot gases and entrained fine particles of ash and calcined or reacted sorbent are passed through a cyclone (which removes the larger entrained particles); and the very-fine particles that remain are then filtered out, so that the cleaned hot gas can be sent through a non-ruggedized hot-gas turbine. The 70 MWe Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant in Brilliant, Ohio was completed in late 1990. The initial design utilized seven strings of primary and secondary cyclones to remove 98% of the particulate matter. However, the Plant also included a pressurized filter vessel, placed between the primary and secondary cyclones of one of the seven strings. Coal and dolomitic limestone (i.e, SO{sub 2} sorbent) of various nominal sizes ranging from 12 to 18 mesh were injected into the combustor operating at about 10 atm pressure and 925{degree}C. The cyclone removed elutriated particles larger than about 0.025 mm, and particles larger than ca. 0.0005 mm were filtered at about 750{degree}C by ceramic candle filters. Thus, the chemical reaction times and temperatures, masses of material, particle-size distributions, and chemical compositions were substantially different for particulates removed from the bed drain, the cyclone drain, and the filter unit. Accordingly, we have measured the particle-size distributions and concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sulfur, silicon, and aluminum for material taken from the three units, and also determined the chemical formulas and predominant crystalline forms of the calcium and magnesium sulfate compounds formed. The latter information is particularly novel for the filter-cake material, from which we isolated the ``new`` compound Mg{sub 2}Ca(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.

  8. In-service Inspection Ultrasonic Testing of Reactor Pressure Vessel Welds for Assessing Flaw Density and Size Distribution per 10 CFR 50.61a, Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Edmund J.; Anderson, Michael T.; Norris, Wallace

    2012-09-17

    Pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events are system transients in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) in which there is a rapid operating temperature cool-down that results in cold vessel temperatures with or without repressurization of the vessel. The rapid cooling of the inside surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) causes thermal stresses that can combine with stresses caused by high pressure. The aggregate effect of these stresses is an increase in the potential for fracture if a pre-existing flaw is present in a material susceptible to brittle failure. The ferritic, low alloy steel of the reactor vessel beltline adjacent to the core, where neutron radiation gradually embrittles the material over the lifetime of the plant, can be susceptible to brittle fracture. The PTS rule, described in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Section 50.61 (50.61), Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events, adopted on July 23, 1985, establishes screening criteria to ensure that the potential for a reactor vessel to fail due to a PTS event is deemed to be acceptably low. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) completed a research program that concluded that the risk of through-wall cracking due to a PTS event is much lower than previously estimated. The NRC subsequently developed a rule, 50.61a, published on January 4, 2010, entitled Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events (75 FR 13). Use of the new rule by licensees is optional. The 50.61a rule differs from 50.61 in that it requires licensees who choose to follow this alternate method to analyze the results from periodic volumetric examinations required by the ASME Code, Section XI, Rules for Inservice Inspection (ISI) of Nuclear Power Plants. These analyses are intended to determine if the actual flaw density and size distribution in the licensees reactor vessel beltline welds are bounded by the flaw density and size distribution values used in the PTS technical basis. Under a contract with the NRC, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been working on a program to assess the ability of current inservice inspection (ISI)-ultrasonic testing (UT) techniques, as qualified through ASME Code, Appendix VIII, Supplements 4 and 6, to detect small fabrication or inservice-induced flaws located in RPV welds and adjacent base materials. As part of this effort, the investigators have pursued an evaluation, based on the available information, of the capability of UT to provide flaw density/distribution inputs for making RPV weld assessments in accordance with 50.61a. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of data from the 1993 Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Unit 3, Spirit of Appendix VIII reactor vessel examination, a comparison of the flaw density/distribution from this data with the distribution in 50.61a, possible reasons for differences, and plans and recommendations for further work in this area.

  9. BIOASSAY VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-22

    Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest cross-section of the octagonal vessel. No material flaws were found in the vessel that would impair its structural performance. Content weight should be minimized to reduce operating temperature and pressure. Outer vessel life is dependent on actual temperature exposure. Since thermal aging of the vessels can be detrimental to their performance, it was recommended that the vessels be used for a limited number of cycles to be determined by additional testing.

  10. Roadmap for Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessel Research and Development by the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Cyrus M; Nanstad, Randy K; Clayton, Dwight A; Matlack, Katie; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Light, Glenn

    2012-09-01

    The Department of Energy s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a five year effort which works to develop the fundamental scientific basis to understand, predict, and measure changes in materials and systems, structure, and components as they age in environments associated with continued long-term operations of existing commercial nuclear power reactors. This year, the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) Pathway of this program has placed emphasis on emerging Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods which support these objectives. DOE funded Research and Development (R&D) on emerging NDE techniques to support commercial nuclear reactor sustainability is expected to begin next year. This summer, the MAaD Pathway invited subject matter experts to participate in a series of workshops which developed the basis for the research plan of these DOE R&D NDE activities. This document presents the results of one of these workshops which are the DOE LWRS NDE R&D Roadmap for Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV). These workshops made a substantial effort to coordinate the DOE NDE R&D with that already underway or planned by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) through their representation at these workshops.

  11. Method of fabricating a prestressed cast iron vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A method of fabricating a prestressed cast iron vessel wherein double wall cast iron body segments each have an arcuate inner wall and a spaced apart substantially parallel outer wall with a plurality of radially extending webs interconnecting the inner wall and the outer wall, the bottom surface and the two exposed radial side surfaces of each body segment are machined and eight body segments are formed into a ring. The top surfaces and outer surfaces of the outer walls are machined and keyways are provided across the juncture of adjacent end walls of the body segments. A liner segment complementary in shape to a selected inner wall of one of the body segments is mounted to each of the body segments and again formed into a ring. The liner segments of each ring are welded to form unitary liner rings and thereafter the cast iron body segments are prestressed to complete the ring assembly. Ring assemblies are stacked to form the vessel and adjacent unitary liner rings are welded. A top head covers the top ring assembly to close the vessel and axially extending tendons retain the top and bottom heads in place under pressure.

  12. Atom probe tomography characterization of neutron irradiated surveillance samples from the R. E. Ginna reactor pressure vessel

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Edmondson, Philip D.; Miller, Michael K.; Powers, Kathy A.; Nanstad, Randy K.

    2015-12-29

    Surveillance samples of a low copper (nominally 0.05 wt.% Cu) forging and a higher copper (0.23 wt.% Cu) submerged arc weld from the R. E. Ginna reactor pressure vessel have been characterized by atom probe tomography (APT) after exposure to three levels of neutron irradiation, i.e., fluences of 1.7, 3.6 and 5.8 × 1023 n.m–2 (E > 1 MeV), and inlet temperatures of ~289 °C (~552 °F). As no copper-enriched precipitates were observed in the low copper forging, and the measured copper content in the ferrite matrix was 0.04± <0.01 at.% Cu, after neutron irradiation to a fluence of 1.7more » × 1023 n.m–3, this copper level was below the solubility limit. A number density of 2 × 1022 m–3 of Ni–, Mn– Si-enriched precipitates with an equivalent radius of gyration of 1.7 ± 0.4 nm were detected in the sample. However, Cu-, Ni-, Mn-enriched precipitates were observed in specimens cut from different surveillance specimens from the same forging material in which the overall measured copper level was 0.08± <0.01 at.% (fluence of 3.6 × 1023 n.m–3) and 0.09± <0.01 at.% Cu (fluence of 5.8 × 1023 n.m–3). Therefore, these slightly higher copper contents were above the solubility limit of Cu under these irradiation conditions. A best fit of all the composition data indicated that the size and number density of the Cu-enriched precipitates increased slightly in both size and number density by additional exposure to neutron irradiation. High number densities of Cu-enriched precipitates were observed in the higher Cu submerged arc weld for all irradiated conditions. The size and number density of the precipitates in the welds were higher than in the same fluence forgings. Some Cu-enriched precipitates were found to have Ni-, Mn- Si-, and P-enriched regions on their surfaces suggesting a preferential nucleation site. Furthermore, atom maps revealed P, Ni, and Mn segregation to, and preferential precipitation of, Cu-enriched precipitates over the surface of a grain boundary in the low fluence weld.« less

  13. Specifications for the development of BUGLE-93: An ENDF/B-VI multigroup cross section library for LWR shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, J.E.; Wright, R.Q.; Roussin, R.W.; Ingersoll, D.T.

    1992-11-01

    This report discusses specifications which have been developed for a new multigroup cross section library based on ENDF/B-VI data for light water reactor shielding and reactor pressure vessel dosimetry applications. The resulting broad-group library and an intermediate fine-group library are defined by the specifications provided in this report. Processing ENDF/B-VI into multigroup format for use in radiation transport codes will provide radiation shielding analysts with the most currently available nuclear data. it is expected that the general nature of the specifications will be useful in other applications such as reactor physics.

  14. Review of industry efforts to manage pressurized water reactor feedwater nozzle, piping, and feedring cracking and wall thinning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, V.N.; Ware, A.G.; Porter, A.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents a review of nuclear industry efforts to manage thermal fatigue, flow-accelerated corrosion, and water hammer damage to pressurized water reactor (PWR) feedwater nozzles, piping, and feedrings. The review includes an evaluation of design modifications, operating procedure changes, augmented inspection and monitoring programs, and mitigation, repair and replacement activities. Four actions were taken: (a) review of field experience to identify trends of operating events, (b) review of technical literature, (c) visits to PWR plants and a PWR vendor, and (d) solicitation of information from 8 other countries. Assessment of field experience is that licensees have apparently taken sufficient action to minimize feedwater nozzle cracking caused by thermal fatigue and wall thinning of J-tubes and feedwater piping. Specific industry actions to minimize the wall-thinning in feedrings and thermal sleeves were not found, but visual inspection and necessary repairs are being performed. Assessment of field experience indicates that licensees have taken sufficient action to minimize steam generator water hammer in both top-feed and preheat steam generators. Industry efforts to minimize multiple check valve failures that have allowed backflow of steam from a steam generator and have played a major role in several steam generator water hammer events were not evaluated. A major finding of this review is that analysis, inspection, monitoring, mitigation, and replacement techniques have been developed for managing thermal fatigue and flow-accelerated corrosion damage to feedwater nozzles, piping, and feedrings. Adequate training and appropriate applications of these techniques would ensure effective management of this damage.

  15. Dissolver vessel bottom assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilian, Douglas C.

    1976-01-01

    An improved bottom assembly is provided for a nuclear reactor fuel reprocessing dissolver vessel wherein fuel elements are dissolved as the initial step in recovering fissile material from spent fuel rods. A shock-absorbing crash plate with a convex upper surface is disposed at the bottom of the dissolver vessel so as to provide an annular space between the crash plate and the dissolver vessel wall. A sparging ring is disposed within the annular space to enable a fluid discharged from the sparging ring to agitate the solids which deposit on the bottom of the dissolver vessel and accumulate in the annular space. An inlet tangential to the annular space permits a fluid pumped into the annular space through the inlet to flush these solids from the dissolver vessel through tangential outlets oppositely facing the inlet. The sparging ring is protected against damage from the impact of fuel elements being charged to the dissolver vessel by making the crash plate of such a diameter that the width of the annular space between the crash plate and the vessel wall is less than the diameter of the fuel elements.

  16. Predicting the Influence of Pore Characteristics on Ductility of Thin-Walled High Pressure Die Casting Magnesium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Li, Dongsheng

    2013-06-10

    In this paper, a two-dimensional microstructure-based finite element modeling method is adopted to investigate the effects of porosity in thin-walled high pressure die casting Mg materials on their ductility. For this purpose, the cross-sections of AM50 and AM60 casting samples are first examined using optical microscope to obtain the overall information on the pore characteristics. The experimentally quantified pore characteristics are then used to generate a series of synthetic microstructures with different pore sizes, pore volume fractions and pore size distributions. Pores are explicitly represented in the synthetic microstructures and meshed out for the subsequent finite element analysis. In the finite element analysis, an intrinsic critical strain value is used for the Mg matrix material, beyond which work-hardening is no longer permissible. With no artificial failure criterion prescribed, ductility levels are predicted for the various microstructures in the form of strain localization. Mesh size effect study is also conducted, from which a mesh size dependent critical strain curve is determined. A concept of scalability of pore size effects is then presented and examined with the use of the mesh size dependent critical strain curve. The results in this study show that, for the regions with lower pore size and lower volume fraction, the ductility generally decreases as the pore size and pore volume fraction increase whereas, for the regions with larger pore size and larger pore volume fraction, other factors such as the mean distance between the pores begin to have some substantial influence on the ductility. The results also indicate that the pore size effects may be scalable for the models with good-representative pore shape and distribution with the use of the mesh size dependent critical strain curve.

  17. Particle Imaging Velocimetry Technique Development for Laboratory Measurement of Fracture Flow Inside a Pressure Vessel Using Neutron Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polsky, Yarom; Bingham, Philip R; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Carmichael, Justin R

    2015-01-01

    This paper will describe recent progress made in developing neutron imaging based particle imaging velocimetry techniques for visualizing and quantifying flow structure through a high pressure flow cell with high temperature capability (up to 350 degrees C). This experimental capability has great potential for improving the understanding of flow through fractured systems in applications such as enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). For example, flow structure measurement can be used to develop and validate single phase flow models used for simulation, experimentally identify critical transition regions and their dependence on fracture features such as surface roughness, and study multiphase fluid behavior within fractured systems. The developed method involves the controlled injection of a high contrast fluid into a water flow stream to produce droplets that can be tracked using neutron radiography. A description of the experimental setup will be provided along with an overview of the algorithms used to automatically track droplets and relate them to the velocity gradient in the flow stream. Experimental results will be reported along with volume of fluids based simulation techniques used to model observed flow.

  18. Development of automated welding process for field fabrication of thick walled pressure vessels. Technical progress report, second quarter, FY 1980, ending March 28, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, U.A.

    1980-01-01

    Progress on a metallurgical contract is reported: (1) specifications of 2 1/4 chromium-1 molybdenum low alloy steel plate for a coal gasification project; (2) methods of welding and analyses of helium-argon mixtures for welding; and (3) tensile properties of welded joints. (LTN)

  19. Vessel structural support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenko, James X. (N. Versailles, PA); Ott, Howard L. (Kiski Twp., Allegheny County, PA); Wilson, Robert M. (Plum Boro, PA); Wepfer, Robert M. (Murrysville, PA)

    1992-01-01

    Vessel structural support system for laterally and vertically supporting a vessel, such as a nuclear steam generator having an exterior bottom surface and a side surface thereon. The system includes a bracket connected to the bottom surface. A support column is pivotally connected to the bracket for vertically supporting the steam generator. The system also includes a base pad assembly connected pivotally to the support column for supporting the support column and the steam generator. The base pad assembly, which is capable of being brought to a level position by turning leveling nuts, is anchored to a floor. The system further includes a male key member attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a female stop member attached to an adjacent wall. The male key member and the female stop member coact to laterally support the steam generator. Moreover, the system includes a snubber assembly connected to the side surface of the steam generator and also attached to the adjacent wall for dampening lateral movement of the steam generator. In addition, the system includes a restraining member of "flat" attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a bumper attached to the adjacent wall. The flat and the bumper coact to further laterally support the steam generator.

  20. Wall Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-10-01

    This fact sheet provides information on advanced wall framing, including insulating walls, airtight construction, and moisture control.

  1. LPG storage vessel cracking experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantwell, J.E. )

    1988-10-01

    In order to evaluate liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) handling and storage hazards, Caltex Petroleum Corp. (Dallas) surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one-third of the storage vessels. In most cases, the cracking appeared to be due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems found were due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. This article's recommendations concern minimizing cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

  2. LPG storage vessel cracking experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantwell, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    As part of an overall company program to evaluate LPG handling and storage hazards the authors surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one third of the storage vessels. In most cases the cracking appeared due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide were found. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. Recommendations are made to minimize cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

  3. 6151 Pressure Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For design, fabrication, testing, repair, modification and inspection are based on the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section ...

  4. Microsoft Word - Errata for the Pressure and Vacuum Systems Safety Supplement 3-15

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PRESSURE VESSEL REGISTRATION FORM PS-4 Pressure System Number: Date: Pressure System Name: Pressure Vessel Number: P&ID Number: Pressure Vessel Description: MAWP/Design Pressure: Design Temperature: Operating Pressure: Operating Temperature: Code: Code Year: System Fluid: Fluid Category: Fluid State: VESSEL DATA ASME Stamp Type ___U Stamp ____UM Stamp ___Other (specify) Vessel Type: __Air Tank __Water Tank __Non-Flam Gas Tank __Flam Gas Tank __Other (specify) Vessel Manufacturer National

  5. Molten metal containment vessel with rare earth oxysulfide protective coating thereon and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krikorian, Oscar H.; Curtis, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    An improved molten metal containment vessel is disclosed in which wetting of the vessel's inner wall surfaces by molten metal is inhibited by coating at least the inner surfaces of the containment vessel with one or more rare earth oxysulfide or rare earth sulfide compounds to inhibit wetting and or adherence by the molten metal to the surfaces of the containment vessel.

  6. Pressure surge attenuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Alan M. (Swissvale, PA); Snyder, Kurt I. (Murrysville, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A pressure surge attenuation system for pipes having a fluted region opposite crushable metal foam. As adapted for nuclear reactor vessels and heads, crushable metal foam is disposed to attenuate pressure surges.

  7. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2007-02-20

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  8. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward (Allentown, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Chen, Christopher M. (Allentown, PA); Armstrong, Phillip Andrew (Orefield, PA); Wahle, Harold W. (North Canton, OH); Ohrn, Theodore R. (Alliance, OH); Kneidel, Kurt E. (Alliance, OH); Rackers, Keith Gerard (Louisville, OH); Blake, James Erik (Uniontown, OH); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson (West Jordan, UT)

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  9. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward (Allentown, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Chen, Christopher M. (Allentown, PA); Armstrong, Phillip Andrew (Orefield, PA); Wahle, Harold W. (North Canton, OH); Ohrn, Theodore R. (Alliance, OH); Kneidel, Kurt E. (Alliance, OH); Rackers, Keith Gerard (Louisville, OH); Blake, James Erik (Uniontown, OH); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson (West Jordan, UT)

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  10. Nuclear reactor vessel fuel thermal insulating barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keegan, C. Patrick; Scobel, James H.; Wright, Richard F.

    2013-03-19

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel that has a hemispherical lower section that increases in volume from the center line of the reactor to the outer extent of the diameter of the thermal insulating barrier and smoothly transitions up the side walls of the vessel. The space between the thermal insulating harrier and the reactor vessel forms a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive inlet valve for the cooling water includes a buoyant door that is normally maintained sealed under its own weight and floats open when the cavity is Hooded. Passively opening steam vents are also provided.

  11. Structural Analysis of the NCSX Vacuum Vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Dahlgren; Art Brooks; Paul Goranson; Mike Cole; Peter Titus

    2004-09-28

    The NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) vacuum vessel has a rather unique shape being very closely coupled topologically to the three-fold stellarator symmetry of the plasma it contains. This shape does not permit the use of the common forms of pressure vessel analysis and necessitates the reliance on finite element analysis. The current paper describes the NCSX vacuum vessel stress analysis including external pressure, thermal, and electro-magnetic loading from internal plasma disruptions and bakeout temperatures of up to 400 degrees centigrade. Buckling and dynamic loading conditions are also considered.

  12. Coal gasification vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, Billy W. (Oakland, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  13. EDS V25 containment vessel explosive qualification test report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudolphi, John Joseph

    2012-04-01

    The V25 containment vessel was procured by the Project Manager, Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PMNSCM) as a replacement vessel for use on the P2 Explosive Destruction Systems. It is the first EDS vessel to be fabricated under Code Case 2564 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which provides rules for the design of impulsively loaded vessels. The explosive rating for the vessel based on the Code Case is nine (9) pounds TNT-equivalent for up to 637 detonations. This limit is an increase from the 4.8 pounds TNT-equivalency rating for previous vessels. This report describes the explosive qualification tests that were performed in the vessel as part of the process for qualifying the vessel for explosive use. The tests consisted of a 11.25 pound TNT equivalent bare charge detonation followed by a 9 pound TNT equivalent detonation.

  14. Reactor Vessel and Reactor Vessel Internals Segmentation at Zion Nuclear Power Station - 13230

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, Conrad; Spann, Holger

    2013-07-01

    Zion Nuclear Power Station (ZNPS) is a dual-unit Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant located on the Lake Michigan shoreline, in the city of Zion, Illinois approximately 64 km (40 miles) north of Chicago, Illinois and 67 km (42 miles) south of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Each PWR is of the Westinghouse design and had a generation capacity of 1040 MW. Exelon Corporation operated both reactors with the first unit starting production of power in 1973 and the second unit coming on line in 1974. The operation of both reactors ceased in 1996/1997. In 2010 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved the transfer of Exelon Corporation's license to ZionSolutions, the Long Term Stewardship subsidiary of EnergySolutions responsible for the decommissioning of ZNPS. In October 2010, ZionSolutions awarded Siempelkamp Nuclear Services, Inc. (SNS) the contract to plan, segment, remove, and package both reactor vessels and their respective internals. This presentation discusses the tools employed by SNS to remove and segment the Reactor Vessel Internals (RVI) and Reactor Vessels (RV) and conveys the recent progress. SNS's mechanical segmentation tooling includes the C-HORCE (Circumferential Hydraulically Operated Cutting Equipment), BMT (Bolt Milling Tool), FaST (Former Attachment Severing Tool) and the VRS (Volume Reduction Station). Thermal segmentation of the reactor vessels will be accomplished using an Oxygen- Propane cutting system. The tools for internals segmentation were designed by SNS using their experience from other successful reactor and large component decommissioning and demolition (D and D) projects in the US. All of the designs allow for the mechanical segmentation of the internals remotely in the water-filled reactor cavities. The C-HORCE is designed to saw seven circumferential cuts through the Core Barrel and Thermal Shield walls with individual thicknesses up to 100 mm (4 inches). The BMT is designed to remove the bolts that fasten the Baffle Plates to the Baffle Former Plates. The FaST is designed to remove the Baffle Former Plates from the Core Barrel. The VRS further volume reduces segmented components using multiple configurations of the 38i and horizontal reciprocating saws. After the successful removal and volume reduction of the Internals, the RV will be segmented using a 'First in the US' thermal cutting process through a co-operative effort with Siempelkamp NIS Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH using their experience at the Stade NPP and Karlsruhe in Germany. SNS mobilized in the fall of 2011 to commence execution of the project in order to complete the RVI segmentation, removal and packaging activities for the first unit (Unit 2) by end of the 2012/beginning 2013 and then mobilize to the second unit, Unit 1. Parallel to the completion of the segmentation of the reactor vessel internals at Unit 1, SNS will segment the Unit 2 pressure vessel and at completion move to Unit 1. (authors)

  15. Static-stress analysis of dual-axis safety vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bultman, D.H.

    1992-11-01

    An 8-ft-diameter safety vessel, made of HSLA-100 steel, is evaluated to determine its ability to contain the quasi-static residual pressure from a high-explosive (HE) blast. The safety vessel is designed for use with the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrotest (DARHT) facility being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A smaller confinement vessel fits inside the safety vessel and contains the actual explosion, and the safety vessel functions as a second layer of containment in the unlikely case of a confinement vessel leak. The safety vessel is analyzed as a pressure vessel based on the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1, and the Welding Research Council Bulletin, WRC107. Combined stresses that result from internal pressure and external loads on nozzles are calculated and compared to the allowable stresses for HSLA-100 steel. Results confirm that the shell and nozzle components are adequately designed for a static pressure of 830 psi, plus the maximum expected external loads. Shell stresses at the shellto-nozzle interface, produced from external loads on the nozzles, were less than 700 psi. The maximum combined stress resulting from the internal pressure plus external loads was 17,384 psi, which is significantly less than the allowable stress of 42,375 psi for HSLA-100 steel.

  16. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

  17. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

  18. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system with directed internal gas flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holmes, Michael Jerome (Thompson, ND); Ohrn, Theodore R. (Alliance, OH); Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh (Allentown, PA)

    2010-02-09

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an inlet adapted to introduce gas into the interior of the vessel, an outlet adapted to withdraw gas from the interior of the vessel, and an axis; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region; and (c) one or more gas flow control partitions disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and adapted to change a direction of gas flow within the vessel.

  19. Static-stress analysis of dual-axis confinement vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bultman, D.H.

    1992-11-01

    This study evaluates the static-pressure containment capability of a 6-ft-diameter, spherical vessel, made of HSLA-100 steel, to be used for high-explosive (HE) containment. The confinement vessel is designed for use with the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrotest Facility (DARHT) being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two sets of openings in the vessel are covered with x-ray transparent covers to allow radiographic imaging of an explosion as it occurs inside the vessel. The confinement vessel is analyzed as a pressure vessel based on the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1, and the Welding Research Council Bulletin, WRC-107. Combined stresses resulting from internal pressure and external loads on nozzles are calculated and compared with the allowable stresses for HSLA-100 steel. Results confirm that the shell and nozzles of the confinement vessel are adequately designed to safely contain the maximum residual pressure of 1675 psi that would result from an HE charge of 24.2 kg detonated in a vacuum. Shell stresses at the shell-to-nozzle interface, produced from external loads on the nozzles, were less than 400 psi. The maximum combined stress resulting from the internal pressure plus external loads was 16,070 psi, which is less than half the allowable stress of 42,375 psi for HSLA-100 steel.

  20. Confinement Vessel Assay System: Calibration and Certification Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frame, Katherine C.; Bourne, Mark M.; Crooks, William J.; Evans, Louise; Gomez, Cipriano; Mayo, Douglas R.; Miko, David K.; Salazar, William R.; Stange, Sy; Vigil, Georgiana M.

    2012-07-17

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1 to 2 inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. The Confinement Vessel Assay System (CVAS) was developed to measure the amount of SNM in CVs before and after cleanout. Prior to cleanout, the system will be used to perform a verification measurement of each vessel. After cleanout, the system will be used to perform safeguards-quality assays of {le} 100-g {sup 239}Pu equivalent in a vessel for safeguards termination. The system was calibrated in three different mass regions (low, medium, and high) to cover the entire plutonium mass range that will be assayed. The low mass calibration and medium mass calibration were verified for material positioned in the center of an empty vessel. The systematic uncertainty due to position bias was estimated using an MCNPX model to simulate the response of the system to material localized at various points along the inner surface of the vessel. The background component due to cosmic ray spallation was determined by performing measurements of an empty vessel and comparing to measurements in the same location with no vessel present. The CVAS has been tested and calibrated in preparation for verification and safeguards measurements of CVs before and after cleanout.

  1. A comparison of hydrogen vs. helium glow discharge effects on fusion device first-wall conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dylla, H.F.

