National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for voltage direct current

  1. An Annotated Bibliography of High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) Devices, 1991-1993.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litzenberger, Wayne; Lava, Val

    1994-08-01

    References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).

  2. Assessment of research directions for high-voltage direct-current power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, W F

    1982-09-01

    High voltage direct current (HVDC) power transmission continues to be an emerging technology nearly thirty years after its introduction into modern power systems. To date its use has been restricted to either specialized applications having identifiable economic advantages (e.g., breakeven distance) or, rarely, applications where decoupling is needed. Only recently have the operational advantages (e.g., power modulation) of HVDC been realized on operating systems. A research project whose objective was to identify hardware developments and, where appropriate, system applications which can exemplify cost and operational advantages of integrated ac/dc power systems is discussed. The three principal tasks undertaken were: assessment of equipment developments; quantification of operational advantages; and interaction with system planners. Interest in HVDC power transmission has increased markedly over the past several years, and many new systems are now being investigated. The dissemination of information about HVDC, including specifically the symposium undertaken for Task 3, is a critical factor in fostering an understanding of this important adjunct to ac power transmission.

  3. Cathode fall model and current-voltage characteristics of field emission driven direct current microplasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2013-11-15

    The post-breakdown characteristics of field emission driven microplasma are studied theoretically and numerically. A cathode fall model assuming a linearly varying electric field is used to obtain equations governing the operation of steady state field emission driven microplasmas. The results obtained from the model by solving these equations are compared with particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions simulation results for parameters including the plasma potential, cathode fall thickness, ion number density in the cathode fall, and current density vs voltage curves. The model shows good overall agreement with the simulations but results in slightly overpredicted values for the plasma potential and the cathode fall thickness attributed to the assumed electric field profile. The current density vs voltage curves obtained show an arc region characterized by negative slope as well as an abnormal glow discharge characterized by a positive slope in gaps as small as 10 ?m operating at atmospheric pressure. The model also retrieves the traditional macroscale current vs voltage theory in the absence of field emission.

  4. Measuring bi-directional current through a field-effect transistor by virtue of drain-to-source voltage measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Steven Richard

    2006-12-26

    A method and apparatus for measuring current, and particularly bi-directional current, in a field-effect transistor (FET) using drain-to-source voltage measurements. The drain-to-source voltage of the FET is measured and amplified. This signal is then compensated for variations in the temperature of the FET, which affects the impedance of the FET when it is switched on. The output is a signal representative of the direction of the flow of current through the field-effect transistor and the level of the current through the field-effect transistor. Preferably, the measurement only occurs when the FET is switched on.

  5. Voltage controlled current source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casne, Gregory M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

  6. Surface acoustic wave amplification by direct current-voltage supplied to graphene film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Insepov, Z.; Emelin, E.; Kononenko, O.; Roshchupkin, D. V.; Tnyshtykbayev, K. B.; Baigarin, K. A.

    2015-01-12

    Using a high-resolution X-Ray diffraction measurement method, the surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of a Ca{sub 3}TaGa{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 14} (CTGS) piezoelectric crystal was investigated, where an external current was driven across the graphene film. Here, we show that the application of the DC field leads to a significant enhancement of the SAW magnitude and, as a result, to amplification of the diffraction satellites. Amplification of 33.2?dB/cm for the satellite +1, and of 13.8?dB/cm for the satellite +2, at 471?MHz has been observed where the external DC voltage of +10?V was applied. Amplification of SAW occurs above a DC field much smaller than that of a system using bulk semiconductor. Theoretical estimates are in reasonable agreement with our measurements and analysis of experimental data for other materials.

  7. Feasibility of gate-turnoff thyristors in a high-voltage direct-current transmission system: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurray, W.

    1987-08-01

    This study to identify potentially attractive applications for gate-turnoff thyristor (GTO) converters in utility systems includes both high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) valves and static volt-ampere reactive (VAR) controllers. The work includes a broad review of basic principles and the power circuit arrangements that are judged to be most attractive. The major differences between ordinary thyristors and GTO converters are discussed, including alternative HVDC transmission systems and static VAR controllers that are possible with GTOs. Whereas a current-source type of converter is the obvious choice with ordinary thyristors, the use of GTOs allows either current-source or voltage-source converters to be considered. A computer-aided analysis of the basic 6-pulse GTO current-source converter system is presented, including general equations for steady-state operation and plotting calculated waveforms. An analysis of a GTO voltage-source converter is given in less detail. Due to incomplete performance data, unresolved critical problems such as protection, and the disadvantages of higher cost, complexity and losses, it is difficult to recommend a specific GTO converter system at this time. The major advantage that GTO converters can offer is rapid and smoothly continuous control of reactive power. Further development of GTO converters should be aimed towards an application where reactive power control is very important and not readily achievable by conventional methods. 12 refs., 47 figs.

  8. Measurements of the volt-ampere characteristics and the breakdown voltages of direct-current helium and hydrogen discharges in microgaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klas, M.; Matej?ik, Š.; Radjenovi?, B.; Radmilovi?-Radjenovi?, M.

    2014-10-15

    The discharge phenomena for micro meter gap sizes include many interesting problems from engineering and physical perspectives. In this paper, the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical results of the breakdown voltage and current-voltage characteristics of the direct-current helium and hydrogen discharges. The measurements were performed at a constant pressure of around one atmosphere, while varying the gap size between two parallel plane tungsten electrodes between 1??m and 100??m. From the measured breakdown voltage curves, the effective yields and the ionization coefficients were derived for both gases. Present data for the ionization coefficients correlate with the data obtained for the breakdown voltage curves measured for fixed 100??m interelectrode separation. The current-voltage characteristics were plotted for the various gap sizes illustrating the role of the field emission effects in the microgaps. Based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory, the enhancement factors were determined. The gap spacing dependence of the field emission current can be explained by the introduction of two ideas, the first being a space charge effect by emitted electrons, and the second a change in the breakdown mechanism. Experimental results, presented here, demonstrate that Townsend phenomenology breaks down when field emission becomes the key mechanism affecting the breakdown and deforming the left hand side of the breakdown voltage curves.

  9. Glow-to-arc transition events in H{sub 2}-Ar direct current pulsed plasma: Automated measurement of current and voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendes, Luciano A.; Rodrigues, Jhonatam C.; Mafra, Marcio

    2012-01-15

    The glow-to-arc transition phenomena (arcing) observed in plasma reactors used in materials processing was studied through the arcs characteristic current and voltage waveforms. In order to capture these arcs signals, a LABVIEW based automated instrumentation system (ARCVIEW) was developed, including the integration of an oscilloscope equipped with proper current and voltage probes. The system also allows capturing the process parameters at the arc occurrence moments, which were used to map the arcs events conditions. Experiments in H{sub 2}-Ar DC pulsed plasma returned signals data from 215 arcs events, which were analyzed through software routines. According to the results, an anti-arcing system should react in the time order of few microseconds to prevent most of the damage caused by the undesired arcing phenomena.

  10. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Current Versus Voltage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current Versus Voltage The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Device Performance group uses current versus voltage (I-V) measurement systems to assess the main performance parameters for photovoltaic (PV) cells and modules. I-V measurement systems determine the output performance of devices, including: open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Isc), fill factor (FF), maximum power output of the device (Pmax), voltage at maximum power (Vmax), current at maximum power (Imax), and

  11. Non-contact current and voltage sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Gary D; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C; Schappert, Michael A

    2014-03-25

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing that contains the current and voltage sensors, which may be a ferrite cylinder with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap along the circumference to measure current, or alternative a winding provided through the cylinder along its axis and a capacitive plate or wire disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  12. Apparatus for producing voltage and current pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirbie, Hugh (Los Alamos, NM); Dale, Gregory E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-12-21

    An apparatus having one or more modular stages for producing voltage and current pulses. Each module includes a diode charging means to charge a capacitive means that stores energy. One or more charging impedance means are connected to the diode charging means to provide a return current pathway. A solid-state switch discharge means, with current interruption capability, is connected to the capacitive means to discharge stored energy. Finally, a control means is provided to command the switching action of the solid-state switch discharge means.

  13. Understanding S-shaped current-voltage characteristics of organic solar cells: Direct measurement of potential distributions by scanning Kelvin probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saive, Rebecca Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Institut für Hochfrequenztechnik, TU Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig; Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics, Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg ; Mueller, Christian; Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics, Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg ; Schinke, Janusz; Lovrincic, Robert; Institut für Hochfrequenztechnik, TU Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig

    2013-12-09

    We present a comparison of the potential distribution along the cross section of bilayer poly(3-hexylthiophene)/1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 (P3HT/PCBM) solar cells, which show normal and anomalous, S-shaped current-voltage (IV) characteristics. We expose the cross sections of the devices with a focussed ion beam and measure them with scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. We find that in the case of S-shaped IV-characteristics, there is a huge potential drop at the PCBM/Al top contact, which does not occur in solar cells with normal IV-characteristics. This behavior confirms the assumption that S-shaped curves are caused by hindered charge transport at interfaces.

  14. Fiber optic current monitor for high-voltage applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renda, G.F.

    1992-04-21

    A current monitor which derives its power from the conductor being measured for bidirectionally measuring the magnitude of current (from DC to above 50 khz) flowing through a conductor across which a relatively high level DC voltage is applied, includes a pair of identical transmitter modules connected in opposite polarity to one another in series with the conductor being monitored, for producing from one module a first light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in one direction through the conductor during one period of time, and from the other module a second light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in the opposite direction through the conductor during another period of time, and a receiver located in a safe area remote from the high voltage area for receiving the first and second light signals, and converting the same to first and second voltage signals having levels indicative of the magnitude of current being measured at a given time. 6 figs.

  15. Fiber optic current monitor for high-voltage applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renda, George F. (Plainsboro, NJ)

    1992-01-01

    A current monitor which derives its power from the conductor being measured for bidirectionally measuring the magnitude of current (from DC to above 50 khz) flowing through a conductor across which a relatively high level DC voltage is applied, includes a pair of identical transmitter modules connected in opposite polarity to one another in series with the conductor being monitored, for producing from one module a first light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in one direction through the conductor during one period of time, and from the other module a second light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in the opposite direction through the conductor during another period of time, and a receiver located in a safe area remote from the high voltage area for receiving the first and second light signals, and converting the same to first and second voltage signals having levels indicative of the magnitude of current being measured at a given time.

  16. Influence of Barrier Design on Current Collapse in High Voltage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Influence of Barrier Design on Current Collapse in High Voltage AlGaNGaN HEMTs. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Barrier Design on Current Collapse in High ...

  17. Influence of Barrier Design on Current Collapse in High Voltage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Influence of Barrier Design on Current Collapse in High Voltage AlGaNGaN HEMTs. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Barrier Design on Current ...

  18. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockot, J.H.; Mikesell, H.E.; Jha, K.N.

    1998-08-11

    A device and a method are disclosed for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens. 7 figs.

  19. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockot, Joseph H. (N. Huntingdon, PA); Mikesell, Harvey E. (McMurray, PA); Jha, Kamal N. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A device and a method for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens.

  20. Direct current uninterruptible power supply method and system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinha, Gautam

    2003-12-02

    A method and system are described for providing a direct current (DC) uninterruptible power supply with the method including, for example: continuously supplying fuel to a turbine; converting mechanical power from the turbine into alternating current (AC) electrical power; converting the AC electrical power to DC power within a predetermined voltage level range; supplying the DC power to a load; and maintaining a DC load voltage within the predetermined voltage level range by adjusting the amount of fuel supplied to the turbine.

  1. Current isolating epitaxial buffer layers for high voltage photodiode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Cooper, Gregory A. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    2002-01-01

    An array of photodiodes in series on a common semi-insulating substrate has a non-conductive buffer layer between the photodiodes and the semi-insulating substrate. The buffer layer reduces current injection leakage between the photodiodes of the array and allows optical energy to be converted to high voltage electrical energy.

  2. Outdoor PV Module Degradation of Current-Voltage Parameters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R. M.; Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module degradation rate analysis quantifies the loss of PV power output over time and is useful for estimating the impact of degradation on the cost of energy. An understanding of the degradation of all current-voltage (I-V) parameters helps to determine the cause of the degradation and also gives useful information for the design of the system. This study reports on data collected from 12 distinct mono- and poly-crystalline modules deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. Most modules investigated showed < 0.5%/year decrease in maximum power due to short-circuit current decline.

  3. Bi-directional power control system for voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrigan, Neil Richard (Niskayuna, NY); King, Robert Dean (Schenectady, NY); Schwartz, James Edward (Slingerlands, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A control system for a voltage converter includes: a power comparator for comparing a power signal on input terminals of the converter with a commanded power signal and producing a power comparison signal; a power regulator for transforming the power comparison signal to a commanded current signal; a current comparator for comparing the commanded current signal with a measured current signal on output terminals of the converter and producing a current comparison signal; a current regulator for transforming the current comparison signal to a pulse width modulator (PWM) duty cycle command signal; and a PWM for using the PWM duty cycle command signal to control electrical switches of the converter. The control system may further include: a command multiplier for converting a voltage signal across the output terminals of the converter to a gain signal having a value between zero (0) and unity (1), and a power multiplier for multiplying the commanded power signal by the gain signal to provide a limited commanded power signal, wherein power comparator compares the limited commanded power signal with the power signal on the input terminals.

  4. Bi-directional power control system for voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrigan, N.R.; King, R.D.; Schwartz, J.E.

    1999-05-11

    A control system for a voltage converter includes: a power comparator for comparing a power signal on input terminals of the converter with a commanded power signal and producing a power comparison signal; a power regulator for transforming the power comparison signal to a commanded current signal; a current comparator for comparing the commanded current signal with a measured current signal on output terminals of the converter and producing a current comparison signal; a current regulator for transforming the current comparison signal to a pulse width modulator (PWM) duty cycle command signal; and a PWM for using the PWM duty cycle command signal to control electrical switches of the converter. The control system may further include: a command multiplier for converting a voltage signal across the output terminals of the converter to a gain signal having a value between zero (0) and unity (1), and a power multiplier for multiplying the commanded power signal by the gain signal to provide a limited commanded power signal, wherein power comparator compares the limited commanded power signal with the power signal on the input terminals. 10 figs.

  5. An accurate continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong Yue; Li Binhong

    2011-02-15

    A continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformers is presented in this paper. The sensor of this system is based on a kind of electronic instrument current transformer, which is a clamp-shape air core coil. This system uses an optical fiber transmission system for its signal transmission and power supply. Finally the digital integrator and fourth-order convolution window algorithm as error calculation methods are realized by the virtual instrument with a personal computer. It is found that this system can calibrate a high voltage current transformer while energized, which means avoiding a long calibrating period in the power system and the loss of power metering expense. At the same time, it has a wide dynamic range and frequency band, and it can achieve a high accuracy measurement in a complex electromagnetic field environment. The experimental results and the on-site operation results presented in the last part of the paper, prove that it can reach the 0.05 accuracy class and is easy to operate on site.

  6. Biased low differential input impedance current receiver/converter device and method for low noise readout from voltage-controlled detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.; Popov, Vladimir E.

    2011-03-22

    A first stage electronic system for receiving charge or current from voltage-controlled sensors or detectors that includes a low input impedance current receiver/converter device (for example, a transimpedance amplifier), which is directly coupled to the sensor output, a source of bias voltage, and the device's power supply (or supplies), which use the biased voltage point as a baseline.

  7. Adjustable direct current and pulsed circuit fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boenig, Heinrich J.; Schillig, Josef B.

    2003-09-23

    A fault current limiting system for direct current circuits and for pulsed power circuit. In the circuits, a current source biases a diode that is in series with the circuits' transmission line. If fault current in a circuit exceeds current from the current source biasing the diode open, the diode will cease conducting and route the fault current through the current source and an inductor. This limits the rate of rise and the peak value of the fault current.

  8. Dynamic voltage-current characteristics for a water jet plasma arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Jiaxiang; Lan Sheng; Xu Zuoming

    2008-05-05

    A virtual instrument technology is used to measure arc current, arc voltage, dynamic V-I characteristics, and nonlinear conductance for a cone-shaped water jet plasma arc under ac voltage. Experimental results show that ac arc discharge mainly happens in water vapor evaporated from water when heated. However, due to water's cooling effect and its conductance, arc conductance, reignition voltage, extinguish voltage, and current zero time are very different from those for ac arc discharge in gas work fluid. These can be valuable to further studies on mechanism and characteristics of plasma ac discharge in water, and even in gas work fluid.

  9. Optical voltage and current sensors used in a revenue metering system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cease, T.W.; Driggans, J.G. ); Weikel, S.J. )

    1991-10-01

    This paper discusses the development of an optical voltage sensor as part of an all optic or Faraday effect was used to implement a Magneto-Optic Voltage Transducer (MOVT) to measure voltage by sensing the current flow through a capacitor connected from a 161 kV transmission line to ground. The current sensor was a Magneto-Optic Current Transducer (MOCT), developed previously. The unique design of the voltage sensors using the magneto-optic effects allows the implementation of that revenue metering system using all optical sensors. This method of measuring voltage was previously unproven. The components of the all optical sensor revenue metering system, the site installation, and the data acquisition system used to monitor the system are described. Decisions leading to the design of the MOVT are discussed.

  10. Phase-field modeling of switchable diode-like current-voltage

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    characteristics in ferroelectric BaTiO{sub 3} (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase-field modeling of switchable diode-like current-voltage characteristics in ferroelectric BaTiO{sub 3} Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field modeling of switchable diode-like current-voltage characteristics in ferroelectric BaTiO{sub 3} A self-consistent model has been proposed to study the switchable current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in Cu/BaTiO{sub 3}/Cu sandwiched structure

  11. Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ralph L. (Albuquerque, NM); Guilford, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Stichman, John H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level.

  12. Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, R.L.; Guilford, R.P.; Stichman, J.H.

    1987-06-29

    The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level. 4 figs.

  13. A new approach to investigate leakage current mechanisms in infrared photodiodes from illuminated current-voltage characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopal, Vishnu

    2014-08-28

    This paper presents a new approach to investigate leakage current mechanisms in infrared photodiodes from the illuminated current–voltage characteristics. The example of mid-wave mercury cadmium telluride photodiodes is presented to illustrate the new approach. The new method is suitable for evaluating diodes in an array environment as advance knowledge of any of the material or device parameters are not required. The thermal saturation current is estimated from the observed open circuit voltage and zero-bias current (photo-current) of the diode. The ohmic shunt resistance is estimated from the observed maximum dynamic impedance of the diode. The experimentally observed reverse bias diode current in excess of thermal current, photo-current, and ohmic shunt current is reported to be best described by an exponential function of the type, I{sub excess}?=?I{sub r0}?+?K{sub 1} exp (K{sub 2} V), where I{sub r0}, K{sub 1}, and K{sub 2} are fitting parameters and V is the applied bias voltage. Our investigations reveal a close link between the excess current and the sources of ohmic currents in the diode. Exponential growth of excess current with the applied bias voltage has been interpreted as an indication of soft breakdown of the diodes.

  14. Switch contact device for interrupting high current, high voltage, AC and DC circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Via, Lester C.; Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Ryan, John M.

    2005-01-04

    A high voltage switch contact structure capable of interrupting high voltage, high current AC and DC circuits. The contact structure confines the arc created when contacts open to the thin area between two insulating surfaces in intimate contact. This forces the arc into the shape of a thin sheet which loses heat energy far more rapidly than an arc column having a circular cross-section. These high heat losses require a dramatic increase in the voltage required to maintain the arc, thus extinguishing it when the required voltage exceeds the available voltage. The arc extinguishing process with this invention is not dependent on the occurrence of a current zero crossing and, consequently, is capable of rapidly interrupting both AC and DC circuits. The contact structure achieves its high performance without the use of sulfur hexafluoride.

  15. High voltage fault current limiter having immersed phase coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2014-04-22

    A fault current limiter including: a ferromagnetic circuit formed from a ferromagnetic material and including at least a first limb, and a second limb; a saturation mechanism surrounding a limb for magnetically saturating the ferromagnetic material; a phase coil wound around a second limb; a dielectric fluid surrounding the phase coil; a gaseous atmosphere surrounding the saturation mechanism.

  16. Influence of Barrier Design on Current Collapse in High Voltage AlGaN/GaN

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    HEMTs. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Influence of Barrier Design on Current Collapse in High Voltage AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Barrier Design on Current Collapse in High Voltage AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Abstract not provided. Authors: Biedermann, Laura Butler ; Kaplar, Robert James ; Marinella, Matthew ; Zavadil, Kevin Robert ; Atcitty, Stanley ; Sun, Min ; Palacios, Tomas Publication Date: 2012-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1111316 Report Number(s):

  17. Influence of Barrier Design on Current Collapse in High Voltage AlGaN/GaN

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    HEMTs. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Influence of Barrier Design on Current Collapse in High Voltage AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Barrier Design on Current Collapse in High Voltage AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Abstract not provided. Authors: DasGupta, Sandeepan ; Biedermann, Laura Butler ; Kaplar, Robert ; Marinella, Matthew ; Zavadil, Kevin Robert ; Atcitty, Stanley ; Sun, Min ; Palacios, Tomas Publication Date: 2013-02-01 OSTI Identifier:

  18. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

  19. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, Vishu D. (Midland, MI); May, James B. (Midland, MI)

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode.

  20. Method and apparatus for remote tube crevice detection by current and voltage probe resistance measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kikta, T.J.; Mitchell, R.D.

    1992-11-24

    A method and apparatus for determining the extent of contact between an electrically conducting tube and an electrically conductive tubesheet surrounding the tube, based upon the electrical resistance of the tube and tubesheet. A constant current source is applied to the interior of the electrically conducting tube by probes and a voltmeter is connected between other probes to measure the voltage at the point of current injection, which is inversely proportional to the amount of contact between the tube and tubesheet. Namely, the higher the voltage measured by the voltmeter, the less contact between the tube and tubesheet. 4 figs.

  1. Soft-commutated direct current motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, J.S.

    1999-07-27

    A method and circuit is disclosed for soft-commutation of a direct current (DC) motor. An attenuation circuit is connected through auxiliary brushes A, A[prime], B and B[prime] to the commutator (16) to drain circuit from successive armature coils (15) before the main brushes (27, 28) disconnects from each of the coils (15). This prevents the spark generation that normally occurs in conventional DC motors. The attenuation circuit may also be connected before energization of the coil (15) for a soft turning on operation. 13 figs.

  2. Soft-commutated direct current motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A method and circuit is disclosed for soft-commutation of a direct current (DC) motor. An attenuation circuit is connected through auxiliary brushes A, A', B and B' to the commutator (16) to drain circuit from successive armature coils (15) before the main brushes (27, 28) disconnects from each of the coils (15). This prevents the spark generation that normally occurs in conventional DC motors. The attenuation circuit may also be connected before energization of the coil (15) for a soft turning on operation.

  3. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  4. Direct-Current Resistivity At Honokowai Area (Thomas, 1986) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity At Honokowai Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity At...

  5. Direct-Current Resistivity At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity At...

  6. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Hualalai Northwest Rift...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  7. Direct-Current Resistivity At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  8. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  9. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area (Combs 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  10. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Honokowai Area (Thomas,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Honokowai Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity...

  11. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Liquid...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Liquid (Combs 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  12. Direct-Current Resistivity At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity At...

  13. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current...

  14. Control of magnetic direction in multi-layer ferromagnetic devices by bias voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    You, Chun-Yeol (Hinsdale, IL); Bader, Samuel D. (Oak Park, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A system for controlling the direction of magnetization of materials comprising a ferromagnetic device with first and second ferromagnetic layers. The ferromagnetic layers are disposed such that they combine to form an interlayer with exchange coupling. An insulating layer and a spacer layer are located between the first and second ferromagnetic layers. A direct bias voltage is applied to the interlayer exchange coupling, causing the direction of magnetization of the second ferromagnetic layer to change. This change of magnetization direction occurs in the absence of any applied external magnetic field.

  15. Control of plasma process by use of harmonic frequency components of voltage and current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Paul A. (Albuquerque, NM); Kamon, Mattan (Cambridge, MA)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides for a technique for taking advantage of the intrinsic electrical non-linearity of processing plasmas to add additional control variables that affect process performance. The technique provides for the adjustment of the electrical coupling circuitry, as well as the electrical excitation level, in response to measurements of the reactor voltage and current and to use that capability to modify the plasma characteristics to obtain the desired performance.

  16. In situ current voltage measurements for optimization of a novel fullerene acceptor in bulk heterojunction photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuttle, Christopher G.; Treat, Neil D.; Fan, Jian; Varotto, Alessandro; Hawker, Craig J.; Wudl, Fred; Chabinyc, Michael L.

    2011-10-31

    The evaluation of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of new materials for organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaics is difficult due to the large number of processing parameters possible. An efficient procedure to determine the optimum conditions for thermal treatment of polymer-based bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices using in situ current-voltage measurements is presented. The performance of a new fullerene derivative, 1,9-dihydro-64,65-dihexyloxy-1,9-(methano[1,2] benzomethano)fullerene[60], in BHJ photovolatics with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was evaluated using this methodology. The device characteristics of BHJs obtained from the in situ method were found to be in good agreement with those from BHJs annealed using a conventional process. This fullerene has similar performance to 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-[6,6]-methano fullerene in BHJs with P3HT after thermal annealing. For devices with thickness of 70 nm, the short circuit current was 6.24 mA/cm² with a fill factor of 0.53 and open circuit voltage of 0.65 V. The changes in the current-voltage measurements during thermal annealing suggest that the ordering process in P3HT dominates the improvement in power conversion efficiency.

  17. DC BUFFERING AND FLOATING CURRENT FOR A HIGH VOLTAGE IMB APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.L. Morrison

    2014-08-01

    An interface technique for the latest generation of the Impedance Measurement Box (IMB) has been conceived to enable measurement of impedance spectra for battery modules up to 300V. A 300V capable or higher IMB is an enabling technology for in-situ diagnostics within electric vehicle charging stations or battery back-ups within power distribution sub-stations. It is possible that the existing IMB can be adapted via a 300V interface module to a test battery with voltage significantly greater than 50V. Recently a new concept was conceived for the calibration, algorithm and electronics of the IMB. That algorithm and calibration for that concept have been physically validated. The principal feature of the new electronics is the floating current source excitation of the battery under test. The single ended current excitation of the battery under test, used in the 50V IMB, requires that the negative terminal of the test battery must be the analog ground for the IMB. The new floating current technique allows the test battery to be fully high impedance isolated for a measurement. That isolation will improve IMB noise immunity and enable interrogation of cells internal to a battery module. All these techniques still use the same rapid concept for impedance measurement with the IMB. The purpose of this disclosure is to provide an overview of the analytical validation for three concepts to interface the floating current excitation to a high voltage battery. Recursive simulation models were used in different test scenarios to validate the various new concepts. The analysis will show that it is possible to interface the floating signal current to obtain an impedance measurement on a high voltage test battery. Additionally, the analysis will investigate stress seen by electronics while testing a 300V battery.

  18. Variable current-voltage TPV device for use in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charache, Greg W. (Clifton Park, NY); Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY); Campbell, Brian C. (Scotia, NY)

    2000-01-01

    A front-side or back-side illuminated variable current-voltage thermophotovoltaic device comprises a support substrate; isolation layers disposed on the support substrate; a plurality of cells disposed on the isolation layers, each of the cells including a base layer and an emitter layer; an insulating member disposed between each of the cells configured to isolate each cell from adjacent cells; an ohmic contact configured to connect each cell to another cell in series; and a spectral control device disposed on top of the cells and/or on the bottom surface of the support substrate.

  19. Effect of temperature on the current (capacitance and conductance)–voltage characteristics of Ti/n-GaAs diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ejderha, K.; Duman, S. Urhan, F.; Nuhoglu, C.; Turut, A.

    2014-12-21

    In this study, Ti/n-GaAs Schottky barrier diode has been fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering. The current–voltage, capacitance–voltage, and conductance–voltage characteristics of Ti/n–GaAs diode have been investigated in the temperature range of 80–320?K. The ideality factor and barrier height values have been calculated from the forward current–voltage characteristics. The variation of the diode parameters with the sample temperature has been attributed to the presence of the lateral inhomogeneities of the barrier height. The temperature dependent capacitance–voltage characteristics have been measured to calculate the carrier concentration, diffusion potential, barrier height, and temperature coefficient of the barrier height (??=??0.65?meV K{sup ?1}). The fact that the temperature coefficient of the barrier height changes from metal to metal has been ascribed to the chemical nature of the contact metal or metal electronegativity.

  20. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Valley Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Direct-Current Resistivity Survey Activity Date 2003 - 2003 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis The Goals of this...

  1. Stress evolution during growth in direct-current-sputtered zinc...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    zinc oxide films at various oxygen flows Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stress evolution during growth in direct-current-sputtered zinc oxide films at ...

  2. Evidence for breathing modes in direct current, pulsed, and high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evidence for breathing modes in direct current, pulsed, and high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly...

  3. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  4. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002)...

  5. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (FURUMOTO, 1976) Exploration Activity Details Location Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Direct-Current...

  6. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Brady Hot Springs Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Brady Hot Springs Area (Combs 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Brady Hot Springs Area...

  7. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Raft River Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Raft River Geothermal Area (1983) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Raft River Geothermal Area...

  8. Connecting Renewables Directly to the Grid: Resilient Multi-Terminal HVDC Networks with High-Voltage High-Frequency Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-23

    GENI Project: GE is developing electricity transmission hardware that could connect distributed renewable energy sources, like wind farms, directly to the grid—eliminating the need to feed the energy generated through intermediate power conversion stations before they enter the grid. GE is using the advanced semiconductor material silicon carbide (SiC) to conduct electricity through its transmission hardware because SiC can operate at higher voltage levels than semiconductors made out of other materials. This high-voltage capability is important because electricity must be converted to high-voltage levels before it can be sent along the grid’s network of transmission lines. Power companies do this because less electricity is lost along the lines when the voltage is high.

  9. Utility-Scale Solar Power Converter: Agile Direct Grid Connect Medium Voltage 4.7-13.8 kV Power Converter for PV Applications Utilizing Wide Band Gap Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-25

    Solar ADEPT Project: Satcon is developing a compact, lightweight power conversion device that is capable of taking utility-scale solar power and outputting it directly into the electric utility grid at distribution voltage levels—eliminating the need for large transformers. Transformers “step up” the voltage of the power that is generated by a solar power system so it can be efficiently transported through transmission lines and eventually “stepped down” to usable voltages before it enters homes and businesses. Power companies step up the voltage because less electricity is lost along transmission lines when the voltage is high and current is low. Satcon’s new power conversion devices will eliminate these heavy transformers and connect a utility-scale solar power system directly to the grid. Satcon’s modular devices are designed to ensure reliability—if one device fails it can be bypassed and the system can continue to run.

