National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for voltage 72v nominal

  1. Property:Nominal Voltage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Farms + 480 + Distributed Generation StudyPatterson Farms CHP System Using Renewable Biogas + 480 + Distributed Generation StudySUNY Buffalo + 480 + Distributed Generation...

  2. Fellows' Nominations and Selections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nominations and Selections Fellows' Nominations and Selections The Fellow appointment is an honor bestowed by the Director in recognition of unusual achievement by research and development (R&D) scientists and engineers. Fellows' nomination and selection process Definition The Fellow appointment is an honor bestowed by the Director in recognition of unusual achievement by research and development (R&D) scientists and engineers. It can be awarded to full-time R&D scientists, R&D

  3. Fellows' Prize Nominations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nominations Fellows' Prize Nominations Prize details and nomination procedures. Fellows' Prize for Outstanding Research in Science or Engineering and in Leadership Purpose of the Fellows Research Prize is: To commend individuals for outstanding unclassified or classified research performed at the Laboratory that was published or patented within the last 10 years and that has had a significant impact on its discipline and/or Laboratory mission. To recognize and stimulate high-quality

  4. SSRLUO EC Ballot Nominations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    28th Annual Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory Users' Meeting Menlo Park, California USA October 18-19, 2001 SSRLUO Executive Committee Ballot -- Nominations Due September...

  5. LANSCE | Users | Rosen Scholar | Call for Nominations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scholar - Call for Nominations Nomination and Selection Process Nominations for Rosen Scholar candidates are to be sponsored by at least one of LANSCE's Facilities: IPF (Isotope Production Facility), UCN (Ultra-Cold Neutron), pRad (Proton Radiography), Lujan Center, and WNR (Nuclear Science). The nomination package should include a two page research statement, a one page support letter from one of the sponsoring facilities and a recent CV. Call for Nominations 2016 - Closed Nominations were due

  6. Microsoft Word - fellows_nomination_reworked.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for each individual nomination Candidate Last Name: First Name: Middle Initial: Z Number: Organization: Phone: Mail Stop: Email Address: Nominator Last Name: First Name:...

  7. VOLTAGE REGULATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Von Eschen, R.L.; Scheele, P.F.

    1962-04-24

    A transistorized voltage regulator which provides very close voitage regulation up to about 180 deg F is described. A diode in the positive line provides a constant voltage drop from the input to a regulating transistor emitter. An amplifier is coupled to the positive line through a resistor and is connected between a difference circuit and the regulating transistor base which is negative due to the difference in voltage drop across thc diode and the resistor so that a change in the regulator output causes the amplifier to increase or decrease the base voltage and current and incrcase or decrease the transistor impedance to return the regulator output to normal. (AEC)

  8. 2016 DOE Sustainability Awards Nominations Deadline!

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All nominations must be submitted through the DOE Sustainability Awards Database by January 22nd.  For more information, click here.

  9. Nominations Open for 2013 NERSC HPC Achievement Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nominations Open for 2013 NERSC HPC Achievement Awards January 1, 2013 by Richard Gerber Nominations are open for the 2013 NERSC Award for Innovative Use of High Performance...

  10. HIGH VOLTAGE GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zito, G.V.

    1959-04-21

    This patent relates to high voltage supply circuits adapted for providing operating voltages for GeigerMueller counter tubes, and is especially directed to an arrangement for maintaining uniform voltage under changing conditions of operation. In the usual power supply arrangement for counter tubes the counter voltage is taken from across the power supply output capacitor. If the count rate exceeds the current delivering capaciiy of the capacitor, the capacitor voltage will drop, decreasing the counter voltage. The present invention provides a multivibrator which has its output voltage controlled by a signal proportional to the counting rate. As the counting rate increases beyond the current delivering capacity of the capacitor, the rectified voltage output from the multivibrator is increased to maintain uniform counter voltage.

  11. Federal Agency Energy Coordinators for Award Nominations | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Awards » Federal Agency Energy Coordinators for Award Nominations Federal Agency Energy Coordinators for Award Nominations Contact your agency coordinator in advance to discuss your Federal Energy and Water Management Award nomination. Agency coordinators are responsible for vetting nomination information and submitting approved nominations to the Federal Energy Management Program on behalf of the agencies. Each agency listed below is limited to 15 Federal Energy and Water Management

  12. Call for Nominations for 2016 NERSC Scientific Achievement Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Call for Nominations (2016) Call for Nominations for 2016 NERSC Scientific Achievement Awards Nominations are open for the 2016 NERSC Award for Innovative Use of High Performance Computing and the 2016 NERSC Award for High Impact Scientific Achievement. NERSC Principal Investigators, Project Managers, PI Proxies, and DOE Program Managers may nominate any NERSC user or collaboratory group. The deadline for nominations is Friday, March 4, 2016. Winners will be announced at the NERSC Users Group

  13. Alaska Rural Manager Panelists Call for Nominations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Alaska Rural Managers are seeking nominations for city, tribal, and utility managers to participate in several Anchorage focus group/workshops this April. Selected panelists will represent their profession and will help develop guidelines for the training and education of Alaska's Rural Managers.

  14. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage unbalance degrades the performance and shortens the life of a three-phase motor. Voltage unbalance at the motor terminals can cause current unbalance that is far out of ...

  15. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bobbett, Ronald E.; McCormick, J. Byron; Kerwin, William J.

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  16. Aviation Management Professional Award Nomination for:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aviation Professional Nomination for Managerial/Official Award: Joseph M. Ginanni Aviation Manager US Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Bio Joseph M. Ginanni Aviation Manager National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Mr. Ginanni has worked for the Nevada Site Office (NSO) since 1991. For the past five years, he has served as the NSO Aviation Manager, managing and overseeing the Management and Operating contractor's aviation

  17. LANSCE | Users | Rosen Prize | Call for Nominations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rosen Prize | Call for Nominations | CLOSED Rosen Prize: Call for Submissions is now closed. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is pleased to announce the call for submissions for the 24th Louis Rosen Prize. The Prize, consisting of $1000 and a plaque, is awarded for the most outstanding Ph.D. thesis based on experimental or theoretical research performed at LANSCE. Theses based on work in any area of science or technology at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Weapons Neutron

  18. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasiolek, Maryla A.

    2000-12-21

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to development of the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postclosure nominal performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations concerned twenty-four radionuclides. This selection included sixteen radionuclides that may be significant nominal performance dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, five additional radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure, and three relatively short-lived radionuclides important for the human intrusion scenario. Consideration of radionuclide buildup in soil caused by previous irrigation with contaminated groundwater was taken into account in the BDCF development. The effect of climate evolution, from the current arid conditions to a wetter and cooler climate, on the BDCF values was evaluated. The analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. Calculations of nominal performance BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. BDCFs for the nominal performance, when combined with the concentrations of radionuclides in groundwater allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculated estimates of radionuclide concentration in groundwater result from the saturated zone modeling. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) to calculate doses to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  19. DOE Encourages Utility Sector Nominations to the Federal Communication...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commission's Communications, Security, Reliability, and Interoperability Council DOE Encourages Utility Sector Nominations to the Federal Communications Commission's...

