National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for voltage connection cxs

  1. Electronic circuit for measuring series connected electrochemical cell voltages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N. (West Bloomfield, MI); Stuart, Thomas A. (Toledo, OH)

    2000-01-01

    An electronic circuit for measuring voltage signals in an energy storage device is disclosed. The electronic circuit includes a plurality of energy storage cells forming the energy storage device. A voltage divider circuit is connected to at least one of the energy storage cells. A current regulating circuit is provided for regulating the current through the voltage divider circuit. A voltage measurement node is associated with the voltage divider circuit for producing a voltage signal which is proportional to the voltage across the energy storage cell.

  2. High voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    A high voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery which comprises a plurality of strips of tandem junction solar cells of hydrogenated amorphous silicon having one optical path and electrically interconnected by a tunnel junction. The layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon, arranged in a tandem configuration, can have the same bandgap or differing bandgaps. The tandem junction strip solar cells are series connected to produce a solar battery of any desired voltage.

  3. Method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a high temperature super-conducting transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golner, Thomas M.; Mehta, Shirish P.

    2005-07-26

    A method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a super-conducting transformer is provided that includes a first super-conducting coil set, a second super-conducting coil set, and a third super-conducting coil set. The first, second and third super-conducting coil sets are connected via an insulated interconnect system that includes insulated conductors and insulated connectors that are utilized to connect the first, second, and third super-conducting coil sets to the high voltage leads.

  4. Connecting Renewables Directly to the Grid: Resilient Multi-Terminal HVDC Networks with High-Voltage High-Frequency Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-23

    GENI Project: GE is developing electricity transmission hardware that could connect distributed renewable energy sources, like wind farms, directly to the grid—eliminating the need to feed the energy generated through intermediate power conversion stations before they enter the grid. GE is using the advanced semiconductor material silicon carbide (SiC) to conduct electricity through its transmission hardware because SiC can operate at higher voltage levels than semiconductors made out of other materials. This high-voltage capability is important because electricity must be converted to high-voltage levels before it can be sent along the grid’s network of transmission lines. Power companies do this because less electricity is lost along the lines when the voltage is high.

  5. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bobbett, Ronald E. (Los Alamos, NM); McCormick, J. Byron (Los Alamos, NM); Kerwin, William J. (Tucson, AZ)

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  6. Charging a Battery-Powered Device with a Fiber-Optically Connected Photonic Power System for Achieving High-Voltage Isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lizon, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gioria, Jack G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Snyder, Hans R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a system to provide isolated power to the cathode-subsystem electronics of an x-ray tube. These components are located at the cathode potential of several hundred kilovolts, requiring a supply of power isolated from this high voltage. In this design a fiber-optically connected photonic power system (PPS) is used to recharge a lithium-ion battery pack, which will subsequently supply power to the cathode-subsystem electronics. The suitability of the commercially available JDSU PPS for this application is evaluated. The output of the ppe converter is characterized. The technical aspects of its use for charging a variety of Li-Ion batteries are discussed. Battery charge protection requirements and safety concerns are also addressed.

  7. Utility-Scale Solar Power Converter: Agile Direct Grid Connect Medium Voltage 4.7-13.8 kV Power Converter for PV Applications Utilizing Wide Band Gap Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-25

    Solar ADEPT Project: Satcon is developing a compact, lightweight power conversion device that is capable of taking utility-scale solar power and outputting it directly into the electric utility grid at distribution voltage levels—eliminating the need for large transformers. Transformers “step up” the voltage of the power that is generated by a solar power system so it can be efficiently transported through transmission lines and eventually “stepped down” to usable voltages before it enters homes and businesses. Power companies step up the voltage because less electricity is lost along transmission lines when the voltage is high and current is low. Satcon’s new power conversion devices will eliminate these heavy transformers and connect a utility-scale solar power system directly to the grid. Satcon’s modular devices are designed to ensure reliability—if one device fails it can be bypassed and the system can continue to run.

  8. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doepke, Matthias; Eisermann, Henning

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  9. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  10. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-07-01

    Disclosed is a voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means. 15 figs.

  11. Energy storage connection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  12. Voltage Management of Networks with Distributed Generation. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, James

    2008-01-01

    At present there is much debate about the impacts and benefits of increasing the amount of generation connected to the low voltage areas of the electricity distribution network. The UK government is under political ...

  13. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick (Livermore, CA); Crocker, Robert Ward (Fremont, CA); Yee, Daniel Dadwa (Dublin, CA); Dils, David Wright (Fort Worth, TX)

    2006-03-14

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  14. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick (Livermore, CA); Crocker, Robert Ward (Fremont, CA); Yee, Daniel Dadwa (Dublin, CA); Dils, David Wright (Fort Worth, TX)

    2008-03-25

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  15. Voltage controlled spintronic devices for logic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    You, Chun-Yeol (Naperville, IL); Bader, Samuel D. (Oak Park, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A reprogrammable logic gate comprising first and second voltage-controlled rotation transistors. Each transistor comprises three ferromagnetic layers with a spacer and insulating layer between the first and second ferromagnetic layers and an additional insulating layer between the second and third ferromagnetic layers. The third ferromagnetic layer of each transistor is connected to each other, and a constant external voltage source is applied to the second ferromagnetic layer of the first transistor. As input voltages are applied to the first ferromagnetic layer of each transistor, the relative directions of magnetization of the ferromagnetic layers and the magnitude of the external voltage determines the output voltage of the gate. By altering these parameters, the logic gate is capable of behaving as AND, OR, NAND, or NOR gates.

  16. High voltage photovoltaic power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haigh, Ronald E. (Arvada, CO); Wojtczuk, Steve (Cambridge, MA); Jacobson, Gerard F. (Livermore, CA); Hagans, Karla G. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An array of independently connected photovoltaic cells on a semi-insulating substrate contains reflective coatings between the cells to enhance efficiency. A uniform, flat top laser beam profile is illuminated upon the array to produce electrical current having high voltage. An essentially wireless system includes a laser energy source being fed through optic fiber and cast upon the photovoltaic cell array to prevent stray electrical signals prior to use of the current from the array. Direct bandgap, single crystal semiconductor materials, such as GaAs, are commonly used in the array. Useful applications of the system include locations where high voltages are provided to confined spaces such as in explosive detonation, accelerators, photo cathodes and medical appliances.

  17. Method of determining the open circuit voltage of a battery in a closed circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, William E. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1980-01-01

    The open circuit voltage of a battery which is connected in a closed circuit is determined without breaking the circuit or causing voltage upsets therein. The closed circuit voltage across the battery and the current flowing through it are determined under normal load and then a fractional change is made in the load and the new current and voltage values determined. The open circuit voltage is then calculated, according to known principles, from the two sets of values.

  18. High voltage load resistor array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Monty Ray (Smithfield, VA)

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  19. Voltage-matched configurations for multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Novel methods for interconnecting the subcells of a multijunction solar cell are investigated. The subcells are connected in parallel in these new methods. The bandgaps of the subcells must be selected for matched voltages when operated in parallel. We refer to multijunction solar cells with the subcells connected in parallel as having a voltage-matched configuration. Computer analyses of multijunction solar cells with a voltage-matched configuration and with series-connected subcells were performed. Roughly, the same performance with either approach for a multijunction cell with optimized bandgaps was found. Several advantages for the voltage-matched configuration relative to multijunction solar cells with series-connected subcells were identified, including wider selection of bandgaps for optimal performance, less sensitivity to radiation damage, and less sensitivity to spectral variations.

  20. Method of Controlling Corona Effects and Breakdown Voltage of Small Air Gaps Stressed by Impulse Voltages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Athanasios Maglaras; Trifon Kousiouris; Frangiskos Topalis; Dimitrios Katsaros; Leandros A. Maglaras; Konstantina Giannakopoulou

    2014-10-15

    This paper investigates the influence of a resistor on the dielectric behavior of an air gap. The resistor is connected in series with the air gap and the latter is stressed by impulse voltage. Air gap arrangements of different geometry with either the rod or the plate grounded are stressed with impulse voltages of both positive and negative polarity. The resistor is connected in series with the air gap in the return circuit connecting the gap with the impulse generator. The method followed involves the investigation of the graphs of the charging time concerning the air gaps capacitances, in connection to the value of the resistor, the geometry of the gap, the effect of grounding and the polarity effect. It is determined that the charging time of the air gap increases, as the value of the resistor increases. It is also determined that the peak voltage value of the fully charged air gap decreases as the value of the resistor increases. The results of the mathematical and simulation analysis are compared with the results of the oscillograms taken from experimental work. In addition and consequently to the above results it is concluded from the experimental work that the in series connection of the resistor in the circuit has significant influence on corona pulses (partial discharges) occurring in the gap and on the breakdown voltage of the gap. A new method of controlling the corona effects and consequently the breakdown voltage of small air gaps stressed by impulse voltage of short duration in connection to the ground effect and the polarity effect has arisen. Furthermore through mathematical analysis of the charging graphs obtained from simulation and experimental oscillograms there was a calculation of the values of the capacitance of the air gaps in relation to their geometry and the results were compared to the values calculated with mathematical analysis.

  1. Voltage Converter TYPICAL APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    1 LTC660 100mA CMOS Voltage Converter TYPICAL APPLICATION U s Simple Conversion of 5V to ­5V Supply s Output Drive: 100mA s ROUT: 6.5 (0.65V Loss at 100mA) s BOOST Pin (Pin 1) for Higher Switching Frequency-capacitor voltage converter. It performs supply voltage conversion from positive to negative from an input range

  2. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  3. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, Richard (Ammon, ID); Kotter, Dale (Bingham County, ID)

    1994-01-01

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

  4. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2000-01-01

    This two-page abstract provides tips for plant managers on checking and monitoring motor voltage unbalance to improve performance and life-span of industrial motors.

  5. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to the voltage unbalance. Unbalanced currents lead to torque pulsations, increased vibrations and mechanical stresses, increased losses resulting in lower efficiency, and...

  6. Voltage Control Technical Conference

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-08-Voltage-Control-Technical-Conference Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects &...

  7. 96 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS LETTERS, VOL. 2, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2004 Low-Input-Voltage, Low-Power Boost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Patrick

    to connect varying voltage to the fixed voltage load with high efficiency. Individual fuel cells naturally are investigated when a low input voltage is used. Low- input-voltage sources include single fuel cells, single solar cells, and thermoelectric devices. The primary context is interfacing single micro fuel cells

  8. Voltage verification unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Edward J. (Virginia Beach, VA)

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  9. High voltage DC power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, Thomas F. (Batavia, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively.

  10. High voltage DC power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, T.F.

    1989-12-19

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively. 7 figs.

  11. Aalborg Universitet Review on Multi-Level Voltage Source Converter Based HVDC Technologies for Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak, Claus Leth

    Connection of Large Offshore Wind Farms Glasdam, Jakob ; Hjerrild, Jesper; Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Bak-Level Voltage Source Converter Based HVDC Technologies for Grid Connection of Large Offshore Wind Farms. I IEEE of large offshore wind farms (OWFs) employing current state-of- the-art voltage source converter based high

  12. Low-voltage gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glyavin, M. Yu.; Zavolskiy, N. A.; Sedov, A. S. [Institute of Applied Physics RAS, N. Novgorod 603600 (Russian Federation); Nusinovich, G. S. [IREAP, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3511 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    For a long time, the gyrotrons were primarily developed for electron cyclotron heating and current drive of plasmas in controlled fusion reactors where a multi-megawatt, quasi-continuous millimeter-wave power is required. In addition to this important application, there are other applications (and their number increases with time) which do not require a very high power level, but such issues as the ability to operate at low voltages and have compact devices are very important. For example, gyrotrons are of interest for a dynamic nuclear polarization, which improves the sensitivity of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this paper, some issues important for operation of gyrotrons driven by low-voltage electron beams are analyzed. An emphasis is made on the efficiency of low-voltage gyrotron operation at the fundamental and higher cyclotron harmonics. These efficiencies calculated with the account for ohmic losses were, first, determined in the framework of the generalized gyrotron theory based on the cold-cavity approximation. Then, more accurate, self-consistent calculations for the fundamental and second harmonic low-voltage sub-THz gyrotron designs were carried out. Results of these calculations are presented and discussed. It is shown that operation of the fundamental and second harmonic gyrotrons with noticeable efficiencies is possible even at voltages as low as 5-10 kV. Even the third harmonic gyrotrons can operate at voltages about 15 kV, albeit with rather low efficiency (1%-2% in the submillimeter wavelength region).

  13. Apparatus for producing voltage and current pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirbie, Hugh (Los Alamos, NM); Dale, Gregory E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-12-21

    An apparatus having one or more modular stages for producing voltage and current pulses. Each module includes a diode charging means to charge a capacitive means that stores energy. One or more charging impedance means are connected to the diode charging means to provide a return current pathway. A solid-state switch discharge means, with current interruption capability, is connected to the capacitive means to discharge stored energy. Finally, a control means is provided to command the switching action of the solid-state switch discharge means.

  14. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, John P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure.

  15. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure. 3 figs.

  16. High voltage electrical amplifier having a short rise time

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, David J. (Pleasanton, CA); Dallum, Gregory E. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A circuit, comprising an amplifier and a transformer is disclosed that produces a high power pulse having a fast response time, and that responds to a digital control signal applied through a digital-to-analog converter. The present invention is suitable for driving a component such as an electro-optic modulator with a voltage in the kilovolt range. The circuit is stable at high frequencies and during pulse transients, and its impedance matching circuit matches the load impedance with the output impedance. The preferred embodiment comprises an input stage compatible with high-speed semiconductor components for amplifying the voltage of the input control signal, a buffer for isolating the input stage from the output stage; and a plurality of current amplifiers connected to the buffer. Each current amplifier is connected to a field effect transistor (FET), which switches a high voltage power supply to a transformer which then provides an output terminal for driving a load. The transformer comprises a plurality of transmission lines connected to the FETs and the load. The transformer changes the impedance and voltage of the output. The preferred embodiment also comprises a low voltage power supply for biasing the FETs at or near an operational voltage.

  17. Optically triggered high voltage switch network and method for switching a high voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Silberkleit, Lee I. (Mountlake Terrace, WA)

    1993-01-19

    An optically triggered solid state switch and method for switching a high voltage electrical current. A plurality of solid state switches (350) are connected in series for controlling electrical current flow between a compensation capacitor (112) and ground in a reactive power compensator (50, 50') that monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b and 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. An optical transmitter (100) controlled by the reactive power compensation system produces light pulses that are conveyed over optical fibers (102) to a switch driver (110') that includes a plurality of series connected optical triger circuits (288). Each of the optical trigger circuits controls a pair of the solid state switches and includes a plurality of series connected resistors (294, 326, 330, and 334) that equalize or balance the potential across the plurality of trigger circuits. The trigger circuits are connected to one of the distribution lines through a trigger capacitor (340). In each switch driver, the light signals activate a phototransistor (300) so that an electrical current flows from one of the energy reservoir capacitors through a pulse transformer (306) in the trigger circuit, producing gate signals that turn on the pair of serially connected solid state switches (350).

  18. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springfield, Ray M. (Sante Fe, NM); Wheat, Jr., Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  19. Easily disassembled electrical connector for high voltage, high frequency connections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milner, J.R.

    1994-05-10

    An easily accessible electrical connector capable of rapid assembly and disassembly is described wherein a wide metal conductor sheet may be evenly contacted over the entire width of the conductor sheet by opposing surfaces on the connector which provide an even clamping pressure against opposite surfaces of the metal conductor sheet using a single threaded actuating screw. 13 figures.

  20. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-06-24

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

  1. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Oak Ridge, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  2. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    2001-04-03

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  3. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Blacksburg, VA)

    2002-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  4. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, J.S.; Peng, F.Z.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Ott, G.W. Jr.

    1998-01-20

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter. 36 figs.

  5. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Peng, Fang Zheng (Oak Ridge, TN); Young, Sr., Robert W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ott, Jr., George W. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter.

  6. Electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Employing an electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck particularly suited for holding wafers and masks in sub-atmospheric operations will significantly reduce the likelihood of contaminant deposition on the substrates. The electrostatic chuck includes (1) an insulator block having a outer perimeter and a planar surface adapted to support the substrate and comprising at least one electrode (typically a pair of electrodes that are embedded in the insulator block), (2) a source of voltage that is connected to the at least one electrode, (3) a support base to which the insulator block is attached, and (4) a primary electrostatic shield ring member that is positioned around the outer perimeter of the insulator block. The electrostatic chuck permits control of the voltage of the lithographic substrate; in addition, it provides electrostatic shielding of the stray electric fields issuing from the sides of the electrostatic chuck. The shielding effectively prevents electric fields from wrapping around to the upper or front surface of the substrate, thereby eliminating electrostatic particle deposition.

  7. Multilevel-Dc-Bus Inverter For Providing Sinusoidal And Pwm Electrical Machine Voltages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Gui-Jia [Knoxville, TN

    2005-11-29

    A circuit for controlling an ac machine comprises a full bridge network of commutation switches which are connected to supply current for a corresponding voltage phase to the stator windings, a plurality of diodes, each in parallel connection to a respective one of the commutation switches, a plurality of dc source connections providing a multi-level dc bus for the full bridge network of commutation switches to produce sinusoidal voltages or PWM signals, and a controller connected for control of said dc source connections and said full bridge network of commutation switches to output substantially sinusoidal voltages to the stator windings. With the invention, the number of semiconductor switches is reduced to m+3 for a multi-level dc bus having m levels. A method of machine control is also disclosed.

  8. Temperature controlled high voltage regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiaro, Jr., Peter J. (Clinton, TN); Schulze, Gerald K. (Knoxville, TN)

    2004-04-20

    A temperature controlled high voltage regulator for automatically adjusting the high voltage applied to a radiation detector is described. The regulator is a solid state device that is independent of the attached radiation detector, enabling the regulator to be used by various models of radiation detectors, such as gas flow proportional radiation detectors.

  9. Voltage sensor and dielectric material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2006-10-17

    A voltage sensor is described that consists of an arrangement of impedance elements. The sensor is optimized to provide an output ratio that is substantially immune to changes in voltage, temperature variations or aging. Also disclosed is a material with a large and stable dielectric constant. The dielectric constant can be tailored to vary with position or direction in the material.

  10. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR THE ORNL MULTICHARGED ION RESEARCH FACILITY HIGH-VOLTAGE PLATFORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -connected via Ethernet uti- lizing fiber optic transmission to bridge the different high voltage environments [1]. The ion source [2], designed and fab- ricated at CEA/Grenoble, produces intense dc beams of the control system are connected via Ethernet, with fiber optic transmission used to bridge the large

  11. Buildings & Connective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    Signage Program Complete New Signage, Wayfinding, Campus Identity Program 2 4 4 0 2 2 0 4 2 4 2 5 16 47 Sciences Greenway Interim Landscape New Green Pathway Connecting Parking, Building Entrances Courtyard 2 2 0 0 4 2 0 0 4 2 2 0 16 34 Ashland/Taylor Lot G/K Interim Green Gate Provide New Green

  12. Voltage Regulation PHYS 309 Name

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herman, Rhett

    an regulated output of 5. It will also put out up to 1.5 yielding a power of 7.5. Obviously there are some LED circuits is to be used as a switch. Use 6 identical LEDs in this circuit. Use a multimeter to check that the LEDs all activate at the same voltage. Record the value of the LED voltage and your Zener

  13. A statistical approach to designing mitigation for induced ac voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J. [Electro Sciences, Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Induced voltage levels on buried pipelines collocated with overhead electric power transmission lines are usually mitigated by means of grounding the pipeline. Maximum effectiveness is obtained when grounds are placed at discrete locations along the pipeline where the peak induced voltages occur. The degree of mitigation achieved is dependent upon the local soil resistivity at these locations. On occasion it may be necessary to employ an extensive distributed grounding system, for example, a parallel buried wire connected to the pipe at periodic intervals. In this situation the a priori calculation of mitigated voltage levels is sometimes made assuming an average value for the soil resistivity. Over long distances, however, the soil resistivity generally varies as a log-normally distributed random variable. The effect of this variability upon the predicted mitigated voltage levels is examined. It is found that the predicted levels exhibit a statistical variability which precludes a precise determination of the mitigated voltage levels. Thus, post commissioning testing of the emplaced mitigation system is advisable.

  14. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1997-03-11

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360{degree}/n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. 7 figs.

  15. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360.degree./n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load.

  16. PREDICTING VOLTAGE DROOPS USING RECURRING PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, David

    ($200 mV for a nominal volt- age of 1.1 V).1 Such conservative operating voltage margins guarantee VOLTAGE DROOPS USING RECURRING PROGRAM AND MICROARCHITECTURAL EVENT ACTIVITY .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... SHRINKING FEATURE SIZE AND DIMINISHING SUPPLY VOLTAGE ARE MAKING CIRCUITS MORE SENSITIVE TO SUPPLY VOLTAGE

  17. Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haase, Markus

    Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits Science teaching unit #12;Disclaimer The Department-2008DVD-EN Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits #12;#12;© Crown copyright 2008 1The National Strategies | Secondary Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits 00094-2008DVD-EN Contents Voltage

  18. Voltage Collapse and ODE Approach to Power Flows: Analysis of a Feeder Line with Static Disorder in Consumption/Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chertkov, M; Turtisyn, K; Chernyak, V; Lebedev, V

    2011-01-01

    We consider a model of a distribution feeder connecting multiple loads to the sub-station. Voltage is controlled directly at the head of the line (sub-station), however, voltage anywhere further down the line is subject to fluctuations, caused by irregularities of real and reactive distributed power consumption/generation. The lack of a direct control of voltage along the line may result in the voltage instability, also called voltage collapse - phenomenon well known and documented in the power engineering literature. Motivated by emerging photo-voltaic technology, which brings a new source of renewable generation but also contributes significant increase in power flow fluctuations, we reexamine the phenomenon of voltage stability and collapse. In the limit where the number of consumers is large and spatial variations in power flows are smooth functions of position along the feeder, we derive a set of the power flow Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE), verify phenomenon of voltage collapse, and study the ef...

  19. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty (West Bloomfield, MI)

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  20. Abstract--As a common tendency, large-scale wind farms are increasingly connected to the transmission system of modern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhe

    include [1, 2]: · Under normal conditions: Frequency and voltage ranges Active power regulation and frequency control Reactive power regulation and voltage control · Under disturbance conditions: Voltage ride regulation. For variable-speed wind turbines which are connected to the power system through power electronic

  1. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  2. Saving Megawatts with Voltage Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, T.; Bell, D.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2008, PCS UtiliData commissioned an Industrial Voltage Optimization system at the Plum Creek Timber Medium Density Fiberboard facility in Columbia Falls, Montana. The system was based upon the AdaptiVolt(TM) Volt/VAR Optimization system...

  3. Current vs. Voltage Feedback Amplifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papavassiliou, Christos

    ?' In most applications, the differences between current feedback (CFB) and voltage feedback (VFB) are not apparent. Today's CFB and VFB amplifiers have comparable performance, but there are cer- tain unique Performance · Feedback Freedom Aside from the well-known attribute of CFB amplifiers, gain

  4. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-07-26

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET. 2 figs.

  5. Time's Ontic Voltage Craig Callender

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callender, Craig

    Time's Ontic Voltage Craig Callender Philosophy of time, as practiced throughout the last hundred venue for attacking questions about the nature of time--in sharp contrast to the primary venue slowly in philosophy of time.1 Since twentieth-century analytic philosophy as a whole often drew

  6. A 1-V series-array Josephson voltage standard operated at 35 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, F.; Koehler, H.; Weber, P.; Bluethner, K.; Meyer, H. )

    1990-11-01

    Josephson voltage standards utilize microwave-induced constant voltage steps in the dc characteristic of Josephson tunnel junctions. This paper describes the design and operation of array circuits with 108 and 2000 junctions connected in series. In contrast with similar realizations, simple {ital Q}-band equipment is used for the microwave supply. The microwave attenuation of 1000 junctions was about 1 dB. The version with 2000 junctions generated Josephson voltages up to 1.2 V when operated at 35 GHz. The stability times of the quantized levels were, under normal laboratory conditions (unshielded room), better than 10 min.

  7. Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duckworth, Douglas C. (Knoxville, TN); Marcus, R. Kenneth (Clemson, SC); Donohue, David L. (Vienna, AT); Lewis, Trousdale A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components.

  8. Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duckworth, D.C.; Marcus, R.K.; Donohue, D.L.; Lewis, T.A.

    1994-06-28

    A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components. 11 figures.

  9. ,"Geographic Area",,,"Voltage",,,"Capacity ","In-Service",,"Electrical Connection Locations",,"Line Information",,,,"Conductor Characteristics",,,"Circuits",,"Company Information",,,,"Project Information"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeMonthly","10/2015" ,"Release Date:","12/31/2015" ,"Next6. Proposed high-voltage

  10. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Druce, R.L.; Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.

    1998-06-30

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current. 1 fig.

  11. Voltage Vehicles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village of Wellington,FL LLC Jump to:EnergyVogt SolarVoltage

  12. Towards predicting voltage dependences of electrode/electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    voltage dependences of electrodeelectrolyte interfacial processesnin lithium ion batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards predicting voltage dependences...

  13. System and method for floating-substrate passive voltage contrast

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Mark W. (Albuquerque, NM); Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM); Tangyunyong, Paiboon (Albuquerque, NM); Soden, Jerry M. (Placitas, NM); Walraven, Jeremy A. (Albuquerque, NM); Pimentel, Alejandro A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-04-28

    A passive voltage contrast (PVC) system and method are disclosed for analyzing ICs to locate defects and failure mechanisms. During analysis a device side of a semiconductor die containing the IC is maintained in an electrically-floating condition without any ground electrical connection while a charged particle beam is scanned over the device side. Secondary particle emission from the device side of the IC is detected to form an image of device features, including electrical vias connected to transistor gates or to other structures in the IC. A difference in image contrast allows the defects or failure mechanisms be pinpointed. Varying the scan rate can, in some instances, produce an image reversal to facilitate precisely locating the defects or failure mechanisms in the IC. The system and method are useful for failure analysis of ICs formed on substrates (e.g. bulk semiconductor substrates and SOI substrates) and other types of structures.

  14. Fiber optic current monitor for high-voltage applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renda, G.F.

    1992-04-21

    A current monitor which derives its power from the conductor being measured for bidirectionally measuring the magnitude of current (from DC to above 50 khz) flowing through a conductor across which a relatively high level DC voltage is applied, includes a pair of identical transmitter modules connected in opposite polarity to one another in series with the conductor being monitored, for producing from one module a first light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in one direction through the conductor during one period of time, and from the other module a second light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in the opposite direction through the conductor during another period of time, and a receiver located in a safe area remote from the high voltage area for receiving the first and second light signals, and converting the same to first and second voltage signals having levels indicative of the magnitude of current being measured at a given time. 6 figs.

  15. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  16. Abstract--This paper deals with the design of a nonlinear con-troller for single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    -connected photovoltaic (PV) systems to maintain the current injected into the grid in phase with grid voltage. This paper also deals with the stability of internal dynamics of PV systems which is a basic requirement in atmospheric conditions. Index Terms--DC link voltage, grid current, grid-connected PV system, maximum power

  17. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2013-05-01

    Group 3 is chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module lifetime versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  18. APPA Customer Connections Conference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Customer Connections Conference is APPA's annual meeting for utility professionals in the areas of:

  19. Flowline connection means

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langner, C.G.

    1986-11-04

    A method is described for connecting a flowline to a subsea structure comprising: deploying a riser and flowline connection tool downwardly to the subsea structure; landing and securing the connection tool onto the subsea structure; pulling a flowline terminal head, the terminal head being connected to the flowline, to the flowline connection; bending the flowline terminal head into a curve having two connected legs, one leg extending upwardly alongside the subsea structure and the other leg extending laterally away from the subsea structure; securing the flowline terminal head to the subsea structure; and recovering the flowline connection tool to the surface.