  10. Multiple current peaks in room-temperature atmospheric pressure homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma excited by high-voltage tunable nanosecond pulse in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Zhang, Shuai; Tang, Kai; Liu, Zhi-jie; Wang, Sen

    2013-05-13

    Room temperature homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma with high instantaneous energy efficiency is acquired by using nanosecond pulse voltage with 20-200 ns tunable pulse width. Increasing the voltage pulse width can lead to the generation of regular and stable multiple current peaks in each discharge sequence. When the voltage pulse width is 200 ns, more than 5 organized current peaks can be observed under 26 kV peak voltage. Investigation also shows that the organized multiple current peaks only appear in homogenous discharge mode. When the discharge is filament mode, organized multiple current peaks are replaced by chaotic filament current peaks.

  11. High power impulse magnetron sputtering: Current-voltage-timecharacteristics indicate the onset of sustained self-sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Andersson, Joakim; Ehiasarian, Arutiun

    2007-08-03

    The commonly used current-voltage characteristics are foundinadequate for describing the pulsed nature of the high power impulsemagnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharge, rather, the description needs tobe expanded to current-voltage-time characteristics for each initial gaspressure. Using different target materials (Cu, Ti, Nb, C, W, Al, Cr) anda pulsed constant-voltage supply it is shown that the HIPIMS dischargestypically exhibit an initial pressure dependent current peak followed bya second phase that is power and material dependent. This suggests thatthe initial phase of a HIPIMS discharge pulse is dominated by gas ionswhereas the later phase has a strong contribution from self-sputtering.For some materials the discharge switches into a mode of sustainedself-sputtering. The very large differences between materials cannot beascribed to the different sputter yields but they indicate thatgeneration and trapping ofsecondary electrons plays a major role forcurrent-voltage-time characteristics. In particular, it is argued thatthe sustained self-sputtering phase is associated with thegeneration ofmultiply charged ions because only they can cause potential emission ofsecondary electrons whereas the yield caused by singly charged metal ionsis negligibly small.

  12. Phenomena of oscillations in atmospheric pressure direct current glow discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Fu-cheng; Yan, Wen; Wang, De-zhen

    2013-12-15

    Self-sustained oscillations in a dc glow discharge with a semiconductor layer at atmospheric pressure were investigated by means of a one-dimensional fluid model. It is found that the dc glow discharge initially becomes unstable in the subnormal glow region and gives rise to oscillations of plasma parameters. A variety of oscillations with one or more frequencies have been observed under different conditions. The discharge oscillates between the glow discharge mode and the Townsend discharge mode in the oscillations with large amplitude while operates in the subnormal glow discharge mode all the while in the oscillations with small amplitude. Fourier Transform spectra of oscillations reveal the transition mechanism between different oscillations. The effects of semiconductor conductivity on the oscillation frequency of the dominant mode, gas voltage, as well as the discharge current have also been analyzed.

  13. SU-E-I-25: Determining Tube Current, Tube Voltage and Pitch Suitable for Low- Dose Lung Screening CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, K; Matthews, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The quality of a computed tomography (CT) image and the dose delivered during its acquisition depend upon the acquisition parameters used. Tube current, tube voltage, and pitch are acquisition parameters that potentially affect image quality and dose. This study investigated physicians' abilities to characterize small, solid nodules in low-dose CT images for combinations of current, voltage and pitch, for three CT scanner models. Methods: Lung CT images was acquired of a Data Spectrum anthropomorphic torso phantom with various combinations of pitch, tube current, and tube voltage; this phantom was used because acrylic beads of various sizes could be placed within the lung compartments to simulate nodules. The phantom was imaged on two 16-slice scanners and a 64-slice scanner. The acquisition parameters spanned a range of estimated CTDI levels; the CTDI estimates from the acquisition software were verified by measurement. Several experienced radiologists viewed the phantom lung CT images and noted nodule location, size and shape, as well as the acceptability of overall image quality. Results: Image quality for assessment of nodules was deemed unsatisfactory for all scanners at 80 kV (any tube current) and at 35 mA (any tube voltage). Tube current of 50 mA or more at 120 kV resulted in similar assessments from all three scanners. Physician-measured sphere diameters were closer to actual diameters for larger spheres, higher tube current, and higher kV. Pitch influenced size measurements less for larger spheres than for smaller spheres. CTDI was typically overestimated by the scanner software compared to measurement. Conclusion: Based on this survey of acquisition parameters, a low-dose CT protocol of 120 kV, 50 mA, and pitch of 1.4 is recommended to balance patient dose and acceptable image quality. For three models of scanners, this protocol resulted in estimated CTDIs from 2.9–3.6 mGy.

  14. Spectrochemical analysis of plutonium using direct current plasma emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, W.F.; Fadeff, S.K.; Torres, S.

    1983-12-03

    One year ago, LLNL was just completing the installation of a Direct Current Plasma (DCP) spectrometer for the analysis of Pu and Pu alloys. The installation was completed in December 1982 and has been utilized regularly for Pu analysis since then. This paper discusses the experience with the instrument and some data demonstrating its performance.

  15. Charge and fluence lifetime measurements of a dc high voltage GaAs photogun at high average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Grames, R. Suleiman, P.A. Adderley, J. Clark, J. Hansknecht, D. Machie, M. Poelker, M.L. Stutzman

    2011-04-01

    GaAs-based dc high voltage photoguns used at accelerators with extensive user programs must exhibit long photocathode operating lifetime. Achieving this goal represents a significant challenge for proposed high average current facilities that must operate at tens of milliamperes or more. This paper describes techniques to maintain good vacuum while delivering beam, and techniques that minimize the ill effects of ion bombardment, the dominant mechanism that reduces photocathode yield of a GaAs-based dc high voltage photogun. Experimental results presented here demonstrate enhanced lifetime at high beam currents by: (a) operating with the drive laser beam positioned away from the electrostatic center of the photocathode, (b) limiting the photocathode active area to eliminate photoemission from regions of the photocathode that do not support efficient beam delivery, (c) using a large drive laser beam to distribute ion damage over a larger area, and (d) by applying a relatively low bias voltage to the anode to repel ions created within the downstream beam line. A combination of these techniques provided the best total charge extracted lifetimes in excess of 1000 C at dc beam currents up to 9.5 mA, using green light illumination of bulk GaAs inside a 100 kV photogun.

  16. The current–voltage and capacitance–voltage characteristics at high temperatures of Au Schottky contact to n-type GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Özerli, Halil; Karteri, ?brahim; Karata?, ?ükrü; Altindal, ?emsettin

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The electronic parameters of the diode under temperature were investigated. • The barrier heights have a Gaussian distribution. • Au/n-GaAs diode exhibits a rectification behavior. - Abstract: We have investigated the temperature-dependent current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics of Au/n-GaAs Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) in the temperature range of 280–415 K. The barrier height for the Au/n-type GaAs SBDs from the I–V and C–V characteristics have varied from 0.901 eV to 0.963 eV (I–V) and 1.234 eV to 0.967 eV (C–V), and the ideality factor (n) from 1.45 to 1.69 in the temperature range 280–415 K. The conventional Richardson plots are found to be linear in the temperature range measured. Both the ln(I{sub 0}/T{sup 2}) versus (kT){sup ?1} and ln(I{sub 0}/T{sup 2}) versus (nkT){sup ?1} plots gives a straight line corresponding to activation energies 0.773 eV and 0.870 eV, respectively. A ?{sub b0} versus 1/T plot was drawn to obtain evidence of a Gaussian distribution of the BHs, and values of ?{sup ¯}{sub b0} = 1.071 eV and ?{sub 0} = 0.094 V for the mean BH and zero-bias standard deviation have been obtained from this plot.

  17. Elimination of direct current distribution systems from new generating stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jancauskas, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper advances the concept that it may be both possible and advantageous to eliminate the traditional direct current distribution system from a new generating station. The latest developments in uninterruptible power supply (UPS) technology are what have made this option technically feasible. A traditional dc distribution system will be compared to an ac distribution system supplied by a UPS to investigate the merits of the proposed approach.

  18. Method and apparatus for correcting eddy current signal voltage for temperature effects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kustra, Thomas A. (N. Huntingdon, PA); Caffarel, Alfred J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring physical characteristics of an electrically conductive material by the use of eddy-current techniques and compensating measurement errors caused by changes in temperature includes a switching arrangement connected between primary and reference coils of an eddy-current probe which allows the probe to be selectively connected between an eddy current output oscilloscope and a digital ohm-meter for measuring the resistances of the primary and reference coils substantially at the time of eddy current measurement. In this way, changes in resistance due to temperature effects can be completely taken into account in determining the true error in the eddy current measurement. The true error can consequently be converted into an equivalent eddy current measurement correction.

  19. Suppression of current fluctuations in a crossed ExB field system for low-voltage plasma immersion treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levchenko, I.; Keidar, M.; Ostrikov, K.; Yu, M.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma transport in a hybrid dc vacuum arc plasma source for ion deposition and plasma immersion treatment is considered. It is found that external crossed electric and magnetic fields near the substrate can significantly reduce the relative amplitude of ion current fluctuations I{sub f} at the substrate surface. In particular, I{sub f} decreases with the applied magnetic field when the bias voltage exceeds 300 V, thus allowing one to reduce the deviations from the rated process parameters. This phenomenon can be attributed to an interaction between the metal-plasma jet from the arc source and the discharge plasma in the crossed fields.

  20. Effect of current compliance and voltage sweep rate on the resistive switching of HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar structure as measured by conductive atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, You-Lin Liao, Chun-Wei; Ling, Jing-Jenn

    2014-06-16

    The electrical characterization of HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar resistive switching memory structure was studied using conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a semiconductor parameter analyzer, Agilent 4156C. The metal alloy Invar was used as the metal substrate to ensure good ohmic contact with the substrate holder of the AFM. A conductive Pt/Ir AFM tip was placed in direct contact with the HfO{sub 2} surface, such that it acted as the top electrode. Nanoscale current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar structure were measured by applying a ramp voltage through the conductive AFM tip at various current compliances and ramp voltage sweep rates. It was found that the resistance of the low resistance state (RLRS) decreased with increasing current compliance value, but resistance of high resistance state (RHRS) barely changed. However, both the RHRS and RLRS decreased as the voltage sweep rate increased. The reasons for this dependency on current compliance and voltage sweep rate are discussed.

  1. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Soda Lake Area (Combs 2006...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Soda Lake Area (Combs 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity...

  2. Direct-Current Resistivity At Cove Fort Area (Warpinski, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity At Cove Fort Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity...

  3. Investigation of helium ion production in constricted direct current plasma ion source with layered-glows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Park, Yeong-Shin; Hwang, Y. S.; Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744

    2014-02-15

    Generation of helium ions is experimentally investigated with a constricted direct current (DC) plasma ion source operated at layered-glow mode, in which electrons could be accelerated through multiple potential structures so as to generate helium ions including He{sup 2+} by successive ionization collisions in front of an extraction aperture. The helium discharge is sustained with the formation of a couple of stable layers and the plasma ball with high density is created near the extraction aperture at the operational pressure down to 0.6 Torr with concave cathodes. The ion beam current extracted with an extraction voltage of 5 kV is observed to be proportional to the discharge current and inversely proportional to the operating pressure, showing high current density of 130 mA/cm{sup 2} and power density of 0.52 mA/cm{sup 2}/W. He{sup 2+} ions, which were predicted to be able to exist due to multiple-layer potential structure, are not observed. Simple calculation on production of He{sup 2+} ions inside the plasma ball reveals that reduced operating pressure and increased cathode area will help to generate He{sup 2+} ions with the layered-glow DC discharge.

  4. Direct-current-like Phase Space Manipulation Using Chirped Alternating Current Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.F. Schmit and N.J. Fisch

    2010-02-01

    Waves in plasmas can accelerate particles that are resonant with the wave. A dc electric field also accelerates particles, but without a resonance discrimination, which makes the acceleration mechanism profoundly different. Whereas wave-particle acceleration mechanisms have been widely discussed in the literature, this work discusses the direct analogy between wave acceleration and dc field acceleration in a particular parameter regime explored in previous works. Apart from the academic interest of this correspondence, there may be practical advantages in using waves to mimic dc electric fields, for example, in driving plasma current with high efficiency.

  5. Electro-optically responsive composites of gold nanospheres in 5CB liquid crystal under direct current and alternating current joint action

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadjichristov, Georgi B.; Marinov, Yordan G.; Petrov, Alexander G.; Bruno, Emanuela; Marino, Lucia; Scaramuzza, Nicola

    2014-02-28

    Direct current (DC) electro-optical (EO) control of transmitted laser beam intensity based on EO controlled coherent light scattering and diffraction by stationary longitudinal texture pattern (LTP) is achieved in planar-oriented cells with a composite mixture of polymer-coated gold spherical nanoparticles (Au-NPs) with a mean diameter of about 12?nm and the room-temperature nematic pentylcyanobiphenyl (5CB). At relatively low DC voltage of about 5 V, the effective scattering/diffraction by Au-NPs/5CB composites leads to a spatial spreading of transmitted coherent light from a low-power continuous wave laser beam, resulting in a drastic reduction of its local intensity. The effect is polarization dependent and is strongest when the polarization of the input laser beam is along the LTP. The EO response of Au-NPs/5CB mixtures is studied under DC and alternating current (AC) joint action with the aim of the potential use of these composite materials as EO controlled diffusers. The specific V-shaped sharp dip in the DC voltage-dependent coherent light transmittance of Au-NPs/5CB planar films, as well as the possibility for erasing the scattering/diffractive LTP in the films by joint low AC voltage, can be useful for EO applications in the field of process control and for detection of weak dynamic electric fields.

  6. Optimization of Direct Current-Enhanced Radiofrequency Ablation: An Ex Vivo Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Toshihiro Isfort, Peter; Bruners, Philipp; Penzkofer, Tobias; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the optimal setting for radiofrequency (RF) ablation combined with direct electrical current (DC) ablation in ex vivo bovine liver. An electrical circuit combining a commercially available RF ablation system with DC was developed. The negative electrode of a rectifier that provides DC was connected to a 3-cm multitined expandable RF probe. A 100-mH inductor was used to prevent electrical leakage from the RF generator. DC was applied for 15 min and followed by RF ablation in freshly excised bovine livers. Electric current was measured by an ammeter. Coagulation volume, ablation duration, and mean amperage were assessed for various DC voltages (no DC, 2.2, 4.5, and 9.0 V) and different RF ablation protocols (stepwise increase from 40 to 80 W, 40 W fixed, and 80 W fixed). Results were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. Applying DC with 4.5 or 9.0 V, in combination with 40 W fixed or a stepwise increase of RF energy, resulted in significantly increased zone of ablation size compared with 2.2 V or no DC (P = 0.009). At 4.5 V DC, the stepwise increase of RF energy resulted in the same necrosis size as a 40 W fixed protocol (26.6 {+-} 3.9 vs. 26.5 {+-} 4.0 ml), but ablation duration was significantly decreased (296 {+-} 85 s vs. 423 {+-} 104 s; P = 0.028). Mean amperage was significantly lower at 4.5 V compared with 9.0 V (P = 0.028). Combining a stepwise increase of RF energy with a DC voltage of 4.5 V is most appropriate to increase coagulation volume and to minimize procedure time.

  7. Experimental validation of a high voltage pulse measurement method.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cular, Stefan; Patel, Nishant Bhupendra; Branch, Darren W.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes X-cut lithium niobate's (LiNbO3) utilization for voltage sensing by monitoring the acoustic wave propagation changes through LiNbO3 resulting from applied voltage. Direct current (DC), alternating current (AC) and pulsed voltage signals were applied to the crystal. Voltage induced shift in acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically for DC and AC voltages and linearly for pulsed voltages. The measured values ranged from 10 - 273 ps and 189 ps - 2 ns for DC and non-DC voltages, respectively. Data suggests LiNbO3 has a frequency sensitive response to voltage. If voltage source error is eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the sensor's U95 estimated combined uncertainty could decrease to ~0.025% for DC, AC, and pulsed voltage measurements.

  8. Comparison of direct current and 50?Hz alternating current microscopic corona characteristics on conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shuai Zhang, Bo He, Jinliang

    2014-06-15

    Corona discharge is one of the major design factors for extra-high voltage and ultra-high voltage DC/AC transmission lines. Under different voltages, corona discharge reveals different characteristics. This paper aims at investigating DC and AC coronas on the microscopic scale. To obtain the specific characteristics of DC and AC coronas, a new measurement approach that utilizes a coaxial wire-cylinder corona cage is designed in this paper, and wires of different diameters are used in the experiment. Based on the measurements, the respective microscopic characteristics of DC and AC coronas are analyzed and compared. With differences in characteristics between DC and AC coronas proposed, this study provides useful insights into DC/AC corona discharges on transmission line applications.

  9. Electrochemical synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite by pulsed direct current method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nur, Adrian; Rahmawati, Alifah; Ilmi, Noor Izzati; Affandi, Samsudin; Widjaja, Arief

    2014-02-24

    Synthesis of nanosized of hydroxyapatite (HA) by electrochemical pulsed direct current (PDC) method has been studied. The aim of this work is to study the influence of various PDC parameters (pH initial, electrode distance, duty cycle, frequency, and amplitude) on particle surface area of HA powders. The electrochemical synthesis was prepared in solution Ca{sup 2+}/EDTA{sup 4?}/PO{sub 4}{sup 3+} at concentration 0.25/0.25/0.15 M for 24 h. The electrochemical cell was consisted of two carbon rectangular electrodes connected to a function generator to produce PDC. There were two treatments for particles after electrosynthesized, namely without aging and aged for 2 days at 40 °C. For both cases, the particles were filtered and washed by demineralized water to eliminate the impurities and unreacted reactants. Then, the particles were dried at 100 °C for 2 days. The dried particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, surface area analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. HA particles can be produced when the initial pH > 6. The aging process has significant effect on the produced HA particles. SEM images of HA particles showed that the powders consisted of agglomerates composed of fine crystallites and have morphology plate-like and sphere. The surface area of HA particles is in the range of 25 – 91 m{sup 2}/g. The largest particle surface area of HA was produced at 4 cm electrode distance, 80% cycle duty, frequency 0.1 Hz, amplitude 9 V and with aging process.

  10. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage Unbalance Voltage unbalance degrades the performance and shortens the life of a three-phase motor. Voltage unbalance at the motor terminals can cause current unbalance that is far out of proportion to the voltage unbalance. Unbalanced currents lead to torque pulsations, increased vibrations and mechanical stresses, increased losses resulting in lower effciency, and motor overheating, which reduces winding insulation life. Percent voltage unbalance is defned by the National Electrical

  11. Mechanism behind self-sustained oscillations in direct current glow discharges and dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Sung Nae

    2013-04-15

    An alternative explanation to the mechanism behind self-sustained oscillations of ions in direct current (DC) glow discharges is provided. Such description is distinguished from the one provided by the fluid models, where oscillations are attributed to the positive feedback mechanism associated with photoionization of particles and photoemission of electrons from the cathode. Here, oscillations arise as consequence of interaction between an ion and the surface charges induced by it at the bounding electrodes. Such mechanism provides an elegant explanation to why self-sustained oscillations occur only in the negative resistance region of the voltage-current characteristic curve in the DC glow discharges. Furthermore, this alternative description provides an elegant explanation to the formation of plasma fireballs in the laboratory plasma. It has been found that oscillation frequencies increase with ion's surface charge density, but at the rate which is significantly slower than it does with the electric field. The presented mechanism also describes self-sustained oscillations of ions in dusty plasmas, which demonstrates that self-sustained oscillations in dusty plasmas and DC glow discharges involve common physical processes.

  12. Scaling law for direct current field emission-driven microscale gas breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkattraman, A.; Alexeenko, A. A.

    2012-12-15

    The effects of field emission on direct current breakdown in microscale gaps filled with an ambient neutral gas are studied numerically and analytically. Fundamental numerical experiments using the particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions method are used to systematically quantify microscale ionization and space-charge enhancement of field emission. The numerical experiments are then used to validate a scaling law for the modified Paschen curve that bridges field emission-driven breakdown with the macroscale Paschen law. Analytical expressions are derived for the increase in cathode electric field, total steady state current density, and the ion-enhancement coefficient including a new breakdown criterion. It also includes the effect of all key parameters such as pressure, operating gas, and field-enhancement factor providing a better predictive capability than existing microscale breakdown models. The field-enhancement factor is shown to be the most sensitive parameter with its increase leading to a significant drop in the threshold breakdown electric field and also to a gradual merging with the Paschen law. The proposed scaling law is also shown to agree well with two independent sets of experimental data for microscale breakdown in air. The ability to accurately describe not just the breakdown voltage but the entire pre-breakdown process for given operating conditions makes the proposed model a suitable candidate for the design and analysis of electrostatic microscale devices.

  13. Apparatuses and method for converting electromagnetic radiation to direct current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K; Novack, Steven D

    2014-09-30

    An energy conversion device may include a first antenna and a second antenna configured to generate an AC current responsive to incident radiation, at least one stripline, and a rectifier coupled with the at least one stripline along a length of the at least one stripline. An energy conversion device may also include an array of nanoantennas configured to generate an AC current in response to receiving incident radiation. Each nanoantenna of the array includes a pair of resonant elements, and a shared rectifier operably coupled to the pair of resonant elements, the shared rectifier configured to convert the AC current to a DC current. The energy conversion device may further include a bus structure operably coupled with the array of nanoantennas and configured to receive the DC current from the array of nanoantennas and transmit the DC current away from the array of nanoantennas.

  14. Determining resistivity of a formation adjacent to a borehole having casing by generating constant current flow in portion of casing and using at least two voltage measurement electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William Banning

    2000-01-01

    Methods of operation of different types of multiple electrode apparatus vertically disposed in a cased well to measure information related to the resistivity of adjacent geological formations from within the cased well are described. The multiple electrode apparatus has a minimum of two spaced apart voltage measurement electrodes that electrically engage a first portion of the interior of the cased well and that provide at least first voltage information. Current control means are used to control the magnitude of any selected current that flows along a second portion of the interior of the casing to be equal to a predetermined selected constant. The first portion of the interior of the cased well is spaced apart from the second portion of the interior of the cased well. The first voltage information and the predetermined selected constant value of any selected current flowing along the casing are used in part to determine a magnitude related to the formation resistivity adjacent to the first portion of the interior of the cased well. Methods and apparatus having a plurality of voltage measurement electrodes are disclosed that provide voltage related information in the presence of constant currents flowing along the casing which is used to provide formation resistivity.

  15. Heating mode transition in a hybrid direct current/dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4} discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Quan-Zhi; Wang, You-Nian; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2014-06-14

    Computer simulations based on the particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision method are performed to study the plasma characteristics and especially the transition in electron heating mechanisms in a hybrid direct current (dc)/dual-frequency (DF) capacitively coupled CF{sub 4} discharge. When applying a superposed dc voltage, the plasma density first increases, then decreases, and finally increases again, which is in good agreement with experiments. This trend can be explained by the transition between the four main heating modes, i.e., DF coupling, dc and DF coupling, dc source dominant heating, and secondary electron dominant heating.

  16. Direct-Current Resistivity At Cove Fort Area (Warpinski, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Direct-Current Resistivity At Cove Fort Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) (Redirected from Direct-Current Resistivity At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002)) Jump to:...

  17. Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/coron mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ); Manos, Dennis (Williamsburg, VA); Nartowitz, Ed (Edison, NJ)

    1994-01-01

    A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached; and, coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod.

  18. Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/boron mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Timberlake, J.R.; Manos, D.; Nartowitz, E.

    1994-12-13

    A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached; and, coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod. 2 figures.

  19. Voltage control for a wind power plant based on the available reactive current of a DFIG and its impacts on the point of interconnection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Usman, Yasir; Kim, Jinho; Muljadi, Eduard; Kang, Yong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Wake effects cause wind turbine generators (WTGs) within a wind power plant (WPP) to produce different levels of active power and subsequent reactive power capabilities. Further, the impedance between a WTG and the point of interconnection (POI)-which depends on the distance between them-impacts the WPP's reactive power injection capability at the POI. This paper proposes a voltage control scheme for a WPP based on the available reactive current of the doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) and its impacts on the POI to improve the reactive power injection capability of the WPP. In this paper, a design strategy for modifying the gainmore » of DFIG controller is suggested and the comprehensive properties of these control gains are investigated. In the proposed scheme, the WPP controller, which operates in a voltage control mode, sends the command signal to the DFIGs based on the voltage difference at the POI. The DFIG controllers, which operate in a voltage control mode, employ a proportional controller with a limiter. The gain of the proportional controller is adjusted depending on the available reactive current of the DFIG and the series impedance between the DFIG and the POI. The performance of the proposed scheme is validated for various disturbances such as a reactive load connection and grid fault using an EMTP-RV simulator. Furthermore, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme promptly recovers the POI voltage by injecting more reactive power after a disturbance than the conventional scheme.« less

  20. Vectorization of an applicative language: Current results and future directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cann, D.C.

    1990-11-01

    The most important and challenging problem facing researchers today is the effective use of parallel processors. Few would deny that the biggest obstacle is the inadequacy of current software tools -- an inadequacy born of imperative programming. As an alternative, applicative and functional programming languages provide a cleaner and simpler parallel programming model. They hide architectural idiosyncrasies, guarantee determinancy, enforce software engineering principles, and in many ways simplify compilation. Regrettably these languages have acquired a reputation for inefficiency. In this report, we show that applicative programs do not require special hardware for efficient execution, and with little effort can automatically exploit concurrent and vector processors. 17 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  1. Argon metastable dynamics and lifetimes in a direct current microdischarge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefanovi?, Ilija; Kuschel, Thomas; Schröter, Sandra; Böke, Marc

    2014-09-21

    In this paper we study the properties of a pulsed dc microdischarge with the continuous flow of argon. Argon metastable lifetimes are measured by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) and are compared with calculated values which yield information about excitation and de-excitation processes. By increasing the gas flow-rate about 5 times from 10 to 50 sccm, the Ar{sup m} lifetime increases from 1 to 5 ?s due to the reduction of metastable quenching with gas impurities. Optical emission spectroscopy reveals nitrogen and water molecules as the main gas impurities. The estimated N? density [N?]=0.1% is too low to explain the measured metastable lifetimes. Water impurity was found to be the main de-excitation source of argon metastable atoms due to high quenching coefficients. The water impurity level of [H?O]=0.15% to 1% is sufficient to bring calculated metastable lifetimes in line with experiments. The maximum value of water content in the discharge compared to the argon atoms is estimated to approximately 6%, due to the large surface to volume ratio of the microdischarge. The current pulse releases the water molecules from the electrode surface and they are either re-adsorbed in the time between 0.4 ms for [H?O]=1% and 2.6 ms for [H?O]=0.15% or pumped out of the discharge with the speed equal to the gas flow-rate. Depending on its partial pressure, the water impurity re-adsorption time is of the order of magnitude or less then the argon gas residence time.

  2. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doepke, Matthias (Garbsen, DE); Eisermann, Henning (Edermissen, DE)

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  3. Direct-Current Resistivity At Brady Hot Springs Area (Combs 2006...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Brady Hot Springs Area (Combs 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity At Brady Hot Springs Area (Combs...

  4. Active electron energy distribution function control in direct current discharge using an auxiliary electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweigert, I. V.; George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 ; Kaganovich, I. D.; Demidov, V. I.; St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg

    2013-10-15

    The electron energy distribution functions are studied in the low voltage dc discharge with a constriction, which is a diaphragm with an opening. The dc discharge glows in helium and is sustained by the electron current emitted from a heated cathode. We performed kinetic simulations of dc discharge characteristics and electron energy distribution functions for different gas pressures (0.8 Torr-4 Torr) and discharge current of 0.1 A. The results of these simulations indicate the ability to control the shape of the electron energy distribution functions by variation of the diaphragm opening radius.

  5. Propagation direction reversal of ionization zones in the transition between high and low current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Lab for Materials Processing and Die & Mold Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China; Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Yang, Yuchen; Liu, Jason; Liu, Lin; Anders, André

    2014-12-11

    Past research has revealed the propagation of dense, asymmetric ionization zones in both high and low current magnetron discharges. Here we report about the direction reversal of ionization zone propagation as observed with fast cameras. At high currents, zones move in the E B direction with velocities of 103 to 104 m/s. However at lower currents, ionization zones are observed to move in the opposite, the -E B direction, with velocities ~;; 103 m/s. It is proposed that the direction reversal is associated with the local balance of ionization and supply of neutrals in the ionization zone.

  6. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Voltage unbalance degrades the performance and shortens the life of a three-phase motor. Voltage unbalance at the motor terminals can cause current unbalance that is far out of proportion to the voltage unbalance. Unbalanced currents lead to torque pulsations, increased vibrations and mechanical stresses, increased losses resulting in lower efficiency, and motor overheating, which reduces winding insulation life. This tip sheet provides suggested actions and example calculations.

  7. Constant voltage electro-slag remelting control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-10-22

    A system for controlling electrode gap in an electro-slag remelt furnace has a constant regulated voltage and an electrode which is fed into the slag pool at a constant rate. The impedance of the circuit through the slag pool is directly proportional to the gap distance. Because of the constant voltage, the system current changes are inversely proportional to changes in gap. This negative feedback causes the gap to remain stable. 1 fig.

  8. Constant voltage electro-slag remelting control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlienger, Max E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A system for controlling electrode gap in an electro-slag remelt furnace has a constant regulated voltage and an eletrode which is fed into the slag pool at a constant rate. The impedance of the circuit through the slag pool is directly proportional to the gap distance. Because of the constant voltage, the system current changes are inversely proportional to changes in gap. This negative feedback causes the gap to remain stable.

  9. Stress evolution during growth in direct-current-sputtered zinc oxide films

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    at various oxygen flows (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Stress evolution during growth in direct-current-sputtered zinc oxide films at various oxygen flows Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stress evolution during growth in direct-current-sputtered zinc oxide films at various oxygen flows The evolution of stress during the growth of zinc and zinc oxide films deposited from a metallic target using direct-current magnetron sputtering has been analyzed in situ. For this purpose a

  10. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, Richard (Ammon, ID); Kotter, Dale (Bingham County, ID)

    1994-01-01

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

  11. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  12. Differences between direct current and alternating current capacitance nonlinearities in high-k dielectrics and their relation to hopping conduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khaldi, O.; Kassmi, M.; Gonon, P. Vallée, C.; Mannequin, C.; Sylvestre, A.; Jomni, F.