    1989-09-01

    Hydrogen- and deuterium-fueled glow discharges are used for the initial conditioning of magnetic fusion device vacuum vessels following evacuation from atmospheric pressure. Hydrogenic glow discharge conditioning (GDC) significantly reduces the near-surface concentration of simple adsorbates, such as H/sub 2/O, CO, and CH/sub 4/, and lowers ion-induced desorption coefficients by typically three orders of magnitude. The time evolution of the residual gas production observed during hydrogen-glow discharge conditioning of the carbon first-wall structure of the TFTR device is similar to the time evolution observed during hydrogen GDC of the initial first-wall configuration in TFTR, which was primarily stainless steel. Recently, helium GDC has been investigated for several wall-conditioning tasks on a number of tokamaks including TFTR. Helium GDC shows negligible impurity removal with stainless steel walls. For impurity conditioning with carbon walls, helium GDC shows significant desorption of H/sub 2/O, CO, and CO/sub 2/; however, the total desorption yield is limited to the monolayer range. In addition, helium GDC can be used to displace hydrogen isotopes from the near-surface region of carbon first-walls in order to lower hydrogenic retention and recycling. 38 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Cover Heated, Open Vessels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet on covering heated, open vessels provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  3. Inexpensive Delivery of Compressed Hydrogen with Advanced Vessel Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Inexpensive Delivery of Compressed Hydrogen with Advanced Vessel Technology Inexpensive Delivery of Compressed Hydrogen with Advanced Vessel Technology Presentation on inexpensive delivery of compressed hydrogen with advanced vessel technology. PDF icon wkshp_storage_berry.pdf More Documents & Publications President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Overview of FreedomCAR & Fuels Partnership/DOE Delivery Program High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks

  4. Device for inspecting vessel surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Appel, D. Keith (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01

    A portable, remotely-controlled inspection crawler for use along the walls of tanks, vessels, piping and the like. The crawler can be configured to use a vacuum chamber for supporting itself on the inspected surface by suction or a plurality of magnetic wheels for moving the crawler along the inspected surface. The crawler is adapted to be equipped with an ultrasonic probe for mapping the structural integrity or other characteristics of the surface being inspected. Navigation of the crawler is achieved by triangulation techniques between a signal transmitter on the crawler and a pair of microphones attached to a fixed, remote location, such as the crawler's deployment unit. The necessary communications are established between the crawler and computers external to the inspection environment for position control and storage and/or monitoring of data acquisition.

  5. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI)

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  6. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  7. Reactor vessel support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Martin P. (Trafford, PA); Holley, John C. (McKeesport, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  8. Using SA508/533 for the HTGR Vessel Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Demick

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines the influence of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) module power rating and normal operating temperatures on the use of SA508/533 material for the HTGR vessel system with emphasis on the calculated times at elevated temperatures approaching or exceeding ASME Code Service Limits (Levels B&C) to which the reactor pressure vessel could be exposed during postulated pressurized and depressurized conduction cooldown events over its design lifetime.

  9. Tow Vessel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tow Vessel Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleTowVessel&oldid596390" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  10. R&D of Large Stationary Hydrogen/CNG/HCNG Storage Vessels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 – 29, 2010, in Beijing, China.

  11. Pressurizer tank upper support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, T.H.; Ott, H.L.

    1994-01-11

    A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90[degree] intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure. 10 figures.

  12. Pressurizer tank upper support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Tod H. (O'Hara Township, Allegheny County, PA); Ott, Howard L. (Kiski Township, Armstrong County, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90.degree. intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure.

  13. Nuclear reactor having a polyhedral primary shield and removable vessel insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekeroth, Douglas E. (Delmont, PA); Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is provided having a generally cylindrical reactor vessel disposed within an opening in a primary shield. The opening in the primary shield is defined by a plurality of generally planar side walls forming a generally polyhedral-shaped opening. The reactor vessel is supported within the opening in the primary shield by reactor vessel supports which are in communication and aligned with central portions of some of the side walls. The reactor vessel is connected to the central portions of the reactor vessel supports. A thermal insulation polyhedron formed from a plurality of slidably insertable and removable generally planar insulation panels substantially surrounds at least a portion of the reactor vessel and is disposed between the reactor vessel and the side walls of the primary shield. The shape of the insulation polyhedron generally corresponds to the shape of the opening in the primary shield. Reactor monitoring instrumentation may be mounted in the corners of the opening in the primary shield between the side walls and the reactor vessel such that insulation is not disposed between the instrumentation and the reactor vessel.

  14. Nuclear reactor having a polyhedral primary shield and removable vessel insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekeroth, D.E.; Orr, R.

    1993-12-07

    A nuclear reactor is provided having a generally cylindrical reactor vessel disposed within an opening in a primary shield. The opening in the primary shield is defined by a plurality of generally planar side walls forming a generally polyhedral-shaped opening. The reactor vessel is supported within the opening in the primary shield by reactor vessel supports which are in communication and aligned with central portions of some of the side walls. The reactor vessel is connected to the central portions of the reactor vessel supports. A thermal insulation polyhedron formed from a plurality of slidably insertable and removable generally planar insulation panels substantially surrounds at least a portion of the reactor vessel and is disposed between the reactor vessel and the side walls of the primary shield. The shape of the insulation polyhedron generally corresponds to the shape of the opening in the primary shield. Reactor monitoring instrumentation may be mounted in the corners of the opening in the primary shield between the side walls and the reactor vessel such that insulation is not disposed between the instrumentation and the reactor vessel. 5 figures.

  15. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webber, Nels W.

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  16. Pressure suppression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein.

  17. Pressure suppression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1994-10-04

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein. 3 figs.

  18. Pressure sensor for sealed containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hodges, Franklin R. (Loudon, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic pressure sensor for sensing a pressure change inside a sealed container. The sensor includes a sealed deformable vessel having a first end attachable to an interior surface of the sealed container, and a second end. A magnet mounted to the vessel second end defining a distance away from the container surface provides an externally detectable magnetic field. A pressure change inside the sealed container causes deformation of the vessel changing the distance of the magnet away from the container surface, and thus the detectable intensity of the magnetic field.

  19. Reactor vessel annealing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Phillip E. (Greensburg, PA); Katz, Leonoard R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Nath, Raymond J. (Murrysville, PA); Blaushild, Ronald M. (Export, PA); Tatch, Michael D. (Randolph, NJ); Kordalski, Frank J. (White Oak, PA); Wykstra, Donald T. (Pittsburgh, PA); Kavalkovich, William M. (Monroeville, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A system for annealing a vessel (14) in situ by heating the vessel (14) to a defined temperature, composed of: an electrically operated heater assembly (10) insertable into the vessel (14) for heating the vessel (14) to the defined temperature; temperature monitoring components positioned relative to the heater assembly (10) for monitoring the temperature of the vessel (14); a controllable electric power supply unit (32-60) for supplying electric power required by the heater assembly (10); a control unit (80-86) for controlling the power supplied by the power supply unit (32-60); a first vehicle (2) containing the power supply unit (32-60); a second vehicle (4) containing the control unit (80-86); power conductors (18,22) connectable between the power supply unit (32-60) and the heater unit (10) for delivering the power supplied by the power supply unit (32-60) to the heater assembly (10); signal conductors (20,24) connectable between the temperature monitoring components and the control unit (80-86) for delivering temperature indicating signals from the temperature monitoring components to the control unit (80-86); and control conductors (8) connectable between the control unit (80-86) and the power supply unit (32-60) for delivering to the power supply unit (32-60) control signals for controlling the level of power supplied by the power supply unit (32-60) to the heater assembly (10).

  20. Near-wall serpentine cooled turbine airfoil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2014-10-28

    A serpentine coolant flow path is formed by inner walls in a cavity between pressure and suction side walls of a turbine airfoil, the cavity partitioned by one or more transverse partitions into a plurality of continuous serpentine cooling flow streams each having a respective coolant inlet.

  1. Photoacoustic removal of occlusions from blood vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visuri, Steven R. (Livermore, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Celliers, Peter M. (Berkeley, CA); London, Richard A. (Orinda, CA); Maitland, IV, Duncan J. (Lafayette, CA); Esch, Victor C. (San Francisco, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Partial or total occlusions of fluid passages within the human body are removed by positioning an array of optical fibers in the passage and directing treatment radiation pulses along the fibers, one at a time, to generate a shock wave and hydrodynamics flows that strike and emulsify the occlusions. A preferred application is the removal of blood clots (thrombin and embolic) from small cerebral vessels to reverse the effects of an ischemic stroke. The operating parameters and techniques are chosen to minimize the amount of heating of the fragile cerebral vessel walls occurring during this photo acoustic treatment. One such technique is the optical monitoring of the existence of hydrodynamics flow generating vapor bubbles when they are expected to occur and stopping the heat generating pulses propagated along an optical fiber that is not generating such bubbles.

  2. Economic advantages of Division 2 design for vessels per ASME Code Section VIII

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lengsfeld, M.; Holman, R.; Lengsfeld, P.F.

    1995-12-01

    ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section 8, Division 2 has been available since 1968 for the design of pressure equipment. Industry has generally accepted this code for the design of high pressure vessels, high pressure being relative. Some consider high pressure above 3,000 PSIG, others look at high pressure above 1,000 or 1,500 PSIG. There are organizations who tie the use of Division 2 to thickness, meaning vessels in a thickness range above 3 to 4 inches as worthwhile to design to Division 2. In this paper the authors discuss the use of Division 2 strictly as an economic issue. Independent of thickness, if say a 3/4 in. thick vessel is lower in cost designed to Division 2 vs Division 1 why would one not build this vessel using Division 2 as the design basis?

  3. Method of non-destructively inspecting a curved wall portion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fong, James T. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1996-01-01

    A method of non-destructively inspecting a curved wall portion of a large and thick walled vessel for a defect by computed tomography is provided. A collimated source of radiation is placed adjacent one side of the wall portion and an array of detectors for the radiation is placed on the other side adjacent the source. The radiation from the source passing through the wall portion is then detected with the detectors over a limited angle, dependent upon the curvature of the wall of the vessel, to obtain a dataset. The source and array are then coordinately moved relative to the wall portion in steps and a further dataset is obtained at each step. The plurality of datasets obtained over the limited angle is then processed to produce a tomogram of the wall portion to determine the presence of a defect therein. In a preferred embodiment, the curved wall portion has a center of curvature so that the source and the array are positioned at each step along a respective arc curved about the center. If desired, the detector array and source can be reoriented relative to a new wall portion and an inspection of the new wall portion can be easily obtained. Further, the source and detector array can be indexed in a direction perpendicular to a plane including the limited angle in a plurality of steps so that by repeating the detecting and moving steps at each index step, a three dimensional image can be created of the wall portion.

  4. OSS 19.4 Pressure Safety 3/27/95

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of this surveillance is to evaluate the contractor's implementation of programs to ensure the integrity of pressure vessels and minimize risks from failure of vessels to the public...

  5. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

    1987-01-01

    In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

  6. Method and apparatus for determining pressure-induced frequency-shifts in shock-compressed materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, David S. (Los Alamos, NM); Schmidt, Stephen C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A method and an apparatus for conducting coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy in shock-compressed materials are disclosed. The apparatus includes a sample vessel having an optically transparent wall and an opposing optically reflective wall. Two coherent laser beams, a pump beam and a broadband Stokes beam, are directed through the window and focused on a portion of the sample. In the preferred embodiment, a projectile is fired from a high-pressure gas gun to impact the outside of the reflective wall, generating a planar shock wave which travels through the sample toward the window. The pump and Stokes beams result in the emission from the shock-compressed sample of a coherent anti-Stokes beam, which is emitted toward the approaching reflective wall of the vessel and reflected back through the window. The anti-Stokes beam is folded into a spectrometer for frequency analysis. The results of such analysis are useful for determining chemical and physical phenomena which occur during the shock-compression of the sample.

  7. Method and apparatus for determining pressure-induced frequency-shifts in shock-compressed materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, D.S.; Schmidt, S.C.

    1983-12-16

    A method and an apparatus for conducting coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy in shock-compressed materials are disclosed. The apparatus includes a sample vessel having an optically transparent wall and an opposing optically reflective wall. Two coherent laser beams, a pump beam and a broadband Stokes beam, are directed through the window and focused on a portion of the sample. In the preferred embodiment, a projectile is fired from a high-pressure gas gun to impact the outside of the reflective wall, generating a planar shock wave which travels through the sample toward the window. The pump and Stokes beams result in the emission from the shock-compressed sample of a coherent anti-Stokes beam, which is emitted toward the approaching reflective wall of the vessel and reflected back through the window. The anti-Stokes beam is folded into a spectrometer for frequency analysis. The results of such analysis are useful for determining chemical and physical phenomena which occur during the shock-compression of the sample.

  8. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  9. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  10. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  11. PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE DATA SHEET FORM PS-5 Pressure System Number: Date:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RELIEF DEVICE DATA SHEET FORM PS-5 Pressure System Number: Date: Pressure System Name: Pressure Vessel Number (if Applicable): Device installed directly on vessel?: __Yes __No Code: System Fluid: Code Year: Fluid State: Fluid Category: RELIEF DEVICE DATA Device Type ___Safety Relief Valve ____Rupture Disk ___Other (specify) Certification Type: ___ASME ___CE/PED ___Other (specify) Manufacturer Rated Flow Capacity: Part Number Converted Flow Capacity: Serial Number Set Pressure Inspection/Test

  12. WSRC-MS-94-0605 Wall Thinning Acceptance Criteria for Degraded...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC, January 1993. 5) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, Appendix H. 6) SEP-7, "Dynamically Analyzed Seismic Category 1 ...

  13. Single module pressurized fuel cell turbine generator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Veyo, Stephen E. (Murrysville, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A pressurized fuel cell system (10), operates within a common pressure vessel (12) where the system contains fuel cells (22), a turbine (26) and a generator (98) where preferably, associated oxidant inlet valve (52), fuel inlet valve (56) and fuel cell exhaust valve (42) are outside the pressure vessel.

  14. Wall surveyor project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullenhoff, D.J.; Johnston, B.C.; Azevedo, S.G.

    1996-02-22

    A report is made on the demonstration of a first-generation Wall Surveyor that is capable of surveying the interior and thickness of a stone, brick, or cement wall. LLNL`s Micropower Impulse Radar is used, based on emitting and detecting very low amplitude and short microwave impulses (MIR rangefinder). Six test walls were used. While the demonstrator MIR Wall Surveyor is not fieldable yet, it has successfully scanned the test walls and produced real-time images identifying the walls. It is planned to optimize and package the evaluation wall surveyor into a hand held unit.

  15. Bonfire Tests of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 – 29, 2010, in Beijing, China.

  16. Metered Evaporator for Tokamak Wall Conditioning --- Inventor(s): Charles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H. Skinner, Dennis Mansfield, Henry Kugel, Hans Schneider and Lane Roquemore | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Metered Evaporator for Tokamak Wall Conditioning --- Inventor(s): Charles H. Skinner, Dennis Mansfield, Henry Kugel, Hans Schneider and Lane Roquemore A novel lithium evaporator for the controlled introduction of lithium into tokamaks for wall conditioning is described. The concept uses a Li granule injector with a heated in-vessel yttrium crucible to evaporate a controlled amount of

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF RADIOACTIVITY IN THE REACTOR VESSEL OF THE HEAVY WATER COMPONENT TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinson, Dennis

    2010-06-01

    The Heavy Water Component Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility is a pressurized heavy water reactor that was used to test candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. The reactor operated at nominal power of 50 MW{sub th}. The reactor coolant loop operated at 1200 psig and 250 C. Two isolated test loop were designed into the reactor to provide special test conditions. Fig. 1 shows a cut-away view of the reactor. The two loops are contained in four inch diameter stainless steel piping. The HWCTR was operated for only a short duration, from March 1962 to December 1964 in order to test the viability of test fuel elements and other reactor components for use in a heavy water power reactor. The reactor achieved 13,882 MWd of total power while testing 36 different fuel assemblies. In the course of operation, HWCTR experienced the cladding failures of 10 separate test fuel assemblies. In each case, the cladding was breached with some release of fuel core material into the isolated test loop, causing fission product and actinide contamination in the main coolant loop and the liquid and boiling test loops. Despite the contribution of the contamination from the failed fuel, the primary source of radioactivity in the HWCTR vessel and internals is the activation products in the thermal shields, and to a lesser degree, activation products in the reactor vessel walls and liner. A detailed facility characterization report of the HWCTR facility was completed in 1996. Many of the inputs and assumptions in the 1996 characterization report were derived from the HWCTR decommissioning plan published in 1975. The current paper provides an updated assessment of the radioisotopic characteristics of the HWCTR vessel and internals to support decommissioning activities on the facility.

  18. Wall loss of atomic nitrogen determined by ionization threshold mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sode, M. Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Jacob, W.; Kersten, H.

    2014-11-21

    In the afterglow of an inductively coupled N{sub 2} plasma, relative N atom densities are measured by ionization threshold mass spectrometry as a function of time in order to determine the wall loss time t{sub wN} from the exponential decay curves. The procedure is performed with two mass spectrometers on different positions in the plasma chamber. t{sub wN} is determined for various pressures, i.e., for 3.0, 5.0, 7.5, and 10?Pa. For this conditions also the internal plasma parameters electron density n{sub e} and electron temperature T{sub e} are determined with the Langmuir probe and the rotational temperature T{sub rot}{sup N{sub 2}} of N{sub 2} is determined with the optical emission spectroscopy. For T{sub rot}{sup N{sub 2}}, a procedure is presented to evaluate the spectrum of the transition ?{sup ?}=0??{sup ?}=2 of the second positive system (C{sup 3}?{sub u}?B{sup 3}?{sub g}) of N{sub 2}. With this method, a gas temperature of 610?K is determined. For both mass spectrometers, an increase of the wall loss times of atomic nitrogen with increasing pressure is observed. The wall loss time measured with the first mass spectrometer in the radial center of the cylindrical plasma vessel increases linearly from 0.31?ms for 3?Pa to 0.82?ms for 10?Pa. The wall loss time measured with the second mass spectrometer (further away from the discharge) is about 4 times higher. A model is applied to describe the measured t{sub wN.} The main loss mechanism of atomic nitrogen for the considered pressure is diffusion to the wall. The surface loss probability ?{sub N} of atomic nitrogen on stainless steel was derived from t{sub wN} and is found to be 1 for the present conditions. The difference in wall loss times measured with the mass spectrometers on different positions in the plasma chamber is attributed to the different diffusion lengths.

  19. Start-up control system and vessel for LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durrant, Oliver W.; Kakarala, Chandrasekhara R.; Mandel, Sheldon W.

    1987-01-01

    A reflux condensing start-up system includes a steam generator, a start-up vessel connected parallel to the steam generator, a main steam line connecting steam outlets of the steam generator and start-up vessel to a steam turbine, a condenser connected to an outlet of the turbine and a feedwater return line connected between the condenser and inlets of the steam generator and start-up vessel. The start-up vessel has one or more heaters at the bottom thereof for heating feedwater which is supplied over a start-up line to the start-up vessel. Steam is thus generated to pressurize the steam generator before the steam generator is supplied with a heat transfer medium, for example liquid sodium, in the case of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. The start-up vessel includes upper and lower bulbs with a smaller diameter mid-section to act as water and steam reservoirs. The start-up vessel can thus be used not only in a start-up operation but as a mixing tank, a water storage tank and a level control at low loads for controlling feedwater flow.

  20. Start-up control system and vessel for LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durrant, Oliver W.; Kakarala, Chandrasekhara R.; Mandel, Sheldon W.

    1987-01-01

    A reflux condensing start-up system comprises a steam generator, a start-up vessel connected parallel to the steam generator, a main steam line connecting steam outlets of the steam generator and start-up vessel to a steam turbine, a condenser connected to an outlet of the turbine and a feedwater return line connected between the condenser and inlets of the steam generator and start-up vessel. The start-up vessel has one or more heaters at the bottom thereof for heating feedwater which is supplied over a start-up line to the start-up vessel. Steam is thus generated to pressurize the steam generator before the steam generator is supplied with a heat transfer medium, for example liquid sodium, in the case of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. The start-up vessel includes upper and lower bulbs with a smaller diameter mid-section to act as water and steam reservoirs. The start-up vessel can thus be used not only in a start-up operation but as a mixing tank, a water storage tank and a level control at low loads for controlling feedwater flow.

  1. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maniscalco, James A. (Danville, CA); Meier, Wayne R. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  2. CRAD, Pressurized Systems and Cryogens Assessment Plan

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Assure personnel health and safety through regularly scheduled inspections and maintenance on pressure vessels and equipment, compressed gases and gas cylinders, vacuum equipment and systems, hydraulics, and cryogenic materials and systems.

  3. DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WHYTE, DG; JERNIGAN, TC; HUMPHREYS, DA; HYATT, AW; LASNIER, CJ; PARKS, PB; EVANS, TE; TAYLOR, PL; KELLMAN, AG; GRAY, DS; HOLLMANN, EM

    2002-10-01

    OAK A271 DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION. High-pressure gas jets of neon and argon are used to mitigate the three principal damaging effects of tokamak disruptions: thermal loading of the divertor surfaces, vessel stress from poloidal halo currents and the buildup and loss of relativistic electrons to the wall. The gas jet penetrates as a neutral species through to the central plasma at its sonic velocity. The injected gas atoms increase up to 500 times the total electron inventory in the plasma volume, resulting in a relatively benign radiative dissipation of >95% of the plasma stored energy. The rapid cooling and the slow movement of the plasma to the wall reduce poloidal halo currents during the current decay. The thermally collapsed plasma is very cold ({approx} 1-2 eV) and the impurity charge distribution can include > 50% fraction neutral species. If a sufficient quantity of gas is injected, the neutrals inhibit runaway electrons. A physical model of radiative cooling is developed and validated against DIII-D experiments. The model shows that gas jet mitigation, including runaway suppression, extrapolates favorably to burning plasmas where disruption damage will be more severe. Initial results of real-time disruption detection triggering gas jet injection for mitigation are shown.

  4. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

    1980-05-09

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  5. Near wall cooling for a highly tapered turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, George (Palm City, FL)

    2011-03-08

    A turbine blade having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall connected at chordally spaced leading and trailing edges to define a cooling cavity. Pressure and suction side inner walls extend radially within the cooling cavity and define pressure and suction side near wall chambers. A plurality of mid-chord channels extend radially from a radially intermediate location on the blade to a tip passage at the blade tip for connecting the pressure side and suction side near wall chambers in fluid communication with the tip passage. In addition, radially extending leading edge and trailing edge flow channels are located adjacent to the leading and trailing edges, respectively, and cooling fluid flows in a triple-pass serpentine path as it flows through the leading edge flow channel, the near wall chambers and the trailing edge flow channel.

  6. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markey, J.K.

    1989-11-14

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0 to 30 C. 2 figs.

  7. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markey, John K. (New Haven, CT)

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

  8. Lightweight cryogenic-compatible pressure vessels for vehicular fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    storage - Energy Innovation Portal 6,708,502 Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Find More Like This Return to Search

  9. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  10. Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, GE

    2003-09-18

    The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

  11. Detailed Analysis of a Late-Phase Core-Melt Progression for the Evaluation of In-vessel Corium Retention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. L. Rempe; R. J. Park; S. B. Kim; K. Y. Suh; F. B.Cheung

    2006-12-01

    Detailed analyses of a late-phase melt progression in the advanced power reactor (APR)1400 were completed to identify the melt and the thermal-hydraulic states of the in-vessel materials in the reactor vessel lower plenum at the time of reactor vessel failure to evaluate the candidate strategies for an in-vessel corium retention (IVR). Initiating events considered included high-pressure transients of a total loss of feed water (LOFW) and a station blackout (SBO) and low-pressure transients of a 0.0009-m2 small, 0.0093-m2 medium, and 0.0465-m2 large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) without safety injection. Best-estimate simulations for these low-probability events with conservative accident progression assumptions that lead to reactor vessel failure were performed by using the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.3 computer code. The SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.3 results have shown that the pressurizer surge line failed before the reactor vessel failure, which results in a rapid decrease of the in-vessel pressure and a delay of the reactor vessel failure time of ~40 min in the high-pressure sequences of the total LOFW and the SBO transients. In all the sequences, ~80 to 90% of the core material was melted and relocated to the lower plenum of the reactor vessel at the time of reactor vessel failure. The maximum value of the volumetric heat source in the corium pool was estimated as 1.9 to 3.7 MW/m3. The corium temperature was ~2800 to 3400 K at the time of reactor vessel failure. The highest volumetric heat source sequence is predicted for the 0.0465-m2 large-break LOCA without safety injection in the APR1400, because this sequence leads to an early reactor vessel failure.

  12. An Overview Of The ITER In-Vessel Coil Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heitzenroeder, P J; Chrzanowski, J H; Dahlgren, F; Hawryluk, R J; Loesser, G D; Neumeyer, C; Mansfield, C; Smith, J P; Schaffer, M; Humphreys, D; Cordier, J J; Campbell, D; Johnson, G A; Martin, A; Rebut, P H; Tao, J O; Fogarty, P J; Nelson, B E

    2009-09-24

    ELM mitigation is of particular importance in ITER in order to prevent rapid erosion or melting of the divertor surface, with the consequent risk of water leaks, increased plasma impurity content and disruptivity. Exploitable "natural" small or no ELM regimes might yet be found which extrapolate to ITER but this cannot be depended upon. Resonant Magnetic Perturbation has been added to pellet pacing as a tool for ITER to mitigate ELMs. Both are required, since neither method is fully developed and much work remains to be done. In addition, in-vessel coils enable vertical stabilization and RWM control. For these reasons, in-vessel coils (IVCs) are being designed for ITER to provide control of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) in addition to providing control of moderately unstable resistive wall modes (RWMs) and the vertical stability (VS) of the plasma.

  13. The Disruption of Vessel-Spanning Bubbles with Sloped Fins in Flat-Bottom and 2:1 Elliptical-Bottom Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Buchmiller, William C.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Chun, Jaehun; Russell, Renee L.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Mastor, Michael M.

    2010-09-22

    Radioactive sludge was generated in the K-East Basin and K-West Basin fuel storage pools at the Hanford Site while irradiated uranium metal fuel elements from the N Reactor were being stored and packaged. The fuel has been removed from the K Basins, and currently, the sludge resides in the KW Basin in large underwater Engineered Containers. The first phase to the Sludge Treatment Project being led by CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is to retrieve and load the sludge into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and transport the sludge to T Plant for interim storage. The STSCs will be stored inside T Plant cells that are equipped with secondary containment and leak-detection systems. The sludge is composed of a variety of particulate materials and water, including a fraction of reactive uranium metal particles that are a source of hydrogen gas. If a situation occurs where the reactive uranium metal particles settle out at the bottom of a container, previous studies have shown that a vessel-spanning gas layer above the uranium metal particles can develop and can push the overlying layer of sludge upward. The major concern, in addition to the general concern associated with the retention and release of a flammable gas such as hydrogen, is that if a vessel-spanning bubble (VSB) forms in an STSC, it may drive the overlying sludge material to the vents at the top of the container. Then it may be released from the container into the cells secondary containment system at T Plant. A previous study demonstrated that sloped walls on vessels, both cylindrical coned-shaped vessels and rectangular vessels with rounded ends, provided an effective approach for disrupting a VSB by creating a release path for gas as a VSB began to rise. Based on the success of sloped-wall vessels, a similar concept is investigated here where a sloped fin is placed inside the vessel to create a release path for gas. A key potential advantage of using a sloped fin compared to a vessel with a sloped wall is that a small fin decreases the volume of a vessel available for sludge storage by a very small fraction compared to a cone-shaped vessel. The purpose of this study is to quantify the capability of sloped fins to disrupt VSBs and to conduct sufficient tests to estimate the performance of fins in full-scale STSCs. Experiments were conducted with a range of fin shapes to determine what slope and width were sufficient to disrupt VSBs. Additional tests were conducted to demonstrate how the fin performance scales with the sludge layer thickness and the sludge strength, density, and vessel diameter based on the gravity yield parameter, which is a dimensionless ratio of the force necessary to yield the sludge to its weight.( ) Further experiments evaluated the difference between vessels with flat and 2:1 elliptical bottoms and a number of different simulants, including the KW container sludge simulant (complete), which was developed to match actual K-Basin sludge. Testing was conducted in 5-in., 10-in., and 23-in.-diameter vessels to quantify how fin performance is impacted by the size of the test vessel. The most significant results for these scale-up tests are the trend in how behavior changes with vessel size and the results from the 23-in. vessel. The key objective in evaluating fin performance is to determine the conditions that minimize the volume of a VSB when disruption occurs because this reduces the potential for material inside the STSC from being released through vents.