  20. Nominations Open for 2013 NERSC HPC Achievement Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nominations Open for 2013 NERSC HPC Achievement Awards Nominations Open for 2013 NERSC HPC Achievement Awards January 1, 2013 by Richard Gerber Nominations are open for the 2013 NERSC Award for Innovative Use of High Performance Computing and the 2013 NERSC Award for High Impact Scientific Achievement. These are the first of what are planned to be annual awards. Current NERSC Principal Investigators, Project Managers, and PI Proxies may nominate any NERSC user or collaboratory group. The

  1. Federal Energy and Water Management Awards: Nomination Quick Reference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document offers a checklist of items needed to complete a nomination for the Federal Energy and Water Management Awards.

  2. Aviation Management Professional Award Nomination for: | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Aviation Management Professional Award Nomination for: Aviation Management Professional Award Nomination for: Aviation Management Professional Award Nomination for: (43.97 KB) More Documents & Publications FAQS Reference Guide - Aviation Manager FAQS Reference Guide - Aviation Safety Officer Type B Accident Investigation Board Report of the April 23, 1997, Helicopter Accident at Raton Pass, Raton Pass, Colorado

  3. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  4. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, Richard; Kotter, Dale

    1994-01-01

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

  5. Voltage Control Technical Conference

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-08-Voltage-Control-Technical-Conference Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects &...

  6. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2000-01-01

    This two-page abstract provides tips for plant managers on checking and monitoring motor voltage unbalance to improve performance and life-span of industrial motors.

  7. Voltage verification unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Edward J.

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  8. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-07-01

    Disclosed is a voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means. 15 figs.

  9. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1997-01-01

    A voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means.

  10. High voltage DC power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, Thomas F.

    1989-01-01

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively.

  11. High voltage DC power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, T.F.

    1989-12-19

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively. 7 figs.

  12. DOE Under Secretary Nomination Announcement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Under Secretary Nomination Announcement DOE Under Secretary Nomination Announcement March 12, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Today, President Barack Obama announced his intent to nominate the following individuals to key administration posts: Demetrios Marantis, Nominee for Deputy United States Trade Representative; Kristina M. Johnson, Nominee for Under Secretary of Energy; Gina McCarthy, Nominee for Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation, Environmental Protection Agency; and

  13. SUSTAINABILITY NEWS EPA's 2013 Federal Electronics Challenge Accepting Nominations

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    EPA's 2013 Federal Electronics Challenge Accepting Nominations Nominations are currently being accepted for the Environmental Protection Agency's 2013 Federal Electronics Challenge (FEC). The FEC recognizes teams and individuals from across the Federal government who demonstrate a commitment to electronic stewardship through sustainable purchasing, management, and disposal of electronic assets. Last year, DOE won one-third of all FEC awards. The deadline for nominations is January 31, 2013. For

  14. Assets in Action Community Award nominations open until December 17

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assets in Action Community Award Nominations Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Assets in Action Community Award nominations open until December 17 If you know people who support building a strong community for youth in Los Alamos, nominate them for an Assets in Action Community Award. January 1, 2013 dummy image Read our archives. Contacts Editor Linda Anderman Email

  15. DOE General Counsel Nomination Announcement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    General Counsel Nomination Announcement DOE General Counsel Nomination Announcement March 18, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Today, President Barack Obama announced his intent to nominate the following individuals to key administration posts: Susan Burk, Special Representative of the President, with the rank of Ambassador, State Department; Raphael Bostic, Assistant Secretary for Policy Development and Research, Department of Housing and Urban Development; Michelle J. DePass, Assistant

  16. DOE Encourages Utility Sector Nominations to Commerce Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commerce Department's Spectrum Advisory Committee DOE Encourages Utility Sector Nominations to Commerce Department's Spectrum Advisory Committee December 14, 2010 - 5:40pm Addthis...

  17. Statement from Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman on the Nomination...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    President announced his intention to nominate Thomas P. D'Agostino as Under Secretary for Nuclear Security and Administrator of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). ...

  18. Federal Energy and Water Management Awards: Nomination Quick...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy and Water Management Awards. PDF icon Download the 2016 Nomination Quick Reference fact sheet. More Documents & Publications Federal Energy and Water Management ...

  19. NREL's Grid Integration Lab Nominated for Prestigious Project...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) received a nomination as one of three international finalists for ...

  20. High voltage pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1977-03-08

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator has been provided which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of a first one of the rectifiers connected between the first and second of the plurality of charging capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. Alternate circuits are provided for controlling the application of the charging voltage from a charging circuit to be applied to the parallel capacitors which provides a selection of at least two different intervals in which the charging voltage is turned "off" to allow the SCR's connecting the capacitors in series to turn "off" before recharging begins. The high-voltage pulse-generating circuit including the N capacitors and corresponding SCR's which connect the capacitors in series when triggered "on" further includes diodes and series-connected inductors between the parallel-connected charging capacitors which allow sufficiently fast charging of the capacitors for a high pulse repetition rate and yet allow considerable control of the decay time of the high-voltage pulses from the pulse-generating circuit.

  1. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doepke, Matthias; Eisermann, Henning

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  2. Last Call for 2016 DOE Sustainability Awards Nominations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The nominations period for the 2016 DOE Sustainability Awards is coming to a close on January 22. 2016 DOE Sustainability Award Nominations may include DOE co-workers, teams, and sites that have demonstrated outstanding achievements in advancing the Departments sustainability mission, including excellence in energy, water, and vehicle fleet management.

  3. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, John P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure.

  4. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure. 3 figs.

  5. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendel, C.W.; Savage, M.E.

    1992-03-17

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors. 5 figs.

  6. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendel, Clifford W.; Savage, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors.

  7. Voltage controlled current source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casne, Gregory M.

    1992-01-01

    A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

  8. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanacek, D.L.; Pike, C.D.

    1982-07-13

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly having a tubular insulator extending between the ground plane ring and the high voltage ring. The insulator is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring to the high voltage ring, producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall of the insulator to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly.

  9. HIGH VOLTAGE GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwemin, A.J.

    1959-03-17

    A generator is presented for producing relatively large currents at high voltages. In general, the invention comprises a plurality of capacitors connected in series by a plurality of switches alternately disposed with the capacitors. The circuit is mounted for movement with respect to contact members and switch closure means so that a load device and power supply are connected across successive numbers of capacitors, while the other capacitors are successively charged with the same power supply.

  10. High Voltage Connector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-03-06

    The originally designed high voltage connectors were to be made of brass. However, if treated like a Bellevile spring with the initially given dimensions, the stresses of the connector when crimped were calculated to be much higher than the yield stress of brass. Since the flange and outer diameters of the connector are to remain small, it was necessary to alter the other dimensions and choice of material in order to bring down the stresses applied to the connector.