  20. The Constant Voltage Transformer (CVT) for Mitigating Effects of Voltage Sags on Industrial Equipment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferraro, R. J.; Osborne, R.; Stephens, R.

    2000-01-01

    , Sizing Constant Voltage Transformers to Maximize Voltage Regulationfor Process Control Devices. 4. EPRl PEAC, 1997, PQTN Application Brochure #Io-Tutorial; Inrush Current Measurement 5. Basic Measuring Instruments, Inc., Alex McEachern, power...

  1. Voltage Collapse SimulationVoltage Collapse Simulation (Eastern Interconnection(Eastern Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .) · Pie chart: gives percent power flow is of the line's rating 3 #12;Base Case Voltage Contours Area

  2. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, W.M.

    1992-12-29

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a linear induction accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core is disclosed. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance. 4 figs.

  3. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, William M. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1992-01-01

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a Linear Induction Accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance.

  4. Production of high voltage by ion bombardment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phinney, Lucas Carter

    2003-01-01

    and was embedded in a Teflon rod. The beam energies were varied between 30 and 100 kV. A maximum voltage of approximately 90 kV was achieved on the target, and at this voltage, the power efficiency was approximately 85 percent. This power efficiency was greater...

  5. Non-contact current and voltage sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Gary D; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C; Schappert, Michael A

    2014-03-25

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing that contains the current and voltage sensors, which may be a ferrite cylinder with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap along the circumference to measure current, or alternative a winding provided through the cylinder along its axis and a capacitive plate or wire disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  6. Flexible method for monitoring fuel cell voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery, Kenneth D. (Noblesville, IN); Ripley, Eugene V. (Russiaville, IN)

    2002-01-01

    A method for equalizing the measured voltage of each cluster in a fuel cell stack wherein at least one of the clusters has a different number of cells than the identical number of cells in the remaining clusters by creating a pseudo voltage for the different cell numbered cluster. The average cell voltage of the all of the cells in the fuel cell stack is calculated and multiplied by a constant equal to the difference in the number of cells in the identical cell clusters and the number of cells in the different numbered cell cluster. The resultant product is added to the actual voltage measured across the different numbered cell cluster to create a pseudo voltage which is equivalent in cell number to the number of cells in the other identical numbered cell clusters.

  7. Electro-optical voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  8. Electro-optical voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, G.K.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages is disclosed. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam`s polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured. 6 figs.

  9. Subsea pipeline connection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langer, C.G.

    1986-05-13

    A method is described for connecting and laying a flowline from a subsea structure on the seafloor comprising: connecting the flowline from a first vessel to a riser from a second vessel; deploying the flowline and riser downwardly to the subsea structure; connecting the riser to the subsea structure; connecting the flowline to the subsea structure; laying the flowline on the seafloor from the subsea structure; and disconnecting the riser from both the flowline and the subsea structure.

  10. Welcome to the High Voltage Laboratory The EEH -High Voltage Laboratory is part of the Energy Transmission and High Voltage Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabner, Helmut

    Welcome to the High Voltage Laboratory The EEH - High Voltage Laboratory is part of the Energy Transmission and High Voltage Laboratory (EEH) of the Department of Information Technology and Electrical focus of the high voltage laboratory is in the area of technologies for a future sustainable electric

  11. Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits Emad Bidari

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moon, Un-Ku

    Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits by Emad Bidari A THESIS submitted to Oregon State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. THE OPERATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LOW-VOLTAGE INTEGRA- TOR. LOW-VOLTAGE SC FILTER STAGES

  12. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2007-01-09

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC--DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC--DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  13. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2008-07-15

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  14. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA); Yee, Daniel D. (Dublin, CA)

    2010-05-04

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  15. Subsea pipeline connection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langner, C. G.

    1985-09-17

    A method and apparatus are provided for connecting an offshore pipeline or flowline bundle to a deepwater subsea structure and then laying away from said structure. The pipeline or flowline bundle is deployed vertically from a pipelay vessel to make a hinged connection with the subsea structure. The connection operation is facilitated by a flowline connection tool attached to the pipeline or flowline bundle and designed to be inserted into a funnel located either centrally or to one side of the subsea structure. The connection procedure consists of landing and securing the flowline connection tool onto the subsea structure, then hinging over and connecting the pipeline or flowline bundle to the subsea structure as the pipeline or flowline bundle is laid on the seafloor beginning at the subsea structure.

  16. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  17. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1985-08-05

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  18. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1987-11-17

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile. 2 figs.

  19. Electro-optic high voltage sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James R.; Seifert, Gary D.

    2003-09-16

    A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation. A polarization beam displacer separates the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations and causes one linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels effect elliptically polarizes the beam as it travels through the crystal. A reflector redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams.

  20. Electrochemical Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells Electrochemical Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  1. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials 2012 DOE Hydrogen and...

  2. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Undervoltage operation can result in increased currents, reduced starting torque, and lower efficiency. Suggested Actions Conduct a voltage drop survey. Voltage drop...

  3. Constant voltage electro-slag remelting control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-10-22

    A system for controlling electrode gap in an electro-slag remelt furnace has a constant regulated voltage and an electrode which is fed into the slag pool at a constant rate. The impedance of the circuit through the slag pool is directly proportional to the gap distance. Because of the constant voltage, the system current changes are inversely proportional to changes in gap. This negative feedback causes the gap to remain stable. 1 fig.

  4. Constant voltage electro-slag remelting control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlienger, Max E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A system for controlling electrode gap in an electro-slag remelt furnace has a constant regulated voltage and an eletrode which is fed into the slag pool at a constant rate. The impedance of the circuit through the slag pool is directly proportional to the gap distance. Because of the constant voltage, the system current changes are inversely proportional to changes in gap. This negative feedback causes the gap to remain stable.

  5. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This PowerPoint presentation, focused on humidity, temperature and voltage testing, was originally presented by John Wohlgemuth at the NREL 2013 PV Module Reliability Workshop on Feb. 26-27, 2013 in Denver, CO. It summarizes the activities of a working group chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module life versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  6. Real Power and Reactive Power Control of a Three-Phase Single-Stage-PV System and PV voltage Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huijuan; Xu, Yan; Adhikari, Sarina; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Irminger, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with power electronic interfaces can provide both real and reactive power to meet power system needs with appropriate control algorithms. This paper presents the control algorithm design for a three-phase single-stage grid-connected PV inverter to achieve either maximum power point tracking (MPPT) or a certain amount of real power injection, as well as the voltage/var control. The switching between MPPT control mode and a certain amount of real power control mode is automatic and seamless. Without the DC-to-DC booster stage, PV DC voltage stability is an important issue in the control design especially when the PV inverter is operating at maximum power point (MPP) with voltage/var control. The PV DC voltage collapse phenomenon and its reason are discussed. The method based on dynamic correction of the PV inverter output is proposed to ensure PV DC voltage stability. Simulation results of the single-stage PV system during system disturbances and fast solar irradiation changes confirm that the proposed control algorithm for single-stage PV inverters can provide appropriate real and reactive power services and ensure PV DC voltage stability during dynamic system operation and atmospheric conditions.

  7. Bypass apparatus and method for series connected energy storage devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean (Saint-Luc, CA); Comte, Christophe (Montreal, CA); Daigle, Dominik (St-Hyacinthe, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A bypass apparatus and method for series connected energy storage devices. Each of the energy storage devices coupled to a common series connection has an associated bypass unit connected thereto in parallel. A current bypass unit includes a sensor which is coupled in parallel with an associated energy storage device or cell and senses an energy parameter indicative of an energy state of the cell, such as cell voltage. A bypass switch is coupled in parallel with the energy storage cell and operable between a non-activated state and an activated state. The bypass switch, when in the non-activated state, is substantially non-conductive with respect to current passing through the energy storage cell and, when in the activated state, provides a bypass current path for passing current to the series connection so as to bypass the associated cell. A controller controls activation of the bypass switch in response to the voltage of the cell deviating from a pre-established voltage setpoint. The controller may be included within the bypass unit or be disposed on a control platform external to the bypass unit. The bypass switch may, when activated, establish a permanent or a temporary bypass current path.

  8. 3430 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 61, NO. 8, OCTOBER 2012 Experimental Validation of High-Voltage-Ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy

    for high-voltage input/output ratio of dc-dc boost converters to be connected between the FC to the motor drive dc-link. In addition, it is necessary to have low input ripple at the dc-dc boost converter in order to maximize the FC lifetime, and the traditional dc-dc boost converter topologies have poor

  9. FedConnect Instructions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here are instructions to make it easier to locate Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) for the Geothermal Technologies Office at the FedConnect Web site.

  10. Low Voltage Operational Amplifier Design for Energy Harvesting Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Low Voltage Operational Amplifier Design for Energy Harvesting Applications Brisa Calderon, Dr provide low voltages, all the components in a PMS must be able to operate at low voltages. Optimizing these components to operate at low voltages in turn contributes to the optimization of the PMS as a whole. Theory

  11. Principles of ground relaying for high voltage and extra high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, C.H.

    1983-02-01

    This paper is a tutorial discussion of the basic principles of ground relaying for high voltage and extra high voltage transmission lines. Three different HV configurations are considered: Long lines, lines with a weak mid-point station, and mutually-coupled lines. Application criteria for EHV circuits are also discussed, and specific setting calculations are included where appropriate.

  12. Experimental validation of a high voltage pulse measurement method.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cular, Stefan; Patel, Nishant Bhupendra; Branch, Darren W.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes X-cut lithium niobate's (LiNbO3) utilization for voltage sensing by monitoring the acoustic wave propagation changes through LiNbO3 resulting from applied voltage. Direct current (DC), alternating current (AC) and pulsed voltage signals were applied to the crystal. Voltage induced shift in acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically for DC and AC voltages and linearly for pulsed voltages. The measured values ranged from 10 - 273 ps and 189 ps - 2 ns for DC and non-DC voltages, respectively. Data suggests LiNbO3 has a frequency sensitive response to voltage. If voltage source error is eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the sensor's U95 estimated combined uncertainty could decrease to ~0.025% for DC, AC, and pulsed voltage measurements.

  13. High voltage power supply with modular series resonant inverters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dreifuerst, G.R.; Merritt, B.T.

    1995-07-18

    A relatively small and compact high voltage, high current power supply for a laser utilizes a plurality of modules containing series resonant half bridge inverters. A pair of reverse conducting thyristors are incorporated in each series resonant inverter module such that the series resonant inverter modules are sequentially activated in phases 360{degree}/n apart, where n=number of modules for n>2. Selective activation of the modules allows precise output control reducing ripple and improving efficiency. Each series resonant half bridge inverter module includes a transformer which has a cooling manifold for actively circulating a coolant such as water, to cool the transformer core as well as selected circuit elements. Conductors connecting and forming various circuit components comprise hollow, electrically conductive tubes such as copper. Coolant circulates through the tubes to remove heat. The conductive tubes act as electrically conductive lines for connecting various components of the power supply. Where it is desired to make electrical isolation breaks, tubes comprised of insulating material such as nylon are used to provide insulation and continue the fluid circuit. 11 figs.

  14. High voltage power supply with modular series resonant inverters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dreifuerst, Gary R. (Livermore, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A relatively small and compact high voltage, high current power supply for a laser utilizes a plurality of modules containing series resonant half bridge inverters. A pair of reverse conducting thyristors are incorporated in each series resonant inverter module such that the series resonant inverter modules are sequentially activated in phases 360.degree./n apart, where n=number of modules for n>2. Selective activation of the modules allows precise output control reducing ripple and improving efficiency. Each series resonant half bridge inverter module includes a transformer which has a cooling manifold for actively circulating a coolant such as water, to cool the transformer core as well as selected circuit elements. Conductors connecting and forming various circuit components comprise hollow, electrically conductive tubes such as copper. Coolant circulates through the tubes to remove heat. The conductive tubes act as electrically conductive lines for connecting various components of the power supply. Where it is desired to make electrical isolation breaks, tubes comprised of insulating material such as nylon are used to provide insulation and continue the fluid circuit.

  15. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, G.K.; Renak, T.W.

    1999-04-06

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages is disclosed. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam`s polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured. 18 figs.

  16. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Renak, Todd W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  17. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature and Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2013-09-01

    This is a summary of the work of Group 3 of the International PV QA Task Force. Group 3 is chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module lifetime versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  18. Voltage control on a train system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Susanna P.; Evans, John A.

    2004-01-20

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  19. Preventing Delayed Voltage Recovery with Voltage-Regulating Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, Sarina; Li, Fangxing; Li, Huijuan; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D; Rizy, D Tom

    2009-01-01

    With the large use of residential air conditioner (A/C) motors during the summer peaks, the potential of motor stalling events have increased in the recent years. The stalled motor loads have been found to be the most important cause of delayed voltage recovery following severe system disturbances, such as a subtransmission fault. The proper modeling of the stalled motors is a very important factor in identifying the effect of these motors in voltage recovery after the fault. This paper presents a methodology for modeling the stalled low inertia induction motors based on a sample utility system and a small primary distribution circuit. The prevention of the stalling of motors plays an important role in maintaining the voltage profile of the system after system disturbances. Distributed Energy Resource (DER) is used to prevent the motor stalling events so that the delayed voltage recovery of the system may be avoided.

  20. Aalborg Universitet Selective compensation of voltage harmonics in grid-connected microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    , Aalborg east DK-9220, Denmark c Department of electrical engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University of science and technology, Tehran 16846-13114, Iran b Institute of energy technology, Aalborg University

  1. Voltage-Gated Hydrophobic Nanopores (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaonfor Direct Measurement(JournalFramework (Conference)

  2. Low voltage amplifier architecture for high speed switched capacitor circuits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shankar, Asit

    2001-01-01

    This work concentrates on circuit realization of high speed and low voltage switched capacitor circuits, with emphasis on the operational transconductance amplifier (OTA). An overview of switched capacitor circuits is given. Speed and voltage...

  3. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoff, Brian Douglas (East Peoria, IL); Akasam, Sivaprasad (Peoria, IL)

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  4. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the Z pulsed-power accelerator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Waisman, E. M.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M. E.; Wenger, D. F.; Fowler, W. E.; Johnson, W. A.; Basilio, L. I.; Coats, R. S.; Jennings, C. A.; Sinars, D. B.; et al

    2014-12-08

    Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM). Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerator’s vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerator’s vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m) by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerator’s magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs)more »and a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R. D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010)] that showed efficient transmission of large currents through the MITLs on Z. Altogether, the two studies demonstrate the overall efficient delivery of very large electrical powers through the MITLs on Z.« less

  5. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the ? pulsed-power accelerator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Waisman, E.? M.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M.? E.; Wenger, D.? F.; Fowler, W.? E.; Johnson, W.? A.; Basilio, L.? I.; Coats, R.? S.; Jennings, C.? A.; Sinars, D.? B.; et al

    2014-11-08

    Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM). Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerator’s vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerator’s vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m) by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerator’s magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs)more »and a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R.D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010)] that showed efficient transmission of large currents through the MITLs on Z. Taken together, the two studies demonstrate the overall efficient delivery of very large electrical powers through the MITLs on Z.« less

  6. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the Z pulsed-power accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waisman, E. M.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M. E.; Wenger, D. F.; Fowler, W. E.; Johnson, W. A.; Basilio, L. I.; Coats, R. S.; Jennings, C. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Vesey, R. A.; Jones, B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Lemke, R. W.; Martin, M. R.; Schrafel, P. C.; Lewis, S. A.; Moore, J. K.; Savage, M. E.; Stygar, W. A.

    2014-12-08

    Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM). Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerator’s vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerator’s vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m) by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerator’s magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) and a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R. D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010)] that showed efficient transmission of large currents through the MITLs on Z. Altogether, the two studies demonstrate the overall efficient delivery of very large electrical powers through the MITLs on Z.

  7. Low Voltage White Phosphorescent OLED Achievements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and its research partners at Princeton University and the University of Southern California have succeeded in developing a white phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED™) that achieved a record efficiency of 20 lumens per watt. This achievement is the result of the team's collaborative efforts to increase the efficiency of PHOLED lighting by focusing on two critical factors: lowering the drive voltages and increasing the amount of light extracted.

  8. Long term voltage stability analysis for small disturbances 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Men, Kun

    2009-05-15

    design and optimize the system. ?? Challenge 2, accurately estimating voltage stability margin online remains as a dream for industry. So far, due to heavy computation burden, the major thrust in voltage stability analysis, especially for large... of load dynamics to restore power consumption beyond the capability of the combined transmission and generation system. ? This definition try to emphasize that load is the main driving force of a voltage collapse, and voltage stability is a stuctural...

  9. Field Optimization of Three Dimensional High Voltage C. Trinitis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stamatakis, Alexandros

    The design of high voltage systems and their com­ ponents (e.g. gas insulated switchgear, trans­ formers etc

  10. Control method for peak power delivery with limited DC-bus voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, John; Xu, Longya; Bhargava, Brij B.

    2006-09-05

    A method for driving a neutral point-clamped multi-level voltage source inverter supplying a synchronous motor is provided. A DC current is received at a neutral point-clamped multi-level voltage source inverter. The inverter has first, second, and third output nodes. The inverter also has a plurality of switches. A desired speed of a synchronous motor connected to the inverter by the first second and third nodes is received by the inverter. The synchronous motor has a rotor and the speed of the motor is defined by the rotational rate of the rotor. A position of the rotor is sensed, current flowing to the motor out of at least two of the first, second, and third output nodes is sensed, and predetermined switches are automatically activated by the inverter responsive to the sensed rotor position, the sensed current, and the desired speed.

  11. Electro-optic voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, T.M.; Davidson, J.R.; Woods, G.K.

    1999-08-17

    The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers. 6 figs.

  12. Inert electrode connection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weyand, John D. (Greensburg, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); DeYoung, David H. (Plum Boro, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Plum Boro, PA)

    1985-01-01

    An inert electrode connection is disclosed wherein a layer of inert electrode material is bonded to a layer of conductive material by providing at least one intermediate layer of material therebetween comprising a predetermined ratio of inert material to conductive material. In a preferred embodiment, the connection is formed by placing in a die a layer of powdered inert material, at least one layer of a mixture of powdered inert material and conductive material, and a layer of powdered conductive material. The connection is then formed by pressing the material at 15,000-20,000 psi to form a powder compact and then densifying the powder compact in an inert or reducing atmosphere at a temperature of 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C.

  13. Aalborg Universitet Current-voltage model of LED light sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    Aalborg Universitet Current-voltage model of LED light sources Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk version (APA): Beczkowski, S., & Munk-Nielsen, S. (2012). Current-voltage model of LED light sources from vbn.aau.dk on: juli 06, 2015 #12;Current-voltage model of LED light sources Szymon Bczkowski, Stig

  14. LOW VOLTAGE ANALOG CIRCUITS USING STANDARD CMOS TECHNOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    LOW VOLTAGE ANALOG CIRCUITS USING STANDARD CMOS TECHNOLOGY Phillip E. Allen, Benjamin J. Blalock implies battery operation which favors low voltage and low power circuits. These factors and others have of the magnitudes of the n-channel and p-channel thresholds [4]. This implies that low voltage analog circuits

  15. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1998-05-19

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil. 5 figs.

  16. Electrical Circuit Flashover Model of Polluted Insulators under AC Voltage Based on the Arc Root Voltage Gradient Criterion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Qing

    In order to study the flashover mechanism of polluted insulators under AC voltage, a new arc propagation criterion which is based on an arc root voltage gradient is proposed. This criterion can explain the variation of the ...

  17. High power connection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schaefer, Christopher E. (Warren, OH); Beer, Robert C. (Noblesville, IN); McCall, Mark D. (Youngstown, OH)

    2000-01-01

    A high power connection system adapted for automotive environments which provides environmental and EMI shielding includes a female connector, a male connector, and a panel mount. The female connector includes a female connector base and a snap fitted female connector cover. The male connector includes a male connector base and a snap fitted male connector cover. The female connector base has at least one female power terminal cavity for seatably receiving a respective female power terminal. The male connector base has at least one male power terminal cavity for seatably receiving a respective male power terminal. The female connector is covered by a cover seal and a conductive shroud. A pair of lock arms protrude outward from the front end of the male connector base, pass through the panel mount and interface with a lever of a lever rotatably connected to the shroud to thereby mechanically assist mating of the male and female connectors. Safety terminals in the male and female connectors provide a last-to-connect-first-to-break connection with an HVIL circuit.

  18. Demo Abstract: Distributed Control of a Swarm of Buildings Connected to a Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    Demo Abstract: Distributed Control of a Swarm of Buildings Connected to a Smart Grid Baris Aksanli1 simulator, called Smart Grid Swarm Simulator (S2Sim). S2Sim simulates the grid dynam- ics (power, voltage cost function. Some exam- ples of cost functions are reduced energy consumption, re- duced electricity

  19. Variable current-voltage TPV device for use in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charache, Greg W. (Clifton Park, NY); Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY); Campbell, Brian C. (Scotia, NY)

    2000-01-01

    A front-side or back-side illuminated variable current-voltage thermophotovoltaic device comprises a support substrate; isolation layers disposed on the support substrate; a plurality of cells disposed on the isolation layers, each of the cells including a base layer and an emitter layer; an insulating member disposed between each of the cells configured to isolate each cell from adjacent cells; an ohmic contact configured to connect each cell to another cell in series; and a spectral control device disposed on top of the cells and/or on the bottom surface of the support substrate.

  20. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n cEnergy (AZ,Local GovernmentofVoltage unbalance degrades the performance

  1. Abstract--In this paper, a hierarchical control scheme is pro-posed for enhancement of Sensitive Load Bus (SLB) voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    ) are often connected to the utility grid or microgrid through a power-electronic interface converter. Microgrid is a local grid consisting of DGs, energy storage systems and dispersed loads which may operate Load Bus (SLB) voltage quality in microgrids. The control structure consists of primary and secondary

  2. Automatic System for the D.C. High Voltage Qualification of the Superconducting Electrical Circuits of the LHC Machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bozzini, D; Russenschuck, Stephan; Bednarek, M; Jurkiewicz, P; Kotarba, A; Ludwin, J; Olek, S

    2008-01-01

    A d.c. high voltage test system has been developed to verify automatically the insulation resistance of the powering circuits of the LHC. In the most complex case, up to 72 circuits share the same volume inside cryogenic lines. Each circuit can have an insulation fault versus any other circuit or versus ground. The system is able to connect up to 80 circuits and apply a voltage up to 2 kV D.C. The leakage current flowing through each circuit is measured within a range of 1 nA to 1.6 mA. The matrix of measurements allows characterizing the paths taken by the currents and locating weak points of the insulation between circuits. The system is composed of a D.C. voltage source and a data acquisition card. The card is able to measure with precision currents and voltages and to drive up to 5 high voltage switching modules offering 16 channels each. A LabVIEW application controls the system for an automatic and safe operation. This paper describes the hardware and software design, the testing methodology and the res...

  3. Safe epoxy encapsulant for high voltage magnetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, R.O.; Archer, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Formula 456, an aliphatic amine cured epoxy for impregnating coils and high voltage transformers. Sandia has evaluated a number of MDA-free epoxy encapsulants which relied on either anhydride or other aromatic amine curing agents. The use of aliphatic amine curing agents was more recently evaluated and has resulted in the definition of Formula 456 resin. Methylene dianiline (MDA) has been used for more than 20 years as the curing agent for various epoxy formulations throughout the Department of Energy and much of industry. Sandia National Laboratories began the process of replacing MDA with other formulations because of regulations imposed by OSHA on the use of MDA. OSHA has regulated MDA because it is a suspect carcinogen. Typically the elimination of OSHA-regulated materials provides a rare opportunity to qualify new formulations in a range of demanding applications. It was important to take full advantage of that opportunity, although the associated materials qualification effort was costly. Small high voltage transformers are one of those demanding applications. The successful implementation of the new formulation for high reliability transformers will be described. The test results that demonstrate the parts are qualified for use in DOE weapon systems will be presented.

  4. CRYOGENIC LIFETIME TESTS ON A COMMERCIAL EPOXY RESIN HIGH VOLTAGE BUSHING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwenterly, S W [ORNL; Pleva, Ed [Waukesha Electric Systems, Waukesha, WI; Ha, Tam T [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power devices operating in liquid nitrogen frequently require high-voltage bushings to carry the current leads from the superconducting windings to the room temperature grid connections. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is collaborating with Waukesha Electric Systems, SuperPower, and Southern California Edison to develop and demonstrate an HTS utility power transformer. Previous dielectric high voltage tests in support of this program have been carried out in test cryostats with commercial epoxy resin bushings from Electro Composites Inc. (ECI). Though the bushings performed well in these short-term tests, their long-term operation at high voltage in liquid nitrogen needs to be verified for use on the utility grid. Long-term tests are being carried out on a sample 28-kV-class ECI bushing. The bushing has a monolithic cast, cycloaliphatic resin body and is fire- and shatter-resistant. The test cryostat is located in an interlocked cage and is energized at 25 kVac around the clock. Liquid nitrogen (LN) is automatically refilled every 9.5 hours. Partial discharge, capacitance, and leakage resistance tests are periodically performed to check for deviations from factory values. At present, over 2400 hours have been accumulated with no changes in these parameters. The tests are scheduled to run for four to six months.

  5. A Multiphase, Modular, Bidirectional, Triple-Voltage DC-DC Converter Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Electrical power systems in future hybrid and fuel cell vehicles may employ three voltage [14 V, 42 V, and high voltage (HV)] nets. These will be necessary to accommodate existing 14-V loads as well as efficiently handle new heavy loads at the 42-V net and a traction drive on the HV bus. A low-cost DC-DC converter was proposed for connecting the three voltage nets. It minimizes the number of switches and their associated gate driver components by using two half-bridges and a high-frequency transformer. Another salient feature is that the half bridge on the 42-V bus is also utilized to provide the 14-V bus by operating at duty ratios around an atypical value of 1/3. Moreover, it makes use of the parasitic capacitance of the switches and the transformer leakage inductance for soft switching. The use of half bridges makes the topology well suited for interleaved multiphase modular configurations as a means to increase the power level because the capacitor legs can be shared. This paper presents simulation and experimental results on an interleaved two-phase arrangement rated at 4.5 kW. Also discussed are the benefits of operating with an atypical duty ratio on the transformer and a preferred multiphase configuration to minimize capacitor ripple currents.

  6. Planar LTCC transformers for high voltage flyback converters.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schofield, Daryl (NASCENT Technology Inc. , Watertown, SD); Schare, Joshua M.; Glass, Sarah Jill; Roesler, Alexander William; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory; Slama, George (NASCENT Technology Inc. , Watertown, SD); Abel, Dave (NASCENT Technology Inc. , Watertown, SD)

    2007-06-01

    This paper discusses the design and use of low-temperature (850 C to 950 C) co-fired ceramic (LTCC) planar magnetic flyback transformers for applications that require conversion of a low voltage to high voltage (> 100V) with significant volumetric constraints. Measured performance and modeling results for multiple designs showed that the LTCC flyback transformer design and construction imposes serious limitations on the achievable coupling and significantly impacts the transformer performance and output voltage. This paper discusses the impact of various design factors that can provide improved performance by increasing transformer coupling and output voltage. The experiments performed on prototype units demonstrated LTCC transformer designs capable of greater than 2 kV output. Finally, the work investigated the effect of the LTCC microstructure on transformer insulation. Although this paper focuses on generating voltages in the kV range, the experimental characterization and discussion presented in this work applies to designs requiring lower voltage.

  7. Connected Buildings Interoperability Vision Webinar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Connected Buildings Interoperability Vision Webinar slides, by Kevin Lynn, U.S. Department of Energy, May 20, 2015.

  8. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Lawrence T. (Phoenix, AZ); McIver, III, John K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  9. Subsea pipeline connection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langner, C. G.

    1985-12-17

    A method and apparatus are provided for laying an offshore pipeline or flowline bundle to a deepwater subsea structure. The pipeline or flowline bundle is laid along a prescribed path, preferably U-shape, such that a pullhead at the terminus of the pipeline or flowline bundle falls just short of the subsea structure. A pull-in tool connected to the pipeline or flowline bundle by a short length of pull cable is then landed on and latched to the subsea structure, and the pipeline or flowline bundle is pulled up to the subsea structure by the pull-in tool and pull cable.