    2014-08-28

    Capacitance nonlinearities were studied in atomic layer deposited HfO{sub 2} films using two types of signals: a pure ac voltage of large magnitude (ac nonlinearities) and a small ac voltage superimposed to a large dc voltage (dc nonlinearities). In theory, ac and dc nonlinearities should be of the same order of magnitude. However, in practice, ac nonlinearities are found to be an order of magnitude higher than dc nonlinearities. Besides capacitance nonlinearities, hopping conduction is studied using low-frequency impedance measurements and is discussed through the correlated barrier hopping model. The link between hopping and nonlinearity is established. The ac nonlinearities are ascribed to the polarization of isolated defect pairs, while dc nonlinearities are attributed to electrode polarization which originates from defect percolation paths. Both the ac and dc capacitance nonlinearities display an exponential variation with voltage, which results from field-induced lowering of the hopping barrier energy.

  13. High voltage photovoltaic power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haigh, Ronald E. (Arvada, CO); Wojtczuk, Steve (Cambridge, MA); Jacobson, Gerard F. (Livermore, CA); Hagans, Karla G. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An array of independently connected photovoltaic cells on a semi-insulating substrate contains reflective coatings between the cells to enhance efficiency. A uniform, flat top laser beam profile is illuminated upon the array to produce electrical current having high voltage. An essentially wireless system includes a laser energy source being fed through optic fiber and cast upon the photovoltaic cell array to prevent stray electrical signals prior to use of the current from the array. Direct bandgap, single crystal semiconductor materials, such as GaAs, are commonly used in the array. Useful applications of the system include locations where high voltages are provided to confined spaces such as in explosive detonation, accelerators, photo cathodes and medical appliances.

  14. EIS-0107: Mead-Phoenix +500-kV Direct Current Transmission Line

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) prepared this statement to analyze the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts arising from WAPA and regional project sponsors’ proposal to construct a 500 kilovolt (kV) alternating current (AC) transmission line with the capability to be upgraded later to 500kV direct current (DC), connecting the Westwing Substation, located north of Phoenix, Arizona, with a new McCullough II Substation, located approximately 14 miles west of Boulder City, Nevada. This statement modifies a previously prepared federal statement from which the participants' election to proceed had not occurred at the time this statement was prepared.

  15. The effects of fabrication temperature on current-voltage characteristics and energy efficiencies of quantum dot sensitized ZnOH-GO hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, S. M. Z.; Gayen, Taposh; Tint, Naing; Alfano, Robert; Shi, Lingyan; Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J.

    2014-11-07

    The effects of fabrication temperature are investigated on the performance of CdSe quantum dot (QD)-sensitized hybrid solar cells of the composite material of zinc (hydr)oxide (ZnOH-GO)with 2?wt.?% graphite oxide. The current-voltage (I-V) and photo-current measurements show that higher fabrication temperatures yield greater photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies that essentially indicate more efficient solar cells. Two Photon Fluorescence images show the effects of temperature on the internal morphologies of the solar devices based on such materials. The CdSe-QD sensitized ZnOH-GO hybrid solar cells fabricated at 450?°C showing conversion of ?10.60% under a tungsten lamp (12.1 mW/cm{sup 2}) are reported here, while using potassium iodide as an electrolyte. The output photocurrent, I (?A) with input power, P (mW/cm{sup 2}) is found to be superlinear, showing a relation of I?=?P{sup n}, where n?=?1.4.

  16. Study of asymmetries of Cd(Zn)Te devices investigated using photo-induced current transient spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, surface photo-voltage spectroscopy, and gamma ray spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crocco, J.; Bensalah, H.; Zheng, Q.; Dieguez, E.; Corregidor, V.; Avles, E.; Castaldini, A.; Fraboni, B.; Cavalcoli, D.; Cavallini, A.; Vela, O.

    2012-10-01

    Despite these recent advancements in preparing the surface of Cd(Zn)Te devices for detector applications, large asymmetries in the electronic properties of planar Cd(Zn)Te detectors are common. Furthermore, for the development of patterned electrode geometries, selection of each electrode surface is crucial for minimizing dark current in the device. This investigation presented here has been carried out with three objectives. Each objective is oriented towards establishing reliable methods for the selection of the anode and cathode surfaces independent of the crystallographic orientation. The objectives of this study are (i) investigate how the asymmetry in I-V characteristics of Cd(Zn)Te devices may be associated with the TeO2 interfacial layer using Rutherford backscattering to study the structure at the Au-Cd(Zn)Te interface, (ii) develop an understanding of how the concentration of the active traps in Cd(Zn)Te varies with the external bias, and (iii) propose non-destructive methods for selection of the anode and cathode which are independent of crystallographic orientation. The spectroscopic methods employed in this investigation include Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, photo-induced current transient spectroscopy, and surface photo-voltage spectroscopy, as well as gamma ray spectroscopy to demonstrate the influence on detector properties.

  17. Monitoring Current, Voltage and Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Keeping close tabs on system operation is one way to mitigate financial risks. The ... to a series of bits the processing possibilities are almost endless, at least in theory. ...

  18. Alternating and direct current field effects on the structure-property

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    relationships in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-x%BaTiO{sub 3} textured ceramics (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Alternating and direct current field effects on the structure-property relationships in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-x%BaTiO{sub 3} textured ceramics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Alternating and direct current field effects on the structure-property relationships in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-x%BaTiO{sub 3} textured ceramics The influence of

  19. The effect of a direct current field on the microparticle charge in the plasma afterglow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wörner, L.; Groupe de Recherches sur l'Energétique des Milieux Ionisés, UMR7344, CNRS, Univ. Orléans, F-45067 Orléans ; Ivlev, A. V.; Huber, P.; Hagl, T.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Couëdel, L.; Schwabe, M.; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 ; Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L.; Skvortsov, A.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.

    2013-12-15

    Residual charges of individual microparticles forming dense clouds were measured in a RF discharge afterglow. Experiments were performed under microgravity conditions on board the International Space Station, which ensured particle levitation inside the gas volume after the plasma switch-off. The distribution of residual charges as well as the spatial distribution of charged particles across the cloud were analyzed by applying a low-frequency voltage to the electrodes and measuring amplitudes of the resulting particle oscillations. Upon “free decharging” conditions, the charge distribution had a sharp peak at zero and was rather symmetric (with charges concentrated between ?10e and +10e), yet positively and negatively charged particles were homogeneously distributed over the cloud. However, when decharging evolved in the presence of an external DC field (applied shortly before the plasma switch-off) practically all residual charges were positive. In this case, the overall charge distribution had a sharp peak at about +15e and was highly asymmetric, while the spatial distribution exhibited a significant charge gradient along the direction of the applied DC field.

  20. Producing a Radioactive Source in a Deuterated Palladium Electrode Under Direct-Current Glow Discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Kazuyoshi; Kawata, Nobuhiko; Kurisawa, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Mitsuru

    2001-03-15

    Anomalous gamma emission was rarely observed during direct-current glow discharge in {approx}3 Torrs of deuterium gas using a deuterated palladium foil cathode. Autoradiography after the discharge experiment showed that isotopes with low- and high-energy radiation components were produced before or during the discharge. The palladium foil after the anomalous gamma-ray emission was analyzed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, which revealed a considerable increase in the content of iron and copper on the surface.

  1. Depth-resolved ultra-violet spectroscopic photo current-voltage measurements for the analysis of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor epilayer deposited on Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozden, Burcu; Yang, Chungman; Tong, Fei; Khanal, Min P.; Mirkhani, Vahid; Sk, Mobbassar Hassan; Ahyi, Ayayi Claude; Park, Minseo

    2014-10-27

    We have demonstrated that the depth-dependent defect distribution of the deep level traps in the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) epi-structures can be analyzed by using the depth-resolved ultra-violet (UV) spectroscopic photo current-voltage (IV) (DR-UV-SPIV). It is of great importance to analyze deep level defects in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure, since it is recognized that deep level defects are the main source for causing current collapse phenomena leading to reduced device reliability. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT epi-layers were grown on a 6 in. Si wafer by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The DR-UV-SPIV measurement was performed using a monochromatized UV light illumination from a Xe lamp. The key strength of the DR-UV-SPIV is its ability to provide information on the depth-dependent electrically active defect distribution along the epi-layer growth direction. The DR-UV-SPIV data showed variations in the depth-dependent defect distribution across the wafer. As a result, rapid feedback on the depth-dependent electrical homogeneity of the electrically active defect distribution in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT epi-structure grown on a Si wafer with minimal sample preparation can be elucidated from the DR-UV-SPIV in combination with our previously demonstrated spectroscopic photo-IV measurement with the sub-bandgap excitation.

  2. Anti-addiction drug ibogaine inhibits voltage-gated ionic currents: A study to assess the drug's cardiac ion channel profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, Xaver; Kovar, Michael; Rubi, Lena; Mike, Agnes K.; Lukacs, Peter; Gawali, Vaibhavkumar S.; Todt, Hannes; Hilber, Karlheinz; Sandtner, Walter

    2013-12-01

    The plant alkaloid ibogaine has promising anti-addictive properties. Albeit not licenced as a therapeutic drug, and despite hints that ibogaine may perturb the heart rhythm, this alkaloid is used to treat drug addicts. We have recently reported that ibogaine inhibits human ERG (hERG) potassium channels at concentrations similar to the drugs affinity for several of its known brain targets. Thereby the drug may disturb the heart's electrophysiology. Here, to assess the drug's cardiac ion channel profile in more detail, we studied the effects of ibogaine and its congener 18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) on various cardiac voltage-gated ion channels. We confirmed that heterologously expressed hERG currents are reduced by ibogaine in low micromolar concentrations. Moreover, at higher concentrations, the drug also reduced human Na{sub v}1.5 sodium and Ca{sub v}1.2 calcium currents. Ion currents were as well reduced by 18-MC, yet with diminished potency. Unexpectedly, although blocking hERG channels, ibogaine did not prolong the action potential (AP) in guinea pig cardiomyocytes at low micromolar concentrations. Higher concentrations (? 10 ?M) even shortened the AP. These findings can be explained by the drug's calcium channel inhibition, which counteracts the AP-prolonging effect generated by hERG blockade. Implementation of ibogaine's inhibitory effects on human ion channels in a computer model of a ventricular cardiomyocyte, on the other hand, suggested that ibogaine does prolong the AP in the human heart. We conclude that therapeutic concentrations of ibogaine have the propensity to prolong the QT interval of the electrocardiogram in humans. In some cases this may lead to cardiac arrhythmias. - Highlights: • We study effects of anti-addiction drug ibogaine on ionic currents in cardiomyocytes. • We assess the cardiac ion channel profile of ibogaine. • Ibogaine inhibits hERG potassium, sodium and calcium channels. • Ibogaine’s effects on ion channels are a potential source of cardiac arrhythmias. • 18-Methoxycoronaridine has a lower affinity for cardiac ion channels than ibogaine.

  3. Detrapping of tungsten nanoparticles in a direct-current argon glow discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couëdel, L. Kumar, K. Kishor; Arnas, C.

    2014-12-15

    Nanoparticles are grown from the sputtering of a tungsten cathode in a direct current argon glow discharge. Laser light scattering of a vertical laser sheet going through the plasma reveals that the dust particle cloud is compressed and pushed towards the anode during the discharge. Scanning electron microscopy images of substrates exposed to the plasma for given durations show that dust particles are continuously falling down on the anode during the discharge. These observations are explained by the fact that the electrostatic force at the negative glow-anode sheath boundary cannot balance the ion drag, gravity, and thermophoresis forces for particles of more than a few tens of nanometres in diameter.

  4. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendel, C.W.; Savage, M.E.

    1992-03-17

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors. 5 figs.

  5. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendel, Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM); Savage, Mark E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors.

  6. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  7. Nonlocal control of electron temperature in short direct current glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demidov, V. I.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Stepanova, O. M.; Kurlyandskaya, I. P.

    2014-09-15

    To demonstrate controlling the electron temperature in nonlocal plasma, experiments have been performed on a short (without positive column) dc glow discharge with a cold cathode by applying different voltages to the conducting discharge wall. The experiments have been performed for low-pressure noble gas discharges. The applied voltage can modify trapping the energetic electrons emitted from the cathode sheath and arising from the atomic and molecular processes in the plasma within the device volume. This phenomenon results in the energetic electrons heating the slow plasma electrons, which consequently modifies the electron temperature. Furthermore, a numerical model of the discharge has demonstrated the electron temperature modification for the above case.

  8. Motion of Doped-Polymer-Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Flakes in a Direct-Current Electric Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trajkovska Petkoska, A.; Kosc, T.Z.; Marshall, K.L.; Hasman, K.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2008-05-02

    The behavior of polymer cholesteric liquid crystal (PCLC) flakes suspended in silicone oil host fluids has been explored in the presence of a direct-current electric field. In addition to “neat” (undoped) flakes, the PCLC material was doped with either conductive, carbon-based particles or highly dielectric inorganic particles to modify the dielectric properties of the resulting PCLC flakes. Doping with conductive particles produced flakes with a net charge, and they exhibited either translational or rotational motion depending on both the distribution of dopant within the flake and the dielectric characteristics of the host fluid. Flakes doped with titania (TiO2) particles reoriented 90º when suspended in a host fluid with a differing dielectric permittivity

  9. Direct-current cathodic vacuum arc system with magnetic-field mechanism for plasma stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, H.-S.; Komvopoulos, K.

    2008-07-15

    Filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition is characterized by plasma beam directionality, plasma energy adjustment via substrate biasing, macroparticle filtering, and independent substrate temperature control. Between the two modes of FCVA deposition, namely, direct current (dc) and pulsed arc, the dc mode yields higher deposition rates than the pulsed mode. However, maintaining the dc arc discharge is challenging because of its inherent plasma instabilities. A system generating a special configuration of magnetic field that stabilizes the dc arc discharge during film deposition is presented. This magnetic field is also part of the out-of-plane magnetic filter used to focus the plasma beam and prevent macroparticle film contamination. The efficiency of the plasma-stabilizing magnetic-field mechanism is demonstrated by the deposition of amorphous carbon (a-C) films exhibiting significantly high hardness and tetrahedral carbon hybridization (sp{sup 3}) contents higher than 70%. Such high-quality films cannot be produced by dc arc deposition without the plasma-stabilizing mechanism presented in this study.

  10. Voltage sensor and dielectric material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2006-10-17

    A voltage sensor is described that consists of an arrangement of impedance elements. The sensor is optimized to provide an output ratio that is substantially immune to changes in voltage, temperature variations or aging. Also disclosed is a material with a large and stable dielectric constant. The dielectric constant can be tailored to vary with position or direction in the material.

  11. Current

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current profile control by alternating current magnetic helicity injection F. Ebrahimi and S. C. Prager University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 ͑Received 29 December 2003; accepted 4 February 2004; published online 15 April 2004͒ Current profile control by ac magnetic helicity injection is computationally investigated in a reversed field pinch ͑RFP͒. Three-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamics ͑MHD͒ computation is employed to study the nonlinear MHD. During ac

  12. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure. 3 figs.

  13. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, John P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure.

  14. Simulation of an Ar/NH{sub 3} low pressure magnetized direct current discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zhi [School of Science, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao Zhen [School of Chemistry and Life Science, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114007 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Li Xuehui [Physiccal Science and Technical College, Dalian University, Dalian 116622 (China)

    2013-01-15

    A two-dimensional fluid model has been used to investigate the properties of plasma in an Ar/NH{sub 3} low pressure magnetized direct current discharge. We compared the simulation results with the theoretical and experimental results of the other gas discharge in which the magnetic field is considered. Results that obtained using this method are in good agreement with literature. The simulation results show that the positive ammonia ion density follows the positive argon ion density. The Ar{sub 2}{sup +} density is slightly higher than the Ar{sup +} density at 100 mTorr. The largest ammonia ion is NH{sub 3}{sup +} ion, followed by NH{sub 2}{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and NH{sup +} ions. The contribution of NH{sup +} ions to the density of the positive ammonia ions is marginal. The influence of pressure on the plasma discharge has been studied by simulation, and the mechanisms have been discussed. The average plasma density increases as pressure increased. The plasma density appears to be more inhomogeneous than that at the lower pressure. The ratio of charge particles changed as pressure increased. The Ar{sup +} density is slightly higher than the Ar{sub 2}{sup +} density as the pressure increased. It makes NH{sub 4}{sup +} ratio increase as pressure increased. It shows that the electron temperature drops with rising pressure by numerical calculation.

  15. Open-air direct current plasma jet: Scaling up, uniformity, and cellular control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, S.; Wang, Z.; Huang, Q.; Lu, X.; Ostrikov, K.

    2012-10-15

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets are commonly used in many fields from medicine to nanotechnology, yet the issue of scaling the discharges up to larger areas without compromising the plasma uniformity remains a major challenge. In this paper, we demonstrate a homogenous cold air plasma glow with a large cross-section generated by a direct current power supply. There is no risk of glow-to-arc transitions, and the plasma glow appears uniform regardless of the gap between the nozzle and the surface being processed. Detailed studies show that both the position of the quartz tube and the gas flow rate can be used to control the plasma properties. Further investigation indicates that the residual charges trapped on the inner surface of the quartz tube may be responsible for the generation of the air plasma plume with a large cross-section. The spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy reveals that the air plasma plume is uniform as it propagates out of the nozzle. The remarkable improvement of the plasma uniformity is used to improve the bio-compatibility of a glass coverslip over a reasonably large area. This improvement is demonstrated by a much more uniform and effective attachment and proliferation of human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells on the plasma-treated surface.

  16. Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Human Memory.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matzen, Laura E.; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Training a person in a new knowledge base or skill set is extremely time consuming and costly, particularly in highly specialized domains such as the military and the intelligence community. Recent research in cognitive neuroscience has suggested that a technique called transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has the potential to revolutionize training by enabling learners to acquire new skills faster, more efficiently, and more robustly (Bullard et al., 2011). In this project, we tested the effects of tDCS on two types of memory performance that are critical for learning new skills: associative memory and working memory. Associative memory is memory for the relationship between two items or events. It forms the foundation of all episodic memories, so enhancing associative memory could provide substantial benefits to the speed and robustness of learning new information. We tested the effects of tDCS on associative memory, using a real-world associative memory task: remembering the links between faces and names. Working memory refers to the amount of information that can be held in mind and processed at one time, and it forms the basis for all higher-level cognitive processing. We investigated the degree of transfer between various working memory tasks (the N-back task as a measure of verbal working memory, the rotation-span task as a measure of visuospatial working memory, and Raven's progressive matrices as a measure of fluid intelligence) in order to determine if tDCS-induced facilitation of performance is task-specific or general.

  17. Ozone generation by negative direct current corona discharges in dry air fed coaxial wire-cylinder reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yehia, Ashraf; Mizuno, Akira

    2013-05-14

    An analytical study was made in this paper for calculating the ozone generation by negative dc corona discharges. The corona discharges were formed in a coaxial wire-cylinder reactor. The reactor was fed by dry air flowing with constant rates at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, and stressed by a negative dc voltage. The current-voltage characteristics of the negative dc corona discharges formed inside the reactor were measured in parallel with concentration of the generated ozone under different operating conditions. An empirical equation was derived from the experimental results for calculating the ozone concentration generated inside the reactor. The results, that have been recalculated by using the derived equation, have agreed with the experimental results over the whole range of the investigated parameters, except in the saturation range for the ozone concentration. Therefore, the derived equation represents a suitable criterion for expecting the ozone concentration generated by negative dc corona discharges in dry air fed coaxial wire-cylinder reactors under any operating conditions in range of the investigated parameters.

  18. Directions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions Directions to HAZMAT Challenge LANL's HAZMAT Reesponse Ready Room and Training Facility are ready to welcome this year's Challengers Technical Area 64 - HAZMAT Response...

  19. Current:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Qwner contacted n yes Current: ---------------------L---- if yes, date contacted Research & Development cl Facility Type 0 . Productioff 0 Di 3pcsal /Storage TYPE OF CONTRACT ---------------- q Prime q Subcontractor 0 Purchase Order 0 Other information (i.e. q cast + fixed fee, unit piice, time & material, etr) ------- ------_-----_--------------- 0 Production scale testing 0 Pilot Scale 0 Bench Scale Process a Theoretical Studies Sample & Analysis rcc t O' L~1 q Manufacturing 0

  20. Current:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    OWNE3 (55) -------- past: _--_-------------------- Current: Owner contacted I-J yes ,Fqna; ------------_------------- if yes, date contacted TYPE OF OPEF(ATION ---__-------_____ c] Research & Development -4 Facility Type ci Production scale testing 0 Pilbt Scale 0 Bench Scale Process 0 Theoretical Studies 0 Sample & Analysis C Productian E Disposal/Storage TYPE OF CONTRACi _------_-------_ tlanuf acturi ng University Research Organizaticn q Prime --. _' cl Other information (i.e., cost

  1. Current

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dollars in Thousands) FY 2014 Current FY 2015 Enacted FY 2016 Request Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) 27,100 32,100 45,000 Hydrothermal 10,300 12,500 36,500 Low Temperature and Coproduced 4,700 6,000 9,000 Systems Analysis 3,700 3,900 5,000 NREL Sitewide 0 500 500 Total, Geothermal Technologies 45,800 55,000 96,000 The Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) accelerates deployment of clean, domestic geothermal energy by supporting innovative technologies that reduce the cost and risks of

  2. Direct imaging of enhanced current collection on grain boundaries of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, JunHo; Kim, SeongYeon; Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Ramanathan, Kannan; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.

    2014-02-10

    We report on direct imaging of current collection by performing conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) measurement on a complete Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cell. The localized current was imaged by milling away the top conductive layer of the device by repeated C-AFM scans. The result exhibits enhanced photocurrent collection on grain boundaries (GBs) of CIGS films, consistent with the argument for electric-field-assisted carrier collection on the GBs.

  3. Directions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions Directions Call Hilton Santa Fe Buffalo Thunder at (505) 455-5555 for shuttle information from the airport and downtown Santa Fe. Driving Directions to Hilton Santa Fe Buffalo Thunder Hilton Santa Fe Buffalo Thunder is located 15 minutes north of Santa Fe. Directions from Albuquerque (bypassing downtown Santa Fe) Take Interstate 25 north towards Santa Fe for approximately 50 miles. From Interstate 25, exit right onto the 599 Northbound Bypass for approximately 14 miles and continue to

  4. Measurement of positive direct current corona pulse in coaxial wire-cylinder gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Han Zhang, Bo He, Jinliang Wang, Wenzhuo

    2014-03-15

    In this paper, a system is designed and developed to measure the positive corona current in coaxial wire-cylinder gaps. The characteristic parameters of corona current pulses, such as the amplitude, rise time, half-wave time, and repetition frequency, are statistically analyzed and a new set of empirical formulas are derived by numerical fitting. The influence of space charges on corona currents is tested by using three corona cages with different radii. A numerical method is used to solve a simplified ion-flow model to explain the influence of space charges. Based on the statistical results, a stochastic model is developed to simulate the corona pulse trains. And this model is verified by comparing the simulated frequency-domain responses with the measured ones.

  5. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y+36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-11

    A comparison study between Y+36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y+36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to bothmore »crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y+36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y+36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y+36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. Furthermore, when the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.« less

  6. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y+36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-11

    A comparison study between Y+36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y+36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to bothmore » crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y+36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y+36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y+36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. Furthermore, when the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.« less

  7. Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM); Kirkham, John (Newbury, GB2)

    1982-01-01

    A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

  8. Method and apparatus for monitoring armature position in direct-current solenoids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyers, J.C.; Haynes, H.D.

    1996-12-10

    A method for determining the position of an armature of a dc-powered solenoid is disclosed. Electrical circuitry is provided to introduce a small alternating current flow through the coil. As a result, the impedance and resistance of the solenoid coil can be measured to provide information indicative of the armature`s position. 5 figs.

  9. Method and apparatus for monitoring armature position in direct-current solenoids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyers, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-12-10

    A method for determining the position of an armature of a dc-powered solenoid. Electrical circuitry is provided to introduce a small alternating current flow through the coil. As a result, the impedance and resistance of the solenoid coil can be measured to provide information indicative of the armature's position.

  10. Assisted extraction of the energy level spacings and lever arms in direct current bias measurements of one-dimensional quantum wires, using an image recognition routine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesage, A. A. J. Smith, L. W. Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G.; Al-Taie, H.; Kelly, M. J.; See, P.

    2015-01-07

    A multiplexer technique is used to individually measure an array of 256 split gates on a single GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. This results in the generation of large volumes of data, which requires the development of automated data analysis routines. An algorithm is developed to find the spacing between discrete energy levels, which form due to transverse confinement from the split gate. The lever arm, which relates split gate voltage to energy, is also found from the measured data. This reduces the time spent on the analysis. Comparison with estimates obtained visually shows that the algorithm returns reliable results for subband spacing of split gates measured at 1.4?K. The routine is also used to assess direct current bias spectroscopy measurements at lower temperatures (50 mK). This technique is versatile and can be extended to other types of measurements. For example, it is used to extract the magnetic field at which Zeeman-split 1D subbands cross one another.

  11. Improved multi-directional eddy current inspection test apparatus for detecting flaws in metal articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nance, Roy A.; Hartley, William H.; Caffarel, Alfred J.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus is described for detecting flaws in a tubular workpiece in a single scan. The coils of a dual coil bobbin eddy current inspection probe are wound at a 45.degree. angle to the transverse axis of the probe, one coil having an angular position about the axis about 90.degree. relative to the angular position of the other coil, and the angle of intersection of the planes containing the coils being about 60.degree..

  12. Direct measurement of polysulfide shuttle current: A window into understanding the performance of lithium-sulfur cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moy, Derek; Manivannan, A.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2014-11-04

    The shuttling of polysulfide ions between the electrodes in a lithium-sulfur battery is a major technical issue limiting the self-discharge and cycle life of this high-energy rechargeable battery. Although there have been attempts to suppress the shuttling process, there has not been a direct measurement of the rate of shuttling. We report here a simple and direct measurement of the rate of the shuttling (that we term “shuttle current”), applicable to the study of any type of lithium-sulfur cell. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this measurement technique using cells with and without lithium nitrate (a widely-used shuttle suppressor additive). We present a phenomenological analysis of the shuttling process and simulate the shuttle currents as a function of the state-of-charge of a cell. We also demonstrate how the rate of decay of the shuttle current can be used to predict the capacity fade in a lithium-sulfur cell due to the shuttle process. As a result, we expect that this new ability to directly measure shuttle currents will provide greater insight into the performance differences observed with various additives and electrode modifications that are aimed at suppressing the rate of shuttling of polysulfide ions and increasing the cycle life of lithium-sulfur cells.

  13. Direct measurement of polysulfide shuttle current: A window into understanding the performance of lithium-sulfur cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moy, Derek [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute.; Manivannan, A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Narayanan, S. R. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute.

    2014-11-01

    The shuttling of polysulfide ions between the electrodes in a lithium-sulfur battery is a major technical issue limiting the self-discharge and cycle life of this high-energy rechargeable battery. Although there have been attempts to suppress the shuttling process, there has not been a direct measurement of the rate of shuttling. We report here a simple and direct measurement of the rate of the shuttling (that we term “shuttle current”), applicable to the study of any type of lithium-sulfur cell. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this measurement technique using cells with and without lithium nitrate (a widely-used shuttle suppressor additive). We present a phenomenological analysis of the shuttling process and simulate the shuttle currents as a function of the state-of-charge of a cell. We also demonstrate how the rate of decay of the shuttle current can be used to predict the capacity fade in a lithium-sulfur cell due to the shuttle process. We expect that this new ability to directly measure shuttle currents will provide greater insight into the performance differences observed with various additives and electrode modifications that are aimed at suppressing the rate of shuttling of polysulfide ions and increasing the cycle life of lithium-sulfur cells.

  14. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2008-07-15

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  15. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2007-01-09

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC--DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC--DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  16. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2010-05-04

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  17. Direct imaging of neural currents using ultra-low field magnetic resonance techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Volegov, Petr L.; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Mosher, John C.; Espy, Michelle A.; Kraus, Jr., Robert H.

    2009-08-11

    Using resonant interactions to directly and tomographically image neural activity in the human brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques at ultra-low field (ULF), the present inventors have established an approach that is sensitive to magnetic field distributions local to the spin population in cortex at the Larmor frequency of the measurement field. Because the Larmor frequency can be readily manipulated (through varying B.sub.m), one can also envision using ULF-DNI to image the frequency distribution of the local fields in cortex. Such information, taken together with simultaneous acquisition of MEG and ULF-NMR signals, enables non-invasive exploration of the correlation between local fields induced by neural activity in cortex and more `distant` measures of brain activity such as MEG and EEG.

  18. First-cut design of an all-superconducting 100-T direct current magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwasa, Yukikazu Hahn, Seungyong

    2013-12-16

    A 100-T magnetic field has heretofore been available only in pulse mode. This first-cut design demonstrates that a 100-T DC magnet (100?T) is possible. We base our design on: Gadolinium-based coated superconductor; a nested-coil formation, each a stack of double-pancake coils with the no-insulation technique; a band of high-strength steel over each coil; and a 12-T radial-field limit. The 100?T, a 20?mm cold bore, 6-m diameter, 17-m height, with a total of 12?500-km long superconductor, stores an energy of 122 GJ at its 4.2-K operating current of 2400?A. It requires a 4.2-K cooling power of 300?W.

  19. Direct measurement of polysulfide shuttle current: A window into understanding the performance of lithium-sulfur cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moy, Derek; Manivannan, A.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2014-11-04

    The shuttling of polysulfide ions between the electrodes in a lithium-sulfur battery is a major technical issue limiting the self-discharge and cycle life of this high-energy rechargeable battery. Although there have been attempts to suppress the shuttling process, there has not been a direct measurement of the rate of shuttling. We report here a simple and direct measurement of the rate of the shuttling (that we term “shuttle current”), applicable to the study of any type of lithium-sulfur cell. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this measurement technique using cells with and without lithium nitrate (a widely-used shuttle suppressor additive). Wemore » present a phenomenological analysis of the shuttling process and simulate the shuttle currents as a function of the state-of-charge of a cell. We also demonstrate how the rate of decay of the shuttle current can be used to predict the capacity fade in a lithium-sulfur cell due to the shuttle process. As a result, we expect that this new ability to directly measure shuttle currents will provide greater insight into the performance differences observed with various additives and electrode modifications that are aimed at suppressing the rate of shuttling of polysulfide ions and increasing the cycle life of lithium-sulfur cells.« less

  20. Electronic circuit for measuring series connected electrochemical cell voltages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N. (West Bloomfield, MI); Stuart, Thomas A. (Toledo, OH)

    2000-01-01

    An electronic circuit for measuring voltage signals in an energy storage device is disclosed. The electronic circuit includes a plurality of energy storage cells forming the energy storage device. A voltage divider circuit is connected to at least one of the energy storage cells. A current regulating circuit is provided for regulating the current through the voltage divider circuit. A voltage measurement node is associated with the voltage divider circuit for producing a voltage signal which is proportional to the voltage across the energy storage cell.