  11. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springfield, Ray M.; Wheat, Jr., Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  12. HIGH VOLTAGE ION SOURCE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-04-19

    A device is described for providing a source of molecular ions having a large output current and with an accelerated energy of the order of 600 kv. Ions are produced in an ion source which is provided with a water-cooled source grid of metal to effect maximum recombination of atomic ions to molecular ions. A very high accelerating voltage is applied to withdraw and accelerate the molecular ions from the source, and means are provided for dumping the excess electrons at the lowest possible potentials. An accelerating grid is placed adjacent to the source grid and a slotted, grounded accelerating electrode is placed adjacent to the accelerating grid. A potential of about 35 kv is maintained between the source grid and accelerating grid, and a potential of about 600 kv is maintained between the accelerating grid and accelerating electrode. In order to keep at a minimum the large number of oscillating electrons which are created when such high voltages are employed in the vicinity of a strong magnetic field, a plurality of high voltage cascaded shields are employed with a conventional electron dumping system being employed between each shield so as to dump the electrons at the lowest possible potential rather than at 600 kv.

  13. Nominations open for $250,000 Multimedia Clean Energy prizes...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nominations open for 250,000 Multimedia Clean Energy prizes Home > Groups > Utility Rate Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(2017) Super contributor 2 October, 2012 -...

  14. A Review Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals In The Mantles Of Earth, Mars And The Moon Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  15. Carlsbad Field Office Nominated for Employer Support Freedom Award

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EM’s Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) was honored at a recognition event in Santa Fe this month for being nominated for the 2014 Secretary of Defense Employer Support Freedom Award.

  16. APPARATUS FOR REGULATING HIGH VOLTAGE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, K.G.

    1951-03-20

    This patent describes a high-voltage regulator of the r-f type wherein the modulation of the r-f voltage is accomplished at a high level, resulting in good stabilization over a large range of load conditions.

  17. NREL's Grid Integration Lab Nominated for Prestigious Project Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Award | Department of Energy Grid Integration Lab Nominated for Prestigious Project Management Award NREL's Grid Integration Lab Nominated for Prestigious Project Management Award November 3, 2014 - 11:48am Addthis The new Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) at the Energy Department’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the nation's premier lab for testing how clean energy technologies interact on the grid at megawatt utility scale. The new Energy Systems Integration

  18. SUSTAINABILITY ANNOUNCEMENTS 2014 DOE Sustainability Awards Now Accepting Nominations

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2014 DOE Sustainability Awards Now Accepting Nominations The Sustainability Performance Office (SPO) sponsors the DOE Sustainability Awards to recognize outstanding achievements of teams and individuals at DOE facilities across the country. The DOE Sustainability Awards celebrate programs, projects, and people that advance the Department's sustainability mission, including excellence in energy, water, and vehicle fleet management. The process for submitting nominations for the 2014 Awards is

  19. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanecek, David L.; Pike, Chester D.

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly (10) having a tubular insulator (15) extending between the ground plane ring (16) and the high voltage ring (30). The insulator (15) is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring (16) to the high voltage ring (30), producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall (27) of the insulator (15) to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly (10).

  20. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  1. High voltage feedthrough bushing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brucker, John P.

    1993-01-01

    A feedthrough bushing for a high voltage diode provides for using compression sealing for all sealing surfaces. A diode assembly includes a central conductor extending through the bushing and a grading ring assembly circumferentially surrounding and coaxial with the central conductor. A flexible conductive plate extends between and compressively seals against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, wherein the flexibility of the plate allows inner and outer portions of the plate to axially translate for compression sealing against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, respectively. The inner portion of the plate is bolted to the central conductor for affecting sealing. A compression beam is also bolted to the central conductor and engages the outer portion of the plate to urge the outer portion toward the grading ring assembly to obtain compression sealing therebetween.

  2. 4-28-09_Final_Testimony_(Triay)_(Nomination).pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    8, 2009 Good morning, Mr. Chairman, Senator McCain, members of the Committee. It is a great honor to appear before you today as President Obama's nominee to be the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management at the United States Department of Energy. I thank Secretary Chu and President Obama for their support and confidence in recommending and nominating me. I also thank the Committee for considering my nomination. I would like to introduce my husband of 24 years, Dr. John Hall, and his

  3. Voltage Vehicles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    distributor specializing in the full spectrum of electric vehicles (EV) and full-performance alternative fuel vehicles (AFV). References: Voltage Vehicles1 This article is a...

  4. Spark-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Morton L.

    1989-01-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it spark-safe ncludes an organic secondary explosive charge of HMX in the form of a thin pad disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The pad of secondary charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter. The explosive column also includes a first explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in the ignition region of the explosive column next to the secondary charge pad on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to provide mechanical confinement of the pad of secondary charge and physical coupling thereof with the ignition device. The explosive column further includes a second explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to the first CP charge on a side opposite from the pad of secondary charge. The second CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. The first explosive CP charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter, whereas the second explosive CP charge contains a series of increments (nominally 4) each of which has an axial thickness-to-diameter ratio of one to two.

  5. Call for nominations for NERSC HPC Achievement Awards Due December 16

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nominations for NERSC HPC Achievement Awards Call for nominations for NERSC HPC Achievement Awards Due December 16 November 18, 2013 by Francesca Verdier Nominations are open for the 2014 NERSC Award for Innovative Use of High Performance Computing and the 2014 NERSC Award for High Impact Scientific Achievement. NERSC Principal Investigators, Project Managers, PI Proxies, and DOE Program Managers may nominate any NERSC user or collaboration. The deadline for nominations is Mon. Dec. 16, 2013.

  6. Voltage sensor and dielectric material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2006-10-17

    A voltage sensor is described that consists of an arrangement of impedance elements. The sensor is optimized to provide an output ratio that is substantially immune to changes in voltage, temperature variations or aging. Also disclosed is a material with a large and stable dielectric constant. The dielectric constant can be tailored to vary with position or direction in the material.

  7. Temperature controlled high voltage regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiaro, Jr., Peter J.; Schulze, Gerald K.

    2004-04-20

    A temperature controlled high voltage regulator for automatically adjusting the high voltage applied to a radiation detector is described. The regulator is a solid state device that is independent of the attached radiation detector, enabling the regulator to be used by various models of radiation detectors, such as gas flow proportional radiation detectors.

  8. Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinegar, Robert H.; Kirkham, John

    1982-01-01

    A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

  9. PROCESS STUDY OF NOMINAL 2 K REFRIGERATION RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knudsen, Peter; Ganni, Venkatarao

    2008-03-01

    There is an increased interest in the nominal 2-K helium refrigeration systems (below lambda) for various test stands and applications at the present time. This paper presents the process parameter choices and their influence on the system performance of various noncold compressor configurations. This study is intended to facilitate the adoption of this process in conjunction with commercially-available small 4.5-K helium liquefaction systems. By way of an introduction, the efficiency of some commonly employed (but inefficient) 2-K process configurations are analyzed. Then the analyses of three nominal 2-K refrigeration-recovery process configurations are presented. The effect of the process parameters, such as flow imbalance, heat-exchanger size, supply pressure and 4.5-K plant interaction location(s) are investigated so that the optimum conditions yielding the required performance can be determined.

