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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Vulnerability Analysis Considerations for the Transportation of Special Nuclear Material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The vulnerability analysis methodology developed for fixed nuclear material sites has proven to be extremely effective in assessing associated transportation issues. The basic methods and techniques used are directly applicable to conducting a transportation vulnerability analysis. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that the same physical protection elements (detection, delay, and response) are present, although the response force plays a dominant role in preventing the theft or sabotage of material. Transportation systems are continuously exposed to the general public whereas the fixed site location by its very nature restricts general public access.

Nicholson, Lary G.; Purvis, James W.

1999-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

2

Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

Boyer, Brian D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

3

Spent Fuel Working Group report on inventory and storage of the Department`s spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials and their environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities. Volume 2, Working Group Assessment Team reports; Vulnerability development forms; Working group documents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Secretary of Energy`s memorandum of August 19, 1993, established an initiative for a Department-wide assessment of the vulnerabilities of stored spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials. A Project Plan to accomplish this study was issued on September 20, 1993 by US Department of Energy, Office of Environment, Health and Safety (EH) which established responsibilities for personnel essential to the study. The DOE Spent Fuel Working Group, which was formed for this purpose and produced the Project Plan, will manage the assessment and produce a report for the Secretary by November 20, 1993. This report was prepared by the Working Group Assessment Team assigned to the Hanford Site facilities. Results contained in this report will be reviewed, along with similar reports from all other selected DOE storage sites, by a working group review panel which will assemble the final summary report to the Secretary on spent nuclear fuel storage inventory and vulnerability.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Spent Fuel Working Group report on inventory and storage of the Department`s spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials and their environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities. Volume 3, Site team reports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A self assessment was conducted of those Hanford facilities that are utilized to store Reactor Irradiated Nuclear Material, (RINM). The objective of the assessment is to identify the Hanford inventories of RINM and the ES & H concerns associated with such storage. The assessment was performed as proscribed by the Project Plan issued by the DOE Spent Fuel Working Group. The Project Plan is the plan of execution intended to complete the Secretary`s request for information relevant to the inventories and vulnerabilities of DOE storage of spent nuclear fuel. The Hanford RINM inventory, the facilities involved and the nature of the fuel stored are summarized. This table succinctly reveals the variety of the Hanford facilities involved, the variety of the types of RINM involved, and the wide range of the quantities of material involved in Hanford`s RINM storage circumstances. ES & H concerns are defined as those circumstances that have the potential, now or in the future, to lead to a criticality event, to a worker radiation exposure event, to an environmental release event, or to public announcements of such circumstances and the sensationalized reporting of the inherent risks.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Absolute nuclear material assay  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

6

Management of Nuclear Materials  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To establish requirements for the lifecycle management of DOE owned and/or managed accountable nuclear materials. Cancels DOE O 5660.1B.

2009-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

7

Nuclear Material Packaging Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The manual provides detailed packaging requirements for protecting workers from exposure to nuclear materials stored outside of an approved engineered contamination barrier. No cancellation. Certified 11-18-10.

2008-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

8

Management of Nuclear Materials  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To establish requirements and procedures for the management of nuclear materials within the Department of Energy (DOE). Cancels DOE 5660.1A. Canceled by DOE O 410.2.

1994-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

9

Management of Nuclear Materials  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To establish requirements for the lifecycle management of DOE owned and/or managed accountable nuclear materials. Cancels DOE O 410.2. Admin Chg 1 dated 4-10-2014, cancels DOE O 410.2.

2009-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

10

Nuclear material operations manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

Tyler, R.P.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Vulnerability Analysis of a Nuclear Power Plant Considering Detonations of Explosive Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vulnerability Analysis of a Nuclear Power Plant Considering Detonations of Explosive Devices Marko threats to a nuclear power plant in the year 1991 and after the 9/11 events in 2001. The methodology which strength and injuries of human beings with nuclear power plant models used in probabilistic safety

Cizelj, Leon

12

Interim Management of Nuclear Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

containing dissolved nuclear materials and recovered isotopes in stainless-steel tanks; and product and scrap forms of metals or oxides in containers (cans, drums, etc.)...

13

Development of an ASTM standard guide on performing vulnerability assessments for nuclear facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes an effort undertaken by subcommittee C26.12 (Safeguards) of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) to develop a standard guide for performing vulnerability assessments (VAs). VAs are performed to determine the effectiveness of safeguards and security systems for both domestic and international nuclear facilities. These assessments address a range of threats, including theft of nuclear material and sabotage, and use an array of methods. The approach to performing and documenting VAs is varied and is largely dependent upon the tools used to perform them. This diversity can lead to tools being misused, making validation of VAs more difficult. The development of a standard guide for performing VAs would, if generally accepted, alleviate these concerns. ASTM provides a forum for developing guides that includes a high level of peer review to assure that the result is acceptable to all potential users. Additionally, the ASTM is widely recognized for setting standards, and endorsement by the Society may increase the likelihood of acceptance by the nuclear community. The goal of this work is to develop a guide that is independent of the tools being used to perform the VA and applicable to the spectrum of threats described above.

Wilkey, D.D.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Nuclear Material Control and Accountability  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Order establishes performance objectives, metrics, and requirements for developing, implementing, and maintaining a nuclear material control and accountability program within DOE/NNSA and for DOE-owned materials at other facilities that are exempt from licensing by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Cancels DOE M 470.4-6. Admin Chg 1, 8-3-11.

2011-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

15

Nuclear Material Control and Accountability  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The manual establishes a program for the control and accountability of nuclear materials within the Department of Energy. Cancels: DOE M 474.1-1B DOE M 474.1-2A

2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

16

Nuclear Material Control and Accountability  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The manual establishes a program for the control and accountability of nuclear materials within the Department of Energy. Chg 1, dated 8-14-06. Canceled by DOE O 474.2.

2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

17

Nuclear Material Control and Accountability  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Order establishes performance objectives, metrics, and requirements for developing, implementing, and maintaining a nuclear material control and accountability program within DOE/NNSA and for DOE-owned materials at other facilities that are exempt from licensing by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Cancels DOE M 470.4-6, Admin Chg 1, 8-26-05. Admin Chg 2, dated 11-19-12, cancels DOE M 474.2 Admin Chg 1.

2011-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

18

Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

clandestine material with nuclear resonance fluorescence”.E. Norman, UC Berkeley Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, privatepp. 349. G. Warren et al. “Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence of

Quiter, Brian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Nuclear Materials Assay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Potential of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence . . . . . . . .2.9.1 Nuclear ThomsonSections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nuclear Resonance

Quiter, Brian Joseph

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy`s response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department`s Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Materials Challenges in Nuclear Energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear power currently provides about 13% of the worldwide electrical power, and has emerged as a reliable baseload source of electricity. A number of materials challenges must be successfully resolved for nuclear energy to continue to make further improvements in reliability, safety and economics. The operating environment for materials in current and proposed future nuclear energy systems is summarized, along with a description of materials used for the main operating components. Materials challenges associated with power uprates and extensions of the operating lifetimes of reactors are described. The three major materials challenges for the current and next generation of water-cooled fission reactors are centered on two structural materials aging degradation issues (corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of structural materials and neutron-induced embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels), along with improved fuel system reliability and accident tolerance issues. The major corrosion and stress corrosion cracking degradation mechanisms for light water reactors are reviewed. The materials degradation issues for the Zr alloy clad UO2 fuel system currently utilized in the majority of commercial nuclear power plants is discussed for normal and off-normal operating conditions. Looking to proposed future (Generation IV) fission and fusion energy systems, there are 5 key bulk radiation degradation effects (low temperature radiation hardening and embrittlement, radiation-induced and modified solute segregation and phase stability, irradiation creep, void swelling, and high temperature helium embrittlement) and a multitude of corrosion and stress corrosion cracking effects (including irradiation-assisted phenomena) that can have a major impact on the performance of structural materials.

Zinkle, Steven J [ORNL] [ORNL; Was, Gary [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

EIS-0220: Interim Management of Nuclear Materials at the Savannah River Site  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This environmental impact statement assesses the potential environmental impacts of actions necessary to manage nuclear materials at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina, until decisions on their ultimate disposition are made and implemented. The Department of Energy has decided to initiate actions which will stabilize certain of the SRS materials that represent environment, safety and health vulnerabilities in their current storage condition or which may represent a vulnerability within the next 10 years.

23

Responsible stewardship of nuclear materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability to tap the massive energy potential of nuclear fission was first developed as a weapon to end a terrible world war. Nuclear fission is also a virtually inexhaustible energy resource, and is the only energy supply in certain areas in Russia, Kazakhstan and elsewhere. The potential link between civilian and military applications has been and continues to be a source of concern. With the end of the Cold War, this issue has taken a dramatic turn. The U.S. and Russia have agreed to reduce their nuclear weapons stockpiles by as much as two-thirds. This will make some 100 tonnes of separated plutonium and 500 tonnes of highly enriched uranium available, in a form that is obviously directly usable for weapons. The total world inventory of plutonium is now around 1000 tonnes and is increasing at 60-70 tonnes per year. There is even more highly enriched uranium. Fortunately the correct answer to what to do with excess weapons material is also the most attractive. It should be used and reused as fuel for fast reactors. Material in use (particularly nuclear material) is very easy to monitor and control, and is quite unattractive for diversion. Active management of fissile materials not only makes a major contribution to economic stability and well-being, but also simplifies accountability, inspection and other safeguards processes; provides a revenue stream to pay for the necessary safeguards; and, most importantly, limits the prospective world inventory of plutonium to only that which is used and useful.

Hannum, W.H.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Atomic Energy and Nuclear Materials Program (Tennessee)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Atomic Energy and Nuclear Materials section of the Tennessee Code covers all of the regulations, licenses, permits, siting requirements, and practices relevant to a nuclear energy development. ...

25

Special nuclear material simulation device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for simulating special nuclear material is provided. The apparatus typically contains a small quantity of special nuclear material (SNM) in a configuration that simulates a much larger quantity of SNM. Generally the apparatus includes a spherical shell that is formed from an alloy containing a small quantity of highly enriched uranium. Also typically provided is a core of depleted uranium. A spacer, typically aluminum, may be used to separate the depleted uranium from the shell of uranium alloy. A cladding, typically made of titanium, is provided to seal the source. Methods are provided to simulate SNM for testing radiation monitoring portals. Typically the methods use at least one primary SNM spectral line and exclude at least one secondary SNM spectral line.

Leckey, John H.; DeMint, Amy; Gooch, Jack; Hawk, Todd; Pickett, Chris A.; Blessinger, Chris; York, Robbie L.

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

26

UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

UNCLASSIFIED Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System CONTACT INFORMATION UPDATE REPORTING IDENTIFICATION SYMBOL (RIS) RIS: Address: Facility Name: CONTACTS Name Email:...

27

GTRI: Removing Vulnerable Civilian Nuclear and Radiological Material |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr Flickr Editor's note:ComputingFusionSanGE

28

Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

DOE O 474.1 prescribes Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) for DOE-owned and -leased facilities and DOE-owned nuclear materials at other facilities which are exempt from licensing by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Cancels DOE 5633.3B

1999-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

29

Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The order prescribes DOE minimum requirements and procedures for control and accountability of nuclear materials at DOE-owned and -leased facilities and DOE-owned nuclear materials at other facilities which are exempt from licensing by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission {NRC). Cancels DOE O 5633.3. Canceled by DOE O 5633.3B.

1993-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

30

Nuclear Engineering Division Irradiated Materials Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear Engineering Division Irradiated Materials Laboratory The Irradiated Materials Laboratory (IML) in Argonne's Nuclear Engineering Division is used to conduct research on the behavior. #12;C O N TA C T > Dr. Michael C. Billone | 630-252-7146 | billone@anl.gov | Nuclear Engineering

Kemner, Ken

31

Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To prescribe Department of Energy (DOE) requirements, including those for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) for DOE-owned and -leased facilities and DOE-owned nuclear materials at other facilities that are exempt from licensing by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). DOE N 251.60, dated 11-19-04, extends this directive until 11-19-05. Cancels DOE O 474.1.

2000-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

32

Nuclear materials safeguards for the future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Basic concepts of domestic and international safeguards are described, with an emphasis on safeguards systems for the fuel cycles of commercial power reactors. Future trends in institutional and technical measures for nuclear materials safeguards are outlined. The conclusion is that continued developments in safeguards approaches and technology, coupled with institutional measures that facilitate the global management and protection of nuclear materials, are up to the challenge of safeguarding the growing inventories of nuclear materials in commercial fuel cycles in technologically advanced States with stable governments that have signed the nonproliferation treaty. These same approaches also show promise for facilitating international inspection of excess weapons materials and verifying a fissile materials cutoff convention.

Tape, J.W.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

33

Nuclear Materials Management Program at the NNSS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site, was established in 1951 mainly for weapons testing; because special nuclear materials (SNM) were expended during the tests, a nuclear material management program was not required. That changed in December 2004 with the receipt of Category I SNM for purposes other than weapons testing. At that time, Material Control and Accountability and Nuclear Material Management were a joint laboratory (Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore) effort with nuclear material management being performed at the laboratories. That changed in March 2006 when the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office appointed sole responsibility to the Management and Operations (M&O) contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). Since 2006 the basic nuclear material management work was completed by a combination of M&O employees and subcontractors, but a true Nuclear Material Management (NMM) Program was not determined to be necessary until recently. With expanding missions and more nuclear material (NM) coming to the NNSS, it became imperative to have an organization to manage these materials; therefore, an NMM Manager was officially appointed by NSTec in 2012. In June 2011 a Gap Analysis and white paper was completed by a subcontractor; this presentation will include highlights from those documents along with our plans to resolve the “gaps” and stand up a functional and compliant NMM Program at the NNSS.

,

2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

34

The nuclear materials control technology briefing book  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As national and international interests in nuclear arms control and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, intensify, it becomes ever more important that contributors be aware of the technologies available for the measurement and control of the nuclear materials important to nuclear weapons development. This briefing book presents concise, nontechnical summaries of various special nuclear material (SNM) and tritium production monitoring technologies applicable to the control of nuclear materials and their production. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates a multinational, on-site-inspector-based safeguards program in support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), many (but not all) of the technologies reported in this document are in routine use or under development for IAEA safeguards.

Hartwell, J.K.; Fernandez, S.J.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To prescribe the Department of Energy (DOE) minimum requirements and procedures for control and accountability of nuclear materials at DOE-owned and -leased facilities and DOE-owned nuclear materials at other facilities which are exempt from licensing by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Cancels DOE O 5633.2A and DOE O 5633.3A. Canceled by DOE O 474.1

1994-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

36

Nuclear materials stewardship: Our enduring mission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have handled a remarkably wide variety of nuclear materials over the past 50 yr. Two fundamental changes have occurred that shape the current landscape regarding nuclear materials. If one recognizes the implications and opportunities, one sees that the stewardship of nuclear materials will be a fundamental and important job of the DOE for the foreseeable future. The first change--the breakup of the Soviet Union and the resulting end to the nuclear arms race--altered US objectives. Previously, the focus was on materials production, weapon design, nuclear testing, and stockpile enhancements. Now the attention is on dismantlement of weapons, excess special nuclear material inventories, accompanying increased concern over the protection afforded to such materials; new arms control measures; and importantly, maintenance of the safety and reliability of the remaining arsenal without testing. The second change was the raised consciousness and sense of responsibility for dealing with the environmental legacies of past nuclear arms programs. Recognition of the need to clean up radioactive contamination, manage the wastes, conduct current operations responsibly, and restore the environment have led to the establishment of what is now the largest program in the DOE. Two additional features add to the challenge and drive the need for recognition of nuclear materials stewardship as a fundamental, enduring, and compelling mission of the DOE. The first is the extraordinary time frames. No matter what the future of nuclear weapons and no matter what the future of nuclear power, the DOE will be responsible for most of the country`s nuclear materials and wastes for generations. Even if the Yucca Mountain program is successful and on schedule, it will last more than 100 yr. Second, the use, management, and disposition of nuclear materials and wastes affect a variety of nationally important and diverse objectives, from national security to the future of nuclear power in this country and abroad, to the care of the environment. Sometimes these objectives are in concert, but often they are seen as competing or being in conflict. By recognizing the corporate responsibility for these materials and the accompanying programs, national decision making will be improved.

Isaacs, T.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

37

Nuclear Concrete Materials Database Phase I Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The FY 2011 accomplishments in Phase I development of the Nuclear Concrete Materials Database to support the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program are summarized. The database has been developed using the ORNL materials database infrastructure established for the Gen IV Materials Handbook to achieve cost reduction and development efficiency. In this Phase I development, the database has been successfully designed and constructed to manage documents in the Portable Document Format generated from the Structural Materials Handbook that contains nuclear concrete materials data and related information. The completion of the Phase I database has established a solid foundation for Phase II development, in which a digital database will be designed and constructed to manage nuclear concrete materials data in various digitized formats to facilitate electronic and mathematical processing for analysis, modeling, and design applications.

Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Naus, Dan J [ORNL

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Fundamentals of materials accounting for nuclear safeguards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Materials accounting is essential to providing the necessary assurance for verifying the effectiveness of a safeguards system. The use of measurements, analyses, records, and reports to maintain knowledge of the quantities of nuclear material present in a defined area of a facility and the use of physical inventories and materials balances to verify the presence of special nuclear materials are collectively known as materials accounting for nuclear safeguards. This manual, prepared as part of the resource materials for the Safeguards Technology Training Program of the US Department of Energy, addresses fundamental aspects of materials accounting, enriching and complementing them with the first-hand experiences of authors from varied disciplines. The topics range from highly technical subjects to site-specific system designs and policy discussions. This collection of papers is prepared by more than 25 professionals from the nuclear safeguards field. Representing research institutions, industries, and regulatory agencies, the authors create a unique resource for the annual course titled ''Materials Accounting for Nuclear Safeguards,'' which is offered at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Pillay, K.K.S. (comp.)

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Y-12 Removes Nuclear Materials from Two Facilities to Reduce...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Home Field Offices Welcome to the NNSA Production Office NPO News Releases Y-12 Removes Nuclear Materials from Two Facilities ... Y-12 Removes Nuclear Materials from...

40

Identifying Nuclear Materials Using Tagged Muons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental results from a new technique that uses neutrons generated by stopped cosmic-ray muons to identify nuclear materials are described. The neutrons are used to tag muon-induced fission events in actinides and laminography is used to form images of the stopping material. This technique allows the imaging of uranium objects tagged using muon tracking detectors located above or to the side of the objects. The specificity of the technique to significant quantities of nuclear material along with its insensitivity to spatial details may provide a new method for the task of warhead verification for future arms reduction treaties.

C. L. Morris; J. D. Bacon; K. Borodzin; J. M. Durham; J. M. Fabritius II; E. Guardincerri; A. Hecht; E. C. Milner; H. Miyadera; J. O. Perry; D. Poulson

2014-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

USE OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS TO REPAIR STEEL STRUCTURES VULNERABLE TO FATIGUE DAMAGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study investigates mainly two different topics related to the use of CFRP's for strengthening and repair of steel bridges: the use of CFRP's to prevent damage in fatigue vulnerable welded connections prior to fatigue-crack initiation...

Alemdar, Fatih

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Technologies for detection of nuclear materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detection of smuggled nuclear materials at transit points requires monitoring unknown samples in large closed packages. This review contends that high-confidence nuclear-material detection requires induced fission as the primary mechanism, with passive radiation screening in a complementary role. With the right equipment, even small quantities of nuclear materials are detectable with a high probability at transit points. The equipment could also be linked synergistically with detectors of other contrabond. For screening postal mail and packages, passive monitors are probably more cost-effective. When a suspicious item is detected, a single active probe could then be used. Until active systems become mass produced, this two-stage screening/interrogation role for active/passive equipment is more economic for cargo at border crossings. For widespread monitoring of nuclear smuggling, it will probably be necessary to develop a system for simultaneously detecting most categories of contraband, including explosives and illicit drugs. With control of nuclear materials at known storage sites being the first line of defense, detection capabilities at international borders could establish a viable second line of defense against smuggling.

DeVolpi, A.

1996-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

43

Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000.degree. F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics.

Heubeck, Norman B. (Schenectady, NY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000 F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics. 5 figs.

Heubeck, N.B.

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

45

Muon Tracking to Detect Special Nuclear Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previous experiments have proven that nuclear assemblies can be imaged and identified inside of shipping containers using vertical trajectory cosmic-ray muons with two-sided imaging. These experiments have further demonstrated that nuclear assemblies can be identified by detecting fission products in coincidence with tracked muons. By developing these technologies, advanced sensors can be designed for a variety of warhead monitoring and detection applications. The focus of this project is to develop tomographic-mode imaging using near-horizontal trajectory muons in conjunction with secondary particle detectors. This will allow imaging in-situ without the need to relocate the objects and will enable differentiation of special nuclear material (SNM) from other high-Z materials.

Schwellenbach, D. [NSTec; Dreesen, W. [NSTec; Green, J. A. [NSTec; Tibbitts, A. [NSTec; Schotik, G. [NSTec; Borozdin, K. [LANL; Bacon, J. [LANL; Midera, H. [LANL; Milner, C. [LANL; Morris, C. [LANL; Perry, J. [LANL; Barrett, S. [UW; Perry, K. [UW; Scott, A. [UW; Wright, C. [UW; Aberle, D. [NSTec

2013-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

46

Nuclear Materials: Reconsidering Wastes and Assets - 13193  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable ('assets') to worthless ('wastes'). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or - in the case of high level waste - awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site's (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as 'waste' include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national interest. (authors)

Michalske, T.A. [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Assessment tool for nuclear material acquisition pathways  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be obtained. The two types of material used in nuclear weapons are Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and Plutonium (Pu). Uranium is an element found in nature and is contained in the soil all over the world. However, certain geological formations contain a... (LEU) portion of the network ..................................... 22 Figure 11 Last seciton of the Pu (LEU) portion of the network...................................... 23 Figure 12 Plutonium Section of the Network produced via Natural Uranium...

Ford, David Grant

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Calculating the vulnerability of synthetic polymers to autoignition during nuclear flash. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of our investigation was to determine if the rapid progression of fire to flashover conditions in a furnished room, observed in a 1953 nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site (the Encore Event), might be typical behavior rather than an aberration. If flashover under such conditions is indeed likely, this phenomenon is worth pursuing in view of the increased threat to buildings and human life from possible large-scale fires. We placed special emphasis on fires that occurred in modern rooms, i.e., ones furnished with upholstery and drapery materials made from synthetic polymers. Examination of photochemical processes showed them to be an unlikely explanation, either in Encore or in the future. Our calculation of rapid radiant-heating behavior of a few materials demonstrated that fabrics and fabric-covered foams would exceed their autoignition temperature when exposed to a 25-cal/cm/sup 2/ fluence from a 1-Mt air burst weapon. Because synthetic polymers have higher heating values and release heat faster during combustion than do the cellulosics used in the Encore experiment, early flashover should not be unexpected in contemporary households. However, the far-field thermal fluence required would be higher because of the absorption of thermal energy by windows and window coverings. Because of the complexity of the problem, carefully planned, full-scale experiments will be needed to finally answer the question. 39 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

Hickman, R.; Reitter, T.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Nuclear Fuels & Materials Spotlight Volume 4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the nation's nuclear energy laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory brings together talented people and specialized nuclear research capability to accomplish our mission. This edition of the Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division Spotlight provides an overview of some of our recent accomplishments in research and capability development. These accomplishments include: • The first identification of silver and palladium migrating through the SiC layer in TRISO fuel • A description of irradiation assisted stress corrosion testing capabilities that support commercial light water reactor life extension • Results of high-temperature safety testing on coated particle fuels irradiated in the ATR • New methods for testing the integrity of irradiated plate-type reactor fuel • Description of a 'Smart Fuel' concept that wirelessly provides real time information about changes in nuclear fuel properties and operating conditions • Development and testing of ultrasonic transducers and real-time flux sensors for use inside reactor cores, and • An example of a capsule irradiation test. Throughout Spotlight, you'll find examples of productive partnerships with academia, industry, and government agencies that deliver high-impact outcomes. The work conducted at Idaho National Laboratory helps to spur innovation in nuclear energy applications that drive economic growth and energy security. We appreciate your interest in our work here at INL, and hope that you find this issue informative.

I. J. van Rooyen,; T. M. Lillo; Y. Q. WU; P.A. Demkowicz; L. Scott; D.M. Scates; E. L. Reber; J. H. Jackson; J. A. Smith; D.L. Cottle; B.H. Rabin; M.R. Tonks; S.B. Biner; Y. Zhang; R.L. Williamson; S.R. Novascone; B.W. Spencer; J.D. Hales; D.R. Gaston; C.J. Permann; D. Anders; S.L. Hayes; P.C. Millett; D. Andersson; C. Stanek; R. Ali; S.L. Garrett; J.E. Daw; J.L. Rempe; J. Palmer; B. Tittmann; B. Reinhardt; G. Kohse; P. Ramuhali; H.T. Chien; T. Unruh; B.M. Chase; D.W. Nigg; G. Imel; J. T. Harris

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Recovery of fissile materials from nuclear wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for recovering fissile materials such as uranium, and plutonium, and rare earth elements, from complex waste feed material, and converting the remaining wastes into a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. The waste feed is mixed with a dissolution glass formed of lead oxide and boron oxide resulting in oxidation, dehalogenation, and dissolution of metal oxides. Carbon is added to remove lead oxide, and a boron oxide fusion melt is produced. The fusion melt is essentially devoid of organic materials and halogens, and is easily and rapidly dissolved in nitric acid. After dissolution, uranium, plutonium and rare earth elements are separated from the acid and recovered by processes such as PUREX or ion exchange. The remaining acid waste stream is vitrified to produce a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. Potential waste feed materials include plutonium scrap and residue, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, organic material and other carbon-containing material.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Manual for Control And Accountability of Nuclear Materials  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

DOE M 474.1-1 prescribes Department of Energy (DOE) requirements and procedures for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A). This Manual supplements DOE O 474.1, Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials.

1999-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

52

United States Department of Energy Nuclear Materials Stewardship  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy launched the Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative in January 2000 to accelerate the work of achieving integration and cutting long-term costs associated with the management of the Department's nuclear materials, with the principal focus on excess materials. Management of nuclear materials is a fundamental and enduring responsibility that is essential to meeting the Department's national security, nonproliferation, energy, science, and environmental missions into the distant future. The effective management of nuclear materials is important for a set of reasons: (1) some materials are vital to our national defense; (2) the materials pose physical and security risks; (3) managing them is costly; and (4) costs are likely to extend well into the future. The Department currently manages nuclear materials under eight programs, with offices in 36 different locations. Through the Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative, progress was during calendar year 20 00 in achieving better coordination and integration of nuclear materials management responsibilities and in evaluating opportunities to further coordinate and integrate cross-program responsibilities for the treatment, storage, and disposition of excess nuclear materials. During CY 2001 the Departmental approach to nuclear materials stewardship changed consistent with the business processes followed by the new administration. This paper reports on the progress of the Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative in evaluating and implementing these opportunities, and the remaining challenges in integrating the long-term management of nuclear materials.

Newton, J. W.

2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

53

BSc in Nuclear Science and Materials H821 MEng in Nuclear Engineering H822  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BSc in Nuclear Science and Materials H821 MEng in Nuclear Engineering H822 Research and education in nuclear engineering, waste management and decommissioning holds the key to sustainable energy production in Nuclear Science and Materials and MEng in Nuclear Engineering degrees bring together a range of modules

Miall, Chris

54

Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

et al. “Investigation of Nuclear Structure by Resonance1996, pp. G. Warren et al. “Nuclear Resonance Fluorescenceof 235U” IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium 2006, pp. 914. W.

Quiter, Brian J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Scanning of vehicles for nuclear materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

Katz, J. I. [Dept. Physics and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

56

The Nuclear Material Focus Area Roadmapping Process Utilizing Environmental Management Complex-Wide Nuclear Material Disposition Pathways  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the process that the Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) has developed and utilizes in working with individual Department of Energy (DOE) sites to identify, address, and prioritize research and development efforts in the stabilization, disposition, and storage of nuclear materials. By associating site technology needs with nuclear disposition pathways and integrating those with site schedules, the NMFA is developing a complex wide roadmap for nuclear material technology development. This approach will leverage technology needs and opportunities at multiple sites and assist the NMFA in building a defensible research and development program to address the nuclear material technology needs across the complex.

Sala, D. R.; Furhman, P.; Smith, J. D.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

57

Fuzzy controllers in nuclear material accounting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuzzy controllers are applied to predicting and modeling a time series, with particular emphasis on anomaly detection in nuclear material inventory differences. As compared to neural networks, the fuzzy controllers can operate in real time; their learning process does not require many iterations to converge. For this reason fuzzy controllers are potentially useful in time series forecasting, where the authors want to detect and identify trends in real time. They describe an object-oriented implementation of the algorithm advanced by Wang and Mendel. Numerical results are presented both for inventory data and time series corresponding to chaotic situations, such as encountered in the context of strange attractors. In the latter case, the effects of noise on the predictive power of the fuzzy controller are explored.

Zardecki, A.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System Reporting and Data Submission  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The manual provides clear and detailed instructions and procedures for documenting and reporting data submissions for nuclear materials transactions, inventories, and material balances to the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). Cancels DOE 5633.3B. Canceled by DOE M 474.1-2A.

1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

59

Initiatives in the US nuclear material tracking system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security is in the process of developing a new worldwide nuclear materials tracking system. Its purpose is for DOE to better fulfill its international and domestic nuclear material tracking obligations and needs. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), is developing the International Nuclear Analysis (INA) Program to meet this goal. LLNL will assume the function and duties of the current Nuclear Materials management and Safeguards System (NMMSS) operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems. The program is jointly funded by the DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the US Enrichment Corporation.

Smith, M.R.; Kuzmycz, G. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Heaton, E.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials: Responsibilities and Authorities  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The order prescribes the Department of Energy (DOE) policies, responsibilities, and authorities for control and accountability of nuclear materials. Cancels DOE O 5633.2.

1992-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

62

NUCLEAR MATERIALS PROGRESS REPORTS FOR 1980  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ceramics", Progress in Material Science 21, 307 (1976}. S. -heating techniques in material processing. Thermal analysisIrreversible Thermodynamics in Materials Problems", in Mass

Olander, D.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Cognitive decision errors and organization vulnerabilities in nuclear power plant safety management: Modeling using the TOGA meta-theory framework  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the field of nuclear power plant (NPP) safety modeling, the perception of the role of socio-cognitive engineering (SCE) is continuously increasing. Today, the focus is especially on the identification of human and organization decisional errors caused by operators and managers under high-risk conditions, as evident by analyzing reports on nuclear incidents occurred in the past. At present, the engineering and social safety requirements need to enlarge their domain of interest in such a way to include all possible losses generating events that could be the consequences of an abnormal state of a NPP. Socio-cognitive modeling of Integrated Nuclear Safety Management (INSM) using the TOGA meta-theory has been discussed during the ICCAP 2011 Conference. In this paper, more detailed aspects of the cognitive decision-making and its possible human errors and organizational vulnerability are presented. The formal TOGA-based network model for cognitive decision-making enables to indicate and analyze nodes and arcs in which plant operators and managers errors may appear. The TOGA's multi-level IPK (Information, Preferences, Knowledge) model of abstract intelligent agents (AIAs) is applied. In the NPP context, super-safety approach is also discussed, by taking under consideration unexpected events and managing them from a systemic perspective. As the nature of human errors depends on the specific properties of the decision-maker and the decisional context of operation, a classification of decision-making using IPK is suggested. Several types of initial situations of decision-making useful for the diagnosis of NPP operators and managers errors are considered. The developed models can be used as a basis for applications to NPP educational or engineering simulators to be used for training the NPP executive staff. (authors)

Cappelli, M. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy); Gadomski, A. M. [ECONA, Centro Interuniversitario Elaborazione Cognitiva Sistemi Naturali e Artificiali, via dei Marsi 47, Rome (Italy); Sepiellis, M. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy); Wronikowska, M. W. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy); Poznan School of Social Sciences (Poland)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

fissile material | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure...

65

Evaluation of nonaqueous processes for nuclear materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A working group was assigned the task of evaluating the status of nonaqueous processes for nuclear materials and the prospects for successful deployment of these technologies in the future. In the initial evaluation, the study was narrowed to the pyrochemical/pyrometallurgical processes closely related to the processes used for purification of plutonium and its conversion to metal. The status of the chemistry and process hardware were reviewed and the development needs in both chemistry and process equipment technology were evaluated. Finally, the requirements were established for successful deployment of this technology. The status of the technology was evaluated along three lines: (1) first the current applications were examined for completeness, (2) an attempt was made to construct closed-cycle flow sheets for several proposed applications, (3) and finally the status of technical development and future development needs for general applications were reviewed. By using these three evaluations, three different perspectives were constructed that together present a clear picture of how complete the technical development of these processes are.

Musgrave, B.C.; Grens, J.Z.; Knighton, J.B.; Coops, M.S.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Integration of advanced nuclear materials separation processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project has examined the fundamental chemistry of plutonium that affects the integration of hydrothermal technology into nuclear materials processing operations. Chemical reactions in high temperature water allow new avenues for waste treatment and radionuclide separation.Successful implementation of hydrothermal technology offers the potential to effective treat many types of radioactive waste, reduce the storage hazards and disposal costs, and minimize the generation of secondary waste streams. The focus has been on the chemistry of plutonium(VI) in solution with carbonate since these are expected to be important species in the effluent from hydrothermal oxidation of Pu-containing organic wastes. The authors investigated the structure, solubility, and stability of the key plutonium complexes. Installation and testing of flow and batch hydrothermal reactors in the Plutonium Facility was accomplished. Preliminary testing with Pu-contaminated organic solutions gave effluent solutions that readily met discard requirements. A new effort in FY 1998 will build on these promising initial results.

Jarvinen, G.D.; Worl, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Berg, J.M.; Neu, M.P.; Reilly, S.D.; Buelow, S.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

67

Nuclear Forensic Reference Materials (RM) for Attribution of Urban Nuclear Terrorism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is the integration of all information, including nuclear forensic data, law enforcement and intelligence dataNuclear Forensic Reference Materials (RM) for Attribution of Urban Nuclear Terrorism Kenneth G relationships Nuclear Forensics require high-level expertise, undisputed signatures & extremely high fidelity

Perkins, Richard A.

68

Scoping Materials | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) NEPA Reading Room SEIS for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor Scoping Materials Scoping Materials Scoping...

69

GTRI's Nuclear and Radiological Material Removal | National Nuclear...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and permanently disposing of excess, disused, unwanted, or abandoned radiological material overseas. This includes the recovery of Russian radioisotope thermoelectric...

70

Part of the National Nuclear User Facility Culham Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Part of the National Nuclear User Facility Culham Materials Research Facility #12;Introduction from Professor Steve Cowley Culham's Materials Research Facility (MRF) is a valuable addition to the UK's suite and fusion ­ with equipment for the processing and micro-characterisation of radioactive materials, for on

71

Large area nuclear particle detectors using ET materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this SBIR Phase 1 feasibility effort was to demonstrate the usefulness of Quantex electron-trapping (ET) materials for spatial detection of nuclear particles over large areas. This demonstration entailed evaluating the prompt visible scintillation as nuclear particles impinged on films of ET materials, and subsequently detecting the nuclear particle impingement information pattern stored in the ET material, by means of the visible-wavelength luminescence produced by near-infrared interrogation. Readily useful levels of scintillation and luminescence outputs are demonstrated.

Not Available

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

UNCLASSIFIED Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

UPDATE PROJECT Project Number: Title: Date Valid: Date Deactivated: Classification Codes: Project Number: Project Title: Associated Materials: Programmatic RIS Previous...

73

Reducing nuclear danger through intergovernmental technical exchanges on nuclear materials safety management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States and Russia are dismantling nuclear weapons and generating hundreds of tons of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium fissile nuclear materials that require disposition. The U.S. Department of Energy and Russian Minatom organizations.are planning and implementing safe, secure storage and disposition operations for these materials in numerous facilities. This provides a new opportunity for technical exchanges between Russian and Western scientists that can establish an improved and sustained common safety culture for handling these materials. An initiative that develops and uses personal relationships and joint projects among Russian and Western participants involved in fissile nuclear materials safety management contributes to improving nuclear materials nonproliferation and to making a safer world. Technical exchanges and workshops are being used to systematically identify opportunities in the nuclear fissile materials facilities to improve and ensure the safety of workers, the public, and the environment.