  1. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Kelly, H.; Instituto de Física del Plasma , Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires

    2013-12-15

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  2. Direct

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct removal of edge-localized pollutant emission in a near-infrared bremsstrahlung measurement J. K. Anderson, a) P. L. Andrew, b) B. E. Chapman, D. Craig, and D. J. Den Hartog Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 ͑Presented on 10 July 2002͒ Visible and near-infrared electron-ion bremsstrahlung measurements in fusion research devices, used to determine the effective ionic charge (Z eff ), are often plagued by pollutant emission

  3. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  4. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick (Livermore, CA); Crocker, Robert Ward (Fremont, CA); Yee, Daniel Dadwa (Dublin, CA); Dils, David Wright (Fort Worth, TX)

    2006-03-14

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  5. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick (Livermore, CA); Crocker, Robert Ward (Fremont, CA); Yee, Daniel Dadwa (Dublin, CA); Dils, David Wright (Fort Worth, TX)

    2008-03-25

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  6. RF current sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, James A. (Powell, TN); Sparks, Dennis O. (Maryville, TN)

    1998-11-10

    An RF sensor having a novel current sensing probe and a voltage sensing probe to measure voltage and current. The current sensor is disposed in a transmission line to link all of the flux generated by the flowing current in order to obtain an accurate measurement. The voltage sensor is a flat plate which operates as a capacitive plate to sense voltage on a center conductor of the transmission line, in which the measured voltage is obtained across a resistance leg of a R-C differentiator circuit formed by the characteristic impedance of a connecting transmission line and a capacitance of the plate, which is positioned proximal to the center conductor.

  7. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bobbett, Ronald E. (Los Alamos, NM); McCormick, J. Byron (Los Alamos, NM); Kerwin, William J. (Tucson, AZ)

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  8. Magnetic resonance visualization of conductive structures by sequence-triggered direct currents and spin-echo phase imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eibofner, Frank; Wojtczyk, Hanne; Graf, Hansjörg E-mail: drGraf@t-online.de; Clasen, Stephan

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Instrument visualization in interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly performed via susceptibility artifacts. Unfortunately, this approach suffers from limited conspicuity in inhomogeneous tissue and disturbed spatial encoding. Also, susceptibility artifacts are controllable only by sequence parameters. This work presents the basics of a new visualization method overcoming such problems by applying sequence-triggered direct current (DC) pulses in spin-echo (SE) imaging. SE phase images allow for background free current path localization. Methods: Application of a sequence-triggered DC pulse in SE imaging, e.g., during a time period between radiofrequency excitation and refocusing, results in transient field inhomogeneities. Dependent on the additional z-magnetic field from the DC, a phase offset results despite the refocusing pulse. False spatial encoding is avoided by DC application during periods when read-out or slice-encoding gradients are inactive. A water phantom containing a brass conductor (water equivalent susceptibility) and a titanium needle (serving as susceptibility source) was used to demonstrate the feasibility. Artifact dependence on current strength and orientation was examined. Results: Without DC, the brass conductor was only visible due to its water displacement. The titanium needle showed typical susceptibility artifacts. Applying triggered DC pulses, the phase offset of spins near the conductor appeared. Because SE phase images are homogenous also in regions of persistent field inhomogeneities, the position of the conductor could be determined with high reliability. Artifact characteristic could be easily controlled by amperage leaving sequence parameters unchanged. For an angle of 30° between current and static field visualization was still possible. Conclusions: SE phase images display the position of a conductor carrying pulsed DC free from artifacts caused by persistent field inhomogeneities. Magnitude and phase images are acquired simultaneously under the same conditions without the use of extra measurement time. The presented technique offers many advantages for precise instrument localization in interventional MRI.

  9. Capacitively coupled RF voltage probe having optimized flux linkage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, James A. (Powell, TN); Sparks, Dennis O. (Maryville, TN)

    1999-02-02

    An RF sensor having a novel current sensing probe and a voltage sensing probe to measure voltage and current. The current sensor is disposed in a transmission line to link all of the flux generated by the flowing current in order to obtain an accurate measurement. The voltage sensor is a flat plate which operates as a capacitive plate to sense voltage on a center conductor of the transmission line, in which the measured voltage is obtained across a resistance leg of a R-C differentiator circuit formed by the characteristic impedance of a connecting transmission line and a capacitance of the plate, which is positioned proximal to the center conductor.

  10. Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duckworth, Douglas C.; Marcus, R. Kenneth; Donohue, David L.; Lewis, Trousdale A.

    1994-01-01

    A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components.

  11. Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duckworth, D.C.; Marcus, R.K.; Donohue, D.L.; Lewis, T.A.

    1994-06-28

    A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components. 11 figures.

  12. Theoretical investigation of the effect of hydrogen addition on the formation and properties of soliton in direct current argon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saikia, P. Goswami, K. S.; Saikia, B. K.

    2014-03-15

    In this study the effect of hydrogen addition on the formation and properties of soliton in direct-current (DC) argon plasma is theoretically investigated. By coupling fluid equations with Poisons equation for such multi-component plasma, the Mach number and amplitude of the soliton are determined following pseudo potential method. Addition of hydrogen in argon discharge leads to the decrease of electron, Ar{sup +} ion density while a reverse trend was observed for ArH{sup +} and hydrogen like ions. It was found that presence of hydrogen like ions in argon plasma affects the formation of soliton with its amplitude significantly decreases as concentration of hydrogen increases. On the other hand, increase in ion to electron temperature ratios of the lighter ions in the discharge also has a significant influence on the amplitude and formation of soliton. The inverse relation between solitons width and amplitude is found to be consistent for the entire range of study.

  13. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2000-01-01

    This two-page abstract provides tips for plant managers on checking and monitoring motor voltage unbalance to improve performance and life-span of industrial motors.

  14. Voltage Control Technical Conference

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-08-Voltage-Control-Technical-Conference Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects &...

  15. Application of Direct Current Potential Drop for the J-integral vs. Crack Growth Resistance Curve Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xiang; Nanstad, Randy K; Sokolov, Mikhail A

    2014-01-01

    The direct current potential drop (DCPD) technique has been applied to derive the J-integral vs. crack growth resistance curve (J-R curve) for fracture toughness characterization of structural materials. The test matrix covered three materials including type 316LN stainless steels, Ni-based alloy 617, and one ferritic-martensitic steel, three specimen configurations including standard compact, single edge bending, and disk-shaped compact specimens, and temperatures ranging from 20 C to 650 C. When compared with baseline J-R curves derived from the ASTM normalization method, the original J-R curves from the DCPD technique yielded much smaller Jq values due to the influence of crack blunting, plastic deformation, etc. on potential drop. To counter these effects, a new procedure for adjusting DCPD J-R curves was proposed. After applying the new adjustment procedure, the average difference in Jq between the DCPD technique and the normalization method was only 5.2% and the difference in tearing modulus was 7.4%. The promising result demonstrates the applicability of the DCPD technique for the J-R curve characterization especially in extreme environments, such as elevated temperatures, where the conventional elastic unloading compliance method faces considerable challenges.

  16. Beam current sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuchnir, M.; Mills, F.E.

    1984-09-28

    A current sensor for measuring the dc component of a beam of charged particles employs a superconducting pick-up loop probe, with twisted superconducting leads in combination with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) detector. The pick-up probe is in the form of a single-turn loop, or a cylindrical toroid, through which the beam is directed and within which a first magnetic flux is excluded by the Meisner effect. The SQUID detector acts as a flux-to-voltage converter in providing a current to the pick-up loop so as to establish a second magnetic flux within the electrode which nulls out the first magnetic flux. A feedback voltage within the SQUID detector represents the beam current of the particles which transit the pick-up loop. Meisner effect currents prevent changes in the magnetic field within the toroidal pick-up loop and produce a current signal independent of the beam's cross-section and its position within the toroid, while the combination of superconducting elements provides current measurement sensitivities in the nano-ampere range.

  17. Beam current sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuchnir, Moyses (Elmhurst, IL); Mills, Frederick E. (Elburn, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A current sensor for measuring the DC component of a beam of charged particles employs a superconducting pick-up loop probe, with twisted superconducting leads in combination with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) detector. The pick-up probe is in the form of a single-turn loop, or a cylindrical toroid, through which the beam is directed and within which a first magnetic flux is excluded by the Meisner effect. The SQUID detector acts as a flux-to-voltage converter in providing a current to the pick-up loop so as to establish a second magnetic flux within the electrode which nulls out the first magnetic flux. A feedback voltage within the SQUID detector represents the beam current of the particles which transit the pick-up loop. Meisner effect currents prevent changes in the magnetic field within the toroidal pick-up loop and produce a current signal independent of the beam's cross-section and its position within the toroid, while the combination of superconducting elements provides current measurement sensitivites in the nano-ampere range.

  18. Direct and indirect capture of carriers into the lasing ground state and the light-current characteristic of quantum dot lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yuchang Asryan, Levon V.

    2014-03-14

    We calculate the light-current characteristic (LCC) of a quantum dot (QD) laser under the conditions of both direct and indirect capture of carriers from the optical confinement layer into the lasing ground state in QDs. We show that direct capture is a dominant process determining the ground-state LCC. Only when direct capture is slow, the role of indirect capture (capture into the QD excited state and subsequent intradot relaxation to the ground state) becomes important.

  19. Voltage controlled spintronic devices for logic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    You, Chun-Yeol (Naperville, IL); Bader, Samuel D. (Oak Park, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A reprogrammable logic gate comprising first and second voltage-controlled rotation transistors. Each transistor comprises three ferromagnetic layers with a spacer and insulating layer between the first and second ferromagnetic layers and an additional insulating layer between the second and third ferromagnetic layers. The third ferromagnetic layer of each transistor is connected to each other, and a constant external voltage source is applied to the second ferromagnetic layer of the first transistor. As input voltages are applied to the first ferromagnetic layer of each transistor, the relative directions of magnetization of the ferromagnetic layers and the magnitude of the external voltage determines the output voltage of the gate. By altering these parameters, the logic gate is capable of behaving as AND, OR, NAND, or NOR gates.

  20. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for analysis of microelectromechanical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walraven, Jeremy A. (Albuquerque, NM); Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device with or without on-board integrated circuitry. One embodiment of the TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the MEM device while scanning a focused laser beam over electrically-active members therein to produce localized heating which alters the power demand of the MEM device and thereby changes the voltage of the constant-current source. This changing voltage of the constant-current source can be measured and used in combination with the position of the focused and scanned laser beam to generate an image of any short-circuit defects in the MEM device (e.g. due to stiction or fabrication defects). In another embodiment of the TIVA apparatus, an image can be generated directly from a thermoelectric potential produced by localized laser heating at the location of any short-circuit defects in the MEM device, without any need for supplying power to the MEM device. The TIVA apparatus can be formed, in part, from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of MEM devices.

  1. Voltage verification unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Edward J. (Virginia Beach, VA)

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  2. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, James H. (New Baltimore, MI)

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  3. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Oak Ridge, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means.

  4. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-07-01

    Disclosed is a voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means. 15 figs.

  5. High voltage RF feedthrough bushing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grotz, Glenn F. (Huntington Station, NY)

    1984-01-01

    Described is a multi-element, high voltage radio frequency bushing for trmitting RF energy to an antenna located in a vacuum container. The bushing includes a center conductor of complex geometrical shape, an outer coaxial shield conductor, and a thin-walled hollow truncated cone insulator disposed between central and outer conductors. The shape of the center conductor, which includes a reverse curvature portion formed of a radially inwardly directed shoulder and a convex portion, controls the uniformity of the axial surface gradient on the insulator cone. The outer shield has a first substantially cylindrical portion and a second radially inwardly extending truncated cone portion.

  6. Electro-optical voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  7. Electro-optical voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, G.K.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages is disclosed. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam`s polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured. 6 figs.

  8. Experimental observation of the behaviour of cogenerated dusty plasma using a bipolar pulsed direct current power supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, Sanjib; Bose, M. [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Pramanik, J. [Kharagpur College, Kharagpur 721305, West Bengal (India); Mukherjee, S. [FCIPT, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2013-02-15

    We have experimentally observed the behaviour of cogenerated dusts in unmagnetized plasma produced using a bipolar pulsed dc power supply. In this experiment, the dust particles have been generated through sputtering of graphite cathode and were stratified between two electrodes. This stratification of dust clouds has obtained at a typical range of plasma parameters, namely, 650 V (peak-to-peak) with 0.2 mbar pressure. In above condition, we detected the Taylor-like instability at the interface of two dusty clouds with different densities. A very less dust density (void like) region inside the lesser dust density portion is also noted. Again, it has been observed that a self excited dust density wave propagates towards the higher density dust fluid inside the system as well as a stationary band structure of thin multiple layers of dust particles when we apply a higher voltage (750 V peak-to-peak). The wavelength, phase velocity, and frequency of the excited wave have also been estimated.

  9. Compact high voltage solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glidden, Steven C.

    2003-09-23

    A compact, solid state, high voltage switch capable of high conduction current with a high rate of current risetime (high di/dt) that can be used to replace thyratrons in existing and new applications. The switch has multiple thyristors packaged in a single enclosure. Each thyristor has its own gate drive circuit that circuit obtains its energy from the energy that is being switched in the main circuit. The gate drives are triggered with a low voltage, low current pulse isolated by a small inexpensive transformer. The gate circuits can also be triggered with an optical signal, eliminating the trigger transformer altogether. This approach makes it easier to connect many thyristors in series to obtain the hold off voltages of greater than 80 kV.

  10. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1985-08-05

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  11. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1987-11-17

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile. 2 figs.

  12. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  13. Omni-directional railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen (9521 Avenida Del Oso NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

    1995-01-01

    A device for electromagnetically accelerating projectiles. The invention features two parallel conducting circular plates, a plurality of electrode connections to both upper and lower plates, a support base, and a projectile magazine. A projectile is spring-loaded into a firing position concentrically located between the parallel plates. A voltage source is applied to the plates to cause current to flow in directions defined by selectable, discrete electrode connections on both upper and lower plates. Repulsive Lorentz forces are generated to eject the projectile in a 360 degree range of fire.

  14. Omni-directional railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-07-25

    A device is disclosed for electromagnetically accelerating projectiles. The invention features two parallel conducting circular plates, a plurality of electrode connections to both upper and lower plates, a support base, and a projectile magazine. A projectile is spring-loaded into a firing position concentrically located between the parallel plates. A voltage source is applied to the plates to cause current to flow in directions defined by selectable, discrete electrode connections on both upper and lower plates. Repulsive Lorentz forces are generated to eject the projectile in a 360 degree range of fire. 4 figs.

  15. The physical nature of the phenomenon of positive column plasma constriction in low-pressure noble gas direct current discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurbatov, P. F.

    2014-02-15

    The essence of the positive-column plasma constriction for static (the diffusion mode) and dynamic ionization equilibrium (the stratificated and constricted modes) is analyzed. Two physical parameters, namely, the effective ionization rate of gas atoms and the ambipolar diffusion coefficient of electrons and ions, determine the transverse distribution of discharge species and affect the current states of plasma. Transverse constriction of the positive column takes place as the gas ionization level (discharge current) and pressure increase. The stratified mode (including the constricted one) is observed between the two adjacent types of self-sustained discharge phases when they coexist together at the same time or in the same place as a coherent binary mixture. In the case, a occurrence of the discharge phase with more high electron density presently involve a great decrease in the cross-section of the current channel for d.c. discharges. Additional physical factors, such as cataphoresis and electrophoresis phenomena and spatial gas density inhomogeneity correlated with a circulatory flow in d.c. discharges, are mainly responsible for the current hysteresis and partially constricted discharge.

  16. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanacek, D.L.; Pike, C.D.

    1982-07-13

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly having a tubular insulator extending between the ground plane ring and the high voltage ring. The insulator is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring to the high voltage ring, producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall of the insulator to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly.

  17. Transformer current sensor for superconducting magnetic coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, Stewart S.; Wilson, C. Thomas

    1988-01-01

    A transformer current sensor having primary turns carrying a primary current for a superconducting coil and secondary turns only partially arranged within the primary turns. The secondary turns include an active winding disposed within the primary turns and a dummy winding which is not disposed in the primary turns and so does not experience a magnetic field due to a flow of current in the primary turns. The active and dummy windings are wound in opposite directions or connected in series-bucking relationship, and are exposed to the same ambient magnetic field. Voltages which might otherwise develop in the active and dummy windings due to ambient magnetic fields thus cancel out. The resultant voltage is purely indicative of the rate of change of current flowing in the primary turns.

  18. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W.; Lange, Arnold C.

    1996-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage put under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  19. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1996-10-15

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 figs.

  20. Lightweight PV Inverters: Dual Bi-Directional IGBTs Modules Enables Breakthrough PV Inverter Using Current Modulation Topology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-30

    Solar ADEPT Project: PV inverters convert DC power generated by modules into usable AC power. IPC’s initial 30kW 94lb. PV inverter reduces the weight of comparable 30kW PV inverters by 90%—reducing the cost of materials, manufacturing, shipping, and installation. With ARPA-E support, new bi-directional silicon power switches will be developed, commercialized, and utilized in IPC’s next-generation PV inverter. With these components, IPC will produce 100kW inverters that weight less than 100lb., reducing the weight of conventional 3,000lb. 100kW inverters by more than 95%. The new power switches will cut IPC’s $/W manufacturing cost in half, as well as further reduce indirect shipping and installation costs.

  1. Direct Catalytic Upgrading of Current Dilute Alcohol Fermentation Streams to Hydrocarbons for Fungible Fuels Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Catalytic Upgrading of Current Dilute Alcohol Fermentation Streams to Hydrocarbons for Fungible Fuels [2.3.1.100] Chaitanya Narula, 1 Zhenglong Li, 1 E. Casbeer, 1 Robert A. Geiger, 1 James P. Szybist, 2 Martin Keller, 2 Brian H. Davison, 2 and Tim Theiss 2 (PI) Oak Ridge National Laboratory 1 Materials Science and Technology Division 2 Energy and Environmental Sciences Directorate Technology Area Review: Biochemical Conversion 2015 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer

  2. High voltage dc--dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1995-05-23

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 Figs.

  3. High voltage dc-dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  4. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springfield, Ray M. (Sante Fe, NM); Wheat, Jr., Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  5. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K.; Renak, Todd W.

    1999-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  6. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, G.K.; Renak, T.W.

    1999-04-06

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages is disclosed. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam`s polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured. 18 figs.

  7. APPARATUS FOR REGULATING HIGH VOLTAGE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, K.G.

    1951-03-20

    This patent describes a high-voltage regulator of the r-f type wherein the modulation of the r-f voltage is accomplished at a high level, resulting in good stabilization over a large range of load conditions.

  8. A Superconducting transformer system for high current cable testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godeke, A.; Dietderich, D. R.; Joseph, J. M.; Lizarazo, J.; Prestemon, S. O.; Miller, G.; Weijers, H. W.

    2010-02-15

    This article describes the development of a direct-current (dc) superconducting transformer system for the high current test of superconducting cables. The transformer consists of a core-free 10 464 turn primary solenoid which is enclosed by a 6.5 turn secondary. The transformer is designed to deliver a 50 kA dc secondary current at a dc primary current of about 50 A. The secondary current is measured inductively using two toroidal-wound Rogowski coils. The Rogowski coil signal is digitally integrated, resulting in a voltage signal that is proportional to the secondary current. This voltage signal is used to control the secondary current using a feedback loop which automatically compensates for resistive losses in the splices to the superconducting cable samples that are connected to the secondary. The system has been commissioned up to 28 kA secondary current. The reproducibility in the secondary current measurement is better than 0.05% for the relevant current range up to 25 kA. The drift in the secondary current, which results from drift in the digital integrator, is estimated to be below 0.5 A/min. The system's performance is further demonstrated through a voltage-current measurement on a superconducting cable sample at 11 T background magnetic field. The superconducting transformer system enables fast, high resolution, economic, and safe tests of the critical current of superconducting cable samples.

  9. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanecek, David L. (Martinez, CA); Pike, Chester D. (Pinole, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly (10) having a tubular insulator (15) extending between the ground plane ring (16) and the high voltage ring (30). The insulator (15) is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring (16) to the high voltage ring (30), producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall (27) of the insulator (15) to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly (10).

  10. A low-power magnetic-field-assisted plasma jet generated by dielectric-barrier discharge enhanced direct-current glow discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Weiman; Tang, Jie Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Wei; Duan, Yixiang; Research Center of Analytical Instrumentation, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064

    2014-01-06

    A magnetic field is introduced to the dielectric-barrier discharge enhanced direct-current glow discharge for efficient plasma generation, with the discharge power of 2.7?W and total energy consumption reduced to 34% of the original. By spatially examining the emission spectra and plasma temperature, it is found that their peaks shift from edges to the center and the negative and anode glows merge into the positive column and disappear, accompanied by improvement of uniformity and chemical activity of the enlarged plasma. This lies in the enhancement of ionization in the curved and lengthened electron path and the dispersion of discharge domains.

  11. Investigations of Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1?x}TiO{sub 3} ceramics and powders prepared by direct current arc discharge technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shuangbin; Wang, Xiaohan; Yao, Ying Jia, Yongzhong; Xie, Shaolei; Jing, Yan; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.

    2014-09-01

    Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1?x}TiO{sub 3} ceramics with x ranging from 0 to 1 were prepared by direct current arc discharge technique and studied by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The cubic-tetragonal ferroelectric phase transition in Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1?x}TiO{sub 3} ceramics was found to occur at x???0.75. XRD investigation of as-grown BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics revealed co-existence of tetragonal and hexagonal modifications with a small amount of impurity phase BaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9}. No evidences of hexagonal phase were observed in Raman spectra of as-grown BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics, while Raman peaks related to hexagonal phase were clearly observed in the spectrum of fine-grain powders prepared from the same ceramics. A core-shell model for BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics prepared by direct current arc discharge technique is proposed. Absence of the hexagonal phase in any Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1?x}TiO{sub 3} solid solution with x?

  12. High voltage feedthrough bushing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brucker, John P. (Espanola, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A feedthrough bushing for a high voltage diode provides for using compression sealing for all sealing surfaces. A diode assembly includes a central conductor extending through the bushing and a grading ring assembly circumferentially surrounding and coaxial with the central conductor. A flexible conductive plate extends between and compressively seals against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, wherein the flexibility of the plate allows inner and outer portions of the plate to axially translate for compression sealing against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, respectively. The inner portion of the plate is bolted to the central conductor for affecting sealing. A compression beam is also bolted to the central conductor and engages the outer portion of the plate to urge the outer portion toward the grading ring assembly to obtain compression sealing therebetween.

  13. Wide-range voltage modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider`s Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-{mu}s wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 {mu}s, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented.

  14. Triple voltage dc-to-dc converter and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Gui-Jia (Knoxville, TN)

    2008-08-05

    A circuit and method of providing three dc voltage buses and transforming power between a low voltage dc converter and a high voltage dc converter, by coupling a primary dc power circuit and a secondary dc power circuit through an isolation transformer; providing the gating signals to power semiconductor switches in the primary and secondary circuits to control power flow between the primary and secondary circuits and by controlling a phase shift between the primary voltage and the secondary voltage. The primary dc power circuit and the secondary dc power circuit each further comprising at least two tank capacitances arranged in series as a tank leg, at least two resonant switching devices arranged in series with each other and arranged in parallel with the tank leg, and at least one voltage source arranged in parallel with the tank leg and the resonant switching devices, said resonant switching devices including power semiconductor switches that are operated by gating signals. Additional embodiments having a center-tapped battery on the low voltage side and a plurality of modules on both the low voltage side and the high voltage side are also disclosed for the purpose of reducing ripple current and for reducing the size of the components.

  15. Voltage Vehicles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    distributor specializing in the full spectrum of electric vehicles (EV) and full-performance alternative fuel vehicles (AFV). References: Voltage Vehicles1 This article is a...

  16. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chorpening, Benjamin T. (Morgantown, WV); Thornton, Jimmy D. (Morgantown, WV); Huckaby, E. David (Morgantown, WV); Fincham, William (Fairmont, WV)

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  17. Multiple solutions in the theory of direct current glow discharges: Effect of plasma chemistry and nonlocality, different plasma-producing gases, and 3D modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almeida, P. G. C.; Benilov, M. S.

    2013-10-15

    The work is aimed at advancing the multiple steady-state solutions that have been found recently in the theory of direct current (DC) glow discharges. It is shown that an account of detailed plasma chemistry and non-locality of electron transport and kinetic coefficients results in an increase of the number of multiple solutions but does not change their pattern. Multiple solutions are shown to exist for discharges in argon and helium provided that discharge pressure is high enough. This result indicates that self-organization in DC glow microdischarges can be observed not only in xenon, which has been the case until recently, but also in other plasma-producing gases; a conclusion that has been confirmed by recent experiments. Existence of secondary bifurcations can explain why patterns of spots grouped in concentric rings, observed in the experiment, possess in many cases higher number of spots in outer rings than in inner ones.

  18. Temperature controlled high voltage regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiaro, Jr., Peter J. (Clinton, TN); Schulze, Gerald K. (Knoxville, TN)

    2004-04-20

    A temperature controlled high voltage regulator for automatically adjusting the high voltage applied to a radiation detector is described. The regulator is a solid state device that is independent of the attached radiation detector, enabling the regulator to be used by various models of radiation detectors, such as gas flow proportional radiation detectors.

  19. High PRF high current switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Stuart L. (Fredericksburg, VA); Hutcherson, R. Kenneth (College Park, MD)

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  20. LOW VOLTAGE 14 Mev NEUTRON SOURCE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Little, R.N. Jr.; Graves, E.R.

    1959-09-29

    An apparatus yielding high-energy neutrons at the rate of 10/sup 8/ or more per second by the D,T or D,D reactions is described. The deuterium gas filling is ionized by electrons emitted from a filament, and the resulting ions are focused into a beam and accelerated against a fixed target. The apparatus is built in accordance with the relationship V/sub s/ = A--B log pd, where V/sub s/ is the sparking voltage, p the gas pressure, and d the gap length between the high voltage electrodes. Typical parameters to obtain the high neutron yields are 55 to 80 kv, 0.5 to 7.0 ma beam current, 5 to 12 microns D/sub 2/, and a gap length of 1 centimeter.

  1. Design & Fabrication of a High-Voltage Photovoltaic Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felder, Jennifer; /North Carolina State U. /SLAC

    2012-09-05

    Silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells are alternative energy sources that are important in sustainable power generation. Currently, applications of PV cells are limited by the low output voltage and somewhat low efficiency of such devices. In light of this fact, this project investigates the possibility of fabricating high-voltage PV cells on float-zone silicon wafers having output voltages ranging from 50 V to 2000 V. Three designs with different geometries of diffusion layers were simulated and compared in terms of metal coverage, recombination, built-in potential, and conduction current density. One design was then chosen and optimized to be implemented in the final device design. The results of the simulation serve as a feasibility test for the design concept and provide supportive evidence of the effectiveness of silicon PV cells as high-voltage power supplies.

  2. Reactive sputtering of ?-ZrH{sub 2} thin films by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and direct current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Högberg, Hans Tengdelius, Lina; Eriksson, Fredrik; Broitman, Esteban; Lu, Jun; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Samuelsson, Mattias

    2014-07-01

    Reactive sputtering by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) of a Zr target in Ar/H{sub 2} plasmas was employed to deposit Zr-H films on Si(100) substrates, and with H content up to 61 at.?% and O contents typically below 0.2 at.?% as determined by elastic recoil detection analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals a chemical shift of ?0.7?eV to higher binding energies for the Zr-H films compared to pure Zr films, consistent with a charge transfer from Zr to H in a zirconium hydride. X-ray diffraction shows that the films are single-phase ?-ZrH{sub 2} (CaF{sub 2} type structure) at H content >?55 at.?% and pole figure measurements give a 111 preferred orientation for these films. Scanning electron microscopy cross-section images show a glasslike microstructure for the HiPIMS films, while the DCMS films are columnar. Nanoindentation yield hardness values of 5.5–7 GPa for the ?-ZrH{sub 2} films that is slightly harder than the ?5 GPa determined for Zr films and with coefficients of friction in the range of 0.12–0.18 to compare with the range of 0.4–0.6 obtained for Zr films. Wear resistance testing show that phase-pure ?-ZrH{sub 2} films deposited by HiPIMS exhibit up to 50 times lower wear rate compared to those containing a secondary Zr phase. Four-point probe measurements give resistivity values in the range of ?100–120 ?? cm for the ?-ZrH{sub 2} films, which is slightly higher compared to Zr films with values in the range 70–80 ?? cm.

  3. Ion mass spectrometry investigations of the discharge during reactive high power pulsed and direct current magnetron sputtering of carbon in Ar and Ar/N{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, S.; Greczynski, G.; Jensen, J.; Hultman, L.; Czigany, Zs.

    2012-07-01

    Ion mass spectrometry was used to investigate discharges formed during high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) of a graphite target in Ar and Ar/N{sub 2} ambient. Ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) were recorded in time-averaged and time-resolved mode for Ar{sup +}, C{sup +}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, N{sup +}, and C{sub x}N{sub y}{sup +} ions. An increase of N{sub 2} in the sputter gas (keeping the deposition pressure, pulse width, pulse frequency, and pulse energy constant) results for the HiPIMS discharge in a significant increase in C{sup +}, N{sup +}, and CN{sup +} ion energies. Ar{sup +}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, and C{sub 2}N{sup +} ion energies, in turn, did not considerably vary with the changes in working gas composition. The HiPIMS process showed higher ion energies and fluxes, particularly for C{sup +} ions, compared to DCMS. The time evolution of the plasma species was analyzed for HiPIMS and revealed the sequential arrival of working gas ions, ions ejected from the target, and later during the pulse-on time molecular ions, in particular CN{sup +} and C{sub 2}N{sup +}. The formation of fullerene-like structured CN{sub x} thin films for both modes of magnetron sputtering is explained by ion mass-spectrometry results and demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy as well as diffraction.

  4. Current-voltage characteristics of organic heterostructure devices...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 24; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 1566-1199 Publisher: Elsevier Research Org: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los ...

  5. Current-voltage characteristics of organic heterostructure devices...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Yin, Sun 1 ; Nie, Wanyi 2 ; Mohite, Aditya D. 2 ; Saxena, Avadh 2 ; Smith, Darryl L. 3 ; Ruden, P. Paul 3 + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Lab. ...