  10. Process Options for Nominal 2-K Helium Refrigeration System Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni

    2012-07-01

    Nominal 2-K helium refrigeration systems are frequently used for superconducting radio frequency and magnet string technologies used in accelerators. This paper examines the trade-offs and approximate performance of four basic types of processes used for the refrigeration of these technologies; direct vacuum pumping on a helium bath, direct vacuum pumping using full or partial refrigeration recovery, cold compression, and hybrid compression (i.e., a blend of cold and warm sub-atmospheric compression).

  11. Monitoring Current, Voltage and Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring Current, Voltage and Power in Photovoltaic Systems Anton Driesse 1 , Joshua S. Stein 2 , Daniel Riley 2 , Craig Carmignani 2 1 PV Performance Labs, Freiburg, Germany 2 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico Abstract - Accurate photovoltaic system performance monitoring is critical for profitable long-term operation. Irradiance, temperature, power, current and voltage signals contain rapid fluctuations that are not observable by typical monitoring systems. Nevertheless

  12. A Matter of Quantum Voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sellner, Bernhard; Kathmann, Shawn M.

    2014-11-14

    Voltages inside matter are relevant to crystallization, materials science, biology, catalysis, and aqueous chemistry. Electron holography is able to measure the variation of voltages in matter and modern supercomputers allow the calculation of quantum voltages with practically unlimited spatial and temporal resolution of bulk systems. Of particular interest is the Mean Inner Potential (Vo) - the spatial average of these voltages. Voltages are very sensitive to the distribution of electrons and provide metrics to understand interactions in condensed phases. In the present study, we find excellent agreement with measurements of Vo for vitrified water and salt crystals and demonstrate the impact of covalent and ionic bonding as well as intermolecular/atomic interactions. Furthermore, we predict Vo as well as the fluctuations of these voltages in aqueous NaCl electrolytes and characterize the changes in their behavior as the resolution increases below the size of atoms. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  13. 2015 GreenGov Presidential Awards Nomination - LANL, U.S. DOE...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    GreenGov Presidential Awards Nomination - LANL, U.S. DOE, NNSA for Climate Champion Award 2015 GreenGov Presidential Awards Nomination - LANL, U.S. DOE, NNSA for Climate Champion Award ...

  14. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Current Versus Voltage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of devices, including: open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Isc), fill factor (FF), maximum power output of the device (Pmax), voltage at maximum power...

  15. Nomination & Selection Guidelines | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nomination & Selection Guidelines The Enrico Fermi Award Fermi Award Home Nomination & Selection Guidelines Award Laureates Ceremony The Life of Enrico Fermi Contact Information The Enrico Fermi Award U.S. Department of Energy SC-2/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-2411 E: Email Us Nomination & Selection Guidelines Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Jump to: Nomination Guidelines | Fermi Award Assessment Criteria, Merit Review,

  16. Nomination & Selection Guidelines | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nomination & Selection Guidelines The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award Lawrence Award Home Nomination & Selection Guidelines Award Laureates Ceremony The Life of Ernest Orlando Lawrence Contact Information The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award U.S. Department of Energy SC-2/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-2411 E: Email Us Nomination & Selection Guidelines Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Jump to: Nomination Guidelines | Lawrence

  17. Spark-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it spark-safe includes an organic secondary explosive charge of HMX in the form of a thin pad disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The pad of secondary charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter. The explosive column also includes a first explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in the ignition region of the explosive column next to the secondary charge pad on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to provide mechanical confinement of the pad of secondary charge and physical coupling thereof with the ignition device. The explosive column further includes a second explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to the first CP charge on a side opposite from the pad of secondary charge. The second CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. The first explosive CP charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter, whereas the second explosive CP charge contains a series of increments (nominally 4), each of which has an axial thickness-to-diameter ratio of one to two. 2 figs.

  18. Inverter Load Rejection Over-Voltage Testing: SolarCity CRADA Task 1a Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, A.; Hoke, A.; Chakraborty, S.; Chebahtah, J.; Wang, T.; Zimmerly, B.

    2015-02-01

    Various interconnection challenges exist when connecting distributed PV into the electrical distribution grid in terms of safety, reliability, and stability of electric power systems. One of the urgent areas for additional research - as identified by inverter manufacturers, installers, and utilities - is the potential for transient over-voltage from PV inverters. In one stage of a cooperative tests were repeated a total of seven times. The maximum over-voltage measured in any test did not exceed 200% of nominal, and typical over-voltage levels were significantly lower. The total voltage duration and the maximum continuous time above each threshold are presented here, as well as the time to disconnect for each test. Finally, we present a brief investigation into the effect of DC input voltage as well as a series of no-load tests. This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient over-voltages created by several commercial PV inverters during load-rejection conditions. For this work, a test plan that is currently under development by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Through a cooperative research and development agreement, NREL is working with SolarCity to address two specific types of transient overvoltage: load rejection overvoltage (LRO) and ground fault overvoltage (GFO). Additional partners in this effort include the Hawaiian Electric Companies, Northern Plains Power Technologies, and the Electric Power Research Institute.

  19. Unexpected Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC Oxides Cycled below the Activation Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yan; Bareno, Javier; Bettge, Martin; Abraham, Daniel P

    2015-01-01

    A common feature of lithium-excess layered oxides, nominally of composition xLi2MnO3(1-x)LiMO2 (M = transition metal) is a high-voltage plateau (~4.5 V vs. Li/Li+) in their capacity-voltage profile during the first delithiation cycle. This plateau is believed to result from activation of the Li2MnO3 component, which makes additional lithium available for electrochemical cycling. However, oxides cycled beyond this activation plateau are known to display voltage fade which is a continuous reduction in their equilibrium potential. In this article we show that these oxides display gradual voltage fade even on electrochemical cycling in voltage ranges well below the activation plateau. The average fade is ~0.08 mV-cycle-1 for Li1.2Ni0.15Mn0.55Co0.1O2 vs. Li cells after 20 cycles in the 24.1 V range at 55C; a ~54 mV voltage hysteresis, expressed as the difference in average cell voltage between charge and discharge cycles, is also observed. The voltage fade results from a gradual accumulation of local spinel environments in the crystal structure. Some of these spinel sites result from lithium deficiencies during oxide synthesis and are likely to be at the particle surfaces; other sites result from the migration of transition metal atoms in the partially-delithiated LiMO2 component into the lithium planes during electrochemical cycling. The observed rate of voltage fade depends on a combination of factors that includes the phase equilibrium between the layered and spinel components and the kinetics of transition metal migration.

  20. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-07-26

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET. 2 figs.

  1. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  2. High voltage photovoltaic power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haigh, Ronald E.; Wojtczuk, Steve; Jacobson, Gerard F.; Hagans, Karla G.