Jardine, L.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Peddicord, K.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Witmer, F.E.; Krumpe, P.F. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Lazarev, L.; Moshkov, M. [Radievyj Inst., Leningrad (Russian Federation)

1997-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

74

Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories was tasked with developing the Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS) with the sponsorship of NA-125.3 and the concurrence of DOE/NNSA field and area offices. The purpose of IIIMS was to modernize nuclear materials management information systems at the enterprise level. Projects over the course of several years attempted to spearhead this modernization. The scope of IIIMS was broken into broad enterprise-oriented materials management and materials forecasting. The IIIMS prototype was developed to allow multiple participating user groups to explore nuclear material requirements and needs in detail. The purpose of material forecasting was to determine nuclear material availability over a 10 to 15 year period in light of the dynamic nature of nuclear materials management. Formal DOE Directives (requirements) were needed to direct IIIMS efforts but were never issued and the project has been halted. When restarted, duplicating or re-engineering the activities from 1999 to 2003 is unnecessary, and in fact future initiatives can build on previous work. IIIMS requirements should be structured to provide high confidence that discrepancies are detected, and classified information is not divulged. Enterprise-wide materials management systems maintained by the military can be used as overall models to base IIIMS implementation concepts upon.

Aas, Christopher A.; Lenhart, James E.; Bray, Olin H.; Witcher, Christina Jenkin

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Manual for Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The manual prescribes requirements and assign responsibilities for nuclear material control and accountability. Cancels DOE M 474.1-1A. Canceled by DOE M 470.4-6.

2003-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

76

Manual for Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The manual prescribes requirements and procedures for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A). Cancels DOE M 474.1-1. Canceled by DOE M 474.1-1B.

2000-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

77

Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials Responsibilities and Authorities  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The order prescribe the Department of Energy (DOE) policies, responsibilities, and authorities for control and accountability of nuclear materials. Cancels DOE O 5630.1. Canceled by DOE O 5633.2A.

1988-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

78

TAMCN: a tool for aggregate modeling of civil nuclear materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

involved in the creation, storage, and utilization of potentially destructive nuclear material. Western Europe and Japan, namely France, Belgium, the United Kingdom, Germany, Switzerland, and Japan, were chosen as a starting point because the issues...

Watson, Aaron Michael

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Fissile Materials Disposition | National Nuclear Security Administrati...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

uranium have become surplus to the defense needs of both the United States and Russia. The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (FMD) plays an important role in...

80

Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a “window” for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in “windows” for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed.

T., A. Tomberlin

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

A Uniform Framework of Global Nuclear Materials Management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Global Nuclear Materials Management (GNMM) anticipates and supports a growing international recognition of the importance of uniform, effective management of civilian, excess defense, and nuclear weapons materials. We expect thereto be a continuing increase in both the number of international agreements and conventions on safety, security, and transparency of nuclear materials, and the number of U.S.-Russian agreements for the safety, protection, and transparency of weapons and excess defense materials. This inventory of agreements and conventions may soon expand into broad, mandatory, international programs that will include provisions for inspection, verification, and transparency, To meet such demand the community must build on the resources we have, including State agencies, the IAEA and regional organizations. By these measures we will meet the future expectations for monitoring and inspection of materials, maintenance of safety and security, and implementation of transparency measures.

Dupree, S.A.; Mangan, D.L.; Sanders, T.L; Sellers, T.A.

1999-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

82

The U.S. national nuclear forensics library, nuclear materials information program, and data dictionary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear forensics assessments to determine material process history requires careful comparison of sample data to both measured and modeled nuclear material characteristics. Developing centralized databases, or nuclear forensics libraries, to house this information is an important step to ensure all relevant data will be available for comparison during a nuclear forensics analysis and help expedite the assessment of material history. The approach most widely accepted by the international community at this time is the implementation of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, which would be developed and maintained by individual nations. This is an attractive alternative toan international database since it provides an understanding that each country has data on materials produced and stored within their borders, but eliminates the need to reveal any proprietary or sensitive information to other nations. To support the concept of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, the United States Department of Energy has developed a model library, based on a data dictionary, or set of parameters designed to capture all nuclear forensic relevant information about a nuclear material. Specifically, information includes material identification, collection background and current location, analytical laboratories where measurements were made, material packaging and container descriptions, physical characteristics including mass and dimensions, chemical and isotopic characteristics, particle morphology or metallurgical properties, process history including facilities, and measurement quality assurance information. While not necessarily required, it may also be valuable to store modeled data sets including reactor burn-up or enrichment cascade data for comparison. It is fully expected that only a subset of this information is available or relevant to many materials, and much of the data populating a National Nuclear Forensics library would be process analytical or material accountability measurement data as opposed to a complete forensic analysis of each material in the library.

Lamont, Stephen Philip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brisson, Marcia [DOE-IN; Curry, Michael [DEPT. OF STATE

2011-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

83

Nuclear forensics of special nuclear material at Los Alamos: three recent studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear forensics of special nuclear materials is a highly specialized field because there are few analytical laboratories in the world that can safely handle nuclear materials, perform high accuracy and precision analysis using validated analytical methods. The goal of nuclear forensics is to establish an unambiguous link between illicitly trafficked nuclear material and its origin. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Materials Signatures Program has implemented a graded 'conduct of operations' type approach for determining the unique nuclear, chemical, and physical signatures needed to identify the manufacturing process, intended use, and origin of interdicted nuclear material. In our approach an analysis flow path was developed for determining key signatures necessary for attributing unknown materials to a source. This analysis flow path included both destructive (i.e., alpha spectrometry, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, TIMS, particle size distribution, density and particle fractionation) and non-destructive (i.e., gamma-ray spectrometry, optical microscopy, SEM, XRD, and x-ray fluorescence) characterization techniques. Analytical techniques and results from three recent cases characterized by this analysis flow path along with an evaluation of the usefulness of this approach will be discussed in this paper.

Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gallimore, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garduon, Katherine [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keller, Russell C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kuhn, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lujan, Elmer J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Myers, Steven C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moore, Steve S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Porterfield, Donivan R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Daniel S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spencer, Khalil J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Townsend, Lisa E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xu, Ning [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

A Busy Year Securing Vulnerable Nuclear Material and Making the World Safer  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment(October-December 2013Lamps;5SUMMARIES8/14Practices intoA

85

Detecting fission from special nuclear material sources  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A neutron detector system for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source. The system includes a graphing component that displays the plot of the neutron distribution from the unknown source over a Poisson distribution and a plot of neutrons due to background or environmental sources. The system further includes a known neutron source placed in proximity to the unknown source to actively interrogate the unknown source in order to accentuate differences in neutron emission from the unknown source from Poisson distributions and/or environmental sources.

Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

86

Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Nuclear Material Control and Accountability System Effectiveness Tool (MSET)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) has been developed in the United States for use in evaluating material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) systems in nuclear facilities. The project was commissioned by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of International Material Protection and Cooperation. MSET was developed by personnel with experience spanning more than six decades in both the U.S. and international nuclear programs and with experience in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the nuclear power industry. MSET offers significant potential benefits for improving nuclear safeguards and security in any nation with a nuclear program. MSET provides a design basis for developing an MC&A system at a nuclear facility that functions to protect against insider theft or diversion of nuclear materials. MSET analyzes the system and identifies several risk importance factors that show where sustainability is essential for optimal performance and where performance degradation has the greatest impact on total system risk. MSET contains five major components: (1) A functional model that shows how to design, build, implement, and operate a robust nuclear MC&A system (2) A fault tree of the operating MC&A system that adapts PRA methodology to analyze system effectiveness and give a relative risk of failure assessment of the system (3) A questionnaire used to document the facility's current MPC&A system (provides data to evaluate the quality of the system and the level of performance of each basic task performed throughout the material balance area [MBA]) (4) A formal process of applying expert judgment to convert the facility questionnaire data into numeric values representing the performance level of each basic event for use in the fault tree risk assessment calculations (5) PRA software that performs the fault tree risk assessment calculations and produces risk importance factor reports on the facility's MC&A (software widely used in the aerospace, chemical, and nuclear power industries) MSET was peer reviewed in 2007 and validated in 2008 by benchmark testing at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States. The MSET documents were translated into Russian and provided to Rosatom in July of 2008, and MSET is currently being evaluated for potential application in Russian Nuclear Facilities.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL; Roche, Charles T [ORNL] [ORNL; Campbell, Billy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Hammond, Glenn A [ORNL] [ORNL; Meppen, Bruce W [ORNL] [ORNL; Brown, Richard F [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Global Material Security | National Nuclear Security Administration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr Flickr Editor'sshortGeothermal HeatStartedGirlsMaterial Security |

89

Survey of hazardous materials used in nuclear testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of hazardous'' materials in routine underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site has been reviewed. In addition the inventory of test yields, originally reported in 1976 has been updated. A trail down-hole inventory'' has been conducted for a selected test. The inorganic hazardous materials introduced during testing (with the exception of lead and the fissionable materials) produce an incremental change in the quantity of such materials already present in the geologic media surrounding the test points. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

Bryant, E.A.; Fabryka-Martin, J.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

IMPACT OF NUCLEAR MATERIAL DISSOLUTION ON VESSEL CORROSION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Different nuclear materials require different processing conditions. In order to maximize the dissolver vessel lifetime, corrosion testing was conducted for a range of chemistries and temperature used in fuel dissolution. Compositional ranges of elements regularly in the dissolver were evaluated for corrosion of 304L, the material of construction. Corrosion rates of AISI Type 304 stainless steel coupons, both welded and non-welded coupons, were calculated from measured weight losses and post-test concentrations of soluble Fe, Cr and Ni.

Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.; Clifton, B.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Strategic special nuclear material inventory differences. Semi-annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides and explains the generally small differences between the amounts of nuclear materials charged to DOE facilities and the amounts that could be physically inventoried. These Inventory Differences, previously called Material Unaccounted For (MUF), are being publicly released on a semiannual basis. This report covers data for the period from October 1, 1978, through March 31, 1979, and includes accounting corrections for data from earlier periods.

None

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Facility Approvals, Security Surveys, and Nuclear Materials Surveys  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To establish Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for granting facility approvals prior to permitting safeguards and security interests on the premises and the conduct of insite security and/or nuclear material surveys of facilities with safeguards and security interests. Cancels DOE 5634.1A. Canceled by DOE O 470.1 dated 9-28-95.

1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

93

Facility Approvals, Security Surveys, and Nuclear Materials Surveys  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To establish the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for granting facility approvals prior to permitting safeguards and security interests on the premises and the conduct of on-site security and/or nuclear material surveys of facilities with safeguards and security interests. Cancels DOE O 5630.7 and DOE O 5634.1. Canceled by DOE 5634.1B.

1988-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

94

accident nuclear materials: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

accident nuclear materials First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 NUREGCR-7034 Analysis of...

95

Storage of nuclear materials by encapsulation in fullerenes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of encapsulating radioactive materials inside fullerenes for stable long-term storage. Fullerenes provide a safe and efficient means of disposing of nuclear waste which is extremely stable with respect to the environment. After encapsulation, a radioactive ion is essentially chemically isolated from its external environment.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Los Alamos, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Pulsed Photofission Delayed Gamma Ray Detection for Nuclear Material Identification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. High-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. After photofission reactions, delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the fission signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. Isotopic composition measurement methods based on delayed gamma ray spectroscopy will be the primary focus of this work.

John Kavouras; Xianfei Wen; Daren R. Norman; Dante R. Nakazawa; Haori Yang

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

Jon Carmack

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

ADVANCED CERAMIC MATERIALS FOR NEXT-GENERATION NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rising global energy demands coupled with increased environmental concerns point to one solution; they must reduce their dependence on fossil fuels that emit greenhouse gases. As the global community faces the challenge of maintaining sovereign nation security, reducing greenhouse gases, and addressing climate change nuclear power will play a significant and likely growing role. In the US, nuclear energy already provides approximately one-fifth of the electricity used to power factories, offices, homes, and schools with 104 operating nuclear power plants, located at 65 sites in 31 states. Additionally, 19 utilities have applied to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for construction and operating licenses for 26 new reactors at 17 sites. This planned growth of nuclear power is occurring worldwide and has been termed the 'nuclear renaissance.' As major industrial nations craft their energy future, there are several important factors that must be considered about nuclear energy: (1) it has been proven over the last 40 years to be safe, reliable and affordable (good for Economic Security); (2) its technology and fuel can be domestically produced or obtained from allied nations (good for Energy Security); and (3) it is nearly free of greenhouse gas emissions (good for Environmental Security). Already an important part of worldwide energy security via electricity generation, nuclear energy can also potentially play an important role in industrial processes and supporting the nation's transportation sector. Coal-to-liquid processes, the generation of hydrogen and supporting the growing potential for a greatly increased electric transportation system (i.e. cars and trains) mean that nuclear energy could see dramatic growth in the near future as we seek to meet our growing demand for energy in cleaner, more secure ways. In order to address some of the prominent issues associated with nuclear power generation (i.e., high capital costs, waste management, and proliferation), the worldwide community is working to develop and deploy new nuclear energy systems and advanced fuel cycles. These new nuclear systems address the key challenges and include: (1) extracting the full energy value of the nuclear fuel; (2) creating waste solutions with improved long term safety; (3) minimizing the potential for the misuse of the technology and materials for weapons; (4) continually improving the safety of nuclear energy systems; and (5) keeping the cost of energy affordable.

Marra, J.

2010-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

99

Selecting a radiation tolerant piezoelectric material for nuclear reactor applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bringing systems for online monitoring of nuclear reactors to fruition has been delayed by the lack of suitable ultrasonic sensors. Recent work has demonstrated the capability of an AlN sensor to perform ultrasonic evaluation in an actual nuclear reactor. Although the AlN demonstrated sustainability, no loss in signal amplitude and d{sub 33} up to a fast and thermal neutron fluence of 1.85 Multiplication-Sign 1018 n/cm{sup 2} and 5.8 Multiplication-Sign 1018 n/cm{sup 2} respectively, no formal process to selecting a suitable sensor material was made. It would be ideal to use first principles approaches to somehow reduce each candidate piezoelectric material to a simple ranking showing directly which materials one should expect to be most radiation tolerant. However, the complexity of the problem makes such a ranking impractical and one must appeal to experimental observations. This should not be of any surprise to one whom is familiar with material science as most material properties are obtained in this manner. Therefore, this work adopts a similar approach, the mechanisms affecting radiation tolerance are discussed and a good engineering sense is used for material qualification of the candidate piezoelectric materials.

Parks, D. A.; Reinhardt, B. T.; Tittmann, B. R. [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Penn State, University Park, PA 16803 (United States)

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

100

USED NUCLEAR MATERIALS AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE: ASSET OR WASTE?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable (“assets”) to worthless (“wastes”). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or – in the case of high level waste – awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as “waste” include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national interest.

Magoulas, V.

2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Materials characterization center workshop on compositional and microstructural analysis of nuclear waste materials. Summary report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the Workshop on Compositional and Microstructural Analysis of Nuclear Waste Materials, conducted November 11 and 12, 1980, was to critically examine and evaluate the various methods currently used to study non-radioactive, simulated, nuclear waste-form performance. Workshop participants recognized that most of the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) test data for inclusion in the Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook will result from application of appropriate analytical procedures to waste-package materials or to the products of performance tests. Therefore, the analytical methods must be reliable and of known accuracy and precision, and results must be directly comparable with those from other laboratories and from other nuclear waste materials. The 41 participants representing 18 laboratories in the United States and Canada were organized into three working groups: Analysis of Liquids and Solutions, Quantitative Analysis of Solids, and Phase and Microstructure Analysis. Each group identified the analytical methods favored by their respective laboratories, discussed areas needing attention, listed standards and reference materials currently used, and recommended means of verifying interlaboratory comparability of data. The major conclusions from this workshop are presented.

Daniel, J.L.; Strachan, D.M.; Shade, J.W.; Thomas, M.T.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Nuclear materials 1993 annual report. Volume 8, No. 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) describes activities conducted during 1993. The report is published in two parts. NUREG-1272, Vol. 8, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective, including comments about the trends of some key performance measures. The report also includes the principal findings and issues identified in AEOD studies over the past year and summarizes information from such sources as licensee event reports, diagnostic evaluations, and reports to the NRC`s Operations Center. NUREG-1272, Vol. 8, No. 2, covers nuclear materials and presents a review of the events and concerns during 1993 associated with the use of licensed material in nonreactor applications, such as personnel overexposures and medical misadministrations. Note that the subtitle of No. 2 has been changed from ``Nonreactors`` to ``Nuclear Materials.`` Both reports also contain a discussion of the Incident Investigation Team program and summarize both the Incident Investigation Team and Augmented Inspection Team reports. Each volume contains a list of the AEOD reports issued from 1980 through 1993.

NONE

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

An overview of the Nuclear Materials Focus Area research program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nuclear Material Focus Area (NMFA) is responsible for providing comprehensive needs identification, integration of technology research and development activities, and technology deployment for stabilization, packaging, and interim storage of surplus nuclear materials within the DOE complex. The NMFA was chartered in April 1999 by the Office of Science and Technology (OST), an organizational component of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). OST manages a national program to conduct basic and applied research, and technology development, demonstration, and deployment assistance that is essential to completing a timely and cost-effective cleanup of the DOE nuclear weapons complex. DOE/EM provides environmental research results, as well as cleanup technologies and systems, to meet high-priority end-user needs, reduce EM's major cost centers and technological risks, and accelerate technology deployments. The NMFA represents the segment of EM that focuses on technological solutions for re-using, transforming, and disposing excess nuclear materials and is jointly managed by the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office and the DOE Idaho Operations Office.

ROBERSON,GARY D.; POLANSKY,GARY F.; OSBORNE,KEN K.; RANDALL,VIRGINIA

2000-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

104

Basic science research to support the nuclear material focus area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for managing more than 760,000 metric tons of nuclear material that is excess to the current DOE weapons program, as a result of shutdown of elements of the weapons program, mainly during the 1990s. EMowned excess nuclear material comprises a variety of material types, including uranium, plutonium, other actinides and other radioactive elements in numerous forms, all of which must be stabilized for storage and ultimate disposition. Much of this quantity has been in storage for many years. Shutdown of DOE sites and facilities requires removal of nuclear material and consolidation at other sites, and may be delayed by the lack of available technology. Within EM, the Office of Science and Technology (OST) is dedicated to providing timely, relevant technology to accelerate completion and reduce cleanup cost of the DOE environmental legacy. OST is organized around five focus areas, addressing crucial areas of end-user-defined technology need. The Focus Areas regularly identify potential technical solutions for which basic scientific research is needed to determine if the technical solution can be developed and deployed. To achieve a portfolio of projects that is balanced between near-term priorities driven by programmatic risks (such as site closure milestones) and long-term, high-consequence needs that depend on extensive research and development, OST has established the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) to develop the scientific basis for solutions to long-term site needs. The EMSP directs calls for proposals to address scientific needs of the focus areas. Needs are identified and validated annually by individual sites in workshops conducted across the complex. The process captures scope and schedule requirements of the sites, so that focus areas can identify technology that can be delivered to sites in time to complete site cleanup. The Nuclear Material Focus Area (NMFA) has identified over two hundred science and technology needs, of which more than thirty are science needs.

Boak, J. M. (Jeremy M.); Eller, P. Gary; Chipman, N. A.; Castle, P. M.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Basic Science Research to Support the Nuclear Materials Focus Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for managing more than 760,000 metric tons of nuclear material that is excess to the current DOE weapons program, as a result of shutdown of elements of the weapons program, mainly during the 1990s. EMowned excess nuclear material comprises a variety of material types, including uranium, plutonium, other actinides and other radioactive elements in numerous forms, all of which must be stabilized for storage and ultimate disposition. Much of this quantity has been in storage for many years. Shutdown of DOE sites and facilities requires removal of nuclear material and consolidation at other sites, and may be delayed by the lack of available technology. Within EM, the Office of Science and Technology (OST) is dedicated to providing timely, relevant technology to accelerate completion and reduce cleanup cost of the DOE environmental legacy. OST is organized around five focus areas, addressing crucial areas of end-user-defined technology need. The Focus Areas regularly identify potential technical solutions for which basic scientific research is needed to determine if the technical solution can be developed and deployed. To achieve a portfolio of projects that is balanced between near-term priorities driven by programmatic risks (such as site closure milestones) and long-term, high-consequence needs that depend on extensive research and development, OST has established the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) to develop the scientific basis for solutions to long-term site needs. The EMSP directs calls for proposals to address scientific needs of the focus areas. Needs are identified and validated annually by individual sites in workshops conducted across the complex. The process captures scope and schedule requirements of the sites, so that focus areas can identify technology that can be delivered to sites in time to complete site cleanup. The Nuclear Material Focus Area (NMFA) has identified over two hundred science and technology needs, of which more than thirty are science needs.

Chipman, N. A.; Castle, P. M.; Boak, J. M.; Eller, P. G.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

106

Piezoelectric material for use in a nuclear reactor core  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In radiation environments ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation has great potential for improving reactor safety and furthering the understanding of radiation effects and materials. In both nuclear power plants and materials test reactors, elevated temperatures and high levels of radiation present challenges to ultrasonic NDE methodologies. The challenges are primarily due to the degradation of the ultrasonic sensors utilized. We present results from the operation of a ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer, composed of bulk single crystal AlN, in a nuclear reactor core for over 120 MWHrs. The transducer was coupled to an aluminum cylinder and operated in pulse echo mode throughout the irradiation. In addition to the pulse echo testing impedance data were obtained. Further, the piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33} was measured prior to irradiation and found to be 5.5 pC/N which is unchanged from as-grown samples, and in fact higher than the measured d{sub 33} for many as-grown samples.

Parks, D. A.; Reinhardt, Brian; Tittmann, B. R. [EES Department, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

107

Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

Thiel, E.C.; Fuhrman, P.W.

2002-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

108

Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

Thiel, Elizabeth Chilcote

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

X-ray backscatter imaging of nuclear materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The energy of an X-ray beam and critical depth are selected to detect structural discontinuities in a material having an atomic number Z of 57 or greater. The critical depth is selected by adjusting the geometry of a collimator that blocks backscattered radiation so that backscattered X-ray originating from a depth less than the critical depth is not detected. Structures of Lanthanides and Actinides, including nuclear fuel rod materials, can be inspected for structural discontinuities such as gaps, cracks, and chipping employing the backscattered X-ray.

Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Gunning, John E; Hollenbach, Daniel F; Ott, Larry J; Shedlock, Daniel

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

110

Interactive image quantification tools in nuclear material forensics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Morphological and microstructural features visible in microscopy images of nuclear materials can give information about the processing history of a nuclear material. Extraction of these attributes currently requires a subject matter expert in both microscopy and nuclear material production processes, and is a time consuming, and at least partially manual task, often involving multiple software applications. One of the primary goals of computer vision is to find ways to extract and encode domain knowledge associated with imagery so that parts of this process can be automated. In this paper we describe a user-in-the-loop approach to the problem which attempts to both improve the efficiency of domain experts during image quantification as well as capture their domain knowledge over time. This is accomplished through a sophisticated user-monitoring system that accumulates user-computer interactions as users exploit their imagery. We provide a detailed discussion of the interactive feature extraction and segmentation tools we have developed and describe our initial results in exploiting the recorded user-computer interactions to improve user productivity over time.

Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ruggiero, Christy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harvey, Neal [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kelly, Pat [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scoggins, Wayne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

111

Nuclear Materials Characterization in the Materials and Fuels Complex Analytical Hot Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As energy prices skyrocket and interest in alternative, clean energy sources builds, interest in nuclear energy has increased. This increased interest in nuclear energy has been termed the “Nuclear Renaissance”. The performance of nuclear fuels, fuels and reactor materials and waste products are becoming a more important issue as the potential for designing new nuclear reactors is more immediate. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Analytical Laboratory Hot Cells (ALHC) are rising to the challenge of characterizing new reactor materials, byproducts and performance. The ALHC is a facility located near Idaho Falls, Idaho at the INL Site. It was built in 1958 as part of the former Argonne National Laboratory West Complex to support the operation of the second Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). It is part of a larger analytical laboratory structure that includes wet chemistry, instrumentation and radiochemistry laboratories. The purpose of the ALHC is to perform analytical chemistry work on highly radioactive materials. The primary work in the ALHC has traditionally been dissolution of nuclear materials so that less radioactive subsamples (aliquots) could be transferred to other sections of the laboratory for analysis. Over the last 50 years though, the capabilities within the ALHC have also become independent of other laboratory sections in a number of ways. While dissolution, digestion and subdividing samples are still a vitally important role, the ALHC has stand alone capabilities in the area of immersion density, gamma scanning and combustion gas analysis. Recent use of the ALHC for immersion density shows that extremely fine and delicate operations can be performed with the master-slave manipulators by qualified operators. Twenty milligram samples were tested for immersion density to determine the expansion of uranium dioxide after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. The data collected confirmed modeling analysis with very tight precision. The gamma scanning equipment in the ALHC has taken on a new role also as a micro-gamma scanning system and has been put into service; allowing the linear and radial counting of a spent fuel segment to determine reaction characteristics within a small section of nuclear fuel. The nitrogen, oxygen and carbon analysis allows the identification of these impurities in spent nuclear fuel and also most oxides, nitrides, carbides, C-14 and tritium.

Michael Rodriquez

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Los Alamos National Laboratory standard nuclear material container  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The shut down of United States (U.S.) nuclear-weapons production activities in the early 1990s left large quantities of nuclear materials throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex in forms not intended for long-term storage. In May 1994, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) issued Recommendation 94-1, which called for the stabilization and disposition of 'thousands of containers of plutonium-bearing liquids and solids' in the DOE complex, including LANL in the nuclear-weapons-manufacturing pipeline when manufacturing ended. This resulted in the development of the 3013 standard with container requirements for long term storage (up to 50 years). A follow on was the Criteria For Interim Storage of Plutonium Bearing Materials, Charles B. Curtis, in 1996 to address storage other than the 3013 standard for shorter time frames. In January 2000, the DNFSB issued Recommendation 2000-1, which stated the need for LANL to repackage 'about one ton of plutonium metal and oxide,' declared excess to Defense Program (DP) needs. The DNFSB recommended that LANL 'stabilize and seal within welded containers with an inert atmosphere the plutonium oxides ... which are not yet in states conforming to the long-term storage envisaged by DOE-STD-3013,' and that they '... enclose existing and newly-generated legacy plutonium metal in sealed containers with an inert atmosphere,' and 'remediate and/or safely store the various residues.' Recommendation 2000-1, while adding to the number of items needing remediation, also reiterated the need to address remaining items from 1994-1 in a timely fashion. Since timetables slipped, the DNFSB recommended that the Complex 'prioritize and schedule tasks according to the consideration of risks.' In March 2005, the DNFSB issued Recommendation 2005-1. This recommendation addresses the need for a consistent set of criteria across the DOE complex for the interim storage of nuclear material packaged outside an engineered barrier. The Department of Energy (DOE) approved and issued on March 7, 2008, DOE M 441.1-1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual [hereafter referred to as Manual] to address this recommendation, and a Prioritization Methodology as a complex-wide requirement for the packaging of nuclear material outside an engineered barrier. The Manual establishes 'technically justified criteria' for packages in order to ensure safe interim storage and handling outside an engineered barrier. The Prioritization Methodology establishes a risk-based procedure for identifying the order to repackage that would most efficiently reduce the overall risk. It is a logical extension of the work performed to meet the two earlier DNFSB recommendations to include all materials stored outside of engineered barriers, i.e., not just excess materials. LANL will continue to work all aspects of a comprehensive Implementation Plan to d monstrate all aspects of compliance with the Manual. Assessment of materials in nonstandard containers utilizing a risk based approach, repackaging up to 400 containers/year; activities include reprocessing of items to allow container consolidation and subsequent increase in vault capacity. Continued efforts in establishing and implementing a Surveillance and Maintenance Program for current Hagans and for the NG SNMCSs supported by a database for packaging and surveillance. Elastomer aging studies for the NG SNMCs will continue to justify extending the design life well beyond the currently specified five years. First production with containers available for use anticipated in June 2010. LANL will continue to define schedule and resources to meet these objectives.

Stone, Timothy A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R&D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management tools for managing the R&D program elements; (2) Developing a specific work package for the R&D activities to be performed during each government fiscal year; (3) Reporting the status and progress of the work based on committed deliverables and milestones; (4) Developing collaboration in areas of materials R&D of benefit to the NGNP with countries that are a part of the Generation IV International Forum; and (5) Ensuring that the R&D work performed in support of the materials program is in conformance with established Quality Assurance and procurement requirements. The objective of the NGNP Materials R&D Program is to provide the essential materials R&D needed to support the design and licensing of the reactor and balance of plant, excluding the hydrogen plant. The materials R&D program is being initiated prior to the design effort to ensure that materials R&D activities are initiated early enough to support the design process and support the Project Integrator. The thermal, environmental, and service life conditions of the NGNP will make selection and qualification of some high-temperature materials a significant challenge; thus, new materials and approaches may be required.

G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.N. Wright

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

CORROSION OF LEAD SHIELDING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS PACKAGES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inspection of United States-Department of Energy (US-DOE) model 9975 nuclear materials shipping package revealed corrosion of the lead shielding that was induced by off-gas constituents from organic components in the package. Experiments were performed to determine the corrosion rate of lead when exposed to off-gas or degradation products of these organic materials. The results showed that the room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) sealant was the most corrosive organic species used in the construction of the packaging, followed by polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) glue. Fiberboard material, also used in the construction of the packaging induced corrosion to a much lesser extent than the PVAc glue and RTV sealant, and only in the presence of condensed water. The results indicated faster corrosion at temperatures higher than ambient and with condensed water. In light of these corrosion mechanisms, the lead shielding was sheathed in a stainless steel liner to mitigate against corrosion.

Subramanian, K; Kerry Dunn, K; Joseph Murphy, J

2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

115

Development of the RFID System for nuclear materials management.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radio frequency identification (RFID) is one of today's most rapidly growing technologies in the automatic data collection industry. Although commercial applications are already widespread, the use of this technology for managing nuclear materials is only in its infancy. Employing an RFID system has the potential to offer an immense payback: enhanced safety and security, reduced need for manned surveillance, real-time access to status and event history data, and overall cost-effectiveness. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Packaging and Transportation (EM-63), is developing an RFID system for nuclear materials management. The system consists of battery-powered RFID tags with onboard sensors and memories, a reader network, application software, a database server and web pages. The tags monitor and record critical parameters, including the status of seals, movement of objects, and environmental conditions of the nuclear material packages in real time. They also provide instant warnings or alarms when preset thresholds for the sensors are exceeded. The information collected by the readers is transmitted to a dedicated central database server that can be accessed by authorized users across the DOE complex via a secured network. The onboard memory of the tags allows the materials manifest and event history data to reside with the packages throughout their life cycles in storage, transportation, and disposal. Data security is currently based on Advanced Encryption Standard-256. The software provides easy-to-use graphical interfaces that allow access to all vital information once the security and privilege requirements are met. An innovative scheme has been developed for managing batteries in service for more than 10 years without needing to be changed. A miniature onboard dosimeter is being developed for applications that require radiation surveillance. A field demonstration of the RFID system was recently conducted to assess its performance. The preliminary results of the demonstration are reported in this paper.

Chen, K.; Tsai, H.; Liu, Y. Y. (Decision and Information Sciences)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process involving vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials for creating high aspect ratio (i.e., length much greater than diameter), isolated cylindrical holes in dielectric materials that have been exposed to high-energy atomic particles. The process includes cleaning the surface of the tracked material and exposing the cleaned surface to a vapor of a suitable etchant. Independent control of the temperatures of the vapor and the tracked materials provide the means to vary separately the etch rates for the latent track region and the non-tracked material. As a rule, the tracked regions etch at a greater rate than the non-tracked regions. In addition, the vapor-etched holes can be enlarged and smoothed by subsequent dipping in a liquid etchant. The 20-1000 nm diameter holes resulting from the vapor etching process can be useful as molds for electroplating nanometer-sized filaments, etching gate cavities for deposition of nano-cones, developing high-aspect ratio holes in trackable resists, and as filters for a variety of molecular-sized particles in virtually any liquid or gas by selecting the dielectric material that is compatible with the liquid or gas of interest.

Musket, Ronald G. (Danville, CA); Porter, John D. (Berkeley, CA); Yoshiyama, James M. (Fremont, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Neutron interrogation system using high gamma ray signature to detect contraband special nuclear materials in cargo  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for inspecting cargo for the presence of special nuclear material. The cargo is irradiated with neutrons. The neutrons produce fission products in the special nuclear material which generate gamma rays. The gamma rays are detecting indicating the presence of the special nuclear material.

Slaughter, Dennis R. (Oakland, CA); Pohl, Bertram A. (Berkeley, CA); Dougan, Arden D. (San Ramon, CA); Bernstein, Adam (Palo Alto, CA); Prussin, Stanley G. (Kensington, CA); Norman, Eric B. (Oakland, CA)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned. Volume 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is appendices D-J for the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise: Issues and Lessons Learned. Included are discussions of the US IAEA Treaty, safeguard regulations for nuclear materials, issue sheets for the PUREX process, and the LANL follow up activity for reprocessing nuclear materials.

Libby, R.A.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.; Davis, C.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

DOE nuclear material packaging manual: storage container requirements for plutonium oxide materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Loss of containment of nuclear material stored in containers such as food-pack cans, paint cans, or taped slip lid cans has generated concern about packaging requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials in working facilities such as the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In response, DOE has recently issued DOE M 441.1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual' with encouragement from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. A unique feature compared to transportation containers is the allowance of filters to vent flammable gases during storage. Defining commonly used concepts such as maximum allowable working pressure and He leak rate criteria become problematic when considering vented containers. Los Alamos has developed a set of container requirements that are in compliance with 441.1 based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide. The pre and post drop-test He leak rates depend upon container size as well as the material contents. For containers that are routinely handled, ease of handling and weight are a major consideration. Relatively thin-walled containers with flat bottoms are desired yet they cannot be He leak tested at a differential pressure of one atmosphere due to the potential for plastic deformation of the flat bottom during testing. The He leak rates and He leak testing configuration for containers designed for plutonium bearing materials will be presented. The approach to meeting the other manual requirements such as corrosion and thermal degradation resistance will be addressed. The information presented can be used by other sites to evaluate if their conditions are bounded by LANL requirements when considering procurement of 441.1 compliant containers.

Veirs, D Kirk [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Distributional properties of stochastic shortest paths for smuggled nuclear material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The shortest path problem on a network with fixed weights is a well studied problem with applications to many diverse areas such as transportation and telecommunications. We are particularly interested in the scenario where a nuclear material smuggler tries to succesfully reach herlhis target by identifying the most likely path to the target. The identification of the path relies on reliabilities (weights) associated with each link and node in a multi-modal transportation network. In order to account for the adversary's uncertainty and to perform sensitivity analysis we introduce random reliabilities. We perform some controlled experiments on the grid and present the distributional properties of the resulting stochastic shortest paths.

Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roach, Fred [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL TEST PACKAGES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to provide a brief introduction to digital radiography (DR), and a description of the DR configuration that was used to radiographically image the Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Test Packages before and after function tests that have been conducted. Also included are (1) Attachment 1, a comprehensive index that describes at which phase of the certification process that digital radiographic images were acquired, (2) digital radiographic images of each of the six packages at various stages of the certification process, and (3) Attachment 2, imaging instructions, that specify the setup procedures and detailed parameters of the DR imaging methodology that were used.