  14. Four-wall turbine airfoil with thermal strain control for reduced cycle fatigue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cambell, Christian X

    2013-09-17

    A turbine airfoil (20B) with a thermal expansion control mechanism that increases the airfoil camber (60, 61) under operational heating. The airfoil has four-wall geometry, including pressure side outer and inner walls (26, 28B), and suction side outer and inner walls (32, 34B). It has near-wall cooling channels (31F, 31A, 33F, 33A) between the outer and inner walls. A cooling fluid flow pattern (50C, 50W, 50H) in the airfoil causes the pressure side inner wall (28B) to increase in curvature under operational heating. The pressure side inner wall (28B) is thicker than walls (26, 34B) that oppose it in camber deformation, so it dominates them in collaboration with the suction side outer wall (32), and the airfoil camber increases. This reduces and relocates a maximum stress area (47) from the suction side outer wall (32) to the suction side inner wall (34B, 72) and the pressure side outer wall (26).

  15. Aqueous Solution Vessel Thermal Model Development II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen

    2015-10-28

    The work presented in this report is a continuation of the work described in the May 2015 report, Aqueous Solution Vessel Thermal Model Development. This computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model aims to predict the temperature and bubble volume fraction in an aqueous solution of uranium. These values affect the reactivity of the fissile solution, so it is important to be able to calculate them and determine their effects on the reaction. Part A of this report describes some of the parameter comparisons performed on the CFD model using Fluent. Part B describes the coupling of the Fluent model with a Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) neutron transport model. The fuel tank geometry is the same as it was in the May 2015 report, annular with a thickness-to-height ratio of 0.16. An accelerator-driven neutron source provides the excitation for the reaction, and internal and external water cooling channels remove the heat. The model used in this work incorporates the Eulerian multiphase model with lift, wall lubrication, turbulent dispersion and turbulence interaction. The buoyancy-driven flow is modeled using the Boussinesq approximation, and the flow turbulence is determined using the k-? Shear-Stress-Transport (SST) model. The dispersed turbulence multiphase model is employed to capture the multiphase turbulence effects.

  16. Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreiber, Roger B. (Penn Twp., PA); Fero, Arnold H. (New Kensington, PA); Sejvar, James (Murrysville, PA)

    1997-01-01

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor.

  17. Thermal insulating barrier and neutron shield providing integrated protection for a nuclear reactor vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreiber, R.B.; Fero, A.H.; Sejvar, J.

    1997-12-16

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel to form a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive valving also includes bistable vents at the upper end of the thermal insulating barrier for releasing steam. A removable, modular neutron shield extending around the upper end of the reactor cavity below the nozzles forms with the upwardly and outwardly tapered transition on the outer surface of the reactor vessel, a labyrinthine channel which reduces neutron streaming while providing a passage for the escape of steam during a severe accident, and for the cooling air which is circulated along the reactor cavity walls outside the thermal insulating barrier during normal operation of the reactor. 8 figs.

  18. Method for pressure modulation of turbine sidewall cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leone, Sal Albert (Scotia, NY); Book, Matthew David (Altamont, NY); Banares, Christopher R. (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling cooling air flow for pressure modulation of turbine components, such as the turbine outer sidewall cavities. The pressure at which cooling and purge air is supplied to the turbine outer side wall cavities is modulated, based on compressor discharge pressure (Pcd), thereby to generally maintain the back flow margin (BFM) so as to minimize excessive leakage and the consequent performance deterioration. In an exemplary embodiment, the air pressure within the third stage outer side wall cavity and the air pressure within the fourth stage outer side wall cavity are each controlled to a respective value that is a respective prescribed percentage of the concurrent compressor discharge pressure. The prescribed percentage may be determined from a ratio of the respective outer side wall pressure to compressor discharge pressure at Cold Day Turn Down (CDTD) required to provide a prescribed back flow margin.

  19. System for pressure modulation of turbine sidewall cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leone, Sal Albert (Scotia, NY); Book, Matthew David (Altamont, NY); Banares, Christopher R. (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A system and method are provided for controlling cooling air flow for pressure modulation of turbine components, such as the turbine outer sidewall cavities. The pressure at which cooling and purge air is supplied to the turbine outer side wall cavities is modulated, based on compressor discharge pressure (Pcd), thereby to generally maintain the back flow margin (BFM) so as to minimize excessive leakage and the consequent performance deterioration. In an exemplary embodiment, the air pressure within the third stage outer side wall cavity and the air pressure within the fourth stage outer side wall cavity are each controlled to a respective value that is a respective prescribed percentage of the concurrent compressor discharge pressure. The prescribed percentage may be determined from a ratio of the respective outer side wall pressure to compressor discharge pressure at Cold Day Turn Down (CDTD) required to provide a prescribed back flow margin.

  20. Pressurized reactor system and a method of operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani M. (Karhula, FI)

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for operating a pressurized reactor system in order to precisely control the temperature within a pressure vessel in order to minimize condensation of corrosive materials from gases on the surfaces of the pressure vessel or contained circulating fluidized bed reactor, and to prevent the temperature of the components from reaching a detrimentally high level, while at the same time allowing quick heating of the pressure vessel interior volume during start-up. Superatmospheric pressure gas is introduced from the first conduit into the fluidized bed reactor and heat derived reactions such as combustion and gassification are maintained in the reactor. Gas is exhausted from the reactor and pressure vessel through a second conduit. Gas is circulated from one part of the inside volume to another to control the temperature of the inside volume, such as by passing the gas through an exterior conduit which has a heat exchanger, control valve, blower and compressor associated therewith, or by causing natural convection flow of circulating gas within one or more generally vertically extending gas passages entirely within the pressure vessel (and containing heat exchangers, flow rate control valves, or the like therein). Preferably, inert gas is provided as a circulating gas, and the inert gas may also be used in emergency shut-down situations. In emergency shut-down reaction gas being supplied to the reactor is cut off, while inert gas from the interior gas volume of the pressure vessel is introduced into the reactor.

  1. Pressurized reactor system and a method of operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.M.

    1996-06-18

    A method and apparatus are provided for operating a pressurized reactor system in order to precisely control the temperature within a pressure vessel in order to minimize condensation of corrosive materials from gases on the surfaces of the pressure vessel or contained circulating fluidized bed reactor, and to prevent the temperature of the components from reaching a detrimentally high level, while at the same time allowing quick heating of the pressure vessel interior volume during start-up. Super-atmospheric pressure gas is introduced from the first conduit into the fluidized bed reactor and heat derived reactions such as combustion and gasification are maintained in the reactor. Gas is exhausted from the reactor and pressure vessel through a second conduit. Gas is circulated from one part of the inside volume to another to control the temperature of the inside volume, such as by passing the gas through an exterior conduit which has a heat exchanger, control valve, blower and compressor associated therewith, or by causing natural convection flow of circulating gas within one or more generally vertically extending gas passages entirely within the pressure vessel (and containing heat exchangers, flow rate control valves, or the like therein). Preferably, inert gas is provided as a circulating gas, and the inert gas may also be used in emergency shut-down situations. In emergency shut-down reaction gas being supplied to the reactor is cut off, while inert gas from the interior gas volume of the pressure vessel is introduced into the reactor. 2 figs.

  2. USING AN ADAPTER TO PERFORM THE CHALFANT-STYLE CONTAINMENT VESSEL PERIODIC MAINTENANCE LEAK RATE TEST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.; Trapp, D.

    2011-06-03

    Recently the Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems (PT&PS) organization at the Savannah River National Laboratory was asked to develop an adapter for performing the leak-rate test of a Chalfant-style containment vessel. The PT&PS organization collaborated with designers at the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant to develop the adapter currently in use for performing the leak-rate testing on the containment vessels. This paper will give the history of leak-rate testing of the Chalfant-style containment vessels, discuss the design concept for the adapter, give an overview of the design, and will present results of the testing done using the adapter.

  3. Application of the ASME code in designing containment vessels for packages used to transport radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raske, D.T.; Wang, Z.

    1992-07-01

    The primary concern governing the design of shipping packages containing radioactive materials is public safety during transport. When these shipments are within the regulatory jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy, the recommended design criterion for the primary containment vessel is either Section III or Section VIII, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, depending on the activity of the contents. The objective of this paper is to discuss the design of a prototypic containment vessel representative of a packaging for the transport of high-level radioactive material.

  4. Axion domain wall baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daido, Ryuji; Kitajima, Naoya; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-07-28

    We propose a new scenario of baryogenesis, in which annihilation of axion domain walls generates a sizable baryon asymmetry. Successful baryogenesis is possible for a wide range of the axion mass and decay constant, m≃10{sup 8}–10{sup 13} GeV and f≃10{sup 13}–10{sup 16} GeV. Baryonic isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed in our model, in contrast to various spontaneous baryogenesis scenarios in the slow-roll regime. In particular, the axion domain wall baryogenesis is consistent with high-scale inflation which generates a large tensor-to-scalar ratio within the reach of future CMB B-mode experiments. We also discuss the gravitational waves produced by the domain wall annihilation and its implications for the future gravitational wave experiments.

  5. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  6. DETERMINATION OF LIQUID FILM THICKNESS FOLLOWING DRAINING OF CONTACTORS, VESSELS, AND PIPES IN THE MCU PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-06-06

    The Department of Energy (DOE) identified the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) process as the preferred technology to remove cesium from radioactive waste solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As a result, Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) began designing and building a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) in the SRS tank farm to process liquid waste for an interim period until the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) begins operations. Both the solvent and the strip effluent streams could contain high concentrations of cesium which must be removed from the contactors, process tanks, and piping prior to performing contactor maintenance. When these vessels are drained, thin films or drops will remain on the equipment walls. Following draining, the vessels will be flushed with water and drained to remove the flush water. The draining reduces the cesium concentration in the vessels by reducing the volume of cesium-containing material. The flushing, and subsequent draining, reduces the cesium in the vessels by diluting the cesium that remains in the film or drops on the vessel walls. MCU personnel requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers conduct a literature search to identify models to calculate the thickness of the liquid films remaining in the contactors, process tanks, and piping following draining of salt solution, solvent, and strip solution. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The predicted film thickness of the strip effluent is 0.010 mm on vertical walls, 0.57 mm on horizontal walls and 0.081 mm in horizontal pipes. (2) The predicted film thickness of the salt solution is 0.015 mm on vertical walls, 0.74 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.106 mm in horizontal pipes. (3) The predicted film thickness of the solvent is 0.022 mm on vertical walls, 0.91 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.13 mm in horizontal pipes. (4) The calculated film volume following draining is: (a) Salt solution receipt tank--1.6 gallons; (b) Salt solution feed tank--1.6 gallons; (c) Decontaminated salt solution hold tank--1.6 gallons; (d) Contactor drain tank--0.40 gallons; (e) Strip effluent hold tank--0.33 gallons; (f) Decontaminated salt solution decanter--0.37 gallons; (g) Strip effluent decanter--0.14 gallons; (h) Solvent hold tank--0.30 gallon; and (i) Corrugated piping between contactors--16-21 mL. (5) After the initial vessel draining, flushing the vessels with 100 gallons of water using a spray nozzle that produces complete vessel coverage and draining the flush water reduces the source term by the following amounts: (i) Salt solution receipt tank--63X; (ii) Salt solution feed tank--63X; (iii) Decontaminated salt solution hold tank--63X; (iv) Contactor drain tank--250X; (v) Strip effluent hold tank--300X; (vi) Decontaminated salt solution decanter--270X; (vii) Strip effluent decanter--710X; (viii) Solvent hold tank--330X. Understand that these estimates of film thickness are based on laboratory testing and fluid mechanics theory. The calculations assume drainage occurs by film flow. Much of the data used to develop the models came from tests with very ''clean'' fluids. Impurities in the fluids and contaminants on the vessels walls could increase liquid holdup. The application of film thickness models and source term reduction calculations should be considered along with operational conditions and H-Tank Farm/Liquid Waste operating experience. These calculations exclude the PVV/HVAC duct work and piping, as well as other areas that area outside the scope of this report.

  7. Development of advanced manufacturing technologies for low cost hydrogen storage vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick

    2014-12-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defined a need for low-cost gaseous hydrogen storage vessels at 700 bar to support cost goals aimed at 500,000 units per year. Existing filament winding processes produce a pressure vessel that is structurally inefficient, requiring more carbon fiber for manufacturing reasons, than would otherwise be necessary. Carbon fiber is the greatest cost driver in building a hydrogen pressure vessel. The objective of this project is to develop new methods for manufacturing Type IV pressure vessels for hydrogen storage with the purpose of lowering the overall product cost through an innovative hybrid process of optimizing composite usage by combining traditional filament winding (FW) and advanced fiber placement (AFP) techniques. A numbers of vessels were manufactured in this project. The latest vessel design passed all the critical tests on the hybrid design per European Commission (EC) 79-2009 standard except the extreme temperature cycle test. The tests passed include burst test, cycle test, accelerated stress rupture test and drop test. It was discovered the location where AFP and FW overlap for load transfer could be weakened during hydraulic cycling at 85°C. To design a vessel that passed these tests, the in-house modeling software was updated to add capability to start and stop fiber layers to simulate the AFP process. The original in-house software was developed for filament winding only. Alternative fiber was also investigated in this project, but the added mass impacted the vessel cost negatively due to the lower performance from the alternative fiber. Overall the project was a success to show the hybrid design is a viable solution to reduce fiber usage, thus driving down the cost of fuel storage vessels. Based on DOE’s baseline vessel size of 147.3L and 91kg, the 129L vessel (scaled to DOE baseline) in this project shows a 32% composite savings and 20% cost savings when comparing Vessel 15 hybrid design and the Quantum baseline all filament wound vessel. Due to project timing, there was no additional time available to fine tune the design to improve the load transfer between AFP and FW. Further design modifications will likely help pass the extreme temperature cycle test, the remaining test that is critical to the hybrid design.

  8. Analysis of In-Vessel Late Phase Melt Progression Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, R.J.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, H.D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong, P.O.Box 105, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    High-pressure in-vessel melt progressions of the KSNP (Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant) have been analyzed using the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.3 computer code. The total loss of feed water (LOFW) to the steam generators with/without intentional RCS depressurization using the safety depressurization system (SDS) and the station blackout (SBO) have been simulated from transient initiation to reactor vessel failure. The SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.3 results have shown that the pressure boundary of the reactor coolant system did not fail before reactor vessel failure in the high-pressure sequences of the LOFW and the SBO transients of the KSNP. In all the high-pressure transients, approximately 20-30 % of the core material was melted and relocated to the lower plenum of the reactor vessel at the time of reactor vessel failure. Intentional RCS depressurization using the SDS for the total LOFW delays reactor vessel failure for approximately 5 hours by actuation of the safety injection tanks. At the time of reactor vessel failure, approximately 50-60 % of the fuel rod cladding was oxidized for the total LOFW and the SBO transients of the KSNP. (authors)

  9. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Lois; Mantha, Pallavi

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  10. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  11. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  12. Pressure Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering > Pressure Systems Privacy and Security Notice Skip over navigation Search the JLab Site Pressure Systems Please upgrade your browser. This site's design is only visible in a graphical browser that supports web standards, but its content is accessible to any browser. Concerns? Engineering Division print version Design Authority List Design Authority Toolbox Welding Documentation Pressure Systems Forms PS-1 Pressure System Project Cover Sheet PS-2 Overpressure by System Design

  13. Development of Larger Diameter High Pressure CNG Cylinder Manufactured by Piercing and Drawing for Natural Gas Vehicle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 – 29, 2010, in Beijing, China.

  14. Pressure Safety Program Implementation at ORNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lower, Mark; Etheridge, Tom; Oland, C. Barry

    2013-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC. In February 2006, DOE promulgated worker safety and health regulations to govern contractor activities at DOE sites. These regulations, which are provided in 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program, establish requirements for worker safety and health program that reduce or prevent occupational injuries, illnesses, and accidental losses by providing DOE contractors and their workers with safe and healthful workplaces at DOE sites. The regulations state that contractors must achieve compliance no later than May 25, 2007. According to 10 CFR 851, Subpart C, Specific Program Requirements, contractors must have a structured approach to their worker safety and health programs that at a minimum includes provisions for pressure safety. In implementing the structured approach for pressure safety, contractors must establish safety policies and procedures to ensure that pressure systems are designed, fabricated, tested, inspected, maintained, repaired, and operated by trained, qualified personnel in accordance with applicable sound engineering principles. In addition, contractors must ensure that all pressure vessels, boilers, air receivers, and supporting piping systems conform to (1) applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (2004) Sections I through XII, including applicable code cases; (2) applicable ASME B31 piping codes; and (3) the strictest applicable state and local codes. When national consensus codes are not applicable because of pressure range, vessel geometry, use of special materials, etc., contractors must implement measures to provide equivalent protection and ensure a level of safety greater than or equal to the level of protection afforded by the ASME or applicable state or local codes. This report documents the work performed to address legacy pressure vessel deficiencies and comply with pressure safety requirements in 10 CFR 851. It also describes actions taken to develop and implement ORNL’s Pressure Safety Program.

  15. Purge gas protected transportable pressurized fuel cell modules and their operation in a power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, Paolo R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Plub Borough, PA); Antenucci, Annette B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell generator apparatus and method of its operation involves: passing pressurized oxidant gas, (O) and pressurized fuel gas, (F), into fuel cell modules, (10 and 12), containing fuel cells, where the modules are each enclosed by a module housing (18), surrounded by an axially elongated pressure vessel (64), where there is a purge gas volume, (62), between the module housing and pressure vessel; passing pressurized purge gas, (P), through the purge gas volume, (62), to dilute any unreacted fuel gas from the modules; and passing exhaust gas, (82), and circulated purge gas and any unreacted fuel gas out of the pressure vessel; where the fuel cell generator apparatus is transpatable when the pressure vessel (64) is horizontally disposed, providing a low center of gravity.

  16. Purge gas protected transportable pressurized fuel cell modules and their operation in a power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, P.R.; Dederer, J.T.; Gillett, J.E.; Basel, R.A.; Antenucci, A.B.

    1996-11-12

    A fuel cell generator apparatus and method of its operation involves: passing pressurized oxidant gas and pressurized fuel gas into modules containing fuel cells, where the modules are each enclosed by a module housing surrounded by an axially elongated pressure vessel, and where there is a purge gas volume between the module housing and pressure vessel; passing pressurized purge gas through the purge gas volume to dilute any unreacted fuel gas from the modules; and passing exhaust gas and circulated purge gas and any unreacted fuel gas out of the pressure vessel; where the fuel cell generator apparatus is transportable when the pressure vessel is horizontally disposed, providing a low center of gravity. 11 figs.

  17. Experimental Study on Flow Optimization in Upper Plenum of Reactor Vessel for a Compact Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Kenji; Kamide, Hideki; Itoh, Masami; Sekine, Tadashi

    2005-11-15

    An innovative sodium-cooled fast reactor has been investigated in a feasibility study of fast breeder reactor cycle systems in Japan. A compact reactor vessel and a column-type upper inner structure with a radial slit for an arm of a fuel-handling machine (FHM) are adopted. Dipped plates are set in the reactor vessel below the free surface to prevent gas entrainment. We performed a one-tenth-scaled model water experiment for the upper plenum of the reactor vessel. Gas entrainment was not observed in the experiment under the same velocity condition as the reactor. Three vortex cavitations were observed near the hot-leg inlet. A vertical rib on the reactor vessel wall was set to restrict the rotating flow near the hot leg. The vortex cavitation between the reactor vessel wall and the hot leg was suppressed by the rib under the same cavitation factor condition as in the reactor. The cylindrical plug was installed through the hole in the dipped plates for the FHM to reduce the flow toward the free surface. It was effective when the plug was submerged into the middle height in the upper plenum. This combination of two components had a possibility to optimize the flow in the compact reactor vessel.

  18. MAYmw Wall0

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ,...-. ~_I : Cd.0 / ., j: ' ! -;:---- /,5l2 MAYmw Wall0 50 l/89 NE-23 NE-23 List of California Sites Hattie Carwell. SAN/NSQA Division Attached for your information is the list of California sites we identified in our search of Manhattdn Engineer District records for the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). None of the facilities listed qualified for FUSRAP,'Vhe;:only'site in California that was included in FUSRAP was Gilman Hall on the University of California-Berkeley

  19. Machining Test Specimens from Harvested Zion RPV Segments for Through Wall Attenuation Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosseel, Thomas M; Sokolov, Mikhail A; Nanstad, Randy K

    2015-01-01

    The decommissioning of the Zion Units 1 and 2 Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) in Zion, Illinois presents a special opportunity for developing a better understanding of materials degradation and other issues associated with extending the lifetime of existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years of service. In support of extended service and current operations of the US nuclear reactor fleet, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), through the Department of Energy (DOE), Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, is coordinating and contracting with Zion Solutions, LLC, a subsidiary of Energy Solutions, the selective procurement of materials, structures, and components from the decommissioned reactors. In this paper, we will discuss the acquisition of segments of the Zion Unit 2 Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), the cutting of these segments into sections and blocks from the beltline and upper vertical welds and plate material, the current status of machining those blocks into mechanical (Charpy, compact tension, and tensile) test specimens and coupons for chemical and microstructural (TEM, APT, SANS, and nano indention) characterization, as well as the current test plans and possible collaborative projects. Access to service-irradiated RPV welds and plate sections will allow through wall attenuation studies to be performed, which will be used to assess current radiation damage models (Rosseel et al. (2012) and Rosseel et al. (2015)).

  20. Foam vessel for cryogenic fluid storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spear, Jonathan D (San Francisco, CA)

    2011-07-05

    Cryogenic storage and separator vessels made of polyolefin foams are disclosed, as are methods of storing and separating cryogenic fluids and fluid mixtures using these vessels. In one embodiment, the polyolefin foams may be cross-linked, closed-cell polyethylene foams with a density of from about 2 pounds per cubic foot to a density of about 4 pounds per cubic foot.

  1. V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

  2. Advanced Metal Fiber Wall-Flow DPF For Diesel Emission Control | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Metal Fiber Wall-Flow DPF For Diesel Emission Control Advanced Metal Fiber Wall-Flow DPF For Diesel Emission Control A new metal fiber wall-flow DPF with up to 99% efficiency and lower back pressure PDF icon deer09_lu.pdf More Documents & Publications Versatile Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge Any Size, Any Shape Pleated Ceramic Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter Partial-Flow Diesel Particulate Filter of Sintered Metal Fiber Fleece

  3. Oven wall panel construction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1980-04-22

    An oven roof or wall is formed from modular panels, each of which comprises an inner fabric and an outer fabric. Each such fabric is formed with an angle iron framework and somewhat resilient tie-bars or welded at their ends to flanges of the angle irons to maintain the inner and outer frameworks in spaced disposition while minimizing heat transfer by conduction and permitting some degree of relative movement on expansion and contraction of the module components. Suitable thermal insulation is provided within the module. Panels or skins are secured to the fabric frameworks and each such skin is secured to a framework and projects laterally so as slidingly to overlie the adjacent frame member of an adjacent panel in turn to permit relative movement during expansion and contraction.

  4. PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE TESTING AND INSPECTION DATA SHEET FORM PS-12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RELIEF DEVICE TESTING AND INSPECTION DATA SHEET FORM PS-12 Pressure System Number: Date: Pressure System Name: Vessel Number (if Applicable): Device installed directly on vessel?: __Yes __No Code: System Fluid: Code Year: Fluid State: Fluid Category: RELIEF DEVICE DATA Device Type ___Safety Relief Valve ____Rupture Disk ___Other (specify) Certification Type: ___ASME ___CE/PED ___Other (specify) Manufacturer Rated Flow Capacity: Part Number Converted Flow Capacity: Serial Number Set Pressure: Set

  5. Reactor vessel using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Zeltner, Walter A. (Oregon, WI)

    1992-08-11

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane.

  6. Thermal wake/vessel detection technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roskovensky, John K. (Albuquerque, NM); Nandy, Prabal (Albuquerque, NM); Post, Brian N (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-01-10

    A computer-automated method for detecting a vessel in water based on an image of a portion of Earth includes generating a thermal anomaly mask. The thermal anomaly mask flags each pixel of the image initially deemed to be a wake pixel based on a comparison of a thermal value of each pixel against other thermal values of other pixels localized about each pixel. Contiguous pixels flagged by the thermal anomaly mask are grouped into pixel clusters. A shape of each of the pixel clusters is analyzed to determine whether each of the pixel clusters represents a possible vessel detection event. The possible vessel detection events are represented visually within the image.

  7. IWTU Construction Workers Set Largest Process Vessel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    IWTU Construction Workers Set Largest Process Vessel Click on image to enlarge Construction of the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) took a major step forward on Sept. 2, 2009 as crews lifted into place the largest of the six process vessels that will be used to treat radioactive liquid waste stored at the site. The IWTU will use a steam reforming process to solidify the waste for eventual shipment out of Idaho. The vessel and its skid, or framework, were constructed at Premier Technologies

  8. Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) Vessel Relocated after 50 years.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Printer Friendly Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) Vessel Relocated Engineering Test Reactor Vessel Pre-startup 1957 Click on image to enlarge. Image 1 of 5 Gantry jacks attached to ETR vessel. Initial lift starts. - Click on image to enlarge. Image 2 of 5 ETR vessel removed from substructure. Vessel lifted approximately 40 ft. - Click on image to enlarge. On Monday, September 24, 2007 the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) vessel was removed from its location and delivered to the Idaho CERCLA Disposal

  9. Pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mee, David K.; Ripley, Edward B.; Nienstedt, Zachary C.; Nienstedt, Alex W.; Howell, Jr., Layton N.

    2015-09-29

    Disclosed is a passive, in-situ pressure sensor. The sensor includes a sensing element having a ferromagnetic metal and a tension inducing mechanism coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The tension inducing mechanism is operable to change a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal based on a change in pressure in the sensing element. Changes in pressure are detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal when subjected to an alternating magnetic field caused by the change in the tensile stress. The sensing element is embeddable in a closed system for detecting pressure changes without the need for any penetrations of the system for power or data acquisition by detecting changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  10. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  11. Transient PVT measurements and model predictions for vessel heat transfer. Part II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felver, Todd G.; Paradiso, Nicholas Joseph; Winters, William S., Jr.; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Rice, Steven F.

    2010-07-01

    Part I of this report focused on the acquisition and presentation of transient PVT data sets that can be used to validate gas transfer models. Here in Part II we focus primarily on describing models and validating these models using the data sets. Our models are intended to describe the high speed transport of compressible gases in arbitrary arrangements of vessels, tubing, valving and flow branches. Our models fall into three categories: (1) network flow models in which flow paths are modeled as one-dimensional flow and vessels are modeled as single control volumes, (2) CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) models in which flow in and between vessels is modeled in three dimensions and (3) coupled network/CFD models in which vessels are modeled using CFD and flows between vessels are modeled using a network flow code. In our work we utilized NETFLOW as our network flow code and FUEGO for our CFD code. Since network flow models lack three-dimensional resolution, correlations for heat transfer and tube frictional pressure drop are required to resolve important physics not being captured by the model. Here we describe how vessel heat transfer correlations were improved using the data and present direct model-data comparisons for all tests documented in Part I. Our results show that our network flow models have been substantially improved. The CFD modeling presented here describes the complex nature of vessel heat transfer and for the first time demonstrates that flow and heat transfer in vessels can be modeled directly without the need for correlations.

  12. Upflow bioreactor with septum and pressure release mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, Conly L.; Hansen, Carl S.; Pack, Kevin; Milligan, John; Benefiel, Bradley C.; Tolman, C. Wayne; Tolman, Kenneth W.