    2001-01-01

    An array of independently connected photovoltaic cells on a semi-insulating substrate contains reflective coatings between the cells to enhance efficiency. A uniform, flat top laser beam profile is illuminated upon the array to produce electrical current having high voltage. An essentially wireless system includes a laser energy source being fed through optic fiber and cast upon the photovoltaic cell array to prevent stray electrical signals prior to use of the current from the array. Direct bandgap, single crystal semiconductor materials, such as GaAs, are commonly used in the array. Useful applications of the system include locations where high voltages are provided to confined spaces such as in explosive detonation, accelerators, photo cathodes and medical appliances.

  3. ISSUANCE 2015-06-08: Solicitation of Nominations for Membership on the Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solicitation of Nominations for Membership on the Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee

  4. TRANSISTOR HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Driver, G.E.

    1958-07-15

    High voltage, direct current power supplies are described for use with battery powered nuclear detection equipment. The particular advantages of the power supply described, are increased efficiency and reduced size and welght brought about by the use of transistors in the circuit. An important feature resides tn the employment of a pair of transistors in an alternatefiring oscillator circuit having a coupling transformer and other circuit components which are used for interconnecting the various electrodes of the transistors.

  5. Eliminate Voltage Unbalance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage unbalance degrades the performance and shortens the life of a three-phase motor. Voltage unbalance at the motor terminals can cause current unbalance that is far out of ...

  6. Nominations Now Open: Mid-Career Women in Clean Energy Awards | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Nominations Now Open: Mid-Career Women in Clean Energy Awards Nominations Now Open: Mid-Career Women in Clean Energy Awards April 15, 2014 - 3:51pm Addthis Nominations Now Open: Mid-Career Women in Clean Energy Awards Caroline McGregor Policy Analyst, Office of International Affairs Nominations are now being accepted to honor mid-career women for outstanding work in clean energy. These annual awards are run by the MIT Energy Initiative (MITEI) as part of an overarching

  7. MEDIUM VOLTAGE INTEGRATED DRIVE AND MOTOR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Calnetix Technologies – Cerritos, CA This project will focus on integrating a high voltage SiC device with advanced high-speed machine technology, medium voltage stators, high efficiency magnetic bearings and sensor high frequency drive technology that can work directly with high voltages, switch at high frequencies for low machine losses, and do so very efficiently. The new medium voltage motors are expected to achieve up to eight times the power density of similar traditional systems. Fact sheet coming soon.

  8. VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED TRANSISTOR OSCILLATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheele, P.F.

    1958-09-16

    This patent relates to transistor oscillators and in particular to those transistor oscillators whose frequencies vary according to controlling voltages. A principal feature of the disclosed transistor oscillator circuit resides in the temperature compensation of the frequency modulating stage by the use of a resistorthermistor network. The resistor-thermistor network components are selected to have the network resistance, which is in series with the modulator transistor emitter circuit, vary with temperature to compensate for variation in the parameters of the transistor due to temperature change.

  9. High voltage RF feedthrough bushing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grotz, Glenn F.

    1984-01-01

    Described is a multi-element, high voltage radio frequency bushing for trmitting RF energy to an antenna located in a vacuum container. The bushing includes a center conductor of complex geometrical shape, an outer coaxial shield conductor, and a thin-walled hollow truncated cone insulator disposed between central and outer conductors. The shape of the center conductor, which includes a reverse curvature portion formed of a radially inwardly directed shoulder and a convex portion, controls the uniformity of the axial surface gradient on the insulator cone. The outer shield has a first substantially cylindrical portion and a second radially inwardly extending truncated cone portion.

  10. Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation Title: Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation We report unique findings on the voltage dependence of protein exclusion from ...

  11. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick; Crocker, Robert Ward; Yee, Daniel Dadwa; Dils, David Wright

    2008-03-25

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  12. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick; Crocker, Robert Ward; Yee, Daniel Dadwa; Dils, David Wright

    2006-03-14

    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  13. Open Nominations Call- Energy Department Employees, Join the Women @ Energy Series

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    We are re-opening the call for nominations of outstanding women at the Department to share their story of their STEM career and offer advice and inspiration for others to explore a future in STEM. Send in your nomination of a Department of Energy employee to annemarie.horowitz@hq.doe.gov by Friday, June 5, 2014.

  14. High voltage load resistor array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Monty Ray

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  15. High voltage feed through bushing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brucker, J.P.

    1993-04-06

    A feed through bushing for a high voltage diode provides for using compression sealing for all sealing surfaces. A diode assembly includes a central conductor extending through the bushing and a grading ring assembly circumferentially surrounding and coaxial with the central conductor. A flexible conductive plate extends between and compressively seals against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, wherein the flexibility of the plate allows inner and outer portions of the plate to axially translate for compression sealing against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, respectively. The inner portion of the plate is bolted to the central conductor for affecting sealing. A compression beam is also bolted to the central conductor and engages the outer portion of the plate to urge the outer portion toward the grading ring assembly to obtain compression sealing therebetween.

  16. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  17. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2013-05-01

    Group 3 is chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module lifetime versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  18. President-Elect Obama Nominates Dr. Steven Chu as Energy Secretary |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy President-Elect Obama Nominates Dr. Steven Chu as Energy Secretary President-Elect Obama Nominates Dr. Steven Chu as Energy Secretary December 17, 2008 - 2:30pm Addthis Photo of Steven Chu. President-elect Barack Obama has nominated Dr. Steven Chu, the current director of DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to be the next Secretary of Energy. Dr. Chu won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1997 and has run LBNL since 2004. Prior to that time, he was a

  19. 2015 GreenGov Presidential Awards Nomination - LANL, U.S. DOE, NNSA for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Climate Champion Award | Department of Energy GreenGov Presidential Awards Nomination - LANL, U.S. DOE, NNSA for Climate Champion Award 2015 GreenGov Presidential Awards Nomination - LANL, U.S. DOE, NNSA for Climate Champion Award 2015 GreenGov Presidential Awards nomination for Climate Champions Award. LLNL/DOE/NNSA Long-term Strategy for Environmental Stewardship and Sustainability (LTSESS). LTSESS case study lays out the climate realities at LANL and serves as an example of how DOE and

  20. Wide-range voltage modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider`s Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-{mu}s wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 {mu}s, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented.

  1. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a Linear Induction Accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance.

  2. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, W.M.

    1992-12-29

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a linear induction accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core is disclosed. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance. 4 figs.

  3. President-Elect Obama Nominates Dr. Steven Chu as Energy Secretary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steven Chu as Energy Secretary December 17, 2008 - 2:30pm Addthis Photo of Steven Chu. President-elect Barack Obama has nominated Dr. Steven Chu, the current director of DOE's ...

  4. Title 43 CFR 3203.12 What Fees Must I Pay to Nominate Lands?...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    .12 What Fees Must I Pay to Nominate Lands? Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Federal RegulationFederal Regulation: Title 43 CFR...

  5. Nominate An Inspirational STEM Teacher for the Nation’s Highest Honors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nominations are now open for the nation’s highest honors for K-12 mathematics and science teachers. The Presidential Awards for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching, or PAEMST, have been...