HOWARD, BOYD

2006-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

122

Special Nuclear Material Portal Monitoring at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prior to April 2007, acceptance and performance testing of the various Special Nuclear Material (SNM) monitoring devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed by the Radiological Health Instrumentation department. Calibration and performance testing on the PM-700 personnel portal monitor was performed, but there was no test program for the VM-250 vehicle portal monitor. The handheld SNM monitors, the TSA model 470B, were being calibrated annually, but there was no performance test program. In April of 2007, the Material Control and Accountability Manager volunteered to take over performance testing of all SNM portal monitors at NTS in order to strengthen the program and meet U.S. Department of Energy Order requirements. This paper will discuss the following activities associated with developing a performance testing program: changing the culture, learning the systems, developing and implementing procedures, troubleshooting and repair, validating the process, physical control of equipment, acquisition of new systems, and implementing the performance test program.

DeAnn Long; Michael Murphy

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Nuclear Materials Management U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In light of the changing Defense Complex mission, the high cost to storing and protecting nuclear materials, and in consideration of scarcity of resources, it is imperative that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owned nuclear materials are managed effectively. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Action Plan outlines the strategy for continuing to meet America’s nuclear security goals, meeting the overall mission challenges of DOE and NNSA as well as giving focus to local missions. The mission of the NNSA/NSO Nuclear Materials Management (NMM) Program is to ensure that nuclear material inventories are accurately assessed and reported, future material needs are adequately planned, and that existing Nevada Test Site (NTS) inventories are efficiently utilized, staged, or dispositioned. The NNSA/NSO understands that the NTS has unique characteristics to serve and benefit the nation with innovative solutions to the complex problems involving Special Nuclear Materials, hazardous materials, and multi-agency, integrated operations. The NNSA/NSO is defining infrastructure requirements for known future missions, developing footprint consolidation strategic action plans, and continuing in the path of facility modernization improvements. The NNSA/NSO is striving for the NTS to be acknowledged as an ideal location towards mission expansion and growth. The NTS has the capability of providing isolated, large scale construction and development locations for nuclear power or alternate energy source facilities, expanded nuclear material storage sites, and for new development in “green” technology.

Jesse Schreiber

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Nuclear Materials Management U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In light of the changing Defense Complex mission, the high cost to storing and protecting nuclear materials, and in consideration of scarcity of resources, it is imperative that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owned nuclear materials are managed effectively. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Action Plan outlines the strategy for continuing to meet America’s nuclear security goals, meeting the overall mission challenges of DOE and NNSA as well as giving focus to local missions. The mission of the NNSA/NSO Nuclear Materials Management (NMM) Program is to ensure that nuclear material inventories are accurately assessed and reported, future material needs are adequately planned, and that existing Nevada Test Site (NTS) inventories are efficiently utilized, staged, or dispositioned. The NNSA/NSO understands that the NTS has unique characteristics to serve and benefit the nation with innovative solutions to the complex problems involving Special Nuclear Materials, hazardous materials, and multi-agency, integrated operations. The NNSA/NSO is defining infrastructure requirements for known future missions, developing footprint consolidation strategic action plans, and continuing in the path of facility modernization and improvements. The NNSA/NSO is striving for the NTS to be acknowledged as an ideal location towards mission expansion and growth. The NTS has the capability of providing isolated, large scale construction and development locations for nuclear power or alternate energy source facilities, expanded nuclear material storage sites, and for new development in “green” technology.

Jesse Schrieber

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

NUCLEAR MATERIAL ATTRACTIVENESS: AN ASSESSMENT OF MATERIAL FROM PHWR'S IN A CLOSED THORIUM FUEL CYCLE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the attractiveness of material mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with reprocessing and the thorium-based LWR fuel cycle. This paper expands upon the results from earlier studies that examined the attractiveness of SNM associated with the reprocessing of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel by various reprocessing schemes and the recycle of plutonium as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in LWR. This study shows that {sup 233}U that is produced in thorium-based fuel cycles is very attractive for weapons use. Consistent with other studies, these results also show that all fuel cycles examined to date need to be rigorously safeguarded and provided moderate to high levels of physical protection. These studies were performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and are based on the calculation of 'attractiveness levels' that has been couched in terms chosen for consistency with those normally used for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The methodology and key findings will be presented.

Sleaford, B W; Collins, B A; Ebbinghaus, B B; Bathke, C G; Prichard, A W; Wallace, R K; Smith, B W; Hase, K R; Bradley, K S; Robel, M; Jarvinen, G D; Ireland, J R; Johnson, M W

2010-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

126

Nuclear Material Attractiveness: An Assessment of Material from PHWR's in a Closed Thorium Fuel Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the attractiveness of material mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with reprocessing and the thorium-based LWR fuel cycle. This paper expands upon the results from earlier studies [ , ] that examined the attractiveness of SNM associated with the reprocessing of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel by various reprocessing schemes and the recycle of plutonium as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in LWR. This study shows that 233U that is produced in thorium-based fuel cycles is very attractive for weapons use. Consistent with other studies, these results also show that all fuel cycles examined to date need to be rigorously safeguarded and provided moderate to high levels of physical protection. These studies were performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and are based on the calculation of "attractiveness levels" that has been couched in terms chosen for consistency with those normally used for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities [ ]. The methodology and key findings will be presented.

Sleaford, Brad W.; Ebbinghaus, B. B.; Bradley, Keith S.; Robel, Martin; Prichard, Andrew W.; Smith, Brian W.; Collins, Brian A.; Hase, Kevin R.; Jarvinen, G. D.; Ireland, J. R.; Johnson, M. W.; Bathke, Charles G.; Wallace, R. K.

2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

127

R&D for Better Nuclear Security: Radiation Detector Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

I am going to talk about the need for better materials for radiation detectors. I believe that government investment in this area can enable transformational technology change that could impact domestic nuclear security and also national nuclear security in some very positive and powerful ways. I'm not going to give you a lecture on how radiation detectors work, but I am going to tell you a bit about today's off-the-shelf technology and why it is not sufficient, what we need, and what security benefit you could get from improvements. I think we're at a critical point in time for some very impactful investments. In particular I'm going to focus on the use of gamma-ray radiation detectors at ports of entry. Not long before DHS was formed, Congress decreed that counter measures against the delivery of radiological and nuclear threats would be put in place at US ports of entry, under the authority of US Customs (later Customs and Border Protection in DHS). This included the screening of all cars and trucks passing through a port of entry. Existing off-the-shelf radiation detectors had to be selected for this purpose. Plans were made to make the most of the available technologies, but there are some inherent limitations of these detectors, plus the operational setting can bring out other limitations.

Kammeraad, J E

2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

128

Termination of Safeguards for Accountable Nuclear Materials at the Idaho National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Termination of safeguards ends requirements of Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) and thereby removes the safeguards basis for applying physical protection requirements for theft and diversion of nuclear material, providing termination requirements are met as described. Department of Energy (DOE) M 470.4 6 (Nuclear Material Control and Accountability [8/26/05]) stipulates: 1. Section A, Chapter I (1)( q) (1): Safeguards can be terminated on nuclear materials provided the following conditions are met: (a) 'If the material is special nuclear material (SNM) or protected as SNM, it must be attractiveness level E and have a measured value.' (b) 'The material has been determined by DOE line management to be of no programmatic value to DOE.' (c) 'The material is transferred to the control of a waste management organization where the material is accounted for and protected in accordance with waste management regulations. The material must not be collocated with other accountable nuclear materials.' Requirements for safeguards termination depend on the safeguards attractiveness levels of the material. For attractiveness level E, approval has been granted from the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE ID) to Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) Safeguards and Security (S&S). In some cases, it may be necessary to dispose of nuclear materials of attractiveness level D or higher. Termination of safeguards for such materials must be approved by the Departmental Element (this is the DOE Headquarters Office of Nuclear Energy) after consultation with the Office of Security.

Michael Holzemer; Alan Carvo

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Economic Benefits of Advanced Materials in Nuclear Power Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the key obstacles for the commercial deployment of advanced fast reactors (for either transuranic element burning or power generation) is the capital cost. There is a perception of higher capital cost for fast reactor systems than advanced light water reactors (ALWR). However, the cost estimates for a fast reactor come with a large uncertainty due to the fact that far fewer fast reactors have been built than LWR facilities. Furthermore, the large variability of industrial cost estimates complicates accurate comparisons. For example, under the Gen IV program, the Japanese Sodium Fast Reactor (JSFR) has a capital cost estimate that is lower than current LWR s, and considerably lower than that for the PRISM design (which is arguably among the most mature of today s fast reactor designs). Further reductions in capital cost must be made in US fast reactor systems to be considered economically viable. Three key approaches for cost reduction can be pursued. These include design simplifications, new technologies that allow reduced capital costs, and simulation techniques that help optimize system design. While it is plausible that improved materials will provide opportunities for both simplified design and reduced capital cost, the economic benefit of advanced materials has not been quantitatively analyzed. The objective of this work is to examine the potential impact of advanced materials on the capital investment costs of fast nuclear reactors.

Busby, Jeremy T [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Ultra Wide Band RFID Neutron Tags for Nuclear Materials Monitoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent advancements in the ultra-wide band Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and solid state pillar type neutron detectors have enabled us to move forward in combining both technologies for advanced neutron monitoring. The LLNL RFID tag is totally passive and will operate indefinitely without the need for batteries. The tag is compact, can be directly mounted on metal, and has high performance in dense and cluttered environments. The LLNL coin-sized pillar solid state neutron detector has achieved a thermal neutron detection efficiency of 20% and neutron/gamma discrimination of 1E5. These performance values are comparable to a fieldable {sup 3}He based detector. In this paper we will discuss features about the two technologies and some potential applications for the advanced safeguarding of nuclear materials.

Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F; Wang, T

2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

131

Journal of Nuclear Materials 191-194 (1992) 499-502 North-Holland  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is done linearly in time and starts from the origin [2). Carbon-fiber-composite (CFC) is still seriouslyJournal of Nuclear Materials 191-194 (1992) 499-502 North-Holland journal of nuclear materials Analysis of sweeping heat loads on divertor plate materials * Ahmed Hassanein Argonne Nation.al Laboratory

Harilal, S. S.

132

Manual for Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System Reporting and Data Submission  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The manual provides detailed instructions for documenting and reporting data submissions for nuclear materials transactions, inventories, and material balances to the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). Cancels DOE M 474.1-2. Canceled by DOE M 470.4-6.

2003-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

133

Global threat reduction initiative Russian nuclear material removal progress  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In December 1999 representatives from the United States, the Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started discussing a program to return to Russia Soviet- or Russian-supplied highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel stored at the Russian-designed research reactors outside Russia. Trilateral discussions among the United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have identified more than 20 research reactors in 17 countries that have Soviet- or Russian-supplied HEU fuel. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program is an important aspect of the U.S. Government's commitment to cooperate with the other nations to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons and weapons-usable proliferation-attractive nuclear materials. To date, 496 kilograms of Russian-origin HEU have been shipped to Russia from Serbia, Latvia, Libya, Uzbekistan, Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, Germany, and the Czech Republic. The pilot spent fuel shipment from Uzbekistan to Russia was completed in April 2006. (author)

Cummins, Kelly [DOE/NNSA (United States); Bolshinsky, Igor [INL/NNSA (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

134

Radiation effects in nuclear materials: Role of nuclear and electronic energy losses and their synergy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ceramic oxides and carbides are promising matrices for the immobilization and/or transmutation of nuclear wastes, cladding materials for gas-cooled fission reactors and structural components for fusion reactors. For these applications there is a need of fundamental data concerning the behavior of nuclear ceramics upon irradiation. This article is focused on the presentation of a few remarkable examples regarding ion-beam modifications of nuclear ceramics with an emphasis on the mechanisms leading to damage creation and phase transformations. Results obtained by combining advanced techniques (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and channeling, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy) concern irradiations in a broad energy range (from keV to GeV) with the aim of exploring both nuclear collision (Sn) and electronic excitation (Se) regimes. Finally, the daunting challenge of the demonstration of the existence of synergistic effects between Sn and Se is tackled by discussing the healing due to intense electronic energy deposition (SHIBIEC) and by reporting results recently obtained in dual-beam irradiation (DBI) experiments.

Thomé, Lionel [Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3-Université Paris-Sud; Debelle, Aurelien [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Garrido, Frederico [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Mylonas, Stamatis [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Décamps, B. [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Bachelet, C. [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Sattonnay, G. [LEMHE/ICMMO, Université Paris-Sud, Bât. Orsay, France; Moll, Sandra [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette; Pellegrino, S. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Miro, S. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Trocellier, P. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Serruys, Y. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Velisa, G. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Grygiel, C. [CNRS, France; Monnet, I. [CIMAP, CEA-CNRS-Université de Caen, France; Toulemonde, Marcel [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS)-ENSICAE; Simon, P. [CEMHTI, CNRS, France; Jagielski, Jacek [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology; Jozwik-Biala, Iwona [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology; Nowicki, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk, Poland; Behar, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre,; Weber, William J [ORNL; Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Backman, Marie [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nordlund, Kai [University of Helsinki; Djurabekova, Flyura [University of Helsinki

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Neutron Detectors for Detection of Nuclear Materials at LANL...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) News & Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26Germantown Building 1000 Independence...

136

Test and evaluation of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In accordance with the definition of a Material Balance Area (MBA) as a well-defined geographical area involving an Integral operation, the building housing the BFS-1 and BFS-1 critical facilities is considered to consist of one MBA. The BFS materials are in the form of small disks clad in stainless steel and each disk with nuclear material has its own serial number. Fissile material disks in the BFS MBA can be located at three key monitoring points: BFS-1 facility, BFS-2 facility and main storage of BFS fissile materials (storage 1). When used in the BFS-1 or BFS-2 critical facilities, the fissile material disks are loaded in tubes (fuel rods) forming critical assembly cores. The following specific features of the BFS MBA should be taken into account for the purpose of computerized accounting of nuclear material: (1) very large number of nuclear material items (about 70,000 fissile material items); and (2) periodically very intensive shuffling of nuclear material items. Requirements for the computerized system are determined by basic objectives of nuclear material accounting: (1) providing accurate information on the identity and location of all items in the BFS material balance area; (2) providing accurate information on location and identity of tamper-indicating devices; (3) tracking nuclear material inventories; (4) issuing periodic reports; (5) assisting with the detection of material gains or losses; (6) providing a history of nuclear material transactions; (7) preventing unauthorized access to the system and data falsification. In August 1995, the prototype computerized accounting system was installed on the BFS facility for trial operation. Information on two nuclear material types was entered into the data base: weapon-grade plutonium metal and 36% enriched uranium dioxide. The total number of the weapon-grade plutonium disks is 12,690 and the total number of the uranium dioxide disks is 1,700.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

137

Office of Weapons Material Protection | National Nuclear Security...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure...

138

Journal of Nuclear Materials 199 (1993) 221-230 North-Holland  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Nuclear Materials 199 (1993) 221-230 North-Holland Neutron displacement damage cross sections foi- Sic * Hanchen Huang and Nasr Ghoniem Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering Department materials is computed on the basis of Bragg's Additivity Rule. A continuous form of the inverse power law

Ghoniem, Nasr M.

139

Loose Nukes: Nuclear Material Security in G.P.Gilfoyle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· The picture below illustrates the effect of a 20 kiloton blast (about the size of the Nagasaki bomb) dropped on the Edwards Accelerator Lab- oratory. · The energy is emitted as heat, radiation, and blast. The dot-standing policy of nuclear nonproliferation. · A nuclear blast would have horrific consequences; loss of life

Gilfoyle, Jerry

140

Russia-U.S. joint program on the safe management of nuclear materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Russia-US joint program on the safe management of nuclear materials was initiated to address common technical issues confronting the US and Russia in the management of excess weapons grade nuclear materials. The program was initiated after the 1993 Tomsk-7 accident. This paper provides an update on program activities since 1996. The Fourth US Russia Nuclear Materials Safety Management Workshop was conducted in March 1997. In addition, a number of contracts with Russian Institutes have been placed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). These contracts support research related to the safe disposition of excess plutonium (Pu) and highly enriched uranium (HEU). Topics investigated by Russian scientists under contracts with SNL and LLNL include accident consequence studies, the safety of anion exchange processes, underground isolation of nuclear materials, and the development of materials for the immobilization of excess weapons Pu.

Witmer, F.E.; Krumpe, P.F. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Carlson, D.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Journal of Nuclear Materials 141-143 (1986) 10-18 North-Holland, Amsterdam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with liquid breeder and solid breeder · blankets. Many of these uncertainties are strongly material10 Journal of Nuclear Materials 141-143 (1986) 10-18 North-Holland, Amsterdam BLANKET MATERIAL area (i.e., blanket, tritium and vacuum SYstems, plasma interacti- ve components, and radiation shield

Raffray, A. René

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

JournalofNuclear Materials 85 & 86(1979)57-64 0 North-HollandPublishingCompany  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JournalofNuclear Materials 85 & 86(1979)57-64 0 North-HollandPublishingCompany A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS OF ADVANCED AND CONVENTIONAL STRUCTURAL MATERIALS IN FUSION SYSTEMS* M. A. ABDOU, Z material on tokamak reactor economics was investigated and a comparative study of stainless steel

Abdou, Mohamed

143

The Use of Smart Materials Technologies in Radiation Environment and Nuclear Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) project. The general scope of the work was to determine possible applications of smart materials DoE facilities. The project started with the selection of types of smart materials and technologies1 The Use of Smart Materials Technologies in Radiation Environment and Nuclear Industry Victor

Giurgiutiu, Victor

144

Detecting special nuclear materials in containers using high-energy gamma rays emitted by fission products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and a system for detecting the presence of special nuclear materials in a container. The system and its method include irradiating the container with an energetic beam, so as to induce a fission in the special nuclear materials, detecting the gamma rays that are emitted from the fission products formed by the fission, to produce a detector signal, comparing the detector signal with a threshold value to form a comparison, and detecting the presence of the special nuclear materials using the comparison.

Norman, Eric B. (Oakland, CA); Prussin, Stanley G. (Kensington, CA)

2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

145

Human error contribution to nuclear materials-handling events  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis analyzes a sample of 15 fuel-handling events from the past ten years at commercial nuclear reactors with significant human error contributions in order to detail the contribution of human error to fuel-handling ...

Sutton, Bradley (Bradley Jordan)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF MATERIALS IN ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLES FOR VARIOUS PROLIFERATION AND THEFT SCENARIOS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We must anticipate that the day is approaching when details of nuclear weapons design and fabrication will become common knowledge. On that day we must be particularly certain that all special nuclear materials (SNM) are adequately accounted for and protected and that we have a clear understanding of the utility of nuclear materials to potential adversaries. To this end, this paper examines the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing SNM and alternate nuclear materials associated with the plutonium-uranium reduction extraction (Purex), uranium extraction (UREX), coextraction (COEX), thorium extraction (THOREX), and PYROX (an electrochemical refining method) reprocessing schemes. This paper provides a set of figures of merit for evaluating material attractiveness that covers a broad range of proliferant state and subnational group capabilities. The primary conclusion of this paper is that all fissile material must be rigorously safeguarded to detect diversion by a state and must be provided the highest levels of physical protection to prevent theft by subnational groups; no 'silver bullet' fuel cycle has been found that will permit the relaxation of current international safeguards or national physical security protection levels. The work reported herein has been performed at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and is based on the calculation of 'attractiveness levels' that are expressed in terms consistent with, but normally reserved for, the nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The methodology and findings are presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance and physical security is discussed.

Bathke, C. G.; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Collins, Brian A.; Sleaford, Brad W.; Hase, Kevin R.; Robel, Martin; Wallace, R. K.; Bradley, Keith S.; Ireland, J. R.; Jarvinen, G. D.; Johnson, M. W.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Smith, Brian W.

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

147

A system for the detection of concealed nuclear weapons and fissile material aboard cargo cotainerships  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new approach to the detection of concealed nuclear weapons and fissile material aboard cargo containerships is proposed. The ship-based approach removes the constraints of current thinking by addressing the threat of ...

Gallagher, Shawn P., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

CONSTRUCTION OF WEB-ACCESSIBLE MATERIALS HANDBOOK FORGENERATION IV NUCLEAR REACTORS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of a web-accessible materials handbook in support of the materials selection and structural design for the Generation IV nuclear reactors is being planned. Background of the reactor program is briefly introduced. Evolution of materials handbooks for nuclear reactors over years is reviewed in light of the trends brought forth by the rapid advancement in information technologies. The framework, major features, contents, and construction considerations of the web-accessible Gen IV Materials Handbook are discussed. Potential further developments and applications of the handbook are also elucidated.

Ren, Weiju [ORNL

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Recovery of fissile materials from plutonium residues, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new process is proposed that converts complex feeds containing fissile materials into a chemical form that allows the use of existing technologies (such as PUREX and ion exchange) to recover the fissile materials and convert the resultant wastes to glass. Potential feed materials include (1) plutonium scrap and residue, (2) miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and (3) uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, and organics. 14 refs., 4 figs.

Forsberg, C.W.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

active nuclear material: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(SM) is a universal statutory designation to indicate materials bearing uranium that is depleted in the isotope uranium-235, or at the natural isotopic ratio, and thorium. The...

151

accountability nuclear materials: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(SM) is a universal statutory designation to indicate materials bearing uranium that is depleted in the isotope uranium-235, or at the natural isotopic ratio, and thorium. The...

152

advanced nuclear materials: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(SM) is a universal statutory designation to indicate materials bearing uranium that is depleted in the isotope uranium-235, or at the natural isotopic ratio, and thorium. The...

153

A Program to Stabilize Nuclear Materials as Managed by the Plutonium Focus Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the program to stabilize nuclear materials, consistent with the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM) plan, Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure. The program is managed by the Plutonium Stabilization and Disposition Focus Area, which defines and manages technology development programs to stabilize nuclear materials and assure their subsequent safe storage and final disposition. The scope of the Plutonium Stabilization and Disposition Focus Area (PFA) activities includes non-weapons plutonium materials, special isotopes, and other fissile materials. The PFA provides solutions to site-specific and complex wide technology issues associated with plutonium remediation, stabilization, and preparation for disposition. Our paper describes an important programmatic function of the Department of Energy nuclear materials stabilization program, including the tie-in of policy to research needs and funding for the nuclear materials disposition area. The PFA uses a rigorous systems engineering determination of technology needs and gaps, under the guidance of a Technical Advisory Panel, consisting of complex-wide experts. The Research and Development planning provides an example for other waste areas and should be of interest to Research and Development managers. The materials disposition maps developed by the PFA and described in this paper provide an evaluation of research needs, data gaps and subsequent guidance for the development of technologies for nuclear materials disposition. This paper also addresses the PFA prioritization methodology and its ability to forecast actual time to implementation.

B. Kenley (Kenley Consulting); B. Scott; B. Seidel (ANL-W); D. Knecht (LMITCO); F. Southworth; K. Osborne (DOE-ID); N. Chipman; T. Creque

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

jou.rm.alnf ELSEVIER Journal of Nuclear Materials 241-243 (1997) 255-259  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

jou.rm.alnf HUMOr ELSEVIER Journal of Nuclear Materials 241-243 (1997) 255-259 Erosion lifetime at the side walls. 0022-3115/97/$17.00 Copyright © 1997 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PII S0022-3!15(96)00510-7 #12;256 H.D. Pacher et al. / Journal of Nuclear Materials 241 243 (1997) 255 259 10~' ~10 4 1000 ~ _ 1

Raffray, A. René

155

Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Selection and Qualification Program Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design is a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble bed thermal neutron spectrum reactor with an average reactor outlet temperature of at least 1000 C. The NGNP will use very high burn up, lowenriched uranium, TRISO-Coated fuel in a once-through fuel cycle. The design service life of the NGNP is 60 years.

R. Doug Hamelin; G. O. Hayner

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years.

G. O. Hayner; E.L. Shaber

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System Working Group Charter  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the ContributionsArms Control R&D Consortium includesEnergy Nuclear011 DRAFT 2011

158

Nuclear Materials Research and Technology/Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the ContributionsArms Control R&D Consortium includesEnergy Nuclear011 DRAFT

159

Nuclear Materials Research and Technology/Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the ContributionsArms Control R&D Consortium includesEnergy Nuclear011

160

Nuclear Materials Research and Technology/Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the ContributionsArms Control R&D Consortium includesEnergy Nuclear011Researchers

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Development of a special nuclear materials monitoring sensor pack for Project Straight-Line  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the end of the Cold War and the accelerated dismantlement of nuclear weapons, the nuclear material inventory of the United States is growing. In addition, the United States has offered these excess weapons-grade nuclear material assets for international inspections with the intent of encouraging reciprocal action by other nations. In support of this policy, Sandia National Laboratories has initiated a pilot effort (Project Straight-Line) to develop a flexible, site-independent system to continuously and remotely monitor stored nuclear material and integrate the collection, processing, and dissemination of information regarding this material to ensure that declared nuclear materials placed in storage remain in place, unaltered, and stable. As part of this effort, a +3.6V battery powered, modular sensor pack has been developed to monitor total radiation dose, radiation dose rate, and the temperature of each nuclear material container and to provide this information using a standardized sensor interface. This paper will discuss the development of the sensors, the engineering and production of the sensor pack units, and their installation and operation at sites in New Mexico, California, and the Pantex plant in Amarillo.

Daily, M.R.; Moreno, D.J.; Tolk, K.M.; Wilcoxen, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Oetken, R.E.; Collins, J.E.; Miller, R.; Olsen, R.W. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Sheets, L. [Allied-Signal, Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Division

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

162

Audit Report on "The Department's Management of Nuclear Materials Provided to Domestic Licensees"  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective if to determine whether the Department of Energy (Department) was adequately managing its nuclear materials provided to domestic licensees. The audit was performed from February 2007 to September 2008 at Department Headquarters in Washington, DC, and Germantown, MD; the Oak Ridge Office and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, TN. In addition, we visited or obtained data from 40 different non-Departmental facilities in various states. To accomplish the audit objective, we: (1) Reviewed Departmental and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for the control and accountability of nuclear materials; (2) Analyzed a Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS) report with ending inventory balances for Department-owned nuclear materials dated September 30, 2007, to determine the amount and types of nuclear materials located at non-Department domestic facilities; (3) Held discussions with Department and NRC personnel that used NMMSS information to determine their roles and responsibilities related to the control and accountability over nuclear materials; (4) Selected a judgmental sample of 40 non-Department domestic facilities; (5) Met with licensee officials and sent confirmations to determine whether their actual inventories of Department-owned nuclear materials were consistent with inventories reported in the NMMSS; and, (6) Analyzed historical information related to the 2004 NMMSS inventory rebaselining initiative to determine the quantity of Department-owned nuclear materials that were written off from the domestic licensees inventory balances. This performance audit was conducted in accordance with generally accepted Government auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objective. We believe that the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. The audit included tests of controls and compliance with laws and regulations related to managing the Department-owned nuclear materials provided to non-Departmental domestic licensees. Because our review was limited it would not necessarily have disclosed all internal control deficiencies that may have existed at the time of our audit. We examined the establishment of performance measures in accordance with Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, as they related to the audit objective. We found that the Department had established performance measures related to removing or disposing of nuclear materials and radiological sources around the world. We utilized computer generated data during our audit and performed procedures to validate the reliability of the information as necessary to satisfy our audit objective. As noted in the report, we questioned the reliability of the NMMSS data.

None

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

General Heat Transfer Characterization and Empirical Models of Material Storage Temperatures for the Los Alamos Nuclear Materials Storage Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Los Alamos National Laboratory's Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) is being renovated for long-term storage of canisters designed to hold heat-generating nuclear materials. A fully passive cooling scheme, relying on the transfer of heat by conduction, free convection, and radiation has been proposed as a reliable means of maintaining material at acceptable storage temperatures. The storage concept involves placing radioactive materials, with a net heat-generation rate of 10 W to 20 W, inside a set of nested steel canisters. The canisters are, in placed in holding fixtures and positioned vertically within a steel storage pipe. Several hundred drywells are arranged in a linear array within a large bay and dissipate the waste heat to the surrounding air, thus creating a buoyancy driven airflow pattern that draws cool air into the storage facility and exhausts heated air through an outlet stack. In this study, an experimental apparatus was designed to investigate the thermal characteristics of simulated nuclear materials placed inside two nested steel canisters positioned vertically on an aluminum fixture plate and placed inside a section of steel pipe. The heat-generating nuclear materials were simulated with a solid aluminum cylinder containing .an embedded electrical resistance heater. Calibrated type T thermocouples (accurate to ~ O.1 C) were used to monitor temperatures at 20 different locations within the apparatus. The purposes of this study were to observe the heat dissipation characteristics of the proposed `canister/fixture plate storage configuration, to investigate how the storage system responds to changes in various parameters, and to develop and validate empirical correlations to predict material temperatures under various operating conditions

J. D. Bernardin; W. S. Gregory

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

State-of-the-art review of materials properties of nuclear waste forms.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) was established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assemble a standardized nuclear waste materials data base for use in research, systems and facility design, safety analyses, and waste management decisions. This centralized data base will be provided through the means of a Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook. The first issue of the Handbook will be published in the fall of 1981 in looseleaf format so that it can be updated as additional information becomes available. To ensure utmost reliability, all materials data appearing in the Handbook will be obtained by standard procedures defined in the Handbook and approved by an independent Materials Review Board (MRB) comprised of materials experts from Department of Energy laboratories and from universities and industry. In the interim before publication of the Handbook there is need for a report summarizing the existing materials data on nuclear waste forms. This review summarizes materials property data for the nuclear waste forms that are being developed for immobilization of high-level radioactive waste. It is intended to be a good representation of the knowledge concerning the properties of HLW forms as of March 1981. The table of contents lists the following topics: introduction which covers waste-form categories, and important waste-form materials properties; physical properties; mechanical properties; chemical durability; vaporization; radiation effects; and thermal phase stability.

Mendel, J. E.; Nelson, R. D.; Turcotte, R. P.; Gray, W. J.; Merz, M. D.; Roberts, F. P.; Weber, W. J.; Westsik, Jr., J. H.; Clark, D. E.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Ecosystem Vulnerability Assessment - Patterns of Climate Change...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ecosystem Vulnerability Assessment - Patterns of Climate Change Vulnerability in the Southwest Ecosystem Vulnerability Assessment - Patterns of Climate Change Vulnerability in the...

166

Nuclear Material Transaction Report NRC 741_1  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart of the Review ofElectronic InputNuclearNature of7379583ForensicsB 1 1

167

Nuclear Material Transaction Report NRC 741_1  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart of the Review ofElectronic InputNuclearNature of7379583ForensicsB 1

168

Nuclear Material Transaction Report NRC741_1  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart of the Review ofElectronic InputNuclearNature of7379583ForensicsB 1C

169

Nuclear Material Transaction Report nrc741_1  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart of the Review ofElectronic InputNuclearNature of7379583ForensicsB 1C

170

Nuclear Material Transaction Report nrc741_1  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart of the Review ofElectronic InputNuclearNature of7379583ForensicsB 1C

171

Nuclear Material Transaction Report nrc741_1  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart of the Review ofElectronic InputNuclearNature of7379583ForensicsB 1C

172

Nuclear Material Transaction Report nrc741_1  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart of the Review ofElectronic InputNuclearNature of7379583ForensicsB 1C

173

Nuclear Material Transaction Report nrc741_1  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart of the Review ofElectronic InputNuclearNature of7379583ForensicsB 1C

174

Nuclear Material Transaction Report nrc741_1  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart of the Review ofElectronic InputNuclearNature of7379583ForensicsB 1C

175

Nuclear Material Transaction Report nrc741_1  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart of the Review ofElectronic InputNuclearNature of7379583ForensicsB

176

Preventing Proliferation of Nuclear Materials and Technology | National  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar Home DesignPresentations Presentations Sort by:atNEWS0,0,Nuclear

177

Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the ContributionsArms Control R&D Consortium includesEnergyWinter 1994 Los Alamos

178

Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the ContributionsArms Control R&D Consortium includesEnergyWinter 1994 Los

179

Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the ContributionsArms Control R&D Consortium includesEnergyWinter 1994 LosSummer

180

Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the ContributionsArms Control R&D Consortium includesEnergyWinter 1994

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the ContributionsArms Control R&D Consortium includesEnergyWinter 1994Spring 1996

182

Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the ContributionsArms Control R&D Consortium includesEnergyWinter 1994Spring

183

Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the ContributionsArms Control R&D Consortium includesEnergyWinter 1994Spring6 Los

184

Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the ContributionsArms Control R&D Consortium includesEnergyWinter 1994Spring6

185

Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the ContributionsArms Control R&D Consortium includesEnergyWinter

186

Nuclear Materials Technology/Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the ContributionsArms Control R&D Consortium includesEnergyWinterLos Alamos

187

Nuclear Materials Technology/Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the ContributionsArms Control R&D Consortium includesEnergyWinterLos

188

Nuclear Material Recovery | Y-12 National Security Complex  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohnSecurityControls | NationalSURVEYRecovery Nuclear

189

Office of Material Consolidation & Civilian Sites | National Nuclear  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006 The 2002 Wholesale Power RateHeadquartersMeeting,DepartmentSecurity

190

Office of Nuclear Material Integration (ONMI), NA-73  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006 The 2002 Wholesale PowerSecurity Administration NationalOffice

191

Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

309NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, VOL.37 NO.4, AUGUST 2005 A NEW BOOK: "LIGHT-WATER REACTOR MATERIALS"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

309NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, VOL.37 NO.4, AUGUST 2005 A NEW BOOK: "LIGHT-WATER REACTOR review; it is a book preview. Thirty years ago, "Fundamental Aspects of Nuclear Reactor Fuel Elements of nuclear fuels among other topics pertinent to the materials in the ensemble of the nuclear reactor

Motta, Arthur T.

193

Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Materials in United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been engaged in an effort to develop and qualify next generation LWR fuel with enhanced performance and safety and reduced waste generation since 2010. This program, which has emphasized collaboration between the DOE, U.S. national laboratories and nuclear industry, was refocused from enhanced performance to enhanced accident tolerance following the events at Fukushima in 2011. Accident tolerant fuels have been specifically described as fuels that, in comparison with standard UO2-Zircaloy, can tolerate loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, operational transients, as well as design-basis and beyond design-basis events. The program maintains an ambitious goal to insert a lead test assembly (LTA) of the new design into a commercial power reactor by 2022 .

Daniel M. Wachs

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

A Preliminary Evaluation of Using Fill Materials to Stabilize Used Nuclear Fuel During Storage and Transportation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains a preliminary evaluation of potential fill materials that could be used to fill void spaces in and around used nuclear fuel contained in dry storage canisters in order to stabilize the geometry and mechanical structure of the used nuclear fuel during extended storage and transportation after extended storage. Previous work is summarized, conceptual descriptions of how canisters might be filled were developed, and requirements for potential fill materials were developed. Elements of the requirements included criticality avoidance, heat transfer or thermodynamic properties, homogeneity and rheological properties, retrievability, material availability and cost, weight and radiation shielding, and operational considerations. Potential fill materials were grouped into 5 categories and their properties, advantages, disadvantages, and requirements for future testing were discussed. The categories were molten materials, which included molten metals and paraffin; particulates and beads; resins; foams; and grout. Based on this analysis, further development of fill materials to stabilize used nuclear fuel during storage and transportation is not recommended unless options such as showing that the fuel remains intact or canning of used nuclear fuel do not prove to be feasible.

Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Lahti, Erik A.; Richmond, David J.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Annual report on strategic special nuclear material inventory differences, April 1, 1990--March 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report of unclassified Inventory Difference (ID's) covers the twelve months from April 1, 1990 through March 31, 1991 for all key Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor operated facilities possessing strategic special nuclear materials. Classified information is not included in this report. This classified information includes data for the Rocky Flats and Y-12 nuclear weapons production facilities or facilities under ID investigation. However, classified ID data from such facilities receive the same scrutiny and analyses as the included data.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Cladding and Structural Materials for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this consortium is to address key materials issues in the most promising advanced reactor concepts that have yet to be resolved or that are beyond the existing experience base of dose or burnup. The research program consists of three major thrusts: 1) high-dose radiation stability of advanced fast reactor fuel cladding alloys, 2) irradiation creep at high temperature, and 3) innovative cladding concepts embodying functionally-graded barrier materials. This NERI-Consortium final report represents the collective efforts of a large number of individuals over a period of three and a half years and included 9 PIs, 4 scientists, 3 post-docs and 12 students from the seven participating institutions and 8 partners from 5 national laboratories and 3 industrial institutions (see table). University participants met semi-annually and participants and partners met annually for meetings lasting 2-3 days and designed to disseminate and discuss results, update partners, address outstanding issues and maintain focus and direction toward achieving the objectives of the program. The participants felt that this was a highly successful program to address broader issues that can only be done by the assembly of a range of talent and capabilities at a more substantial funding level than the traditional NERI or NEUP grant. As evidence of the success, this group, collectively, has published 20 articles in archival journals and made 57 presentations at international conferences on the results of this consortium.