    2010-04-20

    An upflow bioreactor includes a vessel having an inlet and an outlet configured for upflow operation. A septum is positioned within the vessel and defines a lower chamber and an upper chamber. The septum includes an aperture that provides fluid communication between the upper chamber and lower chamber. The bioreactor also includes means for releasing pressure buildup in the lower chamber. In one configuration, the septum includes a releasable portion having an open position and a closed position. The releasable portion is configured to move to the open position in response to pressure buildup in the lower chamber. In the open position fluid communication between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is increased. Alternatively the lower chamber can include a pressure release line that is selectively actuated by pressure buildup. The pressure release mechanism can prevent the bioreactor from plugging and/or prevent catastrophic damage to the bioreactor caused by high pressures.

  13. Stationary High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage Stationary High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage This presentation by Zhili Feng of Oak Ridge National Laboratory was given at the DOE Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Workshop in March 2013. PDF icon csd_workshop_7_feng.pdf More Documents & Publications 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems R&D of Large Stationary Hydrogen/CNG/HCNG Storage Vessels

  14. Wall Insulation; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southface Energy Institute; Tromly, K.

    2000-11-07

    Properly sealed, moisture-protected, and insulated walls help increase comfort, reduce noise, and save on energy costs. This fact sheet addresses these topics plus advanced framing techniques, insulation types, wall sheathings, and steps for effective wall construction and insulation.

  15. Saltstone Osmotic Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, Ralph L.; Dixon, Kenneth L.

    2013-09-23

    Recent research into the moisture retention properties of saltstone suggest that osmotic pressure may play a potentially significant role in contaminant transport (Dixon et al., 2009 and Dixon, 2011). The Savannah River Remediation Closure and Disposal Assessments Group requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a literature search on osmotic potential as it relates to contaminant transport and to develop a conceptual model of saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. This report presents the findings of the literature review and presents a conceptual model for saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. The task was requested through Task Technical Request HLW-SSF-TTR-2013-0004. Simulated saltstone typically has very low permeability (Dixon et al. 2008) and pore water that contains a large concentration of dissolved salts (Flach and Smith 2013). Pore water in simulated saltstone has a high salt concentration relative to pore water in concrete and groundwater. This contrast in salt concentration can generate high osmotic pressures if simulated saltstone has the properties of a semipermeable membrane. Estimates of osmotic pressure using results from the analysis of pore water collected from simulated saltstone show that an osmotic pressure up to 2790 psig could be generated within the saltstone. Most semi-permeable materials are non-ideal and have an osmotic efficiency <1 and as a result actual osmotic pressures are less than theoretical pressures. Observations from laboratory tests of simulated saltstone indicate that it may exhibit the behavior of a semi-permeable membrane. After several weeks of back pressure saturation in a flexible wall permeameter (FWP) the membrane containing a simulated saltstone sample appeared to have bubbles underneath it. Upon removal from the FWP the specimen was examined and it was determined that the bubbles were due to liquid that had accumulated between the membrane and the sample. One possible explanation for the accumulation of solution between the membrane and sample is the development of osmotic pressure within the sample. Osmotic pressure will affect fluid flow and contaminant transport and may result in the changes to the internal structure of the semi-permeable material. B?nard et al. 2008 reported swelling of wet cured Portland cement mortars containing salts of NaNO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}x12H {sub 2}O, and K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} when exposed to a dilute solution. Typically hydraulic head is considered the only driving force for groundwater in groundwater models. If a low permeability material containing a concentrated salt solution is present in the hydrogeologic sequence large osmotic pressures may develop and lead to misinterpretation of groundwater flow and solute transport. The osmotic pressure in the semi-permeable material can significantly impact groundwater flow in the vicinity of the semi-permeable material. One possible outcome is that groundwater will flow into the semi-permeable material resulting in hydrologic containment within the membrane. Additionally, hyperfiltration can occur within semi-permeable materials when water moves through a membrane into the more concentrated solution and dissolved constituents are retained in the lower concentration solution. Groundwater flow and transport equations that incorporate chemical gradients (osmosis) have been developed. These equations are referred to as coupled flow equations. Currently groundwater modeling to assess the performance of saltstone waste forms is conducted using the PORFLOW groundwater flow and transport model. PORFLOW does not include coupled flow from chemico-osmotic gradients and therefore numerical simulation of the effect of coupled flow on contaminant transport in and around saltstone cannot be assessed. Most natural semi-permeable membranes are non-ideal membranes and do not restrict all movement of solutes and as a result theoretical osmotic potential is not realized. Osmotic efficiency is a parameter in the coupled flow equation that accounts for the

  16. Security_Walls_VPP_Award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recognized for Outstanding Safety CARLSBAD, N.M., May 10, 2013 - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded Security Walls, LLC, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's (WIPP)...

  17. Pressure Safety of JLAB 12GeV Upgrade Cryomodule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Gary; Wiseman, Mark A.; Daly, Ed

    2009-11-01

    This paper reviews pressure safety considerations, per the US Department of Energy (DOE) 10CFR851 Final Rule [1], which are being implemented during construction of the 100 Megavolt Cryomodule (C100 CM) for Jefferson Lab’s 12 GeV Upgrade Project. The C100 CM contains several essential subsystems that require pressure safety measures: piping in the supply and return end cans, piping in the thermal shield and the helium headers, the helium vessel assembly which includes high RRR niobium cavities, the end cans, and the vacuum vessel. Due to the vessel sizes and pressure ranges, applicable national consensus code rules are applied. When national consensus codes are not applicable, equivalent design and fabrication approaches are identified and implemented. Considerations for design, material qualification, fabrication, inspection and examination are summarized. In addition, JLAB’s methodologies for implementation of the 10 CFR 851 requirements are described.

  18. Use of Polycarbonate Vacuum Vessels in High-Temperature Fusion-Plasma Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Berlinger, A. Brooks, H. Feder, J. Gumbas, T. Franckowiak and S.A. Cohen

    2012-09-27

    Magnetic fusion energy (MFE) research requires ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions, primarily to reduce plasma contamination by impurities. For radiofrequency (RF)-heated plasmas, a great benefit may accrue from a non-conducting vacuum vessel, allowing external RF antennas which avoids the complications and cost of internal antennas and high-voltage high-current feedthroughs. In this paper we describe these and other criteria, e.g., safety, availability, design flexibility, structural integrity, access, outgassing, transparency, and fabrication techniques that led to the selection and use of 25.4-cm OD, 1.6-cm wall polycarbonate pipe as the main vacuum vessel for an MFE research device whose plasmas are expected to reach keV energies for durations exceeding 0.1 s

  19. In-Vessel Retention of Molten Corium: Lessons Learned and Outstanding Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.L. Rempe; K.Y. Suh; F. B. Cheung; S. B. Kim

    2008-03-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. For example, the enhanced safety of the Advanced 600 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designed by Westinghouse (AP600), which relied upon External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) for IVR, resulted in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) approving the design without requiring certain conventional features common to existing Light Water Reactors (LWRs). However, it is not clear that the ERVC proposed for the AP600 could provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1500 MWe) without additional enhancements. This paper reviews efforts made and results reported regarding the enhancement of IVR in LWRs. Where appropriate, the paper identifies what additional data or analyses are needed to demonstrate that there is sufficient margin for successful IVR in high power thermal reactors.

  20. Pressure transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Thomas T. (Downers Grove, IL); Roop, Conard J. (Lockport, IL); Schmidt, Kenneth J. (Midlothian, IL); Gunchin, Elmer R. (Lockport, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A pressure transducer suitable for use in high temperature environments includes two pairs of induction coils, each pair being bifilarly wound together, and each pair of coils connected as opposite arms of a four arm circuit; an electrically conductive target moveably positioned between the coil pairs and connected to a diaphragm such that deflection of the diaphragm causes axial movement of the target and an unbalance in the bridge output.

  1. Pressure transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, T.T.; Roop, C.J.; Schmidt, K.J.; Gunchin, E.R.

    1987-02-13

    A pressure transducer suitable for use in high temperature environments includes two pairs of induction coils, each pair being bifilarly wound together, and each pair of coils connected as opposite arms of a four arm circuit; an electrically conductive target moveably positioned between the coil pairs and connected to a diaphragm such that deflection of the diaphragm causes axial movement of the target and an unbalance in the bridge output. 7 figs.

  2. Vessel with filter and method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrell, Jonathan S.; Ripley, Edward B.; Cecala, David M.

    2008-01-29

    Chemical processing apparatuses which incorporate a process vessel, such as a crucible or retort, and which include a gas separation or filtration system. Various embodiments incorporate such features as loose filtration material, semi-rigid filtration material, and structured filtration material. The vessel may include material that is a microwave susceptor. Filtration media may be selected so that if it inadvertently mixes with the chemical process or the reaction products of such process, it would not adversely affect the results of the chemical process.

  3. Chapter 4: Advancing Clean Electric Power Technologies | Crosscutting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... cycles in Hot Isostatic Pressure of Powdered Metal and new ... wall to a single wall vessel) 25 Time to solution ... combustion in the boiler. Expansion of ...

  4. Jet-wall interaction effects on diesel combustion and soot formation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickett, Lyle M.; Lopez, J. Javier

    2004-09-01

    The effects of wall interaction on combustion and soot formation processes of a diesel fuel jet were investigated in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel at experimental conditions typical of a diesel engine. At identical ambient and injector conditions, soot processes were studied in free jets, plane wall jets, and 'confined' wall jets (a box-shaped geometry simulating secondary interaction with adjacent walls and jets in an engine). The investigation showed that soot levels are significantly lower in a plane wall jet compared to a free jet. At some operating conditions, sooting free jets become soot-free as plane wall jets. Possible mechanisms to explain the reduced or delayed soot formation upon wall interaction include an increased fuel-air mixing rate and a wall-jet-cooling effect. However, in a confined-jet configuration, there is an opposite trend in soot formation. Jet confinement causes combustion gases to be redirected towards the incoming jet, causing the lift-off length to shorten and soot to increase. This effect can be avoided by ending fuel injection prior to the time of significant interaction with redirected combustion gases. For a fixed confined-wall geometry, an increase in ambient gas density delays jet interaction, allowing longer injection durations with no increase in soot. Jet interaction with redirected combustion products may also be avoided using reduced ambient oxygen concentration because of an increased ignition delay. Although simplified geometries were employed, the identification of important mechanisms affecting soot formation after the time of wall interaction is expected to be useful for understanding these processes in more complex and realistic diesel engine geometries.

  5. In-Vessel Torsional Ultrasonic Wave-Based Level Measurement System - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search In-Vessel Torsional Ultrasonic Wave-Based Level Measurement System Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary At Three Mile Island in 1979, a partial meltdown of the core was caused by a sudden, undetected loss of reactor coolant water. In the past, a reactor's high temperature and pressure environment has complicated the implementation of level

  6. MHD Electrode and wall constructions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Way, Stewart; Lempert, Joseph

    1984-01-01

    Electrode and wall constructions for the walls of a channel transmitting the hot plasma in a magnetohydrodynamic generator. The electrodes and walls are made of a plurality of similar modules which are spaced from one another along the channel. The electrodes can be metallic or ceramic, and each module includes one or more electrodes which are exposed to the plasma and a metallic cooling bar which is spaced from the plasma and which has passages through which a cooling fluid flows to remove heat transmitted from the electrode to the cooling bar. Each electrode module is spaced from and electrically insulated from each adjacent module while interconnected by the cooling fluid which serially flows among selected modules. A wall module includes an electrically insulating ceramic body exposed to the plasma and affixed, preferably by mechanical clips or by brazing, to a metallic cooling bar spaced from the plasma and having cooling fluid passages. Each wall module is, similar to the electrode modules, electrically insulated from the adjacent modules and serially interconnected to other modules by the cooling fluid.

  7. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, John B. (Grand Junction, CO)

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  8. Final Vitrification Melter And Vessels Evaluation Documentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has prepared final evaluations and made waste incidental to reprocessing determinations for the vitrification melter and feed vessels (the concentrator feed makeup tank and the melter feed hold tank), used by DOE’s West Valley Demonstration Project as part of the process to vitrify waste from prior commercial reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel.

  9. Investigation of Cracked Lithium Hydride Reactor Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    bird, e.l.; mustaleski, t.m.

    1999-06-01

    Visual examination of lithium hydride reactor vessels revealed cracks that were adjacent to welds, most of which were circumferentially located in the bottom portion of the vessels. Sections were cut from the vessels containing these cracks and examined by use of the metallograph, scanning electron microscope, and microprobe to determine the cause of cracking. Most of the cracks originated on the outer surface just outside the weld fusion line in the base material and propagated along grain boundaries. Crack depths of those examined sections ranged from {approximately}300 to 500 {micro}m. Other cracks were reported to have reached a maximum depth of 1/8 in. The primary cause of cracking was the creation of high tensile stresses associated with the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the filler metal and the base metal during operation of the vessel in a thermally cyclic environment. This failure mechanism could be described as creep-type fatigue, whereby crack propagation may have been aided by the presence of brittle chromium carbides along the grain boundaries, which indicates a slightly sensitized microstructure.

  10. Advanced Pressure Boundary Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, Michael L; Shingledecker, John P

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the operating temperatures of fossil power plants is fundamental to improving thermal efficiencies and reducing undesirable emissions such as CO{sub 2}. One group of alloys with the potential to satisfy the conditions required of higher operating temperatures is the advanced ferritic steels such as ASTM Grade 91, 9Cr-2W, and 12Cr-2W. These are Cr-Mo steels containing 9-12 wt% Cr that have martensitic microstructures. Research aimed at increasing the operating temperature limits of the 9-12 wt% Cr steels and optimizing them for specific power plant applications has been actively pursued since the 1970's. As with all of the high strength martensitic steels, specifying upper temperature limits for tempering the alloys and heat treating weldments is a critical issue. To support this aspect of development, thermodynamic analysis was used to estimate how this critical temperature, the A{sub 1} in steel terminology, varies with alloy composition. The results from the thermodynamic analysis were presented to the Strength of Weldments subgroup of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code and are being considered in establishing maximum postweld heat treatment temperatures. Experiments are also being planned to verify predictions. This is part of a CRADA project being done with Alstom Power, Inc.

  11. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  12. Universal fuel basket for use with an improved oxide reduction vessel and electrorefiner vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Steven D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mariani, Robert D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    A basket, for use in the reduction of UO.sub.2 to uranium metal and in the electrorefining of uranium metal, having a continuous annulus between inner and outer perforated cylindrical walls, with a screen adjacent to each wall. A substantially solid bottom and top plate enclose the continuous annulus defining a fuel bed. A plurality of scrapers are mounted adjacent to the outer wall extending longitudinally thereof, and there is a mechanism enabling the basket to be transported remotely.

  13. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI); Koskinen, Jari (Karhula, FI)

    1995-01-01

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under superatmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a flitrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO.sub.x reducing agent (like ammonia), is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1-20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at superatmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2-100 bar, and-introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine).

  14. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.; Koskinen, J.

    1995-08-22

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under super atmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a filtrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO{sub x} reducing agent (like ammonia)--is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1--20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at super atmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel, the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2--100 bar, and introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine). 8 figs.

  15. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated.

  16. Apparatus and method for fatigue testing of a material specimen in a high-pressure fluid environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jy-An; Feng, Zhili; Anovitz, Lawrence M; Liu, Kenneth C

    2013-06-04

    The invention provides fatigue testing of a material specimen while the specimen is disposed in a high pressure fluid environment. A specimen is placed between receivers in an end cap of a vessel and a piston that is moveable within the vessel. Pressurized fluid is provided to compression and tension chambers defined between the piston and the vessel. When the pressure in the compression chamber is greater than the pressure in the tension chamber, the specimen is subjected to a compression force. When the pressure in the tension chamber is greater than the pressure in the compression chamber, the specimen is subjected to a tension force. While the specimen is subjected to either force, it is also surrounded by the pressurized fluid in the tension chamber. In some examples, the specimen is surrounded by hydrogen.

  17. From Cold War to cold vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melrath, C.

    1996-09-01

    This article describes a former Soviet weapons plant which is converted to produce cryogenic vessels and other peaceful cylinders. In 1995, Byelocorp Scientific Inc. (BSI), a New York-based firm that specializes in transferring technologies developed in the former Soviet Union, began converting a huge military defense plant in Kazakhstan into civilian-industrial use. The nearly 750,000-square-foot factory in Almaty, the capital of the former Soviet republic, was previously used to manufacture torpedo shells and ballistic rocket casings. The old defense plant, which was known as Gidromash, will now manufacture cylinders of a kinder, gentler variety--cryogenic vessels. The Kazakhstan operation is being managed jointly with Supco Srl., an Italian manufacturing, engineering, and construction company. With financing from the US Department of Defense, BSI, Supco, and the Kazakhstan government, a new joint venture called Byelkamit (a combination of Byelocorp, Kazakhstan, America, and Italy) was established.

  18. Support pedestals for interconnecting a cover and nozzle band wall in a gas turbine nozzle segment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Simpsonville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC); Webbon, Waylon Willard (Greenville, SC); Bagepalli, Radhakrishna (Schenectady, NY); Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Kellock, Iain Robertson (Simpsonville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner band portions. Each band portion includes a nozzle wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through the apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. Structural pedestals interconnect the cover and nozzle wall and pass through holes in the impingement plate to reduce localized stress otherwise resulting from a difference in pressure within the chamber of the nozzle segment and the hot gas path and the fixed turbine casing surrounding the nozzle stage. The pedestals may be cast or welded to the cover and nozzle wall.

  19. Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grigorian, Leonid; Hornyak, Louis; Dillon, Anne C; Heben, Michael J

    2014-09-23

    The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

  20. Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grigorian, Leonid (Raymond, OH); Hornyak, Louis (Evergreen, CO); Dillon, Anne C (Boulder, CO); Heben, Michael J (Denver, CO)

    2008-10-07

    The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

  1. Microsoft Word - Errata for the Pressure and Vacuum Systems Safety Supplement 3-15

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SYSTEM TURNOVER FORM PS-9 Pressure System Number: Pressure System Name: OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS: IN-SERVICE INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS: Piping Vessels Relief Valves Component Component ISI Category ISI Type (VT, UT, RT, etc) ISI Frequency Special ISI Requirements: System Owner name and signature: Date: Design Authority name and signature Date Design Authority shall forward this form to the Pressure Systems Committee Designee for filing and updating the operating pressure

  2. DYNA3D Finite Element Analysis of Steam Explosion Loads on a Pedestal Wall Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noble, C R

    2007-01-18

    The objective of this brief report is to document the ESBWR pedestal wall finite element analyses that were performed as a quick turnaround effort in July 2005 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and describe the assumptions and failure criteria used for these analyses [Ref 4]. The analyses described within are for the pedestal wall design that included an internal steel liner. The goal of the finite element analyses was to assist in determining the load carrying capacity of the ESBWR pedestal wall subjected to an impulsive pressure generated by a steam explosion.

  3. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor and a method of operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-02-20

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  4. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor and a method of operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI)

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  5. Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor salt deposition studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haroldsen, B.L.; Mills, B.E.; Ariizumi, D.Y.; Brown, B.G.

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with Foster Wheeler Development Corp. and GenCorp, Aerojet to develop and evaluate a new supercritical water oxidation reactor design using a transpiring wall liner. In the design, pure water is injected through small pores in the liner wall to form a protective boundary layer that inhibits salt deposition and corrosion, effects that interfere with system performance. The concept was tested at Sandia on a laboratory-scale transpiring wall reactor that is a 1/4 scale model of a prototype plant being designed for the Army to destroy colored smoke and dye at Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas. During the tests, a single-phase pressurized solution of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was heated to supercritical conditions, causing the salt to precipitate out as a fine solid. On-line diagnostics and post-test observation allowed us to characterize reactor performance at different flow and temperature conditions. Tests with and without the protective boundary layer demonstrated that wall transpiration provides significant protection against salt deposition. Confirmation tests were run with one of the dyes that will be processed in the Pine Bluff facility. The experimental techniques, results, and conclusions are discussed.

  6. disrupting the plant cell wall

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    disrupting the plant cell wall - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  7. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  8. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagasse, Paul R. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  9. 2013 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wall Street Perspective on SMRs 2013 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs Summary of results of a 2013 survey on Wall Street attitudes toward small modular reactors. PDF icon 2013 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs More Documents & Publications 2014 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs - Report 2014 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs 2015 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs Update

  10. Promising Technology: Cool Paints for Exterior Walls

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cool Paints increase the solar reflectance of exterior walls. By reflecting more sunlight, the wall surface maintains a cooler temperature. This decrease in temperature leads to less heat transfer through the walls into the building. During the cooling season, the addition of cool paints can decrease the cooling load of the building.

  11. Shock wave convergence in water with parabolic wall boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanuka, D.; Shafer, D.; Krasik, Ya.

    2015-04-28

    The convergence of shock waves in water, where the cross section of the boundaries between which the shock wave propagates is either straight or parabolic, was studied. The shock wave was generated by underwater electrical explosions of planar Cu wire arrays using a high-current generator with a peak output current of ?45?kA and rise time of ?80?ns. The boundaries of the walls between which the shock wave propagates were symmetric along the z axis, which is defined by the direction of the exploding wires. It was shown that with walls having a parabolic cross section, the shock waves converge faster and the pressure in the vicinity of the line of convergence, calculated by two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper, is also larger.

  12. Method and apparatus for coupling seismic sensors to a borehole wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B.

    2005-03-15

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  13. A guide for the ASME code for austenitic stainless steel containment vessels for high-level radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raske, D.T.

    1995-06-01

    The design and fabrication criteria recommended by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for high-level radioactive materials containment vessels used in packaging is found in Section III, Division 1, Subsection NB of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This Code provides material, design, fabrication, examination, and testing specifications for nuclear power plant components. However, many of the requirements listed in the Code are not applicable to containment vessels made from austenitic stainless steel with austenitic or ferritic steel bolting. Most packaging designers, engineers, and fabricators are intimidated by the sheer volume of requirements contained in the Code; consequently, the Code is not always followed and many requirements that do apply are often overlooked during preparation of the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) that constitutes the basis to evaluate the packaging for certification.

  14. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of magnitude, which can result in unique properties in areas such as hydrogen storage, gas transport, gas separations and purifications, sensors, global warming applications, new drug delivery systems and so on. One of the most interesting porous glass products that SRNL has developed and patented is Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs) that are being studied for many different applications. The European Patent Office (EPO) just recently notified SRS that the continuation-in-part patent application for the PW-HGMs has been accepted. The original patent, which was granted by the EPO on June 2, 2010, was validated in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. The microspheres produced are generally in the range of 2 to 100 microns, with a 1 to 2 micron wall. What makes the SRNL microspheres unique from all others is that the team in Figure 1 has found a way to induce and control porosity through the thin walls on a scale of 100 to 3000 {angstrom}. This is what makes the SRNL HW-HGMs one-of-a-kind, and is responsible for many of their unique properties and potential for various applications, including those in tritium storage, gas separations, H-storage for vehicles, and even a variety of new medical applications in the areas of drug delivery and MRI contrast agents. SRNL Hollow Glass Microspheres, and subsequent, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres are fabricated using a flame former apparatus. Figure 2 is a schematic of the apparatus.

  15. Mechanism of bubble detachment from vibrating walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dongjun; Park, Jun Kwon Kang, Kwan Hyoung; Kang, In Seok

    2013-11-15

    We discovered a previously unobserved mechanism by which air bubbles detach from vibrating walls in glasses containing water. Chaotic oscillation and subsequent water jets appeared when a wall vibrated at greater than a critical level. Wave forms were developed at water-air interface of the bubble by the wall vibration, and water jets were formed when sufficiently grown wave-curvatures were collapsing. Droplets were pinched off from the tip of jets and fell to the surface of the glass. When the solid-air interface at the bubble-wall attachment point was completely covered with water, the bubble detached from the wall. The water jets were mainly generated by subharmonic waves and were generated most vigorously when the wall vibrated at the volume resonant frequency of the bubble. Bubbles of specific size can be removed by adjusting the frequency of the wall's vibration.

  16. Method for forming a bladder for fluid storage vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, Fred (Livermore, CA); Myers, Blake (Livermore, CA); Magnotta, Frank (Lafayette, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A lightweight, low permeability liner for graphite epoxy composite compressed gas storage vessels. The liner is composed of polymers that may or may not be coated with a thin layer of a low permeability material, such as silver, gold, or aluminum, deposited on a thin polymeric layer or substrate which is formed into a closed bladder using torispherical or near torispherical end caps, with or without bosses therein, about which a high strength to weight material, such as graphite epoxy composite shell, is formed to withstand the storage pressure forces. The polymeric substrate may be laminated on one or both sides with additional layers of polymeric film. The liner may be formed to a desired configuration using a dissolvable mandrel or by inflation techniques and the edges of the film seamed by heat sealing. The liner may be utilized in most any type of gas storage system, and is particularly applicable for hydrogen, gas mixtures, and oxygen used for vehicles, fuel cells or regenerative fuel cell applications, high altitude solar powered aircraft, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems, and lunar/Mars space applications, and other applications requiring high cycle life.

  17. Generic BWR-4 degraded core in-vessel study. Status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    Original intent of this project was to produce a phenomenological study of the in-vessel degradation which occurs during the TQUX and TQUV sequences for a generic BWR-4 from the initiation of the FSAR Chapter 15 operational transient through core debris bed formation to the failure of the primary pressure boundary. Bounding calculations were to be performed for the two high pressure and low pressure non-LOCA scenarios to assess the uncertainties in the current state of knowledge regarding the source terms for containment integrity studies. Source terms as such were defined in terms of hydrogen generation, unreacted metal, and coolant inventroy, and in terms of the form, sequencing and mode of dispersal through the primary vessel boundary. Fission product release was not to be considered as part of this study. Premature termination of the project, however, led to the dicontinuation of work on an as is basis. Work on the in-core phase from the point of scram to core debris bed formation was largely completed. A preliminary scoping calculation on the debris bed phase had been initiated. This report documents the status of the study at termination.

  18. SRNL POROUS WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wicks, G; Leung Heung, L; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-15

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a new medium for storage of hydrogen and other gases. This involves fabrication of thin, Porous Walled, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), with diameters generally in the range of 1 to several hundred microns. What is unique about the glass microballons is that porosity has been induced and controlled within the thin, one micron thick walls, on the scale of 10 to several thousand Angstroms. This porosity results in interesting properties including the ability to use these channels to fill the microballons with special absorbents and other materials, thus providing a contained environment even for reactive species. Gases can now enter the microspheres and be retained on the absorbents, resulting in solid-state and contained storage of even reactive species. Also, the porosity can be altered and controlled in various ways, and even used to filter mixed gas streams within a system. SRNL is involved in about a half dozen different programs involving these PW-HGMs and an overview of some of these activities and results emerging are presented.

  19. NETL SOFC: Pressurized Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressurized Systems PRESSURIZED SYSTEMS (INDUSTRY TEAMS)-SOFCs demonstrate enhanced performance by increasing the cell pressure. Thus, power systems with pressurized SOFC technology have the potential to achieve efficiencies greater than 60 percent (HHV) with greater than 97 percent carbon capture, near-zero emissions, and low water usage. The Pressurized Systems key technology is developing a deeper understanding on the behavior of the state-of-the-art SOFC material set under pressurized

  20. Method and device for supporting blood vessels during anastomosis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doss, J.D.

    1985-05-20

    A device and method for preventing first and second severed blood vessels from collapsing during attachment to each other. The device comprises a dissolvable non-toxic stent that is sufficiently rigid to prevent the blood vessels from collapsing during anastomosis. The stent can be hollow or have passages to permit blood flow before it dissolves. A single stent can be inserted with an end in each of the two blood vessels or separate stents can be inserted into each blood vessel. The stent may include a therapeutically effective amount of a drug which is slowly released into the blood stream as the stent dissolves. 12 figs.