  6. Corona and Motor Voltage Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, J.S.

    2005-05-06

    It has been suggested that to meet the FreedomCAR objectives for cost, size, weight, efficiency, and reliability higher buss voltages be utilized in HEV and FC automotive applications. The reasoning is that since electric power is equal to the product of voltage and current for a given power a higher voltage and lower current would result in smaller cable and inverter switching components. Consequently, the system can be lighter and smaller. On the other hand, higher voltages are known to require better and thicker electrical insulation that reduce the available slot area for motor windings. One cause of slow insulation breakdown is corona that gradually erodes the insulation and shortens the life expectancy of the motor. This study reports on the results of a study on corona initiating voltages for mush-wound and bobbin-wound stators. A unique testing method is illustrated.

  7. Flexible method for monitoring fuel cell voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery, Kenneth D.; Ripley, Eugene V.

    2002-01-01

    A method for equalizing the measured voltage of each cluster in a fuel cell stack wherein at least one of the clusters has a different number of cells than the identical number of cells in the remaining clusters by creating a pseudo voltage for the different cell numbered cluster. The average cell voltage of the all of the cells in the fuel cell stack is calculated and multiplied by a constant equal to the difference in the number of cells in the identical cell clusters and the number of cells in the different numbered cell cluster. The resultant product is added to the actual voltage measured across the different numbered cell cluster to create a pseudo voltage which is equivalent in cell number to the number of cells in the other identical numbered cell clusters.

  8. Voltage controlled spintronic devices for logic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    You, Chun-Yeol; Bader, Samuel D.

    2001-01-01

    A reprogrammable logic gate comprising first and second voltage-controlled rotation transistors. Each transistor comprises three ferromagnetic layers with a spacer and insulating layer between the first and second ferromagnetic layers and an additional insulating layer between the second and third ferromagnetic layers. The third ferromagnetic layer of each transistor is connected to each other, and a constant external voltage source is applied to the second ferromagnetic layer of the first transistor. As input voltages are applied to the first ferromagnetic layer of each transistor, the relative directions of magnetization of the ferromagnetic layers and the magnitude of the external voltage determines the output voltage of the gate. By altering these parameters, the logic gate is capable of behaving as AND, OR, NAND, or NOR gates.

  9. Non-contact current and voltage sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Gary D; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C; Schappert, Michael A

    2014-03-25

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing that contains the current and voltage sensors, which may be a ferrite cylinder with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap along the circumference to measure current, or alternative a winding provided through the cylinder along its axis and a capacitive plate or wire disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  10. Electro-optical voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K.

    1998-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  11. Electro-optical voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, G.K.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages is disclosed. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam`s polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured. 6 figs.

  12. Electro-optic high voltage sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James R.; Seifert, Gary D.

    2003-09-16

    A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation. A polarization beam displacer separates the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations and causes one linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels effect elliptically polarizes the beam as it travels through the crystal. A reflector redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams.

  13. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1985-08-05

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  14. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, Ronald S.

    1987-01-01

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  15. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1987-11-17

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile. 2 figs.

  16. Joint voltages resulting from lightning currents.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, William Arthur; Warne, Larry Kevin; Merewether, Kimball O.; Chen, Kenneth C.

    2007-03-01

    Simple formulas are given for the interior voltages appearing across bolted joints from exterior lightning currents. External slot and bolt inductances as well as internal slot and bolt diffusion effects are included. Both linear and ferromagnetic wall materials are considered. A useful simplification of the slot current distribution into linear stripline and cylindrical parts (near the bolts) allows the nonlinear voltages to be estimated in closed form.

  17. Spark gap with low breakdown voltage jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, Gerald J.; Roose, Lars D.

    1996-01-01

    Novel spark gap devices and electrodes are disclosed. The novel spark gap devices and electrodes are suitable for use in a variety of spark gap device applications. The shape of the electrodes gives rise to local field enhancements and reduces breakdown voltage jitter. Breakdown voltage jitter of approximately 5% has been measured in spark gaps according the invention. Novel electrode geometries and materials are disclosed.

  18. Spark gap with low breakdown voltage jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.

    1996-04-23

    Novel spark gap devices and electrodes are disclosed. The novel spark gap devices and electrodes are suitable for use in a variety of spark gap device applications. The shape of the electrodes gives rise to local field enhancements and reduces breakdown voltage jitter. Breakdown voltage jitter of approximately 5% has been measured in spark gaps according the invention. Novel electrode geometries and materials are disclosed. 13 figs.

  19. Constant voltage electro-slag remelting control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-10-22

    A system for controlling electrode gap in an electro-slag remelt furnace has a constant regulated voltage and an electrode which is fed into the slag pool at a constant rate. The impedance of the circuit through the slag pool is directly proportional to the gap distance. Because of the constant voltage, the system current changes are inversely proportional to changes in gap. This negative feedback causes the gap to remain stable. 1 fig.

  20. Constant voltage electro-slag remelting control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlienger, Max E.

    1996-01-01

    A system for controlling electrode gap in an electro-slag remelt furnace has a constant regulated voltage and an eletrode which is fed into the slag pool at a constant rate. The impedance of the circuit through the slag pool is directly proportional to the gap distance. Because of the constant voltage, the system current changes are inversely proportional to changes in gap. This negative feedback causes the gap to remain stable.

  1. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages Motors are designed to operate within 10% of their nameplate rated voltages. When motors ...

  2. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil.

  3. High-voltage miniature igniter development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willkens, C.A.; Axelson, S.R.; Bateman, L.S.; Croucher, D.D.

    1996-09-01

    In 1988, Norton introduced its line of low-voltage 12- and 24-V miniature igniters made from a patented ceramic/intermetallic material. These igniters demonstrated superior strength and speed in a compact low-wattage assembly for gas-fired ignition. High-voltage igniters are being developed to complete the family of igniters for gas-fired ignition. These igniters have extremely low power requirements in the range of 50--100 W, are designed to operate at line voltages of 120 V, and are leading to designs for operation up to 230 V. These were developed using compositional and dimensional changes to the low voltage igniters. The 120 V igniter has exceeded 200,000 cycles in life testing and has been submitted for agency approval. These igniters are also undergoing field testing in various demanding gas-fired appliances. The evolution of the low-voltage igniter into the high-voltage model, as well as performance and material development issues are discussed.

  4. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F.; Yee, Daniel D.

    2007-01-09

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC--DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC--DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  5. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F.; Yee, Daniel D.

    2010-05-04

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  6. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F.; Yee, Daniel D.

    2008-07-15

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  7. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric ...

  8. VPhase plc formerly Energetix Voltage Control | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    VPhase plc formerly Energetix Voltage Control Jump to: navigation, search Name: VPhase plc formerly Energetix Voltage Control Place: Capenhurst, United Kingdom Zip: CH1 6EH...

  9. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries ...

  10. Voltage Quench Dynamics of a Kondo System (Journal Article) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Voltage Quench Dynamics of a Kondo System This content will become publicly available on January 18, 2017 Prev Next Title: Voltage Quench Dynamics of a Kondo System Authors: ...