  6. High voltage electrical amplifier having a short rise time

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, David J.; Dallum, Gregory E.

    1991-01-01

    A circuit, comprising an amplifier and a transformer is disclosed that produces a high power pulse having a fast response time, and that responds to a digital control signal applied through a digital-to-analog converter. The present invention is suitable for driving a component such as an electro-optic modulator with a voltage in the kilovolt range. The circuit is stable at high frequencies and during pulse transients, and its impedance matching circuit matches the load impedance with the output impedance. The preferred embodiment comprises an input stage compatible with high-speed semiconductor components for amplifying the voltage of the input control signal, a buffer for isolating the input stage from the output stage; and a plurality of current amplifiers connected to the buffer. Each current amplifier is connected to a field effect transistor (FET), which switches a high voltage power supply to a transformer which then provides an output terminal for driving a load. The transformer comprises a plurality of transmission lines connected to the FETs and the load. The transformer changes the impedance and voltage of the output. The preferred embodiment also comprises a low voltage power supply for biasing the FETs at or near an operational voltage.

  7. Voltage Regulator Chip: Power Supplies on a Chip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    ADEPT Project: CPES at Virginia Tech is finding ways to save real estate on a computer's motherboard that could be used for other critical functions. Every computer processor today contains a voltage regulator that automatically maintains a constant level of electricity entering the device. These regulators contain bulky components and take up about 30% of a computer's motherboard. CPES at Virginia Tech is developing a voltage regulator that uses semiconductors made of gallium nitride on silicon (GaN-on-Si) and high-frequency soft magnetic material. These materials are integrated on a small, 3D chip that can handle the same amount of power as traditional voltage regulators at 1/10 the size and with improved efficiency. The small size also frees up to 90% of the motherboard space occupied by current voltage regulators.

  8. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W.; Lange, Arnold C.

    1997-01-01

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360.degree./n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load.

  9. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1997-03-11

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360{degree}/n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. 7 figs.

  10. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-07-26

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET. 2 figs.

  11. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  12. Generalized Bohm’s criterion and negative anode voltage fall in electric discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Londer, Ya. I.; Ul’yanov, K. N.

    2013-10-15

    The value of the voltage fall across the anode sheath is found as a function of the current density. Analytic solutions are obtained in a wide range of the ratio of the directed velocity of plasma electrons v{sub 0} to their thermal velocity v{sub T}. It is shown that the voltage fall in a one-dimensional collisionless anode sheath is always negative. At the small values of v{sub 0}/v{sub T}, the obtained expression asymptotically transforms into the Langmuir formula. Generalized Bohm’s criterion for an electric discharge with allowance for the space charge density ?(0), electric field E(0), ion velocity v{sub i}(0), and ratio v{sub 0}/v{sub T} at the plasma-sheath interface is formulated. It is shown that the minimum value of the ion velocity v{sub i}{sup *}(0) corresponds to the vanishing of the electric field at one point inside the sheath. The dependence of v{sub i}{sup *} (0) on ?(0), E(0), and v{sub 0}/v{sub T} determines the boundary of the existence domain of stationary solutions in the sheath. Using this criterion, the maximum possible degree of contraction of the electron current at the anode is determined for a short high-current vacuum arc discharge.

  13. Optically triggered high voltage switch network and method for switching a high voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Silberkleit, Lee I. (Mountlake Terrace, WA)

    1993-01-19

    An optically triggered solid state switch and method for switching a high voltage electrical current. A plurality of solid state switches (350) are connected in series for controlling electrical current flow between a compensation capacitor (112) and ground in a reactive power compensator (50, 50') that monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b and 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. An optical transmitter (100) controlled by the reactive power compensation system produces light pulses that are conveyed over optical fibers (102) to a switch driver (110') that includes a plurality of series connected optical triger circuits (288). Each of the optical trigger circuits controls a pair of the solid state switches and includes a plurality of series connected resistors (294, 326, 330, and 334) that equalize or balance the potential across the plurality of trigger circuits. The trigger circuits are connected to one of the distribution lines through a trigger capacitor (340). In each switch driver, the light signals activate a phototransistor (300) so that an electrical current flows from one of the energy reservoir capacitors through a pulse transformer (306) in the trigger circuit, producing gate signals that turn on the pair of serially connected solid state switches (350).

  14. Systems and methods for process and user driven dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallik, Arindam (Evanston, IL); Lin, Bin (Hillsboro, OR); Memik, Gokhan (Evanston, IL); Dinda, Peter (Evanston, IL); Dick, Robert (Evanston, IL)

    2011-03-22

    Certain embodiments of the present invention provide a method for power management including determining at least one of an operating frequency and an operating voltage for a processor and configuring the processor based on the determined at least one of the operating frequency and the operating voltage. The operating frequency is determined based at least in part on direct user input. The operating voltage is determined based at least in part on an individual profile for processor.

  15. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patterson, III, Raymond B. (Melbourne, FL)

    1984-05-22

    A high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg.

  16. Vector spin modeling for magnetic tunnel junctions with voltage dependent effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manipatruni, Sasikanth Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Young, Ian A.

    2014-05-07

    Integration and co-design of CMOS and spin transfer devices requires accurate vector spin conduction modeling of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices. A physically realistic model of the MTJ should comprehend the spin torque dynamics of nanomagnet interacting with an injected vector spin current and the voltage dependent spin torque. Vector spin modeling allows for calculation of 3 component spin currents and potentials along with the charge currents/potentials in non-collinear magnetic systems. Here, we show 4-component vector spin conduction modeling of magnetic tunnel junction devices coupled with spin transfer torque in the nanomagnet. Nanomagnet dynamics, voltage dependent spin transport, and thermal noise are comprehended in a self-consistent fashion. We show comparison of the model with experimental magnetoresistance (MR) of MTJs and voltage degradation of MR with voltage. Proposed model enables MTJ circuit design that comprehends voltage dependent spin torque effects, switching error rates, spin degradation, and back hopping effects.

  17. High voltage design structure for high temperature superconducting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tekletsadik, Kasegn D.

    2008-05-20

    In accordance with the present invention, modular corona shields are employed in a HTS device to reduce the electric field surrounding the HTS device. In a exemplary embodiment a fault current limiter module in the insulation region of a cryogenic cooling system has at least one fault current limiter set which employs a first corona shield disposed along the top portion of the fault current limiter set and is electrically coupled to the fault current limiter set. A second corona shield is disposed along the bottom portion of the fault current limiter set and is electrically coupled to the fault current limiter set. An insulation barrier is disposed within the insulation region along at least one side of the fault current limiter set. The first corona shield and the second corona shield act together to reduce the electric field surrounding the fault limiter set when voltage is applied to the fault limiter set.

  18. Transformer current sensor for superconducting magnetic coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, S.S.; Wilson, C.T.

    1985-04-16

    The present invention is a current transformer for operating currents larger than 2kA (two kiloamps) that is capable of detecting a millivolt level resistive voltage in the presence of a large inductive voltage. Specifically, the present invention includes substantially cylindrical primary turns arranged to carry a primary current and substantially cylindrical secondary turns arranged coaxially with and only partially within the primary turns, the secondary turns including an active winding and a dummy winding, the active and dummy windings being coaxial, longitudinally separated and arranged to mutually cancel voltages excited by commonly experienced magnetic fields, the active winding but not the dummy winding being arranged within the primary turns.

  19. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Druce, R.L.; Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.

    1998-06-30

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current. 1 fig.

  20. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Druce, Robert L. (Union City, CA); Kirbie, Hugh C. (Dublin, CA); Newton, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current.

  1. Correlations between 1/f noise and thermal treatment of Al-doped ZnO thin films deposited by direct current sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barhoumi, A. Guermazi, S.; Leroy, G.; Gest, J.; Carru, J. C.; Yang, L.; Boughzala, H.; Duponchel, B.

    2014-05-28

    Al-doped ZnO thin films (AZO) have been deposited on amorphous glass substrates by DC sputtering at different substrate temperatures T{sub s}. X-Ray diffraction results reveal that AZO thin films have a hexagonal wurtzite structure with (002) preferred orientation. (002) peaks indicate that the crystalline structure of the films is oriented with c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. Three-dimensional (3D) atomic force microscopy images of AZO thin films deposited on glass substrate at 200?°C, 300?°C, and 400?°C, respectively, shows the improvement of the crystallinity and the homogeneity of AZO thin films with T{sub s} which is in agreement with the noise measurements. The noise was characterized between 1?Hz and 100?kHz and we have obtained 1/f spectra. The noise is very sensitive to the crystal structure especially to the orientation of the crystallites which is perpendicular to the substrate and to the grain boundaries which generate a high current flow and a sharp increase in noise. Through time, R{sub sh} and [??]{sub eff} increase with the modification of the crystallinity of AZO thin films. Study of noise aging shows that the noise is more sensitive than resistivity for all AZO thin films.

  2. Aternating current photovoltaic building block

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bower, Ward Issac; Thomas, Michael G.; Ruby, Douglas S.

    2004-06-15

    A modular apparatus for and method of alternating current photovoltaic power generation comprising via a photovoltaic module, generating power in the form of direct current; and converting direct current to alternating current and exporting power via one or more power conversion and transfer units attached to the module, each unit comprising a unitary housing extending a length or width of the module, which housing comprises: contact means for receiving direct current from the module; one or more direct current-to-alternating current inverters; an alternating current bus; and contact means for receiving alternating current from the one or more inverters.

  3. High voltage load resistor array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Monty Ray (Smithfield, VA)

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  4. High voltage feed through bushing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brucker, J.P.

    1993-04-06

    A feed through bushing for a high voltage diode provides for using compression sealing for all sealing surfaces. A diode assembly includes a central conductor extending through the bushing and a grading ring assembly circumferentially surrounding and coaxial with the central conductor. A flexible conductive plate extends between and compressively seals against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, wherein the flexibility of the plate allows inner and outer portions of the plate to axially translate for compression sealing against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, respectively. The inner portion of the plate is bolted to the central conductor for affecting sealing. A compression beam is also bolted to the central conductor and engages the outer portion of the plate to urge the outer portion toward the grading ring assembly to obtain compression sealing therebetween.

  5. High-voltage crowbar circuit with cascade-triggered series ignitrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, William R. [Orinda, CA

    1980-11-04

    A series string of ignitrons for switching a large current at high voltage to ground. Switching is initiated by means of a negative trigger pulse applied to the cathode of the lowest voltage level ignitron next to ground to draw ground current through diodes in the ignitor circuit. The trigger pulse is applied thereby to the next higher ignitron cathode and sequentially to the remainder of the ignitrons in the string through diodes in respective ignitor circuits. Full line voltage is held off of nonconducting diodes and ignitrons by means of varistors.

  6. High-voltage crowbar circuit with cascade-triggered series ignitrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, W.R.

    1980-11-04

    A series string of ignitrons for switching a large current at high voltage to ground. Switching is initiated by means of a negative trigger pulse applied to the cathode of the lowest voltage level ignitron next to ground to draw ground current through diodes in the ignitor circuit. The trigger pulse is applied thereby to the next higher ignitron cathode and sequentially to the remainder of the ignitrons in the string through diodes in respective ignitor circuits. Full line voltage is held off of nonconducting diodes and ignitrons by means of varistors. 1 fig.

  7. Network for minimizing current imbalances in a faradaic battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wozniak, Walter (Dearborn, MI); Haskins, Harold J. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1994-01-01

    A circuit for connecting a faradaic battery with circuitry for monitoring the condition of the battery includes a plurality of voltage divider networks providing battery voltage monitoring nodes and includes compensating resistors connected with the networks to maintain uniform discharge currents through the cells of the battery. The circuit also provides a reduced common mode voltage requirement for the monitoring circuitry by referencing the divider networks to one-half the battery voltage.

  8. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2013-05-01

    Group 3 is chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module lifetime versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  9. Current measurement apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umans, Stephen D. (Belmont, MA)

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  10. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, William M. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1992-01-01

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a Linear Induction Accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance.

  11. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, W.M.

    1992-12-29

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a linear induction accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core is disclosed. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance. 4 figs.

  12. Current control circuitry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taubman, Matthew S. (Richland, WA)

    2005-03-15

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is an apparatus that includes a transistor (30), a servo device (40), and a current source (50). The servo device (40) is operable to provide a common base mode of operation of the transistor (30) by maintaining an approximately constant voltage level at the transistor base (32b). The current source (150) is operable to provide a bias current to the transistor (30). A first device (24) provides an input signal to an electrical node (70) positioned between the emitter (32e) of the transistor (30) and the current source (50). A second device (26) receives an output signal from the collector (32c) of the transistor (30).

  13. Flexible method for monitoring fuel cell voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery, Kenneth D. (Noblesville, IN); Ripley, Eugene V. (Russiaville, IN)

    2002-01-01

    A method for equalizing the measured voltage of each cluster in a fuel cell stack wherein at least one of the clusters has a different number of cells than the identical number of cells in the remaining clusters by creating a pseudo voltage for the different cell numbered cluster. The average cell voltage of the all of the cells in the fuel cell stack is calculated and multiplied by a constant equal to the difference in the number of cells in the identical cell clusters and the number of cells in the different numbered cell cluster. The resultant product is added to the actual voltage measured across the different numbered cell cluster to create a pseudo voltage which is equivalent in cell number to the number of cells in the other identical numbered cell clusters.

  14. Low-voltage gas-discharge device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kovarik, V.J.; Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1982-06-08

    An electronic device of the type wherein current flow is conducted by an ionized gas comprising a cathode of the type heated by ionic bombardment, an anode, means for maintaining a predetermined pressure in the region between the anode and the cathode and means for maintaining a field in the region is described. The field, which is preferably a combined magnetic and electric field, is oriented so that the mean distance traveled by electrons before reaching the anode is increased. Because of this increased distance traveled electrons moving to the anode will ionize a large number of gas atoms, thus reducing the voltage necessary to initiate gas breakdown. In a preferred embodiment the anode is a main hollow cathode and the cathode is a smaller igniter hollow cathode located within and coaxial with the main hollow cathode. An axial magnetic field is provided in the region between the hollow cathodes in order to facilitate gas breakdown in that region and initiate plasma discharge from the main hollow cathode.

  15. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patterson, R.B. III.

    1984-05-22

    Disclosed is a high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg. 2 figs.

  16. Current Delegations by Position - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -03 Director, Office of Learning and Workforce Development -04 Human Resources Director, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Project Management Office -05 Human Resources Director,...

  17. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC) either from a device side of the IC or through the IC substrate to locate any open-circuit or short-circuit defects therein. The TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the IC while scanning a focused laser beam over electrical conductors (i.e. a patterned metallization) in the IC to produce localized heating of the conductors. This localized heating produces a thermoelectric potential due to the Seebeck effect in any conductors with open-circuit defects and a resistance change in any conductors with short-circuit defects, both of which alter the power demand by the IC and thereby change the voltage of a source or power supply providing the constant-current biasing. By measuring the change in the supply voltage and the position of the focused and scanned laser beam over time, any open-circuit or short-circuit defects in the IC can be located and imaged. The TIVA apparatus can be formed in part from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of ICs.

  18. Revenue metering error caused by induced voltage from adjacent transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, M.B. )

    1992-04-01

    A large zero sequence voltage was found to have been induced onto a 138 kV line from adjacent 500 kV lines where these share the same transmission right-of-way. This zero sequence voltage distorted the 2-1/2-element revenue metering schemes used for two large industrial customer supplied directly from the affected 138 kV line. As a result, these two customers were overcharged, on average, approximately 3.5% for 15 years. This paper describes the work done to trace the origins of the zero sequence voltage, quantify the metering error, and calculate customer refunds which, in the end, totalled $4 million.

  19. Analysis of Solar Cell Quality Using Voltage Metrics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toberer, E. S.; Tamboli, A. C.; Steiner, M.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-06-01

    The highest efficiency solar cells provide both excellent voltage and current. Of these, the open-circuit voltage (Voc) is more frequently viewed as an indicator of the material quality. However, since the Voc also depends on the band gap of the material, the difference between the band gap and the Voc is a better metric for comparing material quality of unlike materials. To take this one step further, since Voc also depends on the shape of the absorption edge, we propose to use the ultimate metric: the difference between the measured Voc and the Voc calculated from the external quantum efficiency using a detailed balance approach. This metric is less sensitive to changes in cell design and definition of band gap. The paper defines how to implement this metric and demonstrates how it can be useful in tracking improvements in Voc, especially as Voc approaches its theoretical maximum.

  20. Directives Tools

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    Useful links and resources for Directives Writers, Directives Point of Contact (DPCs), Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and Draft Directive Reviewers.

  1. Strain-optic voltage monitor wherein strain causes a change in the optical absorption of a crystalline material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, J.D.

    1997-01-14

    A voltage monitor which uses the shift in absorption edge of crystalline material to measure strain resulting from electric field-induced deformation of piezoelectric or electrostrictive material, providing a simple and accurate means for measuring voltage applied either by direct contact with the crystalline material or by subjecting the material to an electric field. 6 figs.

  2. Strain-optic voltage monitor wherein strain causes a change in the optical absorption of a crystalline material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1997-01-01

    A voltage monitor which uses the shift in absorption edge of crystalline material to measure strain resulting from electric field-induced deformation of piezoelectric or electrostrictive material, providing a simple and accurate means for measuring voltage applied either by direct contact with the crystalline material or by subjecting the material to an electric field.

  3. Current sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-01-16

    A current sensor is described that uses a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The sensor can be hinged to allow clamping to a conductor. The current sensor provides high measurement accuracy for both DC and AC currents, and is substantially immune to the effects of temperature, conductor position, nearby current carrying conductors and aging.

  4. Electro-optic high voltage sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James R.; Seifert, Gary D.

    2003-09-16

    A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation. A polarization beam displacer separates the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations and causes one linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels effect elliptically polarizes the beam as it travels through the crystal. A reflector redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams.

  5. Spark gap with low breakdown voltage jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.

    1996-04-23

    Novel spark gap devices and electrodes are disclosed. The novel spark gap devices and electrodes are suitable for use in a variety of spark gap device applications. The shape of the electrodes gives rise to local field enhancements and reduces breakdown voltage jitter. Breakdown voltage jitter of approximately 5% has been measured in spark gaps according the invention. Novel electrode geometries and materials are disclosed. 13 figs.

  6. Spark gap with low breakdown voltage jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, Gerald J. (Albuquerque, NM); Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Novel spark gap devices and electrodes are disclosed. The novel spark gap devices and electrodes are suitable for use in a variety of spark gap device applications. The shape of the electrodes gives rise to local field enhancements and reduces breakdown voltage jitter. Breakdown voltage jitter of approximately 5% has been measured in spark gaps according the invention. Novel electrode geometries and materials are disclosed.

  7. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This PowerPoint presentation, focused on humidity, temperature and voltage testing, was originally presented by John Wohlgemuth at the NREL 2013 PV Module Reliability Workshop on Feb. 26-27, 2013 in Denver, CO. It summarizes the activities of a working group chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module life versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  8. Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William Banning (Bothell, WA); Momii, Steven Thomas (Seattle, WA)

    2001-01-01

    A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

  9. Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail III, William Banning; Momii, Steven Thomas

    2003-06-10

    A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

  10. Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William Banning (Bothell, WA); Momii, Steven Thomas (Seattle, WA)

    2000-01-01

    A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

  11. High-voltage miniature igniter development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willkens, C.A.; Axelson, S.R.; Bateman, L.S.; Croucher, D.D.

    1996-09-01

    In 1988, Norton introduced its line of low-voltage 12- and 24-V miniature igniters made from a patented ceramic/intermetallic material. These igniters demonstrated superior strength and speed in a compact low-wattage assembly for gas-fired ignition. High-voltage igniters are being developed to complete the family of igniters for gas-fired ignition. These igniters have extremely low power requirements in the range of 50--100 W, are designed to operate at line voltages of 120 V, and are leading to designs for operation up to 230 V. These were developed using compositional and dimensional changes to the low voltage igniters. The 120 V igniter has exceeded 200,000 cycles in life testing and has been submitted for agency approval. These igniters are also undergoing field testing in various demanding gas-fired appliances. The evolution of the low-voltage igniter into the high-voltage model, as well as performance and material development issues are discussed.

  12. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, Gerald J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil.

  13. Alternating and direct current field effects on the structure-property relationships in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-x%BaTiO{sub 3} textured ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ge, Wenwei; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.; Maurya, Deepam; Priya, Shashank

    2013-06-03

    The influence of alternating (ac) and direct current (dc) fields on the structural and dielectric properties of [001]{sub PC} textured Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-7%BaTiO{sub 3} (NBT-7%BT) ceramics has been investigated. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the depolarization at temperature T{sub d} in poled samples resulted from a tetragonal {yields} pseudo-cubic transition on heating. Moderate ac drive and dc bias had opposite influences on T{sub d}: ac drive decreased the T{sub d}, whereas dc bias increased it. These investigations suggested an effective method to expand the working temperature range of NBT-x%BT textured ceramics to a high temperature.

  14. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages Motors are designed to operate within ± 10% of their nameplate rated voltages. When motors operate at conditions of over and undervoltage, motor effciency and other performance parameters are degraded. There are certain standard utilization voltages for motors. These correspond to (but are about 4% lower than) standard service voltages. The voltage difference is established to allow for a reasonable line voltage drop between the transformer

  15. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ringe, A.C.

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  16. High-voltage R-F feedthrough bushing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grotz, G.F.

    1982-09-03

    Described is a multi-element, high voltage radio frequency bushing for transmitting rf energy to an antenna located in a vacuum container. The bushing includes a center conductor of complex geometrical shape, an outer coaxial shield conductor, and a thin-walled hollow truncated cone insulator disposed between central and outer conductors. The shape of the center conductor, which includes a reverse curvature portion formed of a radially inwardly directed shoulder and a convex portion, controls the uniformity of the axial surface gradient on the insulator cone. The outer shield has a first substantially cylindrical portion and a second radially inwardly extending truncated cone portion.

  17. Fault-induced delayed voltage recovery in a long inhomogeneous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Fault-induced delayed voltage recovery in a long inhomogeneous power-distribution feeder Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fault-induced delayed voltage ...

  18. VPhase plc formerly Energetix Voltage Control | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    VPhase plc formerly Energetix Voltage Control Jump to: navigation, search Name: VPhase plc formerly Energetix Voltage Control Place: Capenhurst, United Kingdom Zip: CH1 6EH...

  19. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and ...

  20. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric ...

  1. Failure Mechanisms in High Voltage Mylar Capacitors. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Failure Mechanisms in High Voltage Mylar Capacitors. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Failure Mechanisms in High Voltage Mylar Capacitors. Abstract not ...

  2. How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations at Interfaces and in Thin Films on Battery Electrodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: How Voltage Drops ...

  3. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials 2012 DOE Hydrogen and...

  4. Towards predicting the voltage drop between electrode and electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Towards predicting the voltage drop between electrode and electrolyte in lithium ion batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards predicting the voltage drop...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Voltage Fade,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage Fade, an ABR Deep Dive Project: Status and Outcomes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Voltage Fade, an ABR Deep Dive Project: Status and Outcomes Presentation...

  6. Electrochemical Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells Electrochemical Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  7. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials 2013 DOE...

  8. Anomalous - viscosity current drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stix, Thomas H. (Princeton, NJ); Ono, Masayuki (Princeton Junction, NJ)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus and method for maintaining a steady-state current in a toroidal magnetically confined plasma. An electric current is generated in an edge region at or near the outermost good magnetic surface of the toroidal plasma. The edge current is generated in a direction parallel to the flow of current in the main plasma and such that its current density is greater than the average density of the main plasma current. The current flow in the edge region is maintained in a direction parallel to the main current for a period of one or two of its characteristic decay times. Current from the edge region will penetrate radially into the plasma and augment the main plasma current through the mechanism of anomalous viscosity. In another aspect of the invention, current flow driven between a cathode and an anode is used to establish a start-up plasma current. The plasma-current channel is magnetically detached from the electrodes, leaving a plasma magnetically insulated from contact with any material obstructions including the cathode and anode.

  9. PMU-Aided Voltage Security Assessment for a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, H.; Zhang, Y. C.; Zhang, J. J.; Muljadi, E.

    2015-04-08

    Because wind power penetration levels in electric power systems are continuously increasing, voltage stability is a critical issue for maintaining power system security and operation. The traditional methods to analyze voltage stability can be classified into two categories: dynamic and steady-state. Dynamic analysis relies on time-domain simulations of faults at different locations; however, this method needs to exhaust faults at all locations to find the security region for voltage at a single bus. With the widely located phasor measurement units (PMUs), the Thevenin equivalent matrix can be calculated by the voltage and current information collected by the PMUs. This paper proposes a method based on a Thevenin equivalent matrix to identify system locations that will have the greatest impact on the voltage at the wind power plant’s point of interconnection. The number of dynamic voltage stability analysis runs is greatly reduced by using the proposed method. The numerical results demonstrate the feasibility, effectiveness, and robustness of the proposed approach for voltage security assessment for a wind power plant.

  10. Enhancing metal-insulator-insulator-metal tunnel diodes via defect enhanced direct tunneling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alimardani, Nasir; Conley, John F.

    2014-08-25

    Metal-insulator-insulator-metal tunnel diodes with dissimilar work function electrodes and nanolaminate Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} bilayer tunnel barriers deposited by atomic layer deposition are investigated. This combination of high and low electron affinity insulators, each with different dominant conduction mechanisms (tunneling and Frenkel-Poole emission), results in improved low voltage asymmetry and non-linearity of current versus voltage behavior. These improvements are due to defect enhanced direct tunneling in which electrons transport across the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} via defect based conduction before tunneling directly through the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, effectively narrowing the tunnel barrier. Conduction through the device is dominated by tunneling, and operation is relatively insensitive to temperature.

  11. Principles of ground relaying for high voltage and extra high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, C.H.

    1983-02-01

    This paper is a tutorial discussion of the basic principles of ground relaying for high voltage and extra high voltage transmission lines. Three different HV configurations are considered: Long lines, lines with a weak mid-point station, and mutually-coupled lines. Application criteria for EHV circuits are also discussed, and specific setting calculations are included where appropriate.

  12. A practical approach to accurate fault location on extra high voltage teed feeders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aggarwal, R.K.; Coury, D.V.; Johns, A.T. . School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering); Kalam, A. )

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes the basis of an alternative approach for accurately locating faults on teed feeders and the technique developed utilizes fault voltages and currents at all three ends. The method is virtually independent of fault resistance and largely insensitive to variations in source impedance, teed and line configurations, including line untransposition. The paper presents the basic theory of the technique which is then extensively tested using simulated primary system voltage and current waveforms which in turn include the transducer/hardware errors encountered in practice. The performance clearly shows a high degree of accuracy attained.

  13. Current–voltage characteristics of organic heterostructure devices with insulating spacer layers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yin, Sun; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.; Saxena, Avadh; Smith, Darryl L.; Ruden, P. Paul

    2015-05-14

    The dark current density in donor/acceptor organic planar heterostructure devices at a given forward voltage bias can either increase or decrease when an insulating spacer layer is added between the donor and acceptor layers. The dominant current flow process in these systems involves the formation and subsequent recombination of interfacial exciplex states. If the exciplex recombination rate limits current flow, an insulating interface layer decreases the dark current. However, if the exciplex formation rate limits the current, an insulating interface layer may increase the dark current. As a result, we present a device model to describe this behavior, and wemore » discuss relevant experimental data.« less

  14. High voltage MOSFET devices and methods of making the devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Sujit; Matocha, Kevin; Chatty, Kiran

    2015-12-15

    A SiC MOSFET device having low specific on resistance is described. The device has N+, P-well and JFET regions extended in one direction (Y-direction) and P+ and source contacts extended in an orthogonal direction (X-direction). The polysilicon gate of the device covers the JFET region and is terminated over the P-well region to minimize electric field at the polysilicon gate edge. In use, current flows vertically from the drain contact at the bottom of the structure into the JFET region and then laterally in the X direction through the accumulation region and through the MOSFET channels into the adjacent N+ region. The current flowing out of the channel then flows along the N+ region in the Y-direction and is collected by the source contacts and the final metal. Methods of making the device are also described.

  15. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinkraus, R.F. Jr.

    1994-12-13

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current. 6 figures.

  16. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinkraus, Jr., Robert F. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current.

  17. High voltage pulse generator. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, G.E.

    1975-06-12

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator is described which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of the first rectifier connected between the first and second capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. The output voltage can be readily increased by adding additional charging networks. The circuit allows the peak level of the output to be easily varied over a wide range by using a variable autotransformer in the charging circuit.

  18. Voltage control on a train system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Susanna P.; Evans, John A.

    2004-01-20

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  19. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature and Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2013-09-01

    This is a summary of the work of Group 3 of the International PV QA Task Force. Group 3 is chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module lifetime versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  20. Electro-optic high voltage sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Seifert, Gary D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high levels of voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation into the sensor. A polarization beam displacer serves as a filter to separate the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations. The beam displacer is oriented in such a way as to rotate the linearly polarized beams such that they enter a Pockels crystal having at a preferred angle of 45 degrees. The beam displacer is therefore capable of causing a linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels electro-optic effect induces a differential phase shift on the major and minor axes of the input beam as it travels through the Pockels crystal, which causes the input beam to be elliptically polarized. A reflecting prism redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization representing the major and minor axes. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals, and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams. The output beams are amplitude modulated by the frequency of the electric field and the amplitude of the output beams is proportional to the magnitude of the electric field, which is related to the voltage being measured.

  1. System Voltage Potential-Induced Degradation Mechanisms in PV Modules and Methods for Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Smith, R.; Glick, S.; Pankow, J.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.; Bennett, I.; Kloos, M.

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, degradation and power loss have been observed in PV modules resulting from the stress exerted by system voltage bias. This is due in part to qualification tests and standards that do not adequately evaluate for the durability of modules to the long-term effects of high voltage bias experienced in fielded arrays. High voltage can lead to module degradation by multiple mechanisms. The extent of the voltage bias degradation is linked to the leakage current or coulombs passed from the silicon active layer through the encapsulant and glass to the grounded module frame, which can be experimentally determined; however, competing processes make the effect non-linear and history-dependent. Appropriate testing methods and stress levels are described that demonstrate module durability to system voltage potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms. This information, along with outdoor testing that is in progress, is used to estimate the acceleration factors needed to evaluate the durability of modules to system voltage stress. Na-rich precipitates are observed on the cell surface after stressing the module to induce PID in damp heat with negative bias applied to the active layer.