Was, G S; Allen, T R; Ila, D; C,; Levi,; Morgan, D; Motta, A; Wang, L; Wirth, B

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

197

Nuclear-Fuel-Cycle Research Program: availability of geotoxic material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report represents an analog approach to the characterization of the environmental behavior of geotoxic waste materials (toxic material emplaced in the earth's crust) as drawn from literature on the Oklo natural fission reactors and uranium ore deposits relative to radioactive wastes, and hydrothermal metal ore deposits relative to stable toxic wastes. The natural analog data were examined in terms of mobility and immobility of selected radioactive or stable waste elements and are presented in matrix relationship with their prime geochemical variables. A numerical system of ranking those relationships for purposes of hazard-indexing is proposed. Geochemical parameters (especially oxidation/reduction potential) are apparently more potent mobilizers/immobilizers than geological or hydrological conditions in many, if not most, geologic environments for most radioactive waste elements. Heavy metal wastes, by analogy to hydrothermal ore systems and geothermal systems, are less clear in their behavior but similar geochemical patterns do apply. Depth relationships between geochemical variables and waste element behavior show some surprises. It is significantly indicated that for waste isolation, deeper is not necessarily better geochemically. Relatively shallow isolation in host rocks such as shale could offer maximum immobility. This paper provides a geochemical outline for examining analog models as well as a departure point for improved quantification of geological and geochemical indexing of toxic waste hazards.

Wachter, B.G.; Kresan, P.L.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Russian-U.S. joint program on the safe management of nuclear materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Russian-US joint program on the safety of nuclear materials was initiated in response to the 1993 Tomsk-7 accident. The bases for this program are the common technical issues confronting the US and Russia in the safe management of excess weapons grade nuclear materials. The US and Russian weapons dismantlement process is producing hundreds of tons of excess Pu and HEU fissile materials. The US is on a two path approach for disposition of excess Pu: (1) use Pu in existing reactors and/or (2) immobilize Pu in glass or ceramics followed by geologic disposal. Russian plans are to fuel reactors with excess Pu. US and Russia are both converting and blending HEU into LEU for use in existing reactors. Fissile nuclear materials storage, handling, processing, and transportation will be occurring in both countries for tens of years. A table provides a history of the major events comprising the Russian-US joint program on the safety of nuclear materials. A paper delineating program efforts was delivered at the SPECTRUM '96 conference. This paper provides an update on program activities since then.

Witmer, F.E.; Krumpe, P.F. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (US); Carlson, D.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (US)] [and others

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

The Attractiveness of Materials in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles for Various Proliferation and Theft Scenarios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is an extension to earlier studies1,2 that examined the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) and alternate nuclear materials (ANM) associated with the PUREX, UREX, COEX, THOREX, and PYROX reprocessing schemes. This study extends the figure of merit (FOM) for evaluating attractiveness to cover a broad range of proliferant state and sub-national group capabilities. The primary conclusion of this study is that all fissile material needs to be rigorously safeguarded to detect diversion by a state and provided the highest levels of physical protection to prevent theft by sub-national groups; no “silver bullet” has been found that will permit the relaxation of current international safeguards or national physical security protection levels. This series of studies has been performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and is based on the calculation of "attractiveness levels" that are expressed in terms consistent with, but normally reserved for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities.3 The expanded methodology and updated findings are presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance and physical security are discussed.

Bathke, C. G.; Wallace, R. K.; Ireland, J. R.; Johnson, M. W.; Hase, Kevin R.; Jarvinen, G. D.; Ebbinghaus, B. B.; Sleaford, Brad W.; Bradley, Keith S.; Collins, Brian A.; Smith, Brian W.; Prichard, Andrew W.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

The History and Future of NDE in the Management of Nuclear Power Plant Materials Degradation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The author has spent more than 25 years conducting engineering and research studies to quantify the performance of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) in nuclear power plant (NPP) applications and identifying improvements to codes and standards for NDE to manage materials degradation. This paper will review this fundamental NDE engineering/research work and then look to the future on how NDE can be optimized for proactively managing materials degradation in NPP components.

Doctor, Steven R.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Composite Materials under Extreme Radiation and Temperature Environments of the Next Generation Nuclear Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the nuclear energy renaissance, driven by fission reactor concepts utilizing very high temperatures and fast neutron spectra, materials with enhanced performance that exceeds are expected to play a central role. With the operating temperatures of the Generation III reactors bringing the classical reactor materials close to their performance limits there is an urgent need to develop and qualify new alloys and composites. Efforts have been focused on the intricate relations and the high demands placed on materials at the anticipated extreme states within the next generation fusion and fission reactors which combine high radiation fluxes, elevated temperatures and aggressive environments. While nuclear reactors have been in operation for several decades, the structural materials associated with the next generation options need to endure much higher temperatures (1200 C), higher neutron doses (tens of displacements per atom, dpa), and extremely corrosive environments, which are beyond the experience on materials accumulated to-date. The most important consideration is the performance and reliability of structural materials for both in-core and out-of-core functions. While there exists a great body of nuclear materials research and operating experience/performance from fission reactors where epithermal and thermal neutrons interact with materials and alter their physio-mechanical properties, a process that is well understood by now, there are no operating or even experimental facilities that will facilitate the extreme conditions of flux and temperature anticipated and thus provide insights into the behaviour of these well understood materials. Materials, however, still need to be developed and their interaction and damage potential or lifetime to be quantified for the next generation nuclear energy. Based on material development advances, composites, and in particular ceramic composites, seem to inherently possess properties suitable for key functions within the operating envelope of both fission and fusion reactors. In advanced fission reactors composite materials are being designed in an effort to extend the life and improve the reliability of fuel rod cladding as well as structural materials. Composites are being considered for use as core internals in the next generation of gas-cooled reactors. Further, next-generation plasma-fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will rely on the capabilities of advanced composites to safely withstand extremely high neutron fluxes while providing superior thermal shock resistance.

Simos, N.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned, Volume 2 of 3: Appendixes A - C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the 2nd volume of the three volume set from the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise held at Hanford in 1994. Volume 2 contains Appendices A-C, with Appendices A and B containing a discussion of the design of the PUREX process and Appendix C containing a discussion of the safeguards measures for the PUREX facility.

Libby, R.A.; Davis, C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Nuclear materials stabilization and packaging. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress is reported for Los Alamos Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Packaging projects for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 1996. Development and production activities in Plutonium Recovery and Processing, Plutonium Packaging, and Uranium Recovery and Processing are covered. Packaging quality assurance activities are reported.

Chidester, K.M. [comp.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Energy Frontier Research Center, Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a document required by Basic Energy Sciences as part of a mid-term review, in the third year of the five-year award period and is intended to provide a critical assessment of the Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels (strategic vision, scientific plans and progress, and technical accomplishments).

Todd R. Allen

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

CORROSION ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS USED IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS EXTRACTION AND SEPARATION PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper illustrated the magnitude of the systems, structures and components used at the Savannah River Site for nuclear materials extraction and separation processes. Corrosion issues, including stress corrosion cracking, pitting, crevice corrosion and other corrosion induced degradation processes are discussed and corrosion mitigation strategies such as a chloride exclusion program and corrosion release testing are also discussed.

Mickalonis, J.; Louthan, M.; Sindelar, R.

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

206

Journal of Nuclear Materials 72 (1978) 147-167 0 North-Holland Publishing Company  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Nuclear Materials 72 (1978) 147-167 0 North-Holland Publishing Company RADIATION damage and energy deposition. In this paper, radiation environment for the magnets is characterized into radiation effects using available experimental data. The impact of the tradeoffs in radiation shielding

Abdou, Mohamed

207

Direct nuclear heating measurements and analyses for plasma-facing materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental measurement of nuclear heating rates was carried out in a simulated D-T fusion neutron environment from 1989 through 1992 under the U.S. DOE/JAERI collaborative program at the Fusion Neutronics Source Facility. Small probes of materials were irradiated in close vicinity of a rotating target. A sophisticated microcalorimetric technique was developed for on-line measurements of local nuclear heating in a mixed neutron plus photon field. Measurements with probes of graphite, titanium, copper, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and lead are presented. These measurements have been analyzed using the three-dimensional Monte Carlo code MCNP and various heating number/kerma factor libraries. The ratio of calculated to experimental (C/E) heating rates shows a large deviation from 1 for all the materials except tungsten. For example, C/E`s for graphite range from 1.14 ({delta} = 10%) to 1.36 (10%) for various kerma factor libraries. Uncertainty estimates on total nuclear heating using a sensitivity approach are presented. Interestingly, C/E data for all libraries and materials can be consolidated to obtain a probability density distribution of C/E`s that very much resembles a Gaussian distribution centered at 1.04. The concept of `quality factor` is defined and elaborated so as to take cognizance of observed uncertainties on prediction of nuclear heating for all the nine materials. 45 refs., 69 figs., 9 tabs.

Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A.; Youssef, M.Z. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ikeda, Y.; Konno, C.; Kosako, K.; Oyama, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Maekawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Nuclear Materials Science:Materials Science Technology:MST-16:LANL:Los  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the ContributionsArms Control R&D Consortium includesEnergy

209

Competing effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss on microstructural evolution in ionic-covalent materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ever increasing energy needs have raised the demands for advanced fuels and cladding materials that withstand the extreme radiation environments with improved accident tolerance over a long period of time. Ceria (CeO2) is a well known ionic conductor that is isostructural with urania and plutonia-based nuclear fuels. In the context of nuclear fuels, immobilization and transmutation of actinides, CeO2 is a model system for radiation effect studies. Covalent silicon carbide (SiC) is a candidate for use as structural material in fusion, cladding material for fission reactors, and an inert matrix for the transmutation of plutonium and other radioactive actinides. Understanding microstructural change of these ionic-covalent materials to irradiation is important for advanced nuclear energy systems. While displacements from nuclear energy loss may be the primary contribution to damage accumulation in a crystalline matrix and a driving force for the grain boundary evolution in nanostructured materials, local non-equilibrium disorder and excitation through electronic energy loss may, however, produce additional damage or anneal pre-existing defect. At intermediate transit energies where electronic and nuclear energy losses are both significant, synergistic, additive or competitive processes may evolve that affect the dynamic response of materials to irradiation. The response of crystalline and nanostructured CeO2 and SiC to ion irradiation are studied under different nuclear and electronic stopping powers to describe some general material response in this transit energy regime. Although fast radiation-induced grain growth in CeO2 is evident with no phase transformation, different fluence and dose dependence on the growth rate is observed under Si and Au irradiations. While grain shrinkage and amorphization are observed in the nano-engineered 3C SiC with a high-density of stacking faults embedded in nanosize columnar grains, significantly enhanced radiation resistance is attributed to stacking faults that promote efficient point defect annihilation. Moreover, competing effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss on the damage accumulation and annihilation are observed in crystalline 4H-SiC. Systematic experiments and simulation effort are needed to understand the competitive or synergistic effects.

Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL] [ORNL; Varga, Tamas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Ishimaru, Dr. Manabu [Osaka University] [Osaka University; Edmondson, Dr. Philip [University of Oxford] [University of Oxford; Xue, Haizhou [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liu, Peng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Moll, Sandra [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette] [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette; Namavar, Fereydoon [University of Nebraska Medical Center] [University of Nebraska Medical Center; Hardiman, Chris [North Carolina State University] [North Carolina State University; Shannon, Prof. Steven [North Carolina State University] [North Carolina State University; Weber, William J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S H-CANYON FACILITY: IMPACTS OF FOREIGN OBLIGATIONS ON SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US has a non-proliferation policy to receive foreign and domestic research reactor returns of spent fuel materials of US origin. These spent fuel materials are returned to the Department of Energy (DOE) and placed in storage in the L-area spent fuel basin at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The foreign research reactor returns fall subject to the 123 agreements for peaceful cooperation. These “123 agreements” are named after section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and govern the conditions of nuclear cooperation with foreign partners. The SRS management of these foreign obligations while planning material disposition paths can be a challenge.

Magoulas, V.

2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

211

A Perspective on Coupled Multiscale Simulation and Validation in Nuclear Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The field of nuclear materials encompasses numerous opportunities to address and ultimately solve longstanding industrial problems by improving the fundamental understanding of materials through the integration of experiments with multiscale modeling and high-performance simulation. A particularly noteworthy example is an ongoing study of axial power distortions in a nuclear reactor induced by corrosion deposits, known as CRUD (Chalk River unidentified deposits). We describe how progress is being made toward achieving scientific advances and technological solutions on two fronts. Specifically, the study of thermal conductivity of CRUD phases has augmented missing data as well as revealed new mechanisms. Additionally, the development of a multiscale simulation framework shows potential for the validation of a new capability to predict the power distribution of a reactor, in effect direct evidence of technological impact. The material- and system-level challenges identified in the study of CRUD are similar to other well-known vexing problems in nuclear materials, such as irradiation accelerated corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and void swelling; they all involve connecting materials science fundamentals at the atomistic- and mesoscales to technology challenges at the macroscale.

M. P. Short; D. Gaston; C. R. Stanek; S. Yip

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Energy vulnerability relationships  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US consumption of crude oil resources has been a steadily growing indicator of the vitality and strength of the US economy. At the same time import diversity has also been a rapidly developing dimension of the import picture. In the early 1970`s, embargoes of crude oil from Organization of Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) created economic and political havoc due to a significant lack of diversity and a unique set of economic, political and domestic regulatory circumstances. The continued rise of imports has again led to concerns over the security of our crude oil resource but threats to this system must be considered in light of the diversity and current setting of imported oil. This report develops several important issues concerning vulnerability to the disruption of oil imports: (1) The Middle East is not the major supplier of oil to the United States, (2) The US is not vulnerable to having its entire import stream disrupted, (3) Even in stable countries, there exist vulnerabilities to disruption of the export stream of oil, (4) Vulnerability reduction requires a focus on international solutions, and (5) DOE program and policy development must reflect the requirements of the diverse supply. Does this increasing proportion of imported oil create a {open_quotes}dependence{close_quotes}? Does this increasing proportion of imported oil present a vulnerability to {open_quotes}price shocks{close_quotes} and the tremendous dislocations experienced during the 1970`s? Finally, what is the vulnerability of supply disruptions from the current sources of imported oil? If oil is considered to be a finite, rapidly depleting resource, then the answers to these questions must be {open_quotes}yes.{close_quotes} However, if the supply of oil is expanding, and not limited, then dependence is relative to regional supply sources.

Shaw, B.R.; Boesen, J.L.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 7, Estimate data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections outlined by Attachment III-2 of DOE Document AL 4700.1, Project Management System. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part VII - Estimate Data, contains the project cost estimate information.

NONE

1995-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

214

Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 3, Supplemental information  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. It is organized into seven parts. Part I - Design Concept describes the selected solution. Part III - Supplemental Information contains calculations for the various disciplines as well as other supporting information and analyses.

NONE

1995-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

215

Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 1, Design concept. Part 2, Project management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This document provides Part I - Design Concept which describes the selected solution, and Part II - Project Management which describes the management system organization, the elements that make up the system, and the control and reporting system.

NONE

1995-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

216

GKTC ACTIVITIES TO PROVIDE NUCLEAR MATERIAL PHYSICAL PROTECTION, CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING TRAINING FOR 2011-2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The GKTC was created at the Kyiv Institute of Nuclear Research as a result of collaborative efforts between the United States and Ukraine. The GKTC has been designated by the Ukrainian Government to provide the MPC&A training and methodological assistance to nuclear facilities and nuclear specialists. In 2010 the GKTC has conducted the planned assessment of training needs of Ukrainian MPC&A specialists. The objective of this work is to acquire the detailed information about the number of MPC&A specialists and guard personnel, who in the coming years should receive the further advanced training. As a result of the performed training needs evaluation the GKTC has determined that in the coming years a number of new training courses need to be developed. Some training courses are already in the process of development. Also taking into account the specific of activity on the guarding of nuclear facilities, GKTC has begun to develop the specialized training courses for the guarding unit personnel. The evaluation of needs of training of Ukrainian specialists on the physical protection shows that without the technical base of learning is not possible to satisfy the needs of Ukrainian facilities, in particular, the need for further training of specialists who maintains physical protection technical means, provides vulnerability assessment and testing of technical means. To increase the training effectiveness and create the basis for specialized training courses holding the GKTC is now working on the construction of an Interior (non-classified) Physical Protection Training Site. The objective of this site is to simulate the actual conditions of the nuclear facility PP system including the complex of engineering and technical means that will help the GKTC training course participants to consolidate the knowledge and gain the practical skills in the work with PP system engineering and technical means for more effective performance of their official duties. This paper briefly describes the practical efforts applied to the provision of physical protection specialists advanced training in Ukraine and real results on the way to implement such efforts in 2011-2012.

Romanova, Olena; Gavrilyuk, Victor I.; Kirischuk, Volodymyr; Gavrilyuk-Burakova, Anna; Diakov, Oleksii; Drapey, Sergiy; Proskurin, Dmitry; Dickman, Deborah A.; Ferguson, Ken

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Advanced international training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the Advanced International Training Course on State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material held April 27 through May 12, 1981 at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards. Major emphasis for the 1981 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at both the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, Richland, Washington.

Not Available

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Annual report on strategic special nuclear material inventory differences, April 1, 1990--March 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report of unclassified Inventory Difference (ID`s) covers the twelve months from April 1, 1990 through March 31, 1991 for all key Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor operated facilities possessing strategic special nuclear materials. Classified information is not included in this report. This classified information includes data for the Rocky Flats and Y-12 nuclear weapons production facilities or facilities under ID investigation. However, classified ID data from such facilities receive the same scrutiny and analyses as the included data.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Nuclear Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using some analytical expressions. Then, the SPICE model parameters are extracted using Silvaco. The

Gihan T. Sayah; Mohamed Abouelatta; Abdelhalim Zekry

220

Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations: Exploratory Shaft Facility fluids and materials evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to determine if any fluids or materials used in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) of Yucca Mountain will make the mountain unsuitable for future construction of a nuclear waste repository. Yucca Mountain, an area on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada, USA, is a candidate site for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power and defense nuclear activities. To properly characterize Yucca Mountain, it will be necessary to construct an underground test facility, in which in situ site characterization tests can be conducted. The candidate repository horizon at Yucca Mountain, however, could potentially be compromised by fluids and materials used in the site characterization tests. To minimize this possibility, Los Alamos National Laboratory was directed to evaluate the kinds of fluids and materials that will be used and their potential impacts on the site. A secondary objective was to identify fluids and materials, if any, that should be prohibited from, or controlled in, the underground. 56 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.

West, K.A.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Pulsed, Photonuclear-induced, Neutron Measurements of Nuclear Materials with Composite Shielding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Active measurements were performed using a 10-MeV electron accelerator with inspection objects containing various nuclear and nonnuclear materials available at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) facility. The inspection objects were assembled from ZPPR reactor plate materials to evaluate the measurement technologies for the characterization of plutonium, depleted uranium or highly enriched uranium shielded by both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. A series of pulsed photonuclear, time-correlated measurements were performed with unshielded calibration materials and then compared with the more complex composite shield configurations. The measurements used multiple 3He detectors that are designed to detect fission neutrons between pulses of an electron linear accelerator. The accelerator produced 10-MeV bremsstrahlung X-rays at a repetition rate of 125 Hz (8 ms between pulses) with a 4-us pulse width. All inspected objects were positioned on beam centerline and 100 cm from the X-ray source. The time-correlated data was collected in parallel using both a Los Alamos National Laboratory-designed list-mode acquisition system and a commercial multichannel scaler analyzer. A combination of different measurement configurations and data analysis methods enabled the identification of each object. This paper describes the experimental configuration, the ZPPR inspection objects used, and the various measurement and analysis results for each inspected object.

James Jones; Kevin Haskell; Rich Waston; William Geist; Jonathan Thron; Corey Freeman; Martyn Swinhoe; Seth McConchie; Eric Sword; Lee Montierth; John Zabriskie

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Project plan remove special nuclear material from PFP project plutonium finishing plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Remove Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Materials. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP), HNF-3617, Rev. 0. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for PFP Remove SNM Materials project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the Remove SNM Materials project. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process.

BARTLETT, W.D.

1999-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

223

Novel Processing of Unique Ceramic-Based Nuclear Materials and Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advances in nuclear reactor technology and the use of gas-cooled fast reactors require the development of new materials that can operate at the higher temperatures expected in these systems. These include refractory alloys base on Nb, Zr, Ta, Mo, W, and Re; ceramics and composites such as those based on silicon carbide (SiCf-SiC); carbon-carbon composites; and advanced coatings. Besides the ability to handle higher expected temperatures, effective heat transfer between reactor componets is necessary for improved efficiency. Improving thermal conductivity of the materials used in nuclear fuels and other temperature critical components can lower the center-line fuel temperature and thereby enhance durability and reduce the risk of premature failure.

Hui Zhang; Raman P. Singh

2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

224

Production of an English/Russian glossary of terminology for nuclear materials control and accounting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The program plans for Former Soviet Union National Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting (MC and A) Systems Enhancements call for the development of an English/Russian Glossary of MC and A terminology. This glossary was envisioned as an outgrowth of the many interactions, training sessions, and other talking and writing exercises that would transpire in the course of carrying out these programs. This report summarizes the status of the production of this glossary, the most recent copy of which is attached to this report. The glossary contains over 950 terms and acronyms associated with nuclear material control and accounting for safeguards and nonproliferation. This document is organized as follows: English/Russian glossary of terms and acronyms; Russian/English glossary of terms and acronyms; English/Russian glossary of acronyms; and Russian/English glossary of acronyms.

Schachowskoj, S.; Smith, H.A. Jr.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Applying radiological emergency planning experience to hazardous materials emergency planning within the nuclear industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nuclear industry has extensive radiological emergency planning (REP) experience that is directly applicable to hazardous materials emergency planning. Recently, the Feed Materials Production Center near Cincinnati, Ohio, successfully demonstrated such application. The REP experience includes conceptual bases and standards for developing plans that have been tested in hundreds of full-scale exercises. The exercise program itself is also well developed. Systematic consideration of the differences between chemical and radiological hazards shows that relatively minor changes to the REP bases and standards are necessary. Conduct of full-scale, REP-type exercises serves to test the plans, provide training, and engender confidence and credibility.

Foltman, A.; Newsom, D.; Lerner, K.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Demonstration (DEMO) of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system for tracking and monitoring of nuclear materials.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) [Environmental Management (EM), Office of Packaging and Transportation (EM-45)] Packaging Certification Program (PCP) has developed a radiofrequency identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring system for the management of nuclear materials packages during storage and transportation. The system, developed by the PCP team at Argonne National Laboratory, involves hardware modification, application software development, secured database and web server development, and irradiation experiments. In April 2008, Argonne tested key features of the RFID tracking and monitoring system in a weeklong, 1700 mile (2736 km) demonstration employing 14 empty type B fissile material drums of three designs (models 9975, 9977 and ES-3100) that have been certified for shipment by the DOE and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The demonstration successfully integrated global positioning system (GPS) technology for vehicle tracking, satellite/cellular (general packet radio service, or GPRS) technologies for wireless communication, and active RFID tags with multiple sensors (seal integrity, shock, temperature, humidity and battery status) on drums. In addition, the demonstration integrated geographic information system (GIS) technology with automatic alarm notifications of incidents and generated buffer zone reports for emergency response and management of staged incidents. The demonstration was sponsored by EM and the US National Nuclear Security Administration, with the participation of Argonne, Savannah River and Oak Ridge National Laboratories. Over 50 authorised stakeholders across the country observed the demonstration via secured Internet access. The DOE PCP and national laboratories are working on several RFID system implementation projects at selected DOE sites, as well as continuing device and systems development and widening applications beyond DOE sites and possibly beyond nuclear materials to include other radioactive materials.

Tsai, H. C.; Chen, K.; Liu, Y. Y.; Shuler, J. (Decision and Information Sciences); (USDOE)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Standard guide for establishing calibration for a measurement method used to analyze nuclear fuel cycle materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 This guide provides the basis for establishing calibration for a measurement method typically used in an analytical chemistry laboratory analyzing nuclear materials. Guidance is included for such activities as preparing a calibration procedure, selecting a calibration standard, controlling calibrated equipment, and documenting calibration. The guide is generic and any required technical information specific for a given method must be obtained from other sources.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1993. Volume 14  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1993 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1974 through 1992 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1993 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Lucadamo, K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Los Alamos National Laboratory new generation standard nuclear material storage container - the SAVY4000 design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Incidents involving release of nuclear materials stored in containers of convenience such as food pack cans, slip lid taped cans, paint cans, etc. has resulted in defense board concerns over the lack of prescriptive performance requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has shared in these incidents and in response proactively moved into developing a performance based standard involving storage of nuclear material (RD003). This RD003 requirements document has sense been updated to reflect requirements as identified with recently issued DOE M 441.1-1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual'. The new packaging manual was issued at the encouragement of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board with a clear directive for protecting the worker from exposure due to loss of containment of stored materials. The Manual specifies a detailed and all inclusive approach to achieve a high level of protection; from package design & performance requirements, design life determinations of limited life components, authorized contents evaluations, and surveillance/maintenance to ensure in use package integrity over time. Materials in scope involve those stored outside an approved engineered-contamination barrier that would result in a worker exposure of in excess of 5 rem Committed Effective Does Equivalent (CEDE). Key aspects of meeting the challenge as developed around the SAVY-3000 vented storage container design will be discussed. Design performance and acceptance criteria against the manual, bounding conditions as established that the user must ensure are met to authorize contents in the package (based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide), interface as a safety class system within the facility under the LANL plutonium facility DSA, design life determinations for limited life components, and a sense of design specific surveillance program implementation as LANL moves forward into production and use of the SAVY-3000 will all be addressed. The SAVY-3000 is intended as a work horse package for the DOE complex as a vented storage container primarily for plutonium in solid form.

Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Tags and seals for controling nuclear materials, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Second quarter 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies summarizes demonstrations and addresses related topics. The first article, ``Basic Nuclear Material Control and Accountability Concepts as Might be Applied to the Uranium from the US-Russian HEU Purchase,`` describes safeguards sybsystems necessary for effective nuclear material safeguards. It also presents a general discussion on HEU-to-low-enrichment uranium (LEU) commingling processes and suggests applicable key measurement points. The second article, ``A Framework for Evaluating Tamper-Indicating-Device Technologies (TIDs),`` describes their uses, proper selection, and evaluation. The final three articles discuss the tags and seals applications and general characteristics of several nuclear material containers: the Type 30B uranium hexafluoride container, the AT-400R container, and the DOT Specification 6M container for SNM. Finally, the Appendix displays short descriptions and illustrations of seven tags and seals, including: the E-cup and wire seal, the python seal, the secure loop inspectable tag/seal (SLITS), bolt-and-loop type electronic identification devices, and the shrink-wrap seal.

Staehle, G; Talaber, C; Stull, S; Moulthrop, P [eds.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

231

Nuclear Waste Disposal and Strategies for Predicting Long-Term Performance of Material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ceramics have been an important part of the nuclear community for many years. On December 2, 1942, an historic event occurred under the West Stands of Stagg Field, at the University of Chicago. Man initiated his first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction and controlled it. The impact of this event on civilization is considered by many as monumental and compared by some to other significant events in history, such as the invention of the steam engine and the manufacturing of the first automobile. Making this event possible and the successful operation of this first man-made nuclear reactor, was the use of forty tons of UO2. The use of natural or enriched UO2 is still used today as a nuclear fuel in many nuclear power plants operating world-wide. Other ceramic materials, such as 238Pu, are used for other important purposes, such as ceramic fuels for space exploration to provide electrical power to operate instruments on board spacecrafts. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are used to supply electrical power and consist of a nuclear heat source and converter to transform heat energy from radioactive decay into electrical power, thus providing reliable and relatively uniform power over the very long lifetime of a mission. These sources have been used in the Galileo spacecraft orbiting Jupiter and for scientific investigations of Saturn with the Cassini spacecraft. Still another very important series of applications using the unique properties of ceramics in the nuclear field, are as immobilization matrices for management of some of the most hazardous wastes known to man. For example, in long-term management of radioactive and hazardous wastes, glass matrices are currently in production immobilizing high-level radioactive materials, and cementious forms have also been produced to incorporate low level wastes. Also, as part of nuclear disarmament activities, assemblages of crystalline phases are being developed for immobilizing weapons grade plutonium, to not only produce environmentally friendly products, but also forms that are proliferation resistant. All of these waste forms as well as others, are designed to take advantage of the unique properties of the ceramic systems.

Wicks, G.G.

2001-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

232

Security Science & Technology | Nuclear Science | ORNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nuclear Security Science & Technology Border Security Comprehensive Vulnerability and Threat Analysis Consequence Management, Safeguards, and Non-Proliferation Tools Export...

233

Detecting special nuclear materials in suspect containers using high-energy gamma rays emitted by fission products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and a system for detecting the presence of special nuclear materials in a suspect container. The system and its method include irradiating the suspect container with a beam of neutrons, so as to induce a thermal fission in a portion of the special nuclear materials, detecting the gamma rays that are emitted from the fission products formed by the thermal fission, to produce a detector signal, comparing the detector signal with a threshold value to form a comparison, and detecting the presence of the special nuclear materials using the comparison.

Norman, Eric B. (Oakland, CA); Prussin, Stanley G. (Kensington, CA)

2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

234

Detecting special nuclear materials in suspect containers using high-energy gamma rays emitted by fission products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and a system for detecting the presence of special nuclear materials in a suspect container. The system and its method include irradiating the suspect container with a beam of neutrons, so as to induce a thermal fission in a portion of the special nuclear materials, detecting the gamma rays that are emitted from the fission products formed by the thermal fission, to produce a detector signal, comparing the detector signal with a threshold value to form a comparison, and detecting the presence of the special nuclear materials using the comparison.

Norman, Eric B. (Oakland, CA); Prussin, Stanley G. (Kensington, CA)

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

235

Detecting special nuclear materials in suspect containers using high-energy gamma rays emitted by fission products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and a system for detecting the presence of special nuclear materials in a suspect container. The system and its method include irradiating the suspect container with a beam of neutrons, so as to induce a thermal fission in a portion of the special nuclear materials, detecting the gamma rays that are emitted from the fission products formed by the thermal fission, to produce a detector signal, comparing the detector signal with a threshold value to form a comparison, and detecting the presence of the special nuclear materials using the comparison.

Norman, Eric B [Oakland, CA; Prussin, Stanley G [Kensington, CA

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

236

Monitoring Thermal Fatigue Damage In Nuclear Power Plant Materials Using Acoustic Emission  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proactive aging management of nuclear power plant passive components requires technologies to enable monitoring and accurate quantification of material condition at early stages of degradation (i.e., pre-macrocrack). Acoustic emission (AE) is well-suited to continuous monitoring of component degradation and is proposed as a method to monitor degradation during accelerated thermal fatigue tests. A key consideration is the ability to separate degradation responses from external sources such as water spray induced during thermal fatigue testing. Water spray provides a significant background of acoustic signals, which can overwhelm AE signals caused by degradation. Analysis of AE signal frequency and energy is proposed in this work as a means for separating degradation signals from background sources. Encouraging results were obtained by applying both frequency and energy filters to preliminary data. The analysis of signals filtered using frequency and energy provides signatures exhibiting several characteristics that are consistent with degradation accumulation in materials. Future work is planned to enable verification of the efficacy of AE for thermal fatigue crack initiation detection. While the emphasis has been placed on the use of AE for crack initiation detection during accelerated aging tests, this work also has implications with respect to the use of AE as a primary tool for early degradation monitoring in nuclear power plant materials. The development of NDE tools for characterization of aging in materials can also benefit from the use of a technology such as AE which can continuously monitor and detect crack initiation during accelerated aging tests.

Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Watson, Bruce E.; Pitman, Stan G.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Bond, Leonard J.

2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

237

Routine inspection effort required for verification of a nuclear material production cutoff convention  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On 27 September 1993, President Clinton proposed {open_quotes}... a multilateral convention prohibiting the production of highly enriched uranium or plutonium for nuclear explosives purposes or outside of international safeguards.{close_quotes} The UN General Assembly subsequently adopted a resolution recommending negotiation of a non-discriminatory, multilateral, and internationally and effectively verifiable treaty (hereinafter referred to as {open_quotes}the Cutoff Convention{close_quotes}) banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons. The matter is now on the agenda of the Conference on Disarmament, although not yet under negotiation. This accord would, in effect, place all fissile material (defined as highly enriched uranium and plutonium) produced after entry into force (EIF) of the accord under international safeguards. {open_quotes}Production{close_quotes} would mean separation of the material in question from radioactive fission products, as in spent fuel reprocessing, or enrichment of uranium above the 20% level, which defines highly enriched uranium (HEU). Facilities where such production could occur would be safeguarded to verify that either such production is not occurring or that all material produced at these facilities is maintained under safeguards.

Dougherty, D.; Fainberg, A.; Sanborn, J.; Allentuck, J.; Sun, C.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Energy Frontier Research Center, Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, has funded the INL as one of the Energy Frontier Research Centers in the area of material science of nuclear fuels. This document is the required annual report to the Office of Science that outlines the accomplishments for the period of May 2010 through April 2011. The aim of the Center for Material Science of Nuclear Fuels (CMSNF) is to establish the foundation for predictive understanding of the effects of irradiation-induced defects on thermal transport in oxide nuclear fuels. The science driver of the center’s investigation is to understand how complex defect and microstructures affect phonon mediated thermal transport in UO2, and achieve this understanding for the particular case of irradiation-induced defects and microstructures. The center’s research thus includes modeling and measurement of thermal transport in oxide fuels with different levels of impurities, lattice disorder and irradiation-induced microstructure, as well as theoretical and experimental investigation of the evolution of disorder, stoichiometry and microstructure in nuclear fuel under irradiation. With the premise that thermal transport in irradiated UO2 is a phonon-mediated energy transport process in a crystalline material with defects and microstructure, a step-by-step approach will be utilized to understand the effects of types of defects and microstructures on the collective phonon dynamics in irradiated UO2. Our efforts under the thermal transport thrust involved both measurement of diffusive phonon transport (an approach that integrates over the entire phonon spectrum) and spectroscopic measurements of phonon attenuation/lifetime and phonon dispersion. Our distinct experimental efforts dovetail with our modeling effort involving atomistic simulation of phonon transport and prediction of lattice thermal conductivity using the Boltzmann transport framework.

Todd R. Allen, Director

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Evaluating Safeguards Benefits of Process Monitoring as compared with Nuclear Material Accountancy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper illustrates potential safeguards benefits that process monitoring (PM) may have as a diversion deterrent and as a complementary safeguards measure to nuclear material accountancy (NMA). This benefit is illustrated by quantifying the standard deviation associated with detecting a considered material diversion scenario using either an NMA-based method or a PM-based approach. To illustrate the benefits of PM for effective safeguards, we consider a reprocessing facility. We assume that the diversion of interest for detection manifests itself as a loss of Pu caused by abnormally operating a dissolver for an extended period to accomplish protracted diversion (or misdirection) of Pu to a retained (unconditioned) waste stream. For detecting the occurrence of this diversion (which involves anomalous operation of the dissolver), we consider two different data evaluation and integration (DEI) approaches, one based on NMA and the other based on PM. The approach based on PM does not directly do mass balance calculations, but rather monitors for the possible occurrence of anomaly patterns related to potential loss of nuclear material. It is thus assumed that the loss of a given mass amount of nuclear material can be directly associated with the execution of proliferation-driven activities that trigger the occurrence of an anomaly pattern consisting of series of events or signatures occurring at different unit operations and time instances. By effectively assessing these events over time and space, the PM-based DEI approach tries to infer whether this specific pattern of events has occurred and how many times within a given time period. To evaluate the goodness of PM, the 3 Sigma of the estimated mass loss is computed under both DEI approaches as function of the number of input batches processed. Simulation results are discussed.