  11. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources ...

  12. Towards First Principles prediction of Voltage Dependences of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Towards First Principles prediction of Voltage Dependences of ElectrolyteElectrolyte ... Title: Towards First Principles prediction of Voltage Dependences of Electrolyte...

  13. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources A ...

  14. Electrochemical Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells Electrochemical Characterization of Voltage Fade in LMR-NMC cells 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle ...

  15. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops Studies indicate that in-plant electrical distribution system losses-due to voltage unbalance, over- and undervoltage, low ...

  16. Price of Cameron, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports (Nominal Dollars per Thousand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Cameron, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- -- 4.78 2010's 5.78 8.13 10.54 -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: U.S. Price of Liquefied Natural Gas

  17. Price of Cameron, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Qatar (Nominal Dollars

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) from Qatar (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Cameron, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Qatar (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- -- 4.51 2010's 5.97 -- -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: U.S.

  18. Price of Cove Point, MD Natural Gas LNG Imports from Egypt (Nominal Dollars

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) Egypt (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Cove Point, MD Natural Gas LNG Imports from Egypt (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- 11.66 7.83 7.22 7.46 4.20 2010's 5.49 -- -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016

  19. Price of Elba Island, GA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Nigeria (Nominal

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Nigeria (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Elba Island, GA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Nigeria (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- 11.69 -- -- 9.93 -- 2010's -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016

  20. Price of Everett, MA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Egypt (Nominal Dollars

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) Egypt (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Everett, MA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Egypt (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- -- 5.58 2010's 7.29 -- -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: U.S. Price

  1. Price of Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas LNG Imports (Nominal Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas LNG Imports (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- 8.87 7.31 8.36 -- -- 2010's -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: U.S. Price of Liquefied

  2. Price of Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas LNG Imports from Malaysia (Nominal

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Malaysia (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas LNG Imports from Malaysia (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- 6.67 -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: U.S. Price of

  3. Price of Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas LNG Imports from Nigeria (Nominal

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Nigeria (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas LNG Imports from Nigeria (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- 11.11 -- 8.29 -- -- 2010's -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016

  4. Price of Lake Charles, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Egypt (Nominal

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Egypt (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Lake Charles, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Egypt (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- 9.73 6.60 6.64 7.14 3.29 2010's 3.93 -- -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date:

  5. Price of Northeast Gateway Natural Gas LNG Imports from Egypt (Nominal

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Northeast Gateway Natural Gas LNG Imports from Egypt (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Northeast Gateway Natural Gas LNG Imports from Egypt (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- -- 6.71 2010's 5.11 -- -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  6. Price of Savine Pass, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Egypt (Nominal

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Savine Pass, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Egypt (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Savine Pass, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Egypt (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- -- 4.10 2010's -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next

  7. High voltage testing for the Majorana Demonstrator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; et al

    2016-04-04

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing the Majorana Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 44-kg modular high-purity Ge (HPGe) detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. The phenomenon of surface micro-discharge induced by high-voltage has been studied in the context of the Majorana Demonstrator. This effect can damage the front-end electronics or mimic detector signals. To ensure the correct performance, every high-voltage cable and feedthrough must be capable of supplying HPGe detector operating voltages as high as 5 kV without exhibiting discharge. R&D measurements were carried out to understand the testing system and determine the optimum design configuration of themore » high-voltage path, including different improvements of the cable layout and feedthrough flange model selection. Every cable and feedthrough to be used at the Majorana Demonstrator was characterized and the micro-discharge effects during the Majorana Demonstrator commissioning phase were studied. Furthermore, a stable configuration has been achieved, and the cables and connectors can supply HPGe detector operating voltages without exhibiting discharge.« less

  8. Electronic current transducer (ECT) for high-voltage dc lines. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houston, J.M.; Peters, P.H. Jr.; Summerhayes, H.R. Jr.; Carlson, G.J.; Itani, A.M.

    1980-02-01

    The development of a bipolar electronic current transducer (ECT) for measuring the current in a high-voltage dc (HVDC) power line at line potential is reported. The design and construction of a free-standing ECT for use on a 400-kV line having a nominal line current of 2000 A (1 pu) is described. Line current is measured by a 0.0001-..cap omega.. shunt whose voltage output is sampled by a 14-bit digital data link. The high-voltage interface between line and ground is traversed by optical fibers which carry digital light signals as far as 300 m to a control room where the digital signal is converted back to an analog representation of the shunt voltage. Two redundant electronic and optical data links are used in the prototype. Power to operate digital and optical electronics and temperature-controlling heaters at the line is supplied by a resistively and capacitively graded 10-stage cascade of ferrite-core transformers located inside the hollow, SF/sub 6/-filled, porcelain support insulator. The cascade is driven by an SCR (silicon-controlled-rectifier) inverter which supplies about 100 W of power at 30 kHz. Specification goals called for operation over the temperature range -40 to +50/sup 0/C to an output accuracy of +-0.6% at 0.1 pu and +-0.3% between 0.3 pu and 1.0 pu. A frequency response greater than 370 Hz and a step response time of less than 2 ms was desired. Initial tests indicate that these goals have been met in the prototype structure. The unit is now installed and being evaluated at the Sylmar converter station of the HVDC Pacific Intertie in California.

  9. Principles of ground relaying for high voltage and extra high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, C.H.

    1983-02-01

    This paper is a tutorial discussion of the basic principles of ground relaying for high voltage and extra high voltage transmission lines. Three different HV configurations are considered: Long lines, lines with a weak mid-point station, and mutually-coupled lines. Application criteria for EHV circuits are also discussed, and specific setting calculations are included where appropriate.

  10. ESR melting under constant voltage conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlienger, M.E.

    1997-02-01

    Typical industrial ESR melting practice includes operation at a constant current. This constant current operation is achieved through the use of a power supply whose output provides this constant current characteristic. Analysis of this melting mode indicates that the ESR process under conditions of constant current is inherently unstable. Analysis also indicates that ESR melting under the condition of a constant applied voltage yields a process which is inherently stable. This paper reviews the process stability arguments for both constant current and constant voltage operation. Explanations are given as to why there is a difference between the two modes of operation. Finally, constant voltage process considerations such as melt rate control, response to electrode anomalies and impact on solidification will be discussed.

  11. Compact high voltage solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glidden, Steven C.

    2003-09-23

    A compact, solid state, high voltage switch capable of high conduction current with a high rate of current risetime (high di/dt) that can be used to replace thyratrons in existing and new applications. The switch has multiple thyristors packaged in a single enclosure. Each thyristor has its own gate drive circuit that circuit obtains its energy from the energy that is being switched in the main circuit. The gate drives are triggered with a low voltage, low current pulse isolated by a small inexpensive transformer. The gate circuits can also be triggered with an optical signal, eliminating the trigger transformer altogether. This approach makes it easier to connect many thyristors in series to obtain the hold off voltages of greater than 80 kV.

  12. Distribution System Voltage Performance Analysis for High-Penetration Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, E.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report examines the performance of commonly used distribution voltage regulation methods under reverse power flow.