  2. Inverter Load Rejection Over-Voltage Testing: SolarCity CRADA Task 1a Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, A.; Hoke, A.; Chakraborty, S.; Chebahtah, J.; Wang, T.; Zimmerly, B.

    2015-02-01

    Various interconnection challenges exist when connecting distributed PV into the electrical distribution grid in terms of safety, reliability, and stability of electric power systems. One of the urgent areas for additional research - as identified by inverter manufacturers, installers, and utilities - is the potential for transient over-voltage from PV inverters. In one stage of a cooperative tests were repeated a total of seven times. The maximum over-voltage measured in any test did not exceed 200% of nominal, and typical over-voltage levels were significantly lower. The total voltage duration and the maximum continuous time above each threshold are presented here, as well as the time to disconnect for each test. Finally, we present a brief investigation into the effect of DC input voltage as well as a series of no-load tests. This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient over-voltages created by several commercial PV inverters during load-rejection conditions. For this work, a test plan that is currently under development by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Through a cooperative research and development agreement, NREL is working with SolarCity to address two specific types of transient overvoltage: load rejection overvoltage (LRO) and ground fault overvoltage (GFO). Additional partners in this effort include the Hawaiian Electric Companies, Northern Plains Power Technologies, and the Electric Power Research Institute.

  3. Resonant tunneling with high peak to valley current ratio in SiO{sub 2}/nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} multi-layers at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, D. Y.; Sun, Y.; He, Y. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, J.

    2014-01-28

    We have investigated carrier transport in SiO{sub 2}/nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} multi-layers by room temperature current-voltage measurements. Resonant tunneling signatures accompanied by current peaks are observed. Carrier transport in the multi-layers were analyzed by plots of ln(I/V{sup 2}) as a function of 1/V and ln(I) as a function of V{sup 1/2}. Results suggest that besides films quality, nc-Si and barrier sub-layer thicknesses are important parameters that restrict carrier transport. When thicknesses are both small, direct tunneling dominates carrier transport, resonant tunneling occurs only at certain voltages and multi-resonant tunneling related current peaks can be observed but with peak to valley current ratio (PVCR) values smaller than 1.5. When barrier thickness is increased, trap-related and even high field related tunneling is excited, causing that multi-current peaks cannot be observed clearly, only one current peak with higher PVCR value of 7.7 can be observed. While if the thickness of nc-Si is large enough, quantum confinement is not so strong, a broad current peak with PVCR value as high as 60 can be measured, which may be due to small energy difference between the splitting energy levels in the quantum dots of nc-Si. Size distribution in a wide range may cause un-controllability of the peak voltages.

  4. Preventing Delayed Voltage Recovery with Voltage-Regulating Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, Sarina; Li, Fangxing; Li, Huijuan; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D; Rizy, D Tom

    2009-01-01

    With the large use of residential air conditioner (A/C) motors during the summer peaks, the potential of motor stalling events have increased in the recent years. The stalled motor loads have been found to be the most important cause of delayed voltage recovery following severe system disturbances, such as a subtransmission fault. The proper modeling of the stalled motors is a very important factor in identifying the effect of these motors in voltage recovery after the fault. This paper presents a methodology for modeling the stalled low inertia induction motors based on a sample utility system and a small primary distribution circuit. The prevention of the stalling of motors plays an important role in maintaining the voltage profile of the system after system disturbances. Distributed Energy Resource (DER) is used to prevent the motor stalling events so that the delayed voltage recovery of the system may be avoided.

  5. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when they are opened. As a result of this effort, we have devised a new design and have filed for a patent on a method of control which is believed to overcome this problem. The engine we have been working with originally had a single camshaft which controlled both the intake and exhaust valves. Single cycle lift and timing control was demonstrated with this system. (3) Large eddy simulations and KIVA based simulations were used in conjunction with flow visualizations in an optical engine to study fuel air mixing. During this effort we have devised a metric for quantifying fuel distribution and it is described in several of our papers. (4) A control system has been developed to enable us to test the benefits of the various technologies. This system used is based on Opal-RT hardware and is being used in a current DOE sponsored program.

  6. Distribution System Voltage Regulation by Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ceylan, Oguzhan; Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a control method to regulate voltages in 3 phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems. A constrained optimization problem to minimize voltage deviations and maximize distributed energy resource (DER) active power output is solved by harmony search algorithm. IEEE 13 Bus Distribution Test System was modified to test three different cases: a) only voltage regulator controlled system b) only DER controlled system and c) both voltage regulator and DER controlled system. The simulation results show that systems with both voltage regulators and DER control provide better voltage profile.

  7. High voltage supply for neutron tubes in well logging applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humphreys, D. Russell

    1989-01-01

    A high voltage supply is provided for a neutron tube used in well logging. The "biased pulse" supply of the invention combines DC and "full pulse" techniques and produces a target voltage comprising a substantial negative DC bias component on which is superimposed a pulse whose negative peak provides the desired negative voltage level for the neutron tube. The target voltage is preferably generated using voltage doubling techniques and employing a voltage source which generates bipolar pulse pairs having an amplitude corresponding to the DC bias level.

  8. Electric current locator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Paul E. (Corvallis, OR); Woodside, Charles Rigel (Corvallis, OR)

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  9. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoff, Brian Douglas (East Peoria, IL); Akasam, Sivaprasad (Peoria, IL)

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  10. Low Voltage White Phosphorescent OLED Achievements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and its research partners at Princeton University and the University of Southern California have succeeded in developing a white phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED™) that achieved a record efficiency of 20 lumens per watt. This achievement is the result of the team's collaborative efforts to increase the efficiency of PHOLED lighting by focusing on two critical factors: lowering the drive voltages and increasing the amount of light extracted.

  11. Electro-optic voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Thomas M.; Davidson, James R.; Woods, Gregory K.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers.

  12. Electro-optic voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, T.M.; Davidson, J.R.; Woods, G.K.

    1999-08-17

    The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers. 6 figs.

  13. Electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Employing an electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck particularly suited for holding wafers and masks in sub-atmospheric operations will significantly reduce the likelihood of contaminant deposition on the substrates. The electrostatic chuck includes (1) an insulator block having a outer perimeter and a planar surface adapted to support the substrate and comprising at least one electrode (typically a pair of electrodes that are embedded in the insulator block), (2) a source of voltage that is connected to the at least one electrode, (3) a support base to which the insulator block is attached, and (4) a primary electrostatic shield ring member that is positioned around the outer perimeter of the insulator block. The electrostatic chuck permits control of the voltage of the lithographic substrate; in addition, it provides electrostatic shielding of the stray electric fields issuing from the sides of the electrostatic chuck. The shielding effectively prevents electric fields from wrapping around to the upper or front surface of the substrate, thereby eliminating electrostatic particle deposition.

  14. Current sheath formation dynamics and structure for different insulator lengths of plasma focus device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seng, Y. S.; Lee, P.; Rawat, R. S.

    2014-11-15

    The breakdown phase of the UNU-ICTP plasma focus (PF) device was successfully simulated using the electromagnetic particle in cell method. A clear uplift of the current sheath (CS) layer was observed near the insulator surface, accompanied with an exponential increase in the plasma density. Both phenomena were found to coincide with the surge in the electric current, which is indicative of voltage breakdown. Simulations performed on the device with different insulator lengths showed an increase in the fast ionization wave velocity with length. The voltage breakdown time was found to scale linearly with the insulator length. Different spatial profiles of the CS electron density, and the associated degree of uniformity, were found to vary with different insulator lengths. The ordering, according to the degree of uniformity, among insulator lengths of 19, 22, and 26?mm agreed with that in terms of soft X-ray radiation yield observed from experiments. This suggests a direct correlation between CS density homogeneity near breakdown and the radiation yield performance. These studies were performed with a linearly increasing voltage time profile as input to the PF device.

  15. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es129_eitouni_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for

  16. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops Studies indicate that in-plant electrical distribution system losses-due to voltage unbalance, over- and undervoltage, low power factor, undersized conductors, leakage to ground, and poor connections-can account for less than 1% to more than 4% of total plant electrical energy consumption. This two-page tip sheet recommends conducting a voltage drop survey

  17. Voltage modulation of propagating spin waves in Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nawaoka, Kohei; Shiota, Yoichi; Miwa, Shinji; Tamura, Eiiti; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Shinjo, Teruya; Suzuki, Yoshishige

    2015-05-07

    The effect of a voltage application on propagating spin waves in single-crystalline 5?nm-Fe layer was investigated. Two micro-sized antennas were employed to excite and detect the propagating spin waves. The voltage effect was characterized using AC lock-in technique. As a result, the resonant field of the magnetostatic surface wave in the Fe was clearly modulated by the voltage application. The modulation is attributed to the voltage induced magnetic anisotropy change in ferromagnetic metals.

  18. Model Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Induction Motors | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy Model Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Induction Motors Model Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Induction Motors These Model Repair Specifications are intended to cover routine repair and rewind of low-voltage random-wound three-phase AC squirrel cage induction motors. PDF icon Model Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Induction Motors (November 1999) More Documents & Publications DOE Navigant Master Presentation Improving Motor and Drive System Performance - A

  19. Variable current speed controller for eddy current motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerth, H.L.; Bailey, J.M.; Casstevens, J.M.; Dixon, J.H.; Griffith, B.O.; Igou, R.E.

    1982-03-12

    A speed control system for eddy current motors is provided in which the current to the motor from a constant frequency power source is varied by comparing the actual motor speed signal with a setpoint speed signal to control the motor speed according to the selected setpoint speed. A three-phase variable voltage autotransformer is provided for controlling the voltage from a three-phase power supply. A corresponding plurality of current control resistors is provided in series with each phase of the autotransformer output connected to inputs of a three-phase motor. Each resistor is connected in parallel with a set of normally closed contacts of plurality of relays which are operated by control logic. A logic circuit compares the selected speed with the actual motor speed obtained from a digital tachometer monitoring the motor spindle speed and operated the relays to add or substract resistance equally in each phase of the motor input to vary the motor current to control the motor at the selected speed.

  20. High speed flux feedback for tuning a universal field oriented controller capable of operating in direct and indirect field orientation modes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Doncker, Rik W. A. A. (Schenectady, NY)

    1992-01-01

    The direct (d) and quadrature (q) components of flux, as sensed by flux sensors or determined from voltage and current measurements in a direct field orientation scheme, are processed rapidly and accurately to provide flux amplitude and angular position values for use by the vector rotator of a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller. Flux amplitude (linear or squared) is provided as feedback to tune the UFO controller for operation in direct and indirect field orientation modes and enables smooth transitions from one mode to the other.

  1. High speed flux feedback for tuning a universal field oriented controller capable of operating in direct and indirect field orientation modes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Doncker, R.W.A.A.

    1992-09-01

    The direct (d) and quadrature (q) components of flux, as sensed by flux sensors or determined from voltage and current measurements in a direct field orientation scheme, are processed rapidly and accurately to provide flux amplitude and angular position values for use by the vector rotator of a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller. Flux amplitude (linear or squared) is provided as feedback to tune the UFO controller for operation in direct and indirect field orientation modes and enables smooth transitions from one mode to the other. 3 figs.

  2. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1998-05-19

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil. 5 figs.

  3. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these conductors at a safe distance from each other and from the ground and the natural and built environment. Common elements that are generally less visible (or at least more easily overlooked) include the maintained ROW along the path of the towers, access roads needed for maintenance, and staging areas used for initial construction that may be restored after construction is complete. Also visible but less common elements along the corridor may include switching stations or substations, where lines of similar or different voltages meet to transfer power.

  4. Multilevel-Dc-Bus Inverter For Providing Sinusoidal And Pwm Electrical Machine Voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2005-11-29

    A circuit for controlling an ac machine comprises a full bridge network of commutation switches which are connected to supply current for a corresponding voltage phase to the stator windings, a plurality of diodes, each in parallel connection to a respective one of the commutation switches, a plurality of dc source connections providing a multi-level dc bus for the full bridge network of commutation switches to produce sinusoidal voltages or PWM signals, and a controller connected for control of said dc source connections and said full bridge network of commutation switches to output substantially sinusoidal voltages to the stator windings. With the invention, the number of semiconductor switches is reduced to m+3 for a multi-level dc bus having m levels. A method of machine control is also disclosed.

  5. Development of a quantum-voltage-calibrated noise thermometer at NIM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, J.; Zhang, J. T.; Fu, Y.; Rogalla, H.; Pollarolo, A.; Benz, S. P.

    2013-09-11

    A quantum-voltage-calibrated Johnson-noise thermometer was developed at NIM, which measures the Boltzmann constant k by comparing the thermal noise across a 100 ? sense resistor at the temperature of the triple point of water with the pseudo-random frequency-comb voltage waveform synthesized with a bipolar-pulse-driven quantum-voltage-noise source. A measurement with integration period of 10 hours and bandwidth of 640 kHz resulted in a relative offset of 0.5×10{sup ?6} from the current CODATA value of k, and a type A relative standard uncertainty of 23×10{sup ?6}. Benefiting from closely matched noise powers and transmission-line impedances and small nonlinearities in the cross-correlation electronics, the derived k shows self-consistent values and standard uncertainties for different measurement bandwidths.

  6. Current Titles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  7. The high current, fast, 100ns, Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) developmental project at Sandia Laboratories and HCEI.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Kevin S.; Long, Finis W.; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A. , Tomsk, Russia); Kim, Alexandre A. , Tomsk, Russia); Wakeland, Peter Eric; McKee, G. Randall; Woodworth, Joseph Ray; McDaniel, Dillon Heirman; Fowler, William E.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos; Porter, John Larry, Jr.; Struve, Kenneth William; Savage, Mark Edward; Stygar, William A.; LeChien, Keith R.; Matzen, Maurice Keith

    2010-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., USA, in collaboration with the High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI), Tomsk, Russia, is developing a new paradigm in pulsed power technology: the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology. This technological approach can provide very compact devices that can deliver very fast high current and high voltage pulses straight out of the cavity with out any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The load may be a vacuum electron diode, a z-pinch wire array, a gas puff, a liner, an isentropic compression load (ICE) to study material behavior under very high magnetic fields, or a fusion energy (IFE) target. This is because the output pulse rise time and width can be easily tailored to the specific application needs. In this paper we briefly summarize the developmental work done in Sandia and HCEI during the last few years, and describe our new MYKONOS Sandia High Current LTD Laboratory. An extensive evaluation of the LTD technology is being performed at SNL and the High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI) in Tomsk Russia. Two types of High Current LTD cavities (LTD I-II, and 1-MA LTD) were constructed and tested individually and in a voltage adder configuration (1-MA cavity only). All cavities performed remarkably well and the experimental results are in full agreement with analytical and numerical calculation predictions. A two-cavity voltage adder is been assembled and currently undergoes evaluation. This is the first step towards the completion of the 10-cavity, 1-TW module. This MYKONOS voltage adder will be the first ever IVA built with a transmission line insulated with deionized water. The LTD II cavity renamed LTD III will serve as a test bed for evaluating a number of different types of switches, resistors, alternative capacitor configurations, cores and other cavity components. Experimental results will be presented at the Conference and in future publications.

  8. Program Direction and Analysis Jobs

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    sc-4organizationprogram-direction-and-analysis Below is a list of currently open federal employment opportunities in the Office of Science. Prospective applicants should follow...

  9. Control method for peak power delivery with limited DC-bus voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, John; Xu, Longya; Bhargava, Brij B.

    2006-09-05

    A method for driving a neutral point-clamped multi-level voltage source inverter supplying a synchronous motor is provided. A DC current is received at a neutral point-clamped multi-level voltage source inverter. The inverter has first, second, and third output nodes. The inverter also has a plurality of switches. A desired speed of a synchronous motor connected to the inverter by the first second and third nodes is received by the inverter. The synchronous motor has a rotor and the speed of the motor is defined by the rotational rate of the rotor. A position of the rotor is sensed, current flowing to the motor out of at least two of the first, second, and third output nodes is sensed, and predetermined switches are automatically activated by the inverter responsive to the sensed rotor position, the sensed current, and the desired speed.

  10. Current Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current Research The U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) has established its only high-performance computing and engineering analysis research facility at Argonne National Laboratory to provide applications support in key areas of applied research and development for the USDOT community. The Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC) features a state-of-the-art massively parallel computer system, advanced scientific visualization capability, high-speed network

  11. Directives System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1998-01-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Directives System is the means by which DOE policies, requirements, and responsibilities are developed and communicated throughout the Department. Directives are used to inform, direct, and guide employees in the performance of their jobs, and to enable employees to work effectively within the Department and with agencies, contractors, and the public. Cancels: DOE O 251.1, DOE M 251.1-1

  12. Strategic Direction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volume One Film Collection Volume Two 75th Anniversary Hydropower in the Northwest Woody Guthrie Videos Strategic Direction Branding & Logos Power of the River History Book...

  13. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the ? pulsed-power accelerator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Waisman, E.? M.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M.? E.; Wenger, D.? F.; Fowler, W.? E.; Johnson, W.? A.; Basilio, L.? I.; Coats, R.? S.; Jennings, C.? A.; Sinars, D.? B.; et al

    2014-11-08

    Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM). Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerator’s vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerator’s vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m) by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerator’s magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs)more »and a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R.D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010)] that showed efficient transmission of large currents through the MITLs on Z. Taken together, the two studies demonstrate the overall efficient delivery of very large electrical powers through the MITLs on Z.« less

  14. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the Z pulsed-power accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waisman, E. M.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M. E.; Wenger, D. F.; Fowler, W. E.; Johnson, W. A.; Basilio, L. I.; Coats, R. S.; Jennings, C. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Vesey, R. A.; Jones, B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Lemke, R. W.; Martin, M. R.; Schrafel, P. C.; Lewis, S. A.; Moore, J. K.; Savage, M. E.; Stygar, W. A.

    2014-12-08

    Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM). Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerator’s vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerator’s vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m) by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerator’s magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) and a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R. D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010)] that showed efficient transmission of large currents through the MITLs on Z. Altogether, the two studies demonstrate the overall efficient delivery of very large electrical powers through the MITLs on Z.

  15. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the Z pulsed-power accelerator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Waisman, E. M.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M. E.; Wenger, D. F.; Fowler, W. E.; Johnson, W. A.; Basilio, L. I.; Coats, R. S.; Jennings, C. A.; Sinars, D. B.; et al

    2014-12-08

    Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM). Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerator’s vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerator’s vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m) by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerator’s magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs)more » and a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R. D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010)] that showed efficient transmission of large currents through the MITLs on Z. Altogether, the two studies demonstrate the overall efficient delivery of very large electrical powers through the MITLs on Z.« less

  16. Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hatch, Anson; Singh, Anup K.

    2012-04-24

    We report unique findings on the voltage dependence of protein exclusion from the pores of nanoporous polymer exclusion membranes. The pores are small enough that proteins are excluded from passage with low applied electric fields, but increasing the field enables proteins to pass through. The requisite field necessary for a change in exclusion is protein-specific with a correlation to protein size. The field-dependence of exclusion is important to consider for preconcentration applications. The ability to selectively gate proteins at exclusion membranes is also a promising means for manipulating and characterizing proteins. We show that field-gated exclusion can be used to selectively remove proteins from a mixture, or to selectively trap protein at one exclusion membrane in a series.

  17. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, D.J.; Cha, Y.S.

    1999-04-06

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment. 6 figs.

  18. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Daniel J. (Wheeling, IL); Cha, Yung S. (Darien, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.

  19. Calmodulin and calcium differentially regulate the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-dependent sodium channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaudioso, Christelle; Carlier, Edmond; Youssouf, Fahamoe; Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 ; Clare, Jeffrey J.; Debanne, Dominique; Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 ; Alcaraz, Gisele; Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Both Ca{sup ++}-Calmodulin (CaM) and Ca{sup ++}-free CaM bind to the C-terminal region of Nav1.1. {yields} Ca{sup ++} and CaM have both opposite and convergent effects on I{sub Nav1.1}. {yields} Ca{sup ++}-CaM modulates I{sub Nav1.1} amplitude. {yields} CaM hyperpolarizes the voltage-dependence of activation, and increases the inactivation rate. {yields} Ca{sup ++} alone antagonizes CaM for both effects, and depolarizes the voltage-dependence of inactivation. -- Abstract: Mutations in the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-gated sodium channel are responsible for mild to severe epileptic syndromes. The ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM) bound to rat brain Nav1.1 and to the human Nav1.1 channel expressed by a stably transfected HEK-293 cell line. The C-terminal region of the channel, as a fusion protein or in the yeast two-hybrid system, interacted with CaM via a consensus C-terminal motif, the IQ domain. Patch clamp experiments on HEK1.1 cells showed that CaM overexpression increased peak current in a calcium-dependent way. CaM had no effect on the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation, and accelerated the inactivation kinetics. Elevating Ca{sup ++} depolarized the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation and slowed down the fast inactivation kinetics, and for high concentrations this effect competed with the acceleration induced by CaM alone. Similarly, the depolarizing action of calcium antagonized the hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage-dependence of activation due to CaM overexpression. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements suggested that Ca{sup ++} could bind the Nav1.1 C-terminal region with micromolar affinity.

  20. Chemical detection and laser wavelength stabilization employing spectroscopic absorption via laser compliance voltage sensing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taubman, Matthew S; Phillips, Mark C

    2014-03-18

    Systems and methods are disclosed that provide a direct indication of the presence and concentration of an analyte within the external cavity of a laser device that employ the compliance voltage across the laser device. The systems can provide stabilization of the laser wavelength. The systems and methods can obviate the need for an external optical detector, an external gas cell, or other sensing region and reduce the complexity and size of the sensing configuration.

  1. High voltage switches having one or more floating conductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werne, Roger W.; Sampayan, Stephen; Harris, John Richardson

    2015-11-24

    This patent document discloses high voltage switches that include one or more electrically floating conductor layers that are isolated from one another in the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes. The presence of the one or more electrically floating conductor layers between the top and bottom switch electrodes allow the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes to exhibit a higher breakdown voltage than the breakdown voltage when the one or more electrically floating conductor layers are not present between the top and bottom switch electrodes. This increased breakdown voltage in the presence of one or more electrically floating conductor layers in a dielectric medium enables the switch to supply a higher voltage for various high voltage circuits and electric systems.

  2. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Lawrence T.; McIver, III, John K.

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  3. PMU Uncertainty Quantification in Voltage Stability Analysis | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory PMU Uncertainty Quantification in Voltage Stability Analysis Title PMU Uncertainty Quantification in Voltage Stability Analysis Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2015 Authors Chen, C, Wang, J, Li, Z, Sun, H, Wang, Z Journal IEEE Transactions on Power Systems Volume 30 Start Page 2196 Issue 4 Pagination 2 Date Published 06162015 Keywords phasor measurement unit, recursive least square, uncertainty, voltage stability Abstract This letter presents an

  4. Voltage Fade, an ABR Deep Dive Project: Status and Outcomes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage Fade, an ABR Deep Dive Project: Status and Outcomes Project ID: ES161 Anthony Burrell Voltage Fade Team Annual Merit Review Washington DC, June 16-20, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. 2 Overview Timeline * Start: October 1, 2012 * End: Sept. 30, 2014 * Percent complete: 75% Budget * Voltage Fade project * $3,900K Barriers * Calendar/cycle life of lithium-ion cells being developed for PHEV and EV batteries that

  5. High-Voltage Insulators and Components - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search High-Voltage Insulators and Components Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary One of the ongoing challenges to improving performance in capacitors and other high-voltage electrical structures is to identify and reduce the factors that cause failure. High-voltage devices typically fail following excessive

  6. Directives Help

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    All DOE directives are available through this site. While it may seem overwhelming, given the number of documents, we have provided a number of ways in which you may get to the information you need.

  7. DRIVING DIRECTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DRIVING DIRECTIONS HILTON PALACIO DEL RIO 200 South Alamo Street San Antonio, Texas 78205 (210) 222-1400 San Antonio International Airport DIRECTIONS Take Interstate 281 south to Commerce Street. Continue west on Commerce Street to Losoya Street, turn left. Losoya becomes Alamo. The Hilton Palacio del Rio is located at 200 South Alamo Street. Distance from Hotel: 8 mi. Drive Time: 20 min. From the South: -I 37 North and take Commerce Street exit -Turn left at Commerce Street -Follow Commerce

  8. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling Friday, August 29, 2014 Renewable energy is critical for the...

  9. A multilevel voltage-source inverter with separate dc sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting, voltage balancing, fuel cell and photovoltaic utility systems interfacing, etc. The new M-level inverter consists of (M-1)2...

  10. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape03marlino.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Smart Integrated Power Module ...

  11. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. PDF icon ape003tolbert2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Wide Bandgap Materials Smart ...

  12. Effects of discharge voltage waveform on the discharge characteristics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with a fast voltage rise time induces rapid discharge growth and, consequently, produces an abundance of energetic electrons, which in turn leads to high optical emission ...

  13. A Multilevel Voltage-Source Inverter with Separate DC Sources

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Voltage Control of Transmission Systems," IEEE PES Summer Power Meeting, Paper No. ... for Improving Power System Stability," IEEE PES Winter Power Meeting, Paper No. ...

  14. Towards First Principles prediction of Voltage Dependences of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Towards First Principles prediction of Voltage Dependences of ElectrolyteElectrolyte Interfacial Processes in Lithium Ion Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  15. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in-plant electrical distribution system losses-due to voltage unbalance, over- and undervoltage, low power factor, ... unsched- uled equipment outages and improved safety due to ...

  16. Medium-Voltage Cables in Nuclear Plant Applications - State of Industry and Conditioning Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.M. Braun

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 This report reviews the types of medium-voltage (MV) cables in use in nuclear power plants and the techniques that are currently available to assess the condition of MV cable systems. The project identified the types of cable systems in nuclear plants and their operating conditions and then assessed the aging and failure mechanisms of these cables and suitable diagnostic test techniques. In addition, ways to alleviate conditions that cause the most severe aging were identified.

  17. Phase-field modeling of switchable diode-like current-voltage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The electrochemical transport equations and Ginzburg-Landau equations are solved using the Chebyshev collocation algorithm. We considered a single parallel plate capacitor ...

  18. 2.3-MW Medium-Voltage, Three-Level Wind Energy Inverter Applying a Unique Bus Structure and 4.5-kV Si/SiC Hybrid Isolated Power Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdman, W.; Keller, J.; Grider, D.; VanBrunt, E.

    2014-11-01

    A high-efficiency, 2.3-MW, medium-voltage, three-level inverter utilizing 4.5-kV Si/SiC (silicon carbide) hybrid modules for wind energy applications is discussed. The inverter addresses recent trends in siting the inverter within the base of multimegawatt turbine towers. A simplified split, three-layer laminated bus structure that maintains low parasitic inductances is introduced along with a low-voltage, high-current test method for determining these inductances. Feed-thru bushings, edge fill methods, and other design features of the laminated bus structure provide voltage isolation that is consistent with the 10.4-kV module isolation levels. Inverter efficiency improvement is a result of the (essential) elimination of the reverse recovery charge present in 4.5-kV Si PIN diodes, which can produce a significant reduction in diode turn-off losses as well as insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) turn-on losses. The hybrid modules are supplied in industry-standard 140 mm x 130 mm and 190 mm x 130 mm packages to demonstrate direct module substitution into existing inverter designs. A focus on laminated bus/capacitor-bank/module subassembly level switching performance is presented.

  19. Bonfire-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Morton L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it bonfire-safe includes a first layer of an explosive charge of CP, or a primary explosive, and a second layer of a secondary organic explosive charge, such as PETN, which has a degradation temperature lower than the autoignition temperature of the CP or primary explosives. The first layer is composed of a pair of increments disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to and in contact with an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The second layer is composed of a plurality of increments disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to and in contact with the first layer on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first layer is loaded under a sufficient high pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to achieve ignition, whereas the second layer is loaded under a sufficient low pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. Each increment of the first and second layers has an axial length-to-diameter ratio of one-half.

  20. Spark-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Morton L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it spark-safe ncludes an organic secondary explosive charge of HMX in the form of a thin pad disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The pad of secondary charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter. The explosive column also includes a first explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in the ignition region of the explosive column next to the secondary charge pad on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to provide mechanical confinement of the pad of secondary charge and physical coupling thereof with the ignition device. The explosive column further includes a second explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to the first CP charge on a side opposite from the pad of secondary charge. The second CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. The first explosive CP charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter, whereas the second explosive CP charge contains a series of increments (nominally 4) each of which has an axial thickness-to-diameter ratio of one to two.

  1. Bonfire-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it bonfire-safe includes a first layer of an explosive charge of CP, or a primary explosive, and a second layer of a secondary organic explosive charge, such as PETN, which has a degradation temperature lower than the autoignition temperature of the CP or primary explosives. The first layer is composed of a pair of increments disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to and in contact with an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The second layer is composed of a plurality of increments disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to and in contact with the first layer on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first layer is loaded under a sufficient high pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to achieve ignition, whereas the second layer is loaded under a sufficient low pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. Each increment of the first and second layers has an axial length-to-diameter ratio of one-half. 2 figs.

  2. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  3. Current to Current | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Current Jump to: navigation, search Name: Current to Current Address: 35 Corporate Dr Place: Burlington Zip: 1803 Region: United States Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Phone...

  4. High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es113_amine_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries

  5. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Motors are designed to operate within ± 10% of their nameplate rated voltages. When motors operate at conditions of over and undervoltage, motor efficiency and other performance parameters are degraded. This tip sheet describes what happens to motor performance when voltage varies and provides suggested actions.

  6. Temperature compensated and self-calibrated current sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul (Seminole, FL); Brubaker, Michael Allen (Loveland, CO); Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane (Seminole, FL)

    2007-09-25

    A method is described to provide temperature compensation and reduction of drift due to aging for a current sensor based on a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The offset voltage signal generated by each magnetic field sensor is used to correct variations in the output signal due to temperature variations and aging.

  7. Analysis of bias voltage dependent spectral response in Ga{sub 0.51}In{sub 0.49}P/Ga{sub 0.99}In{sub 0.01}As/Ge triple junction solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sogabe, Tomah Ogura, Akio; Okada, Yoshitaka

    2014-02-21

    Spectral response measurement plays great role in characterizing solar cell device because it directly reflects the efficiency by which the device converts the sunlight into an electrical current. Based on the spectral response results, the short circuit current of each subcell can be quantitatively determined. Although spectral response dependence on wavelength, i.e., the well-known external quantum efficiency (EQE), has been widely used in characterizing multijunction solar cell and has been well interpreted, detailed analysis of spectral response dependence on bias voltage (SR ?V{sub bias}) has not been reported so far. In this work, we have performed experimental and numerical studies on the SR??V{sub bias} for Ga{sub 0.51}In{sub 0.49}P/Ga{sub 0.99}In{sub 0.01}As/Ge triple junction solar cell. Phenomenological description was given to clarify the mechanism of operation matching point variation in SR??V{sub bias} measurements. The profile of SR?V{sub bias} curve was explained in detail by solving the coupled two-diode current-voltage characteristic transcend formula for each subcell.