  10. Connecting | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingConcentrating Solar DeploymentOil Shale andConnecting

  11. ConnectingXfering.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingConcentrating Solar DeploymentOil Shale andConnecting5, 2013

  12. Connecting with SSH

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsCluster Compatibilitydefaultin Testing ConfigurationsConnecting with SSH

  13. Connecting | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsCluster Compatibilitydefaultin Testing ConfigurationsConnecting with

  14. Connection: July 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsCluster Compatibilitydefaultin Testing ConfigurationsConnecting withJuly

  15. Connection: June 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsCluster Compatibilitydefaultin Testing ConfigurationsConnecting

  16. Connections: All Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsCluster Compatibilitydefaultin Testing ConfigurationsConnectingCommunity

  17. Connections: August 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsCluster Compatibilitydefaultin TestingAugust 2013 Community Connections:

  18. Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hatch, Anson (Tracy, CA); Singh, Anup K. (Danville, CA)

    2012-04-24

    We report unique findings on the voltage dependence of protein exclusion from the pores of nanoporous polymer exclusion membranes. The pores are small enough that proteins are excluded from passage with low applied electric fields, but increasing the field enables proteins to pass through. The requisite field necessary for a change in exclusion is protein-specific with a correlation to protein size. The field-dependence of exclusion is important to consider for preconcentration applications. The ability to selectively gate proteins at exclusion membranes is also a promising means for manipulating and characterizing proteins. We show that field-gated exclusion can be used to selectively remove proteins from a mixture, or to selectively trap protein at one exclusion membrane in a series.

  19. Voltage-controlled entanglement and quantum-information transfer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    external gate voltage in our schemes. Moreover, proposed schemes are robust against the noise of system parameters. Authors: Lue Xinyou ; Zheng Lili 1 ; Wu, Jing 2 ; Zhan...

  20. Fault-induced delayed voltage recovery in a long inhomogeneous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article: Fault-induced delayed voltage recovery in a long inhomogeneous power-distribution feeder Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly...

  1. A multilevel voltage-source inverter with separate dc sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting, voltage balancing, fuel cell and photovoltaic utility systems interfacing, etc. The new M-level inverter consists of (M-1)2...

  2. Triple voltage dc-to-dc converter and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Gui-Jia (Knoxville, TN)

    2008-08-05

    A circuit and method of providing three dc voltage buses and transforming power between a low voltage dc converter and a high voltage dc converter, by coupling a primary dc power circuit and a secondary dc power circuit through an isolation transformer; providing the gating signals to power semiconductor switches in the primary and secondary circuits to control power flow between the primary and secondary circuits and by controlling a phase shift between the primary voltage and the secondary voltage. The primary dc power circuit and the secondary dc power circuit each further comprising at least two tank capacitances arranged in series as a tank leg, at least two resonant switching devices arranged in series with each other and arranged in parallel with the tank leg, and at least one voltage source arranged in parallel with the tank leg and the resonant switching devices, said resonant switching devices including power semiconductor switches that are operated by gating signals. Additional embodiments having a center-tapped battery on the low voltage side and a plurality of modules on both the low voltage side and the high voltage side are also disclosed for the purpose of reducing ripple current and for reducing the size of the components.

  3. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  4. Towards First Principles prediction of Voltage Dependences of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Voltage Dependences of ElectrolyteElectrolyte Interfacial Processes in Lithium Ion Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards First Principles prediction of...

  5. Sharp interface and voltage conservation in the phase field method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-07-14

    of rabbit ventricles, with a corresponding reduction in simulation time. ... applied to cardiac tissue modeling and examine voltage conservation when using this.

  6. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  7. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling Friday, August 29, 2014 Renewable energy is critical for the...

  8. Monolithically interconnected GaAs solar cells: A new interconnection technology for high voltage solar cell output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinetta, L.C.; Hannon, M.H.

    1995-10-01

    Photovoltaic linear concentrator arrays can benefit from high performance solar cell technologies being developed at AstroPower. Specifically, these are the integration of thin GaAs solar cell and epitaxial lateral overgrowth technologies with the application of monolithically interconnected solar cell (MISC) techniques. This MISC array has several advantages which make it ideal for space concentrator systems. These are high system voltage, reliable low cost monolithically formed interconnections, design flexibility, costs that are independent of array voltage, and low power loss from shorts, opens, and impact damage. This concentrator solar cell will incorporate the benefits of light trapping by growing the device active layers over a low-cost, simple, PECVD deposited silicon/silicon dioxide Bragg reflector. The high voltage-low current output results in minimal 12R losses while properly designing the device allows for minimal shading and resistance losses. It is possible to obtain open circuit voltages as high as 67 volts/cm of solar cell length with existing technology. The projected power density for the high performance device is 5 kW/m for an AMO efficiency of 26% at 1 5X. Concentrator solar cell arrays are necessary to meet the power requirements of specific mission platforms and can supply high voltage power for electric propulsion systems. It is anticipated that the high efficiency, GaAs monolithically interconnected linear concentrator solar cell array will enjoy widespread application for space based solar power needs. Additional applications include remote man-portable or ultra-light unmanned air vehicle (UAV) power supplies where high power per area, high radiation hardness and a high bus voltage or low bus current are important. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. There is also a high potential for a large number of consumer products.

  9. Power converter connection configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C. (Wauwatosa, WI); Kehl, Dennis L. (Milwaukee, WI); Gettelfinger, Lee A. (Brown Deer, WI); Kaishian, Steven C. (Milwaukee, WI); Phillips, Mark G. (Brookfield, WI); Radosevich, Lawrence D. (Muskego, WI)

    2008-11-11

    EMI shielding is provided for power electronics circuits and the like via a direct-mount reference plane support and shielding structure. The thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support forms a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  10. Stability issues in IC Low Drop Out voltage regulators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chava, Krishna Chaitanya

    2002-01-01

    . The problem of instability of the LDO voltage regulator at low Electo Static Resistance (ESR) of the load capacitors and the consequences of this problem are highlighted. As a solution to some of the discussed problems, an alternate LDO voltage regulator...

  11. CLNS 03/1827 VERY HIGH VOLTAGE PHOTOEMISSION ELECTRON GUNS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLNS 03/1827 VERY HIGH VOLTAGE PHOTOEMISSION ELECTRON GUNS* Charles K. Sinclair # , Cornell voltage DC electron guns with photoemission cathodes are a natural choice for generating the beams gradient in these guns. The photocathode operational lifetime is limited by the gun vacuum and by ion back

  12. Aalborg Universitet Secondary Control for Voltage Quality Enhancement in Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Secondary Control for Voltage Quality Enhancement in Microgrids Savaghebi). Secondary Control for Voltage Quality Enhancement in Microgrids. I E E E Transactions on Smart Grid, 3 in Microgrids," Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on , vol.3, no.4, pp.1893-1902, Dec. 2012. doi: 10.1109/TSG.2012

  13. Measurement of high voltage using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrego, Celestino Pete

    2007-04-25

    A novel variation of Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) has been utilized to measure a high voltage collected on an aluminum target by Direct Energy Conversion. The maximum high voltage on the target was measured to be 97.5 kV +/- 2 k...

  14. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1996-10-15

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 figs.

  15. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage put under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  16. Bonfire-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Morton L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it bonfire-safe includes a first layer of an explosive charge of CP, or a primary explosive, and a second layer of a secondary organic explosive charge, such as PETN, which has a degradation temperature lower than the autoignition temperature of the CP or primary explosives. The first layer is composed of a pair of increments disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to and in contact with an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The second layer is composed of a plurality of increments disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to and in contact with the first layer on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first layer is loaded under a sufficient high pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to achieve ignition, whereas the second layer is loaded under a sufficient low pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. Each increment of the first and second layers has an axial length-to-diameter ratio of one-half.

  17. Bonfire-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it bonfire-safe includes a first layer of an explosive charge of CP, or a primary explosive, and a second layer of a secondary organic explosive charge, such as PETN, which has a degradation temperature lower than the autoignition temperature of the CP or primary explosives. The first layer is composed of a pair of increments disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to and in contact with an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The second layer is composed of a plurality of increments disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to and in contact with the first layer on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first layer is loaded under a sufficient high pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to achieve ignition, whereas the second layer is loaded under a sufficient low pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. Each increment of the first and second layers has an axial length-to-diameter ratio of one-half. 2 figs.

  18. Spark-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Morton L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it spark-safe ncludes an organic secondary explosive charge of HMX in the form of a thin pad disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The pad of secondary charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter. The explosive column also includes a first explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in the ignition region of the explosive column next to the secondary charge pad on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to provide mechanical confinement of the pad of secondary charge and physical coupling thereof with the ignition device. The explosive column further includes a second explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to the first CP charge on a side opposite from the pad of secondary charge. The second CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. The first explosive CP charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter, whereas the second explosive CP charge contains a series of increments (nominally 4) each of which has an axial thickness-to-diameter ratio of one to two.

  19. Equalizer system and method for series connected energy storing devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean (Saint-Luc, CA); Comte, Christophe (Montreal, CA); Hagen, Ronald A. (Stillwater, MN); Knudson, Orlin B. (Vadnais Heights, MN); Morin, Andre (Longueuil, CA); Ross, Guy (Beloeil, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for regulating the charge voltage of a number of electrochemical cells connected in series is disclosed. Equalization circuitry is provided to control the amount of charge current supplied to individual electrochemical cells included within the series string of electrochemical cells without interrupting the flow of charge current through the series string. The equalization circuitry balances the potential of each of the electrochemical cells to within a pre-determined voltage setpoint tolerance during charging, and, if necessary, prior to initiating charging. Equalization of cell potentials may be effected toward the end of a charge cycle or throughout the charge cycle. Overcharge protection is also provided for each of the electrochemical cells coupled to the series connection. During a discharge mode of operation in accordance with one embodiment, the equalization circuitry is substantially non-conductive with respect to the flow of discharge current from the series string of electrochemical cells. In accordance with another embodiment, equalization of the series string of cells is effected during a discharge cycle.

  20. High voltage dc--dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1995-05-23

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 Figs.

  1. High voltage dc-dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  2. Real Time Selective Harmonic Minimization for Multilevel Inverters Connected to Solar Panels Using Artificial Neural Network Angle Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    Real Time Selective Harmonic Minimization for Multilevel Inverters Connected to Solar Panels Using varying DC input sources. Five 195 W solar panels were used as the DC source for each full bridge cells or solar panels and will consequently bring a voltage unbalance depending on the system dynamics

  3. Electro-optic voltage sensor with beam splitting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K. (Cornelius, OR); Renak, Todd W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davidson, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Crawford, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    The invention is a miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages without use of the dedicated voltage dividing hardware typically found in the prior art. The invention achieves voltage measurement without significant error contributions from neighboring conductors or environmental perturbations. The invention employs a transmitter, a sensor, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor. Within the sensor the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect produces a modulation of the beam's polarization, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent conversely-amplitude-modulated signals, from which the voltage of the E-field is determined by the signal processor. The use of converse AM signals enables the signal processor to better distinguish signal from noise. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  4. Electro-optic voltage sensor with Multiple Beam Splitting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K. (Cornelius, OR); Renak, Todd W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Crawford, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davidson, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages without use of the dedicated voltage dividing hardware. The invention achieves voltage measurement without significant error contributions from neighboring conductors or environmental perturbations. The invention employs a transmitter, a sensor, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor. Within the sensor the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect produces a modulation of the beam's polarization, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent conversely-amplitude-modulated signals, from which the voltage of the E-field is determined by the signal processor. The use of converse AM signals enables the signal processor to better distinguish signal from noise. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  5. Spark-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it spark-safe includes an organic secondary explosive charge of HMX in the form of a thin pad disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The pad of secondary charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter. The explosive column also includes a first explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in the ignition region of the explosive column next to the secondary charge pad on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to provide mechanical confinement of the pad of secondary charge and physical coupling thereof with the ignition device. The explosive column further includes a second explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to the first CP charge on a side opposite from the pad of secondary charge. The second CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. The first explosive CP charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter, whereas the second explosive CP charge contains a series of increments (nominally 4), each of which has an axial thickness-to-diameter ratio of one to two. 2 figs.

  6. Calculation and measurement of a neutral air flow velocity impacting a high voltage capacitor with asymmetrical electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malík, M., E-mail: michal.malik@tul.cz; Primas, J.; Kopecký, V.; Svoboda, M. [Faculty of Mechatronics, Informatics and Interdisciplinary Studies, Technical University of Liberec, Liberec, 461 17 (Czech Republic)] [Faculty of Mechatronics, Informatics and Interdisciplinary Studies, Technical University of Liberec, Liberec, 461 17 (Czech Republic)

    2014-01-15

    This paper deals with the effects surrounding phenomenon of a mechanical force generated on a high voltage asymmetrical capacitor (the so called Biefeld-Brown effect). A method to measure this force is described and a formula to calculate its value is also given. Based on this the authors derive a formula characterising the neutral air flow velocity impacting an asymmetrical capacitor connected to high voltage. This air flow under normal circumstances lessens the generated force. In the following part this velocity is measured using Particle Image Velocimetry measuring technique and the results of the theoretically calculated velocity and the experimentally measured value are compared. The authors found a good agreement between the results of both approaches.

  7. Diverless flowline connection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, D.S.

    1996-12-31

    The tie-in of flowlines and umbilicals to subsea trees and manifolds in deep water has traditionally been an expensive exercise. It generally requires the simultaneous presence of lay vessel and drill ship, or divers using a combination of rigging and gantries on the subsea structure. In recent years the development of a viable remote pull-in technique has become an important requirement for oil companies who are continuing to develop deeper and more marginal fields. The use of Remote Operated Vehicles (ROV`s) can not only provide the required costs savings, but eliminates the risks to man. Sonsub set out to design and build a system that was modular, could use the ROV for all subsea operations, and would only require minimal permanent subsea hardware support. These objectives were met with the completed system known as the Diverless Flowline Connection System (DFCS). The DFCS is capable of performing the tie-in of flowlines and umbilicals up to 18 in. O.D. The system is a light modular package that is easily handled and operated with any Work Class ROV in deepwater environments. The system has been extensively tested under a wide variety of conditions and is ready to perform the tie-in of two 13.5 in. and 6 in. flowline in the South China Sea in early 1996. In addition Sonsub have recently been contracted to perform the tie-in of 6 single bore flowlines ranging in size between 2.5 in. and 10 in., 14 multibore flowlines (2.5 in. and 8 in.) and 4 umbilicals in the North Sea off the coast of Norway.

  8. IEEE 342 Node Low Voltage Networked Test System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Phanivong, Phillippe K.; Lacroix, Jean-Sebastian

    2014-07-31

    The IEEE Distribution Test Feeders provide a benchmark for new algorithms to the distribution analyses community. The low voltage network test feeder represents a moderate size urban system that is unbalanced and highly networked. This is the first distribution test feeder developed by the IEEE that contains unbalanced networked components. The 342 node Low Voltage Networked Test System includes many elements that may be found in a networked system: multiple 13.2kV primary feeders, network protectors, a 120/208V grid network, and multiple 277/480V spot networks. This paper presents a brief review of the history of low voltage networks and how they evolved into the modern systems. This paper will then present a description of the 342 Node IEEE Low Voltage Network Test System and power flow results.

  9. IMPACT OF DYNAMIC VOLTAGE SCALING (DVS) ON CIRCUIT OPTIMIZATION 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esquit Hernandez, Carlos A.

    2010-01-16

    Circuit designers perform optimization procedures targeting speed and power during the design of a circuit. Gate sizing can be applied to optimize for speed, while Dual-VT and Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) can be applied to optimize for leakage...

  10. High frequency AC power converter for low voltage circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salazar, Nathaniel Jay Tobias

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel AC power delivery architecture that is suitable for VHF frequency (50-100MHz) polyphase AC/DC power conversion in low voltage integrated circuits. A complete AC power delivery architecture was ...

  11. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chorpening, Benjamin T. (Morgantown, WV); Thornton, Jimmy D. (Morgantown, WV); Huckaby, E. David (Morgantown, WV); Fincham, William (Fairmont, WV)

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  12. Modeling the operating voltage of liquid metal battery cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newhouse, Jocelyn Marie

    2014-01-01

    A one-dimensional, integrative model of the voltage during liquid metal battery operation has been developed to enhance the understanding of performance at the cell level. Two liquid metal batteries were studied: Mg-Sb for ...

  13. Unravelling the Performance Degradation Mechanisms in High-voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unravelling the Performance Degradation Mechanisms in High-voltage Lithium-ion Battery Composite Oxide Electrodes Apr 11 2014 02:00 PM - 03:00 PM Debasish Mohanty, ORNL, Oak Ridge...

  14. Design & Fabrication of a High-Voltage Photovoltaic Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felder, Jennifer; /North Carolina State U. /SLAC

    2012-09-05

    Silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells are alternative energy sources that are important in sustainable power generation. Currently, applications of PV cells are limited by the low output voltage and somewhat low efficiency of such devices. In light of this fact, this project investigates the possibility of fabricating high-voltage PV cells on float-zone silicon wafers having output voltages ranging from 50 V to 2000 V. Three designs with different geometries of diffusion layers were simulated and compared in terms of metal coverage, recombination, built-in potential, and conduction current density. One design was then chosen and optimized to be implemented in the final device design. The results of the simulation serve as a feasibility test for the design concept and provide supportive evidence of the effectiveness of silicon PV cells as high-voltage power supplies.

  15. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Eitouni, Hany; Yang, Jin; Pratt, Russell; Wang, Xiao; Grape, Ulrik The purpose of this project was for Seeo to develop a...

  16. High-voltage air-core pulse transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohwein, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    General types of air core pulse transformers designed for high voltage pulse generation and energy transfer applications are discussed with special emphasis on pulse charging systems which operate up to the multi-megavolt range. The design, operation, dielectric materials, and performance are described. It is concluded that high voltage air core pulse transformers are best suited to applications outside the normal ranges of conventional magnetic core transformers. In general these include charge transfer at high power levels and fast pulse generation with comparatively low energy. When properly designed and constructed, they are capable of delivering high energy transfer efficiency and have demonstrated superior high voltage endurance. The principal disadvantage of high voltage air core transformers is that they are not generally available from commercial sources. Consequently, the potential user must become thoroughly familiar with all aspects of design, fabrication and system application before he can produce a high performance transformer system. (LCL)

  17. Fusing strategies for the dual-voltage fault

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrivastava, Rupam, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the 42V - 14V fault in a dual voltage system and discusses the possibility of effective fusing. A simple model for the system had been created from technical documentation. Based on the model and the ...

  18. Voltage Dependent Charge Storage Modes and Capacity in Subnanometer Pores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Rui; Meunier, V.; Huang, Jingsong; Wu, Peng; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2012-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that charge storage in subnanometer pores follows a distinct voltage-dependent behavior. Specifically, at lower voltages, charge storage is achieved by swapping co-ions in the pore with counterions in the bulk electrolyte. As voltage increases, further charge storage is due mainly to the removal of co-ions from the pore, leading to a capacitance increase. The capacitance eventually reaches a maximum when all co-ions are expelled from the pore. At even higher electrode voltages, additional charge storage is realized by counterion insertion into the pore, accompanied by a reduction of capacitance. The molecular mechanisms of these observations are elucidated and provide useful insight for optimizing energy storage based on supercapacitors.

  19. Measuring Helical FCG Voltage with an Electric Field Antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, A D; Anderson, R A; Javedani, J B; Reisman, D B; Goerz, D A; Ferriera, A J; Speer, R D

    2011-08-01

    A method of measuring the voltage produced by a helical explosive flux compression generator using a remote electric field antenna is described in detail. The diagnostic has been successfully implemented on several experiments. Measured data from the diagnostic compare favorably with voltages predicted using the code CAGEN, validating our predictive modeling tools. The measured data is important to understanding generator performance, and is measured with a low-risk, minimally intrusive approach.

  20. Micro helical polymeric structures produced by variable voltage direct electrospinning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. P. Shariatpanahi; A. Iraji zad; I. Abdollahzadeh; R. Shirsavar; D. Bonn; R. Ejtehadi

    2011-09-12

    Direct near field electrospinning is used to produce very long helical polystyrene microfibers in water. The pitch length of helices can be controlled by changing the applied voltage, allowing to produce both micro springs and microchannels. Using a novel high frequency variable voltage electrospinning method we found the helix formation speed and compared the experimental buckling frequency to theoretical expressions for viscous and elastic buckling. Finally we showed that the newmethod can be used to produce new periodic micro and nano structures.

  1. A PC-PCL-based control system for the high-voltage pulsed-power operation of the Intense Diagnostic Neutral Beam (IDNB) Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gribble, R.

    1993-06-01

    A stand-alone, semiautomated control system for the high-voltage pulsed-power energy sources on the Intense Diagnostic Neutral Beam Experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory using personal computer (PC) and programmable logic controller (PLC) technology has been developed and implemented. The control system, consisting of a PC with the graphic operator interface, the network connecting the PC to the PLC, the PLC, the PLC I/O modules, fiber-optic interfaces and software, is described.

  2. Repowering the void : negotiating connectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lammert, Emily Jane

    2008-01-01

    Rejecting the conception of building as island as reflected in American obsession with detached currently reinforced by Zero Energy Building, the thesis explores patterns of connectivity. largely results from insular ...

  3. Connectivity Constraints in Network Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yiming

    2015-08-06

    via polyhedral methods, in which we investigate the structure of (vertex)-connected subgraph polytope (CSP). One focus of this dissertation is on performing an extensive study of facets of CSP. We present the first systematic study of non...

  4. USDA Community Connect Program Grants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture is accepting applications to serve rural communities where broadband service is least likely to be available. The projects funded by the Community Connect Grants...

  5. Webinar: Connected Buildings Interoperability Vision

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) will present a live webinar titled Connected Buildings Interoperability Vision on May 20 from 2 p.m. to 3 p.m. EDT....

  6. Impact of Increasing Distributed Wind Power and Wind Turbine Siting on Rural Distribution Feeder Voltage Profiles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, A.; Zhang, Y. C.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-09-01

    Many favorable wind energy resources in North America are located in remote locations without direct access to the transmission grid. Building transmission lines to connect remotely-located wind power plants to large load centers has become a barrier to increasing wind power penetration in North America. By connecting utility-sized megawatt-scale wind turbines to the distribution system, wind power supplied to consumers could be increased greatly. However, the impact of including megawatt-scale wind turbines on distribution feeders needs to be studied. The work presented here examined the impact that siting and power output of megawatt-scale wind turbines have on distribution feeder voltage. This is the start of work to present a general guide to megawatt-scale wind turbine impact on the distribution feeder and finding the amount of wind power that can be added without adversely impacting the distribution feeder operation, reliability, and power quality.

  7. Low voltage supply system for the very front end readout electronics of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lustermann, W; Denes, P; Djambazov, L; Dröge, M; Faure, J L; Iliev, Bozhidar Z; Nanov, I; Raykov, P; Shivarov, N

    1999-01-01

    Low voltage supply system for the very front end readout electronics of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

  8. Requirements for a Standard Test to Rate the Durability of PV Modules at System Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.; Bennett, I.; Kloos, M.

    2011-02-01

    Degradation modes in photovoltaic modules under system bias voltage stress are described and classified.

  9. Ultra-Low Voltage VCO Design Using Schmitt Trigger on SOI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayers, Joseph

    Ultra-Low Voltage VCO Design Using Schmitt Trigger on SOI Kyung Ki Kim Department of Electrical trigger and an ultra low voltage current source on PD-SOI with low temperature and supply voltage oscillator based VCOs on SOI CMOS [4][5] have been reported. However, VCO with ultra low voltage less than 0

  10. Elevated voltage level I.sub.DDQ failure testing of integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Righter, Alan W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Burn in testing of static CMOS IC's is eliminated by I.sub.DDQ testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip.

  11. Voltage sensing in ion channels: Mesoscale simulations of biological devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peyser, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Electrical signaling via voltage-gated ion channels depends upon the function of a voltage sensor (VS), identified with the S1-S4 domain in voltage-gated K+ channels. Here we investigate some energetic aspects of the sliding-helix model of the VS using simulations based on VS charges, linear dielectrics and whole-body motion. Model electrostatics in voltage-clamped boundary conditions are solved using a boundary element method. The statistical mechanical consequences of the electrostatic configurational energy are computed to gain insight into the sliding-helix mechanism and to predict experimentally measured ensemble properties such as gating charge displaced by an applied voltage. Those consequences and ensemble properties are investigated for two alternate S4 configurations, \\alpha- and 3(10)-helical. Both forms of VS are found to have an inherent electrostatic stability. Maximal charge displacement is limited by geometry, specifically the range of movement where S4 charges and counter-charges overlap in t...

  12. Voltage control in pulsed system by predict-ahead control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, A.N.; Watson, J.A.; Sampayan, S.E.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus for predict-ahead pulse-to-pulse voltage control in a pulsed power supply system is disclosed. A DC power supply network is coupled to a resonant charging network via a first switch. The resonant charging network is coupled at a node to a storage capacitor. An output load is coupled to the storage capacitor via a second switch. A de-Q-ing network is coupled to the resonant charging network via a third switch. The trigger for the third switch is a derived function of the initial voltage of the power supply network, the initial voltage of the storage capacitor, and the present voltage of the storage capacitor. A first trigger closes the first switch and charges the capacitor. The third trigger is asserted according to the derived function to close the third switch. When the third switch is closed, the first switch opens and voltage on the node is regulated. The second trigger may be thereafter asserted to discharge the capacitor into the output load. 4 figs.

  13. Mobile Node Rostering In Intermittently Connected

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Hongyi

    under very harsh environments (underwater, underground tunnels, and extreme temperatures) #12;POSSIBLE Reader GR: Gateway Reader #12;UNIQUE CHALLENGES Intermittent connectivity: The connectivity of FINDERS

  14. Buildings Interoperability Planning: Connected Buildings Interoperabil...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Vision Context Steve Widergren PNNL 11 March 2015 Topics Purpose of meeting Buildings automation in the transformative time of connectivity Interoperability - a connected buildings...

  15. GROWDERS Demonstration of Grid Connected Electricity Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GROWDERS Demonstration of Grid Connected Electricity Systems (Smart Grid Project) (Spain) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name GROWDERS Demonstration of Grid Connected...

  16. A study of temperature compensating circuits for voltage references which use negative temperature coefficient zener diodes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coleman, Spencer Delano

    1961-01-01

    OF FIGURES Figure Page Zener Diode Voltage vs Current Characteristics. Zener Diode Breakdown Voltage vs Temperature Coefficient . 3a. 1N746 Zener Diode Voltage vs Current Character- istics in Breakdown Region 3b. 1N747 Zener Diode Voltage vs Current... Character- istics in Breakdown Region 10 3c. 1N748 Zener Diode Voltage vs Current Character- istics in Breakdown Region 3d. 1N749 Zener Diode Voltage vs Current Character- istics in Breakdown Region . 12 3e. IN750 Zener Diode Voltage vs Current...

  17. Spectral triples from bimodule connections and Chern connections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwin Beggs; Shahn Majid

    2015-09-03

    We give a geometrical construction of Connes spectral triples or noncommutative Dirac operators $D$ starting with a bimodule connection on the proposed spinor bundle. The theory is applied to the example of $M_2(\\Bbb C)$, and also applies to the standard $q$-sphere and the $q$-disk with the right classical limit and all properties holding except for $\\mathcal J$ now being a twisted isometry. We also describe a noncommutative Chern construction from holomorphic bundles which in the $q$-sphere case provides the relevant bimodule connection.