  1. Study Reveals Challenges and Opportunities Related to Vessels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reveals Challenges and Opportunities Related to Vessels for U.S. Offshore Wind Study Reveals ... The installation of offshore wind farms requires a highly specialized fleet of ...

  2. Gas-lubricated seal for sealing between a piston and a cylinder wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoult, D.P.

    1985-09-10

    A piston-cylinder seal uses gas for a lubricant and has a runner supported on a gapless structure and placed in the space between the piston and the cylinder wall. The runner is deformed elastically under the influence of the operating pressures to follow and compensate for variations in the piston-cylinder fit and maintain a seal. 4 figs.

  3. Gas-lubricated seal for sealing between a piston and a cylinder wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoult, David P. (Box 89, Wellesley, MA 02181)

    1985-01-01

    A piston-cylinder seal uses gas for a lubricant and has a runner supported on a gapless structure and placed in the space between the piston and the cylinder wall. The runner is deformed elastically under the influence of the operating pressures to follow and compensate for variations in the piston-cylinder fit and maintain a seal.

  4. Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davin, James (Gilroy, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell.

  5. 2014 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs - Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Perspectives on SMRs - Report 2014 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs - Report Summary of the results of a 2014 survey of Wall Street attitudes toward small modular reactors. PDF icon View from Wall Street: Nuclear Energy and Small Modular Reactors More Documents & Publications 2013 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs 2014 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs 2015 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs Update

  6. 2015 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs Update | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs Update 2015 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs Update Summary briefing on the results of a September 2015 survey of Wall Street attitudes toward SMRs. PDF icon 2015 Financial Survey: Nuclear Energy More Documents & Publications 2014 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs 2014 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs - Report 2013 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs

  7. Fracture analysis of axially cracked pressure tube of pressurized heavy water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, S.; Bhasin, V.; Mahajan, S.C.

    1997-04-01

    Three Dimensional (313) finite element elastic plastic fracture analysis was done for through wall axially cracked thin pressure tubes of 220 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor. The analysis was done for Zr-2 and Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes operating at 300{degrees}C and subjected to 9.5 Mpa internal pressure. Critical crack length was determined based on tearing instability concept. The analysis included the effect of crack face pressure due to the leaking fluid from tube. This effect was found to be significant for pressure tubes. The available formulae for calculating J (for axially cracked tubes) do not take into account the effect of crack face pressure. 3D finite element analysis also gives insight into variation of J across the thickness of pressure tube. It was observed that J is highest at the mid-surface of tube. The results have been presented in the form of across the thickness average J value and a peak factor on J. Peak factor on J is ratio of J at mid surface to average J value. Crack opening area for different cracked lengths was calculated from finite element results. The fracture assessment of pressure tubes was also done using Central Electricity Generating Board R-6 method. Ductile tearing was considered.

  8. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  9. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  10. Textural break foundation wall construction modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Steven J. (Kennewick, WA)

    1990-01-01

    Below-grade, textural-break foundation wall structures are provided for inhibiting diffusion and advection of liquids and gases into and out from a surrounding hydrogeologic environment. The foundation wall structure includes a foundation wall having an interior and exterior surface and a porous medium disposed around a portion of the exterior surface. The structure further includes a modular barrier disposed around a portion of the porous medium. The modular barrier is substantially removable from the hydrogeologic environment.

  11. First wall for polarized fusion reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenside, Henry S.; Budny, Robert V.; Post, Jr., Douglass E.

    1988-01-01

    Depolarization mechanisms arising from the recycling of the polarized fuel at the limiter and the first-wall of a fusion reactor are greater than those mechanisms in the plasma. Rapid depolarization of the plasma is prevented by providing a first-wall or first-wall coating formed of a low-Z, non-metallic material having a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec.sup.-1.

  12. Panelized wall system with foam core insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kosny, Jan (Oak Ridge, TN); Gaskin, Sally (Houston, TX)

    2009-10-20

    A wall system includes a plurality of wall members, the wall members having a first metal panel, a second metal panel, and an insulating core between the first panel and the second panel. At least one of the first panel and the second panel include ridge portions. The insulating core can be a foam, such as a polyurethane foam. The foam can include at least one opacifier to improve the k-factor of the foam.

  13. Multiple moving wall dry coal extrusion pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2013-05-14

    A pump for transporting particulate material includes a passageway defined on each side between an inlet and an outlet by a moving wall.

  14. First wall for polarized fusion reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenside, H.S.; Budny, R.V.; Post, D.E. Jr.

    1985-01-29

    A first-wall or first-wall coating for use in a fusion reactor having polarized fuel may be formed of a low-Z non-metallic material having slow spin relaxation, i.e., a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec/sup -1/. Materials having these properties include hydrogenated and deuterated amorphous semiconductors. A method for preventing the rapid depolarization of a polarized plasma in a fusion device may comprise the step of providing a first-wall or first-wall coating formed of a low-Z, non-metallic material having a depolarization rate greater than 1 sec/sup -1/.

  15. Wall, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wall, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.3936801, -79.7861577 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingser...

  16. Water Wall Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Water Wall Turbine Region: Canada Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: www.wwturbine.com This company is listed in the Marine and Hydrokinetic...

  17. Living Walls | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    systems and the new field of biomimicry. Biomimicry is the science of imitating nature to solve human design problems. The Living Wall concept takes the principles behind...

  18. Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

    2002-07-30

    The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

  19. CXD 4606, 9831 Wall Construction Project (4606)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9831 Wall Construction Project (4606) Y-12 Site Office Oak Ridge, Anderson County, Tennessee The proposed action is to upgrade of the existing contamination area associated with an...

  20. Systems Engineering of Chemical Hydrogen Storage, Pressure Vessel and Balance of Plant for Onboard Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2014-09-02

    This is the annual report for the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence project as required by DOE EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office. We have been provided with a specific format. It describes the work that was done with cryo-sorbent based and chemical-based hydrogen storage materials. Balance of plant components were developed, proof-of-concept testing performed, system costs estimated, and transient models validated as part of this work.

  1. Pipeline and Pressure Vessel R&D under the Hydrogen Regional...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Needs American Society of Mechanical EngineersSavannah River National Laboratory (ASMESRNL) Materials and Components for Hydrogen Infrastructure Codes and Standards Workshop...

  2. Pipeline and Pressure Vessel R&D under the Hydrogen Regional Infrastructure Program In Pennsylvania

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Began as rapid data generator for numerical modeling efforts, Cathodic charging applied to base, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and weld metal

  3. Pressurizer with a mechanically attached surge nozzle thermal sleeve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wepfer, Robert M

    2014-03-25

    A thermal sleeve is mechanically attached to the bore of a surge nozzle of a pressurizer for the primary circuit of a pressurized water reactor steam generating system. The thermal sleeve is attached with a series of keys and slots which maintain the thermal sleeve centered in the nozzle while permitting thermal growth and restricting flow between the sleeve and the interior wall of the nozzle.

  4. Method for reducing pressure drop through filters, and filter exhibiting reduced pressure drop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sappok, Alexander; Wong, Victor

    2014-11-18

    Methods for generating and applying coatings to filters with porous material in order to reduce large pressure drop increases as material accumulates in a filter, as well as the filter exhibiting reduced and/or more uniform pressure drop. The filter can be a diesel particulate trap for removing particulate matter such as soot from the exhaust of a diesel engine. Porous material such as ash is loaded on the surface of the substrate or filter walls, such as by coating, depositing, distributing or layering the porous material along the channel walls of the filter in an amount effective for minimizing or preventing depth filtration during use of the filter. Efficient filtration at acceptable flow rates is achieved.

  5. Furnace Pressure Controllers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet highlights the benefits of precise furnace pressure control in process heating systems.

  6. Moisture Management of High-R Walls (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Management of High-R Walls PROJECT APPLICATION Construction: Existing homes with vapor open wall assemblies Type: Residential Climate Zones: All TECHNICAL PARAMETERS Moisture Sources: Water vapor is moisture that flows from areas of high vapor pressure to low vapor pressure. It can accumulate behind vapor impermeable materials. Construction moisture is moisture that is stored in materials when exposed to the environment during construction. Rain is the primary source. This was simulated with a

  7. Fluid-solid contact vessel having fluid distributors therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., John B. (Rifle, CO)

    1980-09-09

    Rectangularly-shaped fluid distributors for large diameter, vertical vessels include reinforcers for high heat operation, vertical sides with gas distributing orifices and overhanging, sloped roofs. Devices are provided for cleaning the orifices from a buildup of solid deposits resulting from the reactions in the vessel.

  8. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1 to 1 ), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  9. Response of a water-filled spherical vessel to an internal explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, M.W.; Wilson, T.L.

    1997-06-01

    Many problems of interest to the defense community involve fluid-structure interaction (FSI). Such problems include underwater blast loading of structures, bubble dynamics and jetting around structures, and hydrodynamic ram events. These problems may involve gas, fluid, and solid dynamics, nonlinear material behavior, cavitation, reaction kinetics, material failure, and nonlinearity that is due to varying geometry and contact conditions within a structure or between structures. Here, the authors model the response of a water-filled, thick-walled, spherical steel vessel to an internal explosion of 30 grams of C-4 with FSI2D--a two-dimensional coupled finite element and finite volume hydrodynamics code. The gas phase detonation products were modeled with a Becker-Kistiakowsky-Wilson high-explosive equation of state. Predictions from a fully coupled model were compared to experimental results in the form of strain gauge traces. Agreement was reasonably good. Additionally, the calculation was run in an uncoupled mode to understand the importance of fluid-structure interaction in this problem. The uncoupled model results in an accumulation of nonphysical energy in the vessel.

  10. Improvement of the mechanical reliability of monolithic refractory linings for coal gasification process vessels. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, R.A.

    1981-09-01

    Eighteen heat-up tests were run on nine standard and experimental dual component monolithic refractory concrete linings. These tests were run with a five foot diameter by 14-ft high Pressure Vessel/Test Furnace designed to accommodate a 12-inch thick by 5-ft high refractory lining, heat the hot face to 2000/sup 0/F and expose the lining to air or steam pressures up to 150 psig. Results obtained from standard type linings in the test facility indicated that lining degradation duplicated that observed in field installations. The lining performance was significantly improved due to information gained from a systematic study of the cracking that occurred in the linings; the analysis of the lining strains, shell stresses and acoustic emission results; and the stress analyses performed on the standard and experimental lining designs with the finite element analysis computer programs, REFSAM and RESGAP.

  11. High Temperature Electrolysis Pressurized Experiment Design, Operation, and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G.K. Housley; K. DeWall; L. Moore-McAteer

    2012-09-01

    A new facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for pressurized testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. Pressurized operation is envisioned for large-scale hydrogen production plants, yielding higher overall efficiencies when the hydrogen product is to be delivered at elevated pressure for tank storage or pipelines. Pressurized operation also supports higher mass flow rates of the process gases with smaller components. The test stand can accommodate planar cells with dimensions up to 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm and stacks of up to 25 cells. It is also suitable for testing other cell and stack geometries including tubular cells. The pressure boundary for these tests is a water-cooled spool-piece pressure vessel designed for operation up to 5 MPa. Pressurized operation of a ten-cell internally manifolded solid oxide electrolysis stack has been successfully demonstrated up 1.5 MPa. The stack is internally manifolded and operates in cross-flow with an inverted-U flow pattern. Feed-throughs for gas inlets/outlets, power, and instrumentation are all located in the bottom flange. The entire spool piece, with the exception of the bottom flange, can be lifted to allow access to the internal furnace and test fixture. Lifting is accomplished with a motorized threaded drive mechanism attached to a rigid structural frame. Stack mechanical compression is accomplished using springs that are located inside of the pressure boundary, but outside of the hot zone. Initial stack heatup and performance characterization occurs at ambient pressure followed by lowering and sealing of the pressure vessel and subsequent pressurization. Pressure equalization between the anode and cathode sides of the cells and the stack surroundings is ensured by combining all of the process gases downstream of the stack. Steady pressure is maintained by means of a backpressure regulator and a digital pressure controller. A full description of the pressurized test apparatus is provided in this report. Results of initial testing showed the expected increase in open-cell voltage associated with elevated pressure. However, stack performance in terms of area-specific resistance was enhanced at elevated pressure due to better gas diffusion through the porous electrodes of the cells. Some issues such as cracked cells and seals were encountered during testing. Full resolution of these issues will require additional testing to identify the optimum test configurations and protocols.

  12. Preliminary development of an integrated approach to the evaluation of pressurized thermal shock as applied to the Oconee Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, T J; Cheverton, R D; Flanagan, G F; White, J D; Ball, D G; Lamonica, L B; Olson, R

    1986-05-01

    An evaluation of the risk to the Oconee-1 nuclear plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been Completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This evaluaion was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants: Oconee-1, a Babcock and Wilco reactor plant owned and operated by Duke Power Company; Calvert Cliffs-1, a Combustion Engineering reactor plant owned and operated by Baltimore Gas and Electric company; and H.B. Robinson-2, a Westinghouse reactor plant owned and operated by Carolina Power and Light Company. Studies of Calvert Cliffs-1 and H.B. Robinson-2 are still underway. The specific objectives of the Oconee-1 study were to: (1) provide a best estimate of the probability of a through-the-wall crack (TWC) occurring in the reactor pressure vessel as a result of PTS; (2) determine dominant accident sequences, plant features, operator and control actions and uncertainty in the PTS risk; and (3) evaluate effectiveness of potential corrective measures.

  13. Risk Assessment of Energy-Efficient Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallin, Simon B.; Hun, Diana E.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Kehrer, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    This multi-year project aims to provide the residential construction industry with energy-efficient wall designs that are moisture durable. The present work focused on the initial step of this project, which is to develop a moisture durability protocol that identifies energy efficient wall designs that have a low probability of experiencing moisture problems.

  14. Comparison of high pressure transient PVT measurements and model predictions. Part I.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felver, Todd G.; Paradiso, Nicholas Joseph; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Rice, Steven F.; Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

    2010-07-01

    A series of experiments consisting of vessel-to-vessel transfers of pressurized gas using Transient PVT methodology have been conducted to provide a data set for optimizing heat transfer correlations in high pressure flow systems. In rapid expansions such as these, the heat transfer conditions are neither adiabatic nor isothermal. Compressible flow tools exist, such as NETFLOW that can accurately calculate the pressure and other dynamical mechanical properties of such a system as a function of time. However to properly evaluate the mass that has transferred as a function of time these computational tools rely on heat transfer correlations that must be confirmed experimentally. In this work new data sets using helium gas are used to evaluate the accuracy of these correlations for receiver vessel sizes ranging from 0.090 L to 13 L and initial supply pressures ranging from 2 MPa to 40 MPa. The comparisons show that the correlations developed in the 1980s from sparse data sets perform well for the supply vessels but are not accurate for the receivers, particularly at early time during the transfers. This report focuses on the experiments used to obtain high quality data sets that can be used to validate computational models. Part II of this report discusses how these data were used to gain insight into the physics of gas transfer and to improve vessel heat transfer correlations. Network flow modeling and CFD modeling is also discussed.

  15. Welding the AT-400A Containment Vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon, E.

    1998-11-01

    Early in 1994, the Department of Energy assigned Sandia National Laboratories the responsibility for designing and providing the welding system for the girth weld for the AT-400A containment vessel. (The AT-400A container is employed for the shipment and long-term storage of the nuclear weapon pits being returned from the nation's nuclear arsenal.) Mason Hanger Corporation's Pantex Plant was chosen to be the production facility. The project was successfully completed by providing and implementing a turnkey welding system and qualified welding procedure at the Pantex Plant. The welding system was transferred to Pantex and a pilot lot of 20 AT-400A containers with W48 pits was welded in August 1997. This document is intended to bring together the AT-400A welding system and product (girth weld) requirements and the activities conducted to meet those requirements. This document alone is not a complete compilation of the welding development activities but is meant to be a summary to be used with the applicable references.

  16. Automotion of domain walls for spintronic interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

    2014-06-07

    We simulate “automotion,” the transport of a magnetic domain wall under the influence of demagnetization and magnetic anisotropy, in nanoscale spintronic interconnects. In contrast to spin transfer driven magnetic domain wall motion, the proposed interconnects operate without longitudinal charge current transfer, with only a transient current pulse at domain wall creation and have favorable scaling down to the 20 nm dimension. Cases of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization are considered. Analytical dependence of the velocity of domain walls on the angle of magnetization are compared with full micromagnetic simulations. Deceleration, attenuation and disappearance, and reflection of domain walls are demonstrated through simulation. Dependences of the magnetization angle on the current pulse parameters are studied. The energy and delay analysis suggests that automotion is an attractive option for spintronic logic interconnects.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FOR THE ISOTOPIC EXCHANGE OF A 1600 LITER TITANIUM HYDRIDE STORAGE VESSEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.

    2010-12-14

    Titanium is used as a low pressure tritium storage material. The absorption/desorption rates and temperature rise during air passivation have been reported previously for a 4400 gram prototype titanium hydride storage vessel (HSV). A desorption limit of roughly 0.25 Q/M was obtained when heating to 700 C which represents a significant residual tritium process vessel inventory. To prepare an HSV for disposal, batchwise isotopic exchange has been proposed to reduce the tritium content to acceptable levels. A prototype HSV was loaded with deuterium and exchanged with protium to determine the effectiveness of a batch-wise isotopic exchange process. A total of seven exchange cycles were performed. Gas samples were taken nominally at the beginning, middle, and end of each desorption cycle. Sample analyses showed the isotopic exchange process does not follow the standard dilution model commonly reported. Samples taken at the start of the desorption process were lower in deuterium (the gas to be removed) than those taken later in the desorption cycle. The results are explained in terms of incomplete mixing of the exchange gas in the low pressure hydride.

  18. Factors affecting coking pressures in tall coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimley, J.J.; Radley, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    The detrimental effects of excessive coking pressures, resulting in the permanent deformation of coke oven walls, have been recognized for many years. Considerable research has been undertaken worldwide in attempts to define the limits within which a plant may safely operate and to quantify the factors which influence these pressures. Few full scale techniques are available for assessing the potential of a coal blend for causing wall damage. Inference of dangerous swelling pressures may be made however by the measurement of the peak gas pressure which is generated as the plastic layers meet and coalesce at the center of the oven. This pressure is referred to in this report as the carbonizing pressure. At the Dawes Lane cokemaking plant of British Steel`s Scunthorpe Works, a large database has been compiled over several years from the regulator measurement of this pressure. This data has been statistically analyzed to provide a mathematical model for predicting the carbonizing pressure from the properties of the component coals, the results of this analysis are presented in this report.

  19. Analyses of High Pressure Molten Debris Dispersion for a Typical PWR Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osamu KAawabata; Mitsuhiro Kajimoto [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    In such severe core damage accident, as small LOCAs with no ECCS injection or station blackout, in which the primary reactor system remains pressurized during core melt down, certain modes of vessel failure would lead to a high pressure ejection of molten core material. In case of a local failure of the lower head, the molten materials would initially be ejected into the cavity beneath the pressure vessel may subsequently be swept out from the cavity to the containment atmosphere and it might cause the early containment failure by direct contact of containment steel liner with core debris. When the contribution of a high-pressure scenario in a core damage frequency increases, early conditional containment failure probability may become large. In the present study, the verification analysis of PHOENICS code and the combining analysis with MELCOR and PHOENICS codes were performed to examine the debris dispersion behavior during high pressure melt ejection. The PHOENICS code which can treat thermal hydraulic phenomena, was applied to the verification analysis for melt dispersion experiments conducted by the Purdue university in the United States. A low pressure melt dispersion experiment at initial pressure 1.4 MPas used metal woods as a molten material was simulated. The analytical results with molten debris dispersion mostly from the model reactor cavity compartment showed an agreement with the experimental result, but the analysis result of a volumetric median diameter of the airborne debris droplets was estimated about 1.5 times of the experimental result. The injection rates of molten debris and steam after reactor vessel failure for a typical PWR plant were analyzed using the MELCOR code. In addition, PHOENICS was applied to a 3D analysis for debris dispersion with low primary pressure at the reactor vessel failure. The analysis result showed that almost all the molten debris were dispersed from the reactor vessel cavity compartment by about 45 seconds after the start of steam release. (authors)

  20. High-pressure microhydraulic actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosier, Bruce P. (San Francisco, CA) [San Francisco, CA; Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA) [Fremont, CA; Patel, Kamlesh D. (Dublin, CA) [Dublin, CA

    2008-06-10

    Electrokinetic ("EK") pumps convert electric to mechanical work when an electric field exerts a body force on ions in the Debye layer of a fluid in a packed bed, which then viscously drags the fluid. Porous silica and polymer monoliths (2.5-mm O.D., and 6-mm to 10-mm length) having a narrow pore size distribution have been developed that are capable of large pressure gradients (250-500 psi/mm) when large electric fields (1000-1500 V/cm) are applied. Flowrates up to 200 .mu.L/min and delivery pressures up to 1200 psi have been demonstrated. Forces up to 5 lb-force at 0.5 mm/s (12 mW) have been demonstrated with a battery-powered DC-DC converter. Hydraulic power of 17 mW (900 psi@ 180 uL/min) has been demonstrated with wall-powered high voltage supplies. The force and stroke delivered by an actuator utilizing an EK pump are shown to exceed the output of solenoids, stepper motors, and DC motors of similar size, despite the low thermodynamic efficiency.

  1. Wall current probe: A non-invasive in situ plasma diagnostic for space and time resolved current density distribution measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baude, R.; Gaboriau, F.; Hagelaar, G. J. M. [Universit de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion dnergie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France and CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062, Toulouse (France)] [Universit de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion dnergie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France and CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062, Toulouse (France)

    2013-08-15

    In the context of low temperature plasma research, we propose a wall current probe to determine the local charged particle fluxes flowing to the chamber walls. This non-intrusive planar probe consists of an array of electrode elements which can be individually biased and for which the current can be measured separately. We detail the probe properties and present the ability of the diagnostic to be used as a space and time resolved measurement of the ion and electron current density at the chamber walls. This diagnostic will be relevant to study the electron transport in magnetized low-pressure plasmas.

  2. Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostival, A.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; Burgess, R.

    2013-11-01

    Pressure relief devices (PRDs) are viewed as essential safety measures for high-pressure gas storage and distribution systems. These devices are used to prevent the over-pressurization of gas storage vessels and distribution equipment, except in the application of certain toxic gases. PRDs play a critical role in the implementation of most high-pressure gas storage systems and anyone working with these devices should understand their function so they can be designed, installed, and maintained properly to prevent any potentially dangerous or fatal incidents. As such, the intention of this report is to introduce the reader to the function of the common types of PRDs currently used in industry. Since high-pressure hydrogen gas storage systems are being developed to support the growing hydrogen energy infrastructure, several recent failure incidents, specifically involving hydrogen, will be examined to demonstrate the results and possible mechanisms of a device failure. The applicable codes and standards, developed to minimize the risk of failure for PRDs, will also be reviewed. Finally, because PRDs are a critical component for the development of a successful hydrogen energy infrastructure, important considerations for pressure relief devices applied in a hydrogen gas environment will be explored.

  3. Effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamics of nanoconfined propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gautam, Siddharth Liu, Tingting Welch, Susan; Cole, David; Rother, Gernot; Jalarvo, Niina; Mamontov, Eugene

    2014-04-24

    We report the effect of temperature and pressure on the dynamical properties of propane confined in nanoporous silica aerogel studied using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). Our results demonstrate that the effect of a change in the pressure dominates over the effect of temperature variation on the dynamics of propane nano-confined in silica aerogel. At low pressures, most of the propane molecules are strongly bound to the pore walls, only a small fraction is mobile. As the pressure is increased, the fraction of mobile molecules increases. A change in the mechanism of motion, from continuous diffusion at low pressures to jump diffusion at higher pressures has also been observed.

  4. SIMULATION AND MOCKUP OF SNS JET-FLOW TARGET WITH WALL JET FOR CAVITATION DAMAGE MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendel, Mark W; Geoghegan, Patrick J; Felde, David K

    2014-01-01

    Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory induce cavitation damage on the stainless steel target container. The cavitation damage is thought to limit the lifetime of the target for power levels at and above 1 MW. Severe through-wall cavitation damage on an internal wall near the beam entrance window has been observed in spent-targets. Surprisingly though, there is very little damage on the walls that bound an annular mercury channel that wraps around the front and outside of the target. The mercury flow through this channel is characterized by smooth, attached streamlines. One theory to explain this lack of damage is that the uni-directional flow biases the direction of the collapsing cavitation bubble, reducing the impact pressure and subsequent damage. The theory has been reinforced by in-beam separate effects data. For this reason, a second-generation SNS mercury target has been designed with an internal wall jet configuration intended to protect the concave wall where damage has been observed. The wall jet mimics the annular flow channel streamlines, but since the jet is bounded on only one side, the momentum is gradually diffused by the bulk flow interactions as it progresses around the cicular path of the target nose. Numerical simulations of the flow through this jet-flow target have been completed, and a water loop has been assembled with a transparent test target in order to visualize and measure the flow field. This paper presents the wall jet simulation results, as well as early experimental data from the test loop.

  5. 2014 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Perspective on SMRs 2014 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs Summary briefing on the results of a 2014 survey of Wall Street attitudes toward SMRs. PDF icon 2014 New Generation Financial Survey More Documents & Publications 2014 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs - Report 2015 Wall Street Perspectives on SMRs Update 2013 Wall Street Perspective on SMRs

  6. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, J.G.

    1993-11-16

    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. 1 figures.

  7. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, James G. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1993-01-01

    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel.

  8. PERFORMANCE OF A CONTAINMENT VESSEL CLOSURE FOR RADIOACTIVE GAS CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of the design and testing of the containment vessel closure for the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This package is a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The containment vessel closure incorporates features specifically designed for the containment of tritium when subjected to the normal and hypothetical conditions required of Type B radioactive material shipping Packages. The paper discusses functional performance of the containment vessel closure of the BTSP prototype packages and separate testing that evaluated the performance of the metallic C-Rings used in a mock BTSP closure.

  9. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY)

    2011-01-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  10. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY)

    2012-09-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  11. LNG Imports by Vessel into the U.S. Form | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Vessel into the U.S. Form LNG Imports by Vessel into the U.S. Form File Excel Version of LNG Imports by Vessel into the U.S. Form.xlsx PDF icon PDF Version of LNG Imports by Vessel into the U.S. Form More Documents & Publications LNG Exports by Vessel out of the U.S. Form LNG Exports by Vessel in ISO Containers

  12. PNL technical review of pressurized thermal-shock issues. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedersen, L.T.; Apley, W.J.; Bian, S.H.; Defferding, L.J.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Pelto, P.J.; Simonen, E.P.; Simonen, F.A.; Stevens, D.L.; Taylor, T.T.

    1982-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked to develop and recommend a regulatory position that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should adopt regarding the ability of reactor pressure vessels to withstand the effects of pressurized thermal shock (PTS). Licensees of eight pressurized water reactors provided NRC with estimates of remaining effective full power years before corrective actions would be required to prevent an unsafe operating condition. PNL reviewed these responses and the results of supporting research and concluded that none of the eight reactors would undergo vessel failure from a PTS event before several more years of operation. Operator actions, however, were often required to terminate a PTS event before it deteriorated to the point where failure could occur. Therefore, the near-term (less than one year) recommendation is to upgrade, on a site-specific basis, operational procedures, training, and control room instrumentation. Also, uniform criteria should be developed by NRC for use during future licensee analyses. Finally, it was recommended that NRC upgrade nondestructive inspection techniques used during vessel examinations and become more involved in the evaluation of annealing requirements.