  8. High voltage power supply with modular series resonant inverters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dreifuerst, Gary R. (Livermore, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A relatively small and compact high voltage, high current power supply for a laser utilizes a plurality of modules containing series resonant half bridge inverters. A pair of reverse conducting thyristors are incorporated in each series resonant inverter module such that the series resonant inverter modules are sequentially activated in phases 360.degree./n apart, where n=number of modules for n>2. Selective activation of the modules allows precise output control reducing ripple and improving efficiency. Each series resonant half bridge inverter module includes a transformer which has a cooling manifold for actively circulating a coolant such as water, to cool the transformer core as well as selected circuit elements. Conductors connecting and forming various circuit components comprise hollow, electrically conductive tubes such as copper. Coolant circulates through the tubes to remove heat. The conductive tubes act as electrically conductive lines for connecting various components of the power supply. Where it is desired to make electrical isolation breaks, tubes comprised of insulating material such as nylon are used to provide insulation and continue the fluid circuit.

  9. High voltage power supply with modular series resonant inverters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dreifuerst, G.R.; Merritt, B.T.

    1995-07-18

    A relatively small and compact high voltage, high current power supply for a laser utilizes a plurality of modules containing series resonant half bridge inverters. A pair of reverse conducting thyristors are incorporated in each series resonant inverter module such that the series resonant inverter modules are sequentially activated in phases 360{degree}/n apart, where n=number of modules for n>2. Selective activation of the modules allows precise output control reducing ripple and improving efficiency. Each series resonant half bridge inverter module includes a transformer which has a cooling manifold for actively circulating a coolant such as water, to cool the transformer core as well as selected circuit elements. Conductors connecting and forming various circuit components comprise hollow, electrically conductive tubes such as copper. Coolant circulates through the tubes to remove heat. The conductive tubes act as electrically conductive lines for connecting various components of the power supply. Where it is desired to make electrical isolation breaks, tubes comprised of insulating material such as nylon are used to provide insulation and continue the fluid circuit. 11 figs.

  10. Spin polarized current from multiply-coupled rings with Zeeman-split quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedin, Eric R.; Joe, Yong S.

    2014-03-21

    We investigate transmission resonances and conductance properties of multiple, serially connected, direct-contact nanoscale rings using the tight-binding model. Quantum dots (QDs) are embedded in the two arms of each ring, and Zeeman-splitting of the QD energy levels is incorporated into the system Hamiltonian. Transmission bands develop as the number of rings in series increases, with a band-gap which is sensitive to the degree of Zeeman splitting and the initial settings of the QD site energy values. The current vs. voltage characteristics of the system can be modulated between Ohmic and semiconducting as a function of the Zeeman splitting. In addition, spin-polarized current results for selected ranges of the Fermi energy.

  11. Optical fiber imaging for high speed plasma motion diagnostics: Applied to low voltage circuit breakers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, J. W.; Balestrero, A.; Tribulato, G.; Ghezzi, L.; Cross, K. J.

    2010-05-15

    An integrated portable measurement system is described for the study of high speed and high temperature unsteady plasma flows such as those found in the vicinity of high current switching arcs. An array of optical fibers allows the formation of low spatial resolution images, with a maximum capture rate of 1x10{sup 6} images per second (1 MHz), with 8 bit intensity resolution. Novel software techniques are reported to allow imaging of the arc; and to measure arc trajectories. Results are presented on high current (2 kA) discharge events in a model test fixture and on the application to a commercial low voltage circuit breaker.

  12. Spark-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it spark-safe includes an organic secondary explosive charge of HMX in the form of a thin pad disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The pad of secondary charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter. The explosive column also includes a first explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in the ignition region of the explosive column next to the secondary charge pad on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to provide mechanical confinement of the pad of secondary charge and physical coupling thereof with the ignition device. The explosive column further includes a second explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to the first CP charge on a side opposite from the pad of secondary charge. The second CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. The first explosive CP charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter, whereas the second explosive CP charge contains a series of increments (nominally 4), each of which has an axial thickness-to-diameter ratio of one to two. 2 figs.

  13. AISI direct steelmaking program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aukrust, E.

    1991-01-09

    AISI with co-funding from DOE has initiated a research and development program aimed at the development of a new process for direct steelmaking, and the program is discussed in this document. The project is expected to cost about $30 million over a three-year period, with the government providing approximately 77 percent of the funds and AISI the balance. In contrast to current steelmaking processes which are largely open and batch, the direct steelmaking process would be closed and continuous. Further, it would use coal directly, thereby avoiding the need for coke ovens. The second year of the Direct Steelmaking Program (November 29, 1989, through November 28, 1990) was a year of significant accomplishment. The various research programs proceeded essentially on schedule and the pilot plant, the centerpiece of the program, was completed about three months behind schedule but began operation in almost a picture-perfect manner. This report presents the last years accomplishments.

  14. Directives Tools - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guides (Text version available here) Cancelling a Directive New Canceling a Directive The process for canceling directives (Text version available here) Directives Templates...

  15. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); McAtee, James L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, whcih is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  16. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1993-02-16

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, which is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  17. Degradation of Photovoltaic Modules Under High Voltage Stress in the Field: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    del Cueto, J. A.; Rummel, S. R.

    2010-08-01

    The degradation in performance for eight photovoltaic (PV) modules stressed at high voltage (HV) is presented. Four types of modules--tandem-junction and triple-junction amorphous thin-film silicon, plus crystalline and polycrystalline silicon modules--were tested, with a pair of each biased at opposite polarities. They were deployed outdoors between 2001 and 2009 with their respective HV leakage currents through the module encapsulation continuously monitored with a data acquisition system, along with air temperature and relative humidity. For the first 5 years, all modules were biased continuously at fixed 600 VDC, day and night. In the last 2 years, the modules were step-bias stressed cyclically up and down in voltage between 10 and 600 VDC, in steps of tens to hundreds of volts. This allowed characterization of leakage current versus voltage under a large range of temperature and moisture conditions, facilitating determination of leakage paths. An analysis of the degradation is presented, along with integrated leakage charge. In HV operation: the bulk silicon modules degraded either insignificantly or at rates of 0.1%/yr higher than modules not biased at HV; for the thin-film silicon modules, the added loss rates are insignificant for one type, or 0.2%/yr-0.6%/yr larger for the other type.

  18. Ocean current wave interaction study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, J.G.

    1980-09-20

    A numerical model has been developed to incorporate refraction of ocean surface gravity waves by major ocean currents. The model is initialized with directional wave spectra and verified with aircraft synthetic aperture radar X band spectra, laser profilometer spectra, and pitch and roll buoy data. Data collected during the Marineland test experiment are used as surface truth observations for the wave-current study. Evidence of Gulf Stream refraction and trapping of surface waves as well as caustics in the current is shown and modeled assuming a nonuniform Gulf Stream distribution. Frequency and directional resolution of the wave spectral distribution and the current refraction patterns illustrates the need for further study of ocean current-wave interaction in wave refraction studies.

  19. Electro-optic voltage sensor with Multiple Beam Splitting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K. (Cornelius, OR); Renak, Todd W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Crawford, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davidson, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages without use of the dedicated voltage dividing hardware. The invention achieves voltage measurement without significant error contributions from neighboring conductors or environmental perturbations. The invention employs a transmitter, a sensor, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor. Within the sensor the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect produces a modulation of the beam's polarization, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent conversely-amplitude-modulated signals, from which the voltage of the E-field is determined by the signal processor. The use of converse AM signals enables the signal processor to better distinguish signal from noise. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  20. Electro-optic voltage sensor with beam splitting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K. (Cornelius, OR); Renak, Todd W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davidson, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Crawford, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    The invention is a miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages without use of the dedicated voltage dividing hardware typically found in the prior art. The invention achieves voltage measurement without significant error contributions from neighboring conductors or environmental perturbations. The invention employs a transmitter, a sensor, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor. Within the sensor the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect produces a modulation of the beam's polarization, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent conversely-amplitude-modulated signals, from which the voltage of the E-field is determined by the signal processor. The use of converse AM signals enables the signal processor to better distinguish signal from noise. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  1. Non-equilibrium scaling analysis of the Kondo model with voltage bias

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritsch, Peter Kehrein, Stefan

    2009-05-15

    The quintessential description of Kondo physics in equilibrium is obtained within a scaling picture that shows the buildup of Kondo screening at low temperature. For the non-equilibrium Kondo model with a voltage bias, the key new feature are decoherence effects due to the current across the impurity. In the present paper, we show how one can develop a consistent framework for studying the non-equilibrium Kondo model within a scaling picture of infinitesimal unitary transformations (flow equations). Decoherence effects appear naturally in third order of the {beta}-function and dominate the Hamiltonian flow for sufficiently large voltage bias. We work out the spin dynamics in non-equilibrium and compare it with finite temperature equilibrium results. In particular, we report on the behavior of the static spin susceptibility including leading logarithmic corrections and compare it with the celebrated equilibrium result as a function of temperature.

  2. Large voltage-induced modification of spin-orbit torques in Pt/Co/GdOx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emori, Satoru Bauer, Uwe; Woo, Seonghoon; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2014-12-01

    We report on large modifications of current-induced spin-orbit torques in a gated Pt/Co/Gd-oxide microstrip due to voltage-driven O{sup 2−} migration. The Slonczewski-like and field-like torques are quantified using a low-frequency harmonic technique based on the polar magneto-optical Kerr effect. Voltage-induced oxidation of Co enhances the Slonczewski-like torque by as much as an order of magnitude and simultaneously reduces the anisotropy energy barrier by a factor of ∼5. Such magneto-ionic tuning of interfacial spin-orbit effects may significantly enhance the efficiency of magnetization switching and provide additional degrees of freedom in spintronic devices.

  3. Proton conducting sodium alginate electrolyte laterally coupled low-voltage oxide-based transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yang Hui; Wan, Qing; Qiang Zhu, Li; Shi, Yi

    2014-03-31

    Solution-processed sodium alginate electrolyte film shows a high proton conductivity of ?5.5?×?10{sup ?3} S/cm and a high lateral electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitance of ?2.0??F/cm{sup 2} at room temperature with a relative humidity of 57%. Low-voltage in-plane-gate indium-zinc-oxide-based EDL transistors laterally gated by sodium alginate electrolytes are fabricated on glass substrates. The field-effect mobility, current ON/OFF ratio, and subthreshold swing of such EDL transistors are estimated to be 4.2 cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1}, 2.8?×?10{sup 6}, and 130?mV/decade, respectively. At last, a low-voltage driven resistor-load inverter is also demonstrated. Such in-plane-gate EDL transistors have potential applications in portable electronics and low-cost biosensors.

  4. A high voltage pulse power supply for metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Araujo, W. W. R.; Sgubin, L. G.; Sochugov, N. S.; Spirin, R. E.; Brown, I. G.

    2010-12-15

    We describe the design and implementation of a high voltage pulse power supply (pulser) that supports the operation of a repetitively pulsed filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition facility in plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (Mepiiid) mode. Negative pulses (micropulses) of up to 20 kV in magnitude and 20 A peak current are provided in gated pulse packets (macropulses) over a broad range of possible pulse width and duty cycle. Application of the system consisting of filtered vacuum arc and high voltage pulser is demonstrated by forming diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films with and without substrate bias provided by the pulser. Significantly enhanced film/substrate adhesion is observed when the pulser is used to induce interface mixing between the DLC film and the underlying Si substrate.

  5. Voltage dependence of the differential capacitance of a p{sup +}-n junction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shekhovtsov, N. A.

    2013-04-15

    The dependences of the differential capacitance and current of a p{sup +}-n junction with a uniformly doped n region on the voltage in the junction region are calculated. The p{sup +}-n junction capacitance controls the charge change in the junction region taking into account a change in the electric field of the quasi-neutral n region and a change in its bipolar drift mobility with increasing excess charge-carrier concentration. It is shown that the change in the sign of the p{sup +}-n junction capacitance with increasing injection level is caused by a decrease in the bipolar drift mobility as the electron-hole pair concentration in the n region increases. It is shown that the p{sup +}-n junction capacitance decreases with increasing reverse voltage and tends to a constant positive value.

  6. The effect of the dc bias voltage on the x-ray bremsstrahlung and beam intensities of medium and highly charged ions of argon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodrigues, G.; Lakshmy, P. S.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.; Baskaran, R.

    2010-02-15

    X-ray bremsstrahlung measurements from the 18 GHz High Temperature Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source, Pantechnik-Delhi Ion Source were measured as a function of negative dc bias voltage, keeping all other source operating parameters fixed and the extraction voltage in the off condition. The optimization of medium and highly charged ions of argon with similar source operating parameters is described. It is observed that the high temperature component of the electron is altered significantly with the help of bias voltage, and the electron population has to be maximized for obtaining higher current.

  7. High voltage bushing having weathershed and surrounding stress relief collar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A high voltage electric bushing comprises a hollow elongated dielectric weathershed which encloses a high voltage conductor. A collar formed of high voltage dielectric material is positioned over the weathershed and is bonded thereto by an interface material which precludes moisture-like contaminants from entering between the bonded portions. The collar is substantially thicker than the adjacent weathershed which it surrounds, providing relief of the electric stresses which would otherwise appear on the outer surface of the weathershed. The collar may include a conductive ring or capacitive foil to further relieve electric stresses experienced by the bushing.

  8. Dynamic voltage compensation on distribution feeders using flywheel energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weissbach, R.S.; Karady, G.G.; Farmer, R.G.

    1999-04-01

    Advancements in power electronics bearings and materials have made flywheel energy storage systems a viable alternative to electrochemical batteries. A future application of such a device is as an uninterruptible power supply for critical loads on a distribution feeder. However, the same power electronics and flywheel system could also be used for dynamic voltage compensation. A comparison is made between series and parallel connection of such dynamic compensation techniques used to maintain rated load voltage on distribution feeders when there are momentary dips in the supply voltage. For each case a mathematical model is presented and analyzed. The two cases are compared and the series compensation technique is more effective.

  9. Self-triggering superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Xing (Albany, NY); Tekletsadik, Kasegn (Rexford, NY)

    2008-10-21

    A modular and scaleable Matrix Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. The matrix fault current limiter comprises a fault current limiter module that includes a superconductor which is electrically coupled in parallel with a trigger coil, wherein the trigger coil is magnetically coupled to the superconductor. The current surge doing a fault within the electrical power network will cause the superconductor to transition to its resistive state and also generate a uniform magnetic field in the trigger coil and simultaneously limit the voltage developed across the superconductor. This results in fast and uniform quenching of the superconductors, significantly reduces the burnout risk associated with non-uniformity often existing within the volume of superconductor materials. The fault current limiter modules may be electrically coupled together to form various "n" (rows).times."m" (columns) matrix configurations.

  10. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Oak Ridge, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  11. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    2001-04-03

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  12. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Blacksburg, VA)

    2002-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  13. IEEE 342 Node Low Voltage Networked Test System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Phanivong, Phillippe K.; Lacroix, Jean-Sebastian

    2014-07-31

    The IEEE Distribution Test Feeders provide a benchmark for new algorithms to the distribution analyses community. The low voltage network test feeder represents a moderate size urban system that is unbalanced and highly networked. This is the first distribution test feeder developed by the IEEE that contains unbalanced networked components. The 342 node Low Voltage Networked Test System includes many elements that may be found in a networked system: multiple 13.2kV primary feeders, network protectors, a 120/208V grid network, and multiple 277/480V spot networks. This paper presents a brief review of the history of low voltage networks and how they evolved into the modern systems. This paper will then present a description of the 342 Node IEEE Low Voltage Network Test System and power flow results.

  14. Voltage-matched multijunction solar cell architectures for integrating...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Voltage-matched multijunction solar cell architectures for integrating PV ... to reduce the total installed cost of solar energy systems to .06 per kilowatt-hour ...

  15. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Eitouni, Hany; Yang, Jin; Pratt, Russell; Wang, Xiao; Grape, Ulrik The purpose of this project was for Seeo to develop a...

  16. Voltage-matched configurations for multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Novel methods for interconnecting the subcells of a multijunction solar cell are investigated. The subcells are connected in parallel in these new methods. The bandgaps of the subcells must be selected for matched voltages when operated in parallel. We refer to multijunction solar cells with the subcells connected in parallel as having a voltage-matched configuration. Computer analyses of multijunction solar cells with a voltage-matched configuration and with series-connected subcells were performed. Roughly, the same performance with either approach for a multijunction cell with optimized bandgaps was found. Several advantages for the voltage-matched configuration relative to multijunction solar cells with series-connected subcells were identified, including wider selection of bandgaps for optimal performance, less sensitivity to radiation damage, and less sensitivity to spectral variations.

  17. Voltage-Gated Hydrophobic Nanopores (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Voltage-Gated Hydrophobic Nanopores Citation Details In-Document Search ... DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: ...

  18. Voltage Dependent Charge Storage Modes and Capacity in Subnanometer Pores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Rui; Meunier, V.; Huang, Jingsong; Wu, Peng; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2012-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that charge storage in subnanometer pores follows a distinct voltage-dependent behavior. Specifically, at lower voltages, charge storage is achieved by swapping co-ions in the pore with counterions in the bulk electrolyte. As voltage increases, further charge storage is due mainly to the removal of co-ions from the pore, leading to a capacitance increase. The capacitance eventually reaches a maximum when all co-ions are expelled from the pore. At even higher electrode voltages, additional charge storage is realized by counterion insertion into the pore, accompanied by a reduction of capacitance. The molecular mechanisms of these observations are elucidated and provide useful insight for optimizing energy storage based on supercapacitors.

  19. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-06-24

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

  20. Chloromethyl chlorosulfate as a voltage delay inhibitor in lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, F.M.

    1993-04-13

    Chloromethyl chlorosulfate (CMCS) is used as a passive film growth inhibitor in electrochemical cells to minimize voltage delay and low-voltage discharge. Film growth on lithium anodes is significantly diminished when CMCS is added to SOCl[sub 2] and SO[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] electrolytes of lithium batteries. The CMCS also has the effect of extending the shelf-life of Li/SOCl[sub 2] and Li/SO[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] batteries.

  1. Chloromethyl chlorosulfate as a voltage delay inhibitor in lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, Frank M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01

    Chloromethyl chlorosulfate (CMCS) is used as a passive film growth inhibitor in electrochemical cells to minimize voltage delay and low-voltage discharge. Film growth on lithium anodes is significantly diminished when CMCS is added to SOCl.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 electrolytes of lithium batteries. The CMCS also has the effect of extending the shelf-life of Li/SOCl.sub.2 and Li/SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 batteries.

  2. Predicting the voltage dependence of interfacial electrochemical processes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    at lithium-intercalated graphite edge planes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Predicting the voltage dependence of interfacial electrochemical processes at lithium-intercalated graphite edge planes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predicting the voltage dependence of interfacial electrochemical processes at lithium-intercalated graphite edge planes Authors: Leung, Kevin Publication Date: 2014-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1210241 DOE Contract Number: SC0001160 Resource Type: Journal

  3. How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations at

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interfaces and in Thin Films on Battery Electrodes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations at Interfaces and in Thin Films on Battery Electrodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations at Interfaces and in Thin Films on Battery Electrodes Authors: Leenheer, Andrew J. ; Leung, Kevin Publication Date: 2015-05-14 OSTI Identifier: 1210545 DOE Contract Number: SC0001160

  4. HIGH-VOLTAGE SPINEL AND POLYANION CATHODES | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HIGH-VOLTAGE SPINEL AND POLYANION CATHODES HIGH-VOLTAGE SPINEL AND POLYANION CATHODES 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es051_manthiram_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Stabilized Spinel and Polyanion Cathodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Capacity Polyanion Cathodes STABILIZED SPINEL AND POLYANION CATHODES

  5. Fault-induced delayed voltage recovery in a long inhomogeneous

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    power-distribution feeder (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Fault-induced delayed voltage recovery in a long inhomogeneous power-distribution feeder Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fault-induced delayed voltage recovery in a long inhomogeneous power-distribution feeder Authors: Stolbova, Irina ; Backhaus, Scott ; Chertkov, Michael Publication Date: 2015-02-23 OSTI Identifier: 1180264 Grant/Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

  6. Variable Voltage Substation Electric Fire and Emergency Response |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Variable Voltage Substation Electric Fire and Emergency Response Variable Voltage Substation Electric Fire and Emergency Response Question from Participant: My question is from an emergency response perspective. It was stated that it took ~ ½ for electricians to de-energize the electrical components before firefighters were allowed in to fight the fire. This delay causes more damage to equipment and potential propagation of the fire. Is there not a "master"

  7. Electrochemical Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells Electrochemical Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es188_abraham_2013_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermodynamic Investigations of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition Metal Oxides Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Energy Storage R&D Annual Report Vehicle

  8. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transmission lines (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and Southwire Company was to jointly develop a low cost, commercially viable, water-repellant

  9. Towards predicting voltage dependences of electrode/electrolyte interfacial

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    processesnin lithium ion batteries. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Towards predicting voltage dependences of electrode/electrolyte interfacial processesnin lithium ion batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards predicting voltage dependences of electrode/electrolyte interfacial processesnin lithium ion batteries. Abstract not provided. Authors: Leung, Kevin Publication Date: 2014-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1141521 Report Number(s): SAND2014-2520C 506312 DOE Contract Number:

  10. High voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    A high voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery which comprises a plurality of strips of tandem junction solar cells of hydrogenated amorphous silicon having one optical path and electrically interconnected by a tunnel junction. The layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon, arranged in a tandem configuration, can have the same bandgap or differing bandgaps. The tandem junction strip solar cells are series connected to produce a solar battery of any desired voltage.

  11. Voltage-controlled entanglement and quantum-information transfer between

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    spatially separated quantum-dot molecules (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Voltage-controlled entanglement and quantum-information transfer between spatially separated quantum-dot molecules Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Voltage-controlled entanglement and quantum-information transfer between spatially separated quantum-dot molecules We propose two schemes for generating entanglement and quantum-state transfer (QST) between two spatially separated semiconductor quantum dot

  12. Current Schedule of Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current Schedule of Experiments Current Schedule of Experiments - Updated 2/2016

  13. Monolithically interconnected GaAs solar cells: A new interconnection technology for high voltage solar cell output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinetta, L.C.; Hannon, M.H.

    1995-10-01

    Photovoltaic linear concentrator arrays can benefit from high performance solar cell technologies being developed at AstroPower. Specifically, these are the integration of thin GaAs solar cell and epitaxial lateral overgrowth technologies with the application of monolithically interconnected solar cell (MISC) techniques. This MISC array has several advantages which make it ideal for space concentrator systems. These are high system voltage, reliable low cost monolithically formed interconnections, design flexibility, costs that are independent of array voltage, and low power loss from shorts, opens, and impact damage. This concentrator solar cell will incorporate the benefits of light trapping by growing the device active layers over a low-cost, simple, PECVD deposited silicon/silicon dioxide Bragg reflector. The high voltage-low current output results in minimal 12R losses while properly designing the device allows for minimal shading and resistance losses. It is possible to obtain open circuit voltages as high as 67 volts/cm of solar cell length with existing technology. The projected power density for the high performance device is 5 kW/m for an AMO efficiency of 26% at 1 5X. Concentrator solar cell arrays are necessary to meet the power requirements of specific mission platforms and can supply high voltage power for electric propulsion systems. It is anticipated that the high efficiency, GaAs monolithically interconnected linear concentrator solar cell array will enjoy widespread application for space based solar power needs. Additional applications include remote man-portable or ultra-light unmanned air vehicle (UAV) power supplies where high power per area, high radiation hardness and a high bus voltage or low bus current are important. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. There is also a high potential for a large number of consumer products.

  14. MHK ISDB/Instruments/Nortek Aquadopp Current Meter | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Velocity Planar Measurement (Current), 3D Velocity Volumetric Measurement (Current), Density (Ice), Direction (Ice), Speed (Ice), Thickness (Ice), Pressure (Tidal), Sea Surface...

  15. Direct observation and mechanism for enhanced field emission sites in platinum ion implanted/post-annealed ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panda, Kalpataru E-mail: phy.kalpa@gmail.com; Inami, Eiichi; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Sankaran, Kamatchi J.; Tai, Nyan Hwa; Lin, I-Nan

    2014-10-20

    Enhanced electron field emission (EFE) properties for ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films upon platinum (Pt) ion implantation and subsequent post-annealing processes is reported, viz., low turn-on field of 4.17?V/?m with high EFE current density of 5.08?mA/cm{sup 2} at an applied field of 7.0?V/?m. Current imaging tunneling spectroscopy (CITS) mode in scanning tunneling spectroscopy directly revealed the increased electron emission sites density for Pt ion implanted/post-annealed UNCD films than the pristine one. The high resolution CITS mapping and local current–voltage characteristic curves demonstrated that the electrons are dominantly emitted from the diamond grain boundaries and Pt nanoparticles.

  16. UPGRADING THE CEBAF INJECTOR WITH A NEW BOOSTER, HIGHER VOLTAGE GUN, AND HIGHER FINAL ENERGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reza Kazimi, Arne Freyberger, Alicia Hofler, Andrew Hutton, Fay Hannon

    2012-07-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) accelerator at Jefferson Lab will be upgraded from 6 GeV to 12 GeV in the next few years. To meet the requirement of the new machine and to take the opportunity to improve the beam quality, the CEBAF injector will be upgraded with a higher voltage gun, a new booster, and a new accelerating RF module. The CEBAF injector creates and accelerates three beams at different currents simultaneously. The beams are interleaved, each at one third of the RF frequency, traveling through the same beam line. The higher voltage gun will lower the space charge effects. The new booster with optimized beam dynamics will complete the bunching process and provide initial acceleration matched to the new gun voltage. Using our latest SRF design, the new booster has significantly lower x/y coupling effects that should improve our beam setup and operation for the highly sensitive parity experiments scheduled for the CEBAF's future. Finally, the new accelerating RF module will roughly double the injector final energy to match the rest of the 12 GeV accelerator. In this paper we will provide more detail about this upgrade.

  17. Superconducting fault current controller/current controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Yung S.

    2004-06-15

    A superconducting fault current controller/current controller employs a superconducting-shielded core reactor (SSCR) with a variable impedance in a secondary circuit to control current in a primary circuit such as an electrical distribution system. In a second embodiment, a variable current source is employed in a secondary circuit of an SSCR to control current in the primary circuit. In a third embodiment, both a variable impedance in one secondary circuit and a variable current source in a second circuit of an SSCR are employed for separate and independent control of current in the primary circuit.

  18. Halbach array generator/motor having mechanically regulated output voltage and mechanical power output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2005-06-14

    A motor/generator has its stationary portion, i.e., the stator, positioned concentrically within its rotatable element, i.e., the rotor, along the axis of rotation of the rotor. The rotor includes a Halbach array of magnets. The voltage and power outputs are regulated by varying the radial gap in between the stator windings and the rotating Halbach array. The gap is varied by extensible and retractable supports attached to the stator windings that can move the windings in a radial direction.

  19. Understanding the structure and structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage lithium-ion battery cathode oxides. A review of materials diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Nagpure, Shrikant C; Wood, III, David L; Daniel, Claus

    2015-12-21

    Materials diagnostic techniques are the principal tools used in the development of low-cost, high-performance electrodes for next-generation lithium-based energy storage technologies. Also, this review highlights the importance of materials diagnostic techniques in unraveling the structure and the structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage, high-capacity oxides that have the potential to be implemented in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries for transportation that can use renewable energy and is less-polluting than today. The rise in CO2 concentration in the earth’s atmosphere due to the use of petroleum products in vehicles and the dramatic increase in the cost of gasoline demand the replacement of current internal combustion engines in our vehicles with environmentally friendly, carbon free systems. Therefore, vehicles powered fully/partially by electricity are being introduced into today’s transportation fleet. As power requirements in all-electric vehicles become more demanding, lithium-ion battery (LiB) technology is now the potential candidate to provide higher energy density. Moreover, discovery of layered high-voltage lithium-manganese–rich (HV-LMR) oxides has provided a new direction toward developing high-energy-density LiBs because of their ability to deliver high capacity (~250 mA h/g) and to be operated at high operating voltage (~4.7 V). Unfortunately, practical use of HV-LMR electrodes is not viable because of structural changes in the host oxide during operation that can lead to fundamental and practical issues. This article provides the current understanding on the structure and structural degradation pathways in HV-LMR oxides, and manifests the importance of different materials diagnostic tools to unraveling the key mechanism(s). Furthermore, the fundamental insights reported, might become the tools to manipulate the chemical and/or structural aspects of HV-LMR oxides for low cost, high-energy-density LiB applications.

  20. Understanding the structure and structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage lithium-ion battery cathode oxides. A review of materials diagnostics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Nagpure, Shrikant C; Wood, III, David L; Daniel, Claus

    2015-12-21

    Materials diagnostic techniques are the principal tools used in the development of low-cost, high-performance electrodes for next-generation lithium-based energy storage technologies. Also, this review highlights the importance of materials diagnostic techniques in unraveling the structure and the structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage, high-capacity oxides that have the potential to be implemented in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries for transportation that can use renewable energy and is less-polluting than today. The rise in CO2 concentration in the earth’s atmosphere due to the use of petroleum products in vehicles and the dramatic increase in the cost of gasoline demand the replacement of current internalmore » combustion engines in our vehicles with environmentally friendly, carbon free systems. Therefore, vehicles powered fully/partially by electricity are being introduced into today’s transportation fleet. As power requirements in all-electric vehicles become more demanding, lithium-ion battery (LiB) technology is now the potential candidate to provide higher energy density. Moreover, discovery of layered high-voltage lithium-manganese–rich (HV-LMR) oxides has provided a new direction toward developing high-energy-density LiBs because of their ability to deliver high capacity (~250 mA h/g) and to be operated at high operating voltage (~4.7 V). Unfortunately, practical use of HV-LMR electrodes is not viable because of structural changes in the host oxide during operation that can lead to fundamental and practical issues. This article provides the current understanding on the structure and structural degradation pathways in HV-LMR oxides, and manifests the importance of different materials diagnostic tools to unraveling the key mechanism(s). Furthermore, the fundamental insights reported, might become the tools to manipulate the chemical and/or structural aspects of HV-LMR oxides for low cost, high-energy-density LiB applications.« less

  1. Indirectly sensing accelerator beam currents for limiting maximum beam current magnitude

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Bollinger, L.M.