  18. Spectral triples from bimodule connections and Chern connections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beggs, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    We give a geometrical construction of Connes spectral triples or noncommutative Dirac operators $D$ starting with a bimodule connection on the proposed spinor bundle. The theory is applied to the example of $M_2(\\Bbb C)$, and also applies to the standard $q$-sphere and the $q$-disk with the right classical limit and all properties holding except for $\\mathcal J$ now being a twisted isometry. We also describe a noncommutative Chern construction from holomorphic bundles which in the $q$-sphere case provides the relevant bimodule connection.

  19. Voltage Impacts of Utility-Scale Distributed Wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, A.

    2014-09-01

    Although most utility-scale wind turbines in the United States are added at the transmission level in large wind power plants, distributed wind power offers an alternative that could increase the overall wind power penetration without the need for additional transmission. This report examines the distribution feeder-level voltage issues that can arise when adding utility-scale wind turbines to the distribution system. Four of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory taxonomy feeders were examined in detail to study the voltage issues associated with adding wind turbines at different distances from the sub-station. General rules relating feeder resistance up to the point of turbine interconnection to the expected maximum voltage change levels were developed. Additional analysis examined line and transformer overvoltage conditions.

  20. Digital measurement system for the LHC klystron high voltage modulator.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikkelsen, Anders

    Accelerating voltage in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is created by a means of 16 superconducting standing wave RF cavities, each fed by a 400MHz/300kW continuous wave klystron amplifier. Part of the upgrade program for the LHC long shutdown one is to replace the obsolete analogue current and voltage measurement circuitry located in the high voltage bunkers by a new, digital system, using ADCs and optical fibres. A digital measurement card is implemented and integrated into the current HV modulator oil tank (floating at -58kV) and interfaced to the existing digital VME boards collecting the data for several klystrons at the ground potential. Measured signals are stored for the logging, diagnostics and post-mortem analysis purposes.

  1. Low-voltage ultra-low-poweranalog IC design -djmamic translinearcircuits 1.3.1 1.3 Low-voltage ultra-low-power analog IC design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serdijn, Wouter A.

    Low-voltage ultra-low-poweranalog IC design -djmamic translinearcircuits 1.3.1 1.3 Low-voltage ultra-low-power analog IC design -dynamic translinear circuits 0 (rg G x m .- E . . . . . a r, a" P, 44' s" +N m - _ c o3 #12;Low-voltage ultra-low-power analog IC design -dynamic translinear circuits I

  2. Connected Lighting Systems Workshop Agenda | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Connected Lighting Systems Workshop Agenda Connected Lighting Systems Workshop Agenda Connected Lighting Systems Workshop Agenda 072415.pdf...

  3. High voltage switch triggered by a laser-photocathode subsystem

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Ping; Lundquist, Martin L.; Yu, David U. L.

    2013-01-08

    A spark gap switch for controlling the output of a high voltage pulse from a high voltage source, for example, a capacitor bank or a pulse forming network, to an external load such as a high gradient electron gun, laser, pulsed power accelerator or wide band radar. The combination of a UV laser and a high vacuum quartz cell, in which a photocathode and an anode are installed, is utilized as triggering devices to switch the spark gap from a non-conducting state to a conducting state with low delay and low jitter.

  4. Connecting curves for dynamical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Gilmore; Jean-Marc Ginoux; Timothy Jones; C. Letellier; U. S. Freitas

    2010-03-08

    We introduce one dimensional sets to help describe and constrain the integral curves of an $n$ dimensional dynamical system. These curves provide more information about the system than the zero-dimensional sets (fixed points) do. In fact, these curves pass through the fixed points. Connecting curves are introduced using two different but equivalent definitions, one from dynamical systems theory, the other from differential geometry. We describe how to compute these curves and illustrate their properties by showing the connecting curves for a number of dynamical systems.

  5. CREATIVE CONNECTIVITY: Exploring Tomorrowland's Technology Today

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Csikszentmihalyi, 1996) #12;CREATIVE EXAMPLES Periscope: leverage that connection-watch me demo a great way

  6. Connected Buildings Interoperability Vision Webinar (Text Version)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Below is the text version of the webinar Connected Buildings Interoperability Vision, presented in May 2015.

  7. PSEUDODIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS AND LINEAR CONNECTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Safarov, Yuri

    connection and constructed a 1991 Mathematics Subject Classification. 35S05, 58G30. Key words and phrases and Physical Science Research Council (grant B/93/AF/1559). Typeset by AMS-TEX 1 #12;2 Yu. SAFAROV version of symbolic calculus [W1], [W2]. More advanced results in this direction were ob- tained later in [FK3

  8. Mapping onto mesh connected multiprocessors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hangal, Prashant L

    1993-01-01

    solutions to the problem of task allocation in the context of a mesh connected parallel computer. We propose a mapping algorithm that is based on the Kernighan-Lin heuristic of vertex movement to reduce the cost of graph partition coupled with repeated...

  9. Hazard-free connection release 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Jennifer E.

    1997-01-01

    is terminated. This thesis focusses on protocols in which the end nodes retain no connection-specific information between incarnations, operating over networks that deliver packets in order and which may or may not lose packets in transit. A formal model...

  10. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) low cost generator design using power MOSFET and Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit as high voltage DC source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulaeman, M. Y.; Widita, R.

    2014-09-30

    Purpose: Non-ionizing radiation therapy for cancer using pulsed electric field with high intensity field has become an interesting field new research topic. A new method using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offers a novel means to treat cancer. Not like the conventional electroporation, nsPEFs able to create nanopores in all membranes of the cell, including membrane in cell organelles, like mitochondria and nucleus. NsPEFs will promote cell death in several cell types, including cancer cell by apoptosis mechanism. NsPEFs will use pulse with intensity of electric field higher than conventional electroporation, between 20–100 kV/cm and with shorter duration of pulse than conventional electroporation. NsPEFs requires a generator to produce high voltage pulse and to achieve high intensity electric field with proper pulse width. However, manufacturing cost for creating generator that generates a high voltage with short duration for nsPEFs purposes is highly expensive. Hence, the aim of this research is to obtain the low cost generator design that is able to produce a high voltage pulse with nanosecond width and will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Method: Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit will boost the input of 220 volt AC into high voltage DC around 1500 volt and it will be combined by a series of power MOSFET as a fast switch to obtain a high voltage with nanosecond pulse width. The motivation using Cockcroft-Walton multiplier is to acquire a low-cost high voltage DC generator; it will use capacitors and diodes arranged like a step. Power MOSFET connected in series is used as voltage divider to share the high voltage in order not to damage them. Results: This design is expected to acquire a low-cost generator that can achieve the high voltage pulse in amount of ?1.5 kV with falltime 3 ns and risetime 15 ns into a 50? load that will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Further detailed on the circuit design will be explained at presentation.

  11. Primary Voltage Control in Active Distribution Networks via Broadcast Signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diggavi, Suhas

    energy storage. We show that it is possible to use the same broadcast signal deployed for controlling) for real-time demand response developed by the authors in a previous contribution. We estimate the energy--Active distribution network, ancillary services, primary voltage control, electrical energy storage systems, broad

  12. Simplified VO M&V Protocol Simplified Voltage Optimization (VO)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    modeling is mentioned, it refers to using industry accepted distribution system power flow simulation tools the verification process. · Calculations of all system improvements (reduction of line losses and no-load lossesSimplified VO M&V Protocol 1 Simplified Voltage Optimization (VO) Measurement and Verification

  13. Smart Grid Voltage Sag Detection using Instantaneous Features Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    encountered power quality disturbances. Index Terms--Smart grid, voltage sag detection, power quality (PQ as the generation system is moved nearby the distribution level and this is achieved by using a set of micro grids grids are their availability, reliability, and profitability; in order to fulfill power demand according

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF BROADBAND LOW-VOLTAGE RF MEM SWITCHES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Shyh-Chiang

    DEVELOPMENT OF BROADBAND LOW-VOLTAGE RF MEM SWITCHES S.C. Shen, D. T. Becher, D. C. Caruth, and M)333-4054 Fax: (217) 244-6375 Abstract We present novel RF switches using micro-electro- mechanical (MEM) technology. These MEM switches are built on GaAs substrates using GaAs MESFET MMIC- compatible processes

  15. CompilerDirected Dynamic Voltage Scaling Based on Program Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kremer, Ulrich

    '' the degraded CPU performance behind the memory hierarchy accesses which are on the critical path. The compiler. processor that can operate over a wide voltage range. The operating system controls the processor speed user environment, but not in a multi­user environment where the CPU is scheduled across di#erent active

  16. Control and Protection Cooperation Strategy for Voltage Instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhe

    are caused by unexpected backup relay operations due to low voltage or overload state caused by post fault load restoration dynamics. If such state can be sensed and adjusted appropriately prior to those relay adopted to save the system from severe states. A test system is built in real time digital simulator (RTDS

  17. High Voltage DC Transmission 1.0 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    1 High Voltage DC Transmission 1.0 Introduction HVDC has been applied in electric power systems Supplier: ABB Railroa d DC Tie USA - Mission, TX 26°1001N9 8°1925W USA - Mission, TX 26°1001N9 8°1925W 21

  18. High Voltage DC Transmission 2 1.0 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    1 High Voltage DC Transmission 2 1.0 Introduction Interconnecting HVDC within an AC system requires conversion from AC to DC and inversion from DC to AC. We refer to the circuits which provide conversion from AC to DC as rectifiers and the circuits which provide conversion from DC to AC as inverters. The term

  19. Chronic Benzodiazepine Administration Potentiates High Voltage-Activated Calcium Currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham, Nader G.

    effects from drug withdrawal phenomena to dependence on a variety of drugs of abuse. High voltage benzodiazepine physical dependence. Benzodiazepines, a group of positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors legitimate prescription of benzodiazepines increases the proportion of patients who develop dependence

  20. Topical Review Voltage Dependence of the Na/K Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gadsby, David

    Topical Review Voltage Dependence of the Na/K Pump R.F. Rakowski1 , D.C. Gadsby2 , P. De Weer3 1, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA Received: 2 August 1996/Revised: 13 September 1996 Introduction Whether Na/K pump & Rakowski, 1988). While it follows from first principles that the rate of net forward Na/K pumping must

  1. Coupled Dual Interleaved Flyback Converter for High Input Voltage Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Brad

    proposed integrated boost converters [7] that are beginning to see applications in automotive power buck-boost (Flyback) power converter [9,10] that utilizes one magnetic core to integrate two FlybackCoupled Dual Interleaved Flyback Converter for High Input Voltage Application Ting Qian, Brad

  2. Energy Optimization of Subthreshold-Voltage Sensor Network Processors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabal

    network processor results. This design, accompanied by bulk-silicon solar cells for energy scavenging, hasEnergy Optimization of Subthreshold-Voltage Sensor Network Processors Leyla Nazhandali, Bo ZhaiV and be- low) lends itself well to the performance and energy demands of sensor network processors

  3. Load Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks using Kirchhoff's Voltage Law

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toumpis, Stavros

    Load Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks using Kirchhoff's Voltage Law Stavros Toumpis Electrical balancing in wireless networks with a single class of traffic, focusing our attention on an important example, i.e., Wireless Sensor Networks. The analysis is based on the Wireless Minimum Cost Problem

  4. Enhanced Archaerhodopsin Fluorescent Protein Voltage Yiyang Gong1,2*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrari, Silvia

    Enhanced Archaerhodopsin Fluorescent Protein Voltage Indicators Yiyang Gong1,2* , Jin Zhong Li1 by nearly three-fold in comparison to Arch-D95N. Citation: Gong Y, Li JZ, Schnitzer MJ (2013) Enhanced; Published June 19, 2013 Copyright: © 2013 Gong et al. This is an open-access article distributed under

  5. Energy Efficiency in Low Voltage Hall Thrusters Jerry L. Ross

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Lyon B.

    Energy Efficiency in Low Voltage Hall Thrusters Jerry L. Ross Lyon B. King Energy efficiency/s of xenon. Acceleration and current efficiencies were compared to thrust efficiency over a range of magnet coil current values of 0 A - 2.5 A. Acceleration efficiencies were obtained with a 4-grid Retarding

  6. Standby Voltage Scaling for Reduced Power B. Calhoun, A. Chandrakasan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calhoun, Benton H.

    Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA Abstract Lowering VDD during standby mode leakage, gate leakage, GIDL, and forward biased diode leak- age[2]. At the 0.13 m technology node to pinch in the rail voltages during standby[5]. The quantity and sizes of the devices used in the diode

  7. Low Beam Voltage, 10 MW, L-Band Cluster Klystron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teryaev, V.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Yakovlev, V.P.; /Fermilab; Kazakov, S.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Hirshfield, J.L.; /Yale U. /Omega-P, New Haven

    2009-05-01

    Conceptual design of a multi-beam klystron (MBK) for possible ILC and Project X applications is presented. The chief distinction between this MBK design and existing 10-MW MBK's is the low operating voltage of 60 kV. There are at least four compelling reasons that justify development at this time of a low-voltage MBK, namely (1) no pulse transformer; (2) no oil tank for high-voltage components and for the tube socket; (3) no high-voltage cables; and (4) modulator would be a compact 60-kV IGBT switching circuit. The proposed klystron consists of four clusters containing six beams each. The tube has common input and output cavities for all 24 beams, and individual gain cavities for each cluster. A closely related optional configuration, also for a 10 MW tube, would involve four totally independent cavity clusters with four independent input cavities and four 2.5 MW output ports, all within a common magnetic circuit. This option has appeal because the output waveguides would not require a controlled atmosphere, and because it would be easier to achieve phase and amplitude stability as required in individual SC accelerator cavities.

  8. Optical Spectra of the High Voltage Erosive Water Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pirozerski, A L

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper kinetics of emission spectra of the high voltage erosive water discharge at near ultraviolet and visible spectral ranges has been investigated. Obtained results show a similarity of physical properties of this discharge (and of corresponding plasmoids) to that of some other types of erosional discharges which also result in the formation of dust-gas fireballs.

  9. Ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goerz, David A. (Brentwood, CA); Wilson, Michael J. (Modesto, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator includes individual high-performance components that are closely coupled and integrated into an extremely compact assembly. In one embodiment, a repetitively-switched, ultra-compact Marx generator includes low-profile, annular-shaped, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors with contoured edges and coplanar extended electrodes used for primary energy storage; low-profile, low-inductance, high-voltage, pressurized gas switches with compact gas envelopes suitably designed to be integrated with the annular capacitors; feed-forward, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors attached across successive switch-capacitor-switch stages to couple the necessary energy forward to sufficiently overvoltage the spark gap of the next in-line switch; optimally shaped electrodes and insulator surfaces to reduce electric field stresses in the weakest regions where dissimilar materials meet, and to spread the fields more evenly throughout the dielectric materials, allowing them to operate closer to their intrinsic breakdown levels; and uses manufacturing and assembly methods to integrate the capacitors and switches into stages that can be arranged into a low-profile Marx generator.

  10. Power Grid Voltage Integrity Verification Department of ECE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Power Grid Voltage Integrity Verification Maha Nizam Department of ECE University of Toronto devgan@magma-da.com ABSTRACT Full-chip verification requires one to check if the power grid is safe, i of the circuit attached to the grid, thereby precluding early verification of the grid. We propose a power grid

  11. Connect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingConcentrating Solar DeploymentOil Shale and Oil Sands

  12. High-output microwave detector using voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiota, Yoichi Suzuki, Yoshishige; Miwa, Shinji; Tamaru, Shingo; Nozaki, Takayuki; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji

    2014-11-10

    We investigated the voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) with various DC bias voltage and input RF power in magnetic tunnel junctions. We found that the DC bias monotonically increases the homodyne detection voltage due to the nonlinear FMR originating in an asymmetric magnetization-potential in the free layer. In addition, the linear increase of an output voltage to the input RF power in the voltage-induced FMR is more robust than that in spin-torque FMR. These characteristics enable us to obtain an output voltage more than ten times than that of microwave detectors using spin-transfer torque.

  13. Connections for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collie, Jeffrey C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1999-01-01

    A connection for fuel cell assemblies is disclosed. The connection includes compliant members connected to individual fuel cells and a rigid member connected to the compliant members. Adjacent bundles or modules of fuel cells are connected together by mechanically joining their rigid members. The compliant/rigid connection permits construction of generator fuel cell stacks from basic modular groups of cells of any desired size. The connections can be made prior to installation of the fuel cells in a generator, thereby eliminating the need for in-situ completion of the connections. In addition to allowing pre-fabrication, the compliant/rigid connections also simplify removal and replacement of sections of a generator fuel cell stack.

  14. Novel techniques for fault location, voltage profile calculation and visualization of transients 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evrenosoglu, Cansin Yaman

    2009-05-15

    techniques of voltage profiles along transmission lines. A simple yet effective approach to accurately and rapidly obtain the voltage profile along a transmission line during fault transients is presented. The objective of the presented method is to eliminate...

  15. Voltage and Timing Adaptation for Variation and Aging Tolerance in Nanometer VLSI Circuits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shim, Kyu-Nam 1978-

    2012-09-10

    . Adaptive supply voltage (ASV) is one of the effective adaptation approaches for power-performance tuning. ASV has advantages on controlling dynamic and leakage power, while voltage generation and delivery overheads from conventional ASV systems make...

  16. Switched-capacitor step-down rectifier for low-voltage power conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Wei

    This paper presents a switched-capacitor rectifier that provides step down voltage conversion from an ac input voltage to a dc output. Coupled with current-drive source, low-loss and high step-down rectification is realized. ...

  17. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages - Motor Tip Sheet #9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    Motors are designed to operate within +/- 10% of their nameplate rated voltages. When motors operate at conditions of over- or under-voltage, motor efficiency and other performance parameters are degraded.

  18. Voltage Control of Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation using Reactive Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    , photovoltaics, and synchronous generators. I. INTRODUCTION Penetration of DG into distribution network in terms of voltage profile improvement, line-loss reduction, and environmental impact reductionVoltage Control of Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation using Reactive Power

  19. Incorporating voltage security into the planning, operation and monitoring of restructured electric energy markets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Nirmal-Kumar

    2006-04-12

    state voltage stability index to detect potential dynamic voltage collapse. Finally, this dissertation examines developments in representation, standardization, communication and exchange of power system data. Power system data is the key input to all...

  20. Interline photovoltaic (I-PV) power plants for voltage unbalance compensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moawwad, Ahmed

    This paper proposes a stationary-frame control method for voltage unbalance compensation using Interline Photovoltaic (I-PV) power system. I-PV power systems are controlled to compensate voltage unbalance autonomously. The ...

  1. Importance of the Equlibrium Node in Preventing the Voltage Collapse Occurs in the Wind Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    or insufficient reactive power supplies may also contribute to voltage collapse and blackouts. In recent years, the voltage collapse or blackouts have occurred worldwide, such as the blackout in France at 1978 and blackout

  2. Optimal Distributed Voltage Regulation in Power Distribution Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam, Albert Y S; Dominguez-Garcia, Alejandro; Tse, David

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of voltage regulation in power distribution networks with deep-penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs), e.g., renewable-based generation, and storage-capable loads such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. We cast the problem as an optimization program, where the objective is to minimize the losses in the network subject to constraints on bus voltage magnitudes, limits on active and reactive power injections, transmission line thermal limits and losses. We provide sufficient conditions under which the optimization problem can be solved via its convex relaxation. Using data from existing networks, we show that the conditions are expected to be satisfied by most networks. We also provide an efficient distributed algorithm to solve the problem. The algorithm is asynchronous, with a communication topology that is the same as the electrical network topology. We illustrate the algorithm's performance in the IEEE 34-bus and the 123-bus feeder test systems.

  3. Intermodulation electrostatic force microscopy for imaging surface photo-voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borgani, Riccardo Forchheimer, Daniel; Thorén, Per-Anders; Haviland, David B.; Bergqvist, Jonas; Inganäs, Olle

    2014-10-06

    We demonstrate an alternative to Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for imaging surface potential. The open-loop, single-pass technique applies a low-frequency AC voltage to the atomic force microscopy tip while driving the cantilever near its resonance frequency. Frequency mixing due to the nonlinear capacitance gives intermodulation products of the two drive frequencies near the cantilever resonance, where they are measured with high signal to noise ratio. Analysis of this intermodulation response allows for quantitative reconstruction of the contact potential difference. We derive the theory of the method, validate it with numerical simulation and a control experiment, and we demonstrate its utility for fast imaging of the surface photo-voltage on an organic photo-voltaic material.

  4. Analysis of Solar Cell Quality Using Voltage Metrics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toberer, E. S.; Tamboli, A. C.; Steiner, M.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-06-01

    The highest efficiency solar cells provide both excellent voltage and current. Of these, the open-circuit voltage (Voc) is more frequently viewed as an indicator of the material quality. However, since the Voc also depends on the band gap of the material, the difference between the band gap and the Voc is a better metric for comparing material quality of unlike materials. To take this one step further, since Voc also depends on the shape of the absorption edge, we propose to use the ultimate metric: the difference between the measured Voc and the Voc calculated from the external quantum efficiency using a detailed balance approach. This metric is less sensitive to changes in cell design and definition of band gap. The paper defines how to implement this metric and demonstrates how it can be useful in tracking improvements in Voc, especially as Voc approaches its theoretical maximum.

  5. Magnetic shielding of Hall thrusters at high discharge voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G., E-mail: Ioannis.G.Mikellides@jpl.nasa.gov; Hofer, Richard R.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    2014-08-07

    A series of numerical simulations and experiments have been performed to assess the effectiveness of magnetic shielding in a Hall thruster operating in the discharge voltage range of 300–700?V (I{sub sp}???2000–2700?s) at 6?kW, and 800?V (I{sub sp} ? 3000) at 9?kW. At 6?kW, the magnetic field topology with which highly effective magnetic shielding was previously demonstrated at 300?V has been retained for all other discharge voltages; only the magnitude of the field has been changed to achieve optimum thruster performance. It is found that magnetic shielding remains highly effective for all discharge voltages studied. This is because the channel is long enough to allow hot electrons near the channel exit to cool significantly upon reaching the anode. Thus, despite the rise of the maximum electron temperature in the channel with discharge voltage, the electrons along the grazing lines of force remain cold enough to eliminate or reduce significantly parallel gradients of the plasma potential near the walls. Computed maximum erosion rates in the range of 300–700?V are found not to exceed 10{sup ?2}?mm/kh. Such rates are ?3 orders of magnitude less than those observed in the unshielded version of the same thruster at 300?V. At 9?kW and 800?V, saturation of the magnetic circuit did not allow for precisely the same magnetic shielding topology as that employed during the 6-kW operation since this thruster was not designed to operate at this condition. Consequently, the maximum erosion rate at the inner wall is found to be ?1 order of magnitude higher (?10{sup ?1}?mm/kh) than that at 6?kW. At the outer wall, the ion energy is found to be below the sputtering yield threshold so no measurable erosion is expected.

  6. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls - Building America Topa High BindingVoltage

  7. ME/AE/CompE/EE 378 Mechatronics VOLTAGE AMPLIFIER LABORATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landers, Robert G.

    be labeled and contain units, and diagrams must be drawn with a software package. Table 1: Voltage Amplifier

  8. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC) either from a device side of the IC or through the IC substrate to locate any open-circuit or short-circuit defects therein. The TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the IC while scanning a focused laser beam over electrical conductors (i.e. a patterned metallization) in the IC to produce localized heating of the conductors. This localized heating produces a thermoelectric potential due to the Seebeck effect in any conductors with open-circuit defects and a resistance change in any conductors with short-circuit defects, both of which alter the power demand by the IC and thereby change the voltage of a source or power supply providing the constant-current biasing. By measuring the change in the supply voltage and the position of the focused and scanned laser beam over time, any open-circuit or short-circuit defects in the IC can be located and imaged. The TIVA apparatus can be formed in part from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of ICs.

  9. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for analysis of microelectromechanical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walraven, Jeremy A. (Albuquerque, NM); Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device with or without on-board integrated circuitry. One embodiment of the TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the MEM device while scanning a focused laser beam over electrically-active members therein to produce localized heating which alters the power demand of the MEM device and thereby changes the voltage of the constant-current source. This changing voltage of the constant-current source can be measured and used in combination with the position of the focused and scanned laser beam to generate an image of any short-circuit defects in the MEM device (e.g. due to stiction or fabrication defects). In another embodiment of the TIVA apparatus, an image can be generated directly from a thermoelectric potential produced by localized laser heating at the location of any short-circuit defects in the MEM device, without any need for supplying power to the MEM device. The TIVA apparatus can be formed, in part, from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of MEM devices.