  13. Pressure-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1986-07-15

    An apparatus is provided for sensing changes in pressure and for generating optical signals related to said changes in pressure. Light from a fiber optic illuminates a fluorescent composition causing it to fluoresce. The fluorescent composition is caused to fluoresce more relative to the end of the fiber optic in response to changes in pressure so that the intensity of fluorescent emissions collected by the same fiber optic used for illumination varies monotonically with pressure. 10 figs.

  14. Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell integral air accumular containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Basel, Richard A.

    2004-02-10

    A fuel cell generator apparatus contains at least one fuel cell subassembly module in a module housing, where the housing is surrounded by a pressure vessel such that there is an air accumulator space, where the apparatus is associated with an air compressor of a turbine/generator/air compressor system, where pressurized air from the compressor passes into the space and occupies the space and then flows to the fuel cells in the subassembly module, where the air accumulation space provides an accumulator to control any unreacted fuel gas that might flow from the module.

  15. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates High performance walls represent a high priority...

  16. Cover Heated, Open Vessels - Steam Tip Sheet #19

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO steam tip sheet on covering heated, open vessels provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  17. Comparison of Alternatives to the 2004 Vacuum Vessel Heat Transfer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    as well as including a small safety-rated pump and HX in parallel to the main circulation pump and HX. The Vacuum Vessel (VV) Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) removes heat...

  18. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Assesses Risks for Marine Vessel

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Traffic and Wind Energy Development | Department of Energy Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Assesses Risks for Marine Vessel Traffic and Wind Energy Development Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Assesses Risks for Marine Vessel Traffic and Wind Energy Development September 12, 2014 - 12:08pm Addthis The nationwide demand for energy is fueling development of sustainable offshore wind resources. To reach the strong and steady offshore wind resources, the Bureau of Ocean Energy

  19. Measurement of earth pressures on concrete box culverts under highway embankments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.Z.; Drumm, E.C.; Bennett, R.M.; Mauldon, M.

    1999-07-01

    To obtain a better understanding of the stresses acting on cast-in-place concrete box culverts, and to investigate the conditions which resulted in a culvert failure under about 12 meters of backfill, two sections of a new culvert were instrumented. The measured earth pressure distribution was found to depend upon the height of the embankment over the culvert. For low embankment heights (less than one-half the culvert width), the average measured vertical earth pressures, weighted by tributary length, were about 30% greater than the recommended AASHTO pressures. The measured lateral pressures were slightly greater than the AASHTO pressures. As the embankment height increased, the measured weighted average vertical stress exceeded the AASHTO pressures by about 20%. Lateral pressures which exceeded the vertical pressures were recorded at the bottom of the culvert walls, and small lateral pressures were recorded on the upper locations of the wall. The high lateral pressures at the base of the wall are consistent with the results from finite element analyses with high density (modulus) backfill material placed around the culvert.

  20. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA); Dilgard, Lemoyne W. (Willits, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes.

  1. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, J.C.; Dilgard, L.W.

    1995-10-10

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure is disclosed. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes. 10 figs.

  2. Miniaturized pressurization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA); Swink, Don G. (Woodinville, WA)

    1991-01-01

    The invention uses a fluid stored at a low pressure and provides the fluid at a high pressure. The invention allows the low pressure fluid to flow to a fluid bore of a differential pump and from the pump to a fluid pressure regulator. After flowing through the regulator the fluid is converted to a gas which is directed to a gas bore of the differential pump. By controlling the flow of gas entering and being exhausted from the gas bore, the invention provides pressure to the fluid. By setting the regulator, the high pressure fluid can be set at predetermined values. Because the invention only needs a low pressure fluid, the inventive apparatus has a low mass, and therefore would be useful in rocket propulsion systems.

  3. Thin Wall Cast Iron: Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doru M. Stefanescu

    2005-07-21

    The development of thin-wall technology allows the designers of energy consuming equipment to select the most appropriate material based on cost/material properties considerations, and not solely on density. The technology developed in this research project will permit the designers working for the automotive industry to make a better informed choice between competing materials and thin wall cast iron, thus decreasing the overall cost of the automobile.

  4. Control of linear modes in cylindrical resistive magnetohydrodynamics with a resistive wall, plasma rotation, and complex gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennan, D. P.; Finn, J. M.

    2014-10-15

    Feedback stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes in a tokamak is studied in a cylindrical model with a resistive wall, plasma resistivity, viscosity, and toroidal rotation. The control is based on a linear combination of the normal and tangential components of the magnetic field just inside the resistive wall. The feedback includes complex gain, for both the normal and for the tangential components, and it is known that the imaginary part of the feedback for the former is equivalent to plasma rotation [J. M. Finn and L. Chacon, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1866 (2004)]. The work includes (1) analysis with a reduced resistive MHD model for a tokamak with finite ? and with stepfunction current density and pressure profiles, and (2) computations with a full compressible visco-resistive MHD model with smooth decreasing profiles of current density and pressure. The equilibria are stable for ??=?0 and the marginal stability values ?{sub rp,rw}?wall; resistive plasma, ideal wall; ideal plasma, resistive wall; and ideal plasma, ideal wall) are computed for both models. The main results are: (a) imaginary gain with normal sensors or plasma rotation stabilizes below ?{sub rp,iw} because rotation suppresses the diffusion of flux from the plasma out through the wall and, more surprisingly, (b) rotation or imaginary gain with normal sensors destabilizes above ?{sub rp,iw} because it prevents the feedback flux from entering the plasma through the resistive wall to form a virtual wall. A method of using complex gain G{sub i} to optimize in the presence of rotation in this regime with ??>??{sub rp,iw} is presented. The effect of imaginary gain with tangential sensors is more complicated but essentially destabilizes above and below ?{sub rp,iw}.

  5. Luminescent single-walled carbon nanotube/silica composite materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Luminescent single-walled carbon nanotubesilica composite materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Luminescent single-walled carbon nanotubesilica composite materials...

  6. MHK Technologies/Water Wall Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Water Wall Turbine.png Technology Profile Primary Organization Water Wall Turbine Technology Type Click...

  7. Lanzhou Great Wall Development Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wall Development Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lanzhou Great Wall Development Co., Ltd. Place: Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China Zip: 730000 Sector: Hydro Product:...

  8. Wall Lake Municipal Utilities Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipal Utilities Energy Purchaser Wall Lake Municipal Utilities Location Wall Lake IA Coordinates 42.281965, -95.094098 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  9. Evaluation of wall boundary condition parameters for gas-solids...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evaluation of wall boundary condition parameters for gas-solids fluidized bed simulations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of wall boundary condition ...

  10. Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case Study Analysis Building America Special Research Project: High-R Walls Case Study Analysis This report considers a ...

  11. Modifications of the cell wall of yeasts grown on hexadecane...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modifications of the cell wall of yeasts grown on hexadecane and under starvation conditions Title Modifications of the cell wall of yeasts grown on hexadecane and under starvation...

  12. Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes in Organic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube...

  13. Sandia Energy - High Pressure Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Pressure Chemistry Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Combustion Chemistry Combustion Kinetics High Pressure Chemistry High Pressure ChemistryAshley...

  14. Mathematical modeling of clearance between wall of coke oven and coke cake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nushiro, K.; Matsui, T.; Hanaoka, K.; Igawa, K.; Sorimachi, K.

    1995-12-01

    A mathematical model was developed for estimating the clearance between the wall of the coke oven and the coke cake. The prediction model is based on the balance between the contractile force and the coking pressure. A clearance forms when the contractile force exceeds the coking pressure in this model. The contractile force is calculated in consideration of the visco-elastic behavior of the thermal shrinkage of the coke. The coking pressure is calculated considering the generation and dispersion of gas in the melting layer. The relaxation time off coke used in this model was obtained with a dilatometer under the load application. The clearance was measured by the laser sensor, and the internal gas pressure was measured in a test oven. The clearance calculated during the coking process were in good agreement with the experimental results, which supported the validity of the mathematical model.

  15. Oblique inlet pressure loss for swirling flow entering a catalyst substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Persoons, T.; Vanierschot, M.; Van den Bulck, E. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2008-05-15

    This experimental study investigates the oblique inlet pressure loss for the entry of an annular swirling flow into an automotive catalyst substrate. The results are applicable to a wide range of compact heat exchangers. For zero swirl, the total pressure loss agrees with established expressions for pressure loss in developing laminar flow in parallel channels with finite wall thickness. For positive swirl, the additional pressure loss due to oblique flow entry is correlated to the tangential velocity upstream of the catalyst, measured using laser-Doppler anemometry. The obtained oblique inlet pressure loss correlation can improve the accuracy of numerical calculations of the flow distribution in catalysts. (author)

  16. Bag pressure monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughn, Mark Roy (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Alva Keith (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    An inexpensive mechanical indicator for measuring low pressure in an inflating bag includes a pair of sides connected to each other at one edge and pivotally connected at spaced parallel locations on the bag. A spring biases the sides towards each other in opposition to tension in the inflating bag. The distance between the sides is indicative of the pressure in the bag. The device is accurate at pressures below 0.05 psi.

  17. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Chae Un; Gruner, Sol M.

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  18. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  19. ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pressure ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric pressure The pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a consequence of gravitational attraction exerted upon the "column" of air lying directly above the point in question. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream

  20. ARM - Atmospheric Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ListAtmospheric Pressure Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Atmospheric Pressure Humans are subjected to the pressure produced by the weight of the gases of the atmosphere above us. The force exerted on a unit area of surface by the weight of the air above the surface is named

  1. Photoacoustic spectroscopy sample array vessel and photoacoustic spectroscopy method for using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amonette, James E.; Autrey, S. Thomas; Foster-Mills, Nancy S.; Green, David

    2005-03-29

    Methods and apparatus for analysis of multiple samples by photoacoustic spectroscopy are disclosed. Particularly, a photoacoustic spectroscopy sample array vessel including a vessel body having multiple sample cells connected thereto is disclosed. At least one acoustic detector is acoustically coupled with the vessel body. Methods for analyzing the multiple samples in the sample array vessels using photoacoustic spectroscopy are provided.

  2. Pressure-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and method for sensing changes in pressure and for generating optical signals related to changes in pressure. Light from a fiber optic is directed to a movable surface which is coated with a light-responsive material, and which moves relative to the end of the fiber optic in response to changes in pressure. The same fiber optic collects a portion of the reflected or emitted light from the movable surface. Changes in pressure are determined by measuring changes in the amount of light collected.

  3. Building a barrier wall through boulders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, D.R.; Mann, M.J. ); Tulett, R.C. )

    1994-10-01

    When the Occidental Chemical Co., Niagara Falls, N.Y., set out to remediate and contain wastes and ground water at its upstate New York site, they found that part of the proposed cutoff wall would be located in land reclaimed from the Niagara River. The fill was rock blasted out for a tunnel years ago, and the presence of boulders rule out conventional barrier-wall construction techniques. Occidental's first approach to containment had been a conventional soil-bentonite wall. Because of the area's geography and the location of the wastes, a portion of the wall had to be aligned along the riverbank. The company wanted to separate the plant area from the river, and decided to extend the barrier to the concrete headwall for intakes at the nearby Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant. This meant about 2,000 ft of the barrier wall would run through shot-rock fill placed during construction of the powerplant in the 1960s. Conduits for that plant were constructed by blasting rock to form open-cut tunnels several miles long. Some of the resulting shot rock was placed along the riverbank, extending the shoreline about 200 ft into the river near the now-contaminated site. The Rober Moses Parkway, a four-land highway, was constructed on the reclaimed land about 100 ft from the new shoreline.

  4. The MicroBooNE Technical Design Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... required to monitor pressure, level, temperature, ... latest ASME boiler code requirements and stamped to indicate that it meets the code. The cryostat vessel features single-walled ...

  5. EVALUATION OF TROQUE VS CLOSURE BOLT PRELOAD FOR A TYPICAL CONTAINMENT VESSEL UNDER SERVICE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.

    2010-02-16

    Radioactive material package containment vessels typically employ bolted closures of various configurations. Closure bolts must retain the lid of a package and must maintain required seal loads, while subjected to internal pressure, impact loads and vibration. The need for insuring that the specified preload is achieved in closure bolts for radioactive materials packagings has been a continual subject of concern for both designers and regulatory reviewers. The extensive literature on threaded fasteners provides sound guidance on design and torque specification for closure bolts. The literature also shows the uncertainty associated with use of torque to establish preload is typically between 10 and 35%. These studies have been performed under controlled, laboratory conditions. The ability to insure required preload in normal service is, consequently, an important question. The study described here investigated the relationship between indicated torque and resulting bolt load for a typical radioactive materials package closure using methods available under normal service conditions.

  6. Domain wall conduction in multiaxial ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliseev, E. A.; Morozovska, A. N.; Svechnikov, S. V.; Maksymovych, Petro; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2012-01-01

    The conductance of domain wall structures consisting of either stripes or cylindrical domains in multiaxial ferroelectric-semiconductors is analyzed. The effects of the flexoelectric coupling, domain size, wall tilt, and curvature on charge accumulation are analyzed using the Landau-Ginsburg Devonshire theory for polarization vector combined with the Poisson equation for charge distributions. The proximity and size effect of the electron and donor accumulation/depletion by thin stripe domains and cylindrical nanodomains are revealed. In contrast to thick domain stripes and wider cylindrical domains, in which the carrier accumulation (and so the static conductivity) sharply increases at the domain walls only, small nanodomains of radii less than 5-10 correlation lengths appeared conducting across the entire cross-section. Implications of such conductive nanosized channels may be promising for nanoelectronics.

  7. Wall thickness measuring method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzer, Leander J. (Los Alamos, NM); Bergren, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the wall thickness of a nonmagnetic article having a housing supporting a magnet and a contiguous supporting surface. The tubular article and the housing are releasably secured to the supporting surface and a support member of an optical comparator, respectively. To determine the wall thickness of the article at a selected point, a magnetically responsive ball is positioned within the tubular article over said point and retained therein by means of a magnetic field produced by the magnet. Thereafter, an optical comparator is employed to project a magnified image of the ball on a screen and the wall thickness at the selected point is calculated by using a ball surface measurement taken with the comparator in conjunction with a previously determined base line measurement.

  8. Turbine airfoil with a compliant outer wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Christian X. (Oviedo, FL); Morrison, Jay A. (Oviedo, FL)

    2012-04-03

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation in the outer layer is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a support structure. The outer layer may be a compliant layer configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand and thereby reduce the stress within the outer layer. The outer layer may be formed from a nonplanar surface configured to thermally expand. In another embodiment, the outer layer may be planar and include a plurality of slots enabling unrestricted thermal expansion in a direction aligned with the outer layer.

  9. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  10. Wall thickness measuring method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzer, L.J.; Bergren, D.A.

    1987-10-06

    An apparatus for measuring the wall thickness of a nonmagnetic article having a housing supporting a magnet and a contiguous supporting surface. The tubular article and the housing are releasably secured to the supporting surface and a support member of an optical comparator, respectively. To determine the wall thickness of the article at a selected point, a magnetically responsive ball is positioned within the tubular article over said point and retained therein by means of a magnetic field produced by the magnet. Thereafter, an optical comparator is employed to project a magnified image of the ball on a screen and the wall thickness at the selected point is calculated by using a ball surface measurement taken with the comparator in conjunction with a previously determined base line measurement.

  11. Pressurized Testing of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Stacks with Advanced Electrode-Supported Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G. K. Housley; K. DeWall; L. Moore-McAteer; G. Tao

    2012-06-01

    A new facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for pressurized testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. Pressurized operation is envisioned for large-scale hydrogen production plants, yielding higher overall efficiencies when the hydrogen product is to be delivered at elevated pressure for tank storage or pipelines. Pressurized operation also supports higher mass flow rates of the process gases with smaller components. The test stand can accommodate cell dimensions up to 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm and stacks of up to 25 cells. The pressure boundary for these tests is a water-cooled spool-piece pressure vessel designed for operation up to 5 MPa. The stack is internally manifolded and operates in cross-flow with an inverted-U flow pattern. Feed-throughs for gas inlets/outlets, power, and instrumentation are all located in the bottom flange. The entire spool piece, with the exception of the bottom flange, can be lifted to allow access to the internal furnace and test fixture. Lifting is accomplished with a motorized threaded drive mechanism attached to a rigid structural frame. Stack mechanical compression is accomplished using springs that are located inside of the pressure boundary, but outside of the hot zone. Initial stack heatup and performance characterization occurs at ambient pressure followed by lowering and sealing of the pressure vessel and subsequent pressurization. Pressure equalization between the anode and cathode sides of the cells and the stack surroundings is ensured by combining all of the process gases downstream of the stack. Steady pressure is maintained by means of a backpressure regulator and a digital pressure controller. A full description of the pressurized test apparatus is provided in this paper.

  12. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

    1999-02-09

    A method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

  13. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, C.E.

    1999-02-09

    A method is described for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process. 2 figs.

  14. Effects of swirl-flow on flame propagation in a constant-volume vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, P.; Watanabe, Kazunori; Obara, Tetsuro; Yoshihashi, Teruo; Ohyagi, Shigeharu

    1999-07-01

    Flame propagation in a closed vessel is one of the fundamental topics in the combustion science and technology. This problem has been studied mostly for application to engine combustion because the combustion processes in a premixed spark ignition engine are well simulated by those processes in a constant-volume combustion chamber. One of the most important objective to study this phenomena is to elucidate the combustion phenomena to increase the thermal efficiency of engine by enhancing the combustion process. In real engines, a number of technical methods such as swirl, tumble, squish and jet flows ere developed to shorten a burning time. All of these methods make use of flows in the combustion chamber. The fundamental problem is then to elucidate a mechanism of reduction of the burning time by the flows and their turbulence. In the present work, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of swirl-flow on the flame propagation in a disc-shaped constant-volume vessel of 100 mm in diameter and 30 mm in depth. Figure A-1 shows a schematic of the apparatus. Gaseous mixtures used were methane diluted with air at an atmospheric pressure, and their equivalence ratios were varied as a parameter. Ignition timing was varied to change the velocity of swirling flow before the flame propagation. As results, a burning time was found to be decreased as the swirling flow increased and a maximum pressure was increased as the velocity increased as a total heat loss decreased. Flame front structures were clearly observed by the instantaneous schlieren photography.

  15. Helium Pumping Wall for a Liquid Lithium Tokamak Richard Majeski |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Helium Pumping Wall for a Liquid Lithium Tokamak Richard Majeski This invention is designed to be a subsystem of a device, a tokamak with walls or plasma facing components of liquid lithium. This approach to constructing the lithium-bearing walls of the tokamak allows the wall to fulfill a necessary function -- helium pumping - for which a complex structure was formerly required. The primary novel feature of the invention is that a permeable wall is used to

  16. Enhancement of wall jet transport properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claunch, S.D.; Farrington, R.B.

    1997-02-04

    By enhancing the natural instabilities in the boundary layer and in the free shear layer of a wall jet, the boundary is minimized thereby increasing the transport of heat and mass. Enhancing the natural instabilities is accomplished by pulsing the flow of air that creates the wall jet. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct. 17 figs.

  17. Standing gravitational waves from domain walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gogberashvili, Merab; Myrzakul, Shynaray; Singleton, Douglas

    2009-07-15

    We construct a plane symmetric, standing gravitational wave for a domain wall plus a massless scalar field. The scalar field can be associated with a fluid which has the properties of 'stiff' matter, i.e., matter in which the speed of sound equals the speed of light. Although domain walls are observationally ruled out in the present era, the solution has interesting features which might shed light on the character of exact nonlinear wave solutions to Einstein's equations. Additionally this solution may act as a template for higher dimensional 'brane-world' model standing waves.

  18. Enhancement of wall jet transport properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claunch, Scott D. (Broomfield, CO); Farrington, Robert B. (Golden, CO)

    1997-01-01

    By enhancing the natural instabilities in the boundary layer and in the free shear layer of a wall jet, the boundary is minimized thereby increasing the transport of heat and mass. Enhancing the natural instabilities is accomplished by pulsing the flow of air that creates the wall jet. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct.

  19. Cell Wall Recipe: A Lesson on Biofuels

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students will investigate how changes in the DNA sequence that codes for cell wall formation can have a favorable outcome in producing plants that have higher levels of cellulose than the parent plant. The cellulose yield is most important in the production of ethanol: the greater the amount of cellulose within the cell wall, the greater the amount of ethanol that can be produced. To engage students, the first part of this lesson has students participating in a discovery activity where they will extract DNA from wheat germ.

  20. Restricting lignin and enhancing sugar deposition in secondary cell walls enhances monomeric sugar release after low temperature ionic liquid pretreatment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scullin, Chessa; Cruz, Alejandro G.; Chuang, Yi -De; Simmons, Blake A.; Loque, Dominique; Singh, Seema

    2015-07-04

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a major source of renewable sugar for biofuel production. Before enzymatic hydrolysis, biomass must first undergo a pretreatment step in order to be more susceptible to saccharification and generate high yields of fermentable sugars. Lignin, a complex, interlinked, phenolic polymer, associates with secondary cell wall polysaccharides, rendering them less accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis. Herein, we describe the analysis of engineered Arabidopsis lines where lignin biosynthesis was repressed in fiber tissues but retained in the vessels, and polysaccharide deposition was enhanced in fiber cells with little to no apparent negative impact on growth phenotype.

  1. Restricting lignin and enhancing sugar deposition in secondary cell walls enhances monomeric sugar release after low temperature ionic liquid pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scullin, Chessa; Cruz, Alejandro G.; Chuang, Yi -De; Simmons, Blake A.; Loque, Dominique; Singh, Seema

    2015-07-04

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a major source of renewable sugar for biofuel production. Before enzymatic hydrolysis, biomass must first undergo a pretreatment step in order to be more susceptible to saccharification and generate high yields of fermentable sugars. Lignin, a complex, interlinked, phenolic polymer, associates with secondary cell wall polysaccharides, rendering them less accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis. Herein, we describe the analysis of engineered Arabidopsis lines where lignin biosynthesis was repressed in fiber tissues but retained in the vessels, and polysaccharide deposition was enhanced in fiber cells with little to no apparent negative impact on growth phenotype.

  2. Comparison of Alternatives to the 2004 Vacuum Vessel Heat Transfer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    heat from the VV itself and from the structurescomponents attached to the VV (first wall, blanket, and divertor approx0.48 MW peak). Therefore, the VV PHTS has two safety...

  3. Low-pressure hydrogen discharge maintenance in a large-size plasma source with localized high radio-frequency power deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todorov, D.; Shivarova, A. Paunska, Ts.; Tarnev, Kh.

    2015-03-15

    The development of the two-dimensional fluid-plasma model of a low-pressure hydrogen discharge, presented in the study, is regarding description of the plasma maintenance in a discharge vessel with the configuration of the SPIDER source. The SPIDER source, planned for the neutral-beam-injection plasma-heating system of ITER, is with localized high RF power deposition to its eight drivers (cylindrical-coil inductive discharges) and a large-area second chamber, common for all the drivers. The continuity equations for the charged particles (electrons and the three types of positive ions) and for the neutral species (atoms and molecules), their momentum equations, the energy balance equations for electrons, atoms and molecules and the Poisson equations are involved in the discharge description. In addition to the local processes in the plasma volume, the surface processes of particle reflection and conversion on the walls as well as for a heat exchange with the walls are included in the model. The analysis of the results stresses on the role of the fluxes (particle and energy fluxes) in the formation of the discharge structure. The conclusion is that the discharge behavior is completely obeyed to non-locality. The latter is displayed by: (i) maximum values of plasma parameters (charged particle densities and temperatures of the neutral species) outside the region of the RF power deposition, (ii) shifted maxima of the electron density and temperature, of the plasma potential and of the electron production, (iii) an electron flux, with a vortex structure, strongly exceeding the total ion flux which gives evidence of a discharge regime of non-ambipolarity and (iv) a spatial distribution of the densities of the neutral species resulting from their fluxes.

  4. Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lassila, David H. (Aptos, CA); Bonner, Brian P. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-12-13

    A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

  5. Hot wire production of single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dillon, Anne C. (Boulder, CO); Mahan, Archie H. (Golden, CO); Alleman, Jeffrey L. (Lakewood, CO)

    2010-10-26

    Apparatus (210) for producing a multi-wall carbon nanotube (213) may comprise a process chamber (216), a furnace (217) operatively associated with the process chamber (216), and at least one filament (218) positioned within the process chamber (216). At least one power supply (220) operatively associated with the at least one filament (218) heats the at least one filament (218) to a process temperature. A gaseous carbon precursor material (214) operatively associated with the process chamber (216) provides carbon for forming the multi-wall carbon nanotube (213). A metal catalyst material (224) operatively associated with the process (216) catalyzes the formation of the multi-wall carbon nanotube (213).

  6. Sampling and Analysis Plan for PUREX canyon vessel flushing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villalobos, C.N.

    1995-03-01

    A sampling and analysis plan is necessary to provide direction for the sampling and analytical activities determined by the data quality objectives. This document defines the sampling and analysis necessary to support the deactivation of the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) facility vessels that are regulated pursuant to Washington Administrative Code 173-303.

  7. Webinar: Material Characterization of Storage Vessels for Fuel Cell

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Forklifts | Department of Energy Above is the video recording for the webinar, "Material Characterization of Storage Vessels for Fuel Cell Forklifts," originally held on August 14, 2012. In addition to this recording, you can access the presentation slides. A text version of this recording will be available soon

  8. Capacitance pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eaton, William P. (Tijeras, NM); Staple, Bevan D. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, James H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) capacitance pressure sensor integrated with electronic circuitry on a common substrate and a method for forming such a device are disclosed. The MEM capacitance pressure sensor includes a capacitance pressure sensor formed at least partially in a cavity etched below the surface of a silicon substrate and adjacent circuitry (CMOS, BiCMOS, or bipolar circuitry) formed on the substrate. By forming the capacitance pressure sensor in the cavity, the substrate can be planarized (e.g. by chemical-mechanical polishing) so that a standard set of integrated circuit processing steps can be used to form the electronic circuitry (e.g. using an aluminum or aluminum-alloy interconnect metallization).

  9. LNG Exports by Vessel in ISO Containers out of the U.S. Form | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy Vessel in ISO Containers out of the U.S. Form LNG Exports by Vessel in ISO Containers out of the U.S. Form File Excel Version of LNG Exports by Vessel in ISO Container out of the U.S. Form.xlsx PDF icon PDF Version of LNG Exports by Vessel in ISO Containers out of the U.S. Form More Documents & Publications LNG Exports by Vessel out of the U.S. Form LNG Exports by Truck out of the U.S. Form LNG Imports by Vessel into

  10. High pressure feeder and method of operating to feed granular or fine materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2014-10-07

    A coal feed system to feed pulverized low rank coals containing up to 25 wt % moisture to gasifiers operating up to 1000 psig pressure is described. The system includes gas distributor and collector gas permeable pipes imbedded in the lock vessel. Different methods of operation of the feed system are disclosed to minimize feed problems associated with bridging and packing of the pulverized coal. The method of maintaining the feed system and feeder device exit pressures using gas addition or extraction with the pressure control device is also described.