    1995-08-08

    A beam current limiter is disclosed for sensing and limiting the beam current in a particle accelerator, such as a cyclotron or linear accelerator, used in scientific research and medical treatment. A pair of independently operable capacitive electrodes sense the passage of charged particle bunches to develop an RF signal indicative of the beam current magnitude produced at the output of a bunched beam accelerator. The RF signal produced by each sensing electrode is converted to a variable DC voltage indicative of the beam current magnitude. The variable DC voltages thus developed are compared to each other to verify proper system function and are further compared to known references to detect beam currents in excess of pre-established limits. In the event of a system malfunction, or if the detected beam current exceeds pre-established limits, the beam current limiter automatically inhibits further accelerator operation. A high Q tank circuit associated with each sensing electrode provides a narrow system bandwidth to reduce noise and enhance dynamic range. System linearity is provided by injecting, into each sensing electrode, an RF signal that is offset from the bunching frequency by a pre-determined beat frequency to ensure that subsequent rectifying diodes operate in a linear response region. The system thus provides a large dynamic range in combination with good linearity. 6 figs.

  2. Indirectly sensing accelerator beam currents for limiting maximum beam current magnitude

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bogaty, John M. (Lombard, IL); Clifft, Benny E. (Park Forest, IL); Bollinger, Lowell M. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A beam current limiter for sensing and limiting the beam current in a particle accelerator, such as a cyclotron or linear accelerator, used in scientific research and medical treatment. A pair of independently operable capacitive electrodes sense the passage of charged particle bunches to develop an RF signal indicative of the beam current magnitude produced at the output of a bunched beam accelerator. The RF signal produced by each sensing electrode is converted to a variable DC voltage indicative of the beam current magnitude. The variable DC voltages thus developed are compared to each other to verify proper system function and are further compared to known references to detect beam currents in excess of pre-established limits. In the event of a system malfunction, or if the detected beam current exceeds pre-established limits, the beam current limiter automatically inhibits further accelerator operation. A high Q tank circuit associated with each sensing electrode provides a narrow system bandwidth to reduce noise and enhance dynamic range. System linearity is provided by injecting, into each sensing electrode, an RF signal that is offset from the bunching frequency by a pre-determined beat frequency to ensure that subsequent rectifying diodes operate in a linear response region. The system thus provides a large dynamic range in combination with good linearity.

  3. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Mt Princeton Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date 2010 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Used to map fracture and fluid flow patterns. References K. Richards, A. Revil, A. Jardani, F. Henderson, M....

  4. Current status and direction of US global warming policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D.

    1997-12-31

    The pace and intensity of U.S. global warming efforts have been increasing over the past few years for three main reasons: (1) steady improvement in the underlying science that is in turn strengthening public support for action; (2) the likelihood that the United States will fall short of our national goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000; and (3) U.S. participation in international negotiations to address global climate change. The expansion of U.S. global warming activities can be seen at the state, federal, and international levels. At the state level, for example, a majority of states have completed greenhouse gas emissions inventories, several have undertaken analyses of mitigation options, and some are already beginning to take action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. At the federal level, all federal agencies with an interest in global warming are working together to define the likely consequences of continued increases in greenhouse gas emissions, inform the public about Such consequences, and assess the costs and benefits of different response options. Among the response options being assessed are actions to expand the use of energy efficient technologies; new controls on greenhouse gas emissions through -- for example - government standards, regulations, or emissions trading programs; and increased research and development of technologies less dependent on fossil fuels. Finally, at the international level, the United States is continuing to develop the position it will take to the climate change negotiations to be held in Japan this December. Among, other things, we have proposed enforceable emissions targets for developed countries, a strong program of reporting and compliance, new efforts by developing countries to prepare emissions inventories and mitigate emissions, and an international emissions trading program.

  5. Direct-Current Resistivity At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    deviations from expected ratios. One well was also found to have an abnormally high sulfate concentration. All three wells are located in the same general area and are sampling...

  6. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Haleakala Volcano Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    deviations from expected ratios. One well was also found to have an abnormally high sulfate concentration. All three wells are located in the same general area and are sampling...

  7. Direct-Current Resistivity At Cove Fort Area - Liquid (Combs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic SearchQuerying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with...

  8. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Blue Mountain Area (Fairbank...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    have been conducted specifically for the geothermal program at Blue Mountain include a self-potential (SP) survey, and additional IPelectrical resistivity traversing. These...

  9. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Two electrical resistivity survey lines were run in the project area: a southern east-west line along Caliche Road, and a northern...

  10. Direct-Current Resistivity At Clear Lake Area (Skokan, 1993)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    surveys were carried out in the area. These field measurements (Rapolla and Keller, 1984) were combined by spatially averaging apparent resistivities on a one kilometer grid (...

  11. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Clear Lake Area (Skokan...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    surveys were carried out in the area. These field measurements (Rapolla and Keller, 1984) were combined by spatially averaging apparent resistivities on a one kilometer grid (...

  12. Direct-Current Resistivity At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to indicate the presence of a dense intrusive body associated with the Puu Loa cinder cone (Kauahikaua and Mattice, 1981). References Donald M. Thomas (1 January 1986)...

  13. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    fluid type and phase state of the pore water. Thermal: Resistivity influenced by temperature.1 Cost Information Low-End Estimate (USD): 4,827.00482,700 centUSD 4.827...

  14. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Marysville Mt Area (Blackwell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with the thermal anomaly. References D. D. Blackwell (Unknown) Exploration In A Blind Geothermal Area Near Marysville, Montana, Usa Additional References Retrieved from...

  15. Category:Direct-Current Resistivity Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    out of 2 total. E + Electrical Profiling Configurations (3 categories) 4 pages V + Vertical Electrical Sounding Configurations (2 categories) 3 pages Pages in...

  16. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Lightning Dock Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    into the combined thermal, hydrologic, and subsurface stratigraphic information data sets to provide a comprehensive integrated geothermal model. From all of this...

  17. Direct-Current Resistivity At Kilauea Southwest Rift And South...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and east of this fissure (Figs 48, 49). These data suggest that a high-level body of cold freshwater is impounded to the north of the fissure (which is acting as a hydrologic...

  18. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Kilauea Southwest Rift And...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and east of this fissure (Figs 48, 49). These data suggest that a high-level body of cold freshwater is impounded to the north of the fissure (which is acting as a hydrologic...

  19. Direct-Current Resistivity At Kilauea Summit Area (Keller, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes An electromagnetic sounding survey by Jackson and Keller (1972) defined a strong resistivity anomaly above the center of inflation...

  20. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1977...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a heat flow anomaly where all values are greater than 10 heat flow units. References Jackson, D.B. ODonnell, J.E.; Gregory, D. I. (1 January 1977) Schlumberger soundings,...

  1. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Kilauea Summit Area (Keller...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes An electromagnetic sounding survey by Jackson and Keller (1972) defined a strong resistivity anomaly above the center of inflation...

  2. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Raft River Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    surveys were undertaken at the Raft River geothermal area. References Zohdy, A.A.R.; Jackson, D.B.; Bisdorf, R.J. (12 October 1975) Exploring the Raft River geothermal area,...

  3. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Puu Loa, was tentatively interpreted to indicate the presence of a dense intrusive body associated with the Puu Loa cinder cone (Kauahikaua and Mattice, 1981). References...

  4. Direct-Current Resistivity At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Garg...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References Sabodh K. Garg, John W. Pritchett, Philip E. Wannamaker, Jim Combs (2007) Use Of Electrical Surveys For Geothermal Reservoir...

  5. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Beowawe Hot Springs Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References Sabodh K. Garg, John W. Pritchett, Philip E. Wannamaker, Jim Combs (2007) Use Of Electrical Surveys For Geothermal Reservoir...

  6. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the findings from the other resistivity surveys conducted in the area. References James Kauahikaua, Douglas Klein (1978) Results of Electric Survey in the Area of Hawaii...

  7. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Stillwater Area (Laney,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Structural Controls, Alteration, Permeability and Thermal Regime of Dixie Valley from New-Generation MtGalvanic Array Profiling,...

  8. Current Delegations by Functional Area - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Functional Area At the Department of Energy, the Secretarial Delegation of Authority is the legal instrument used to transfer authority granted to the Secretary of Energy by...

  9. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resistivity Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Update to Warpinski, et al., 2002 References N. R. Warpinski, A. R. Sattler, R. Fortuna, D....

  10. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Cove Fort Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resistivity Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Update to Warpinski, et al., 2002 References N. R. Warpinski, A. R. Sattler, R. Fortuna, D....

  11. Direct-Current Resistivity At Cove Fort Area - Liquid (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resistivity Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Update to Warpinski, et al., 2002 References N. R. Warpinski, A. R. Sattler, R. Fortuna, D....

  12. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    be caused by hydrothermal alteration or a fluid filled fracture system." References Daniel F. C. Pribnow, Claudia Schutze, Suzanne J. Hurter, Christina Flechsig, John H. Sass...

  13. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoreticalcomputer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range...

  14. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Valles Caldera - Redondo...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    structure in the reservoir region. Some of the data were reinterpreted using K508 computer models, and interpretations from the various surveys were compared for consistency of...

  15. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Valles Caldera - Sulphur...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    structure in the reservoir region. Some of the data were reinterpreted using K508 computer models, and interpretations from the various surveys were compared for consistency of...

  16. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoreticalcomputer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range...

  17. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Nw Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoreticalcomputer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range...

  18. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoreticalcomputer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range...

  19. Direct-Current Resistivity At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoreticalcomputer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range...

  20. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Mokapu Penninsula Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    analysis performed on the Koolau caldera area (Kauahikaua, 1981 a) synthesized existing self-potential, gravity, seismic and aeromagnetic data with recently acquired resistivity...

  1. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Mauna Loa Southwest Rift...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    surveys in the South Point area were limited to a series of Schlumberger soundings and a self-potential traverse across the rift zone. The absence of groundwater wells and time...

  2. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Mauna Loa Northeast Rift...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    layer and a basement layer of less than 100 ohm.m (Kauahikaua and Mattice, 1981). The depth of penetration of these soundings was estimated to be about 800 m to 900 m b.s.1....

  3. A high voltage test stand for electron gun qualification for LINACs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanmode, Yashwant D.; Mulchandani, J.; Acharya, M.; Bhisikar, A.; Singh, H.G.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2011-07-01

    An electron gun lest stand has been developed at RRCAT. The test stand consists of a high voltage pulsed power supply, electron gun filament supply, grid supply, UHV system and electron gun current measurement system. Several electron guns developed indigenously were evaluated on this test stand. The shielding is provided for the electron gun set up. Electron gun tests can be tested upto 55 kV with pulse width of 15 microsecs and pulse repetition rates up to 200 Hz. The technical details of the subsystems are furnished and results of performance of the test stand have been reported in this paper. (author)

  4. The progress of funnelling gun high voltage condition and beam test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Gassner, D. M.; Lambiase, R.; Meng, W.; Rahman, O.; Pikin, A.; Rao, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Pietz, J.; Ackeret, M.; Yeckel, C.; Miller, R.; Dobrin, E.; Thompson, K.

    2015-05-03

    A prototype of a high average current polarized electron funneling gun as an eRHIC injector has been built at BNL. The gun was assembled and tested at Stangenes Incorporated. Two beams were generated from two GaAs photocathodes and combined by a switched combiner field. We observed the combined beams on a YAG crystal and measured the photocurrent by a Faraday cup. The gun has been shipped to Stony Brook University and is being tested there. In this paper we will describe the major components of the gun and recent beam test results. High voltage conditioning is discussed as well.

  5. Method for removal of random noise in eddy-current testing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levy, Arthur J. (Schenectady, NY)

    1995-01-01

    Eddy-current response voltages, generated during inspection of metallic structures for anomalies, are often replete with noise. Therefore, analysis of the inspection data and results is difficult or near impossible, resulting in inconsistent or unreliable evaluation of the structure. This invention processes the eddy-current response voltage, removing the effect of random noise, to allow proper identification of anomalies within and associated with the structure.

  6. Enhanced open voltage of BiFeO{sub 3} polycrystalline film by surface modification of organolead halide perovskite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Pengjun; Bian, Liang; Xu, Jinbao Chang, Aimin; Wang, Lei

    2014-07-07

    Inorganic-organolead halide perovskite CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} modified BiFeO{sub 3} polycrystalline film has been established. The composite photoelectrode presents much larger open voltage and several magnitudes superior photoelectric conversion performance in comparison to the ordinary BiFeO{sub 3} polycrystalline film. The I-V curve shows that the short-circuit current (J{sub sc}) is 1.74?mA·cm{sup ?2} and open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) is 1.62?V, the device's photon to current efficiency is over 1%. The large open voltage and high photovoltaic efficiency is believed to attributed to the spontaneous polarization of composite perovskite induced by BiFeO{sub 3} lattice and modified reduced work function of the modified BiFeO{sub 3} surface. Our results clearly show that the present BiFeO{sub 3}-CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} planar device is capable to generate a large voltage in macro scale under visible light, leading an approach to further applications on photodetectors and optoelectronic switch.

  7. A new feedback controlled current stabilized power supply for gas laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    A feedback controlled current stabilized power supply for CO/sub 2/, wave guide lasers is reported. This current negative feedback control method involved connecting the control transistor to the DC output and of an AC bridge rectifier. Current is stabilized in the range of 2 to approximately 4 mW, the unstability of the current is less than 1% with respect to 20% fluctuation of network voltage. The principal circuit and the voltage-current wave forms of the power supply are shown.

  8. A statistical approach to designing mitigation for induced ac voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J. [Electro Sciences, Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Induced voltage levels on buried pipelines collocated with overhead electric power transmission lines are usually mitigated by means of grounding the pipeline. Maximum effectiveness is obtained when grounds are placed at discrete locations along the pipeline where the peak induced voltages occur. The degree of mitigation achieved is dependent upon the local soil resistivity at these locations. On occasion it may be necessary to employ an extensive distributed grounding system, for example, a parallel buried wire connected to the pipe at periodic intervals. In this situation the a priori calculation of mitigated voltage levels is sometimes made assuming an average value for the soil resistivity. Over long distances, however, the soil resistivity generally varies as a log-normally distributed random variable. The effect of this variability upon the predicted mitigated voltage levels is examined. It is found that the predicted levels exhibit a statistical variability which precludes a precise determination of the mitigated voltage levels. Thus, post commissioning testing of the emplaced mitigation system is advisable.

  9. Voltage control in pulsed system by predict-ahead control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, A.N.; Watson, J.A.; Sampayan, S.E.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus for predict-ahead pulse-to-pulse voltage control in a pulsed power supply system is disclosed. A DC power supply network is coupled to a resonant charging network via a first switch. The resonant charging network is coupled at a node to a storage capacitor. An output load is coupled to the storage capacitor via a second switch. A de-Q-ing network is coupled to the resonant charging network via a third switch. The trigger for the third switch is a derived function of the initial voltage of the power supply network, the initial voltage of the storage capacitor, and the present voltage of the storage capacitor. A first trigger closes the first switch and charges the capacitor. The third trigger is asserted according to the derived function to close the third switch. When the third switch is closed, the first switch opens and voltage on the node is regulated. The second trigger may be thereafter asserted to discharge the capacitor into the output load. 4 figs.

  10. Voltage control in pulsed system by predict-ahead control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Anthony N.; Watson, James A.; Sampayan, Stephen E.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for predict-ahead pulse-to-pulse voltage control in a pulsed power supply system is disclosed. A DC power supply network is coupled to a resonant charging network via a first switch. The resonant charging network is coupled at a node to a storage capacitor. An output load is coupled to the storage capacitor via a second switch. A de-Q-ing network is coupled to the resonant charging network via a third switch. The trigger for the third switch is a derived function of the initial voltage of the power supply network, the initial voltage of the storage capacitor, and the present voltage of the storage capacitor. A first trigger closes the first switch and charges the capacitor. The third trigger is asserted according to the derived function to close the third switch. When the third switch is closed, the first switch opens and voltage on the node is regulated. The second trigger may be thereafter asserted to discharge the capacitor into the output load.

  11. Voltage Impacts of Utility-Scale Distributed Wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, A.

    2014-09-01

    Although most utility-scale wind turbines in the United States are added at the transmission level in large wind power plants, distributed wind power offers an alternative that could increase the overall wind power penetration without the need for additional transmission. This report examines the distribution feeder-level voltage issues that can arise when adding utility-scale wind turbines to the distribution system. Four of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory taxonomy feeders were examined in detail to study the voltage issues associated with adding wind turbines at different distances from the sub-station. General rules relating feeder resistance up to the point of turbine interconnection to the expected maximum voltage change levels were developed. Additional analysis examined line and transformer overvoltage conditions.

  12. Commercial Current Promotions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Commercial Program Development Commercial Current Promotions Industrial Federal Agriculture This page features all current special promotions for commercial programs....

  13. Effects of Distributed Energy Resources on Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ruchi; Tuffner, Francis K.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2011-10-10

    Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is one of the cheapest technologies which can be intelligently leveraged to provide considerable energy savings. The addition of renewables in the form of distributed resources can affect the entire power system, but more importantly, affects the traditional substation control schemes at the distribution level. This paper looks at the effect on energy consumption, peak load reduction, and voltage profile changes due to the addition of distributed generation in a distribution feeder using combinations of volt var control. An IEEE 13-node system is used to simulate the various cases. Energy savings and peak load reduction for different simulation scenarios are compared.

  14. High voltage switch triggered by a laser-photocathode subsystem

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Ping; Lundquist, Martin L.; Yu, David U. L.

    2013-01-08

    A spark gap switch for controlling the output of a high voltage pulse from a high voltage source, for example, a capacitor bank or a pulse forming network, to an external load such as a high gradient electron gun, laser, pulsed power accelerator or wide band radar. The combination of a UV laser and a high vacuum quartz cell, in which a photocathode and an anode are installed, is utilized as triggering devices to switch the spark gap from a non-conducting state to a conducting state with low delay and low jitter.

  15. Electrodic voltages accompanying stimulated bioremediation of a uranium-contaminated aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, K.H.; N'Guessan, A.L.; Druhan, J.; Long, P.E.; Hubbard, S.S.; Lovley, D.R.; Banfield, J.F.

    2009-11-15

    The inability to track the products of subsurface microbial activity during stimulated bioremediation has limited its implementation. We used spatiotemporal changes in electrodic potentials (EP) to track the onset and persistence of stimulated sulfate-reducing bacteria in a uranium-contaminated aquifer undergoing acetate amendment. Following acetate injection, anomalous voltages approaching -900 mV were measured between copper electrodes within the aquifer sediments and a single reference electrode at the ground surface. Onset of EP anomalies correlated in time with both the accumulation of dissolved sulfide and the removal of uranium from groundwater. The anomalies persisted for 45 days after halting acetate injection. Current-voltage and current-power relationships between measurement and reference electrodes exhibited a galvanic response, with a maximum power density of 10 mW/m{sup 2} during sulfate reduction. We infer that the EP anomalies resulted from electrochemical differences between geochemically reduced regions and areas having higher oxidation potential. Following the period of sulfate reduction, EP values ranged from -500 to -600 mV and were associated with elevated concentrations of ferrous iron. Within 10 days of the voltage decrease, uranium concentrations rebounded from 0.2 to 0.8 {mu}M, a level still below the background value of 1.5 {mu}M. These findings demonstrate that EP measurements provide an inexpensive and minimally invasive means for monitoring the products of stimulated microbial activity within aquifer sediments and are capable of verifying maintenance of redox conditions favorable for the stability of bioreduced contaminants, such as uranium.

  16. Elevated voltage level I{sub DDQ} failure testing of integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Righter, A.W.

    1996-05-21

    Burn in testing of static CMOS IC`s is eliminated by I{sub DDQ} testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip. 4 figs.

  17. Requirements for a Standard Test to Rate the Durability of PV Modules at System Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.; Bennett, I.; Kloos, M.

    2011-02-01

    Degradation modes in photovoltaic modules under system bias voltage stress are described and classified.

  18. Elevated voltage level I.sub.DDQ failure testing of integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Righter, Alan W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Burn in testing of static CMOS IC's is eliminated by I.sub.DDQ testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip.

  19. MHK ISDB/Sensors/Wind Direction 3590 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Velocity Planar Measurement (Current), 3D Velocity Volumetric Measurement (Current), Density (Ice), Direction (Ice), Speed (Ice), Thickness (Ice), Pressure (Tidal), Sea Surface...

  20. Unraveling the voltage fade mechanism in layer Li-Mn-rich electrode: formation of the tetrahedral cations for spinel conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Abraham, Daniel P; Huq, Ashfia; Payzant, E Andrew; Wood III, David L; Daniel, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of high-voltage layered lithium-and manganese-rich (LMR) composite oxide electrode has dramatically enhanced the energy density of current Li-ion energy storage systems. However, practical usage of these materials is currently not viable because of their inability to maintain a consistent voltage profile (voltage fading) during subsequent charge-discharge cycles. This report rationalizes the cause of this voltage fade by providing the evidence of layer to spinel-like (LSL) structural evolution pathways in the host Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2 LMR composite oxide. By employing neutron powder diffraction, and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, we show that LSL structural rearrangement in LMR oxide occurs through a tetrahedral cation intermediate via: i) diffusion of lithium atoms from octahedral to tetrahedral sites of the lithium layer [(LiLioct LiLitet] which is followed by the dispersal of the lithium ions from the adjacent octahedral site of the metal layer to the tetrahedral sites of lithium layer [LiTM oct LiLitet]; and ii) migration of Mn from the octahedral sites of the transition metal layer to the permanent octahedral site of lithium layer via tetrahedral site of lithium layer [MnTMoct MnLitet MnLioct)]. The findings opens the door to the potential routes to mitigate this atomic restructuring in the high-voltage LMR composite oxide cathodes by manipulating the composition/structure for practical use in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Current-biased potentiometric NOx sensor for vehicle emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Louis Peter (Castro Valley, CA); Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA)

    2006-12-26

    A nitrogen oxide sensor system for measuring the amount of nitrogen oxide in a gas. A first electrode is exposed to the gas. An electrolyte is positioned in contact with the first electrode. A second electrode is positioned in contact with the electrolyte. A means for applying a fixed current between the first electrode and the second electrode and monitoring the voltage required to maintain the fixed current provides a measurement of the amount of nitrogen oxide in the gas.

  2. Method and apparatus for measuring low currents in capacitance devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, M.K.; Manning, F.W.; Guerrant, G.C.

    1986-06-04

    A method and apparatus for measuring subnanoampere currents in capacitance devices is reported. The method is based on a comparison of the voltages developed across the capacitance device with that of a reference capacitor in which the current is adjusted by means of a variable current source to produce a stable voltage difference. The current varying means of the variable current source is calibrated to provide a read out of the measured current. Current gain may be provided by using a reference capacitor which is larger than the device capacitance with a corresponding increase in current supplied through the reference capacitor. The gain is then the ratio of the reference capacitance to the device capacitance. In one illustrated embodiment, the invention makes possible a new type of ionizing radiation dose-rate monitor where dose-rate is measured by discharging a reference capacitor with a variable current source at the same rate that radiation is discharging an ionization chamber. The invention eliminates high-megohm resistors and low current ammeters used in low-current measuring instruments.

  3. Directives Templates - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and format Directives Templates Justification Memoranda Per Secretarial Memo, Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) Framework for Directives, dated July 9, 2012, by September 1, 2012,...

  4. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Studies indicate that in-plant electrical distribution system losses—due to voltage unbalance, over- and undervoltage, low power factor, undersized conductors, leakage to ground, and poor connections—can account for less than 1% to more than 4% of total plant electrical energy consumption.

  5. Ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goerz, David A. (Brentwood, CA); Wilson, Michael J. (Modesto, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator includes individual high-performance components that are closely coupled and integrated into an extremely compact assembly. In one embodiment, a repetitively-switched, ultra-compact Marx generator includes low-profile, annular-shaped, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors with contoured edges and coplanar extended electrodes used for primary energy storage; low-profile, low-inductance, high-voltage, pressurized gas switches with compact gas envelopes suitably designed to be integrated with the annular capacitors; feed-forward, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors attached across successive switch-capacitor-switch stages to couple the necessary energy forward to sufficiently overvoltage the spark gap of the next in-line switch; optimally shaped electrodes and insulator surfaces to reduce electric field stresses in the weakest regions where dissimilar materials meet, and to spread the fields more evenly throughout the dielectric materials, allowing them to operate closer to their intrinsic breakdown levels; and uses manufacturing and assembly methods to integrate the capacitors and switches into stages that can be arranged into a low-profile Marx generator.

  6. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 10 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape003_tolbert_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Wide Bandgap Materials Smart Integrated Power Module

  7. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 09 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape_03_marlino.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Smart Integrated Power Module Wide Bandgap Materials

  8. High voltage gas insulated transmission line with continuous particle trapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Dale, Steinar J. (Monroeville, PA)

    1983-01-01

    This invention provides a novel high voltage gas insulated transmission line utilizing insulating supports spaced at intervals with snap-in means for supporting a continuous trapping apparatus and said trapping apparatus having perforations and cutouts to facilitate trapping of contaminating particles and system flexibility.

  9. Low Beam Voltage, 10 MW, L-Band Cluster Klystron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teryaev, V.; Yakovlev, V.P.; Kazakov, S.; Hirshfield, J.L.; /Yale U. /Omega-P, New Haven

    2009-05-01

    Conceptual design of a multi-beam klystron (MBK) for possible ILC and Project X applications is presented. The chief distinction between this MBK design and existing 10-MW MBK's is the low operating voltage of 60 kV. There are at least four compelling reasons that justify development at this time of a low-voltage MBK, namely (1) no pulse transformer; (2) no oil tank for high-voltage components and for the tube socket; (3) no high-voltage cables; and (4) modulator would be a compact 60-kV IGBT switching circuit. The proposed klystron consists of four clusters containing six beams each. The tube has common input and output cavities for all 24 beams, and individual gain cavities for each cluster. A closely related optional configuration, also for a 10 MW tube, would involve four totally independent cavity clusters with four independent input cavities and four 2.5 MW output ports, all within a common magnetic circuit. This option has appeal because the output waveguides would not require a controlled atmosphere, and because it would be easier to achieve phase and amplitude stability as required in individual SC accelerator cavities.

  10. Magnetic force microscopy method and apparatus to detect and image currents in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, A.N.; Anderson, R.E.; Cole, E.I. Jr.

    1995-11-07

    A magnetic force microscopy method and improved magnetic tip for detecting and quantifying internal magnetic fields resulting from current of integrated circuits are disclosed. Detection of the current is used for failure analysis, design verification, and model validation. The interaction of the current on the integrated chip with a magnetic field can be detected using a cantilevered magnetic tip. Enhanced sensitivity for both ac and dc current and voltage detection is achieved with voltage by an ac coupling or a heterodyne technique. The techniques can be used to extract information from analog circuits. 17 figs.

  11. Magnetic force microscopy method and apparatus to detect and image currents in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Ann. N. (13170-B Central SE #188, Albuquerque, NM 87123); Anderson, Richard E. (2800 Tennessee NE, Albuquerque, NM 87110); Cole, Jr., Edward I. (2116 White Cloud NE, Albuquerque, NM 87112)

    1995-01-01

    A magnetic force microscopy method and improved magnetic tip for detecting and quantifying internal magnetic fields resulting from current of integrated circuits. Detection of the current is used for failure analysis, design verification, and model validation. The interaction of the current on the integrated chip with a magnetic field can be detected using a cantilevered magnetic tip. Enhanced sensitivity for both ac and dc current and voltage detection is achieved with voltage by an ac coupling or a heterodyne technique. The techniques can be used to extract information from analog circuits.

  12. Current to Current Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 1803 Sector: Ocean Product: Developing a technology which generates power from ocean currents : Submersible Power Generators (SPG). Coordinates: 44.446275,...

  13. Direct search for dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Dark matter is hypothetical matter which does not interact with electromagnetic radiation. The existence of dark matter is only inferred from gravitational effects of astrophysical observations to explain the missing mass component of the Universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles are currently the most popular candidate to explain the missing mass component. I review the current status of experimental searches of dark matter through direct detection using terrestrial detectors.

  14. Current measuring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahl, D.A.; Appelhans, A.D.; Olson, J.E.

    1997-09-09

    A current measuring system is disclosed comprising a current measuring device having a first electrode at ground potential, and a second electrode; a current source having an offset potential of at least three hundred volts, the current source having an output electrode; and a capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the output electrode of the current source and having a second electrode electrically connected to the second electrode of the current measuring device. 4 figs.

  15. Current measuring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahl, David A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Appelhans, Anthony D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Olson, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A current measuring system comprising a current measuring device having a first electrode at ground potential, and a second electrode; a current source having an offset potential of at least three hundred volts, the current source having an output electrode; and a capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the output electrode of the current source and having a second electrode electrically connected to the second electrode of the current measuring device.

  16. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  17. Current Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  18. Method for sputtering with low frequency alternating current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ)

    1996-01-01

    Low frequency alternating current sputtering is provided by connecting a low frequency alternating current source to a high voltage transformer having outer taps and a center tap for stepping up the voltage of the alternating current. The center tap of the transformer is connected to a vacuum vessel containing argon or helium gas. Target electrodes, in close proximity to each other, and containing material with which the substrates will be coated, are connected to the outer taps of the transformer. With an applied potential, the gas will ionize and sputtering from the target electrodes onto the substrate will then result. The target electrodes can be copper or boron, and the substrate can be stainless steel, aluminum, or titanium. Copper coatings produced are used in place of nickel and/or copper striking.

  19. Method for sputtering with low frequency alternating current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Timberlake, J.R.

    1996-04-30

    Low frequency alternating current sputtering is provided by connecting a low frequency alternating current source to a high voltage transformer having outer taps and a center tap for stepping up the voltage of the alternating current. The center tap of the transformer is connected to a vacuum vessel containing argon or helium gas. Target electrodes, in close proximity to each other, and containing material with which the substrates will be coated, are connected to the outer taps of the transformer. With an applied potential, the gas will ionize and sputtering from the target electrodes onto the substrate will then result. The target electrodes can be copper or boron, and the substrate can be stainless steel, aluminum, or titanium. Copper coatings produced are used in place of nickel and/or copper striking. 6 figs.

  20. High-voltage supply for neutron tubes in well-logging applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humphreys, D.R.

    1982-09-15

    A high voltage supply is provided for a neutron tube used in well logging. The biased pulse supply of the invention combines DC and full pulse techniques and produces a target voltage comprising a substantial negative DC bias component on which is superimposed a pulse whose negative peak provides the desired negative voltage level for the neutron tube. The target voltage is preferably generated using voltage doubling techniques and employing a voltage source which generates bipolar pulse pairs having an amplitude corresponding to the DC bias level.