  10. PPPL Guest Network Connections Information Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : PPPL-Guest · After connecting to the PPPL-Guest network, open a web browser to register your device

  11. Performance Characteristics Of The Reduced Common Mode Voltage Near State PWM Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hava, Ahmet

    induction and permanent magnet machines are driven through three-phase Voltage Source Inverters (VSI) which to generate the required output voltages. Conventional Continuous PWM (CPWM) methods such as Space Vector PWM with rather smaller IGBT gate resistances), and high DC bus voltage levels, the CMVs generated result

  12. Aalborg Universitet Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids Li, Chendan). Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids. In Proceedings of the 11th.aau.dk on: juli 07, 2015 #12;Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids Chendan Li

  13. Re-Dispatching Generation to Increase Power System Security Margin and Support Low Voltage Bus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Re-Dispatching Generation to Increase Power System Security Margin and Support Low Voltage Bus by re-dispatching generator outputs, using a normal vector found at a voltage collapse boundary or a low voltage boundary (LVB). This method uses the normal vector as an indicator to change the generation

  14. Voltage Utilization in Model Predictive Control for Michael Leuer, Joachim Bocker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    Voltage Utilization in Model Predictive Control for IPMSM Michael Leuer, Joachim B¨ocker Power (IPMSM). Besides the good dynamics, the utilization of the DC link voltage is important for these motor types. Since the MPC is able to utilize the available DC link voltage optimally, the MPC is superior

  15. Energy Minimization Using Multiple Supply Voltages Jui-Ming Chang and Massoud Pedram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Energy Minimization Using Multiple Supply Voltages Jui-Ming Chang and Massoud Pedram Department and energy costs of these level shifters must be taken into account when comparing a multiple-supply voltage a dynamic programming technique for solv- ing the multiple supply voltage scheduling problem in both non

  16. Low-Voltage Ride-Through Techniques for DFIG-Based Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Low-Voltage Ride-Through Techniques for DFIG-Based Wind Turbines: State-of-the-Art Review deals with low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability of wind turbines (WTs) and in particular those as to index some emerging solutions. Index Terms--Wind turbine, doubly-fed induction generator, low voltage

  17. Scaling Analysis of On-Chip Power Grid Voltage Variations in Nanometer Scale ULSI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Scaling Analysis of On-Chip Power Grid Voltage Variations in Nanometer Scale ULSI AMIR H. AJAMI, 1 be insufficient to limit the voltage fluctuations over the power grid for future technologies. It is also shown voltage drop in the power grid may result in a functional failure in dynamic logic and a timing violation

  18. Statistical Estimation of Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering Within-Die Process Variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Statistical Estimation of Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering Within-Die Process the power grid, the grid develops large voltage drops, which is an unavoidable background level of noise on the grid. We develop techniques for estimation of the statistics of the leakage-induced power grid voltage

  19. Statistical Estimation of Circuit Timing Vulnerability Due to Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Statistical Estimation of Circuit Timing Vulnerability Due to Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage voltage drops on the power grid that can affect circuit timing. We propose a statistical analysis supply voltage to circuit devices is referred to as the power grid. The consequences of power grid

  20. Statistical Estimation of LeakageInduced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering WithinDie Process Variations #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Statistical Estimation of Leakage­Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering Within­Die Process the power grid, the grid develops large voltage drops, which is an unavoidable background level of noise on the grid. We develop techniques for estimation of the statistics of the leakage­induced power grid voltage

  1. Hybrid Leakage and Voltage Reduction under EDF Scheduling Yifan Zhu Frank Mueller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Frank

    Hybrid Leakage and Voltage Reduction under EDF Scheduling Yifan Zhu Frank Mueller Department fabrication have resulted in an increasing need to conserve power of processors. While dynamic voltage scaling power. For such processors, voltage/frequency pairs below a critical speed result in higher power

  2. Throughput Analysis and Voltage-Frequency Island Partitioning for Streaming Applications under Process Variation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Throughput Analysis and Voltage-Frequency Island Partitioning for Streaming Applications under in video decoding) in a system with Voltage-Frequency Island (VFI) partitions in the presence of process of synchronous blocks, communicating with each other on an asynchronous basis. The concept of Voltage

  3. Energy-Aware Modeling and Scheduling of Real-Time Tasks for Dynamic Voltage Scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Cheng-Zhong

    scaling (DVS) is an effective approach to power reduction by scaling the processor voltage and frequency the voltage accordingly. On the other hand, a reduction of the operating frequency leads to an increaseEnergy-Aware Modeling and Scheduling of Real-Time Tasks for Dynamic Voltage Scaling Xiliang Zhong

  4. PreDVS: Preemptive Dynamic Voltage Scaling for Real-time Systems using Approximation Scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishra, Prabhat

    , dynamic voltage scal- ing, approximation algorithm 1. INTRODUCTION Energy conservation has been the main to save energy is that linear reduction in the supply voltage leads to approximately linear slow downPreDVS: Preemptive Dynamic Voltage Scaling for Real-time Systems using Approximation Scheme Weixun

  5. Energy-Aware Modeling and Scheduling for Dynamic Voltage Scaling with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Cheng-Zhong

    --Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) is a promising technique for battery-powered systems to conserve energy consumption reduction is based on dynamic voltage scaling (DVS), which exploits the super linear dependence of the power consumption of a CMOS processor on its operating voltage. However, a reduction of the operating frequency

  6. Dynamic Frequency and Voltage Control for a Multiple Clock Domain Microarchitecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dwarkadas, Sandhya

    Dynamic Frequency and Voltage Control for a Multiple Clock Domain Microarchitecture Greg Semeraro the fre- quency/voltage of a Multiple Clock Domain (MCD) mi- croarchitecture. The MCD microarchitecture allows the frequency/voltage of microprocessor regions to be adjusted independently and dynamically

  7. Tangle: Route-Oriented Dynamic Voltage Minimization for Variation-Afflicted, Energy-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torrellas, Josep

    Voltage EnergyperOperation 1.0V #12;Low-Voltage Operation Vdd reduction is one of the best leversTangle: Route-Oriented Dynamic Voltage Minimization for Variation-Afflicted, Energy- Efficient On for energy efficiency o Big reduction in dynamic power; also reduction in static power New technologies

  8. Leakage-Aware Energy Minimization using Dynamic Voltage Scaling and Cache

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishra, Prabhat

    takes the advantage of the fact that linear reduction in the supply voltage can quadrati- cally reduceLeakage-Aware Energy Minimization using Dynamic Voltage Scaling and Cache Reconfiguration in Real are widely used to improve energy efficiency as well as overall performance. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS

  9. DVSleak: Combining Leakage Reduction and Voltage Scaling in Feedback EDF Scheduling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Frank

    DVSleak: Combining Leakage Reduction and Voltage Scaling in Feedback EDF Scheduling Yifan Zhu Recent trends in CMOS fabrication have the demand to conserve power of processors. While dynamic voltage fabrication processes are increasingly dominated by static power. For such processors, voltage/frequency pairs

  10. College of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    College of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection 1 Dean's Message College of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection February 2011 Volume IX (3) Since the last COHS newsletter, the faculty Dr. Tim Dunnagan, Dean #12;Health Sciences Connection 2 College News College of Health Sciences

  11. The Cosmology - Particle Physics Connection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark Trodden

    2006-05-26

    Modern cosmology poses deep and unavoidable questions for fundamental physics. In this plenary talk, delivered in slightly different forms at the {\\it Particles and Nuclei International Conference} (PANIC05) in Santa Fe, in October 2005, and at the {\\it CMB and Physics of the Early Universe International Conference}, on the island of Ischia, Italy, in April 2006, I discuss the broad connections between cosmology and particle physics, focusing on physics at the TeV scale, accessible at the next and future generations of colliders

  12. Ongoing Space Physics - Astrophysics Connections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Eichler

    2005-03-16

    I review several ongoing connections between space physics and astrophysics: a) Measurements of energetic particle spectra have confirmed theoretical prediction of the highest energy to which shocks can accelerate particles, and this has direct bearing on the origin of the highest energy cosmic rays. b) Mass ejection in solar flares may help us understand photon ejection in the giant flares of magnetar outbursts. c) Measurements of electron heat fluxes in the solar wind can help us understand whether heat flux in tenuous astrophysical plasma is in accordance with the classical Spitzer-Harm formula or whether it is reduced well below this value by plasma instabilities.

  13. Connecting HPC and High Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsCluster Compatibilitydefaultin Testing Configurations AccountConnectHPC

  14. Consumer Connection | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar EnergyLawler,CoalConcordiaConsumer Connection Jump to: navigation, search

  15. Connective Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar EnergyLawler,CoalConcordia Electric Coop, Inc Place:ConfederationConnective

  16. Carbon Connections | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,Cammack Village, Arkansas: EnergyCounty,NewHatteras2Connections Jump to:

  17. Strategies for Voltage Control and Transient Stability Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    2013-09-25

    As wind generation grows, its influence on power system performance will becoming increasingly noticeable. Wind generation di#11;ffers from traditional forms of generation in numerous ways though, motivating the need to reconsider the usual approaches to power system assessment and performance enhancement. The project has investigated the impact of wind generation on transient stability and voltage control, identifying and addressing issues at three distinct levels of the power system: 1) at the device level, the physical characteristics of wind turbine generators (WTGs) are quite unlike those of synchronous machines, 2) at the wind-farm level, the provision of reactive support is achieved through coordination of numerous dissimilar devices, rather than straightforward generator control, and 3) from a systems perspective, the location of wind-farms on the sub-transmission network, coupled with the variability inherent in their power output, can cause complex voltage control issues. The project has sought to develop a thorough understanding of the dynamic behaviour of type-3 WTGs, and in particular the WECC generic model. The behaviour of such models is governed by interactions between the continuous dynamics of state variables and discrete events associated with limits. It was shown that these interactions can be quite complex, and may lead to switching deadlock that prevents continuation of the trajectory. Switching hysteresis was proposed for eliminating deadlock situations. Various type-3 WTG models include control blocks that duplicate integrators. It was shown that this leads to non-uniqueness in the conditions governing steady-state, and may result in pre- and post-disturbance equilibria not coinciding. It also gives rise to a zero eigenvalue in the linearized WTG model. In order to eliminate the anomalous behaviour revealed through this investigation, WECC has now released a new generic model for type-3 WTGs. Wind-farms typically incorporate a variety of voltage control equipment including tapchanging transformers, switched capacitors, SVCs, STATCOMs and the WTGs themselves. The project has considered the coordinated control of this equipment, and has addressed a range of issues that arise in wind-farm operation. The #12;first concerns the ability of WTGs to meet reactive power requirements when voltage saturation in the collector network restricts the reactive power availability of individual generators. Secondly, dynamic interactions between voltage regulating devices have been investigated. It was found that under certain realistic conditions, tap-changing transformers may exhibit instability. In order to meet cost, maintenance, fault tolerance and other requirements, it is desirable for voltage control equipment to be treated as an integrated system rather than as independent devices. The resulting high-level scheduling of wind-farm reactive support has been investigated. In addressing this control problem, several forms of future information were considered, including exact future knowledge and stochastic predictions. Deterministic and Stochastic Dynamic Programming techniques were used in the development of control algorithms. The results demonstrated that while exact future knowledge is very useful, simple prediction methods yield little bene#12;fit. The integration of inherently variable wind generation into weak grids, particularly subtransmission networks that are characterized by low X=R ratios, aff#11;ects bus voltages, regulating devices and line flows. The meshed structure of these networks adds to the complexity, especially when wind generation is distributed across multiple nodes. A range of techniques have been considered for analyzing the impact of wind variability on weak grids. Sensitivity analysis, based on the power-flow Jacobian, was used to highlight sections of a system that are most severely a#11;ffected by wind-power variations. A continuation power flow was used to determine parameter changes that reduce the impact of wind-power variability. It was also used to explore interactions betw

  18. Characterization of Multicrystalline Silicon Modules with System Bias Voltage Applied in Damp Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Kempe, M.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S.; Call, N.; Johnston, S.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-07-01

    As it is considered economically favorable to serially connect modules to build arrays with high system voltage, it is necessary to explore potential long-term degradation mechanisms the modules may incur under such electrical potential. We performed accelerated lifetime testing of multicrystalline silicon PV modules in 85 degrees C/ 85% relative humidity and 45 degrees C/ 30% relative humidity while placing the active layer in either positive or negative 600 V bias with respect to the grounded module frame. Negative bias applied to the active layer in some cases leads to more rapid and catastrophic module power degradation. This is associated with significant shunting of individual cells as indicated by electroluminescence, thermal imaging, and I-V curves. Mass spectroscopy results support ion migration as one of the causes. Electrolytic corrosion is seen occurring with the silicon nitride antireflective coating and silver gridlines, and there is ionic transport of metallization at the encapsulant interface observed with damp heat and applied bias. Leakage current and module degradation is found to be highly dependent upon the module construction, with factors such as encapsulant and front glass resistivity affecting performance. Measured leakage currents range from about the same seen in published reports of modules deployed in Florida (USA) and is accelerated to up to 100 times higher in the environmental chamber testing.

  19. An Ultra-Compact Marx-Type High-Voltage Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goerz, D; Ferriera, T; Nelson, D; Speer, R; Wilson, M

    2001-06-15

    This paper discusses the design of an ultra-compact, Marx-type, high-voltage generator. This system incorporates high-performance components that are closely coupled and integrated into an extremely compact assembly. Low profile, custom ceramic capacitors with coplanar extended electrodes provide primary energy storage. Low-inductance, spark-gap switches incorporate miniature gas cavities imbedded within the central region of the annular shaped capacitors, with very thin dielectric sections separating the energy storage capacitors. Carefully shaped electrodes and insulator surfaces are used throughout to minimize field enhancements, reduce fields at triple-point regions, and enable operation at stress levels closer to the intrinsic breakdown limits of the dielectric materials. Specially shaped resistors and inductors are used for charging and isolation during operation. Forward-coupling ceramic capacitors are connected across successive switch-capacitor-switch stages to assist in switching. Pressurized SF, gas is used for electrical insulation in the spark-gap switches and throughout the unit. The pressure housing is constructed entirely of dielectric materials, with segments that interlock with the low-profile switch bodies to provide an integrated support structure for all of the components. This ultra-compact Marx generator employs a modular design that can be sized as needed for a particular application. Units have been assembled with 4, 10, and 30 stages and operated at levels up to 100 kV per stage.

  20. Distributed Connectivity of Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halldorsson, Magnus M

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of constructing a communication infrastructure from scratch, for a collection of identical wireless nodes. Combinatorially, this means a) finding a set of links that form a strongly connected spanning graph on a set of $n$ points in the plane, and b) scheduling it efficiently in the SINR model of interference. The nodes must converge on a solution in a distributed manner, having no means of communication beyond the sole wireless channel. We give distributed connectivity algorithms that run in time $O(poly(\\log \\Delta, \\log n))$, where $\\Delta$ is the ratio between the longest and shortest distances among nodes. Given that algorithm without prior knowledge of the instance are essentially limited to using uniform power, this is close to best possible. Our primary aim, however, is to find efficient structures, measured in the number of slots used in the final schedule of the links. Our main result is algorithms that match the efficiency of centralized solutions. Specifically, the networks...

  1. An accurate online calibration system based on combined clamp-shape coil for high voltage electronic current transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhen-hua; Li, Hong-bin; Zhang, Zhi [CEEE of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China) [CEEE of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Electronic transformers are widely used in power systems because of their wide bandwidth and good transient performance. However, as an emerging technology, the failure rate of electronic transformers is higher than that of traditional transformers. As a result, the calibration period needs to be shortened. Traditional calibration methods require the power of transmission line be cut off, which results in complicated operation and power off loss. This paper proposes an online calibration system which can calibrate electronic current transformers without power off. In this work, the high accuracy standard current transformer and online operation method are the key techniques. Based on the clamp-shape iron-core coil and clamp-shape air-core coil, a combined clamp-shape coil is designed as the standard current transformer. By analyzing the output characteristics of the two coils, the combined clamp-shape coil can achieve verification of the accuracy. So the accuracy of the online calibration system can be guaranteed. Moreover, by employing the earth potential working method and using two insulating rods to connect the combined clamp-shape coil to the high voltage bus, the operation becomes simple and safe. Tests in China National Center for High Voltage Measurement and field experiments show that the proposed system has a high accuracy of up to 0.05 class.

  2. A Surprising Clarification of the Mechanism of Ion-channel Voltage-Gating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashok Palaniappan

    2011-04-20

    An intense controversy has surrounded the mechanism of voltage-gating in ion channels. We interpreted the two leading models of voltage-gating with respect to the thermodynamic energetics of membrane insertion of the voltage-sensing 'module' from a comprehensive set of potassium channels. KvAP is an archaeal voltage-gated potassium channel whose x-ray structure was the basis for determining the general mechanism of voltage-gating. The free energy of membrane insertion of the KvAP voltage sensor was revealed to be a single outlier. This was due to its unusual sequence that facilitated large gating movements in its native lipid membrane. This degree of free energy was the least typical of the other voltage sensors, including the Shaker potassium channel. We inferred that the two leading models of voltage-gating referred to alternative mechanisms of voltage-gating: each is applicable to an independent set of ion channels. The large motion of the voltage-sensor during gating proposed by the KvAP-paddle model of gating is unlikely to be mirrored by the majority of ion channels whose voltage sensors are not located at the membrane-cytoplasm interface in the channel closed state.

  3. Light-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Soden, J.M.

    1995-07-04

    An apparatus and method are described for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC). The invention uses a focused light beam that is scanned over a surface of the IC to generate a light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA) signal for analysis of the IC. The LIVA signal may be used to generate an image of the IC showing the location of any defects in the IC; and it may be further used to image and control the logic states of the IC. The invention has uses for IC failure analysis, for the development of ICs, for production-line inspection of ICs, and for qualification of ICs. 18 figs.

  4. Self-monitoring high voltage transmission line suspension insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stemler, Gary E. (Vancouver, WA); Scott, Donald N. (Vancouver, WA)

    1981-01-01

    A high voltage transmission line suspension insulator (18 or 22) which monitors its own dielectric integrity. A dielectric rod (10) has one larger diameter end fitting attachable to a transmission line and another larger diameter end fitting attachable to a support tower. The rod is enclosed in a dielectric tube (14) which is hermetically sealed to the rod's end fittings such that a liquidtight space (20) is formed between the rod and the tube. A pressurized dielectric liquid is placed within that space. A discoloring dye placed within this space is used to detect the loss of the pressurized liquid.

  5. Mechanisms limiting open circuit voltage in silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitzer, M.B.; Keavney, C.J.; Lindholm, F.A.; Nevgroschel, A.; Tobin, S.P.

    1984-05-01

    This paper reports the results of research on mechanisms limiting open circuit voltage in conventional p/n junction silicon solar cells, with a view toward both the understanding of various heavy-doping effects and the achievement of high conversion efficiency. Experimental and theoretical studies have been conducted in order to correlate heavy-doping effects to actual solar cell performance. The experiments have utilized a variety of emitter configurations with various doping concentrations in order to emphasize a number of concentration-dependent mechanisms. The theoretical modeling addresses the determination of both recombination velocity at the passivated front surface and effects of recombination at the front ohmic contact.

  6. Outdoor PV Module Degradation of Current-Voltage Parameters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R. M.; Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module degradation rate analysis quantifies the loss of PV power output over time and is useful for estimating the impact of degradation on the cost of energy. An understanding of the degradation of all current-voltage (I-V) parameters helps to determine the cause of the degradation and also gives useful information for the design of the system. This study reports on data collected from 12 distinct mono- and poly-crystalline modules deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. Most modules investigated showed < 0.5%/year decrease in maximum power due to short-circuit current decline.

  7. Induction of nuclear fission by high-voltage application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirokazu Maruyama

    2007-11-20

    In nuclear power generation, fissile materials are mainly used. For example, $U^{235}$ is fissile and therefore quite essential for use of nuclear energy. However, the material $U^{235}$ has very small natural abundance less than 1 %. We should seek possibility of utilizing fissionable materials such as $U^{238}$ because natural abundance of such fissionable materials is generally much larger than fissile ones. In this paper, we show that thermal neutrons with vanishing kinetic energy can induce nuclear fission when high voltage is applied to fissionable materials. To obtain this result, we use the liquid-drop model for nuclei. Finally, we propose how fissionable materials can be utilized.

  8. Method for hermetic electrical connections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monroe, Saundra L.; Glass, S. Jill; Stone, Ronnie G.; Bond, Jamey T.; Susan, Donald F.

    2011-12-27

    A method of providing a hermetic, electrical connection between two electrical components by mating at least one metal pin in a glass-ceramic to metal seal connector to two electrical components, wherein the glass-ceramic to metal seal connector incorporates at least one metal pin encased (sealed) in a glass-ceramic material inside of a metal housing, with the glass-ceramic material made from 65-80% SiO.sub.2, 8-16% Li.sub.2O, 2-8% Al.sub.2O.sub.3, 1-5% P.sub.2O.sub.5, 1-8% K.sub.2O, 0.5-7% B.sub.2O.sub.3, and 0-5% ZnO. The connector retains hermeticity at temperatures as high as 700.degree. C. and pressures as high as 500 psi.

  9. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS--I: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 55, NO. 6, JULY 2008 1751 Dual Low-Voltage IC Design for High-Voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and low side gate drivers are required in most switching power converters to provide on/off control Low-Voltage IC Design for High-Voltage Floating Gate Drives Yan Yin, Member, IEEE, and Regan Zane, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--An integrated circuit (IC) design for low and high side gate drive in high

  10. Bi-directional power control system for voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrigan, N.R.; King, R.D.; Schwartz, J.E.

    1999-05-11

    A control system for a voltage converter includes: a power comparator for comparing a power signal on input terminals of the converter with a commanded power signal and producing a power comparison signal; a power regulator for transforming the power comparison signal to a commanded current signal; a current comparator for comparing the commanded current signal with a measured current signal on output terminals of the converter and producing a current comparison signal; a current regulator for transforming the current comparison signal to a pulse width modulator (PWM) duty cycle command signal; and a PWM for using the PWM duty cycle command signal to control electrical switches of the converter. The control system may further include: a command multiplier for converting a voltage signal across the output terminals of the converter to a gain signal having a value between zero (0) and unity (1), and a power multiplier for multiplying the commanded power signal by the gain signal to provide a limited commanded power signal, wherein power comparator compares the limited commanded power signal with the power signal on the input terminals. 10 figs.

  11. Bi-directional power control system for voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrigan, Neil Richard (Niskayuna, NY); King, Robert Dean (Schenectady, NY); Schwartz, James Edward (Slingerlands, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A control system for a voltage converter includes: a power comparator for comparing a power signal on input terminals of the converter with a commanded power signal and producing a power comparison signal; a power regulator for transforming the power comparison signal to a commanded current signal; a current comparator for comparing the commanded current signal with a measured current signal on output terminals of the converter and producing a current comparison signal; a current regulator for transforming the current comparison signal to a pulse width modulator (PWM) duty cycle command signal; and a PWM for using the PWM duty cycle command signal to control electrical switches of the converter. The control system may further include: a command multiplier for converting a voltage signal across the output terminals of the converter to a gain signal having a value between zero (0) and unity (1), and a power multiplier for multiplying the commanded power signal by the gain signal to provide a limited commanded power signal, wherein power comparator compares the limited commanded power signal with the power signal on the input terminals.

  12. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  13. An accurate continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong Yue; Li Binhong [College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei Province (China)

    2011-02-15

    A continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformers is presented in this paper. The sensor of this system is based on a kind of electronic instrument current transformer, which is a clamp-shape air core coil. This system uses an optical fiber transmission system for its signal transmission and power supply. Finally the digital integrator and fourth-order convolution window algorithm as error calculation methods are realized by the virtual instrument with a personal computer. It is found that this system can calibrate a high voltage current transformer while energized, which means avoiding a long calibrating period in the power system and the loss of power metering expense. At the same time, it has a wide dynamic range and frequency band, and it can achieve a high accuracy measurement in a complex electromagnetic field environment. The experimental results and the on-site operation results presented in the last part of the paper, prove that it can reach the 0.05 accuracy class and is easy to operate on site.

  14. DECENTRALIZED CONTROL ARCHITECTURE FOR COUPLING MICROGRIDS INTO DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS 1 Task 1: Coupling Low-Voltage Microgrids into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemmon, Michael

    DECENTRALIZED CONTROL ARCHITECTURE FOR COUPLING MICROGRIDS INTO DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS 1 Task 1: Coupling Low-Voltage Microgrids into Mid-Voltage Distribution Systems Zhao Wang, Student Member, IEEE-voltage (LV) microgrids. At the same time, reactive power is dispatched coordinatively so that voltage

  15. Abstract -This paper introduces techniques for power efficient design of power delivery network in multiple voltage-island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    in multiple voltage-island System-on-Chip (SoC) designs. The first technique is targeted to SoC designs network, voltage regulator, DC-DC converter, energy efficiency, voltage island, system-on-chip I island approach [3]. In these systems, it is required that the PDN delivers power at appropriate voltage

  16. Connected Outdoor Lighting Systems For Municipalities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar is intended for municipal staff who have had some introduction to connected outdoor lighting systems, and want to further explore whether today's commercially available offerings suit...

  17. REGISTRATION-CONNECTED LIGHTING SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    REGISTRATION-CONNECTED LIGHTING SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOPS REGISTRATION-CONNECTED LIGHTING SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOPS REGISTRATIONCONNECTE...

  18. Local Voltage Support from Distributed Energy Resources to Prevent Air Conditioner Motor Stalling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baone, Chaitanya A; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D

    2010-01-01

    Microgrid voltage collapse often happens when there is a high percentage of low inertia air-conditioning (AC) motors in the power systems. The stalling of the AC motors results in Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery (FIDVR). A hybrid load model including typical building loads, AC motor loads, and other induction motor loads is built to simulate the motoring stalling phenomena. Furthermore, distributed energy resources (DE) with local voltage support capability are utilized to boost the local bus voltage during a fault, and prevent the motor stalling. The simulation results are presented. The analysis of the simulation results show that local voltage support from multiple DEs can effectively and economically solve the microgrid voltage collapse problem.

  19. Pulsed voltage electrospray ion source and method for preventing analyte electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kertesz, Vilmos (Knoxville, TN); Van Berkel, Gary (Clinton, TN)

    2011-12-27

    An electrospray ion source and method of operation includes the application of pulsed voltage to prevent electrolysis of analytes with a low electrochemical potential. The electrospray ion source can include an emitter, a counter electrode, and a power supply. The emitter can include a liquid conduit, a primary working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, and a spray tip, where the liquid conduit and the working electrode are in liquid communication. The counter electrode can be proximate to, but separated from, the spray tip. The power system can supply voltage to the working electrode in the form of a pulse wave, where the pulse wave oscillates between at least an energized voltage and a relaxation voltage. The relaxation duration of the relaxation voltage can range from 1 millisecond to 35 milliseconds. The pulse duration of the energized voltage can be less than 1 millisecond and the frequency of the pulse wave can range from 30 to 800 Hz.

  20. Understanding and Improving High Voltage Vacuum Insulators for Microsecond Pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Javedani, J B; Goerz, D A; Houck, T L; Lauer, E J; Speer, R D; Tully, L K; Vogtlin, G E; White, A D

    2007-03-05

    High voltage insulation is one of the main areas of pulsed power research and development, and dielectric breakdown is usually the limiting factor in attaining the highest possible performance in pulsed power devices. For many applications the delivery of pulsed power into a vacuum region is the most critical aspect of operation. The surface of an insulator exposed to vacuum can fail electrically at an applied field more than an order or magnitude below the bulk dielectric strength of the insulator. This mode of breakdown, called surface flashover, imposes serious limitations on the power flow into a vacuum region. This is especially troublesome for applications where high voltage conditioning of the insulator and electrodes is not practical and for applications where relatively long pulses, on the order of several microseconds, are required. The goal of this project is to establish a sound fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that lead to surface flashover, and then evaluate the most promising techniques to improve vacuum insulators and enable high voltage operation at stress levels near the intrinsic bulk breakdown limits of the material. The approach we proposed and followed was to develop this understanding through a combination of theoretical and computation methods coupled with experiments to validate and quantify expected behaviors. In this report we summarize our modeling and simulation efforts, theoretical studies, and experimental investigations. The computational work began by exploring the limits of commercially available codes and demonstrating methods to examine field enhancements and defect mechanisms at microscopic levels. Plasma simulations with particle codes used in conjunction with circuit models of the experimental apparatus enabled comparisons with experimental measurements. The large scale plasma (LSP) particle-in-cell (PIC) code was run on multiprocessor platforms and used to simulate expanding plasma conditions in vacuum gap regions. Algorithms were incorporated into LSP to handle secondary electron emission from dielectric materials to enable detailed simulations of flashover phenomenon. Theoretical studies were focused on explaining a possible mechanism for anode initiated surface flashover that involves an electron avalanche process starting near the anode, not a mechanism involving bulk dielectric breakdown. Experiments were performed in Engineering's Pulsed Power Lab using an available 100-kV, 10-{micro}s pulse generator and vacuum chamber. The initial experiments were done with polyethylene insulator material in the shape of a truncated cone cut at +45{sup o} angle between flat electrodes with a gap of 1.0 cm. The insulator was sized so there were no flashovers or breakdowns under nominal operating conditions. Insulator flashover or gap closure was induced by introducing a plasma source, a tuft of velvet, in proximity to the insulator or electrode.

  1. Design and Implementation of Switching Voltage Integrated Circuits Based on Sliding Mode Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rojas Gonzalez, Miguel Angel

    2010-10-12

    .S. (Honors), ITESM Campus Toluca, Mexico Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Edgar S?anchez-Sinencio The need for high performance circuits in systems with low-voltage and low-power requirements has exponentially increased during the few last years due... measurements of the dual-output buck voltage regulator for (a) Medium load condition and (b) High load condition : : : 207 132 (a) Power efficiency measurements of the dual-output buck voltage versus both output currents and (b) Top view...

  2. Systems and methods for process and user driven dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallik, Arindam (Evanston, IL); Lin, Bin (Hillsboro, OR); Memik, Gokhan (Evanston, IL); Dinda, Peter (Evanston, IL); Dick, Robert (Evanston, IL)

    2011-03-22

    Certain embodiments of the present invention provide a method for power management including determining at least one of an operating frequency and an operating voltage for a processor and configuring the processor based on the determined at least one of the operating frequency and the operating voltage. The operating frequency is determined based at least in part on direct user input. The operating voltage is determined based at least in part on an individual profile for processor.

  3. Probabilistic Vulnerability Assessment Based on Power Flow and Voltage Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jian; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.; Ferryman, Thomas A.

    2010-04-30

    Risk assessment of large scale power systems has been an important problem in power system reliability study. Probabilistic technique provides a powerful tool to solve the task. In this paper, we present the results of a study on probabilistic vulnerability assessment on WECC system. Cumulant based expansion method is applied to obtain the probabilistic distribution function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of power flows on transmission lines and voltage. Overall risk index based on the system vulnerability analysis is calculated using the WECC system. The simulation results based on WECC system is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The methodology can be applied to the risk analysis on large scale power systems.

  4. Monolithic high voltage nonlinear transmission line fabrication process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, G.A.