Humberto Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Reed Carlson

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Materials characterization center workshop on the irradiation effects in nuclear waste forms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Workshop on Irradiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Forms sponsored by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) brought together experts in radiation damage in materials and waste-management technology to review the problems associated with irradiation effects on waste-form integrity and to evaluate standard methods for generating data to be included in the Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook. The workshop reached the following conclusions: the concept of Standard Test for the Effects of Alpha-Decay in Nuclear Waste Solids, (MCC-6) for evaluating the effects of alpha decay is valid and useful, and as a result of the workshop, modifications to the proposed procedure will be incorpoated in a revised version of MCC-6; the MCC-6 test is not applicable to the evaluation of radiation damage in spent fuel; plutonium-238 is recommended as the dopant for transuranic and defense high-level waste forms, and when high doses are required, as in the case of commercial high-level waste forms, /sup 244/Cm can be used; among the important property changes caused by irradiation are those that lead to greater leachability, and additionally, radiolysis of the leachant may increase leach rates; research is needed in this area; ionization-induced changes in physical properties can be as important as displacement damage in some materials, and a synergism is also likely to exist from the combined effects of ionization and displacement damage; and the effect of changing the temperature and dose rates on property changes induced by radiation damage needs to be determined.

Roberts, F.P.; Turcotte, R.P.; Weber, W.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Thermomechanical Characterization and Analysis of Insulation Materials for Nuclear-Based Space Power Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Testing was carried out to characterize and predict the long-term thermomechanical properties of various thermal insulation materials for use in nuclear-based space power systems. In particular, the high temperature compressive strength and stress relaxation behavior of these materials under vacuum or an inert atmosphere and up to 950 C were evaluated under either isothermal conditions or under various thermal gradients for test times of over two years. Several tests subjected to thermal gradient conditions were also evaluated for changes in strain due to cooling or heating events. Other testing of these materials included evaluation of their response to lateral (as opposed to axial) loads, their response to triaxial loading conditions, thermal shock behavior of these materials, and shrinkage effects in these materials due to elevated temperature exposure. Additionally, finite element and mathematical models were formulated to predict the mechanical behavior exhibited by these materials out to 35,000 hours (4 years) based on this testing. This paper will summarize the design and construction of unique test equipment to carry out this testing, along with the results of the testing and the subsequent modeling.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Burns, Zachary M [ORNL; Ulrich, George B [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Direct nuclear heating measurements and analyses for structural materials induced by deuterium-tritium neutrons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear heat deposition rates in the structural components of a fusion reactor have been measured directly with a microcalorimeter incorporated with an intense deuterium-tritium (D- T) neutron source, the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), under the framework of the JAERI/U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) collaborative program on fusion neutronics. Heat deposition rates at positions up to 200 mm of depth in a Type 304 stainless steel assembly bombarded with D-T neutrons were measured along with single probe experiments. The measured heating rates were compared with comprehensive calculations in order to verify the adequacy of the currently available database relevant to the nuclear heating. In general, calculations with data of JENDL-3 and ENDL-85 libraries gave good agreement with experiments for all single probe materials, whereas RMCCS, based on ENDF/B-V, suffered from unreasonable overestimation in the heating number. It was demonstrated that the nuclear/thermal coupled calculation is a powerful tool to analyze the time-dependent temperature change due to the heat transfer in the probe materials. The analysis for the Type 304 stainless steel assembly, based on JENDL-3, demonstrated that the calculation, in general, was in good agreement with the measurement up to 200 mm of depth along the central axis of the assembly. 31 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

Ikeda, Y.; Konno, C.; Kosako, K.; Oyama, Y.; Maekawa, F.; Maekawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan); Kumar, A.; Youssef, M.Z.; Abdou, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

US-Russian Cooperation in Upgrading MC&A System at Rosatom Facilities: Measurement of Nuclear Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improve protection of weapons-usable nuclear material from theft or diversion through the development and support of a nationwide sustainable and effective Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) program based on material measurement. The material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) cooperation has yielded significant results in implementing MC&A measurements at Russian nuclear facilities: (1) Establishment of MEM WG and MEMS SP; (2) Infrastructure for development, certification, and distribution of RMs; and (3) Coordination on development and implementation of MMs.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Jensen, Bruce A [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials with Particles and Components Testing (IMPACT) facility and the Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) Radiochemistry Processing Laboratory (RPL) and PIE facilities were added. The ATR NSUF annually hosts a weeklong event called User’s Week in which students and faculty from universities as well as other interested parties from regulatory agencies or industry convene in Idaho Falls, Idaho to see presentations from ATR NSUF staff as well as select researchers from the materials research field. User’s week provides an overview of current materials research topics of interest and an opportunity for young researchers to understand the process of performing work through ATR NSUF. Additionally, to increase the number of researchers engaged in LWR materials issues, a series of workshops are in progress to introduce research staff to stress corrosion cracking, zirconium alloy degradation, and uranium dioxide degradation during in-reactor use.

John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Next Generation Nuclear Plant Intermediate Heat Exchanger Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2804)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Today’s high-temperature alloys and associated ASME Codes for reactor applications are approved up to 760°C. However, some primary system components, such as the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP will require use of materials that can withstand higher temperatures. The thermal, environmental, and service life conditions of the NGNP will make selection and qualification of some high-temperature materials a significant challenge. Examples include materials for the core barrel and core internals, such as the control rod sleeves. The requirements of the materials for the IHX are among the most demanding. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. A number of solid solution strengthened nickel based alloys have been considered for application in heat exchangers and core internals for the NGNP. The primary candidates are Inconel 617, Haynes 230, Incoloy 800H and Hastelloy XR. Based on the technical maturity, availability in required product forms, experience base, and high temperature mechanical properties all of the vendor pre-conceptual design studies have specified Alloy 617 as the material of choice for heat exchangers. Also a draft code case for Alloy 617 was developed previously. Although action was suspended before the code case was accepted by ASME, this draft code case provides a significant head start for achieving codification of the material. Similarly, Alloy 800H is the material of choice for control rod sleeves. In addition to the above listed considerations, Alloy 800H is already listed in the nuclear section of the ASME Code; although the maximum use temperature and time need to be increased.

J. K. Wright

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

An Assessment of Uncertainty in Remaining Life Estimation for Nuclear Structural Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years, several operating US light-water nuclear power reactors (LWRs) have moved to extended-life operations (from 40 years to 60 years), and there is interest in the feasibility of extending plant life to 80 years. Operating experience suggests that material degradation of structural components in LWRs (such as the reactor pressure vessel) is expected to be the limiting factor for safe operation during extended life. Therefore, a need exists for assessing the condition of LWR structural components and determining its remaining useful life (RUL). The ability to estimate RUL of degraded structural components provides a basis for determining safety margins (i.e., whether safe operation over some pre-determined time horizon is possible), and scheduling degradation management activities (such as potentially modifying operating conditions to limit further degradation growth). A key issue in RUL estimation is calculation of uncertainty bounds, which are dependent on current material state, as well as past and future stressor levels (such as time-at-temperature, pressure, and irradiation). This paper presents a preliminary empirical investigation into the uncertainty of RUL estimates for nuclear structural materials.

Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Fricke, Jacob M.; Bond, Leonard J.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Implementation of focused ion beam (FIB) system in characterization of nuclear fuels and materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Beginning in 2007, a program was established at the Idaho National Laboratory to update key capabilities enabling microstructural and micro-chemical characterization of highly irradiated and/or radiologically contaminated nuclear fuels and materials at scales that previously had not been achieved for these types of materials. Such materials typically cannot be contact handled and pose unique hazards to instrument operators, facilities, and associated personnel. One of the first instruments to be acquired was a Dual Beam focused ion beam (FIB)-scanning electron microscope (SEM) to support preparation of transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography samples. Over the ensuing years, techniques have been developed and operational experience gained that has enabled significant advancement in the ability to characterize a variety of fuel types including metallic, ceramic, and coated particle fuels, obtaining insights into in-reactor degradation phenomena not obtainable by any other means. The following article describes insights gained, challenges encountered, and provides examples of unique results obtained in adapting Dual Beam FIB technology to nuclear fuels characterization.

A. Aitkaliyeva; J. W. Madden; B. D. Miller; J I Cole; T A Hyde

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Cost-Sensitive Classification Methods for the Detection of Smuggled Nuclear Material in Cargo Containers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the container, much like the radiation portal monitors currently in place [24]. For a localized source placed in the center of the cargo container, the near- est detector will be approximately 4 ft away and radiation may have to pass through a significant... with the cargo. This introduces a significant statistical variation to our measurement data, as will be shown in Ch. VI. 4 I.1.3 Current Detection Methods There are several detection systems currently in use to detect nuclear material ? fixed radiation portal...

Webster, Jennifer B

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

249

Trafficking of nuclear materials from the former Soviet Union news abstracts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was generated to provide a background for understanding the type and variety of smuggling incidents that have been reported. As discussed in the Site Prioritization report, smuggling cases provide insight into the activities of what has been called ''amateur smuggling'', that is, smugglers who do not belong to a professional smuggling gang. In many instances, the law enforcement officials giving the press release are not familiar with nuclear materials, and give incorrect identification. The other portions of the information, such as number of individuals involved, places, and modes of operation are likely to be more correct.

Erickson, S A; Lawson, T M

1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

250

Terminating Safeguards on Excess Special Nuclear Material: Defense TRU Waste Clean-up and Nonproliferation - 12426  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) manages defense nuclear material that has been determined to be excess to programmatic needs and declared waste. When these wastes contain plutonium, they almost always meet the definition of defense transuranic (TRU) waste and are thus eligible for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The DOE operates the WIPP in a manner that physical protections for attractiveness level D or higher special nuclear material (SNM) are not the normal operating condition. Therefore, there is currently a requirement to terminate safeguards before disposal of these wastes at the WIPP. Presented are the processes used to terminate safeguards, lessons learned during the termination process, and how these approaches might be useful for future defense TRU waste needing safeguards termination prior to shipment and disposal at the WIPP. Also described is a new criticality control container, which will increase the amount of fissile material that can be loaded per container, and how it will save significant taxpayer dollars. Retrieval, compliant packaging and shipment of retrievably stored legacy TRU waste has dominated disposal operations at WIPP since it began operations 12 years ago. But because most of this legacy waste has successfully been emplaced in WIPP, the TRU waste clean-up focus is turning to newly-generated TRU materials. A major component will be transuranic SNM, currently managed in safeguards-protected vaults around the weapons complex. As DOE and NNSA continue to consolidate and shrink the weapons complex footprint, it is expected that significant quantities of transuranic SNM will be declared surplus to the nation's needs. Safeguards termination of SNM varies due to the wide range of attractiveness level of the potential material that may be directly discarded as waste. To enhance the efficiency of shipping waste with high TRU fissile content to WIPP, DOE designed an over-pack container, similar to the pipe component, called the criticality control over-pack, which will significantly enhance the efficiency of disposal. Hundreds of shipments of transuranic SNM, suitably packaged to meet WIPP waste acceptance criteria and with safeguards terminated have been successfully emplaced at WIPP (primarily from the Rocky Flats site clean-up) since WIPP opened. DOE expects that thousands more may eventually result from SNM consolidation efforts throughout the weapons complex. (authors)

Hayes, Timothy [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Operations Group (United States); Nelson, Roger [Department Of Energy, Carlsbad Operations Office (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Overview on backfill materials and permeable reactive barriers for nuclear waste disposal facilities.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A great deal of money and effort has been spent on environmental restoration during the past several decades. Significant progress has been made on improving air quality, cleaning up and preventing leaching from dumps and landfills, and improving surface water quality. However, significant challenges still exist in all of these areas. Among the more difficult and expensive environmental problems, and often the primary factor limiting closure of contaminated sites following surface restoration, is contamination of ground water. The most common technology used for remediating ground water is surface treatment where the water is pumped to the surface, treated and pumped back into the ground or released at a nearby river or lake. Although still useful for certain remediation scenarios, the limitations of pump-and-treat technologies have recently been recognized, along with the need for innovative solutions to ground-water contamination. Even with the current challenges we face there is a strong need to create geological repository systems for dispose of radioactive wastes containing long-lived radionuclides. The potential contamination of groundwater is a major factor in selection of a radioactive waste disposal site, design of the facility, future scenarios such as human intrusion into the repository and possible need for retrieving the radioactive material, and the use of backfills designed to keep the radionuclides immobile. One of the most promising technologies for remediation of contaminated sites and design of radioactive waste repositories is the use of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). PRBs are constructed of reactive material(s) to intercept and remove the radionuclides from the water and decontaminate the plumes in situ. The concept of PRBs is relatively simple. The reactive material(s) is placed in the subsurface between the waste or contaminated area and the groundwater. Reactive materials used thus far in practice and research include zero valent iron, hydroxyapatite, magnesium oxide, and others. As the contaminant moves through the reactive material, the contaminant is either sorbed by the reactive material or chemically reacts with the material to form a less harmful substance. Because of the high risk associated with failure of a geological repository for nuclear waste, most nations favor a near-field multibarrier engineered system using backfill materials to prevent release of radionuclides into the surrounding groundwater.

Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Holt, Kathleen Caroline; Hasan, Mahmoud A. (Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt)

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

CALMOS: Innovative device for the measurement of nuclear heating in material testing reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An R and D program has been carried out since 2002 in order to improve gamma heating measurements in the 70 MWth OSIRIS Material Testing Reactor operated by CEA's Nuclear Energy Div. at the Saclay research center. Throughout this program an innovative calorimetric probe associated to a specific handling system has been designed in order to make measurements both along the fissile height and on the upper part of the core, where nuclear heating rates still remain high. Two mock-ups of the probe were manufactured and tested in 2005 and 2009 in ex-core area of OSIRIS reactor for the process validation, while a displacement system has been especially designed to move the probe axially. A final probe has been designed thanks to modeling results and to preliminary measurements obtained with mock-ups irradiated to a heating level of 2W/g, This paper gives an overview of the development, describes the calorimetric probe, and expected advantages such as the possibility to use complementary methods to get the nuclear heating measurement. Results obtained with mock-ups irradiated in ex-core area of the reactor are presented and discussed. (authors)

Carcreff, H. [Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission CEA, Saclay Center, DEN/DANS/DRSN/SIREN, Gif Sur Yvette, 91191 (France)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volumes 367-370, 2007, 1586-1589 Designing Optimised Experiments for the International Fusion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volumes 367-370, 2007, 1586-1589 Designing Optimised Experiments for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility R. Kemp1 G.A. Cottrell2 and H.K.D.H. Bhadesia1 1 Department EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon., OX14 3DB, UK Abstract

Cambridge, University of

254

The study of material accountancy procedures for uranium in a whole nuclear fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Material accountancy procedures for uranium under a whole nuclear fuel cycle were studied by taking into consideration the material accountancy capability associated with realistic measurement uncertainties. The significant quantity used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for low-enriched uranium is 75 kg U-235 contained. A loss of U-235 contained in uranium can be detected by either of the following two procedures: one is a traditional U-235 isotope balance, and the other is a total uranium element balance. Facility types studied in this paper were UF6 conversion, gas centrifuge uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, reprocessing, plutonium conversion, and MOX fuel production in Japan, where recycled uranium is processed in addition to natural uranium. It was found that the material accountancy capability of a total uranium element balance was almost always higher than that of a U-235 isotope balance under normal accuracy of weight, concentration, and enrichment measurements. Changing from the traditional U-235 isotope balance to the total uranium element balance for these facilities would lead to a gain of U-235 loss detection capability through material accountancy and to a reduction in the required resources of both the IAEA and operators.

Nakano, Hiromasa; Akiba, Mitsunori [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Calorimetric measurements of nuclear heating in small probes of plasma-facing materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct measurements of nuclear heating in small probes of materials subjected to D-T neutrons from an accelerator based source were initiated during 1989 under USDOE/JAERI collaborative program. A calorimetric technique was utilized to make these measurements. The probes of plasma facing materials, among others, were kept very close, {approximately}3 to {approximately}7 cm, to the neutron source inside an evacuated vacuum chamber. A typical probe measured 20 mm in diameter by 20 mm in length. Typical source intensity was {approximately}2 x 10{sup 12} n/s. The temperature changes in the probe medium were detected by thermal sensors spatially distributed in the probe. The thermal sensors included bead-thermistors, and platinum RTD`s. The change in resistance of a thermal sensor due to onset of nuclear heating was picked up by an automated data acquisition and control system that included a highly sensitive digital voltmeter that had a resolution of 100 nV in voltage range of 300 mV or less. Usually, an individual probe was subjected to spaced neutron pulses of time duration 3 m to 10 m. Two consecutive source neutron pulses were separated by a cooling interval of almost the same duration as that of a source pulse. This approach made it possible to clearly distinguish between the heating and drift phases of the probe medium, on one hand, and to ascertain and verify the reproducibility of measured heating rates from one neutron pulse to another, on the other hand.

Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A.; Youssef, M.Z. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

256

Fusion Nuclear Schience Facility-AT: A Material And Component Testing Device  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is a necessary complement to ITER, especially in the area of materials and components testing, needed for DEMO design development. FNSF-AT, which takes advantage of advanced tokamak (AT) physics should have neutron wall loading of 1-2 MW/m2, continuous operation for periods of up to two weeks, a duty factor goal of 0.3 per year and an accumulated fluence of 3-6 MW-yr/m2 (~30-60 dpa) in ten years to enable the qualification of structural, blanket and functional materials, components and corresponding ancillary equipment necessary for the design and licensing of a DEMO. Base blankets with a ferritic steel structure and selected tritium blanket materials will be tested and used for the demonstration of tritium sufficiency. Additional test ports at the outboard mid-plane will be reserved for test blankets with advanced designs or exotic materials, and electricity production for integrated high fluence testing in a DT fusion spectrum. FNSF-AT will be designed using conservative implementations of all elements of AT physics to produce 150-300 MW fusion power with modest energy gain (Q<7) in a modest sized normal conducting coil device. It will demonstrate and help to select the DEMO plasma facing, structural, tritium breeding, functional materials and ancillary equipment including diagnostics. It will also demonstrate the necessary tritium fuel cycle, design and cooling of the first wall chamber and divertor components. It will contribute to the knowledge on material qualification, licensing, operational safety and remote maintenance necessary for DEMO design

Wong, C. P.; Chan, V. S.; Garofalo, A. M.; Stambaugh, Ron; Sawan, M.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Merrill, Brad

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Next Generation Nuclear Plant Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2803)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production, with an outlet gas temperature in the range of 750°C, and a design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic, or pebble bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. This technology development plan details the additional research and development (R&D) required to design and license the NGNP RPV, assuming that A 508/A 533 is the material of construction. The majority of additional information that is required is related to long-term aging behavior at NGNP vessel temperatures, which are somewhat above those commonly encountered in the existing database from LWR experience. Additional data are also required for the anticipated NGNP environment. An assessment of required R&D for a Grade 91 vessel has been retained from the first revision of the R&D plan in Appendix B in somewhat less detail. Considerably more development is required for this steel compared to A 508/A 533 including additional irradiation testing for expected NGNP operating temperatures, high-temperature mechanical properties, and extensive studies of long-term microstructural stability.

J. K. Wright; R. N. Wright

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Next Generation Nuclear Plant Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2803)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic, or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development Program is responsible for performing research and development on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. Studies of potential Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels have been carried out as part of the pre-conceptual design studies. These design studies generally focus on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code status of the steels, temperature limits, and allowable stresses. Three realistic candidate materials have been identified by this process: conventional light water reactor RPV steels A508/533, 2¼Cr-1Mo in the annealed condition, and modified 9Cr 1Mo ferritic martenistic steel. Based on superior strength and higher temperature limits, the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel has been identified by the majority of design engineers as the preferred choice for the RPV. All of the vendors have concluded, however, that with adequate engineered cooling of the vessel, the A508/533 steels are also acceptable.

J. K. Wright; R. N. Wright

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Common Control System Vulnerability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

Trent Nelson

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Mobile Pit verification system design based on passive special nuclear material verification in weapons storage facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A mobile 'drive by' passive radiation detection system to be applied in special nuclear materials (SNM) storage facilities for validation and compliance purposes has been designed through the use of computational modeling and new radiation detection methods. This project was the result of work over a 1 year period to create optimal design specifications to include creation of 3D models using both Monte Carlo and deterministic codes to characterize the gamma and neutron leakage out each surface of SNM-bearing canisters. Results were compared and agreement was demonstrated between both models. Container leakages were then used to determine the expected reaction rates using transport theory in the detectors when placed at varying distances from the can. A 'typical' background signature was incorporated to determine the minimum signatures versus the probability of detection to evaluate moving source protocols with collimation. This established the criteria for verification of source presence and time gating at a given vehicle speed. New methods for the passive detection of SNM were employed and shown to give reliable identification of age and material for highly enriched uranium (HEU) and weapons grade plutonium (WGPu). The finalized 'Mobile Pit Verification System' (MPVS) design demonstrated that a 'drive-by' detection system, collimated and operating at nominally 2 mph, is capable of rapidly verifying each and every weapon pit stored in regularly spaced, shelved storage containers, using completely passive gamma and neutron signatures for HEU and WGPu. This system is ready for real evaluation to demonstrate passive total material accountability in storage facilities. (authors)

Paul, J. N.; Chin, M. R.; Sjoden, G. E. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering Program, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State St, Atlanta, GA 30332-0745 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Summary report on transportation of nuclear fuel materials in Japan : transportation infrastructure, threats identified in open literature, and physical protection regulations.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of three detailed studies of the physical protection systems for the protection of nuclear materials transport in Japan, with an emphasis on the transportation of mixed oxide fuel materials1. The Japanese infrastructure for transporting nuclear fuel materials is addressed in the first section. The second section of this report presents a summary of baseline data from the open literature on the threats of sabotage and theft during the transport of nuclear fuel materials in Japan. The third section summarizes a review of current International Atomic Energy Agency, Japanese and United States guidelines and regulations concerning the physical protection for the transportation of nuclear fuel materials.

Cochran, John Russell; Ouchi, Yuichiro (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan); Furaus, James Phillip; Marincel, Michelle K.

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Applications of laser produced ion beams to nuclear analysis of materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser produced ion beams have unique characteristics which are ultra-short pulse, very low emittance, and variety of nuclear species. These characteristics could be used for analyzing various materials like low Z ion doped heavy metals or ceramics. Energies of laser produced ion beam extend from 0.1MeV to 100MeV. Therefore, various nuclear processes can be induced in the interactions of ion beams with samples. The ion beam driven nuclear analysis has been developed for many years by using various electrostatic accelerators. To explore the applicability of laser ion beam to the analysis of the Li ion battery, a proton beam with the diameter of {approx} 1.0 {mu}m at Takasaki Ion Acceleration for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA), JAEA was used. For the analysis, the PIGE (Particle-Induced Gamma Ray Emission) is used. The proton beam scans over Li battery electrode samples to diagnose Li density in the LiNi{sub 0.85}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} anode. As the results, PIGE images for Li area density distributions are obtained with the spatial resolution of better than 1.5{mu}m FWHM. By the Li PIGE images, the depth dependence of de-intercalation levels of Li in the anode is obtained. By the POP experiments at TIARA, it is clarified that laser produced ion beam is appropriate for the Li ion battery analysis. 41.85.Lc, 41.75.Jv, 42.62.cf.

Mima, K.; Azuma, H.; Fujita, K.; Yamazaki, A.; Okuda, C.; Ukyo, Y.; Kato, Y.; Arrabal, R. Gonzalez; Soldo, F.; Perlado, J. M.; Nishimura, H.; Nakai, S. [Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, Shizuoka (Japan) and Institute de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain) and Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan); Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Gunnma (Japan); Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan)

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

263

Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multimodal transportation network  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, and focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multi-modal transportation network  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, all focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

265

Standard guide for application of radiation monitors to the control and physical security of special nuclear material  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 This guide briefly describes the state-of-the-art of radiation monitors for detecting special nuclear material (SNM) (see 3.1.11) in order to establish the context in which to write performance standards for the monitors. This guide extracts information from technical documentation to provide information for selecting, calibrating, testing, and operating such radiation monitors when they are used for the control and protection of SNM. This guide offers an unobtrusive means of searching pedestrians, packages, and motor vehicles for concealed SNM as one part of a nuclear material control or security plan for nuclear materials. The radiation monitors can provide an efficient, sensitive, and reliable means of detecting the theft of small quantities of SNM while maintaining a low likelihood of nuisance alarms. 1.2 Dependable operation of SNM radiation monitors rests on selecting appropriate monitors for the task, operating them in a hospitable environment, and conducting an effective program to test, calibrat...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

U-174: Serendipity Unspecified SQL Injection Vulnerability |...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

4: Serendipity Unspecified SQL Injection Vulnerability U-174: Serendipity Unspecified SQL Injection Vulnerability May 22, 2012 - 7:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Serendipity Unspecified SQL...

267

INFORMATION: Inspection Report on "Removal of Categories I and II Special Nuclear Material from Sandia National Laboratories-New Mexico"  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Sandia National Laboratories-New Mexico (Sandia) develops science-based technologies in support of national security in areas such as nuclear weapons, nonproliferation, military technologies, and homeland security. Sandia's primary mission is ensuring that the U.S. nuclear arsenal is safe, secure, and reliable and can fully support the Nation's deterrence policy. Part of this mission includes systems engineering of nuclear weapons; research, design, and development of non-nuclear components; manufacturing of non-nuclear weapons components; the provision of safety, security, and reliability assessments of stockpile weapons; and the conduct of high-explosives research and development and environmental testing. Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, operates Sandia for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). On May 7, 2004, the Secretary announced that the Department would evaluate missions at DOE sites to consolidate Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in the most secure environments possible. The Administrator of the NNSA said that this effort was a key part of an overall plan to transform the nuclear weapons complex into a smaller, safer, more secure, and more efficient national security enterprise. In February 2008, Sandia was the first site to report it had reduced its on-site inventory of nuclear material below 'Categories I and II' levels, which require the highest level of security to protect material such as plutonium and highly enriched uranium. The Office of Inspector General initiated an inspection to determine if Sandia made appropriate adjustments to its security posture in response to the removal of the Categories I and II SNM. We found that Sandia adjusted its security posture in response to the removal of Categories I and II SNM. For example, security posts were closed; unneeded protective force weapons and equipment were excessed from the site; and, Sandia's Site Safeguards and Security Plan was modified. We also found that some highly enriched uranium in a complex material configuration was not removed from Sandia. This material was designated as Category III material using a methodology for assessing the attractiveness of complex materials that was not specifically addressed in any current DOE directive. Although DOE and NNSA officials believed that this designation was appropriate, the methodology used to support this designation had not, as of the time of our review, been incorporated into the DOE directives system. Historically, the Department has considered the categorization of SNM to be an important national security and public policy issue. Consequently, we believe that expedited action should be taken to formalize this methodology in the DOE directives system and that it be disseminated throughout the Department of Energy complex.

None

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

A nuclear magnetic resonance study of hydrogen in battery and chemically prepared material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-state magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance studies have been undertaken on positive plate material from lead-acid batteries and on samples of both pure ..cap alpha..-PbO/sub 2/ and pure ..beta..-PbO/sub 2/ prepared by nonelectrochemical methods. Battery positive plate samples contain protons in two different surface and near surface configurations. One of these proton species is associated with mobile, isolated, adsorbed hydroxyl groups, and/or water molecules that can be removed by outgassing. The other proton species is not removed by outgassing; it probably corresponds to water molecules and/of closely spaced hydroxyl groups trapped on internal crystal surfaces. The proton species present in fresh (uncycled) positive plate material are not significantly different in either configuration or abundance from those in extensively cycled samples. Thus, it is unlikely that decline in battery capacity with cycling service is associated with a change in the hydrogen content of PbO/sub 2/.

Hill, R.J.; Jessel, A.M.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Preliminary materials selection issues for the next generation nuclear plant reactor pressure vessel.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the coming decades, the United States and the entire world will need energy supplies to meet the growing demands due to population increase and increase in consumption due to global industrialization. One of the reactor system concepts, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), with helium as the coolant, has been identified as uniquely suited for producing hydrogen without consumption of fossil fuels or the emission of greenhouse gases [Generation IV 2002]. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected this system for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, to demonstrate emissions-free nuclear-assisted electricity and hydrogen production within the next 15 years. The NGNP reference concepts are helium-cooled, graphite-moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactors with a design goal outlet helium temperature of {approx}1000 C [MacDonald et al. 2004]. The reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. The use of molten salt coolant, especially for the transfer of heat to hydrogen production, is also being considered. The NGNP is expected to produce both electricity and hydrogen. The process heat for hydrogen production will be transferred to the hydrogen plant through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). The basic technology for the NGNP has been established in the former high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) and demonstration plants (DRAGON, Peach Bottom, AVR, Fort St. Vrain, and THTR). In addition, the technologies for the NGNP are being advanced in the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) project, and the South African state utility ESKOM-sponsored project to develop the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Furthermore, the Japanese HTTR and Chinese HTR-10 test reactors are demonstrating the feasibility of some of the planned components and materials. The proposed high operating temperatures in the VHTR place significant constraints on the choice of material selected for the reactor pressure vessel for both the PBMR and prismatic design. The main focus of this report is the RPV for both design concepts with emphasis on material selection.

Natesan, K.; Majumdar, S.; Shankar, P. S.; Shah, V. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2007-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

270

MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO PUBLIC HEALTH RISKS's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012041 Prepared for: California Energy Commission of California. #12; ii ABSTRACT This study reviewed first available frameworks for climate change adaptation

271

V-092: Pidgin Multiple Vulnerabilities  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Multiple vulnerabilities have been reported in Pidgin, which can be exploited by malicious people to manipulate certain data, cause a DoS (Denial of Service), and compromise a user's system.

272

International training course on implementation of state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials: proceedings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Implementation of State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials held October 17 through November 4, 1983, at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a State system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards requirements. Major emphasis for the 1983 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Westinghouse Fast Flux Test Facility Visitor Center, and Washington Public Power System nuclear reactor facilities in Richland, Washington. Individual presentations were indexed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

Not Available

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

EA-1954: Resumption of Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Materials at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities associated with its proposal to resume testing of nuclear fuels and materials under transient high-power test conditions at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory. The State of Idaho and Shoshone-Bannock Tribes are cooperating agencies.

274

Fundamental Processes of Coupled Radiation Damage and Mechanical Behavior in Nuclear Fuel Materials for High Temperature Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work has been to elucidate the relationship among microstructure, radiation damage and mechanical properties for nuclear fuel materials. As representative nuclear materials, we have taken an hcp metal (Mg as a generic metal, and Ti alloys for fast reactors) and UO2 (representing fuel). The degradation of the thermo-mechanical behavior of nuclear fuels under irradiation, both the fissionable material itself and its cladding, is a longstanding issue of critical importance to the nuclear industry. There are experimental indications that nanocrystalline metals and ceramics may be more resistant to radiation damage than their coarse-grained counterparts. The objective of this project look at the effect of microstructure on radiation damage and mechanical behavior in these materials. The approach to be taken was state-of-the-art, large-scale atomic-level simulation. This systematic simulation program of the effects of irradiation on the structure and mechanical properties of polycrystalline Ti and UO2 identified radiation damage mechanisms. Moreover, it will provided important insights into behavior that can be expected in nanocrystalline microstructures and, by extension, nanocomposites. The fundamental insights from this work can be expected to help in the design microstructures that are less susceptible to radiation damage and thermomechanical degradation.

Simon Phillpot; James Tulenko

2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

275

Fuel-Cycle and Nuclear Material Disposition Issues Associated with High-Temperature Gas Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to facilitate a better understanding of the fuel-cycle and nuclear material disposition issues associated with high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This paper reviews the nuclear fuel cycles supporting early and present day gas reactors, and identifies challenges for the advanced fuel cycles and waste management systems supporting the next generation of HTGRs, including the Very High Temperature Reactor, which is under development in the Generation IV Program. The earliest gas-cooled reactors were the carbon dioxide (CO2)-cooled reactors. Historical experience is available from over 1,000 reactor-years of operation from 52 electricity-generating, CO2-cooled reactor plants that were placed in operation worldwide. Following the CO2 reactor development, seven HTGR plants were built and operated. The HTGR came about from the combination of helium coolant and graphite moderator. Helium was used instead of air or CO2 as the coolant. The helium gas has a significant technical base due to the experience gained in the United States from the 40-MWe Peach Bottom and 330-MWe Fort St. Vrain reactors designed by General Atomics. Germany also built and operated the 15-MWe Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) and the 300-MWe Thorium High-Temperature Reactor (THTR) power plants. The AVR, THTR, Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain all used fuel containing thorium in various forms (i.e., carbides, oxides, thorium particles) and mixtures with highly enriched uranium. The operational experience gained from these early gas reactors can be applied to the next generation of nuclear power systems. HTGR systems are being developed in South Africa, China, Japan, the United States, and Russia. Elements of the HTGR system evaluated included fuel demands on uranium ore mining and milling, conversion, enrichment services, and fuel fabrication; fuel management in-core; spent fuel characteristics affecting fuel recycling and refabrication, fuel handling, interim storage, packaging, transportation, waste forms, waste treatment, decontamination and decommissioning issues; and low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) disposal.

Shropshire, D.E.; Herring, J.S.

2004-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

276

The Role of the George Kuzmycz Training Center in Improving the Nuclear Material Management Culture in Ukraine.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The George Kuzmycz Training Center for Physical Protection, Control and Accounting (GKTC) was established in 1998 in a collaborative endeavor of the State Nuclear Regulatory Administration of Ukraine, the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. Department of Energy. Located at the Institute for Nuclear Research in Kyiv, the GKTC provides theoretical and practical training in physical protection, control, and accounting techniques and systems that are employed to reduce the risk of unauthorized use, theft, or diversion of weapons-usable nuclear material. Participants in GKTC workshops and courses include nuclear facility specialists as well as officials of the State's regulatory authorities. Recently, the training scope has been broadened to include students from other nations in the region.

Gavrylyuk, V. I. (Viktor I.); Scherbachenko, A. M. (Alexander M.); Bazavov, D. A. (Dmitri A.); Kyryshchuk, V. I. (Volodymyr I.); Robinson, P. (Phil); Sheppard, G. A. (Gregory A.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Modeling the Production of Beta-Delayed Gamma Rays for the Detection of Special Nuclear Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this LDRD project was to develop one or more models for the production of {beta}-delayed {gamma} rays following neutron-induced fission of a special nuclear material (SNM) and to define a standardized formatting scheme which will allow them to be incorporated into some of the modern, general-purpose Monte Carlo transport codes currently being used to simulate inspection techniques proposed for detecting fissionable material hidden in sea-going cargo containers. In this report, we will describe a Monte Carlo model for {beta}-delayed {gamma}-ray emission following the fission of SNM that can accommodate arbitrary time-dependent fission rates and photon collection histories. The model involves direct sampling of the independent fission yield distributions of the system, the branching ratios for decay of individual fission products and spectral distributions representing photon emission from each fission product and for each decay mode. While computationally intensive, it will be shown that this model can provide reasonably detailed estimates of the spectra that would be recorded by an arbitrary spectrometer and may prove quite useful in assessing the quality of evaluated data libraries and identifying gaps in the libraries. The accuracy of the model will be illustrated by comparing calculated and experimental spectra from the decay of short-lived fission products following the reactions {sup 235}U(n{sub th}, f) and {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th}, f). For general-purpose transport calculations, where a detailed consideration of the large number of individual {gamma}-ray transitions in a spectrum may not be necessary, it will be shown that a simple parameterization of the {gamma}-ray source function can be defined which provides high-quality average spectral distributions that should suffice for calculations describing photons being transported through thick attenuating media. Finally, a proposal for ENDF-compatible formats that describe each of the models and allow for their straightforward use in Monte Carlo codes will be presented.