  11. THE IMPACT OF OZONE ON THE LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT OF HYDROGEN IN VESSELS CONTAINING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherburne, Carol; Osterberg, Paul; Johnson, Tom; Frawely, Thomas

    2013-01-23

    The Savannah River Site, in conjunction with AREVA Federal services, has designed a process to treat dissolved radioactive waste solids with ozone. It is known that in this radioactive waste process, radionuclides radiolytically break down water into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen, which presents a well defined flammability hazard. Flammability limits have been established for both ozone and hydrogen separately; however, there is little information on mixtures of hydrogen and ozone. Therefore, testing was designed to provide critical flammability information necessary to support safety related considerations for the development of ozone treatment and potential scale-up to the commercial level. Since information was lacking on flammability issues at low levels of hydrogen and ozone, a testing program was developed to focus on filling this portion of the information gap. A 2-L vessel was used to conduct flammability tests at atmospheric pressure and temperature using a fuse wire ignition source at 1 percent ozone intervals spanning from no ozone to the Lower Flammable Limit (LFL) of ozone in the vessel, determined as 8.4%(v/v) ozone. An ozone generator and ozone detector were used to generate and measure the ozone concentration within the vessel in situ, since ozone decomposes rapidly on standing. The lower flammability limit of hydrogen in an ozone-oxygen mixture was found to decrease from the LFL of hydrogen in air, determined as 4.2 % (v/v) in this vessel. From the results of this testing, Savannah River was able to develop safety procedures and operating parameters to effectively minimize the formation of a flammable atmosphere.

  12. Enhanced dielectric-wall linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, Stephen E.; Caporaso, George J.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    1998-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is enhanced by a high-voltage, fast e-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  13. Enhanced dielectric-wall linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, S.E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1998-09-22

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is enhanced by a high-voltage, fast e-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface. 6 figs.

  14. Passive blast pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

    2013-03-19

    A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

  15. new chemistry to break down cell walls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemistry to break down cell walls - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  16. Diagnostics - Rotating Wall Machine - UW Plasma Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diagnostics UW Madison Line Tied Reconnection Experiment Diagnostics LTRX HomeResearch MissionLTRX DevicePhysics TopicsDiagnosticsLTRX GalleryLTRX People CPLA Home Directory Publications Links University of Wisconsin Physics Department Department of Energy National Science Foundation As the UW-LTRX was designed with the goal of employing a rotating solid wall along the boundary of the experimental volume, diagnostic access is necessarily much more constrained than in comparable devices. With the

  17. Hollow clay tile wall program summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, R.C.; Jones, W.D.

    1995-07-30

    Many of the Y-12 Plant buildings, constructed during the 1940s and 1950s, consist of steel ed concrete framing infilled with hollow clay tile (HCT). The infill was intended to provide for building enclosure and was not designed to have vertical or lateral load-carrying capacity. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, seismic and wind evaluations were performed on many of these buildings in conjunction with the preparation of a site-wide safety analysis report. This analytical work, based on the best available methodology, considered lateral load-carrying capacity of the HCT infill on the basis of building code allowable shear values. In parallel with the analysis effort, DOE initiated a program to develop natural phenomena capacity and performance criteria for existing buildings, but these criteria did not specify guidelines for determining the lateral force capacity of frames infilled with HCT. The evaluation of infills was, therefore, based on the provisions for the design of unreinforced masonry as outlined in standard masonry codes. When the results of the seismic and wind evaluations were compared with the new criteria, the projected building capacities fell short of the requirements. Apparently, if the buildings were to meet the new criteria, many millions of dollars would be required for building upgrades. Because the upgrade costs were significant, the assumptions and approaches used in the analyses were reevaluated. Four issues were identified: (1) Once the infilled walls cracked, what capacity (nonlinear response), if any, would the walls have to resist earthquake or wind loads applied in the plane of the infill (in-plane)? (2) Would the infilled walls remain within the steel or reinforced concrete framing when subjected to earthquake or high wind loads applied perpendicular to the infill (out-of-plane)? (3) What was the actual shear capacity of the HCT infill? (4) Was modeling the HCT infill as a shear wall the best approach?

  18. Hydrogenation of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogenation of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes A. Nikitin1), H. Ogasawara1) D. Mann2), R. Denecke1)*, Z. Zhang3), H. Dai2), KJ Cho3), A. Nilsson1,4) 1Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA 2Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA 4FYSIKUM, Stockholm University, Albanova University Center, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden In the next 20

  19. Mr. Andy Wall0 The Aerospace Corporation

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    'k.f' :, , j '"; ,,' DEC 5 1984 Mr. Andy Wall0 The Aerospace Corporation suite 4000 955 L'Enfant Plaza, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20024 Dear Mr. Wallo: The Divisfon of Remedial Action Projects staff has reviewed the authority review documents for Gardinler, Inc., Tampa, Florida; Conserv (formerly Virginia-Carolina Chemical Co.), Nichols, Florida; and Blockson Chemical co., Joliet, Illinois. Based on the content therein and in consultation with Mr. Steve Miller, Office of General Counsel

  20. City of Wall Lake, Iowa (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    City of Wall Lake, Iowa (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: City of Wall Lake Place: Iowa Phone Number: (712) 664-2216 Website: walllake.com?pageid40 Outage...

  1. TBU-0061- In the Matter of Misti Wall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Misti Wall (the complainant or Wall), appeals the dismissal of her complaint of retaliation filed under 10 C.F.R. Part 708, the Department of Energy (DOE) Contractor Employee Protection Program. As...

  2. Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility...

  3. Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Japan...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Japan (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Japan (Dollars per...

  4. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Wednesday, 29 July 2009 00:00 Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray

  5. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2015-01-01

    High performance walls represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. The primary goal in improving wall thermal performance revolves around increasing the wall framing from 2x4 to 2x6, adding more cavity and exterior rigid insulation, achieving insulation installation criteria meeting ENERGY STAR's thermal bypass checklist, and reducing the amount of wood penetrating the wall cavity.

  6. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  7. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

  8. Enhanced reactive metal wall for dehalogenation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howson, P.E.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Horney, D.P.

    1996-08-06

    A method is provided for remediation of contaminated solutions using a tiered metal wall or column. The tiered metal wall or column has at least three zones with graduated sizes of reducing metal particles. Contaminated solutions pass through the tiered wall or column to dehalogenate contaminant halogenated hydrocarbons. 3 figs.

  9. Enhanced reactive metal wall for dehalogenation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howson, Paul E. (Latham, NY); Mackenzie, Patricia D. (Clifton Park, NY); Horney, David P. (Mayfield, NY)

    1996-01-01

    A method is provided for remediation of contaminated solutions using a tiered metal wall or column. The tiered metal wall or column has at least three zones with graduated sizes of reducing metal particles. Contaminated solutions pass through the tiered wall or column to dehalogenate contaminant halogenated hydrocarbons.

  10. Photoacoustic spectroscopy sample array vessels and photoacoustic spectroscopy methods for using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amonette, James E.; Autrey, S. Thomas; Foster-Mills, Nancy S.

    2006-02-14

    Methods and apparatus for simultaneous or sequential, rapid analysis of multiple samples by photoacoustic spectroscopy are disclosed. Particularly, a photoacoustic spectroscopy sample array vessel including a vessel body having multiple sample cells connected thereto is disclosed. At least one acoustic detector is acoustically positioned near the sample cells. Methods for analyzing the multiple samples in the sample array vessels using photoacoustic spectroscopy are provided.

  11. Major deepwater pipelay vessel starts work in North Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heerema, E.P.

    1998-05-04

    Industry`s deepwater pipelaying capability has received a boost this year with the entry into the world`s fleet of Solitaire, a dynamically positioned pipelay vessel of about 350 m including stinger. The converted bulk carrier, formerly the Trentwood, will arrive on station in the North Sea and begin laying pipe this month on Statoil`s Europipe II project, a 600-km, 42-in. OD gas pipeline from Norway to Germany. Next year, the vessel will install pipe for the Exxon U.S.A.`s Gulf of Mexico South Diana development (East Breaks Block 945) in a water depth of 1,643 m and for Mobil Oil Canada as part of the Sable Island Offshore and Energy Project offshore Nova Scotia. Using the S-lay mode, Solitaire is particularly well-suited for laying large lines economically, including the deepwater projects anticipated for the US Gulf of Mexico. Table 1 presents Solitaire`s technical specifications. The design, construction, pipelaying, and justification for building vessels such as the Solitaire are discussed.

  12. Low pressure hydrocyclone separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanigan, D.A.; Stolhand, J.E.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of separating a dispersed phase liquid from a bulk phase liquid of a liquid-liquid mixture, the dispersed phase and bulk phase liquids having different densities. The method comprises the steps of: providing a supply of the liquid-liquid mixture at a first pressure; providing a pump means including means for minimizing degradation of the volumetric means size of droplets of the dispersed phase further including a pump size for maintaining the pump means at substantially near maximum flow rate capacity; pumping the liquid-liquid mixture with at least one pump means to a second pressure such that a differential between the first and second pressures is not substantially greater than a differential pressure at which the pump means begins to substantially degrade the volumetric mean size of droplets of the dispersed phase liquid passing therethrough, the pumping without substantial droplet degradation being achieved by operating the pump means at relatively near its maximum flow rate capacity to substantially reduce on a percentage basis the effect of fluid slippage within the pump means; directing the liquid-liquid mixture from the pump means to a hydrocyclone; and separating a substantial portion of the dispersed phase liquid from the liquid-liquid mixture in the hydrocyclone.

  13. Inexpensive Delivery of Compressed Hydrogen with Advanced Vessel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon wkshpstorageberry.pdf More Documents & Publications President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Overview of FreedomCAR & Fuels PartnershipDOE Delivery Program High-Pressure ...

  14. Cutting assembly including expanding wall segments of auger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treuhaft, Martin B. (San Antonio, TX); Oser, Michael S. (San Antonio, TX)

    1983-01-01

    A mining auger comprises a cutting head carried at one end of a tubular shaft and a plurality of wall segments which in a first position thereof are disposed side by side around said shaft and in a second position thereof are disposed oblique to said shaft. A vane projects outwardly from each wall segment. When the wall segments are in their first position, the vanes together form a substantially continuous helical wall. A cutter is mounted on the peripheral edge of each of the vanes. When the wall segments are in their second position, the cutters on the vanes are disposed radially outward from the perimeter of the cutting head.

  15. Pressurized water nuclear reactor system with hot leg vortex mitigator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lau, Louis K. S. (Monroeville, PA)

    1990-01-01

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor system includes a vortex mitigator in the form of a cylindrical conduit between the hot leg conduit and a first section of residual heat removal conduit, which conduit leads to a pump and a second section of residual heat removal conduit leading back to the reactor pressure vessel. The cylindrical conduit is of such a size that where the hot leg has an inner diameter D.sub.1, the first section has an inner diameter D.sub.2, and the cylindrical conduit or step nozzle has a length L and an inner diameter of D.sub.3 ; D.sub.3 /D.sub.1 is at least 0.55, D.sub.2 is at least 1.9, and L/D.sub.3 is at least 1.44, whereby cavitation of the pump by a vortex formed in the hot leg is prevented.

  16. LNG Exports by Vessel out of the U.S. Form | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    out of the U.S. Form LNG Exports by Vessel out of the U.S. Form File Excel Version of LNG Exports by Vessel out of the U.S. Form.xlsx PDF icon PDF Version of LNG Exports by Vessel out of the U.S. Form More Documents & Publications LNG Imports by Vessel into the U.S. Form LNG Exports by Vessel in ISO Containers out of the U.S. Form Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

  17. Gas turbine bucket wall thickness control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stathopoulos, Dimitrios (Glenmont, NY); Xu, Liming (Greenville, SC); Lewis, Doyle C. (Greer, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A core for use in casting a turbine bucket including serpentine cooling passages is divided into two pieces including a leading edge core section and a trailing edge core section. Wall thicknesses at the leading edge and the trailing edge of the turbine bucket can be controlled independent of each other by separately positioning the leading edge core section and the trailing edge core section in the casting die. The controlled leading and trailing edge thicknesses can thus be optimized for efficient cooling, resulting in more efficient turbine operation.

  18. Pressure activated diaphragm bonder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Leland B. (Antioch, CA); Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A device is available for bonding one component to another, particularly for bonding electronic components of integrated circuits, such as chips, to a substrate. The bonder device in one embodiment includes a bottom metal block having a machined opening wherein a substrate is located, a template having machined openings which match solder patterns on the substrate, a thin diaphragm placed over the template after the chips have been positioned in the openings therein, and a top metal block positioned over the diaphragm and secured to the bottom block, with the diaphragm retained therebetween. The top block includes a countersink portion which extends over at least the area of the template and an opening through which a high pressure inert gas is supplied to exert uniform pressure distribution over the diaphragm to keep the chips in place during soldering. A heating means is provided to melt the solder patterns on the substrate and thereby solder the chips thereto.

  19. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  20. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  1. Pressure activated diaphragm bonder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, L.B.; Malba, V.

    1997-05-27

    A device is available for bonding one component to another, particularly for bonding electronic components of integrated circuits, such as chips, to a substrate. The bonder device in one embodiment includes a bottom metal block having a machined opening wherein a substrate is located, a template having machined openings which match solder patterns on the substrate, a thin diaphragm placed over the template after the chips have been positioned in the openings therein, and a top metal block positioned over the diaphragm and secured to the bottom block, with the diaphragm retained therebetween. The top block includes a countersink portion which extends over at least the area of the template and an opening through which a high pressure inert gas is supplied to exert uniform pressure distribution over the diaphragm to keep the chips in place during soldering. A heating means is provided to melt the solder patterns on the substrate and thereby solder the chips thereto. 4 figs.

  2. Continuous pressure letdown system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.; Matthews, David R.; Langowski, Terry

    2010-06-08

    A continuous pressure letdown system connected to a hopper decreases a pressure of a 2-phase (gas and solid) dusty gas stream flowing through the system. The system includes a discharge line for receiving the dusty gas from the hopper, a valve, a cascade nozzle assembly positioned downstream of the discharge line, a purge ring, an inert gas supply connected to the purge ring, an inert gas throttle, and a filter. The valve connects the hopper to the discharge line and controls introduction of the dusty gas stream into the discharge line. The purge ring is connected between the discharge line and the cascade nozzle assembly. The inert gas throttle controls a flow rate of an inert gas into the cascade nozzle assembly. The filter is connected downstream of the cascade nozzle assembly.

  3. Pressurized Combustion and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressurized Combustion and Gasification - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  4. High Pressure Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressure Chemistry - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  5. Pressure Flow Scour Predictions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressure-Flow Scour Prediction using Computational Fluid Dynamics with a Porous Media Formulation and a Moving-Grid Approach by Steven Lottes1, Tanju Sofu1, Kornel Kerenyi2, Junke Guo3, Bushra Afzal3, and Bhaskar Tulimilli4 Abstract Analysts at Argonne National Laboratory's Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC) and researchers at the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center (TFHRC), the University of Nebraska, and Northern Illinois University are collaborating to develop

  6. Intense Magnetized Plasma-Wall Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Bruno S.; Fuelling, Stephan

    2013-11-30

    This research project studied wall-plasma interactions relevant to fusion science. Such interactions are a critical aspect of Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) because flux compression by a pusher material, in particular the metal for the liner approach to MIF, involves strong eddy current heating on the surface of the pusher, and probably interactions and mixing of the pusher with the interior fuel during the time when fusion fuel is being burned. When the pusher material is a metal liner, high-energy-density conditions result in fascinating behavior. For example, "warm dense matter" is produced, for which material properties such as resistivity and opacity are not well known. In this project, the transformation into plasma of metal walls subjected to pulsed megagauss magnetic fields was studied with an experiment driven by the UNR 1 MA Zebra generator. The experiment was numerically simulated with using the MHRDR code. This simple, fundamental high-energy-density physics experiment, in a regime appropriate to MIF, has stimulated an important and fascinating comparison of numerical modeling codes and tables with experiment. In addition, we participated in developing the FRCHX experiment to compress a field-reversed-configuration (FRC) plasma with a liner, in collaboration with researchers from Air Force Research Laboratory and Los Alamos National Lab, and we helped develop diagnostics for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL. Last, but not least, this project served to train students in high-energy-density physics.

  7. Inflationary power asymmetry from primordial domain walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jazayeri, Sadra; Akrami, Yashar; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Solomon, Adam R.; Wang, Yi E-mail: yashar.akrami@astro.uio.no E-mail: a.r.solomon@damtp.cam.ac.uk

    2014-11-01

    We study the asymmetric primordial fluctuations in a model of inflation in which translational invariance is broken by a domain wall. We calculate the corrections to the power spectrum of curvature perturbations; they are anisotropic and contain dipole, quadrupole, and higher multipoles with non-trivial scale-dependent amplitudes. Inspired by observations of these multipole asymmetries in terms of two-point correlations and variance in real space, we demonstrate that this model can explain the observed anomalous power asymmetry of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky, including its characteristic feature that the dipole dominates over higher multipoles. We test the viability of the model and place approximate constraints on its parameters by using observational values of dipole, quadrupole, and octopole amplitudes of the asymmetry measured by a local-variance estimator. We find that a configuration of the model in which the CMB sphere does not intersect the domain wall during inflation provides a good fit to the data. We further derive analytic expressions for the corrections to the CMB temperature covariance matrix, or angular power spectra, which can be used in future statistical analysis of the model in spherical harmonic space.

  8. An experimental study of external reactor vessel cooling strategy on the critical heat flux using the graphene oxide nano-fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, S. D.; Lee, S. W.; Kang, S.; Kim, S. M.; Seo, H.; Bang, I. C.

    2012-07-01

    External reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) for in-vessel retention (IVR) of corium as a key severe accident management strategy can be achieved by flooding the reactor cavity during a severe accident. In this accident mitigation strategy, the decay heat removal capability depends on whether the imposed heat flux exceeds critical heat flux (CHF). To provide sufficient cooling for high-power reactors such as APR1400, there have been some R and D efforts to use the reactor vessel with micro-porous coating and nano-fluids boiling-induced coating. The dispersion stability of graphene-oxide nano-fluid in the chemical conditions of flooding water that includes boric acid, lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) was checked in terms of surface charge or zeta potential before the CHF experiments. Results showed that graphene-oxide nano-fluids were very stable under ERVC environment. The critical heat flux (CHF) on the reactor vessel external wall was measured using the small scale two-dimensional slide test section. The radius of the curvature is 0.1 m. The dimension of each part in the facility simulated the APR-1400. The heater was designed to produce the different heat flux. The magnitude of heat flux follows the one of the APR-1400 when the severe accident occurred. All tests were conducted under inlet subcooling 10 K. Graphene-oxide nano-fluids (concentration: 10 -4 V%) enhanced CHF limits up to about 20% at mass flux 50 kg/m{sup 2}s and 100 kg/m{sup 2}s in comparison with the results of the distilled water at same test condition. (authors)

  9. Dynamic load test of Arquin-designed CMU wall.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Richard Pearson

    2010-02-01

    The Arquin Corporation has developed a new method of constructing CMU (concrete masonry unit) walls. This new method uses polymer spacers connected to steel wires that serve as reinforcing as well as a means of accurately placing the spacers so that the concrete block can be dry stacked. The hollows of the concrete block are then filled with grout. As part of a New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program (NMSBA), Sandia National Laboratories conducted a series of tests that dynamically loaded wall segments to compare the performance of walls constructed using the Arquin method to a more traditional method of constructing CMU walls. A total of four walls were built, two with traditional methods and two with the Arquin method. Two of the walls, one traditional and one Arquin, had every third cell filled with grout. The remaining two walls, one traditional and one Arquin, had every cell filled with grout. The walls were dynamically loaded with explosive forces. No significant difference was noted between the performance of the walls constructed by the Arquin method when compared to the walls constructed by the traditional method.

  10. Study of flow fields induced by surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator in low-pressure air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Che, Xueke E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn; Nie, Wansheng; Tian, Xihui; Hou, Zhiyong; He, Haobo; Zhou, Penghui; Zhou, Siyin; Yang, Chao; Shao, Tao E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn

    2014-04-15

    Surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) is a promising method for a flow control. Flow fields induced by a SDBD actuator driven by the ac voltage in static air at low pressures varying from 1.0 to 27.7?kPa are measured by the particle image velocimetry method. The influence of the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude on the induced flow fields is studied. The results show that three different classes of flow fields (wall jet flow field, complex flow field, and vortex-shape flow field) can be induced by the SDBD actuator in the low-pressure air. Among them, the wall jet flow field is the same as the tangential jet at atmospheric pressure, which is, together with the vertical jet, the complex flow field. The vortex-shape flow field is composed of one vertical jet which points towards the wall and two opposite tangential jets. The complex and the vortex-shape flow fields can be transformed to the wall jet flow field when the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude are changed. It is found that the discharge power consumption increases initially, decreases, and then increases again at the same applied ac voltage magnitude when the air pressure decreases. The tangential velocity of the wall jet flow field increases when the air pressure decreases. It is however opposite for the complex flow field. The variation of the applied ac voltage frequency influences differently three different flow fields. When the applied ac voltage magnitude increases at the same applied ac voltage frequency, the maximal jet velocity increases, while the power efficiency increases only initially and then decreases again. The discharge power shows either linear or exponential dependences on the applied ac voltage magnitude.

  11. Two-Yukawa fluid at a hard wall: Field theory treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kravtsiv, I.; Patsahan, T.; Holovko, M.; Caprio, D. di

    2015-05-21

    We apply a field-theoretical approach to study the structure and thermodynamics of a two-Yukawa fluid confined by a hard wall. We derive mean field equations allowing for numerical evaluation of the density profile which is compared to analytical estimations. Beyond the mean field approximation, analytical expressions for the free energy, the pressure, and the correlation function are derived. Subsequently, contributions to the density profile and the adsorption coefficient due to Gaussian fluctuations are found. Both the mean field and the fluctuation terms of the density profile are shown to satisfy the contact theorem. We further use the contact theorem to improve the Gaussian approximation for the density profile based on a better approximation for the bulk pressure. The results obtained are compared to computer simulation data.

  12. UF{sub 6} pressure excursions during cylinder heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, P.G.

    1991-12-31

    As liquid UF{sub 6} inside a cylinder changes from a liquid to a solid, it forms a porous solid which occupies approximately the same volume as that of the liquid before cooling. Simultaneously as the liquid cools, UF{sub 6} vapor in the cylinder ullage above the liquid desublimes on the upper region of the inner cylinder wall. This solid is a dense, glass-like material which can accumulate to a significant thickness. The thickness of the solid coating on the upper cylinder wall and directly behind the cylinder valve area will vary depending on the conditions during the cooling stage. The amount of time lapsed between UF{sub 6} solidification and UF{sub 6} liquefaction can also affect the UF{sub 6} coating. This is due to the daily ambient heat cycle causing the coating to sublime from the cylinder wall to cooler areas, thus decreasing the thickness. Structural weakening of the dense UF{sub 6} layer also occurs due to cylinder transport vibration and thermal expansion. During cylinder heating, the UF{sub 6} nearest the cylinder wall will liquefy first. As the solid coating behind the cylinder valve begins to liquefy, it results in increased pressure depending upon the available volume for expansion. At the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) during the liquefaction of the UF{sub 6} in cylinders in the UF{sub 6} feed and sampling autoclaves, this pressure increase has resulted in the activation of the systems rupture discs which are rated at 100 pounds per square inch differential.

  13. Hollow porous-wall glass microspheres for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC); Schumacher, Ray F. (Aiken, SC); Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC)

    2010-02-23

    A porous wall hollow glass microsphere is provided having a diameter range of between 1 to 200 microns, a density of between 1.0 to 2.0 gm/cc, a porous-wall structure having wall openings defining an average pore size of between 10 to 1000 angstroms, and which contains therein a hydrogen storage material. The porous-wall structure facilitates the introduction of a hydrogen storage material into the interior of the porous wall hollow glass microsphere. In this manner, the resulting hollow glass microsphere can provide a membrane for the selective transport of hydrogen through the porous walls of the microsphere, the small pore size preventing gaseous or liquid contaminants from entering the interior of the hollow glass microsphere.

  14. Roadmap for Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessel Research and Development by the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a five year effort that works to develop the fundamental scientific basis to understand, predict, and measure...

  15. High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on High-Pressure Hydrogen Tanks for the DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure Tanks and Analysis Project Review Meeting held February 8-9, 2005 at Argonne National Laboratory

  16. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oakley, D.J.

    1984-05-30

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pins passageway extending through the assembly.

  17. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy images by a Berkeley Lab-University of Hamburg group has now revealed that

  18. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy images by a Berkeley Lab-University of Hamburg group has now revealed that

  19. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy images by a Berkeley Lab-University of Hamburg group has now revealed that

  20. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy images by a Berkeley Lab-University of Hamburg group has now revealed that

  1. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy images by a Berkeley Lab-University of Hamburg group has now revealed that

  2. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy images by a Berkeley Lab-University of Hamburg group has now revealed that

  3. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires Print Reliably controlling the motion of magnetic domain walls along magnetic nanowires is a key requirement for current technological development of novel classes of logic and storage devices, but understanding the nature of non-deterministic domain-wall motion remains a scientific challenge. A statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic soft x-ray microscopy images by a Berkeley Lab-University of Hamburg group has now revealed that

  4. Monitoring of Double Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.

    2015-03-01

    Double-stud walls insulated with cellulose or low-density spray foam can have R-values of 40 or higher. However, double stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage, when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing.; Moisture conditions in double stud walls were monitored in Zone 5A (Massachusetts); three double stud assemblies were compared.

  5. Fluorescent single walled nanotube/silica composite materials (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Fluorescent single walled nanotube/silica composite materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fluorescent single walled nanotube/silica composite materials Fluorescent composites of surfactant-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were prepared by exposing suspensions of surfactant-wrapped carbon nanotubes to tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) vapor. Sodium deoxycholate (DOC) and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) were the surfactants. No loss in emission intensity

  6. DOE Publishes GATEWAY Report on Successful LED Wall Washer Retrofit |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Successful LED Wall Washer Retrofit DOE Publishes GATEWAY Report on Successful LED Wall Washer Retrofit August 5, 2015 - 1:00pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy has released a report on a GATEWAY demonstration, in which maintenance and energy costs were significantly reduced while retaining the quality of light when LED modules replaced 87 halogen lamps in existing wall washers at the University of Maryland's (UMD) Clarice Smith Performing Arts Center. The project

  7. Performance of reduced wall EPR insulated medium voltage power cables. Pat 1: Electrical characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cinquemani, P.L.; Wen, Y.; Kuchta, F.L.; Doench, C.

    1997-04-01

    Paper insulated lead covered cables (PILC) have had a long and successful heritage. After almost 100 years, this design of cable is still in operation and continues to be manufactured. However, utilities are now looking for a reliable replacement for PILC cables. This is due to two primary reasons: (1) difficulty in installing and maintaining this type of cable and (2) increasing pressure to replace these cables due to environmental concerns. To date diameter limitations of conventional extruded dielectric cables has impeded their replacement in existing PILC conduits. This paper describes a study for the evaluation for reliably reducing the insulation thickness to achieve a lower diameter cable to effectively replace PILC cable in existing conduits. Part 1 of the investigation reviews the theory of insulation wall determination and the test program carried out to evaluate electrical performance of reduced wall EPR cables. Additionally, cable design concepts and constructions are discussed. In Part 2 the mechanical performance on conventional and reduced wall EPR insulated cables are evaluated. This is reported in a separate paper.

  8. Pressure Data Within BOP- ODS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This file describes the components within the BOP and the pressure readings taken during diagnostic operations on May 25.

  9. Pressure Data Within BOP- XLS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This file describes the components within the BOP and the pressure readings taken during diagnostic operations on May 25.

  10. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

  11. Dynamics of quantum-classical hybrid systems: Effect of matter-wave pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, J. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Huang, X. L. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Technology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Yi, X. X. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Centre for Quantum Technologies and Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Wu Chunfeng; Oh, C. H. [Centre for Quantum Technologies and Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2010-12-15

    Radiation pressure affects the kinetics of a system exposed to radiation and it constitutes the basis of laser cooling. In this article, we study matter-wave pressure through examining the dynamics of a quantum-classical hybrid system. The quantum and classical subsystems are affected mutually via a changing boundary condition. Two systems, that is, an atom and a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), are considered as the quantum subsystems, while an oscillating wall is taken as the classical subsystem. We show that the classical subsystem would experience a force proportional to Q{sup -3} from the quantum atom, where Q denotes the distance between the two walls, whereas it acquires an additional force proportional to Q{sup -2} from the BEC due to the atom-atom interaction in the BEC. These forces can be understood as the matter-wave pressure.