    1994-10-04

    A process for fabricating sequential inductors and varistor diodes of a monolithic, high voltage, nonlinear, transmission line in GaAs is disclosed. An epitaxially grown laminate is produced by applying a low doped active n-type GaAs layer to an n-plus type GaAs substrate. A heavily doped p-type GaAs layer is applied to the active n-type layer and a heavily doped n-type GaAs layer is applied to the p-type layer. Ohmic contacts are applied to the heavily doped n-type layer where diodes are desired. Multiple layers are then either etched away or Oxygen ion implanted to isolate individual varistor diodes. An insulator is applied between the diodes and a conductive/inductive layer is thereafter applied on top of the insulator layer to complete the process. 6 figs.

  5. Curing system for high voltage cross linked cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bahder, George (Edison, NJ); Katz, Carlos (Edison, NJ); Bopp, Louis A. (Fair Haven, NJ)

    1978-01-01

    This invention makes extruded, vulcanized, high voltage cables insulated with thermosetting compounds at much higher rates of production and with superior insulation of reduced thickness and with reduced cavities or voids in the insulation. As the cable comes from an extruder, it passes into a curing chamber with a heat booster that quickly raises the insulation to a temperature at which it is cured much more quickly than with steam heating of the prior art. A high temperature liquid in contact with the insulation maintains the high temperature; and because of the greater curing heat, the cable can travel through the curing chamber at a faster rate and into a cooling tube where it contacts with a cooling liquid under high pressure. The insulation compound is treated to reduce the size of cavities; and the high pressure maintained by the curing and cooling mediums prevent expansion of cavities before the insulation is set.

  6. High-voltage atmospheric breakdown across intervening rutile dielectrics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Simpson, Sean; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Pasik, Michael Francis

    2013-09-01

    This report documents work conducted in FY13 on electrical discharge experiments performed to develop predictive computational models of the fundamental processes of surface breakdown in the vicinity of high-permittivity material interfaces. Further, experiments were conducted to determine if free carrier electrons could be excited into the conduction band thus lowering the effective breakdown voltage when UV photons (4.66 eV) from a high energy pulsed laser were incident on the rutile sample. This report documents the numerical approach, the experimental setup, and summarizes the data and simulations. Lastly, it describes the path forward and challenges that must be overcome in order to improve future experiments for characterizing the breakdown behavior for rutile.

  7. High voltage design structure for high temperature superconducting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tekletsadik, Kasegn D. (Rexford, NY)

    2008-05-20

    In accordance with the present invention, modular corona shields are employed in a HTS device to reduce the electric field surrounding the HTS device. In a exemplary embodiment a fault current limiter module in the insulation region of a cryogenic cooling system has at least one fault current limiter set which employs a first corona shield disposed along the top portion of the fault current limiter set and is electrically coupled to the fault current limiter set. A second corona shield is disposed along the bottom portion of the fault current limiter set and is electrically coupled to the fault current limiter set. An insulation barrier is disposed within the insulation region along at least one side of the fault current limiter set. The first corona shield and the second corona shield act together to reduce the electric field surrounding the fault limiter set when voltage is applied to the fault limiter set.

  8. Effect of DC voltage pulses on memristor behavior.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Brian R.

    2013-10-01

    Current knowledge of memristor behavior is limited to a few physical models of which little comprehensive data collection has taken place. The purpose of this research is to collect data in search of exploitable memristor behavior by designing and implementing tests on a HP Labs Rev2 Memristor Test Board. The results are then graphed in their optimal format for conceptualizing behavioral patterns. This series of experiments has concluded the existence of an additional memristor state affecting the behavior of memristors when pulsed with positively polarized DC voltages. This effect has been observed across multiple memristors and data sets. The following pages outline the process that led to the hypothetical existence and eventual proof of this additional state of memristor behavior.

  9. Low voltage secondary network cable reliability study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    In an attempt to find clues to the causes of manhole fires and explosions, researchers removed several aged low voltage network cables from service on the United Illuminating Company system. Examination of their physical, chemical, and electrical properties indicated that any deterioration of the cables that had occurred during their approximately 35 year service life was minor and did not affect reliability for continued service. Cables were found to have retained excellent properties despite their long age in service. For example, AC breakdown strength, dissipation factor, and percent elongation were all satisfactory. Insulation was coherent, not brittle; and the jackets did not crack or craze on bending. The tested cables compare favorably, physically and electrically, with non-jacketed rubber cables presently in service.

  10. Quantum Mechanics and Multiply Connected Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. G. Sidharth

    2006-05-16

    t is well known that the difference between Quantum Mechanics and Classical Theory appears most crucially in the non Classical spin half of the former theory and the Wilson-Sommerfelt quantization rule. We argue that this is symptomatic of the fact that Quantum Theory is actually a theory in multiply connected space while Classical Theory operates in simply connected space.

  11. Information Management Services (IMS) VPN Connection (Windows)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Bruce J.

    Information Management Services (IMS) VPN Connection (Windows) 1. Verify there is an active (Junos Pulse) 12-5-2014 #12;Information Management Services (IMS) 6. Select Run, Allow, or Yes when prompted. 7. A successful connection will load a page with Use Instruction, Log-Out Instructions

  12. College of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    College of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection 1 Dean's Message College of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection November 2010 Volume IX (2) Rationale The faculty, staff and students within the sweeping changes associated with health care reform. Health care reform represents the most significant

  13. College of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    College of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection 1 Dean's Message College of Health Sciences Health Sciences Connection Back to School edition September 2010 Volume IX (1) Dr. Tim Dunnagan, Dean of the College of Health Sciences (COHS) at Boise State University (BSU). It is truly an honor to have

  14. Experimental Validation of Voltage-Based State-of-Charge Algorithm for Power Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Control of Lithium-Ion Batteries”, Control Systems, IEEE,is one type of Lithium-Ion batteries with voltage around

  15. Dynamic voltage-current characteristics for a water jet plasma arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Jiaxiang; Lan Sheng; Xu Zuoming

    2008-05-05

    A virtual instrument technology is used to measure arc current, arc voltage, dynamic V-I characteristics, and nonlinear conductance for a cone-shaped water jet plasma arc under ac voltage. Experimental results show that ac arc discharge mainly happens in water vapor evaporated from water when heated. However, due to water's cooling effect and its conductance, arc conductance, reignition voltage, extinguish voltage, and current zero time are very different from those for ac arc discharge in gas work fluid. These can be valuable to further studies on mechanism and characteristics of plasma ac discharge in water, and even in gas work fluid.

  16. Cellular/Molecular Fast-Activating Voltage-and Calcium-Dependent Potassium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cellular/Molecular Fast-Activating Voltage- and Calcium-Dependent Potassium (BK) Conductance present in the cellular membrane. Experimental and computational approaches have revealed the dynamic

  17. State-of-the-art Fuel Cell Voltage Durability Status: 2015 Composite Data Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, Jennfier; Dinh, Huyen; Ainscough, Chris; Saur, Genevieve

    2015-05-01

    This publication includes 14 composite data products (CDPs) produced in 2015 for fuel cell technology status, focusing on state-of-the-art fuel cell voltage durability.

  18. Sacramento Area Voltage Support Final Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2003-09-19

    The Western Area Power Administration's Central Valley Project transmission system forms an integral part of the interconnected Sacramento area transmission grid. Western is contractually responsible to oversee that the system is operated in accordance with strict reliability standards. Growth in the greater Sacramento, California area and power imported from generation outside the region, have increased the demand on the interconnected electric transmission system, leading to transmission system overloads and reducing the reliability and security of the area power system. Western has prepared this Sacramento Area Voltage Support (SVS) Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in compliance with Federal laws, regulations and guidelines, principally the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This Draft EIS evaluates the potential environmental effects of physical improvements to the area's power system. Enhancements are needed to improve system reliability and provide voltage support for the Sacramento area. The results of public scoping meetings, workshops, meetings with agencies, and earlier studies by Western and area utilities helped to develop a range of alternatives for analysis. The Proposed Action involves: (1) Constructing a new double-circuit, 230-kV transmission line paralleling the existing double-circuit, 230-kV line from the O'Banion Substation to the Elverta Substation; (2) Realigning a portion of the existing Cottonwood-Roseville single-circuit, 230-kV transmission line north of Elverta Substation; and (3) Reconductoring the existing double-circuit, 230-kV transmission line from the Elverta Substation to the Tracy Substation. Public Hearings on the Draft EIS will be held between December 9-12, 2002. Comments on this Draft EIS are encouraged and should be sent to Ms. Loreen McMahon (above). Comments must be received by December 30, 2002.

  19. Voltage-matched, monolithic, multi-band-gap devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W.; Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2006-08-22

    Monolithic, tandem, photonic cells include at least a first semiconductor layer and a second semiconductor layer, wherein each semiconductor layer includes an n-type region, a p-type region, and a given band-gap energy. Formed within each semiconductor layer is a sting of electrically connected photonic sub-cells. By carefully selecting the numbers of photonic sub-cells in the first and second layer photonic sub-cell string(s), and by carefully selecting the manner in which the sub-cells in a first and second layer photonic sub-cell string(s) are electrically connected, each of the first and second layer sub-cell strings may be made to achieve one or more substantially identical electrical characteristics.

  20. Voltage-Matched, Monolithic, Multi-Band-Gap Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, M. W.; Mascarenhas, A.

    2006-08-22

    Monolithic, tandem, photonic cells include at least a first semiconductor layer and a second semiconductor layer, wherein each semiconductor layer includes an n-type region, a p-type region, and a given band-gap energy. Formed within each semiconductor layer is a string of electrically connected photonic sub-cells. By carefully selecting the numbers of photonic sub-cells in the first and second layer photonic sub-cell string(s), and by carefully selecting the manner in which the sub-cells in a first and second layer photonic sub-cell string(s) are electrically connected, each of the first and second layer sub-cell strings may be made to achieve one or more substantially identical electrical characteristics.

  1. Gauge Orbit Types for Generalized Connections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Fleischhack

    2000-01-05

    Different versions for defining Ashtekar's generalized connections are investigated depending on the chosen smoothness category for the paths and graphs -- the label set for the projective limit. Our definition covers the analytic case as well as the case of webs. Then the orbit types of the generalized connections are determined for compact structure groups. The stabilizer of a connection is homeomorphic to the holonomy centralizer, i.e. the centralizer of its holonomy group, and the homeomorphism class of the gauge orbit is completely determined by the holonomy centralizer. Furthermore, the stabilizers of two connections are conjugate in the gauge group if and only if their holonomy centralizers are conjugate in the structure group. Finally, the gauge orbit type of a connection is defined to be the conjugacy class of its holonomy centralizer equivalently to the standard definition via stabilizers.

  2. Low Pore Connectivity in Natural Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.; Dultz, Stefan

    2012-05-15

    As repositories for CO? and radioactive waste, as oil and gas reservoirs, and as contaminated sites needing remediation, rock formations play a central role in energy and environmental management. The connectivity of the rock's porespace strongly affects fluid flow and solute transport. This work examines pore connectivity and its implications for fluid flow and chemical transport. Three experimental approaches (imbibition, tracer concentration profiles, and imaging) were used in combination with network modeling. In the imbibition results, three types of imbibition slope [log (cumulative imbibition) vs. log (imbibition time)] were found: the classical 0.5, plus 0.26, and 0.26 transitioning to 0.5. The imbibition slope of 0.26 seen in Indiana sandstone, metagraywacke, and Barnett shale indicates low pore connectivity, in contrast to the slope of 0.5 seen in the well-connected Berea sandstone. In the tracer profile work, rocks exhibited different distances to the plateau porosity, consistent with the pore connectivity from the imbibition tests. Injection of a molten metal into connected pore spaces, followed by 2-D imaging of the solidified alloy in polished thin sections, allowed direct assessment of pore structure and lateral connection in the rock samples. Pore-scale network modeling gave results consistent with measurements, confirming pore connectivity as the underlying cause of both anomalous behaviors: imbibition slope not having the classical value of 0.5, and accessible porosity being a function of distance from the edge. A poorly connected porespace will exhibit anomalous behavior in fluid flow and chemical transport, such as a lower imbibition slope (in air–water system) and diffusion rate than expected from classical behavior.

  3. Electrical connection structure for a superconductor element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lallouet, Nicolas; Maguire, James

    2010-05-04

    The invention relates to an electrical connection structure for a superconductor element cooled by a cryogenic fluid and connected to an electrical bushing, which bushing passes successively through an enclosure at an intermediate temperature between ambient temperature and the temperature of the cryogenic fluid, and an enclosure at ambient temperature, said bushing projecting outside the ambient temperature enclosure. According to the invention, said intermediate enclosure is filled at least in part with a solid material of low thermal conductivity, such as a polyurethane foam or a cellular glass foam. The invention is applicable to connecting a superconductor cable at cryogenic temperature to a device for equipment at ambient temperature.

  4. A New Thermal-Conscious System-Level Methodology for Energy-Efficient Processor Voltage Selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yu

    A New Thermal-Conscious System-Level Methodology for Energy-Efficient Processor Voltage Selection a thermal-conscious system-level methodology to make energy-efficient voltage selection (VS) for nanometer), thermal resistance, are integrated and considered in our system models, and their impacts on energy

  5. Energy Aware Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Selection for Real-Time Systems with Energy Harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Qinru

    Energy Aware Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Selection for Real-Time Systems with Energy Harvesting}@binghamton.edu Abstract In this paper, an energy aware dynamic voltage and frequency selection (EA-DVFS) algorithm energy and the harvested energy in a future duration. Specifically, if the system has sufficient energy

  6. Low-voltage, low-power, low switching error, class-AB switched current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serdijn, Wouter A.

    Low-voltage, low-power, low switching error, class-AB switched current memory cell C. Sawigun and W into two components by a low-voltage class-AB current splitter and subsequently processes the individual signals by two low switching error class-A memory cells. As a conse- quence, the output current obtained

  7. Public Opinions of Building Additional High-Voltage Electric Power Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Public Opinions of Building Additional High-Voltage Electric Power Lines A Report to the National-Voltage Electric Power Lines: A Report to the National Science Foundation and the Electric Power Research Center to build new power lines. Residents living in counties with planned routes for new transmission lines

  8. Senderovich 1 Electrode Design Adjustments to a High Voltage Electron Gun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffstaetter, Georg

    Senderovich 1 Electrode Design Adjustments to a High Voltage Electron Gun Igor Senderovich Abstract, a very high voltage electron gun needs to be designed.1 To these ends, several geometric parameters were were performed on off-axis electron acceleration. Introduction The design of the electrode gun has

  9. Voltage-dependent behavior of a "ball-and-chain" gramicidin channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woolley, G. Andrew; Zunic, Valentin; Karanicolas, John; Jaikaran, Anna S. I.; Starostin, Andrei V.

    1997-11-01

    -trans isomerization on the 10–100-ms time scale. The conductance behavior of gram-EDA is found to be markedly voltage dependent, whereas the behavior of gram-DMEDA is not. In addition, voltage affects the cis-trans ratios of the carbamate groups of gram...

  10. Aalborg Universitet Secondary Frequency and Voltage Control of Islanded Microgrids via Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Secondary Frequency and Voltage Control of Islanded Microgrids via Distributed., Guerrero, J. M., & Bullo, F. (2015). Secondary Frequency and Voltage Control of Islanded Microgrids via downloaded from www.microgrids.et.aau.dk is the preprint version of the final paper: J. W. Simpson-Porco, Q

  11. An ultra-low voltage high gain operational transconductance amplifier for biomedical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    An ultra-low voltage high gain operational transconductance amplifier for biomedical applications that work at ultra low voltage power supply. Moreover, low power dissipation is essential in these systems dissipation is also proposed in [5]. Differential pairs are commonly used as input stages, in an ultra-low

  12. Variation-aware Clock Network Design Methodology for Ultra-Low Voltage (ULV) Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sung Kyu

    Variation-aware Clock Network Design Methodology for Ultra-Low Voltage (ULV) Circuits Xin Zhao networks for ultra-low voltage (ULV) circuits. We show that both clock slew and skew play important roles) at comparable or even higher Fmax compared with the existing methods. Keywords--clock network design, ultra-low

  13. PHYSICS 327 Spring 2015 1/13/2015 LAB 1 -DC VOLTAGE DIVIDER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    produces output voltage which is independent of the load resistance (RL, in this case). Remember a provided "power supply" for the source of the input voltage Vin. The circuit is described by the equation 2 (breadboard), and use the power supply to provide Vin = 12 V. For each value of R2, measure Vin and Vout

  14. Aalborg Universitet SiC heat pump converters with support for voltage unbalance in distribution grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    Aalborg Universitet SiC heat pump converters with support for voltage unbalance in distribution (APA): Trintis, I., Douglass, P., Maheshwari, R., & Munk-Nielsen, S. (2015). SiC heat pump converters.aau.dk on: november 29, 2015 #12;SiC heat pump converters with support for voltage unbalance in distribution

  15. HF Multiresonant Electronic Ballast for Fluorescent Lamps with Constant Filament Preheat Voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HF Multiresonant Electronic Ballast for Fluorescent Lamps with Constant Filament Preheat Voltage resonance arrangement that acts as a current source. During warm up the filaments are driven by a secondary the filament and shorts out the voltage across the lamp. Simulation and experimental results suggest

  16. A Static PatternIndependent Technique for Power Grid Voltage Integrity Verification #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    A Static Pattern­Independent Technique for Power Grid Voltage Integrity Verification # Dionysios Design verification must include the power grid. Checking that the voltage on the power grid does) the obviously large size of the power grids for modern high­performance chips, and ii) the di#culty of setting

  17. A Static Pattern-Independent Technique for Power Grid Voltage Integrity Verification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    by the circuit off the grid. The current waveforms of these current sources may be determined by a priorA Static Pattern-Independent Technique for Power Grid Voltage Integrity Verification Dionysios Design verification must include the power grid. Checking that the voltage on the power grid does

  18. Effect of Flow Field Design and Voltage Change Range on the Dynamic Behavior of PEMFCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Zee, John W.

    Effect of Flow Field Design and Voltage Change Range on the Dynamic Behavior of PEMFCs Sunhoe Kim exchange membrane fuel cell PEMFC subjected to rapid changes in the voltage depends on the type of flow that these peak heights are limited primarily by oxygen mass transfer, even though the PEMFC is operating at close

  19. Aalborg Universitet Voltage Scheduling Droop Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    ., & Guerrero, J. M. (2014). Voltage Scheduling Droop Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy Storage in DC Microgrids," in Proc. IEEE International Energy Conference (EnergyCon'14), 2014. Voltage Scheduling Droop Control for State-of- Charge Balance of Distributed Energy

  20. Ca2 -dependent activation of Cl currents in Xenopus oocytes is modulated by voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Ian

    a fast electrical block to polyspermy in the egg (7). Voltage-clamp recordings of Cl current provide- acteristics that complicate interpretation of the under- lying Ca2 signals (11, 21). In particular, it remains sources of Ca2 can be discriminated by recording ICl,Ca evoked by hyperpolarizing voltage steps because

  1. Low-profile high-voltage compact gas switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goerz, D.A.; Wilson, M.J.; Speer, R.D.

    1997-06-30

    This paper discusses the development and testing of a low-profile, high-voltage, spark-gap switch designed to be closely coupled with other components into an integrated high-energy pulsed-power source. The switch is designed to operate at 100 kV using SF6 gas pressurized to less than 0.7 MPa. The volume of the switch cavity region is less than 1.5 cm3, and the field stress along the gas-dielectric interface is as high as 130 kV/cm. The dielectric switch body has a low profile that is only I -cm tall at its greatest extent and nominally 2-mm thick over most of its area. This design achieves a very low inductance of less than 5 nH, but results in field stresses exceeding 500 kV/cm in the dielectric material. Field modeling was done to determine the appropriate shape for the highly stressed insulator and electrodes, and special manufacturing techniques were employed to mitigate the usual mechanisms that induce breakdown and failure in solid dielectrics. Static breakdown tests verified that the switch operates satisfactorily at 100 kV levels. The unit has been characterized with different shaped electrodes having nominal gap spacings of 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mm. The relationship between self-break voltage and operating pressure agrees well with published data on gas properties, accounting for the field enhancements of the electrode shapes being used. Capacitor discharge tests in a low inductance test fixture exhibited peak currents up to 25 kA with characteristic frequencies of the ringdown circuit ranging from 10 to 20 MHz. The ringdown waveforms and scaling of measured parameters agree well with circuit modeling of the switch and test fixture. Repetitive operation has been demonstrated at moderate rep-rates up to 15 Hz, limited by the power supply being used. Preliminary tests to evaluate lifetime of the compact switch assembly have been encouraging. In one case, after more than 7,000 high-current ringdown tests with approximately 30 C of total charge transferred, the switch continued to operate satisfactorily with no apparent tracking or deterioration of the insulator.

  2. On the Configuration of the US Western Interconnection Voltage Stability

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding access to science informationArticle) | SciTechTechnicalBoundary

  3. Predicting the voltage dependence of interfacial electrochemical processes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding accessusers'(x≤2) surface: A(Technical Report) |Extreme-Scaleat

  4. Monolithic RF frontends for ubiquitous wireless connectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goswami, Sushmit

    2014-01-01

    The desire for ubiquitous connectivity is pushing radios towards highly-integrated, multi-standard and multi-band implementations. This thesis explores architectures for next-generation RF frontends, which form the interface ...

  5. Energy Education BASS CONNECTIONS in ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrari, Silvia

    Energy Education BASS CONNECTIONS in ENERGY Leader: Prof. Richard Newell Duke University Energy Initiative Energy education at Duke capitalizes on the University's broader Energy Initiative, a university-wide interdisciplinary collaboration addressing today's pressing energy challenges related to the economy

  6. Connected Consumption: The hidden networks of consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, David P.

    In this paper, we present the Connected Consumption Network (CCN) that allows a community of consumers to collaboratively sense the market from a mobile device, enabling more informed financial decisions in geo-local ...

  7. Platoon Identification System in Connected Vehicle Environment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Lu

    2015-08-10

    Connected vehicle technology has the potential of drastically improving the safety and mobility of transportation system. Recognizing and identifying the vehicle platoons in a traffic stream has the potential of changing the arterial signal control...

  8. Multiscale fingerprinting of neuronal functional connectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Gang

    Current cellular-based connectomics approaches aim to delineate the functional or structural organizations of mammalian brain circuits through neuronal activity mapping and/or axonal tracing. To discern possible connectivity ...

  9. Low Voltage High Precision Spatial Light ModulatorsFinal Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papavasiliou, A P

    2005-02-09

    The goal of this project was to make LLNL a leader in Spatial Light Modulators (SLMs) by developing the technology that will be needed by the next generation of SLMs. We would use new lower voltage actuators and bond those actuators directly to controlling circuitry to break the fundamental limitations that constrain current SLM technology. This three-year project was underfunded in the first year and not funded in the second year. With the funding that was available, we produced actuators and designs for the controlling circuitry that would have been integrated in the second year. Spatial light modulators (SLMs) are arrays of tiny movable mirrors that modulate the wave-fronts of light. SLMs can correct aberrations in incoming light for adaptive optics or modulate light for beam control, optical communication and particle manipulation. MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) is a technology that utilizes the microfabrication tools developed by the semiconductor industry to fabricate a wide variety of tiny machines. The first generation of MEMS SLMs have improved the functionality of SLMs while drastically reducing per pixel cost making arrays on the order of 1000 pixels readily available. These MEMS SLMs however are limited by the nature of their designs to be very difficult to scale above 1000 pixels and have very limited positioning accuracy. By co-locating the MEMS mirrors with CMOS electronics, we will increase the scalability and positioning accuracy. To do this we will have to make substantial advances in SLM actuator design, and fabrication.

  10. Quillen superconnections and connections on supermanifolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. V. Beltrán; J. Monterde; J. A. Vallejo

    2013-05-16

    Given a supervector bundle $E = E_0\\oplus E_1 \\to M$, we exhibit a parametrization of Quillen superconnections on $E$ by graded connections on the Cartan-Koszul supermanifold $(M;\\Omega (M))$. The relation between the curvatures of both kind of connections, and their associated Chern classes, is discussed in detail. In particular, we find that Chern classes for graded vector bundles on split supermanifolds can be computed through the associated Quillen superconnections.

  11. Quillen superconnections and connections on supermanifolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beltrán, J V; Vallejo, J A

    2013-01-01

    Given a supervector bundle $E = E_0\\oplus E_1 \\to M$, we exhibit a parametrization of Quillen superconnections on $E$ by graded connections on the Cartan-Koszul supermanifold $(M;\\Omega (M))$. The relation between the curvatures of both kind of connections, and their associated Chern classes, is discussed in detail. In particular, we find that Chern classes for graded vector bundles on split supermanifolds can be computed through the associated Quillen superconnections.

  12. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI)

    2010-03-30

    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  13. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Sterics and Electronic Coupling in Determining the Open-Circuit Voltage of Organic Solar Cells Graham, Kenneth R. ; Erwin, Patrick ; Nordlund, Dennis ; Vandewal, Koen ; Li,...

  14. BUILDING CONNECTION ACCESS VIA ENTRANCE NEAR ROUNDABOUT AND ENTRANCE FACING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoubridge, Eric

    1ST FLOOR ENTRANCE ELEVATOR WASHROOMS BUILDING CONNECTION ACCESS VIA ENTRANCE NEAR ROUNDABOUT AND 7TH FLOOR CONNECT WITH MCINTYRE MEDICAL BUILDING LIFE SCIENCES COMPLEX 3649 PROMENADE SIR WASHROOM #12;ENTRANCE ELEVATOR WASHROOMS BUILDING CONNECTION ACCESS VIA ENTRANCE NEAR ROUNDABOUT

  15. Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Systems Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Systems July 7, 2015 - 8:21pm Addthis When connecting a home energy system to the electric grid, research...

  16. Time series power flow analysis for distribution connected PV generation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broderick, Robert Joseph; Quiroz, Jimmy Edward; Ellis, Abraham; Reno, Matthew J.; Smith, Jeff; Dugan, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Distributed photovoltaic (PV) projects must go through an interconnection study process before connecting to the distribution grid. These studies are intended to identify the likely impacts and mitigation alternatives. In the majority of the cases, system impacts can be ruled out or mitigation can be identified without an involved study, through a screening process or a simple supplemental review study. For some proposed projects, expensive and time-consuming interconnection studies are required. The challenges to performing the studies are twofold. First, every study scenario is potentially unique, as the studies are often highly specific to the amount of PV generation capacity that varies greatly from feeder to feeder and is often unevenly distributed along the same feeder. This can cause location-specific impacts and mitigations. The second challenge is the inherent variability in PV power output which can interact with feeder operation in complex ways, by affecting the operation of voltage regulation and protection devices. The typical simulation tools and methods in use today for distribution system planning are often not adequate to accurately assess these potential impacts. This report demonstrates how quasi-static time series (QSTS) simulation and high time-resolution data can be used to assess the potential impacts in a more comprehensive manner. The QSTS simulations are applied to a set of sample feeders with high PV deployment to illustrate the usefulness of the approach. The report describes methods that can help determine how PV affects distribution system operations. The simulation results are focused on enhancing the understanding of the underlying technical issues. The examples also highlight the steps needed to perform QSTS simulation and describe the data needed to drive the simulations. The goal of this report is to make the methodology of time series power flow analysis readily accessible to utilities and others responsible for evaluating potential PV impacts.

  17. Bonneville Power Administration is investigating wide-area stability and voltage control. The control provides a flexible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatasubramanian, Mani V.

    Summary Bonneville Power Administration is investigating wide-area stability and voltage control are being developed in close collaboration between Bonneville Power Administration and Washington State and Voltage Control Carson W. Taylor Mani V. Venkatasubramanian Yonghong Chen Bonneville Power Administration

  18. An Annotated Bibliography of High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) Devices, 1991-1993.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litzenberger, Wayne; Lava, Val

    1994-08-01

    References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).

  19. An analysis of techniques implementing virtual load line voltage sense and regulation for automotive USB buck application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koether, Ethan (Ethan M.)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analyzes three diseparate methods of virtual voltage sense in order to achieve voltage regulation at the end of load line cables without the need for two sense cables. This thesis also explores the implementation ...

  20. PreSem Text and Connect Info224

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OwenDavis

    2014-08-22

    Textbook and Connect Online Homework Software). OR 3) A 3rd textbook option is to purchase the textbook alone(NEW OR. USED) and then purchase Connect ...