Hall, J M; Pruet, J A; Brown, D A; Descalle, M; Hedstrom, G W; Prussin, S G

2005-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

278

Design, synthesis, and characterization of conjugated polymers and functional paramagnetic materials for dynamic nuclear polarization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The design, synthesis, and characterization of a series of radicals and biradicals for use as dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) agents is described. DNP is a method to enhance the S/N-ratio in solid-state nuclear magnetic ...

Dane, Eric Lawrence

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Workshop materials from the 2nd international training course on physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials, Module 13  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This course is intended for representatives of countries where nuclear power is being developed and whose responsibilities include the preparation of regulation and the design and evaluation of physical protection systems. This is the second of two volumes; the first volume is SAND-79-1090. (DLC)

Martin, F. P. [ed.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are presented of work performed on the Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Included are the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The progress in the screening test program is described, including screening creep results and metallographic analysis for materials thermally exposed or tested at 750, 850, and 950/sup 0/C.

Not Available

1980-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

LYNX: An unattended sensor system for detection of gamma-ray and neutron emissions from special nuclear materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manuscript profiles an unattended and fully autonomous detection system sensitive to gamma-ray and neutron emissions from special nuclear material. The LYNX design specifically targets applications that require radiation detection capabilities but possess little or no infrastructure. In these settings, users need the capability to deploy sensors for extended periods of time that analyze whatever signal-starved data can be captured, since little or no control may be exerted over measurement conditions. The fundamental sensing elements of the LYNX system are traditional NaI(Tl) and 3He detectors. The new developments reported here center on two themes: low-power electronics and computationally simple analysis algorithms capable of discriminating gamma-ray signatures indicative of special nuclear materials from those of naturally occurring radioactive material. Incorporating tripwire-detection algorithms based on gamma-ray spectral signatures into a low-power electronics package significantly improves performance in environments where sensors encounter nuisance sources.

Runkle, Robert C.; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Kiff, Scott D.; Sidor, Daniel E.; Morris, Scott J.; Rohrer, John S.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Pfund, David M.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Bowler, Ryan S.; Mullen, Crystal A.

2009-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

282

The Soviet uranium industry and exports of nuclear materials and services  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The USSR has been offering Western countries, through long-term contracts, services in the processing and enrichment of uranium for their nuclear power industries since 1973. Although known for some time from Western sources, this was confirmed by Boris Semyenov, First Deputy Chairman of the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy, in 1989. Other sources state that the first service contract was signed in 1971, with initial deliveries beginning in 1973, and that altogether, there are now about 10-12 long-term contracts with firms in various Western European countries that extend to the year 2000 or in some cases to 2010. Although these services are said to remain the mainstay of business with the capitalist countries of the West, the export of enriched uranium materials produced from domestic ore began in 1988. Clients include firms in both the US and Western Europe. Evidently, the severe balance-of-payments problems in Soviet foreign trade operations in recent years have led the Soviets to push alternatives to oil exports as much as possible, notably metals and minerals and chemicals and fertilizers, and this has now extended to the Soviet uranium industry. The paper discusses the USSR uranium industry, uranium mining, uranium enrichment, and plutonium production.

Sagers, M.J.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

International training course on implementation of state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials: proceedings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Implementation of State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials held June 3 through June 21, 1985, at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and San Clemente, California. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards requirements. Major emphasis for the 1985 course was placed on safeguards methods used at item-control facilities, particularly nuclear power generating stations and test reactors. An introduction to safeguards methods used at bulk handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants, was also included. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Southern California Edison Company. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, San Clemente, California.

Not Available

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Are Vulnerability Disclosure Deadlines Justified?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vulnerability research organizations Rapid7, Google Security team, and Zero Day Initiative recently imposed grace periods for public disclosure of vulnerabilities. The grace periods ranged from 45 to 182 days, after which disclosure might occur with or without an effective mitigation from the affected software vendor. At this time there is indirect evidence that the shorter grace periods of 45 and 60 days may not be practical. However, there is strong evidence that the recently announced Zero Day Initiative grace period of 182 days yields benefit in speeding up the patch creation process, and may be practical for many software products. Unfortunately, there is also evidence that the 182 day grace period results in more vulnerability announcements without an available patch.

Miles McQueen; Jason L. Wright; Lawrence Wellman

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Update on the Department of Energy's 1994 plutonium vulnerability assessment for the plutonium finishing plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of the environmental, safety, and health vulnerabilities associated with the continued storage of PFP's inventory of plutonium bearing materials and other SNM. This report re-evaluates the five vulnerabilities identified in 1994 at the PFP that are associated with SNM storage. This new evaluation took a more detailed look and applied a risk ranking process to help focus remediation efforts.

HERZOG, K.R.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

VALIDATION OF NUCLEAR MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTABILITY (MC&A) SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS TOOL (MSET) AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY (INL)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) Functional Model has been developed to describe MC&A systems at facilities possessing Category I or II Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Emphasis is on achieving the objectives of 144 “Fundamental Elements” in key areas ranging from categorization of nuclear material to establishment of Material Balance Areas (MBAs), controlling access, performing quality measurements of inventories and transfers, timely reporting all activities, and detecting and investigating anomalies. An MC&A System Effectiveness Tool (MSET), including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technology for evaluating MC&A effectiveness and relative risk, has been developed to accompany the Functional Model. The functional model and MSET were introduced at the 48th annual International Nuclear Material Management (INMM) annual meeting in July, 20071,2. A survey/questionnaire is used to accumulate comprehensive data regarding the MC&A elements at a facility. Data is converted from the questionnaire to numerical values using the DELPHI method and exercises are conducted to evaluate the overall effectiveness of an MC&A system. In 2007 a peer review was conducted and a questionnaire was completed for a hypothetical facility and exercises were conducted. In the first quarter of 2008, a questionnaire was completed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and MSET exercises were conducted. The experience gained from conducting the MSET exercises at INL helped evaluate the completeness and consistency of the MC&A Functional Model, descriptions of fundamental elements of the MC&A Functional Model, relationship between the MC&A Functional Model and the MC&A PRA tool and usefulness of the MSET questionnaire data collection process.

Meppen, Bruce; Haga, Roger; Moedl, Kelley; Bean, Tom; Sanders, Jeff; Thom, Mary Alice

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

The Development of a Parameterized Scatter Removal Algorithm for Nuclear Materials Identification System Imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This dissertation presents a novel method for removing scattering effects from Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) imaging. The NMIS uses fast neutron radiography to generate images of the internal structure of objects non-intrusively. If the correct attenuation through the object is measured, the positions and macroscopic cross-sections of features inside the object can be determined. The cross sections can then be used to identify the materials and a 3D map of the interior of the object can be reconstructed. Unfortunately, the measured attenuation values are always too low because scattered neutrons contribute to the unattenuated neutron signal. Previous efforts to remove the scatter from NMIS imaging have focused on minimizing the fraction of scattered neutrons which are misidentified as directly transmitted by electronically collimating and time tagging the source neutrons. The parameterized scatter removal algorithm (PSRA) approaches the problem from an entirely new direction by using Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the point scatter functions (PScFs) produced by neutrons scattering in the object. PScFs have been used to remove scattering successfully in other applications, but only with simple 2D detector models. This work represents the first time PScFs have ever been applied to an imaging detector geometry as complicated as the NMIS. By fitting the PScFs using a Gaussian function, they can be parameterized and the proper scatter for a given problem can be removed without the need for rerunning the simulations each time. In order to model the PScFs, an entirely new method for simulating NMIS measurements was developed for this work. The development of the new models and the codes required to simulate them are presented in detail. The PSRA was used on several simulated and experimental measurements and chi-squared goodness of fit tests were used to compare the corrected values to the ideal values that would be expected with no scattering. Using the PSRA resulted in an improvement of the chi-squared test by a factor of 60 or more when applied to simple homogeneous objects.

Grogan, Brandon R [ORNL

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Combined Photoneutron And X Ray Interrogation Of Containers For Nuclear Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Effective cargo inspection systems for nuclear material detection require good penetration by the interrogating radiation, generation of a sufficient number of fissions, and strong and penetrating detection signatures. Inspection systems need also to be sensitive over a wide range of cargo types and densities encountered in daily commerce. Thus they need to be effective with highly hydrogenous cargo, where neutron attenuation is a major limitation, as well as with dense metallic cargo, where x-ray penetration is low. A system that interrogates cargo with both neutrons and x-rays can, in principle, achieve high performance over the widest range of cargos. Moreover, utilizing strong prompt-neutron ({approx}3 per fission) and delayed-gamma ray ({approx}7 per fission) signatures further strengthens the detection sensitivity across all cargo types. The complementary nature of x-rays and neutrons, used as both probing radiation and detection signatures, alleviates the need to employ exceedingly strong sources, which would otherwise be required to achieve adequate performance across all cargo types, if only one type of radiation probe were employed. A system based on the above principles, employing a commercially-available 9 MV linac was developed and designed. Neutrons are produced simultaneously with x-rays by the photonuclear interaction of the x-ray beam with a suitable converter. A total neutron yield on the order of 10{sup 11} n/s is achieved with an average electron beam current of 100 {mu}A. If fissionable material is present, fissions are produced both by the high-energy x-ray beam and by the photoneutrons. Photofission and neutron fission dominate in hydrogenous and metallic cargos, respectively. Neutron-capture gamma rays provide information on the cargo composition. The prompt neutrons resulting from fission are detected by two independent detector systems: by very efficient Differential Die Away Analysis (DDAA) detectors, and by direct detection of neutrons with energies higher than 3 MeV using a recently developed fluorine-based threshold activation detector (TAD). The delayed gamma-ray signals are measured with high efficiency with the same TAD and with additional lower-cost plastic scintillators.

Gozani, Tsahi; Shaw, Timothy; King, Michael J.; Stevenson, John; Elsalim, Mashal; Brown, Craig; Condron, Cathie [Rapiscan Laboratories, Inc., 520 Almanor Ave., Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Leak-Path Factor Analysis for the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Leak-path factors (LPFs) were calculated for the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) located in the Plutonium Facility, Building 41 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 55. In the unlikely event of an accidental fire powerful enough to fail a container holding actinides, the subsequent release of oxides, modeled as PuO{sub 2} aerosols, from the facility and into the surrounding environment was predicted. A 1-h nondestructive assay (NDA) laboratory fire accident was simulated with the MELCOR severe accident analysis code. Fire-driven air movement along with wind-driven air infiltration transported a portion of these actinides from the building. This fraction is referred to as the leak-path factor. The potential effect of smoke aerosol on the transport of the actinides was investigated to verify the validity of neglecting the smoke as conservative. The input model for the NMSF consisted of a system of control volumes, flow pathways, and surfaces sufficient to model the thermal-hydraulic conditions within the facility and the aerosol transport data necessary to simulate the transport of PuO{sub 2} particles. The thermal-hydraulic, heat-transfer, and aerosol-transport models are solved simultaneously with data being exchanged between models. A MELCOR input model was designed such that it would reproduce the salient features of the fire per the corresponding CFAST calculation. Air infiltration into and out of the facility would be affected strongly by wind-driven differential pressures across the building. Therefore, differential pressures were applied to each side of the building according to guidance found in the ASHRAE handbook using a standard-velocity head equation with a leading multiplier to account for the orientation of the wind with the building. The model for the transport of aerosols considered all applicable transport processes, but the deposition within the building clearly was dominated by gravitational settling.

Shaffer, C.; Leonard, M.

1999-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

290

NNSAs Management of the $245 million Nuclear Materials Safeguards...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

was not clear because links did not exist to measure the impact of new activities and interface impacts across subprojects. A former Chief of Defense Nuclear Security expressed...

291

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternate nuclear material Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Program Summary: of electricity from nuclear power plants is far less than any of the alternative energy technologies now... Power Plants, EGRN 630 Characterization of...

292

Commercial nuclear fuel from U.S. and Russian surplus defense inventories: Materials, policies, and market effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear materials declared by the US and Russian governments as surplus to defense programs are being converted into fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. This report presents the results of an analysis estimating the market effects that would likely result from current plans to commercialize surplus defense inventories. The analysis focuses on two key issues: (1) the extent by which traditional sources of supply, such as production from uranium mines and enrichment plants, would be displaced by the commercialization of surplus defense inventories or, conversely, would be required in the event of disruptions to planned commercialization, and (2) the future price of uranium considering the potential availability of surplus defense inventories. Finally, the report provides an estimate of the savings in uranium procurement costs that could be realized by US nuclear power generating companies with access to competitively priced uranium supplied from surplus defense inventories.

NONE

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012071 Prepared for: California Energy, as well as projections of future changes in climate based on modeling studies using various plausible

294

20th International Training Course (ITC-20) on the physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials evaluation report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this evaluation report is to provide the information necessary to improve the effectiveness of the ITC provided to the International Atomic Energy Agency Member States. This report examines ITC-20 training content, delivery methods, scheduling, and logistics. Ultimately, this report evaluates whether the course provides the knowledge and skills necessary to meet the participants needs in the protection of nuclear materials and facilities.

Ramirez, Amanda Ann

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

T-565: Vulnerability in Microsoft Malware Protection Engine Could...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

5: Vulnerability in Microsoft Malware Protection Engine Could Allow Elevation of PrivilegeVulnerability T-565: Vulnerability in Microsoft Malware Protection Engine Could Allow...

296

Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 MAG LAB REPORTS Volume 18 No. 1 CONDENSED MATTER SCIENCE Technique development, graphene, magnetism & magnetic materials, topological insulators, quantum fl uids & solids,...

297

Assessment of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Institute of Nuclear Material Management, Tucson, AZ,Assay, Institute of Nuclear Materials Management 51st Annual

Quiter, Brian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Power-law distributions in events involving nuclear and radiological materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear and radiological events are large-impact, hard-to-predict rare events, whose associated probability is exceedingly low. They can exert monumental impacts and lead to grave environmental and economic consequences. ...

Chow, Jijun

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Potential opportunities for nano materials to help enable enhanced nuclear fuel performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation is an overview of the technical challenges for development of nuclear fuels with enhanced performance and accident tolerance. Key specific aspects of improved fuel performance are noted. Examples of existing nanonuclear projects and concepts are presented and areas of potential focus are suggested. The audience for this presentation includes representatives from: DOE-NE, other national laboratories, industry and academia. This audience is a mixture of nanotechnology experts and nuclear energy researchers and managers.

McClellan, Kenneth J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

300

Final LDRD report : nanoscale mechanisms in advanced aging of materials during storage of spent %22high burnup%22 nuclear fuel.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the results of a three-year LDRD project focused on understanding microstructural evolution and related property changes in Zr-based nuclear cladding materials towards the development of high fidelity predictive simulations for long term dry storage. Experiments and modeling efforts have focused on the effects of hydride formation and accumulation of irradiation defects. Key results include: determination of the influence of composition and defect structures on hydride formation; measurement of the electrochemical property differences between hydride and parent material for understanding and predicting corrosion resistance; in situ environmental transmission electron microscope observation of hydride formation; development of a predictive simulation for mechanical property changes as a function of irradiation dose; novel test method development for microtensile testing of ionirradiated material to simulate the effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties; and successful demonstration of an Idaho National Labs-based sample preparation and shipping method for subsequent Sandia-based analysis of post-reactor cladding.

Clark, Blythe G.; Rajasekhara, Shreyas; Enos, David George; Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Doyle, Barney Lee; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Weiner, Ruth F.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

An overview of research activities on materials for nuclear applications at the INL Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility at the Idaho National Laboratory is a US Department of Energy National User Facility engaged in various aspects of materials research for nuclear applications related to fusion and advanced fission systems. Research activities are mainly focused on the interaction of tritium with materials, in particular plasma facing components, liquid breeders, high temperature coolants, fuel cladding, cooling and blanket structures and heat exchangers. Other activities include validation and verification experiments in support of the Fusion Safety Program, such as beryllium dust reactivity and dust transport in vacuum vessels, and support of Advanced Test Reactor irradiation experiments. This paper presents an overview of the programs engaged in the activities, which include the US-Japan TITAN collaboration, the US ITER program, the Next Generation Power Plant program and the tritium production program, and a presentation of ongoing experiments as well as a summary of recent results with emphasis on fusion relevant materials.

P. Calderoni; P. Sharpe; M. Shimada

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Status of materials handbooks for particle accelerator and nuclear reactor applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of research and development for accelerator applications, a materials handbook was developed in August of 1998 funded by the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project. This handbook, presently called Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Materials Handbook, Materials Data for Particle Accelerator Applications, has just issued Revision 5 and contains detailed information showing the effects of irradiation on many properties for a wide variety of materials. Development of a web-accessible materials database for Generation IV Reactor Programs has been ongoing for about three years. This handbook provides a single authoritative source for qualified materials data applicable to all Generation IV reactor concepts. A beta version of this Gen IV Materials Handbook has been completed and is presently under evaluation.

Maloy, Stuart [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Rogers, Berylene [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Philip, Rittenhouse [Consultant

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Feasibility Study of a Portable Coupled 3He Detector with LaBr3 Gamma Scintillator for Field Identification and Quantification of Nuclear Material  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent years, there have been several research endeavors to increase the ability to identify and quantify special nuclear material in field measurements. These have included both gamma spectroscopy and neutron coincidence systems...

Strohmeyer, Daniel C.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

304

INMM 54th Annual Meeting, July 14-18, 2013, JW Marriott Desert Springs, Palm Desert, California USA Comprehensive Nuclear Material Surveillance with a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

network and/or the Internet. In conjunction with available in-vehicle cellular and satellite communication, and humiditycomprehensive autonomous monitoring of sensitive nuclear materials is now feasible with the ARG-US RFID system

Kemner, Ken

305

Nuclear material safeguards for enrichments plants: Part 4, Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant: Diversion scenarios and IAEA safeguards activities: Safeguards training course  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This publication is Part 4 of a safeguards training course in Nuclear Material Safeguards for enrichment plants. This part of the course deals with diversion scenarios and safeguards activities at gas centrifuge enrichment plants.

Not Available

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Journal of Nuclear Materials 205 (1993) 258-266 North-Holland  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electron irradiation A.T. Motta a, L.M. Howe a and P.R. Okamoto b `ReactorMaterials Research Branch, AECL

Motta, Arthur T.

307

Material Sample Collection with Tritium and Gamma Analyses at the University of Illinois's Nuclear Research Laboratory TRIGA Nuclear Research Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Illinois in Champaign-Urbana has an Advanced TRIGA reactor facility which was built in 1960 and operated until August 1998. The facility was shutdown for a variety of reasons, primarily due to a lack of usage by the host institution. In 1998 the reactor went into SAFSTOR and finally shipped its fuel in 2004. At the present time a site characterization and decommissioning plan are in process and hope to be submitted to the NRC in early 2006. The facility had to be fully characterized and part of this characterization involved the collection and analysis of samples. This included various solid media such as, concrete, graphite, metals, and sub-slab surface soils for immediate analysis of Activation and Tritium contamination well below the easily measured surfaces. This detailed facility investigation provided a case to eliminate historical unknowns, increasing the confidence for the segregation and packaging of high specific activity Low Level Radwaste (LLRW), from which a strategy of 'surgical-demolition' and segregation could be derived thus maximizing the volumes of 'clean material'. Performing quantitative volumetric concrete or metal radio-analyses safer and faster (without lab intervention) was a key objective of this dynamic characterization approach. Currently, concrete core bores are shipped to certified laboratories where the concrete residue is run through a battery of tests to determine the contaminants. The existing core boring operation volatilises or washes out some of the contaminants (like tritium) and oftentimes cross-contaminates the are a around the core bore site. The volatilization of the contaminants can lead to airborne problems in the immediate vicinity of the core bore. Cross-contamination can increase the contamination area and thereby increase the amount of waste generated that needs to be treated and stabilized before disposal. The goal was to avoid those field activities that could cause this type of release. Therefore, TRUPRO{sup R}, a sampling and profiling tool in conjunction with radiometric instrumentation was utilized to produce contamination profiles through the material being studied. All samples (except metals) on-site were analyzed within 10 minutes for tritium using a calibrated portable liquid scintillation counter (LSC) and analyzed for gamma activation products using a calibrated ISOCS. Improved sample collection with near real time analysis along with more historical hazard analysis enhanced significantly over the baseline coring approach the understanding of the depth distribution of contaminants. The water used in traditional coring can result in a radioactive liquid waste that needs to be dealt with. This would have been an issue at University of Illinois. Considerable time, risk reduction and money are saved using this profiling approach. (authors)

Charters, G.; Aggarwal, S. [New Millennium Nuclear Technologies, 575 Union Blvd, Suite 102, Lakewood, CO 80228 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Cultural Resource Investigations for the Resumption of Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Material at the Idaho National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to test nuclear fuels under conditions that subject them to short bursts of intense, high-power radiation called ‘transient testing’ in order to gain important information necessary for licensing new nuclear fuels for use in U.S. nuclear power plants, for developing information to help improve current nuclear power plant performance and sustainability, for improving the affordability of new generation reactors, for developing recyclable nuclear fuels, and for developing fuels that inhibit any repurposing into nuclear weapons. To meet this mission need, DOE is considering alternatives for re-use and modification of existing nuclear reactor facilities to support a renewed transient testing program. One alternative under consideration involves restarting the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) reactor located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. This report summarizes cultural resource investigations conducted by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office in 2013 to support environmental review of activities associated with restarting the TREAT reactor at the INL. These investigations were completed in order to identify and assess the significance of cultural resources within areas of potential effect associated with the proposed action and determine if the TREAT alternative would affect significant cultural resources or historic properties that are eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No archaeological resources were identified in the direct area of potential effects for the project, but four of the buildings proposed for modifications are evaluated as historic properties, potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. This includes the TREAT reactor (building #), control building (building #), guardhouse (building #), and warehouse (building #). The proposed re-use of these historic properties is consistent with original missions related to nuclear reactor testing and is expected to result in no adverse effects to their historic significance. Cultural resource investigations also involved communication with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to characterize cultural resources of potential tribal concern. This report provides a summary of the cultural resources inventoried and assessed within the defined areas of potential effect for the resumption of transient testing at the INL. Based on these analyses, proposed activities would have no adverse effects on historic properties within the APEs that have been defined. Other archaeological resources and cultural resources of potential concern to the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and others that are located near the APEs are also discussed with regard to potential indirect impacts. The report concludes with general recommendations for measures to reduce impacts to all identified resources.

Brenda R. Pace; Julie B. Williams

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Nuclear forward scattering vs. conventional Mossbauer studies of atomically tailored Eu-based materials.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the decrease in size of devices, rapid characterization of nano-devices is an inevitable necessity. It is shown that Moessbauer spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation from the advanced photon source provides such a tool of investigation. Results are presented and compared for conventional Moessbauer and Nuclear Forward Scattering for {sup 151}Eu-doped magnesium sulfide as an example, especially at low concentrations.

Konjhodzic, A.; Adamczyk, A.; Hasan, Z.; Alp, E. E.; Sturhahn, W.; Zhao, J.; Carroll, J. J.; Vagizov, F.; Univ. of Philadelphia; Youngstown State Univ.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Finding of no significant impact. Consolidation and interim storage of special nuclear material at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA -- 1060, for the consolidation, processing, and interim storage of Category I and II special nuclear material (SNM) in Building 371 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (hereinafter referred to as Rocky Flats or Site), Golden, Colorado. The scope of the EA included alternatives for interim storage including the no action alternative, the construction of a new facility for interim storage at Rocky Flats, and shipment to other DOE facilities for interim storage.

NONE

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Microsoft Word - Final Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System Users Guide 2 4-3-13.docx  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart of the Review ofElectronic InputNuclear Materials Management and

312

Climate Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User Group and Userof aChristinaCliff joins EMSLClimate Vulnerabilities

313

Some Materials Degradation Issues in the U.S. High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository Study (The Yucca Mountain Project)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The safe disposal of radioactive waste requires that the waste be isolated from the environment until radioactive decay has reduced its toxicity to innocuous levels for plants, animals, and humans. All of the countries currently studying the options for disposing of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) have selected deep geologic formations to be the primary barrier for accomplishing this isolation. In U.S.A., the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) designated Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site to be characterized for high-level nuclear waste (HLW) disposal. Long-term containment of waste and subsequent slow release of radionuclides into the geosphere will rely on a system of natural and engineered barriers including a robust waste containment design. The waste package design consists of a highly corrosion resistant Ni-based Alloy 22 cylindrical barrier surrounding a Type 316 stainless steel inner structural vessel. The waste package is covered by a mailbox-shaped drip shield composed primarily of Ti Grade 7 with Ti Grade 24 structural support members. The U.S. Yucca Mountain Project has been studying and modeling the degradation issues of the relevant materials for some 20 years. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art understanding of the degradation processes based on the past 20 years studies on Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) materials degradation issues with focus on interaction between the in-drift environmental conditions and long-term materials degradation of waste packages and drip shields within the repository system during the 10,000 years regulatory period. This paper provides an overview of the current understanding of the likely degradation behavior of the waste package and drip shield in the repository after the permanent closure of the facility. The degradation scenario discussed in this paper include aging and phase instability, dry oxidation, general and localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen induced cracking of Alloy 22 and titanium alloys. The effects of microbial activity and radiation on degradation of Alloy 22 and titanium alloys are also discussed. Further, for titanium alloys, the effects of fluorides, bromides, calcium ions, and galvanic coupling to less noble metals are further considered. It is concluded that, as far as materials degradation is concerned, the materials and design adopted in the U.S. Yucca Mountain Project will provide sufficient safety margins within the 10,000-years regulatory period.

F. Hua; P. Pasupathi; N. Brown; K. Mon

2005-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

314

Journal of Nuclear Materials 187(1992) 1-31 North-Holland  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tritium inventories 1. Introduction Interest in the use of solid lithium-based materials as tritium/multiplier thermomechanical behavior Corrosion and mass transfer Structural response and failure modes in fusion environment

Raffray, A. René

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Assessing the Security Vulnerabilities of Correctional Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Institute of Justice has tasked their Satellite Facility at Sandia National Laboratories and their Southeast Regional Technology Center in Charleston, South Carolina to devise new procedures and tools for helping correctional facilities to assess their security vulnerabilities. Thus, a team is visiting selected correctional facilities and performing vulnerability assessments. A vulnerability assessment helps to identi~ the easiest paths for inmate escape, for introduction of contraband such as drugs or weapons, for unexpected intrusion fi-om outside of the facility, and for the perpetration of violent acts on other inmates and correctional employees, In addition, the vulnerability assessment helps to quantify the security risks for the facility. From these initial assessments will come better procedures for performing vulnerability assessments in general at other correctional facilities, as well as the development of tools to assist with the performance of such vulnerability assessments.

Morrison, G.S.; Spencer, D.S.

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

316

Validating mass spectrometry measurements of nuclear materials via a non-contact volume analysis method of ion sputter craters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combination of secondary ion mass spectrometry, optical profilometry and a statistically-driven algorithm was used to develop a non-contact volume analysis method to validate the useful yields of nuclear materials. The volume analysis methodology was applied to ion sputter craters created in silicon and uranium substrates sputtered by 18.5 keV O- and 6.0 keV Ar+ ions. Sputter yield measurements were determined from the volume calculations and were shown to be comparable to Monte Carlo calculations and previously reported experimental observations. Additionally, the volume calculations were used to determine the useful yields of Si+, SiO+ and SiO2+ ions from the silicon substrate and U+, UO+ and UO2+ ions from the uranium substrate under 18.5 keV O- and 6.0 keV Ar+ ion bombardment. This work represents the first steps toward validating the interlaboratory and cross-platform performance of mass spectrometry for the analysis of nuclear materials.

Willingham, David G.; Naes, Benjamin E.; Fahey, Albert J.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Standard guide for evaluation of materials used in extended service of interim spent nuclear fuel dry storage systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 Part of the total inventory of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is stored in dry cask storage systems (DCSS) under licenses granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The purpose of this guide is to provide information to assist in supporting the renewal of these licenses, safely and without removal of the SNF from its licensed confinement, for periods beyond those governed by the term of the original license. This guide provides information on materials behavior under conditions that may be important to safety evaluations for the extended service of the renewal period. This guide is written for DCSS containing light water reactor (LWR) fuel that is clad in zirconium alloy material and stored in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), at an independent spent-fuel storage installation (ISFSI). The components of an ISFSI, addressed in this document, include the commercial SNF, canister, cask, and all parts of the storage installation including the ISFSI pad. The language of t...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

T-540: Sybase EAServer Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and Remote Directory Traversal Vulnerability issues. Addthis Related Articles T-647: PHP File Upload Bug May Let Remote Users Overwrite Files on the Target System U-198: IBM...

319

Assessing Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Case of Pantabangan-Carranglan Watershed Jump to: navigation, search Name Assessing Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation: The Case of Pantabangan-Carranglan...

320

Roadmapping - A Tool for Resolving Science and Technology Issues Related to Processing, Packaging, and Shipping Nuclear Materials and Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Roadmapping is an effective methodology to identify and link technology development and deployment efforts to a program's or project's needs and requirements. Roadmapping focuses on needed technical support to the baselines (and to alternatives to the baselines) where the probability of success is low (high uncertainty) and the consequences of failure are relatively high (high programmatic risk, higher cost, longer schedule, or higher ES&H risk). The roadmap identifies where emphasis is needed, i.e., areas where investments are large, the return on investment is high, or the timing is crucial. The development of a roadmap typically involves problem definition (current state versus the desired state) and major steps (functions) needed to reach the desired state. For Nuclear Materials (NM), the functions could include processing, packaging, storage, shipping, and/or final disposition of the material. Each function is examined to determine what technical development would be needed to make the function perform as desired. This requires a good understanding of the current state of technology and technology development and validation activities to ensure the viability of each step. In NM disposition projects, timing is crucial! Technology must be deployed within the project window to be of value. Roadmaps set the stage to keep the technology development and deployment focused on project milestones and ensure that the technologies are sufficiently mature when needed to mitigate project risk and meet project commitments. A recent roadmapping activity involved a 'cross-program' effort, which included NM programs, to address an area of significant concern to the Department of Energy (DOE) related to gas generation issues, particularly hydrogen. The roadmap that was developed defined major gas generation issues within the DOE complex and research that has been and is being conducted to address gas generation concerns. The roadmap also provided the basis for sharing ''lessons learned'' from R&D efforts across DOE programs to increase efficiency and effectiveness in addressing gas generation issues. The gas generation roadmap identified pathways that have significant risk, indicating where more emphasis should be placed on contingency planning. Roadmapping further identified many opportunities for sharing of information and collaboration. Roadmapping will continue to be useful in keeping focused on the efforts necessary to mitigate the risk in the disposition pathways and to respond to the specific needs of the sites. Other areas within NM programs, including transportation and disposition of orphan and other nuclear materials, are prime candidates for additional roadmapping to assure achievement of timely and cost effective solutions for the processing, packaging, shipping, and/or final disposition of nuclear materials.

Luke, Dale Elden; Dixon, Brent Wayne; Murphy, James Anthony

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 4: High-Temperature Materials PIRTs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) technique was used to identify safety-relevant/safety-significant phenomena and assess the importance and related knowledge base of high-temperature structural materials issues for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR). The major aspects of materials degradation phenomena that may give rise to regulatory safety concern for the NGNP were evaluated for major structural components and the materials comprising them, including metallic and nonmetallic materials for control rods, other reactor internals, and primary circuit components; metallic alloys for very high-temperature service for heat exchangers and turbomachinery, metallic alloys for high-temperature service for the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), other pressure vessels and components in the primary and secondary circuits; and metallic alloys for secondary heat transfer circuits and the balance of plant. These materials phenomena were primarily evaluated with regard to their potential for contributing to fission product release at the site boundary under a variety of event scenarios covering normal operation, anticipated transients, and accidents. Of all the high-temperature metallic components, the one most likely to be heavily challenged in the NGNP will be the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). Its thin, internal sections must be able to withstand the stresses associated with thermal loading and pressure drops between the primary and secondary loops under the environments and temperatures of interest. Several important materials-related phenomena related to the IHX were identified, including crack initiation and propagation; the lack of experience of primary boundary design methodology limitations for new IHX structures; and manufacturing phenomena for new designs. Specific issues were also identified for RPVs that will likely be too large for shop fabrication and transportation. Validated procedures for on-site welding, post-weld heat treatment (PWHT), and inspections will be required for the materials of construction. High-importance phenomena related to the RPV include crack initiation and subcritical crack growth; field fabrication process control; property control in heavy sections; and the maintenance of high emissivity of the RPV materials over their service lifetime to enable passive heat rejection from the reactor core. All identified phenomena related to the materials of construction for the IHX, RPV, and other components were evaluated and ranked for their potential impact on reactor safety.

Corwin, William R [ORNL; Ballinger, R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Weaver, K. D. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging to discriminate and identify materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method comprising obtaining an NMR measurement from a sample wherein an ultra-low field NMR system probes the sample and produces the NMR measurement and wherein a sampling temperature, prepolarizing field, and measurement field are known; detecting the NMR measurement by means of inductive coils; analyzing the NMR measurement to obtain at least one measurement feature wherein the measurement feature comprises T1, T2, T1.rho., or the frequency dependence thereof; and, searching for the at least one measurement feature within a database comprising NMR reference data for at least one material to determine if the sample comprises a material of interest.

Matlashov, Andrei Nikolaevich; Urbaitis, Algis V.; Savukov, Igor Mykhaylovich; Espy, Michelle A.; Volegov, Petr Lvovich; Kraus, Jr., Robert Henry

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

323

Ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging to discriminate and identify materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultra-low magnetic field NMR system can non-invasively examine containers. Database matching techniques can then identify hazardous materials within the containers. Ultra-low field NMR systems are ideal for this purpose because they do not require large powerful magnets and because they can examine materials enclosed in conductive shells such as lead shells. The NMR examination technique can be combined with ultra-low field NMR imaging, where an NMR image is obtained and analyzed to identify target volumes. Spatial sensitivity encoding can also be used to identify target volumes. After the target volumes are identified the NMR measurement technique can be used to identify their contents.

Kraus, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM); Matlashov, Andrei N. (Los Alamos, NM); Espy, Michelle A. (Los Alamos, NM); Volegov, Petr L. (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

324

Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recovery challenge fund LasDubey selectedContract Research Material

325

ADMINISTRATIVE CHANGE TO DOE O 474.2, NUCLEAR MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTABILITY  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart of the Review of theOFFICEACME | National Nuclear SecurityO 474.2 Chg

326

INFCIRC/207 - Notification to the Agency of Exports and Imports of Nuclear Material  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNational NuclearhasAdministration77Nuclear SecurityFAPAC-NMNRC 741No. M202I I

327

U.S. Works With Kazakhstan to Stop Nuclear and Radioactive Material  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment of Dept. of Energy, Office ofNuclear WeaponstoU.S.0:Wind

328

Neutron Detectors for Detection of Nuclear Materials at LANL| U.S. DOE  

Office of Science (SC) Website

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched5 IndustrialIsadoreConnecticut RegionsScience (SC)MissouriNebraska

329

Simulated Verification of Fuel Element Inventory in a Small Reactor Core Using the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The International Panel on Climate Change projects that by 2050 the world energy demand may double. Although the primary focus for new nuclear power plants in industrialized nations is on large plants in the 1000-1600 MWe range, there is an increasing demand for small and medium reactors (SMRs). About half of the innovative SMR concepts are for small (<300 MWe) reactors with a 5-30 year life without on-site refueling. This type of reactor is also known as a battery-type reactor. These reactors are particularly attractive to countries with small power grids and for non-electrical purposes such as heating, hydrogen production, and seawater desalination. Traditionally, this type of reactor has been used in a nautical propulsion role. This type of reactor is designed as a permanently sealed unit to prevent the diversion of the uranium in the core by the user. However, after initial fabrication it will be necessary to verify that the newly fabricated reactor core contains the quantity of uranium that initially entered the fuel fabrication plant. In most instances, traditional inspection techniques can be used to perform this verification, but in certain situations the core design will be considered sensitive. Non-intrusive verification techniques must be utilized in these situations. The Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) with imaging uses active interrogation and a fast time correlation processor to characterize fissile material. The MCNP-PoliMi computer code was used to simulate NMIS measurements of a small, sealed reactor core. Because most battery-type reactor designs are still in the early design phase, a more traditional design based on a Russian icebreaker core was used in the simulations. These simulations show how the radiography capabilities of the NMIS could be used to detect the diversion of fissile material by detecting void areas in the assembled core where fuel elements have been removed.