  12. Fluorescent single walled nanotube/silica composite materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    VA at www.ntis.gov. Fluorescent composites of surfactant-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were prepared by exposing suspensions of surfactant-wrapped...

  13. Moisture Management of High-R Walls (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  14. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concept called a racetrack memory, for example, the electron spin provides the driving force that moves a domain wall (boundary between regions of different magnetization) down...

  15. SSL Demonstration: Wall Washers at the University of Maryland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-07-31

    GATEWAY program report brief summarizing a demonstration of LED wall washers at the Clarice Smith Performing Arts Center at the University of Maryland.

  16. The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material bottles coated with deuterated polystryene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The temperature ...

  17. Wall and laser spot motion in cylindrical hohlraums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huser, G.; Courtois, C.; Monteil, M.-C.

    2009-03-15

    Wall and laser spot motion measurements in empty, propane-filled and plastic (CH)-lined gold coated cylindrical hohlraums were performed on the Omega laser facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Wall motion was measured using axial two-dimensional (2D) x-ray imaging and laser spot motion was perpendicularly observed through a thinned wall using streaked hard x-ray imaging. Experimental results and 2D hydrodynamic simulations show that while empty targets exhibit on-axis plasma collision, CH-lined and propane-filled targets inhibit wall expansion, corroborated with perpendicular streaked imaging showing a slower motion of laser spots.

  18. Building America Case Study: Cold Climate Foundation Wall Hygrothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cold Climate Foundation Wall Hygrothermal Research Facility Cloquet, Minnesota PROJECT ... DOEGO-102014-4441 * September 2014 BUILDING AMERICA CASE STUDY: TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS FOR ...

  19. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  20. COLLOQUIUM: Assessing First Wall Materials at the Atomic Scale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wall Materials at the Atomic Scale and Energy Writ Large at Princeton Professor Emily Carter Princeton University Colloquium Committee: The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory...

  1. Iran Thomas Auditorium, 8600 Charged Domain Walls in Ferroelectrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monday, February 4, 2013 11:00 am Iran Thomas Auditorium, 8600 Charged Domain Walls in Ferroelectrics Alexander K. Tagantsev Ceramics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) Lausanne 1015, Switzerland CNMS D D I I S S C C O O V V E E R R Y Y SEMINAR SERIES Abstract: A ferroelectric domain wall can carry net bound charge depending on its orientation with respect to the direction of polarization in the adjacent domains. Many features of such walls, called charged walls, can

  2. CBEI: Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Mugdha Mokashi, Bayer Materials View the Presentation PDF icon CBEI: Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution...

  3. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    walls and opens a path to further technological developments in spintronics applications. ... included under the umbrella of "spintronics," a technology based on using the ...

  4. Thermal performance of concrete masonry unit wall systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.

    1995-12-31

    New materials, modern building wall technologies now available in the building marketplace, and unique, more accurate, methods of thermal analysis of wall systems create an opportunity to design and erect buildings where thermal envelopes that use masonry wall systems can be more efficient. Thermal performance of the six masonry wall systems is analyzed. Most existing masonry systems are modifications of technologies presented in this paper. Finite difference two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer modeling and unique methods of the clear wall and overall thermal analysis were used. In the design of thermally efficient masonry wall systems is t to know how effectively the insulation material is used and how the insulation shape and its location affect the wall thermal performance. Due to the incorrect shape of the insulation or structural components, hidden thermal shorts cause additional heat losses. In this study, the thermal analysis of the clear wall was enriched with the examination of the thermal properties of the wall details and the study of a quantity defined herein the Thermal Efficiency of the insulation material.

  5. High pressure capillary connector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renzi, Ronald F.

    2005-08-09

    A high pressure connector capable of operating at pressures of 40,000 psi or higher is provided. This connector can be employed to position a first fluid-bearing conduit that has a proximal end and a distal end to a second fluid-bearing conduit thereby providing fluid communication between the first and second fluid-bearing conduits. The connector includes (a) an internal fitting assembly having a body cavity with (i) a lower segment that defines a lower segment aperture and (ii) an interiorly threaded upper segment, (b) a first member having a first member aperture that traverses its length wherein the first member aperture is configured to accommodate the first fluid-bearing conduit and wherein the first member is positioned in the lower segment of the internal fitting assembly, and (c) a second member having a second member aperture that traverses its length wherein the second member is positioned in the upper segment of the fitting assembly and wherein a lower surface of the second member is in contact with an upper surface of the first member to assert a compressive force onto the first member and wherein the first member aperture and the second member aperture are coaxial.

  6. Pressure polymerization of polyester

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maurer, Charles J. (Matthews, NC); Shaw, Gordon (Charlotte, NC); Smith, Vicky S. (Greer, SC); Buelow, Steven J. (Los Alamos, NM); Tumas, William (Los Alamos, NM); Contreras, Veronica (San Antonio, TX); Martinez, Ronald J. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    2000-08-29

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of a polyester polymer or polyester copolymer under superatmospheric pressure conditions in a pipe or tubular reaction under turbannular flow conditions. Reaction material having a glycol equivalents to carboxylic acid equivalents mole ratio of from 1.0:1 to 1.2:1, together with a superatmospheric dense gaseous medium are fed co-currently to the reactor. Dicarboxylic acid and/or diol raw materials may be injected into any of the reaction zones in the process during operation to achieve the overall desired mole ratio balance. The process operates at temperatures of from about 220.degree. C. to about 320.degree. C., with turbannular flow achieved before the polymer product and gas exit the reactor process. The pressure in the reaction zones can be in the range from 15 psia to 2500 psia. A polymer product having a DP of a greater than 40, more preferably at least about 70, is achieved by the transfer of water from the reacting material polymer melt to the gaseous medium in the reactor.

  7. Containment pressurization and burning of combustible gases in a large, dry PWR containment during a station blackout sequence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M.; Fan, C.T. (National Tsing-Hua Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hsinchu (TW))

    1992-07-01

    In this paper, responses of a large, dry pressurized water reactor (PWR) containment in a station blackout sequence are analyzed with the CONTAIN, MARCH3, and MAAP codes. Results show that the predicted containment responses in a station blackout sequence of these three codes are substantially different. Among these predictions, the MAAP code predicts the highest containment pressure because of the large amount of water made available to quench the debris upon vessel failure. The gradual water boiloff by debris pressurizes the containment. The combustible gas burning models in these codes are briefly described and compared.

  8. Thin film application device and method for coating small aperture vacuum vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walters, Dean R; Este, Grantley O

    2015-01-27

    A device and method for coating an inside surface of a vessel is provided. In one embodiment, a coating device comprises a power supply and a diode in electrical communication with the power supply, wherein electrodes comprising the diode reside completely within the vessel. The method comprises reversibly sealing electrodes in a vessel, sputtering elemental metal or metal compound on the surface while maintaining the surface in a controlled atmosphere.

  9. The vapor pressures of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 C.

  10. Cradle and pressure grippers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muniak, John E. (New York, NY)

    2001-01-01

    A gripper that is designed to incorporate the functions of gripping, supporting and pressure tongs into one device. The gripper has two opposing finger sections with interlocking fingers that incline and taper to form a wedge. The interlocking fingers are vertically off-set so that the opposing finger sections may close together allowing the inclined, tapered tips of the fingers to extend beyond the plane defined by the opposing finger section's engagement surface. The range of motion defined by the interlocking relationship of the finger sections allows the gripper to grab, lift and support objects of varying size and shape. The gripper has one stationary and one moveable finger section. Power is provided to the moveable finger section by an actuating device enabling the gripper to close around an object to be lifted. A lifting bail is attached to the gripper and is supported by a crane that provides vertical lift.

  11. Vessel network detection using contour evolution and color components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushizima, Daniela; Medeiros, Fatima; Cuadros, Jorge; Martins, Charles

    2011-06-22

    Automated retinal screening relies on vasculature segmentation before the identification of other anatomical structures of the retina. Vasculature extraction can also be input to image quality ranking, neovascularization detection and image registration, among other applications. There is an extensive literature related to this problem, often excluding the inherent heterogeneity of ophthalmic clinical images. The contribution of this paper relies on an algorithm using front propagation to segment the vessel network. The algorithm includes a penalty in the wait queue on the fast marching heap to minimize leakage of the evolving interface. The method requires no manual labeling, a minimum number of parameters and it is capable of segmenting color ocular fundus images in real scenarios, where multi-ethnicity and brightness variations are parts of the problem.

  12. Preliminary Risk Assessment Associated with IGSCC of BWR Vessel Internals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Ware; K. Morton; M. Nitzel; N. Chokshi; T-Y. Chang

    1999-08-01

    BWR core shrouds and other reactor internals important to safety are experiencing intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has followed the problem, and as part of its investigations, contracted with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to conduct a risk assessment. The overall project objective is to assess the potential consequences and risks associated with the failure of IGSCC-susceptible BWR vessel internals, with specific consideration given to potential cascading and common mode effects. The paper presents an overview of the program, discusses the results of a preliminary qualitative assessment, and summarizes a simplified risk assessment that was conducted on sequences resulting from failures of jet pump components of a BWR/4 plant.

  13. Technology Solutions Case Study: Moisture Management of High-Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-12-01

    Moisture management of high-R walls is important to ensure optimal performance. This case study, developed by Building America team Building Science Corporation, focuses on how eight high-R walls handle the three main sources of moistureconstruction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leaks.

  14. Disruption of cell walls for enhanced lipid recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knoshaug, Eric P; Donohoe, Bryon S; Gerken, Henri; Laurens, Lieve; Van Wychen, Stefanie Rose

    2015-03-24

    Presented herein are methods of using cell wall degrading enzymes for recovery of internal lipid bodies from biomass sources such as algae. Also provided are algal cells that express at least one exogenous gene encoding a cell wall degrading enzyme and methods for recovering lipids from the cells.

  15. Collapse pressure of coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.S.

    1996-09-01

    The collapse pressure is a measure of an external force required to collapse a tube in the absence of internal pressure. It is defined as the minimum pressure required to yield the tube in the absence of internal pressure. Coiled tubing is sometimes used in high-pressure wells. If the external pressure becomes too high, the coiled tubing will collapse. This could not only lead to serious well-control problems, but may result in extensive fishing operations. A reliable safety criterion of collapse pressure for the coiled tubing is needed by the coiled tubing operators. Theoretical models of collapse pressure are well developed for perfectly round coiled tubing but not for oval coiled tubing. Coiled tubing is initially manufactured with nearly perfect roundness, sometimes having a small ovality (typically {le} 0.5%). Perfectly round CT becomes oval owing to the plastic mechanical deformation of the coiled tubing as it spooled on and off the reel and over the gooseneck. As the cycling continues, the ovality usually increases. This ovality significantly decreases the collapse failure pressure as compared to perfectly round tubing. In this paper, an analytical model of collapse pressure for oval tubing under axial tension or compression is developed based on elastic instability theory and the von Mises criterion. The theoretical model shows satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  16. Side wall cooling for nozzle segments for a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A nozzle vane segment includes outer and inner band portions with a vane extending therebetween and defining first and second cavities separated by an impingement plate for flowing cooling medium for impingement cooling of nozzle side walls. The side wall of each nozzle segment has an undercut region. The impingement plate has an inturned flange with a plurality of openings. Cooling inserts or receptacles having an open end are received in the openings and the base and side walls of the receptacles have apertures for receiving cooling medium from the first cavity and directing the cooling medium for impingement cooling of the side wall of the nozzle segment and a portion of the nozzle wall.

  17. Thermal effects on transverse domain wall dynamics in magnetic nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leliaert, J.; Van de Wiele, B.; Vandermeulen, J.; Coene, A.; Dupré, L.; Vansteenkiste, A.; Waeyenberge, B. Van; Laurson, L.; Durin, G.

    2015-05-18

    Magnetic domain walls are proposed as data carriers in future spintronic devices, whose reliability depends on a complete understanding of the domain wall motion. Applications based on an accurate positioning of domain walls are inevitably influenced by thermal fluctuations. In this letter, we present a micromagnetic study of the thermal effects on this motion. As spin-polarized currents are the most used driving mechanism for domain walls, we have included this in our analysis. Our results show that at finite temperatures, the domain wall velocity has a drift and diffusion component, which are in excellent agreement with the theoretical values obtained from a generalized 1D model. The drift and diffusion component are independent of each other in perfect nanowires, and the mean square displacement scales linearly with time and temperature.

  18. Resistive and ferritic-wall plasma dynamos in a sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalzov, I. V.; Brown, B. P.; Kaplan, E. J.; Katz, N.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Rahbarnia, K.; Forest, C. B. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Center for Magnetic Self Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas (United States); Spence, E. J. [Center for Magnetic Self Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    We numerically study the effects of varying electric conductivity and magnetic permeability of the bounding wall on a kinematic dynamo in a sphere for parameters relevant to Madison plasma dynamo experiment. The dynamo is excited by a laminar, axisymmetric flow of von Karman type. The flow is obtained as a solution to the Navier-Stokes equation for an isothermal fluid with a velocity profile specified at the sphere's boundary. The properties of the wall are taken into account as thin-wall boundary conditions imposed on the magnetic field. It is found that an increase in the permeability of the wall reduces the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm{sub cr}. An increase in the conductivity of the wall leaves Rm{sub cr} unaffected but reduces the dynamo growth rate.

  19. Methods for degrading or converting plant cell wall polysaccharides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berka, Randy (Davis, CA); Cherry, Joel (Davis, CA)

    2008-08-19

    The present invention relates to methods for converting plant cell wall polysaccharides into one or more products, comprising: treating the plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into the one or more products. The present invention also relates to methods for producing an organic substance, comprising: (a) saccharifying plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into saccharified material; (b) fermenting the saccharified material of step (a) with one or more fermenting microoganisms; and (c) recovering the organic substance from the fermentation.

  20. Assessment of Reusing 14-ton, Thin-Wall, Depleted UF{sub 6} Cylinders as LLW Disposal Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, D.G.

    2000-11-30

    Approximately 700,000 MT of DUF{sub 6} is stored, or will be produced under a current agreement with the USEC, at the Paducah site in Kentucky, Portsmouth site in Ohio, and ETTP site in Tennessee. On July 21, 1998, the 105th Congress approved Public Law 105-204 (Ref; 1), which directed that facilities be built at the Kentucky and Ohio sites to convert DUF{sub 6} to a stable form for disposition. On July 6, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued the ''Final Plan for the Conversion of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride as Required by Public Law 105-204 (Ref. 2), in which DOE committed to develop a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Materials Use Roadmap''. On September 1, 2000, DOE issued the Draft Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Materials Use Roadmap (Ref. 3) (Roadmap), which provides alternate paths for the long-term storage, beneficial use, and eventual disposition of each product form and material that will result from the DUF{sub 6} conversion activity. One of the paths being considered for DUF{sub 6} cylinders is to reuse the empty cylinders as containers to transport and dispose of LLW, including the converted DU. The Roadmap provides results of the many alternate uses and disposal paths for conversion products and the empty DUF{sub 6} storage cylinders. As a part of the Roadmap, evaluations were conducted of cost savings, technical maturity, barriers to implementation, and other impacts. Results of these evaluations indicate that using the DUF{sub 6} storage cylinders as LLW disposal containers could provide moderate cost savings due to the avoided cost of purchasing LLW packages and the avoided cost of disposing of the cylinders. No significant technical or institutional issues were identified that would make using cylinders as LLW packages less effective than other disposition paths. Over 58,000 cylinders have been used, or will be used, to store DUF{sub 6}. Over 51,000 of those cylinders are 14TTW cylinders with a nominal wall thickness of 5/16-m (0.79 cm). These- 14TTW cylinders, which have a nominal diameter of 48 inches and nominally contain 14 tons (12.7 MT) of DUF{sub 6}, were originally designed and fabricated for temporary storage of DUF{sub 6}. They were fabricated from pressure-vessel-grade steels according to the provisions of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (Ref. 4). Cylinders are stored in open yards at the three sites and, due to historical storage techniques, were subject to corrosion. Roughly 10,000 of the 14TTW cylinders are considered substandard (Ref. 5) due to corrosion and other structural anomalies caused by mishandling. This means that approximately 40,000 14TTW cylinders could be made available as containers for LLW disposal In order to demonstrate the use of 14TTW cylinders as LLW disposal containers, several qualifying tasks need to be performed. Two demonstrations are being considered using 14TTW cylinders--one demonstration using contaminated soil and one demonstration using U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The objective of this report are to determine how much information is known that could be used to support the demonstrations, and how much additional work will need to be done in order to conduct the demonstrations. Information associated with the following four qualifying tasks are evaluated in this report. (1) Perform a review of structural assessments that have been conducted for 14TTW. (2) Develop a procedure for filling 14TTW cylinders with LLW that have been previously washed. (3) Evaluate the transportation requirements for shipping 14TTW cylinders containing LLW. (4) Evaluate the WAC that will be imposed by the NTS. Two assumptions are made to facilitate this evaluation of using DUF{sub 6} cylinders as LLW disposal containers. (1) Only 14TTW cylinders will be considered for use as LLW containers, and (2) The NTS will be the LLW disposal site.

  1. Pneumatic wall-locking geophone system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuhlman, Harland L. (Minneapolis, MN); Cumerlato, Calvin L. (Minneapolis, MN); Tweeton, Daryl R. (Apple Valley, MN)

    1991-01-01

    A seismic signal receiving system is provided for use in boreholes to receive seismic waves in carrying out geophysical investigations. The system includes three pairs of opposed plates, each of the pairs of plates including oppositely facing outer surfaces for engagement with opposite sides of a borehole. A seismic receiver is mounted on the inner surface of each of the plates for receiving seismic signals. A double-acting, fluid-operated actuator selectively causes relative movement of the plates of the pairs of plates away from each other to provide expansion thereof so as to enable the plates to engage the walls of a borehole and selectively causes relative movement of the plates of the pairs of plates toward each other to provide retraction thereof so as to enable the system to be removed from a borehole. The pairs of plates each comprise a relatively long plate and a relatively short plate. An expandable linkage interconnects the long plates at the distal ends thereof. The plates are mechanically biassed into the retracted state so that the plates return to this state in the event of a system failure.

  2. First operation with the JET International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-like wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neu, R.; Max-Planck-Institut fr Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching ; Arnoux, G.; Beurskens, M.; Challis, C.; Giroud, C.; Lomas, P.; Maddison, G.; Matthews, G.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Meigs, A.; Rimini, F.; Brezinsek, S. [IEK-4, Association EURATOM and others

    2013-05-15

    To consolidate International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design choices and prepare for its operation, Joint European Torus (JET) has implemented ITER's plasma facing materials, namely, Be for the main wall and W in the divertor. In addition, protection systems, diagnostics, and the vertical stability control were upgraded and the heating capability of the neutral beams was increased to over 30 MW. First results confirm the expected benefits and the limitations of all metal plasma facing components (PFCs) but also yield understanding of operational issues directly relating to ITER. H-retention is lower by at least a factor of 10 in all operational scenarios compared to that with C PFCs. The lower C content (? factor 10) has led to much lower radiation during the plasma burn-through phase eliminating breakdown failures. Similarly, the intrinsic radiation observed during disruptions is very low, leading to high power loads and to a slow current quench. Massive gas injection using a D{sub 2}/Ar mixture restores levels of radiation and vessel forces similar to those of mitigated disruptions with the C wall. Dedicated L-H transition experiments indicate a 30% power threshold reduction, a distinct minimum density, and a pronounced shape dependence. The L-mode density limit was found to be up to 30% higher than for C allowing stable detached divertor operation over a larger density range. Stable H-modes as well as the hybrid scenario could be re-established only when using gas puff levels of a few 10{sup 21} es{sup ?1}. On average, the confinement is lower with the new PFCs, but nevertheless, H factors up to 1 (H-Mode) and 1.3 (at ?{sub N}?3, hybrids) have been achieved with W concentrations well below the maximum acceptable level.

  3. Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive EnvironmentsSignificant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy) [Amy; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2012-09-01

    Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

  4. NETL SOFC: Atmospheric Pressure Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Pressure Systems ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE SYSTEMS (INDUSTRY TEAMS)-This key technology focuses on the design, scaleup, and integration of the SOFC technology, ultimately resulting in atmospheric-pressure modules suitable to serve as the building blocks for distributed-generation, commercial, and utility-scale power systems. Activities include fabrication, testing, post-test analysis of cells; integrating cells into stacks; and the development and validation testing of progressively

  5. ARM - Lesson Plans: Air Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressure Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Air Pressure Objective The objective of this activity is to investigate the effects of atmospheric pressure. Materials Each student or group of students will need the following: Sturdy paper cup Index card Straight pin

  6. Study Reveals Challenges and Opportunities Related to Vessels for U.S. Offshore Wind

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The installation of offshore wind farms requires a highly specialized fleet of vessels--but no such fleet currently exists in the United States. As part of a broader DOE initiative to accelerate the growth of the U.S. offshore wind industry, energy research group Douglas-Westwood identified national vessel requirements under several offshore wind industry growth scenarios.

  7. FFTF thermal-hydraulic testing results affecting piping and vessel component design in LMFBR's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stover, R.L.; Beaver, T.R.; Chang, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility completed four years of pre-operational testing in April 1982. This paper describes thermal-hydraulic testing results from this period which impact piping and vessel component design in LMFBRs. Data discussed are piping flow oscillations, piping thermal stratification and vessel upper plenum stratification. Results from testing verified that plant design limits were met.

  8. Double wall vacuum tubing and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, Charles R. (Scotia, NY); Gibson, Michael A. (Houston, TX); Knudsen, Christian W. (Houston, TX)

    1989-01-01

    An evacuated double wall tubing is shown together with a method for the manufacture of such tubing which includes providing a first pipe of predetermined larger diameter and a second pipe having an O.D. substantially smaller than the I.D. of the first pipe. An evacuation opening is then in the first pipe. The second pipe is inserted inside the first pipe with an annular space therebetween. The pipes are welded together at one end. A stretching tool is secured to the other end of the second pipe after welding. The second pipe is then prestressed mechanically with the stretching tool an amount sufficient to prevent substantial buckling of the second pipe under normal operating conditions of the double wall pipe. The other ends of the first pipe and the prestressed second pipe are welded together, preferably by explosion welding, without the introduction of mechanical spacers between the pipes. The annulus between the pipes is evacuated through the evacuation opening, and the evacuation opening is finally sealed. The first pipe is preferably of steel and the second pipe is preferably of titanium. The pipes may be of a size and wall thickness sufficient for the double wall pipe to be structurally load bearing or may be of a size and wall thickness insufficient for the double wall pipe to be structurally load bearing, and the double wall pipe positioned with a sliding fit inside a third pipe of a load-bearing size.

  9. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nibur, Kevin A.

    2010-11-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  10. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dadfarnia, Mohsen; Nibur, Kevin A.; San Marchi, Christopher W.; Sofronis, Petros; Somerday, Brian P.; Foulk, James W., III; Hayden, Gary A.

    2010-07-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  11. Method of design for vertical oil shale retorting vessels and retorting therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-01-03

    A method of designing the gas flow parameters of a vertical shaft oil shale retorting vessel involves determining the proportion of gas introduced in the bottom of the vessel and into intermediate levels in the vessel to provide for lateral distribution of gas across the vessel cross section, providing mixing with the uprising gas, and determining the limiting velocity of the gas through each nozzle. The total quantity of gas necessary for oil shale treatment in the vessel may be determined and the proportion to be injected into each level is then determined based on the velocity relation of the orifice velocity and its feeder manifold gas velocity. A limitation is placed on the velocity of gas issuing from an orifice by the nature of the solid being treated, usually physical tests of gas velocity impinging the solid.

  12. Blood Vessel Normalization in the Hamster Oral Cancer Model for Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ana J. Molinari; Romina F. Aromando; Maria E. Itoiz; Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2012-07-01

    Normalization of tumor blood vessels improves drug and oxygen delivery to cancer cells. The aim of this study was to develop a technique to normalize blood vessels in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Tumor-bearing hamsters were treated with thalidomide and were compared with controls. Results: Twenty eight hours after treatment with thalidomide, the blood vessels of premalignant tissue observable in vivo became narrower and less tortuous than those of controls; Evans Blue Dye extravasation in tumor was significantly reduced (indicating a reduction in aberrant tumor vascular hyperpermeability that compromises blood flow), and tumor blood vessel morphology in histological sections, labeled for Factor VIII, revealed a significant reduction in compressive forces. These findings indicated blood vessel normalization with a window of 48 h. Conclusion: The technique developed herein has rendered the hamster oral cancer model amenable to research, with the potential benefit of vascular normalization in head and neck cancer therapy.

  13. Evaluation of Wall Boundary Condition Parameters for Gas-Solids

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evaluation of Wall Boundary Condition Parameters for Gas-Solids Fluidized-Bed Simulations Tingwen Li 1,2 , Sofiane Benyahia 1 1. National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV 26507, U.S.A. 2. URS Corporation, Morgantown, WV 26505, U.S.A. Abstract Wall boundary conditions for the solids phase have significant effects on numerical predictions of various gas-solids fluidized beds. Several models for the granular flow wall boundary condition are available in the

  14. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    This report explains the moisture-related concerns for high R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. In this project, hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones. The modeling program assessed the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage; the report presents results of the study.

  15. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Huang, Y.Y.

    1998-07-28

    Methods are disclosed for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physical sorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics. 17 figs.

  16. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H.; Huang, Yin-Yan

    1998-01-01

    Methods for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physisorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics.

  17. Cosmic bubble and domain wall instabilities II: fracturing of colliding walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braden, Jonathan; Bond, J. Richard; Mersini-Houghton, Laura

    2015-08-26

    We study collisions between nearly planar domain walls including the effects of small initial nonplanar fluctuations. These perturbations represent the small fluctuations that must exist in a quantum treatment of the problem. In a previous paper, we demonstrated that at the linear level a subset of these fluctuations experience parametric amplification as a result of their coupling to the planar symmetric background. Here we study the full three-dimensional nonlinear dynamics using lattice simulations, including both the early time regime when the fluctuations are well described by linear perturbation theory as well as the subsequent stage of fully nonlinear evolution. We find that the nonplanar fluctuations have a dramatic effect on the overall evolution of the system. Specifically, once these fluctuations begin to interact nonlinearly the split into a planar symmetric part of the field and the nonplanar fluctuations loses its utility. At this point the colliding domain walls dissolve, with the endpoint of this being the creation of a population of oscillons in the collision region. The original (nearly) planar symmetry has been completely destroyed at this point and an accurate study of the system requires the full three-dimensional simulation.

  18. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

    2005-11-01

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  19. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

    2002-01-01

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  20. Balanced pressure gerotor fuel pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raney, Michael Raymond; Maier, Eugen

    2004-08-03

    A gerotor pump for pressurizing gasoline fuel is capable of developing pressures up to 2.0 MPa with good mechanical and volumetric efficiency and satisfying the durability requirements for an automotive fuel pump. The pump has been designed with optimized clearances and by including features that promote the formation of lubricating films of pressurized fuel. Features of the improved pump include the use of a shadow port in the side plate opposite the outlet port to promote balancing of high fuel pressures on the opposite sides of the rotors. Inner and outer rotors have predetermined side clearances with the clearances of the outer rotor being greater than those of the inner rotor in order to promote fuel pressure balance on the sides of the outer rotor. Support of the inner rotor and a drive shaft on a single bushing with bearing sleeves maintains concentricity. Additional features are disclosed.