  1. Integration Technology for PHEV-Grid-Connectivity, with Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology for PHEV-Grid-Connectivity, with Support for SAE Electrical Standards Integration Technology for PHEV-Grid-Connectivity, with Support for SAE Electrical Standards 2010...

  2. Mastermind Session: Connecting the Dots Between the Real Estate...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Connecting the Dots Between the Real Estate Market and Residential Energy Efficiency Mastermind Session: Connecting the Dots Between the Real Estate Market and Residential Energy...

  3. Public Meeting: Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Building End-Use Equipment and Appliances Public Meeting: Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and...

  4. Nevada Deploys Grid-Connected Electricity from Enhanced Geothermal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nevada Deploys Grid-Connected Electricity from Enhanced Geothermal Systems Nevada Deploys Grid-Connected Electricity from Enhanced Geothermal Systems May 16, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis...

  5. Linking Legacies: Connecting the Cold War Nuclear Weapons Production...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Linking Legacies: Connecting the Cold War Nuclear Weapons Production Processes to Their Environmental Consequences Linking Legacies: Connecting the Cold War Nuclear Weapons...

  6. 130kV 130A High Voltage Switching Mode Power Supply for Neutral Injections – Control Issues and Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    130kV 130A High Voltage Switching Mode Power Supply for Neutral Injections – Control Issues and Algorithms

  7. Source of Sustained Voltage Difference between the Xylem of a Potted Ficus benjamina Tree and Its Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mershin, Andreas

    It has long been known that there is a sustained electrical potential (voltage) difference between the xylem of many plants

  8. Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies: part 1: type-tested and partially type-tested assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies: part 1: type-tested and partially type-tested assemblies

  9. Princeton Power Systems (TRL 5 6 Component)- Marine High-Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Energy Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Princeton Power Systems (TRL 5 6 Component) - Marine High-Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Energy Storage

  10. Three-Phase Modular Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter with Individual MPPT for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Bailu [ORNL; Hang, Lijun [ORNL; Riley, Cameron [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    A three-phase modular cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter for a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system is presented in this paper. To maximize the solar energy extraction of each PV string, an individual maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control scheme is applied, which allows the independent control of each dc-link voltage. PV mismatches may introduce unbalanced power supplied to the three-phase system. To solve this issue, a control scheme with modulation compensation is proposed. The three-phase modular cascaded multilevel inverter prototype has been built. Each H-bridge is connected to a 185 W solar panel. Simulation and experimental results are presented to validate the proposed ideas.

  11. Apparatus for connecting aligned abutted tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, R.E.

    1984-11-29

    An apparatus for connecting abutted tubes and for maintaining their rotary alignment during connection. The apparatus comprises first and second tubes, a rotation prevention element, a collar and a retainer. Each tube has inside and outside walls, and first and second ends, each end having an inside and outside edge. The first tube has portions defining a first plurality of cavities located at the outside edge of its first end. An external threaded portion is on the outside wall of the first tube and next to the first plurality of cavities. The second tube has portions defining a second plurality of cavities located at the outside edge of its first end. The first plurality has a different number than the second plurality. The first ends of the first and second tubes have substantially the same outside diameter and are abutted during connection so that an orifice is formed whenever first and second tube cavities substantially overlap. A rotation prevension element is placed in the orifice to prevent rotation of the first and second tubes. A collar with an internal threaded portion is slidably disposed about the second tube. The internal threaded portion engages the external threaded portion of the first tube to connect the tubes. A lip connected to the collar prevents separation of the collar from the second tube.

  12. PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 47, NUMBER 4 15 JANUARY 1993-II Nonlinear voltages in multiple-lead coherent conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Presilla, Carlo

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 47, NUMBER 4 15 JANUARY 1993-II Nonlinear voltages in multiple-lead to study multiple-lead coherent conductors in the case of finite applied voltages. In this framework we discuss the transverse voltage arising in a four-lead conductor with two symmetric biased leads. Recently

  13. Atomically wired molecular junctions: Connecting a single organic molecule by chains of metal atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yelin, Tamar; Kuritz, Natalia; Korytár, Richard; Bagrets, Alexei; Evers, Ferdinand; Kronik, Leeor; Tal, Oren

    2015-01-01

    Using a break junction technique, we find a clear signature for the formation of conducting hybrid junctions composed of a single organic molecule (benzene, naphthalene or anthracene) connected to chains of platinum atoms. The hybrid junctions exhibit metallic-like conductance (~0.1-1G0), which is rather insensitive to further elongation by additional atoms. At low bias voltage the hybrid junctions can be elongated significantly beyond the length of the bare atomic chains. Ab initio calculations reveal that benzene based hybrid junctions have a significant binding energy and high structural flexibility that may contribute to the survival of the hybrid junction during the elongation process. The fabrication of hybrid junctions opens the way for combining the different properties of atomic chains and organic molecules to realize a new class of atomic scale interfaces.

  14. A Connection between Gravitation and Electromagnetism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. M. Snyder

    2000-02-16

    It is argued that there is a connection between the fundamental forces of electromagnetism and gravitation. This connection occurs because of: 1) the fundamental significance of the finite and invariant velocity of light in inertial reference frames in the special theory, and 2) the reliance of the general theory of relativity upon the special theory of relativity locally in spacetime. The connection between the fundamental forces of electromagnetism and gravitation follows immediately from these two points. A brief review is provided of: 1) the role of the finite and invariant velocity of light in inertial reference frames in the special theory, and 2) certain fundamental concepts of the general theory, including its reliance on the special theory locally.

  15. Modeling and Grid impedance Variation Analysis of Parallel Connected Grid Connected Inverter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak, Claus Leth

    of power converter are important issues todays as the grid is becoming much more power electronics filtering and resonance damping methods are studied in islanded micro- grid application to reduceModeling and Grid impedance Variation Analysis of Parallel Connected Grid Connected Inverter based

  16. Effects on electrical distribution networks of dispersed power generation at high levels of connection penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longrigg, P.

    1983-07-01

    The advent and deployment of significant levels of photovoltaic and wind energy generation in the spatially dispersed mode (i.e., residential and intermediate load centers) may have deleterious effects upon existing protective relay equipment and its time-current coordination on radial distribution circuits to which power conditioning equipment may be connected for power sell-back purposes. The problems that may arise involve harmonic injection from power conditioning inverters that can affect protective relays and cause excessive voltage and current from induced series and parallel resonances on feeders and connected passive equipment. Voltage regulation, var requirements, and consumer metering can also be affected by this type of dispersed generation. The creation of islands of supply is also possible, particularly on rural supply systems. This paper deals mainly with the effects of harmonics and short-circuit currents from wind energy conversion systems (WECS) and photovoltaic (PV) systems upon the operating characteristics of distribution networks and relays and other protective equipment designed to ensure the safety and supply integrity of electrical utility networks. Traditionally, electrical supply networks have been designed for one-way power flow-from generation to load, with a balance maintained between the two by means of automatic generation and load-frequency controls. Dispersed generation, from renewables like WECS or PV or from nonrenewable resources, can change traditional power flow. These changes must be dealt with effectively if renewable energy resources are to be integrated into the utility distribution system. This paper gives insight into these problems and proposes some solutions.

  17. Electrically conductive connection for an electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hornack, T.R.; Chilko, R.J.

    1986-09-02

    An electrically conductive connection for an electrode assembly of an electrolyte cell in which aluminum is produced by electrolysis in a molten salt is described. The electrode assembly comprises an electrode flask and a conductor rod. The flask has a collar above an area of minimum flask diameter. The electrically conductive connection comprises the electrode flask, the conductor rod and a structure bearing against the collar and the conductor rod for pulling the conductor rod into compressive and electrical contact with the flask. 2 figs.

  18. Current mode integrators and their applications in low-voltage high frequency CMOS signal processing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Sterling Lane

    1993-01-01

    Low voltage CMOS fully differential integrators for high frequency continuous-time filters using current-mode techniques are presented.. Current mode techniques are employed to avoid the use of the floating differential ...

  19. Optimal Tap Setting of Voltage Regulation Transformers in Unbalanced Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez-Garcia, Alejandro

    of Distributed Energy Resources in the Smart Grid" (University of Illinois contract UIeRA 2013-2955-00-00). (MIP and voltage regulation from some reference value. Motivated by this, we propose a framework to determine

  20. Analysis of incipient fault signatures in inductive loads energized by a common voltage bus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bade, Rajesh Kumar

    2006-04-12

    Recent research has demonstrated the use of electrical signature analysis (ESA), that is, the use of induction motor currents and voltages, for early detection of motor faults in the form of embedded algorithms. In the event of multiple motors...

  1. Voltage, Stability and Diffusion Barrier Differences between Sodium-ion and Lithium-ion Intercalation Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ong, Shyue Ping

    To evaluate the potential of Na-ion batteries, we contrast in this work the difference between Na-ion and Li-ion based intercalation chemistries in terms of three key battery properties—voltage, phase stability and diffusion ...

  2. Clustering-Based Simultaneous Task and Voltage Scheduling for NoC Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yu

    2011-08-08

    Network-on-Chip (NoC) is emerging as a promising communication structure, which is scalable with respect to chip complexity. Meanwhile, latest chip designs are increasingly leveraging multiple voltage-frequency domains for energy...

  3. The EP-4(0) shielding kits: a new approach to protection from induced voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vorob'ev, A. Yu.; Otmorskii, S. G.; Smekalov, V. V.; Gorozhankina, E. N.; Sosunov, N. N.; Bol'shunov, A. M.

    2011-09-15

    Problems of safety in work on overhead power lines and the overhead railroad ac contact network under induced voltages are considered. The use of additional individual protection systems is proposed to provide protection from electric shock during such work.

  4. Applications of an Electrostatic High-Voltage Tether to Radiation Belt Remediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applications of an Electrostatic High-Voltage Tether to Radiation Belt Remediation by Christopher F.1.1 Magnetic Mirrors and the Van Allen Belts........................... 10 1.1.2 The Loss Cone

  5. Voltage-dependent energetics of alamethicin monomers in the membrane Madhusoodanan Mottamal, Themis Lazaridis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lazaridis, Themis

    in membranes and has served as a simple model for ion channels [1,2]. The structure of ALM in crystals is a bent -helix [3]. Conductivity is voltage dependent and appears in bursts of different magnitude, which

  6. Quadratic voltage profiles in lead acid cells during slow, steady processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haaser, Robert Anthony

    1999-01-01

    It is standard lore that the voltage profile varies linearly in space within the electrolyte of a lead acid cell under slow, steady discharge. However, this hypothesis has never been put to the test. A recent theory predicts ...

  7. DECENTRALIZED VOLTAGE CONTROL TO MINIMIZE DISTRIBUTION LOSSES IN AN ISLANDED MICROGRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    DECENTRALIZED VOLTAGE CONTROL TO MINIMIZE DISTRIBUTION LOSSES IN AN ISLANDED MICROGRID Changsun Ahn Microgrids can bring electricity power to rural communities or isolated military forward operation bases strategies. In addition, these microgrids may be reconfigured frequently. Therefore, the control strategies

  8. Analysis of asset health : an approach to monitoring and diagnostics for medium voltage circuit breakers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corona, Erick (Erick Gustavo)

    2013-01-01

    The Medium Voltage Electric Industry is a very conservative and risk adverse sector that has undergone very little change in the past 30 years when compared to other technologically dependent activities; this reality is ...

  9. Correlation between cathode properties, burning voltage, and plasma parameters of vacuum arcs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Yotsombat, Banchob; Binder, Robert

    2001-06-15

    Burning voltages of vacuum arcs were measured for 54 cathode materials and compared with literature data. As anticipated, a correlation between the arc burning voltage and the plasma temperature was found. However, more importantly, a correlation between the cohesive energy of the cathode material and the arc burning voltage could be demonstrated. This link between a cathode material property, the cohesive energy, and a discharge property, the arc burning voltage, is essential for the operation of the vacuum arc discharge because is determines the plasma temperature. Energy balance considerations show that this {open_quotes}cohesive energy rule{close_quotes} is responsible for several other secondary relationships, such as the correlation between the mean ion charge state and the boiling temperature of the cathode. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  10. Manufacturing challenges of optical current and voltage sensors for utility applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakymyshyn, C.P. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Brubaker, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Johnston, P.M. [Johnston (Paul M.), Raleigh, NC (United States); Reinbold, C. [ABB High Voltage Switchgear, Greensburg, PA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Measurement of voltages and currents in power transmission and distribution systems are critical to the electric utility industry for both revenue metering and reliability. Nonconventional instrument transformers based on intensity modulation of optical signals have been reported in the literature for more than 20 years. Recently described devices using passive bulk optical sensor elements include the Electro-Optic Voltage Transducer (EOVT) and Magneto-Optic Current Transducer (MOCT). These technologies offer substantial advantages over conventional instrument transformers in accuracy, optical isolation bandwidth, environmental compatibility, weight and size. This paper describes design and manufacturing issues associated with the EOVT and the Optical Metering Unit (OMU) recently introduced by ABB with field installation results presented for prototype units in the 345 kV and 420 kV voltage classes. The OMU incorporates an EOVT and MOCT to monitor the voltage and current on power transmission lines using a single free-standing device.

  11. Harmonic control of multiple-stator induction machines for voltage regulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holloway, Jack Wade, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    Small, one to a few horsepower, three-phase induction machines with three sets of electrically-isolated, magnetically-coupled stator winding circuits are described. A voltage inverter is developed and used to drive one set ...

  12. Latin America Low Voltage Cables Market to be Led by Brazil ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and affects the overall profitability of the market. Rising prices of aluminum and copper, the two chief raw materials for the low voltage cable industry, is a major factor...

  13. Coordination of Voltage and Frequency Feedback in Load-Frequency Control Capability of Wind Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da

    Coordination of Voltage and Frequency Feedback in Load-Frequency Control Capability of Wind Turbine-Frequency Control (LFC) is gradually shifted to Variable Speed Wind Turbines (VSWTs). In order to equip VSWT

  14. Voltage Island Management in Near Threshold Manycore Architectures to Mitigate Dark Silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silvano, Cristina

    @microlab.ntua.gr Abstract--The power-wall problem driven by the stagnation of supply voltages in deep-submicron technology (NTC) has emerged as a promising approach to overcome the manycore power-wall, at the expenses

  15. Copyright 2010 IEEE. Reprinted from: Toward PMU-Based Robust Automatic Voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Copyright © 2010 IEEE. Reprinted from: Toward PMU-Based Robust Automatic Voltage Control (AVC this document, you agree to all provisions of the copyright laws protecting it. #12;Toward PMU-Based Robust

  16. A Fault Tolerant 3-Phase Adjustable Speed Drive Topology with Common Mode Voltage Suppression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, Pawan

    2014-05-21

    reconfiguration are performed in a controlled manner using triacs/anti-parallel thyristors/solid state relays. In normal operation, the auxiliary leg is controlled to actively suppress common mode voltage. For inverter IGBT failures (short circuit and open circuit...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High-Voltage, High-Capacity Polyanion Cathodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by U of Texas at Austin at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high-voltage, high...

  18. Low-voltage, low-power circuits for data communication systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Mingdeng

    2005-02-17

    There are growing industrial demands for low-voltage supply and low-power consumption circuits and systems. This is especially true for very high integration level and very large scale integrated (VLSI) mixed-signal chips and system...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Seeo, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high-voltage solid polymer...

  20. State-of-the-Art Fuel Cell Voltage Durability Status: Spring 2013 Composite Data Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Saur, G.; Peters, M.; Post, M.; Ainscough, C.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes composite data products (CDPs) produced in 2013 for state-of-the-art fuel cell voltage durability status.

  1. Improving Cooling System Immunity Supply Voltage Sags in Petroleum and Chemical Industries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorr, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical service faults and voltage discontinuities are of growing concern in process industries where individual sensitive equipment or controls can disrupt the entire plant. In fact, just a minor variation in power for a fraction of a second can...

  2. Effect of MOSFET threshold voltage variation on high-performance circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narendra, Siva G. (Siva Gurusami), 1971-

    2002-01-01

    The driving force for the semiconductor industry growth has been the elegant scaling nature of CMOS technology. In future CMOS technology generations, supply and threshold voltages will have to continually scale to sustain ...

  3. Prediction of flashover voltage of non-ceramic insulators under contaminated conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prediction of flashover voltage of non-ceramic insulators under contaminated conditions S Terms -- Polymeric insulators, ceramic insulators, surface resistance, arc constant, reignition constant ceramic insulators (porcelain and glass). There are various types of contaminants that settle

  4. Voltage Sag-Related Upsets of Industrial Process Controls in Petroleum and Chemical Industries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mansoor, A.; Key, T.; Woinsky, S.

    1998-01-01

    with PLC controls. The sensitivity of these process controls can stop an essential service motor required for a continuous process such as in a refinery or chemical plant. Typically the controls are sensitive to the common momentary voltage sag caused...

  5. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloymore »(Ti-6AI-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached -225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (« less

  6. Effect of interfacial oxide layers on the current-voltage characteristics of Al-Si contacts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishizono, Taira

    1976-01-01

    EFFECT OF INTERFACIAL OXIDE LAYERS ON THE CURRENT-VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF Al-Si CONTACTS A Thesis by TAIRA NISHIZONO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&Yi University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering EFFECTS OF INTERFACIAL OXIDE LAYERS ON THE CURRENT-VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF Al-Si CONTACTS A Thesis by TAIRA NISHIZONO Approved. as to style and content by: Chairman...

  7. A DSP based real time power quality measurement system with voltage distortion improvement capability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gou, Jian

    1992-01-01

    have been established to specify the limitation on the magnitudes of both harmonic currents and harmonic voltage distortion at different frequencies. Among these the "IEEE Guide for Harmonic Control and Reactive Compensation of Static Power... by the utility and by the electricity consumer has arrived. These measurements include: current and voltage harmonics, input power 1'actor, reactive power, real power, total harmonic distortion (THD), percentage load unbalance, etc. The measured data can...

  8. Cermet insert high voltage holdoff improvement for ceramic/metal vacuum devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ierna, W.F.

    1986-03-11

    An improved metal-to-ceramic seal is provided wherein the ceramic body of the seal contains an integral region of cermet material in electrical contact with the metallic member, e.g., an electrode, of the seal. The seal is useful in high voltage vacuum devices, e.g., vacuum switches, and increases the high-voltage holdoff capabilities of such devices. A method of fabricating such seals is also provided.

  9. A statistical approach to designing mitigation for induced AC voltages on pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J. [Electro Sciences Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Induced voltage levels on buried pipelines co-located with overhead electric power transmission lines are usually mitigated by grounding the pipeline. Maximum effectiveness is obtained when grounds are placed where the peak induced voltages occur. Mitigation depends on the local soil resistivity. It may be necessary to employ an extensive distributed grounding system. Over long distances, however, the soil resistivity generally varies as a log-normally distributed random variable. The effect of this variability is examined.

  10. Neutron burst form a high-voltage discharge between palladium electrodes in D sub 2 gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y.E. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-12-01

    In this paper a recent experimental observation of a neutron flux burst at a rate of 2 {times} 10{sup 4} times the background rate during a high ac voltage stimulation between two deuterated palladium electrodes in D{sub 2} gas is explained in terms of the experimentally measured deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion cross sections. Theoretical criteria and experimental conditions for improving D-D fusion rates with the use of pulsed high-dc voltages are described.

  11. System Voltage Potential-Induced Degradation Mechanisms in PV Modules and Methods for Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Smith, R.; Glick, S.; Pankow, J.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.; Bennett, I.; Kloos, M.

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, degradation and power loss have been observed in PV modules resulting from the stress exerted by system voltage bias. This is due in part to qualification tests and standards that do not adequately evaluate for the durability of modules to the long-term effects of high voltage bias experienced in fielded arrays. High voltage can lead to module degradation by multiple mechanisms. The extent of the voltage bias degradation is linked to the leakage current or coulombs passed from the silicon active layer through the encapsulant and glass to the grounded module frame, which can be experimentally determined; however, competing processes make the effect non-linear and history-dependent. Appropriate testing methods and stress levels are described that demonstrate module durability to system voltage potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms. This information, along with outdoor testing that is in progress, is used to estimate the acceleration factors needed to evaluate the durability of modules to system voltage stress. Na-rich precipitates are observed on the cell surface after stressing the module to induce PID in damp heat with negative bias applied to the active layer.

  12. System Voltage Potential-Induced Degradation Mechanisms in PV Modules and Methods for Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Smith, R.; Glick, S.; Pankow, J.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.; Bennett, I.; Kloos, M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, degradation and power loss have been observed in PV modules resulting from the stress exerted by system voltage bias. This is due in part to qualification tests and standards that do not adequately evaluate for the durability of modules to the long-term effects of high voltage bias experienced in fielded arrays. High voltage can lead to module degradation by multiple mechanisms. The extent of the voltage bias degradation is linked to the leakage current or culombs passed from the silicon active layer through the encapsulant and glass to the grounded module frame, which can be experimentally determined; however, competing processes make the effect non-linear and history-dependent. Appropriate testing methods and stress levels are described that demonstrate module durability to system voltage potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms. This information, along with outdoor testing that is in progress, is used to estimate the acceleration factors needed to evaluate the durability of modules to system voltage stress. Na-rich precipitates are observed on the cell surface after stressing the module to induce PID in damp heat with negative bias applied to the active layer.

  13. A method to determine the onset voltage of single and arrays of electrospray emitters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krpoun, Renato; Shea, Herbert R. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-09-15

    This paper reports on an accurate and rapid method to compute the onset voltage of a single or an array of electrospray emitters with complex geometries and on the correlation of the simulation with experimental data. This method permits the exact determination of the onset voltage based only on the surface tension of the sprayed liquid and on the emitter geometry. The approach starts by determining the voltage at which electrostatic forces and surface tension forces are equal for a sharpening conic surface at the tip of a capillary as a function of the apex radius of the liquid. By tracing the curve of this computed equilibrium voltage as a function of the apex radius, the onset voltage for a liquid surface with the Taylor half-angle of 49.3 deg. or larger can be determined. For smaller cone half-angles the method is only applicable to ionic sprays as an approximate knowledge of the critical field for ion emission is necessary. The combination of analytical models and finite element tools used to compute the necessary parameters is described. The method is validated on a complex microelectromechanical system emitter geometry as well as on a linear array of electrospray emitters. Finally an empirical model of the behavior of the electric field near the apex of a conic surface with asymptotes at a fixed half-angle is proposed, which allows establishing a simple method for onset voltage determination.

  14. UGA Connections in Turkey September 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UGA Connections in Turkey September 2015 UGA Students in Turkey: Turkey has hosted well over 100 program which often includes a stay in Turkey. These and other programs resulted in Turkey's hosting and management in Turkey. Duzce University plays an important role in the modernization of Turkish forestry

  15. Connectivity To Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-02-26

    To establish DOE and NNSA connectivity to Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) for sites and facilities that have the potential for releasing hazardous materials sufficient to generate certain emergency declarations and to promote efficient use of resources for consequence assessment activities at DOE sites, facilities, operations, and activities in planning for and responding to emergency events. No cancellations.

  16. Oceanography Vol.20, No. 314 Connectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pineda, Jesús

    Oceanography Vol.20, No. 314 Population Connectivity in Marine Systems An Overview M A r i N e P O-management strategies. Oceanography Vol.20, No. 314 ThisarticlehasbeenpublishedinOceanography,Volume20,Number3,aquarterlyjournalofTheOceanographySociety.Copyright2007byTheOceanography

  17. EUROMED SUSTAINABLE CONNECTIONS ANNA LINDH FOUNDATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    Sustainable Community Development Connections in the Mediterranean Region Case Study Project Report Nicholas C that are committed to the principles of sustainable community development share an obligation to help solve problems sustainability in local communities that are impacted by the effects of globalization. These regional efforts

  18. Connecting biotechnology to product development in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallin, Michael

    #12;Connecting biotechnology to product development in health, food and energy #12;Collaboration to help build relationships, form new ideas and solve problems. Tenants will have access to more than 80 of the most advanced biotechnology research centers on the East Coast. Operated by the University of North

  19. Multiple Shear Key Connections for Precast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for elevator shaft shear wall panelsOne of the main concerns in precast 104 #12;utilize a combination elevator shaft shear wall panels. The tests results were used to develop analytical models to predict the shear Synopsis Seven horizontal connections typi- cally used in precast concrete elevator shaft shear

  20. THE MMRI CONNECTION Tool Selection and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bone, Gary

    to improve performance of an existing ones? The MMRI through advanced research in cutting tools, coatings: Advanced Coatings Optimum Geometry Ideal Substrate Grade Take Advantage of Advanced Tooling SolutionsTHE MMRI CONNECTION Tool Selection and Development Planning tooling for a new process or trying

  1. Presented by Kris Schulze, Tech Connections Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    of practice · Knowledge sharing and management · Preserve corporate knowledge · Instant messaging · ChatPresented by Kris Schulze, Tech Connections Project Manager, Mn/DOT Information and Technology we ensure that our employees have the technology they need to collaborate, innovate, share knowledge

  2. Realizing Low Power FPGAs: A Design Partitioning Algorithm for Voltage Scaling and A Comparative Evaluation of Voltage Scaling Techniques for FPGAs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

    switchboxes, FPGAs are less energy efficient than ASICs [1]. An experimental study comparing the energy reliability due to excessive heat generation (due to high power) is a concern, power improvement in FPGAs that dual-Vdd achieves more power reduction than by Vdd scaling (i.e. adjusting the supply voltage level

  3. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these conductors at a safe distance from each other and from the ground and the natural and built environment. Common elements that are generally less visible (or at least more easily overlooked) include the maintained ROW along the path of the towers, access roads needed for maintenance, and staging areas used for initial construction that may be restored after construction is complete. Also visible but less common elements along the corridor may include switching stations or substations, where lines of similar or different voltages meet to transfer power.

  4. Methods and apparatus for controlling respective load currents of multiple series-connected loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Datta, Michael; Lys, Ihor

    2014-05-27

    A lighting apparatus (100) includes one or more first LEDs (202) for generating a first spectrum of radiation (503), and one or more second LEDs (204) for generating a second different spectrum radiation (505). The first and second LEDs are electrically connected in series between a first node (516A) and a second node (516B), between which a series current (550) flows with the application of an operating voltage (516) across the nodes. A controllable current path (518) is connected in parallel with one or both of the first and second LEDs so as to at least partially divert the series current, such that a first current (552) through the first LED(s) and a second current (554) through the second LED(s) are different. Such current diversion techniques may be employed to compensate for shifts in color or color temperature of generated light during thermal transients, due to different temperature-dependent current-to-flux relationships for different types of LEDs.

  5. Electricity storage for grid-connected household dwellings with PV panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulder, Grietus; Six, Daan; Ridder, Fjo De

    2010-07-15

    Classically electricity storage for PV panels is mostly designed for stand-alone applications. In contrast, we focus in this article on houses connected to the grid with a small-scale storage to store a part of the solar power for postponed consumption within the day or the next days. In this way the house owner becomes less dependent on the grid and does only pay for the net shortage of his energy production. Local storage solutions pave the way for many new applications like omitting over-voltage of the line and bridging periods of power-line black-out. Since 2009 using self-consumption of PV energy is publicly encouraged in Germany, which can be realised by electric storage. This paper develops methods to determine the optimal storage size for grid-connected dwellings with PV panels. From measurements in houses we were able to establish calculation rules for sizing the storage. Two situations for electricity storage are covered: - the storage system is an optimum to cover most of the electricity needs; - it is an optimum for covering the peak power need of a dwelling. After these calculation rules a second step is needed to determine the size of the real battery. The article treats the aspects that should be taken into consideration before buying a specific battery like lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries. (author)

  6. STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF WELDED CONNECTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. SOHN; C. FARRAR; M. FUGATE; J. CZARNECKI

    2001-05-01

    Structural health monitoring is the implementation of a damage detection strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure. Typical damage experienced by this infrastructure might be the development of fatigue cracks, degradation of structural connections, or bearing wear in rotating machinery. The goal of the research effort reported herein is to develop a robust and cost-effective monitoring system for welded beam-column connections in a moment resisting frame structure. The structural health monitoring solution for this application will integrate structural dynamics, wireless data acquisition, local actuation, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMs) technology, and statistical pattern recognition algorithms. This paper provides an example of the integrated approach to structural health monitoring being undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory and summarizes progress to date on various aspects of the technology development.