Grogan, Brandon R [ORNL; Mihalczo, John T [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Journal of Nuclear Materials 1'73(1990) 185-213 North-Holland  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interest for solid breeder blanket components for fusion applica- tions. They determine the rate at which-grained ceramic materials for tritium breeding a~piications in fusion blankets. The model includes as relevant~ombina~on and desorption at the breeder surface and diffusion thong the network of pores. A key improvement of the model

Raffray, A. René

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Development of Nanostructured Materials with Improved Radiation Tolerance for Advanced Nuclear Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project will explore the fundamental mechanisms through which interfaces in nanolayered structures and grain boundaries of bulk nanomaterials are able to attract and rapidly eliminate point defects and unwanted foreign species. Candidate materials that will be studied include both nanostructured multilayer composites synthesized by magnetron sputtering and structural bulk nanomaterials produced by severed plastic deformation, equal channel angular extrusion.

Zinghang Zhang; K. Ted Hartwig

2009-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

332

Nuclear power plant cable materials : review of qualification and currently available aging data for margin assessments in cable performance.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostlyinert' aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section - a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on original qualification testing data alone. The non-availability of conclusive predictions for the aging conditions of 40-year-old cables implies that the same levels of uncertainty will remain for any re-qualification or extended operation of these cables. The highly variable aging behavior of the range of materials employed also implies that simple, standardized aging tests are not sufficient to provide the required aging data and performance predictions for all materials. It is recommended that focused studies be conducted that would yield the material aging parameters needed to predict aging behaviors under low dose, low temperature plant equivalent conditions and that appropriately aged specimens be prepared that would mimic oxidatively-aged 40- to 60- year-old materials for confirmatory LOCA performance testing. This study concludes that it is not sufficient to expose materials to rapid, high radiation and high temperature levels with subsequent LOCA qualification testing in order to predictively quantify safety margins of existing infrastructure with regard to LOCA performance. We need to better understand how cable jacketing and insulation materials have degraded over decades of power plant operation and how this aging history relates to service life prediction and the performance of existing equipment to withstand a LOCA situation.

Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Lindgren, Eric Richard

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E. [and others

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Creep rupture behavior of candidate materials for nuclear process heat applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Creep and stress rupture properties are determined for the candidate materials to be used in hightemperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) components. The materials and test methods are briefly described based on experimental results of test durations of about20000 h. The medium creep strengths of the alloys Inconel-617, Hastelloy-X, Nimonic-86, Hastelloy-S, Manaurite-36X, IN-519, and Incoloy-800H are compared showing that Inconel-617 has the best creep rupture properties in the temperature range above 800/sup 0/C. The rupture time of welded joints is in the lower range of the scatterband of the parent metal. The properties determined in different simulated HTGR atmospheres are within the scatterband of the properties obtained in air. Extrapolation methods are discussed and a modified minimum commitment method is favored.

Schubert, F.; te Heesen, E.; Bruch, U.; Cook, R.; Diehl, H.; Ennis, P.J.; Jakobeit, W.; Penkalla, H.J.; Ullrich, G.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Nuclear Materials Contained in High-Activity Waste Arising from the Operations at the 'SHELTER' Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986, the explosion dispeesed nuclear materials contained in the nuclear fuel of the reactor core over the destroyed facilities at Unit No. 4 and over the territory immediately adjacent to the destroyed unit. The debris was buried under the Cascade Wall. Nuclear materials at the SHELTER can be characterized as spent nuclear fuel, fresh fuel assemblies (including fuel assemblies with damaged geometry and integrity, and individual fuel elements), core fragments of the Chernobyl NPP Unit No. 4, finely-dispersed fuel (powder/dust), uranium and plutonium compounds in water solutions, and lava-like nuclear fuel-containing masses. The new safe confinement (NSC) is a facility designed to enclose the Chernobyl NPP Unit No. 4 destroyed by the accident. Construction of the NSC involves excavating operations, which are continuously monitored including for the level of radiation. The findings of such monitoring at the SHELTER site will allow us to characterize the recovered radioactive waste. When a process material categorized as high activity waste (HAW) is detected the following HLW management operations should be involved: HLW collection; HLW fragmentation (if appropriate); loading HAW into the primary package KT-0.2; loading the primary package filled with HAW into the transportation cask KTZV-0.2; and storing the cask in temporary storage facilities for high-level solid waste. The CDAS system is a system of 3He tubes for neutron coincidence counting, and is designed to measure the percentage ratio of specific nuclear materials in a 200-liter drum containing nuclear material intermixed with a matrix. The CDAS consists of panels with helium counter tubes and a polyethylene moderator. The panels are configured to allow one to position a waste-containing drum and a drum manipulator. The system operates on the ‘add a source’ basis using a small Cf-252 source to identify irregularities in the matrix during an assay. The platform with the source is placed under the measurement chamber. The platform with the source material is moved under the measurement chamber. The design allows one to move the platform with the source in and out, thus moving the drum. The CDAS system and radioactive waste containers have been built. For each drum filled with waste two individual measurements (passive/active) will be made. This paper briefly describes the work carried out to assess qualitatively and quantitatively the nuclear materials contained in high-level waste at the SHELTER facility. These efforts substantially increased nuclear safety and security at the facility.

Cherkas, Dmytro

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Detecting Network Vulnerabilities Through Graph Theoretical Methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vulnerabilities in power networks is an important prob- lem, as even a small number of vulnerable connections can benchmark power networks. 1 Introduction The electric power grid network is susceptible to power outages northeast and Canada, which affected an estimated 50 million people, causing over $6 billion in damage

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

337

SEISMIC VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT USING AMBIENT VIBRATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SEISMIC VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT USING AMBIENT VIBRATIONS: METHOD AND VALIDATION Clotaire Michel, France cmichel@obs.ujf-grenoble.fr Abstract Seismic vulnerability in wide areas is usually assessed like USA or Italy. France is a country with moderate seismicity so that it requires lower-cost methods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

338

Cooperation between the Russian Federation and the United States to enhance the existing nuclear-material protection, control, and accounting systems at Mayak Production Association  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) are engaged in joint, cooperative efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear proliferation by enhancing Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) systems in both countries. Mayak Production Association (MPA) is a major Russian nuclear enterprise within the nuclear complex that is operated by MINATOM. This paper describes the nature, scope, and status of the joint, cooperative efforts to enhance existing MPC&A systems at MPA. Current cooperative efforts are focused on enhancements to the existing MPC&A systems at four plants that are operated by MPA and that produce, process, handle and/or store proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials.

Starodubtsev, G.S.; Prishchepov, A.I.; Zatorsky, Y.M.; James, L.T. [and others

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Development and experimental validation of a calculation scheme for nuclear heating evaluation in the core of the OSIRIS material testing reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The control of the temperature in material samples irradiated in a material testing reactor requires the knowledge of the nuclear heating caused by the energy deposition by neutrons and photons interacting in the irradiation device structures. Thus, a neutron-photonic three-dimensional calculation scheme has been developed to evaluate the nuclear heating in experimental devices irradiated in the core of the OSIRIS MTR reactor (CEA/Saclay Center). The aim is to obtain a predictive tool for the nuclear heating estimation in irradiation devices. This calculation scheme is mainly based on the TRIPOLI-4 three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo transport code, developed by CEA (Saclay Center). An experimental validation has been carried out on the basis of nuclear heating measurements performed in the OSIRIS core. After an overview of the experimental devices irradiated in the OSIRIS reactor, we present the calculation scheme and the first results of the experimental validation. (authors)

Malouch, F. [Saclay Center CEA, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SERMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

PAVAN: an atmospheric-dispersion program for evaluating design-basis accidental releases of radioactive materials from nuclear power stations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a user's guide for the NRC computer program, PAVAN, which is a program used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to estimate downwind ground-level air concentrations for potential accidental releases of radioactive material from nuclear facilities. Such an assessment is required by 10 CFR Part 100 and 10 CFR Part 50. The program implements the guidance provided in Regulatory Guide 1.145, Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Potential Accident Consequence Assessments at Nuclear Power Plants. Using joint frequency distributions of wind direction and wind speed by atmospheric stability, the program provides relative air concentration (X/Q) values as functions of direction for various time periods at the exclusion area boundary (EAB) and the outer boundary of the low population zone (LPZ). Calculations of X/Q values can be made for assumed ground-level releases (e.g., through building penetrations and vents) or elevated releases from free-standing stacks. Various options may be selected by the user. They can account for variation in the location of release points, additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume meander under low wind speed conditions, and adjustments to consider non-straight trajectories. It computes an effective plume height using the physical release height which can be reduced by inputted terrain features. It cannot handle multiple emission sources. A description of the main program and all subroutines is provided. Also included as appendices are a complete listing of the program and two test cases with the required data inputs and the resulting program outputs.

Bander, T.J.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Comparison of Different Upscaling Methods for Predicting Thermal Conductivity of Complex Heterogeneous Materials System: Application on Nuclear Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To develop a strategy in thermal conductivity prediction of a complex heterogeneous materials system, loaded nuclear waste forms, the computational efficiency and accuracy of different upscaling methods have been evaluated. The effective thermal conductivity, obtained from microstructure information and local thermal conductivity of different components, is critical in predicting the life and performance of waste form during storage. Several methods, including the Taylor model, Sachs model, self-consistent model, and statistical upscaling method, were developed and implemented. Microstructure based finite element method (FEM) prediction results were used to as benchmark to determine the accuracy of the different upscaling methods. Micrographs from waste forms with varying waste loadings were used in the prediction of thermal conductivity in FEM and homogenization methods. Prediction results demonstrated that in term of efficiency, boundary models (e.g., Taylor model and Sachs model) are stronger than the self-consistent model, statistical upscaling method, and finite element method. However, when balancing computational efficiency and accuracy, statistical upscaling is a useful method in predicting effective thermal conductivity for nuclear waste forms.

Li, Dongsheng; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2012-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

342

Multiphysics Thermal-Fluid Design Analysis of a Non-Nuclear Tester for Hot-Hydrogen Materials and Component Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this effort is to perform design analyses for a non-nuclear hot-hydrogen materials tester, as a first step towards developing efficient and accurate multiphysics, thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine thrust chamber design and analysis. The computational methodology is based on a multidimensional, finite-volume, turbulent, chemically reacting, thermally radiating, unstructured-grid, and pressure-based formulation. The multiphysics invoked in this study include hydrogen dissociation kinetics and thermodynamics, turbulent flow, convective, and thermal radiative heat transfers. The goals of the design analyses are to maintain maximum hot-hydrogen jet impingement energy and to minimize chamber wall heating. The results of analyses on three test fixture configurations and the rationale for final selection are presented. The interrogation of physics revealed that reactions of hydrogen dissociation and recombination are highly correlated with local temperature and are necessary for accurate prediction of the hot-hydrogen jet temperature.

Wang, T.-S.; Foote, John; Litchford, Ron [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, 35812 (United States)

2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

343

Development of Enriched Borated Aluminum Alloy for Basket Material of Cask for Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concrete cask system is focused as the candidate one for spent fuel dry storage facilities from economic potential in Japan. Concrete cask consists of a concrete storage cask and a steel canister. A canister containing nuclear spent fuel is shipped by a transportation cask from a nuclear power plant to an interim storage facility. The canister is transferred from the transportation cask to a storage cask by a transfer cask in the storage facility. IHI has developed a concrete cask horizontal transfer system. This transfer system indicates that a canister is transferred to a storage cask horizontally. This transfer system has a merit against canister drop accident in transfer operation, i.e. spent fuel assemblies can be kept safe during the transfer operation. There are guide rails inside of the concrete cask, and the canister is installed into the storage cask with sliding on the rails. To develop the horizontal transfer system, IHI carried out a heat load test and numerical analyses by CFD. Heat load experiment was carried out by using a full-scale prototype canister, storage cask and transfer vessel. The decay heat was simulated by an electric heater installed in the canister. Assuming high burn-up spent fuel storage, heat generation was set between 20.0 kW and 25.0 kW. This experiment was focused on the concrete temperature distribution. We confirmed that the maximum concrete temperature in transfer operation period was lower than 40 deg. C (Heat generation 22.5 kW). Moreover we confirmed the maximum concrete temperature passed 24 hours with horizontal orientation was below 90 deg. C (Heat generation 22.5 kW). We analyzed the thermal performance of the concrete cask with horizontal transfer condition and normal storage condition. Thermal analyses for horizontal transfer operation were carried out based on the experimental conditions. The tendency of the analytical results was in good agreement with experimental results. The purpose of vertical thermal analysis was to estimate the concrete temperature increase in the case a canister contacts with guide rails in normal storage. It has a possibility that a canister contacts with guide rails during storage period after concrete cask is upended from transfer operation. The temperature increase due to this contact was calculated 5 deg. C at small local area. This result implies that the affect of the contact is very small. This paper addresses that the storage cask concrete is kept its integrity in transfer operation period and normal storage period. (authors)

Mikio Sakai; Tadatsugu Sakaya; Hiroaki Fujiwara; Akira Sakai [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Company Ltd., 1 Shin-Nakaharacho, Isogoku, Yokohama 235-8501 (Japan)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Materials Degradation Issues in the U.S. High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reviews the state-of-the-art understanding of the degradation processes by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) with focus on interaction between the in-drift environmental conditions and long-term materials degradation of waste packages and drip shields within the repository system during the first 10,000-years after repository closure. This paper provides an overview of the degradation of the waste packages and drip shields in the repository after permanent closure of the facility. The degradation modes discussed in this paper include aging and phase instability, dry oxidation, general and localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and hydrogen induced cracking of Alloy 22 and titanium alloys. The effects of microbial activity and radiation on the degradation of Alloy 22 and titanium alloys are also discussed. Further, for titanium alloys, the effects of fluorides, bromides, and galvanic coupling to less noble metals are considered. It is concluded that the materials and design adopted will provide sufficient safety margins for at least 10,000-years after repository closure.

K.G. Mon; F. Hua

2005-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

345

Draft Advanced Nuclear Energy Projects Solicitation | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Draft Advanced Nuclear Energy Projects Solicitation Draft Advanced Nuclear Energy Projects Solicitation INFORMATIONAL MATERIALS DRAFT ADVANCED NUCLEAR ENERGY PROJECTS SOLICITATION...

346

Characterization of proton exchange membrane materials for fuel cells by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to explore the nanometer-scale structure of Nafion, the widely used fuel cell membrane, and its composites. We have shown that solid-state NMR can characterize chemical structure and composition, domain size and morphology, internuclear distances, molecular dynamics, etc. The newly-developed water channel model of Nafion has been confirmed, and important characteristic length-scales established. Nafion-based organic and inorganic composites with special properties have also been characterized and their structures elucidated. The morphology of Nafion varies with hydration level, and is reflected in the changes in surface-to-volume (S/V) ratio of the polymer obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The S/V ratios of different Nafion models have been evaluated numerically. It has been found that only the water channel model gives the measured S/V ratios in the normal hydration range of a working fuel cell, while dispersed water molecules and polymer ribbons account for the structures at low and high hydration levels, respectively.

Kong, Zueqian

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

Active Detection and Imaging of Nuclear Materials with High-Brightness Gamma Rays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Compton scattering {gamma}-ray source, capable of producing photons with energies ranging from 0.1 MeV to 0.9 MeV has been commissioned and characterized, and then used to perform nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) experiments. The performances of the two laser systems (one for electron production, one for scattering), the electron photoinjector, and the linear accelerator are also detailed, and {gamma}-ray results are presented. The key source parameters are the size (0.01 mm{sup 2}), horizontal and vertical divergence (6 x 10 mrad{sup 2}), duration (10 ps), spectrum and intensity (10{sup 5} photons/shot). These parameters are summarized by the peak brightness, 1.5 x 10{sup 15} photons/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/s/0.1% bandwidth, measured at 478 keV. Additional measurements of the flux as a function of the timing difference between the drive laser pulse and the relativistic photo-electron bunch, {gamma}-ray beam profile, and background evaluations are presented. These results are systematically compared to theoretical models and computer simulations. NRF measurements performed on {sup 7}Li in LiH demonstrate the potential of Compton scattering photon sources to accurately detect isotopes in situ.

Barty, C J; Gibson, D J; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Anderson, G G; Betts, S M; Berry, R D; Fisher, S E; Hagmann, C A; Johnson, M S; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Tremaine, A M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P

2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

348

T-550: Apache Denial of Service Vulnerability | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1.2.8 Multiple Vulnerabilities U-221: ISC BIND 9 DNSSEC Validation CVE-2012-3817 Denial of Service Vulnerability T-616: PHP Stream Component Remote Denial of Service Vulnerability...

349

Apparatus for supporting contactors used in extracting nuclear materials from liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus is provided for supporting one or more contactor stages used to remove radioactive materials from aqueous solutions. The contactor stages include a housing having an internal rotor, a motor secured to the top of the housing for rotating the rotor, and a drain in the bottom of the housing. The support apparatus includes two or more vertical members each secured to a ground support that is horizontal and perpendicular to the frame member, and a horizontally disposed frame member. The frame member may be any suitable shape, but is preferably a rectangular tube having substantially flat, spaced top and bottom surfaces separated by substantially vertical side surfaces. The top and bottom surfaces each have an opening through which the contactor housing is secured so that the motor is above the frame and the drain is below the frame during use.

Leonard, Ralph A. (River Forest, IL); Frank, Robert C. (Crestwood, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Advanced nuclear fuel  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Kurt Terrani uses his expertise in materials science to develop safer fuel for nuclear power plants.

Terrani, Kurt

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

Advanced nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kurt Terrani uses his expertise in materials science to develop safer fuel for nuclear power plants.

Terrani, Kurt

2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

352

Locating Climate Insecurity: Where Are the Most Vulnerable Places...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

disasters, (2) household and community vulnerability, (3) governance and political violence, and (4) population density. Each of these areas of vulnerability was given...

353

V-090: Adobe Flash Player / AIR Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

0: Adobe Flash Player AIR Multiple Vulnerabilities V-090: Adobe Flash Player AIR Multiple Vulnerabilities February 13, 2013 - 12:14am Addthis PROBLEM: Adobe Flash Player AIR...

354

aquifer contamination vulnerability: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

species vulnerability to climate and land use change: the case projections of likely impacts of global change to identify the most vulner- able species. We suggest an original...

355

Common Cyber Security Vulnerabilities Observed in Control System...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Common Cyber Security Vulnerabilities Observed in Control System Assessments by the INL NSTB Program Common Cyber Security Vulnerabilities Observed in Control System Assessments by...

356

V-106: Citrix Access Gateway Unspecified Security Bypass Vulnerability...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

V-106: Citrix Access Gateway Unspecified Security Bypass Vulnerability March 7, 2013 - 6:00am Addthis PROBLEM: A vulnerability has been reported in Citrix Access Gateway...

357

Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization (NEPO) final report on aging and condition monitoring of low-voltage cable materials.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes results generated on a 5-year cable-aging program that constituted part of the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization (NEPO) program, an effort cosponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The NEPO cable-aging effort concentrated on two important issues involving the development of better lifetime prediction methods as well as the development and testing of novel cable condition-monitoring (CM) techniques. To address improved life prediction methods, we first describe the use of time-temperature superposition principles, indicating how this approach improves the testing of the Arrhenius model by utilizing all of the experimentally generated data instead of a few selected and processed data points. Although reasonable superposition is often found, we show several cases where non-superposition is evident, a situation that violates the constant acceleration assumption normally used in accelerated aging studies. Long-term aging results over extended temperature ranges allow us to show that curvature in Arrhenius plots for elongation is a common occurrence. In all cases the curvature results in a lowering of the Arrhenius activation energy at lower temperatures implying that typical extrapolation of high temperature results over-estimates material lifetimes. The long-term results also allow us to test the significance of extrapolating through the crystalline melting point of semi-crystalline materials. By utilizing ultrasensitive oxygen consumption (UOC) measurements, we show that it is possible to probe the low temperature extrapolation region normally inaccessible to conventional accelerated aging studies. This allows the quantitative testing of the often-used Arrhenius extrapolation assumption. Such testing indicates that many materials again show evidence of ''downward'' curvature (E{sub a} values drop as the aging temperature is lowered) consistent with the limited elongation results and many literature results. It is also shown how the UOC approach allows the probing of temperatures that cross through the crystalline melting point region of semi-crystalline materials such as XLPO and EPR cable insulations. New results on combined environment aging of neoprene and hypalon cable jacketing materials are presented and offer additional evidence in support of our time-temperature-dose rate (t-T-DR) superposition approach that had been used successfully in the past for such situations.

Assink, Roger Alan; Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Bernstein, Robert

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

CLIMATE VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION STUDY FOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CLIMATE VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION STUDY FOR CALIFORNIA Legal Analysis of Barriers's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012019 Prepared for: California Energy Commission to that framework that would facilitate adaptation to climate change. Since such changes may be difficult

359

Cancer Vulnerabilities Unveiled by Genomic Loss  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Due to genome instability, most cancers exhibit loss of regions containing tumor suppressor genes and collateral loss of other genes. To identify cancer-specific vulnerabilities that are the result of copy number losses, ...

Nijhawan, Deepak

360

INMM 55th Annual Meeting, July 2024, 2014, Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Transport Security for Nuclear and Other Radioactive Materials --A DOE Training Course  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laboratory. The course was developed by Argonne for the U.S. Department of Energy Packaging Certification of Energy, Washington, D.C. 20585 ABSTRACT In early December of 2013, a weeklong training course on security Transport Security for Nuclear and Other Radioactive Materials -- A DOE Training Course Ronald B. Pope, Yung

Kemner, Ken

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

nuclear controls  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

the Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) is to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, materials, technology, and expertise. NIS applies technical...

362

Background studies in support of a feasibility assessment on the use of copper-base materials for nuclear waste packages in a repository in tuff  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report combines six work units performed in FY`85--86 by the Copper Development Association and the International Copper Research Association under contract with the University of California. The work includes literature surveys and state-of-the-art summaries on several considerations influencing the feasibility of the use of copper-base materials for fabricating high-level nuclear waste packages for the proposed repository in tuff rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The general conclusion from this work was that copper-base materials are viable candidates for inclusion in the materials selection process for this application. 55 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA); Kundig, K.J.A.; Lyman, W.S.; Prager, M.; Meyers, J.R.; Servi, I.S. [CDA/INCRA Joint Advisory Group, Greenwich, CT (USA)

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Correlating Radioactive Material to Sea Surface Temperature off the Coast of Japan: The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, causing a loss-of-coolant accident which eventually led to nuclear meltdown. Over the course Daiichi Nuclear Disaster Maya R. Pincus Department of Geology, University of Puerto Rico-Mayagüez e on the island. One of the most devastating results of this was the damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant

Gilbes, Fernando

364

A Cargo Inspection System for Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Based on Associated Particle Neutron Generators and Liquid-Kr Detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A feasibility analysis is presented of a cargo inspection system based on neutron-induced fission followed by the coincident detection of multiple prompt fission gamma rays as a signature of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). The system does not require gamma ray spectroscopy and would be capable of distinguishing U-238 from U-235 using the ratio of signals from two modes of detection: thermal neutron capture induced fission and fast neutron-induced fission. The system utilizes two deuterium-tritium (DT) associated particle neutron generators, each capable of 10{sup 9} neutrons/s at 14.1 MeV, with sub-nanosecond timing resolution ZnO:Ga alpha detectors. The expected {approx}1 MeV prompt gamma rays are detected using liquid krypton (LKr) detectors with sub-nanosecond timing resolution ({approx}600 ps) and high detection efficiency. The expected SNM signal and randomly correlated background rates are discussed using Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code.

Koltick, David S.; Kane, Steven Z. [Purdue University Applied Physics Laboratory 740 Navco Dr., Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States)

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

365

Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) with Gamma Spectrometry for Attributes of Pu, HEU, and Detection of HE and Chemical Agents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combined Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS)-gamma ray spectrometry system can be used passively to obtain the following attributes of Pu: presence, fissile mass, 240/239 ratio, and metal vs. oxide. This system can also be used with a small, portable, DT neutron generator to measure the attributes of highly enriched uranium (HEU): presence, fissile mass, enrichment, metal vs. oxide; and detect the presence of high explosives (HE). For the passive system, time-dependent coincidence distributions can be used for the presence, fissile mass, metal vs. oxide for Pu, and gamma-ray spectrometry can be used for 239/240 ratio and presence. So presence can be confirmed by two methods. For the active system with a DT neutron generator, all four attributes for both Pu and HEU can be determined from various features of the time-dependent coincidence distribution measurements for both Pu and HEU. Active gamma ray spectrometry would also give presence and 240/239 ratio for Pu, enrichment for HEU, and metal vs. oxide for both. Active gamma ray spectrometry would determine the presence of HE. The various features of time-dependent coincidence distributions and gamma ray spectrometry that determine these attributes are discussed with some examples from previous determinations.

Mihalczo, J. T.; Mattingly, J. K.; Mullens, J. A.; Neal, J. S.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Standard test method for nondestructive analysis of special nuclear materials in homogeneous solutions by Gamma-Ray spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 This test method covers the determination of the concentration of gamma-ray emitting special nuclear materials dissolved in homogeneous solutions. The test method corrects for gamma-ray attenuation by the solution and its container by measurement of the transmission of a beam of gamma rays from an external source (Refs. (1), (2), and (3)). 1.2 Two solution geometries, slab and cylinder, are considered. The solution container that determines the geometry may be either a removable or a fixed geometry container. This test method is limited to solution containers having walls or a top and bottom of equal transmission through which the gamma rays from the external transmission correction source must pass. 1.3 This test method is typically applied to radionuclide concentrations ranging from a few milligrams per litre to several hundred grams per litre. The assay range will be a function of the specific activity of the nuclide of interest, the physical characteristics of the solution container, counting equip...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 5, Structural/seismic investigation. Section A report, existing conditions calculations/supporting information  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. Based upon US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations (DOE/Al) Office and LANL projections, storage space limitations/restrictions will begin to affect LANL`s ability to meet its missions between 1998 and 2002.

NONE

1995-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

368

Identification and Assessment of Material Models for Age-Related Degradation of Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When performing seismic safety assessments of nuclear power plants (NPPs), the potential effects of age-related degradation on structures, systems, and components (SSCs) should be considered. To address the issue of aging degradation, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has embarked on a five-year research project to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which will include the consideration of aging of structures and components in NPPs. Three specific areas that are included in the KAERI research project, related to seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), are probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and a plant seismic risk analysis. To support the development of seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components, KAERI entered into a collaboration agreement with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 2007. The collaborative research effort is intended to continue over a five year period with the goal of developing seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of SSCs, and using these results as input to seismic PRAs. In the Year 1 scope of work BNL collected and reviewed degradation occurrences in US NPPs and identified important aging characteristics needed for the seismic capability evaluations that will be performed in the subsequent evaluations in the years that follow. This information is presented in the Annual Report for the Year 1 Task, identified as BNL Report-81741-2008 and also designated as KAERI/RR-2931/2008. The report presents results of the statistical and trending analysis of this data and compares the results to prior aging studies. In addition, the report provides a description of U.S. current regulatory requirements, regulatory guidance documents, generic communications, industry standards and guidance, and past research related to aging degradation of SSCs. This report describes the research effort performed by BNL for the Year 2 scope of work. This research focused on methods that could be used to represent the long-term behavior of materials used at NPPs. To achieve this BNL reviewed time-dependent models which can approximate the degradation effects of the key materials used in the construction of structures and passive components determined to be of interest in the Year 1 effort. The intent was to review the degradation models that would cover the most common time-dependent changes in material properties for concrete and steel components.

Nie,J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Kim, M. K.; Choi, I-K.

2009-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

369

Enhancing Energy Infrastructure Resiliency and Addressing Vulnerabilities  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Quadrennial Energy Review Task Force Secretariat and Energy Policy and Systems Analysis Staff, U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Public Meeting on “Enhancing Resilience in Energy Infrastructure and Addressing Vulnerabilities” On Friday, April 11, 2014, at 10 a.m. in room HVC-215 of the U.S. Capitol, the Department of Energy (DOE), acting as the Secretariat for the Quadrennial Energy Review Task Force, will hold a public meeting to discuss and receive comments on issues related to the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER). The meeting will focus on infrastructure vulnerabilities related to the electricity, natural gas and petroleum transmission, storage and distribution systems (TS&D). The meeting will consist of two facilitated panels of experts on identifying and addressing vulnerabilities within the nation’s energy TS&D infrastructure. Following the panels, an opportunity will be provided for public comment via an open microphone session. The meeting will be livestreamed at energy.gov/live

370

Gamma/neutron time-correlation for special nuclear material characterization %3CU%2B2013%3E active stimulation of highly enriched uranium.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of simulations and experiments were undertaken to explore and evaluate the potential for a novel new technique for fissile material detection and characterization, the timecorrelated pulse-height (TCPH) method, to be used concurrent with active stimulation of potential nuclear materials. In previous work TCPH has been established as a highly sensitive method for the detection and characterization of configurations of fissile material containing Plutonium in passive measurements. By actively stimulating fission with the introduction of an external radiation source, we have shown that TCPH is also an effective method of detecting and characterizing configurations of fissile material containing Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The TCPH method is shown to be robust in the presence of the proper choice of external radiation source. An evaluation of potential interrogation sources is presented.

Marleau, Peter; Nowack, Aaron B.; Clarke, Shaun D. [University of Michigan; Monterial, Mateusz [University of Michigan; Paff, Marc [University of Michigan; Pozzi, Sara A. [University of Michigan

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Development of Dodecaniobate Keggin Chain Materials as Alternative Sorbents for SR and Actinide Removal from High-Level Nuclear Waste Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current baseline sorbent (monosodium titanate) for Sr and actinide removal from Savannah River Site's high level wastes has excellent adsorption capabilities for Sr but poor performance for the actinides. We are currently investigating the development of alternative materials that sorb radionuclides based on chemical affinity and/or size selectivity. The polyoxometalates, negatively-charged metal oxo clusters, have known metal binding properties and are of interest for radionuclide sequestration. We have developed a class of Keggin-ion based materials, where the Keggin ions are linked in 1- dimensional chains separated by hydrated, charge-balancing cations. These Nb-based materials are stable in the highly basic nuclear waste solutions and show good selectivity for Sr and Pu. Synthesis, characterization and structure of these materials in their native forms and Sr-exchanged forms will be presented.

Nyman, May; Bonhomme, Francois

2004-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

372

ELSEVIER Journal of NuclearMaterials241-243 (1997) 848-852 Exposure of CFC-materials to high transient heat loads in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tokamak. A carbon fiber composite material (CFC) was exposed to the edge plasma of TEXTOR using the Fast. The material tested was CF 260 from Schunk, a woven plain fabric PAN-fibre carbon-carbon composite with lay than expected. Keywords." TEXTOR;Disruptions;Materialprobe; Carbon fibre composites 1. Introduction

Harilal, S. S.

373

Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices.

Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gdowski, G.E. [KMI, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [KMI, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Method for recovery of actinides from actinide-bearing scrap and waste nuclear material using O/sub 2/F/sub 2/  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for recovery of actinides from nuclear waste material containing sintered and other oxides thereof and from scrap materials containing the metal actinides using O/sub 2/F/sub 2/ to generate the hexafluorides of the actinides present therein. The fluorinating agent, O/sub 2/F/sub 2/, has been observed to perform the above-described tasks at sufficiently low temperatures that there is virtually no damage to the containment vessels. Moreover, the resulting actinide hexafluorides are not detroyed by high temperature reactions with the walls of the reaction vessel. Dioxygen difluoride is readily prepared, stored and transferred to the place of reaction.

Asprey, L.B.; Eller, P.G.

1984-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

375

WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE WARMING IN THE SIERRA NEVADA: Water Year explores the sensitivity of water indexing methods to climate change scenarios to better understand how water management decisions and allocations will be affected by climate change. Many water management

376

Fragile Networks: Identifying Vulnerabilities and Synergies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Efficiency Measurement, and Vulnerability Analysis · Part II: Applications and Extensions · Part III: Mergers the foundations for transportation and logistics, for communication, energy provision, social interactions that underlie our societies and economies are large-scale and complex in nature, they are liable to be faced

Nagurney, Anna

377

T-594: IBM solidDB Password Hash Authentication Bypass Vulnerability  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This vulnerability could allow remote attackers to execute arbitrary code on vulnerable installations of IBM solidDB. Authentication is not required to exploit this vulnerability.

378

U-171: DeltaV Products Multiple Vulnerabilities  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Multiple vulnerabilities have been reported in DeltaV products, which can be exploited by malicious people to conduct cross-site scripting attacks, SQL injection attacks, cause a DoS (Denial of Service), and compromise a vulnerable system.

379

Power System Extreme Event Detection: The Vulnerability Frontier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 6. Vulnerability Frontier for a 13,374 node system.corresponding to points on the frontier suggests that theseDetection: The Vulnerability Frontier Bernard C. Lesieutre

Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Pinar, Ali; Roy, Sandip

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

U-013: HP Data Protector Multiple Unspecified Vulnerabilities  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Multiple vulnerabilities were reported in HP Data Protector. A remote user can execute arbitrary code on the target system.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Vendor System Vulnerability Testing Test Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prepared this generic test plan to provide clients (vendors, end users, program sponsors, etc.) with a sense of the scope and depth of vulnerability testing performed at the INL’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Test Bed and to serve as an example of such a plan. Although this test plan specifically addresses vulnerability testing of systems applied to the energy sector (electric/power transmission and distribution and oil and gas systems), it is generic enough to be applied to control systems used in other critical infrastructures such as the transportation sector, water/waste water sector, or hazardous chemical production facilities. The SCADA Test Bed is established at the INL as a testing environment to evaluate the security vulnerabilities of SCADA systems, energy management systems (EMS), and distributed control systems. It now supports multiple programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, other government agencies, and private sector clients. This particular test plan applies to testing conducted on a SCADA/EMS provided by a vendor. Before performing detailed vulnerability testing of a SCADA/EMS, an as delivered baseline examination of the system is conducted, to establish a starting point for all-subsequent testing. The series of baseline tests document factory delivered defaults, system configuration, and potential configuration changes to aid in the development of a security plan for in depth vulnerability testing. The baseline test document is provided to the System Provider,a who evaluates the baseline report and provides recommendations to the system configuration to enhance the security profile of the baseline system. Vulnerability testing is then conducted at the SCADA Test Bed, which provides an in-depth security analysis of the Vendor’s system.b a. The term System Provider replaces the name of the company/organization providing the system being evaluated. This can be the system manufacturer, a system user, or a third party organization such as a government agency. b. The term Vendor (or Vendor’s) System replaces the name of the specific SCADA/EMS being tested.

James R. Davidson

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Development of a portable neutron coincidence counter for field measurements of nuclear materials using the advanced multiplicity capabilities of MCNPX 2.5.F and the neutron coincidence point model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutron coincidence counting is an important passive Nondestructive Assay (NDA) technique widely used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of nuclear material in bulk samples. During the fission process, multiple neutrons are simultaneously...

Thornton, Angela Lynn

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Development of a portable neutron coincidence counter for field measurements of nuclear materials using the advanced multiplicity capabilities of MCNPX 2.5.F and the neutron coincidence point model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutron coincidence counting is an important passive Nondestructive Assay (NDA) technique widely used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of nuclear material in bulk samples. During the fission process, multiple neutrons are simultaneously...

Thornton, Angela Lynn

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

384

Regulatory Guide 5.29, Revision 2, "Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants".  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST3 AÇORIANONewsRegulatory Analysis

385

Physical protection: threat response and performance goals as applied at the nuclear material inspection and storage (NMIS) building  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Only one aspect of nuclear security has been discussed here, a disciplined approach to physical protection systems (PPS) design. The best security against a multitude of threats to the nuclear industry is a dynamic and multifaceted safeguards program. It is one that combines PPS design with employee screening, reliability or behavioral observation programs, procedural control, assessment techniques, response capabilities, and security hardware. To be effective, such a program must be supported by management and applied uniformly to all personnel, including the safeguards and security staff.

Sanford, T.H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Review of Destructive Assay Methods for Nuclear Materials Characterization from the Three Mile Island (TMI) Fuel Debris  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a summary of the literature review that was performed and based on previous work performed at the Idaho National Laboratory studying the Three Mile Island 2 (TMI-2) nuclear reactor accident, specifically the melted fuel debris. The purpose of the literature review was to document prior published work that supports the feasibility of the analytical techniques that were developed to provide quantitative results of the make-up of the fuel and reactor component debris located inside and outside the containment. The quantitative analysis provides a technique to perform nuclear fuel accountancy measurements

Carla J. Miller

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

An Assessment of the Current Day Impact of Various Materials Associated with the U.S. Nuclear Test Program in the Marshall Island  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Different stable elements, and some natural and man-made radionuclides, were used as tracers or associated in other ways with nuclear devices that were detonated at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls as part of the U.S. nuclear testing program from 1946 through 1958. The question has been raised whether any of these materials dispersed by the explosions could be of sufficient concentration in either the marine environment or on the coral islands to be of a health concern to people living, or planning to live, on the atolls. This report addresses that concern. An inventory of the materials involved during the test period was prepared and provided to us by the Office of Defense Programs (DP) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The materials that the DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) ask to be evaluated are--sulfur, arsenic, yttrium, tantalum, gold, rhodium, indium, tungsten, thallium, thorium-230,232 ({sup 230,232}Th), uranium-233,238 ({sup 233,238}U), polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po), curium-232 ({sup 232}Cu), and americium-241 ({sup 241}Am). The stable elements were used primarily as tracers for determining neutron energy and flux, and for other diagnostic purposes in the larger yield, multistage devices. It is reasonable to assume that these materials would be distributed in a similar manner as the fission products subsequent to detonation. A large inventory of fission product and uranium data was available for assessment. Detailed calculations show only a very small fraction of the fission products produced during the entire test series remain at the test site atolls. Consequently, based on the information provided, we conclude that the concentration of these materials in the atoll environment pose no adverse health effects to humans.

Robison, W L; Noshkin, V E; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L; Bogen, K T

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

U-187: Adobe Flash Player Multiple Vulnerabilities  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Adobe released security updates for Adobe Flash Player 11.2.202.235 and earlier versions for Windows, Macintosh and Linux, Adobe Flash Player 11.1.115.8 and earlier versions for Android 4.x, and Adobe Flash Player 11.1.111.9 and earlier versions for Android 3.x and 2.x. These updates address vulnerabilities that could cause a crash and potentially allow an attacker to take control of the affected system.

389

Nuclear reactor engineering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chapters are presented concerning energy from nuclear fission; nuclear reactions and radiations; diffusion and slowing-down of neutrons; principles of reactor analysis; nuclear reactor kinetics and control; energy removal; non-fuel reactor materials; the reactor fuel system; radiation protection and environmental effects; nuclear reactor shielding; nuclear reactor safety; and power reactor systems.

Glasstone, S.; Sesonske, A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

ELSEVIER Journal of Nuclear Materials 212-215 (1994) 845-848 Postirradiation fiber debonding and pull-out  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The toughness of ceramic matrix composites is contributed by crack bridging, matrix crack deflection, fiber by investigating the mechanisms of energy dissipation during composite failure. In addition to matrix toughness and pull-out in Sic-Sic composites * A. El-Azab, N.M. Ghoniem Mechanic, Aerospace and Nuclear En~~e~g ~epa

Ghoniem, Nasr M.

391

Protection of Use Control Vulnerabilities and Designs  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual establishes a general process and provides direction for controlling access and dissemination of Sigma 14 and 15 Weapon Data at the Department of Energy (DOE). It supplements DOE O 452.4, SECURITY AND CONTROL OF NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVES AND NUCLEAR WEAPONS, which establishes DOE requirements and responsibilities to prevent the deliberate unauthorized use of U.S. nuclear explosives and U.S. nuclear weapons. Canceled by DOE M 452.4-1A. Does not cancel other directives.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Sandia National Laboratories: Nuclear Energy Publications  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Publications Nuclear Energy Publications Nuclear Energy Safety Fact Sheets Assuring Safe Transportation of Nuclear and Hazardous Materials Human Reliability Assessment (HRA)...

393

Nuclear and Non-Ionizing Energy-loss of Electrons with Low and Relativistic Energies in Materials and Space Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The treatment of the electron-nucleus interaction based on the Mott differential cross section was extended to account for effects due to screened Coulomb potentials, finite sizes and finite rest masses of nuclei for electrons above 200 keV and up to ultra high energies. This treatment allows one to determine both the total and differential cross sections, thus, subsequently to calculate the resulting nuclear and non-ionizing stopping powers. Above a few hundreds of MeV, neglecting the effect due to finite rest masses of recoil nuclei the stopping power and NIEL result to be largely underestimated; while, above a few tens of MeV the finite size of the nuclear target prevents a further large increase of stopping powers which approach almost constant values.

Boschini, M J; Gervasi, M; Giani, S; Grandi, D; Ivanchenko, V; Nieminem, P; Pensotti, S; Rancoita, P G; Tacconi, M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Nuclear and Non-Ionizing Energy-loss of Electrons with Low and Relativistic Energies in Materials and Space Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The treatment of the electron-nucleus interaction based on the Mott differential cross section was extended to account for effects due to screened Coulomb potentials, finite sizes and finite rest masses of nuclei for electrons above 200 keV and up to ultra high energies. This treatment allows one to determine both the total and differential cross sections, thus, subsequently to calculate the resulting nuclear and non-ionizing stopping powers. Above a few hundreds of MeV, neglecting the effect due to finite rest masses of recoil nuclei the stopping power and NIEL result to be largely underestimated; while, above a few tens of MeV the finite size of the nuclear target prevents a further large increase of stopping powers which approach almost constant values.

M. J. Boschini; C. Consolandi; M. Gervasi; S. Giani; D. Grandi; V. Ivanchenko; P. Nieminem; S. Pensotti; P. G. Rancoita; M. Tacconi

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

395

Protection of Use Control Vulnerabilities and Design  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This manual establishes a general process and provides direction for controlling access to and disseminating Sigma 14 and 15 nuclear weapon data (NWD) at the Department of Energy (DOE). It supplements DOE O 452.4A, Security and Control of Nuclear Explosives and Nuclear Weapons, dated 12-17-01, which establishes DOE requirements and responsibilities to prevent the deliberate unauthorized use of U.S. nuclear explosives and nuclear weapons. Cancels DOE M 452.4-1. Canceled by DOE O 452.7, 5-14-2010

2004-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

396

Standard test method for analysis of isotopic composition of uranium in nuclear-grade fuel material by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 This test method is applicable to the determination of the isotopic composition of uranium (U) in nuclear-grade fuel material. The following isotopic weight percentages are determined using a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (Q-ICP-MS): 233U, 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U. The analysis can be performed on various material matrices after acid dissolution and sample dilution into water or dilute nitric (HNO3) acid. These materials include: fuel product, uranium oxide, uranium oxide alloys, uranyl nitrate (UNH) crystals, and solutions. The sample preparation discussed in this test method focuses on fuel product material but may be used for uranium oxide or a uranium oxide alloy. Other preparation techniques may be used and some references are given. Purification of the uranium by anion-exchange extraction is not required for this test method, as it is required by other test methods such as radiochemistry and thermal ionization mass spectroscopy (TIMS). This test method is also described i...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Crucial role of detailed function, task, timeline, link and human vulnerability analyses in HRA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper addresses one major cause for large uncertainties in human reliability analysis (HRA) results, that is, an absence of detailed function, task, timeline, link and human vulnerability analyses. All too often this crucial step in the HRA process is done in a cursory fashion using word of mouth or written procedures which themselves may incompletely or inaccurately represent the human action sequences and human error vulnerabilities being analyzed. The paper examines the potential contributions these detailed analyses can make in achieving quantitative and qualitative HRA results which are: (1) creditable, that is, minimize uncertainty, (2) auditable, that is, systematically linking quantitative results and qualitative information from which the results are derived, (3) capable of supporting root cause analyses on human reliability factors determined to be major contributors to risk, and (4) capable of repeated measures and being combined with similar results from other analyses to examine HRA issues transcending individual systems and facilities. Based on experience analyzing test and commercial nuclear reactors, and medical applications of nuclear technology, an iterative process is suggested for doing detailed function, task, timeline, link and human vulnerability analyses using documentation reviews, open-ended and structured interviews, direct observations, and group techniques. Finally, the paper concludes that detailed analyses done in this manner by knowledgeable human factors practitioners, can contribute significantly to the credibility, auditability, causal factor analysis, and combining goals of the HRA.

Ryan, T.G.; Haney, L.N.; Ostrom, L.T.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Material stabilization characterization management plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents overall direction for characterization needs during stabilization of SNM at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Technical issues for needed data and equipment are identified. Information on material categories and links to vulnerabilities are given. Comparison data on the material categories is discussed to assist in assessing the relative risks and desired processing priority.

GIBSON, M.W.

1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

399

DEVELOPMENT, INSTALLATION AND OPERATION OF THE MPC&A OPERATIONS MONITORING (MOM) SYSTEM AT THE JOINT INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH (JINR) DUBNA, RUSSIA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Operations Monitoring (MOM) systems handling at the International Intergovernmental Organization - Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) is described in this paper. Category I nuclear material (plutonium and uranium) is used in JINR research reactors, facilities and for scientific and research activities. A monitoring system (MOM) was installed at JINR in April 2003. The system design was based on a vulnerability analysis, which took into account the specifics of the Institute. The design and installation of the MOM system was a collaborative effort between JINR, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Financial support was provided by DOE through BNL. The installed MOM system provides facility management with additional assurance that operations involving nuclear material (NM) are correctly followed by the facility personnel. The MOM system also provides additional confidence that the MPC&A systems continue to perform effectively.

Kartashov,V.V.; Pratt,W.; Romanov, Y.A.; Samoilov, V.N.; Shestakov, B.A.; Duncan, C.; Brownell, L.; Carbonaro, J.; White, R.M.; Coffing, J.A.

2009-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

400

Social vulnerability indicators as a sustainable planning tool  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the face of global warming and environmental change, the conventional strategy of resource centralization will not be able to cope with a future of increasingly extreme climate events and related disasters. It may even contribute to inter-regional disparities as a result of these events. To promote sustainable development, this study offers a case study of developmental planning in Chiayi, Taiwan and a review of the relevant literature to propose a framework of social vulnerability indicators at the township level. The proposed framework can not only be used to measure the social vulnerability of individual townships in Chiayi, but also be used to capture the spatial developmental of Chiayi. Seventeen social vulnerability indicators provide information in five dimensions. Owing to limited access to relevant data, the values of only 13 indicators were calculated. By simply summarizing indicators without using weightings and by using zero-mean normalization to standardize the indicators, this study calculates social vulnerability scores for each township. To make social vulnerability indicators more useful, this study performs an overlay analysis of social vulnerability and patterns of risk associated with national disasters. The social vulnerability analysis draws on secondary data for 2012 from Taiwan's National Geographic Information System. The second layer of analysis consists of the flood potential ratings of the Taiwan Water Resources Agency as an index of biophysical vulnerability. The third layer consists of township-level administrative boundaries. Analytical results reveal that four out of the 18 townships in Chiayi not only are vulnerable to large-scale flooding during serious flood events, but also have the highest degree of social vulnerability. Administrative boundaries, on which social vulnerability is based, do not correspond precisely to “cross-administrative boundaries,” which are characteristics of the natural environment. This study adopts an exploratory approach that provides Chiayi and other government agencies with a foundation for sustainable strategic planning for environmental change. The final section offers four suggestions concerning the implications of social vulnerability for local development planning. -- Highlights: • This study proposes a framework of social vulnerability indicators at the township level in Chiayi County, Taiwan. • Seventeen social vulnerability indicators are categorized into four dimensions. • This study performs a three-layer overlay analysis of social vulnerability and natural disaster risk patterns. • 4 out of the 18 townships not only have potential for large-scale flooding, but also high degree of social vulnerability. • This study provides a foundation for sustainable strategic planning to deal with environmental change. • Four suggestions are proposed regarding the implications of social vulnerability for local development planning.

Lee, Yung-Jaan, E-mail: yungjaanlee@gmail.com

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Airborne radioactive material collection, measurement, and data storage for the Nuclear Science Center at Texas A&M University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REFERENCES AEC73 AEC Regulatory Guide 8. 2, 1973, "Guide for Administrative Practices in Radiation Monitoring". AEC74 AEC Regulatory Guide 1. 21, Rev. 1, 1974, "Measuring, Evaluating, and Reporting Radioactivity in Solid Wastes, and Releases... System at the Nuclear Science Center (Texas AAM University) 38 VITA 66 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NUMBER Figure 1: FAM//I and FANF3 Sample Probe Orientation, PAGE Figure 2: FAM42, FAMR4, and FAMt6 Sample Probe Location . . 13 Figure 3; FAMF1 and FAM...

Jones, Melody Louise

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Components," Journal of Nuclear Materials, 212-215, 1223 (1994). 13. Arnold, L, Windscale 1957, Anatomy of a Nuclear Accident, St Martin Press, London, 1992. 14....

403

Materials Characterization Center workshop on leaching mechanisms of nuclear waste forms, May 19-21, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland. Summary report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a report of the second workshop on the leaching mechanism of nuclear waste forms, which was held at Geithersburg, Maryland, May 19-21, 1982. The first session of the workshop was devoted to progress reports by participants in the leaching mechanisms program. These progress reports, as prepared by the participants, are given in Section 3.0. The goal of the remainder of the workshop was to exchange information on the development of repository-relevant leach testing techniques, often called interactions testing. To this end, a wide spectrum of investigators, many of whose work is sponsored by DOE's Nuclear Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) project, made presentations at the workshop. These presentations were a significant and beneficial part of the workshop and are summarized in Sections 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 according to the workshop agenda topics. In many cases, the presenters provided a written version of their presentation which has been included verbatim; in the other cases, the workshop chairman has supplied a brief synopsis. Twenty-one papers have been abstracted and indexed for inclusion in the data base.

Mendel, J.E. (comp.)

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Evaluating operating system vulnerability to memory errors.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reliability is of great concern to the scalability of extreme-scale systems. Of particular concern are soft errors in main memory, which are a leading cause of failures on current systems and are predicted to be the leading cause on future systems. While great effort has gone into designing algorithms and applications that can continue to make progress in the presence of these errors without restarting, the most critical software running on a node, the operating system (OS), is currently left relatively unprotected. OS resiliency is of particular importance because, though this software typically represents a small footprint of a compute node's physical memory, recent studies show more memory errors in this region of memory than the remainder of the system. In this paper, we investigate the soft error vulnerability of two operating systems used in current and future high-performance computing systems: Kitten, the lightweight kernel developed at Sandia National Laboratories, and CLE, a high-performance Linux-based operating system developed by Cray. For each of these platforms, we outline major structures and subsystems that are vulnerable to soft errors and describe methods that could be used to reconstruct damaged state. Our results show the Kitten lightweight operating system may be an easier target to harden against memory errors due to its smaller memory footprint, largely deterministic state, and simpler system structure.

Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G. (University of New Mexico); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Mueller, Frank (North Carolina State University); Fiala, David (North Carolina State University); Brightwell, Ronald Brian

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

T-544: Cisco Security Advisory: Cisco Content Services Gateway Vulnerabilities  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Cisco IOS Software Release 12.4(24)MD1 on the Cisco CSG2 contains two vulnerabilities that can be exploited by a remote, unauthenticated attacker to create a denial of service condition that prevents traffic from passing through the CSG2. These vulnerabilities require only a single content service to be active on the Cisco CSG2 and can be exploited via crafted TCP packets. A three-way handshake is not required to exploit either of these vulnerabilities.

406

AFTER A Framework for electrical power sysTems vulnerability...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Germany) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name AFTER A Framework for electrical power sysTems vulnerability identification, dEfense and Restoration Country Germany Coordinates...

407

India-Vulnerability Assessment and Enhancing Adaptive Capacities...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Adaptive Capacities to Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Name India-Vulnerability Assessment and Enhancing Adaptive Capacities to Climate Change AgencyCompany...

408

Mapping Climate Change Vulnerability and Impact Scenarios - A...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sub-national Planners Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Mapping Climate Change Vulnerability and Impact Scenarios - A Guidebook for Sub-national Planners...

409

areas vulnerabilities impacts: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

on residential electricity consumption for the nine San Francisco Bay Area counties 22 Seismic vulnerability analysis of moderate seismicity areas using in situ experimental...

410

assessing infrastructure vulnerability: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: , by improving the seismic hazard evaluation using probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) methodsSeismic vulnerability assessment to slight dam- age...

411

AFTER A Framework for electrical power sysTems vulnerability...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Norway) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name AFTER A Framework for electrical power sysTems vulnerability identification, dEfense and Restoration Country Norway Coordinates...

412

Microsoft Word - MitigationsForVulnerabilitiesInCSNetworks.doc  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for Security Vulnerabilities Found in Control System Networks May Permann John Hammer Computer Security Researcher Computer Security Researcher Communications & Cyber Security...

413

T-566: Citrix Secure Gateway Unspecified Vulnerability | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

has been reported in Citrix Secure Gateway, which can be exploited by malicious people to compromise a vulnerable system. reference LINKS: Citrix ID:CTX128168 Secunia...

414

Antioch University and EPA Webinar: Assessing Vulnerability of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Water Conveyance Infrastructure from a Changing Climate in the Context of a Changing Landscape Antioch University and EPA Webinar: Assessing Vulnerability of Water Conveyance...

415

AFTER A Framework for electrical power sysTems vulnerability...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Projects Map1 Overview AFTER addresses vulnerability evaluation and contingency planning of the energy grids and energy plants considering also the ICT systems used in...

416

U-086:Linux Kernel "/proc//mem" Privilege Escalation Vulnerability  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A vulnerability has been discovered in the Linux Kernel, which can be exploited by malicious, local users to gain escalated privileges.

417

AFTER A Framework for electrical power sysTems vulnerability...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

:"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" Display map Period 2011-2014 References EU Smart Grid Projects Map1 Overview AFTER addresses vulnerability evaluation and contingency...

418

Administrator Highlights U.S.-Georgian Nuclear Security Cooperation in Tbilisi  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

NNSA Administrator Thomas D'Agostino highlighted the strong U.S.-Georgian cooperation on nuclear security issues during a day-long visit to the Republic of Georgia in mid-June. He briefed the media at availability at the Tbilisi airport. In April 2009, President Obama outlined an ambitious agenda to secure vulnerable nuclear material around the world within four years, calling the danger of a terrorist acquiring nuclear weapons "the most immediate and extreme threat to global security." In this year's State of the Union, he called the threat of nuclear weapons, "the greatest danger to the American people." In order to meet that challenge, the President's FY2011 Budget Request includes close to $2.7 billion for the National Nuclear Security Administration's Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation program -- an increase of 25.7 percent over FY2010. Included in that request is NNSA's Second Line of Defense (SLD) program, which works around the world to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system.

Thomas D'Agostino

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Physical fitness training reference manual for security force personnel at fuel cycle facilities possessing formula quantities of special nuclear materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recommendations contained throughout this NUREG are being provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a reference manual which can be used by licensee management as they develop a program plan for the safe participation of guards, Tactical Response Team members (TRTs), and all other armed response personnel in physical fitness training and in physical performance standards testing. The information provided in this NUREG will help licensees to determine if guards, TRTs, and other armed response personnel can effectively perform their normal and emergency duties without undue hazard to themselves, to fellow employees, to the plant site, and to the general public. The recommendations in this NUREG are similar in part to those contained within the Department of Energy (DOE) Medical and Fitness Implementation Guide which was published in March 1991. The guidelines contained in this NUREG are not requirements, and compliance is not required. 25 refs.

Arzino, P.A.; Caplan, C.S.; Goold, R.E. (California State Univ., Hayward, CA (United States). Foundation)

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Medical screening reference manual for security force personnel at fuel cycle facilities possessing formula quantities of special nuclear materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recommendations contained throughout this NUREG were provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as medical screening information that could be used by physicians who are evaluating the parameters of the safe participation of guards, Tactical Response Team members (TRTs), and all other armed response personnel in physical fitness training and in physical performance standards testing. The information provided in this NUREG will help licensees to determine if guards, TRTs, and other armed response personnel can effectively perform their normal and emergency duties without undue hazard to themselves, to fellow employees, to the plant site, and to the general public. The medical recommendations in this NUREG are similar in content to the medical standards contained in 10 CFR Part 1046 which, in part, specifies medical standards for the protective force personnel regulated by the Department of Energy. The guidelines contained in this NUREG are not requirements, and compliance is not required. 3 refs.

Arzino, P.A.; Brown, C.H. (California State Univ., Hayward, CA (United States). Foundation)

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vulnerable nuclear material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

NEW MATERIALS DEVELOPED TO MEET REGULATORY AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED FACILITIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the 2010 ANS Embedded Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination and Reutilization and Technology, Savannah River National Laboratory's Mike Serrato reported initial information on the newly developed specialty grout materials necessary to satisfy all requirements associated with in-situ decommissioning of P-Reactor and R-Reactor at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. Since that report, both projects have been successfully completed and extensive test data on both fresh properties and cured properties has been gathered and analyzed for a total of almost 191,150 m{sup 3} (250,000 yd{sup 3}) of new materials placed. The focus of this paper is to describe the (1) special grout mix for filling the P-Reactor vessel (RV) and (2) the new flowable structural fill materials used to fill the below grade portions of the facilities. With a wealth of data now in hand, this paper also captures the test results and reports on the performance of these new materials. Both reactors were constructed and entered service in the early 1950s, producing weapons grade materials for the nation's defense nuclear program. R-Reactor was shut down in 1964 and the P-Reactor in 1991. In-situ decommissioning (ISD) was selected for both facilities and performed as Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensations and Liability Act actions (an early action for P-Reactor and a removal action for R-Reactor), beginning in October 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy concept for ISD is to physically stabilize and isolate intact, structurally robust facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of producing (reactor facilities), processing (isotope separation facilities), or storing radioactive materials. Funding for accelerated decommissioning was provided under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Decommissioning of both facilities was completed in September 2011. ISD objectives for these CERCLA actions included: (1) Prevent industrial worker exposure to radioactive or hazardous contamination exceeding Principal Threat Source Material levels; (2) Minimize human and ecological exposure to unacceptable risk associated with radiological and hazardous constituents that are or may be present; (3) Prevent to the extent practicable the migration of radioactive or hazardous contaminants from the closed facility to the groundwater so that concentrations in groundwater do not exceed regulatory standards; (4) Eliminate or control all routes of human exposure to radiological and chemical contamination; and (5) Prevent animal intruder exposure to radioactive and hazardous contamination.

Blankenship, J.; Langton, C.; Musall, J.; Griffin, W.

2012-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

422

Safeguards Evaluation Method for evaluating vulnerability to insider threats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As protection of DOE facilities against outsiders increases to acceptable levels, attention is shifting toward achieving comparable protection against insiders. Since threats and protection measures for insiders are substantially different from those for outsiders, new perspectives and approaches are needed. One such approach is the Safeguards Evaluation Method. This method helps in assessing safeguards vulnerabilities to theft or diversion of special nuclear meterial (SNM) by insiders. The Safeguards Evaluation Method-Insider Threat is a simple model that can be used by safeguards and security planners to evaluate safeguards and proposed upgrades at their own facilities. The method is used to evaluate the effectiveness of safeguards in both timely detection (in time to prevent theft) and late detection (after-the-fact). The method considers the various types of potential insider adversaries working alone or in collusion with other insiders. The approach can be used for a wide variety of facilities with various quantities and forms of SNM. An Evaluation Workbook provides documentation of the baseline assessment; this simplifies subsequent on-site appraisals. Quantitative evaluation is facilitated by an accompanying computer program. The method significantly increases an evaluation team's on-site analytical capabilities, thereby producing a more thorough and accurate safeguards evaluation.

Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; Renis, T.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Assessing Vulnerabilities, Risks, and Consequences of Damage to Critical Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the publication of 'Critical Foundations: Protecting America's Infrastructure,' there has been a keen understanding of the complexity, interdependencies, and shared responsibility required to protect the nation's most critical assets that are essential to our way of life. The original 5 sectors defined in 1997 have grown to 18 Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources (CIKR), which are discussed in the 2009 National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) and its supporting sector-specific plans. The NIPP provides the structure for a national program dedicated to enhanced protection and resiliency of the nation's infrastructure. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides in-depth, multi-disciplinary assessments of threat, vulnerability, and consequence across all 18 sectors at scales ranging from specific facilities to infrastructures spanning multi-state regions, such as the Oil and Natural Gas (ONG) sector. Like many of the CIKR sectors, the ONG sector is comprised of production, processing, distribution, and storage of highly valuable and potentially dangerous commodities. Furthermore, there are significant interdependencies with other sectors, including transportation, communication, finance, and government. Understanding the potentially devastating consequences and collateral damage resulting from a terrorist attack or natural event is an important element of LLNL's infrastructure security programs. Our work began in the energy sector in the late 1990s and quickly expanded other critical infrastructure sectors. We have performed over 600 physical assessments with a particular emphasis on those sectors that utilize, store, or ship potentially hazardous materials and for whom cyber security is important. The success of our approach is based on building awareness of vulnerabilities and risks and working directly with industry partners to collectively advance infrastructure protection. This approach consists of three phases: The Pre-Assessment Phase brings together infrastructure owners and operators to identify critical assets and help the team create a structured information request. During this phase, we gain information about the critical assets from those who are most familiar with operations and interdependencies, making the time we spend on the ground conducting the assessment much more productive and enabling the team to make actionable recommendations. The Assessment Phase analyzes 10 areas: Threat environment, cyber architecture, cyber penetration, physical security, physical penetration, operations security, policies and procedures, interdependencies, consequence analysis, and risk characterization. Each of these individual tasks uses direct and indirect data collection, site inspections, and structured and facilitated workshops to gather data. Because of the importance of understanding the cyber threat, LLNL has built both fixed and mobile cyber penetration, wireless penetration and supporting tools that can be tailored to fit customer needs. The Post-Assessment Phase brings vulnerability and risk assessments to the customer in a format that facilitates implementation of mitigation options. Often the assessment findings and recommendations are briefed and discussed with several levels of management and, if appropriate, across jurisdictional boundaries. The end result is enhanced awareness and informed protective measures. Over the last 15 years, we have continued to refine our methodology and capture lessons learned and best practices. The resulting risk and decision framework thus takes into consideration real-world constraints, including regulatory, operational, and economic realities. In addition to 'on the ground' assessments focused on mitigating vulnerabilities, we have integrated our computational and atmospheric dispersion capability with easy-to-use geo-referenced visualization tools to support emergency planning and response operations. LLNL is home to the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) and the Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC). NA

Suski, N; Wuest, C

2011-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

424

Method and tool for network vulnerability analysis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A computer system analysis tool and method that will allow for qualitative and quantitative assessment of security attributes and vulnerabilities in systems including computer networks. The invention is based on generation of attack graphs wherein each node represents a possible attack state and each edge represents a change in state caused by a single action taken by an attacker or unwitting assistant. Edges are weighted using metrics such as attacker effort, likelihood of attack success, or time to succeed. Generation of an attack graph is accomplished by matching information about attack requirements (specified in "attack templates") to information about computer system configuration (contained in a configuration file that can be updated to reflect system changes occurring during the course of an attack) and assumed attacker capabilities (reflected in "attacker profiles"). High risk attack paths, which correspond to those considered suited to application of attack countermeasures given limited resources for applying countermeasures, are identified by finding "epsilon optimal paths."

Swiler, Laura Painton (Albuquerque, NM); Phillips, Cynthia A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

425

T-616: PHP Stream Component Remote Denial of Service Vulnerability  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

PHP is prone to a remote denial-of-service vulnerability because the proxy server fails to handle certain FTP requests. An attacker can exploit this issue to crash the affected application, denying service to legitimate users. Versions prior to PHP 5.3.6 are vulnerable.

426

Public views on multiple dimensions of security : nuclear waepons, terrorism, energy, and the environment : 2007.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyze and compare findings from identical national surveys of the US general public on nuclear security and terrorism administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2007. Key areas of investigation include assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation, including the specific cases of North Korea and Iran; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism. Also we report findings from an Internet survey conducted in mid 2007 that investigates public views of US energy security, to include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alternative sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include expected implications of global climate change, and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options.

Herron, Kerry Gale (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Application of Two Phase (Liquid/Gas) Xenon Gamma-Camera for the Detection of Special Nuclear Material and PET Medical Imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The McKinsey group at Yale has been awarded a grant from DTRA for the building of a Liquid Xenon Gamma Ray Color Camera (LXe-GRCC), which combines state-of-the-art detection of LXe scintillation light and time projection chamber (TPC) charge readout. The DTRA application requires a movable detector and hence only a single phase (liquid) xenon detector can be considered in this case. We propose to extend the DTRA project to applications that allow a two phase (liquid/gas) xenon TPC. This entails additional (yet minimal) hardware and extension of the research effort funded by DTRA. The two phase detector will have better energy and angular resolution. Such detectors will be useful for PET medical imaging and detection of special nuclear material in stationary applications (e.g. port of entry). The expertise of the UConn group in gas phase TPCs will enhance the capabilities of the Yale group and the synergy between the two groups will be very beneficial for this research project as well as the education and research projects of the two universities. The LXe technology to be used in this project has matured rapidly over the past few years, developed for use in detectors for nuclear physics and astrophysics. This technology may now be applied in a straightforward way to the imaging of gamma rays. According to detailed Monte Carlo simulations recently performed at Yale University, energy resolution of 1% and angular resolution of 3 degrees may be obtained for 1.0 MeV gamma rays, using existing technology. With further research and development, energy resolution of 0.5% and angular resolution of 1.3 degrees will be possible at 1.0 MeV. Because liquid xenon is a high density, high Z material, it is highly efficient for scattering and capturing gamma rays. In addition, this technology scales elegantly to large detector areas, with several square meter apertures possible. The Yale research group is highly experienced in the development and use of noble liquid detectors for astrophysics, most recently in the XENON10 experiment. The existing facilities at Yale are fully adequate for the completion of this project. The facilities of the UConn group at the LNS at Avery Point include a (clean) lab for detector development and this group recently delivered an Optical Readout TPC (O-TPC) for research in Nuclear Astrophysics at the TUNL in Duke University. The machine shop at UConn will be used (free of charge) for producing the extra hardware needed for this project including grids and frames.

McKinsey, Daniel Nicholas [Yale University] [Yale University

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

428

Large area nuclear particle detectors using ET materials, phase 2. Final report, 9 May 1988-9 May 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents work done under a Phase 2 SBIR contract for demonstrating large area detector planes utilizing Quantex electron trapping materials as a film medium for storing high-energy nuclide impingement information. The detector planes utilize energy dissipated by passage of the high-energy nuclides to produce localized populations of electrons stored in traps. Readout of the localized trapped electron populations is effected by scanning the ET plane with near-infrared, which frees the trapped electrons and results in optical emission at visible wavelengths. The effort involved both optimizing fabrication technology for the detector planes and developing a readout system capable of high spatial resolution for displaying the recorded nuclide passage tracks.

Wrigley, C.Y.; Storti, G.M.; Walter, L.; Mathews, S.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

DEVELOPMENT OF PLASTICITY MODEL USING NON ASSOCIATED FLOW RULE FOR HCP MATERIALS INCLUDING ZIRCONIUM FOR NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report (prepared in collaboration with Prof. Jeong Whan Yoon, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia) a research effort was made to develop a non associated flow rule for zirconium. Since Zr is a hexagonally close packed (hcp) material, it is impossible to describe its plastic response under arbitrary loading conditions with any associated flow rule (e.g. von Mises). As a result of strong tension compression asymmetry of the yield stress and anisotropy, zirconium displays plastic behavior that requires a more sophisticated approach. Consequently, a new general asymmetric yield function has been developed which accommodates mathematically the four directional anisotropies along 0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, and biaxial, under tension and compression. Stress anisotropy has been completely decoupled from the r value by using non associated flow plasticity, where yield function and plastic potential have been treated separately to take care of stress and r value directionalities, respectively. This theoretical development has been verified using Zr alloys at room temperature as an example as these materials have very strong SD (Strength Differential) effect. The proposed yield function reasonably well models the evolution of yield surfaces for a zirconium clock rolled plate during in plane and through thickness compression. It has been found that this function can predict both tension and compression asymmetry mathematically without any numerical tolerance and shows the significant improvement compared to any reported functions. Finally, in the end of the report, a program of further research is outlined aimed at constructing tensorial relationships for the temperature and fluence dependent creep surfaces for Zr, Zircaloy 2, and Zircaloy 4.

Michael V. Glazoff; Jeong-Whan Yoon

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Analyses Of Two End-User Software Vulnerability Exposure Metrics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The risk due to software vulnerabilities will not be completely resolved in the near future. Instead, putting reliable vulnerability measures into the hands of end-users so that informed decisions can be made regarding the relative security exposure incurred by choosing one software package over another is of importance. To that end, we propose two new security metrics, average active vulnerabilities (AAV) and vulnerability free days (VFD). These metrics capture both the speed with which new vulnerabilities are reported to vendors and the rate at which software vendors fix them. We then examine how the metrics are computed using currently available datasets and demonstrate their estimation in a simulation experiment using four different browsers as a case study. Finally, we discuss how the metrics may be used by the various stakeholders of software and to software usage decisions.

Jason L. Wright; Miles McQueen; Lawrence Wellman

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

V-057: eXtplorer "ext_find_user()" Authentication Bypass Vulnerability |  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomen Owned SmallOf The 2012Nuclear Guide Remote Access08: DebianVulnerabilities

432

Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Nuclear Materials Assay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

U in a mixture of depleted uranium and lead as a surrogateamounts of Pb and depleted uranium (DU). These targets actedprevious experiment, the depleted uranium in the target was

Quiter, Brian Joseph

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Nuclear Material Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohnSecurityControls | NationalSURVEYRecovery

434

Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Nuclear Materials Assay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tungsten for various angular ranges of brems- strahlung photon production.tungsten for various angular ranges of bremsstrahlung photon production.tungsten and lead have high densities and relative to lower-Z ma- terials, have larger pair production

Quiter, Brian Joseph

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Benjamin Livshits and Monica S. Lam 1. PHPList Admin Page SQL Injection Vulnerability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Escalation Vulnerability 8. Vim ModeLines Further Variant Arbitrary Command Execution Vulnerability 9. Zlib Local Race Condition Privilege Escalation Vulnerability 8. Vim ModeLines Further Variant Arbitrary

Livshits, Ben

436

EMISSION ABATEMENT VERSUS DEVELOPMENT AS STRATEGIES TO REDUCE VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE: AN APPLICATION OF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EMISSION ABATEMENT VERSUS DEVELOPMENT AS STRATEGIES TO REDUCE VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE development aid is more effective in reducing vulnerability than is emission abatement. The hypothesis, vulnerability, adaptive capacity, development #12;EMISSION ABATEMENT VERSUS DEVELOPMENT AS STRATEGIES TO REDUCE

437

U-097: PHP "php_register_variable_ex()" Code Execution Vulnerability...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

097: PHP "phpregistervariableex()" Code Execution Vulnerability U-097: PHP "phpregistervariableex()" Code Execution Vulnerability February 7, 2012 - 9:00am Addthis PROBLEM:...

438

U-157: Ruby Mail Gem Directory Traversal and Shell Command Injection Vulnerabilities  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Some vulnerabilities have been reported in the Mail gem for Ruby, which can be exploited by malicious people to manipulate certain data and compromise a vulnerable system.

439

E-Print Network 3.0 - attitudes perceived vulnerability Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

vulnerability Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Perceived Stress and Cognitive Vulnerability Mediate the Summary: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Perceived Stress and Cognitive...

440

T-543: Wireshark 0.8.20 through 1.2.8 Multiple Vulnerabilities...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

T-527: OpenSC Smart Card Serial Number Multiple Buffer Overflow Vulnerabilities U-202: Apple QuickTime Multiple Stack Overflow Vulnerabilities U-207: Pidgin 'mxitshowmessage()'...

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