  7. Mechanical connection for a tubular assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grover, J.M.

    1984-09-12

    Disclosed is a mechanical connection assembly for connecting two telescopically related parts together in a fluidtight relation. The system uses snap-in fasteners having flexible barbed tangs which are snapped into receiving holes formed in the parts being attached together. A locking pin can be inserted into a central aperture through the snap-in fastener to secure the fastener in the receiving holes. The system also includes a seal having sealing surfaces at least one of which is formed at an angle inclined relative to a true vertical. a metallic sealing element is interposed between the sealing surfaces. The geometry of the sealing surfaces is capable of compensating for the differential thermal growth rates occurring when the two parts are made from dissimilar metals.

  8. Signal connection for a downhole tool string

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Bradford, Kline; Fox, Joe; Briscoe, Michael

    2006-08-29

    A signal transmission connection for a tool string used in exploration and production of natural resources, namely: oil, gas, and geothermal energy resources. The connection comprises first and second annular elements deployed in cooperative association with each other. The respective elements comprise inductive transducers that are capable of two-way signal transmission between each other, with downhole components of the tool string, and with ground-level equipment. The respective inductive transducers comprise one or more conductive loops housed within ferrite troughs, or within ferrite trough segments. When energized, the conductive loops produce a magnetic field suitable for transmitting the signal. The second element may be rotational in drilling applications. The respective elements may be fitted with electronic equipment to aid and manipulate the transmission of the signal. The first element may also be in communication with the World Wide Web.

  9. Connecting your Apple to Octopus 7600's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1983-01-17

    In UCID-19588, Communicating between the Apple and the Wang, we described how to take Apple DOS text files and send them to the Wang, and how to return Wang files to the Apple. It is also possible to use your Apple as an Octopus terminal, and to exchange files with Octopus 7600's. Presumably, you can also talk to the Crays, or any other part of the system. This connection has another virtue. It eliminates one of the terminals in your office.

  10. A connecting network with fault tolerance capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciminiera, L.; Serra, A.

    1986-06-01

    A new multistage interconnection network is presented in this paper. It is able to handle the communications between the connected devices correctly, even in the presence of fault(s) in the network. This goal is achieved by using redundant paths with a fast procedure able to dynamically reroute the message. It is also shown that the rerouting properties are still valid when broadcasting transmission is used.

  11. Multiple connection for an undersea cable system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guazzo, L.; Trezeguet, J.P.

    1984-05-08

    A multiple connection is claimed for connecting a plurality of armored cables to the housing of electrical apparatus in an undersea system having a cable interconnection point where a plurality of cables serving different destinations are brought together. Each of these cables comprise a core surrounded by armor and are terminated by a length of bared core extending beyond a severed end of the armor. The housing has a hollow cable-fixing part through which the bared cable cores pass, characterized in that said connection comprises: a steel binding ring through which the armored portion of each of said cables, is threaded, said ring serving to bind said armored portions of cable together; a steel tube threaded over said bared cores of said cables, having one end abutting against severed end portions of the armor of said cables and having its other end fixed mechanically to said hollow cable-fixing part of the electrical apparatus housing; and auxiliary armor wound around the portions of armored cable bound together by said ring and around the adjacent portion of said steel tube.

  12. Abstract-This paper addresses boost converter circuits that are built for very low input voltages, i.e. less than 1 V. Such circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimball, Jonathan W.

    Abstract- This paper addresses boost converter circuits that are built for very low input voltages-VOLTAGE BOOST CONVERTER EFFICIENCY Efficiency of the basic power converter circuits such as buck, boost, etc input voltages. I. INTRODUCTION Power converters driven from low input voltage (

  13. Quantitative interpretation of the transition voltages in gold-poly(phenylene) thiol-gold molecular junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Kunlin; Bai, Meilin; Hou, Shimin; Sanvito, Stefano

    2013-11-21

    The transition voltage of three different asymmetric Au/poly(phenylene) thiol/Au molecular junctions in which the central molecule is either benzene thiol, biphenyl thiol, or terphenyl thiol is investigated by first-principles quantum transport simulations. For all the junctions, the calculated transition voltage at positive polarity is in quantitative agreement with the experimental values and shows weak dependence on alterations of the Au-phenyl contact. When compared to the strong coupling at the Au-S contact, which dominates the alignment of various molecular orbitals with respect to the electrode Fermi level, the coupling at the Au-phenyl contact produces only a weak perturbation. Therefore, variations of the Au-phenyl contact can only have a minor influence on the transition voltage. These findings not only provide an explanation to the uniformity in the transition voltages found for ?-conjugated molecules measured with different experimental methods, but also demonstrate the advantage of transition voltage spectroscopy as a tool for determining the positions of molecular levels in molecular devices.

  14. Design, conditioning, and performance of a high voltage, high brightness dc photoelectron gun with variable gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxson, Jared; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Dobbins, John; Liu, Xianghong; Smolenski, Karl

    2014-09-15

    A new high voltage photoemission gun has been constructed at Cornell University which features a segmented insulator and a movable anode, allowing the cathode-anode gap to be adjusted. In this work, we describe the gun's overall mechanical and high voltage design, the surface preparation of components, as well as the clean construction methods. We present high voltage conditioning data using a 50 mm cathode-anode gap, in which the conditioning voltage exceeds 500 kV, as well as at smaller gaps. Finally, we present simulated emittance results obtained from a genetic optimization scheme using voltage values based on the conditioning data. These results indicate that for charges up to 100 pC, a 30 mm gap at 400 kV has equal or smaller 100% emittance than a 50 mm gap at 450 kV, and also a smaller core emittance, when placed as the source for the Cornell energy recovery linac photoinjector with bunch length constrained to be <3 ps rms. For 100 pC up to 0.5 nC charges, the 50 mm gap has larger core emittance than the 30 mm gap, but conversely smaller 100% emittance.

  15. A combined compensation method for the output voltage of an insulated core transformer power supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.; Yang, J., E-mail: jyang@mail.hust.edu.cn; Liu, K. F.; Qin, B.; Chen, D. Z. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-06-15

    An insulated core transformer (ICT) power supply is an ideal high-voltage generator for irradiation accelerators with energy lower than 3 MeV. However, there is a significant problem that the structure of the segmented cores leads to an increase in the leakage flux and voltage differences between rectifier disks. A high level of consistency in the output of the disks helps to achieve a compact structure by improving the utilization of both the rectifier components and the insulation distances, and consequently increase the output voltage of the power supply. The output voltages of the disks which are far away from the primary coils need to be improved to reduce their inhomogeneity. In this study, by investigating and comparing the existing compensation methods, a new combined compensation method is proposed, which increases the turns on the secondary coils and employs parallel capacitors to improve the consistency of the disks, while covering the entire operating range of the power supply. This method turns out to be both feasible and effective during the development of an ICT power supply. The non-uniformity of the output voltages of the disks is less than 3.5% from no-load to full-load, and the power supply reaches an output specification of 350 kV/60 mA.

  16. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    was to jointly develop a low cost, commercially viable, water-repellant anti-icing coating system for high voltage transmission lines. Icing of power lines and other structures...

  17. Development of a quantum-voltage-calibrated noise thermometer at NIM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, J.; Zhang, J. T.; Fu, Y.; Rogalla, H.; Pollarolo, A.; Benz, S. P.

    2013-09-11

    A quantum-voltage-calibrated Johnson-noise thermometer was developed at NIM, which measures the Boltzmann constant k by comparing the thermal noise across a 100 ? sense resistor at the temperature of the triple point of water with the pseudo-random frequency-comb voltage waveform synthesized with a bipolar-pulse-driven quantum-voltage-noise source. A measurement with integration period of 10 hours and bandwidth of 640 kHz resulted in a relative offset of 0.5×10{sup ?6} from the current CODATA value of k, and a type A relative standard uncertainty of 23×10{sup ?6}. Benefiting from closely matched noise powers and transmission-line impedances and small nonlinearities in the cross-correlation electronics, the derived k shows self-consistent values and standard uncertainties for different measurement bandwidths.

  18. Nobody but You: Sensor Selection for Voltage Regulation in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mao, Rukun

    2011-01-01

    The increasing availability of distributed energy resources (DERs) and sensors in smart grid, as well as overlaying communication network, provides substantial potential benefits for improving the power system's reliability. In this paper, the problem of sensor selection is studied for the MAC layer design of wireless sensor networks for regulating the voltages in smart grid. The framework of hybrid dynamical system is proposed, using Kalman filter for voltage state estimation and LQR feedback control for voltage adjustment. The approach to obtain the optimal sensor selection sequence is studied. A sub- optimal sequence is obtained by applying the sliding window algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed sensor selection strategy achieves a 40% performance gain over the baseline algorithm of the round-robin sensor polling.

  19. Extremum seeking-based optimization of high voltage converter modulator rise-time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheinker, Alexander; Bland, Michael; Krstic, Miroslav; Audia, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    We digitally implement an extremum seeking (ES) algorithm, which optimizes the rise time of the output voltage of a high voltage converter modulator (HVCM) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) HVCM test stand by iteratively, simultaneously tuning the first 8 switching edges of each of the three phase drive waveforms (24 variables total). We achieve a 50 ?s rise time, which is reduction in half compared to the 100 ?s achieved at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Considering that HVCMs typically operate with an output voltage of 100 kV, with a 60Hz repetition rate, the 50 ?s rise time reduction will result in very significant energy savings. The ES algorithm will prove successful, despite the noisy measurements and cost calculations, confirming the theoretical results that the algorithm is not affected by noise whose frequency components are independent of the perturbing frequencies.

  20. Extremum seeking-based optimization of high voltage converter modulator rise-time

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scheinker, Alexander; Bland, Michael; Krstic, Miroslav; Audia, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    We digitally implement an extremum seeking (ES) algorithm, which optimizes the rise time of the output voltage of a high voltage converter modulator (HVCM) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) HVCM test stand by iteratively, simultaneously tuning the first 8 switching edges of each of the three phase drive waveforms (24 variables total). We achieve a 50 ?s rise time, which is reduction in half compared to the 100 ?s achieved at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Considering that HVCMs typically operate with an output voltage of 100 kV, with a 60Hz repetitionmore »rate, the 50 ?s rise time reduction will result in very significant energy savings. The ES algorithm will prove successful, despite the noisy measurements and cost calculations, confirming the theoretical results that the algorithm is not affected by noise whose frequency components are independent of the perturbing frequencies.« less

  1. Interconnected High-Voltage Pulsed-Power Converters System Design for H? Ion Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguglia, D

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and experimental validations of a system of three new high-voltage (HV) pulsedpower converters for the H? sources. The system requires three pulsed voltages (50, 40, and 25 kV to ground) at 2-Hz repetition rate, for 700 ?s of usable flat-top. The solution presents ripplefree output voltages and minimal stored energy to protect the ion source from the consequences of arc events. Experimental results on the final full-scale prototype are presented. In case of short-circuit events, the maximal energy delivered to the source is in the Joule range. HV flat-top stability of 1% is experimentally achieved with a simple Proportional-Integral- Derivative regulation and preliminary tuned H? source (e.g., radio frequency control, gas injection, and so forth). The system is running since more than a year with no power converter failures and damage to the source.

  2. Fiber-optic voltage sensor with cladded fiber and evanescent wave variation detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, C.B.

    1992-12-15

    A fiber optic voltage sensor is described which includes a source of light, a reference fiber for receiving a known percentage of the light and an electrostrictive element having terminals across which is applied, a voltage to be measured. The electrostrictive element is responsive to the applied voltage to assume an altered physical state. A measuring fiber also receives a known percentage of light from the light source and is secured about the electrostrictive element. The measuring fiber is provided with a cladding and exhibits an evanescent wave in the cladding. The measuring fiber has a known length which is altered when the electrostrictive element assumes its altered physical state. A differential sensor is provided which senses the intensity of light in both the reference fiber and the measuring fiber and provides an output indicative of the difference between the intensities. 3 figs.

  3. Effect of magnetic field on breakdown voltage characteristics of a multigap pseudospark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sriram, D.; Jain, K.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    1997-06-01

    An experimental investigation of the effect of magnetic field on the breakdown voltage characteristics of a multigap pseudospark device, with hydrogen gas, in a hollow anode{endash}cathode, as well as a hollow cathode{endash}anode configuration, is presented. The breakdown pressure at a particular discharge voltage increases with the increase in the applied axial magnetic field, and the magnitude of the increase is more pronounced at lower discharge voltages causing a right shift to the characteristic discharge curve in both the configurations. Application of a transverse magnetic field also resulted in a shift of the characteristic discharge curve towards the right. The observed results are compared and discussed with that found for parallel electrode geometry. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Current-voltage characteristics of seven-helix proteins from a cubic array of amino acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfinito, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    The electrical properties of a set of seven-helix transmembrane proteins, whose space arrangement (3D structure) is known, are investigated by using regular arrays of the amino acids. These structures, specifically cubes, have topological features similar to those shown by the chosen proteins. The theoretical results show a good agreement between the predicted current-voltage characteristics obtained from a cubic array and those obtained from a detailed 3D structure. The agreement is confirmed by available experiments on bacteriorhodopsin. Furthermore, all the analyzed proteins are found to share the same critical behaviour of the voltage-dependent conductance and of its variance. In particular, the cubic arrangement evidences a short plateau of the excess conductance and its variance at high voltages. The results of the present investigation show the possibility to predict the I-V characteristics of multiple-protein sample even in the absence of a detailed knowledge of their 3D structure.

  5. Optimizing performance per watt on GPUs in High Performance Computing: temperature, frequency and voltage effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, D C; Barsdell, B R; Babich, R; Greenhill, L J

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude of the real-time digital signal processing challenge attached to large radio astronomical antenna arrays motivates use of high performance computing (HPC) systems. The need for high power efficiency (performance per watt) at remote observatory sites parallels that in HPC broadly, where efficiency is an emerging critical metric. We investigate how the performance per watt of graphics processing units (GPUs) is affected by temperature, core clock frequency and voltage. Our results highlight how the underlying physical processes that govern transistor operation affect power efficiency. In particular, we show experimentally that GPU power consumption grows non-linearly with both temperature and supply voltage, as predicted by physical transistor models. We show lowering GPU supply voltage and increasing clock frequency while maintaining a low die temperature increases the power efficiency of an NVIDIA K20 GPU by up to 37-48% over default settings when running xGPU, a compute-bound code used in radio...

  6. Static reactive power compensators for high-voltage power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    A study conducted to summarize the role of static reactive power compensators for high voltage power system applications is described. This information should be useful to the utility system planning engineer in applying static var systems (SVS) to high voltage as (HVAC) systems. The static var system is defined as a form of reactive power compensator. The general need for reactive power compensation in HVAC systems is discussed, and the static var system is compared to other devices utilized to provide reactive power compensation. Examples are presented of applying SVS for specific functions, such as the prevention of voltage collapse. The operating principles of commercially available SVS's are discussed in detail. The perormance and active power loss characteristics of SVS types are compared.

  7. Calmodulin and calcium differentially regulate the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-dependent sodium channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaudioso, Christelle; Carlier, Edmond; Youssouf, Fahamoe; Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 ; Clare, Jeffrey J.; Debanne, Dominique; Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 ; Alcaraz, Gisele; Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Both Ca{sup ++}-Calmodulin (CaM) and Ca{sup ++}-free CaM bind to the C-terminal region of Nav1.1. {yields} Ca{sup ++} and CaM have both opposite and convergent effects on I{sub Nav1.1}. {yields} Ca{sup ++}-CaM modulates I{sub Nav1.1} amplitude. {yields} CaM hyperpolarizes the voltage-dependence of activation, and increases the inactivation rate. {yields} Ca{sup ++} alone antagonizes CaM for both effects, and depolarizes the voltage-dependence of inactivation. -- Abstract: Mutations in the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-gated sodium channel are responsible for mild to severe epileptic syndromes. The ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM) bound to rat brain Nav1.1 and to the human Nav1.1 channel expressed by a stably transfected HEK-293 cell line. The C-terminal region of the channel, as a fusion protein or in the yeast two-hybrid system, interacted with CaM via a consensus C-terminal motif, the IQ domain. Patch clamp experiments on HEK1.1 cells showed that CaM overexpression increased peak current in a calcium-dependent way. CaM had no effect on the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation, and accelerated the inactivation kinetics. Elevating Ca{sup ++} depolarized the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation and slowed down the fast inactivation kinetics, and for high concentrations this effect competed with the acceleration induced by CaM alone. Similarly, the depolarizing action of calcium antagonized the hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage-dependence of activation due to CaM overexpression. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements suggested that Ca{sup ++} could bind the Nav1.1 C-terminal region with micromolar affinity.

  8. Transmission enhancement through deep subwavelength apertures using connected split

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transmission enhancement through deep subwavelength apertures using connected split ring resonators transmission enhancement factors through a subwavelength aperture at microwave frequencies by placing connected transmission through a deep subwavelength aperture with an electrical size of /31×/12 (width × length

  9. Connecting ARC/INFO and SNACTor Project Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Connecting ARC/INFO and SNACTor Project Report June 1991 Stuart C. Shapiro, Hans Chalupsky;Connecting ARC/INFO* and SNACTor --- Project Report1 Stuart C. Shapiro2 , Hans Chalupsky2 and Hsueh

  10. Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-22 #12;Connectable solar air collectors Søren Østergaard Jensen Miroslav Bosanac Solar Energy Centre Søren Østergaard Jensen and Miroslav Bosanac Solar Energy Centre, Danish Technological Institute

  11. United States Launches First Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    United States Launches First Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine United States Launches First Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine August 22, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Leveraging an...

  12. Voltage oxide removal for plating: A new method of electroplating oxide coated metals in situ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutfeld, R. J. von; West, A. C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    A novel in situ method for electroplating oxide coated metals is described. Termed VORP, for voltage oxide removal for plating, the process utilizes a voltage pulse {approx}20-200 V, {approx}2 ms in duration, applied between working and counterelectrodes while both are immersed in a copper electrolyte. The pulse is almost immediately followed by galvanostatic plate-up. Adherent copper deposits up to {approx}4 {mu}m in height on stainless steel 316 coupons have been obtained. Temperature testing up to 260 deg. C in air does not affect the copper adhesion. A preliminary model for oxide removal is proposed utilizing concepts of dielectric breakdown.

  13. Characterization of voltage-gated ionic currents in a peripheral sensory neuron in larval Drosophila

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Amit; Bate, Michael; Pulver, Stefan R

    2010-06-02

    and Shab K+ currents to neuronal firing patterns in Drosophila. J Neurophysiol 2007, 97(1):780-794. 2. O'Dowd DK, Aldrich RW: Voltage-clamp analysis of sodium channels in wild-type and mutant Drosophila neurons. J Neurosci 1988, 8(10):3633-3643. 3. O... 'Dowd DK: Voltage-gated currents and firing properties of embryonic Drosophila neurons grown in a chemically defined medium. J Neurobiol 1995, 27(1):113-126. 4. Saito M, Wu CF: Ionic channels in cultured Drosophila neurons. EXS 1993, 63:366-389. 5...

  14. Voltage polarity manipulation of the magnetoresistance sign in organic spin valve devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, S. W.; Chen, B. B.; Wang, P.; Zhou, Y.; Shi, Y. J.; Yue, F. J.; Ding, H. F.; Wu, D., E-mail: dwu@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-06-30

    The spin transport in organic spin valve (OSV) devices has been systematically investigated by inserting a low work function material Al between ferromagnetic electrode and organic layer. The resistance and current-voltage curve symmetry are dramatically altered as increasing Al thickness, indicating that an electron-unipolar OSV is obtained. Moreover, the magnetoresistance sign depends on the voltage polarity for certain Al thickness. We attribute this phenomenon to the Fermi and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbits energies of the two electrodes responding to the spin injection and detection, respectively. These findings provide a simple approach to control both the carrier type and the spin direction simultaneously.

  15. Hybrid Design Optimization of High Voltage Pulse Transformers for Klystron Modulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylvain, Candolfi; Davide, Aguglia; Jerome, Cros

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid optimization methodology for the design of high voltage pulse transformers used in klystron modulators. The optimization process is using simplified 2D FEA design models of the 3D transformer structure. Each intermediate optimal solution is evaluated by 3D FEA and correction coefficients of the 2D FEA models are derived. A new optimization process using 2D FEA models is then performed. The convergence of this hybrid optimal design methodology is obtained with a limited number of time consuming 3D FEA simulations. The method is applied to the optimal design of a monolithic high voltage pulse transformer for the CLIC klystron modulator.

  16. Family Matters: Testing the Effect of Political Connections in Italy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asquer, Raffaele; Calderoni, Federico

    2011-01-01

    effect on stock returns. Taking stock performance as a proxySudden deaths: Taking stock of political connections,”

  17. SM EFT -connect UV models to precision observables Xiaochuan Lu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    observables UV models Connect Models to Measurements How do the precision measurements shed light on physics observables UV models Connect Models to Measurements How do the precision measurements shed light on physics Berkeley 14 Precision observables UV models Connect Models to Measurements How do the precision

  18. ABB Review 4/2000 55 ultiphase pipelines connecting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    ABB Review 4/2000 55 ultiphase pipelines connecting remote wellhead platforms and subsea wells-back pipelines to connect subsea processing units directly to on-shore processing plants makes it likely of the multi-phase pipelines connecting wells and remote installations to the processing unit. One common form

  19. Effects of Reduced Connectivity in Rural and Remote Communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of Reduced Connectivity in Rural and Remote Communities Abstract In this paper we describe ignored yet important user population. Keywords Remote and rural communities, connectivity, qualitative understand user needs in rural and remote communities and what impact lack of connectivity has on users

  20. Learning Brain Connectivity of Alzheimer's Disease from Neuroimaging Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    Learning Brain Connectivity of Alzheimer's Disease from Neuroimaging Data Shui Huang2 , Jing Li2 to alternation in the functional brain network, i.e., the functional connectivity among different brain regions. In this paper, we consider the problem of learning functional brain connectivity from neuroimaging, which holds

  1. ICS 451: Today's plan Connection-oriented and connectionless

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biagioni, Edoardo S.

    ;Socket API in C: close close closes a server or client socket int close (int fd); shutdown can be usedICS 451: Today's plan Connection-oriented and connectionless Sockets API ­ Python ­ C ­ Windows C programming reminders #12;Connections vs Connectionless TCP expects a program to connect before

  2. Tree Death Study's Climate Change Connections

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McDowell, Nate

    2014-06-25

    What are the exact physiological mechanisms that lead to tree death during prolonged drought and rising temperatures? These are the questions that scientists are trying to answer at a Los Alamos National Laboratory research project called SUMO. SUMO stands for SUrvival/MOrtality study; it's a plot of land on the Lab's southern border that features 18 climate controlled tree study chambers and a large drought structure that limits rain and snowfall. Scientists are taking a wide variety of measurements over a long period of time to determine what happens during drought and warming, and what the connections and feedback loops might be between tree death and climate change.

  3. Series connected OLED structure and fabrication method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foust, Donald Franklin; Balch, Ernest Wayne; Duggal, Anil Raj; Heller, Christian Maria; Guida, Renato; Nealon, William Francis; Faircloth, Tami Janene

    2006-05-23

    A light emitting device comprises a plurality of organic light emitting diode (OLED) modules. The OLED modules are arranged into a series group where the individual OLED modules are electrically connected in series. The device is configured to be coupled to a power supply. A display is also provided. The display includes a plurality of OLED modules arranged to depict a shape selected from the group consisting of at least one letter, at least one number, at least one image, and a combination thereof.

  4. Tree Death Study's Climate Change Connections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, Nate

    2012-09-10

    What are the exact physiological mechanisms that lead to tree death during prolonged drought and rising temperatures? These are the questions that scientists are trying to answer at a Los Alamos National Laboratory research project called SUMO. SUMO stands for SUrvival/MOrtality study; it's a plot of land on the Lab's southern border that features 18 climate controlled tree study chambers and a large drought structure that limits rain and snowfall. Scientists are taking a wide variety of measurements over a long period of time to determine what happens during drought and warming, and what the connections and feedback loops might be between tree death and climate change.

  5. Geothermal/Grid Connection | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky:Bore TechnologiesAssessment InsettingGrid Connection <

  6. TE Connectivity Finds Answers in Tomography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With LivermoreSustainable Landmimic keySystemssystemsoTE Connectivity

  7. STAY CONNECTED: In This Issue Electricity Infrastructure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput Analysis of Protein1-0845*RV6STAT 12293GG STATESTAY CONNECTED: In This

  8. Superconductivity (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding access toSmallTechnicalSheldon GlashowSciTech ConnectanTechnical

  9. Connected Energy Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (Utility Company)| Open(Evans, Et Al., 2002)ConchoConecuhCongers, NewConnected

  10. EnergyConnect (Oregon) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdisto Electric Coop, Incsource HistoryEnergyConnect (Oregon) Jump to:

  11. EnergyConnect (Pennsylvania) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdisto Electric Coop, Incsource HistoryEnergyConnect (Oregon) Jump

  12. Geothermal/Grid Connection | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View New Pages Recent ChangesInformationGeothermal/Grid Connection

  13. Graphene Nanoelectronics. (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect González,rates

  14. Multifunctional nanocrystals (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport)Fermentativea StochasticArticle)SciTech Connect

  15. Multifunctional nanocrystals (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport)Fermentativea StochasticArticle)SciTech ConnectPatent:

  16. Connection Without the Costs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV)Day-June 22,FresnoSky) 15ConnectDER device, seen

  17. Wesleyan Guest Wireless connection procedure. Please follow the procedure below for connecting to the Wesleyan Guest Wireless network.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royer, Dana

    Wesleyan Guest Wireless connection procedure. Windows #12;Please follow the procedure below for connecting to the Wesleyan Guest Wireless network. Begin by selecting the Wireless icon in the lower right

  18. Impact of Wind Power Plants on Voltage and Transient Stability of Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Pai, M. A.

    2008-09-30

    A standard three-machine, nine-bus wind power system is studied and augmented by a radially connected wind power plant that contains 22 wind turbine generators.

  19. Two dimensional Sen connections in general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. B. Szabados

    1994-02-01

    The two dimensional version of the Sen connection for spinors and tensors on spacelike 2-surfaces is constructed. A complex metric $\\gamma_{AB}$ on the spin spaces is found which characterizes both the algebraic and extrinsic geometrical properties of the 2-surface $\\$ $. The curvature of the two dimensional Sen operator $\\Delta_e$ is the pull back to $\\$ $ of the anti-self-dual part of the spacetime curvature while its `torsion' is a boost gauge invariant expression of the extrinsic curvatures of $\\$ $. The difference of the 2 dimensional Sen and the induced spin connections is the anti-self-dual part of the `torsion'. The irreducible parts of $\\Delta_e$ are shown to be the familiar 2-surface twistor and the Weyl--Sen--Witten operators. Two Sen--Witten type identities are derived, the first is an identity between the 2 dimensional twistor and the Weyl--Sen--Witten operators and the integrand of Penrose's charge integral, while the second contains the `torsion' as well. For spinor fields satisfying the 2-surface twistor equation the first reduces to Tod's formula for the kinematical twistor.

  20. Some problems THE Galois connection Clones and algebras The lattice of clones Completeness CSP Open problems Clones and Galois connections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pöschel, Reinhard

    Some problems THE Galois connection Clones and algebras The lattice of clones Completeness CSP Open aa #12;Some problems THE Galois connection Clones and algebras The lattice of clones Completeness CSP Completeness CSP Open problems Final remarks aa #12;Some problems THE Galois connection Clones and algebras