  13. Deadline for DOE Indian Country Working Group Nominations Extended to Aug. 24

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is looking for nominations for elected tribal government officials (or designated tribal government employees with authority to act on behalf of the elected officials) to serve as members of the Indian Country Energy and Infrastructure Working Group (ICEIWG).

  14. Electronic circuit for measuring series connected electrochemical cell voltages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    An electronic circuit for measuring voltage signals in an energy storage device is disclosed. The electronic circuit includes a plurality of energy storage cells forming the energy storage device. A voltage divider circuit is connected to at least one of the energy storage cells. A current regulating circuit is provided for regulating the current through the voltage divider circuit. A voltage measurement node is associated with the voltage divider circuit for producing a voltage signal which is proportional to the voltage across the energy storage cell.

  15. Experimental validation of a high voltage pulse measurement method.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cular, Stefan; Patel, Nishant Bhupendra; Branch, Darren W.

    2013-09-01

    This report describes X-cut lithium niobate's (LiNbO3) utilization for voltage sensing by monitoring the acoustic wave propagation changes through LiNbO3 resulting from applied voltage. Direct current (DC), alternating current (AC) and pulsed voltage signals were applied to the crystal. Voltage induced shift in acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically for DC and AC voltages and linearly for pulsed voltages. The measured values ranged from 10 - 273 ps and 189 ps - 2 ns for DC and non-DC voltages, respectively. Data suggests LiNbO3 has a frequency sensitive response to voltage. If voltage source error is eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the sensor's U95 estimated combined uncertainty could decrease to ~0.025% for DC, AC, and pulsed voltage measurements.

  16. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, G.K.; Renak, T.W.

    1999-04-06

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages is disclosed. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam`s polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured. 18 figs.

  17. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K.; Renak, Todd W.

    1999-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages. The system employs a transmitter, a sensor disposed adjacent to but out of direct electrical contact with a conductor on which the voltage is to be measured, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor where the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect causes phase shifting in the beam, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent beams, from which the voltage of a system based on its E-field is determined when the two beams are normalized by the signal processor. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse whose ellipticity varies between -1 and +1 in proportion to voltage) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  18. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature and Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2013-09-01

    This is a summary of the work of Group 3 of the International PV QA Task Force. Group 3 is chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module lifetime versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

  19. Voltage control on a train system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Susanna P.; Evans, John A.

    2004-01-20

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  20. High voltage pulse generator. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, G.E.

    1975-06-12

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator is described which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of the first rectifier connected between the first and second capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. The output voltage can be readily increased by adding additional charging networks. The circuit allows the peak level of the output to be easily varied over a wide range by using a variable autotransformer in the charging circuit.

  1. Electro-optic high voltage sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James R.; Seifert, Gary D.

    2002-01-01

    A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high levels of voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation into the sensor. A polarization beam displacer serves as a filter to separate the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations. The beam displacer is oriented in such a way as to rotate the linearly polarized beams such that they enter a Pockels crystal having at a preferred angle of 45 degrees. The beam displacer is therefore capable of causing a linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels electro-optic effect induces a differential phase shift on the major and minor axes of the input beam as it travels through the Pockels crystal, which causes the input beam to be elliptically polarized. A reflecting prism redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization representing the major and minor axes. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals, and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams. The output beams are amplitude modulated by the frequency of the electric field and the amplitude of the output beams is proportional to the magnitude of the electric field, which is related to the voltage being measured.

  2. Preventing Delayed Voltage Recovery with Voltage-Regulating Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, Sarina; Li, Fangxing; Li, Huijuan; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D; Rizy, D Tom

    2009-01-01

    With the large use of residential air conditioner (A/C) motors during the summer peaks, the potential of motor stalling events have increased in the recent years. The stalled motor loads have been found to be the most important cause of delayed voltage recovery following severe system disturbances, such as a subtransmission fault. The proper modeling of the stalled motors is a very important factor in identifying the effect of these motors in voltage recovery after the fault. This paper presents a methodology for modeling the stalled low inertia induction motors based on a sample utility system and a small primary distribution circuit. The prevention of the stalling of motors plays an important role in maintaining the voltage profile of the system after system disturbances. Distributed Energy Resource (DER) is used to prevent the motor stalling events so that the delayed voltage recovery of the system may be avoided.

  3. Distribution System Voltage Regulation by Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ceylan, Oguzhan; Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a control method to regulate voltages in 3 phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems. A constrained optimization problem to minimize voltage deviations and maximize distributed energy resource (DER) active power output is solved by harmony search algorithm. IEEE 13 Bus Distribution Test System was modified to test three different cases: a) only voltage regulator controlled system b) only DER controlled system and c) both voltage regulator and DER controlled system. The simulation results show that systems with both voltage regulators and DER control provide better voltage profile.

  4. High voltage supply for neutron tubes in well logging applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humphreys, D. Russell

    1989-01-01

    A high voltage supply is provided for a neutron tube used in well logging. The "biased pulse" supply of the invention combines DC and "full pulse" techniques and produces a target voltage comprising a substantial negative DC bias component on which is superimposed a pulse whose negative peak provides the desired negative voltage level for the neutron tube. The target voltage is preferably generated using voltage doubling techniques and employing a voltage source which generates bipolar pulse pairs having an amplitude corresponding to the DC bias level.

  5. Results from ORNL Characterization of Nominal 350 ?m NUCO Kernels from the BWXT 59344 batch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunn, John D; Kercher, Andrew K; Menchhofer, Paul A; Price, Jeffery R

    2005-01-01

    This document is a compilation of characterization data obtained on nominal 350 {micro}m natural enrichment uranium oxide/uranium carbide kernels (NUCO) produced by BWXT for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program. These kernels were produced as part of a development effort at BWXT to address issues involving forming and heat treatment and were shipped to ORNL for additional characterization and for coating tests. The kernels were identified as G73N-NU-59344. 250 grams were shipped to ORNL. Size, shape, and microstructural analysis was performed. These kernels were preceded by G73B-NU-69300 and G73B-NU-69301, which were kernels produced and delivered to ORNL earlier in the development phase. Characterization of the kernels from G73B-NU-69300 was summarized in ORNL/CF-04/07 'Results from ORNL Characterization of Nominal 350 {micro}m NUCO Kernels from the BWXT 69300 composite'.

  6. LOW VOLTAGE 14 Mev NEUTRON SOURCE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Little, R.N. Jr.; Graves, E.R.

    1959-09-29

    An apparatus yielding high-energy neutrons at the rate of 10/sup 8/ or more per second by the D,T or D,D reactions is described. The deuterium gas filling is ionized by electrons emitted from a filament, and the resulting ions are focused into a beam and accelerated against a fixed target. The apparatus is built in accordance with the relationship V/sub s/ = A--B log pd, where V/sub s/ is the sparking voltage, p the gas pressure, and d the gap length between the high voltage electrodes. Typical parameters to obtain the high neutron yields are 55 to 80 kv, 0.5 to 7.0 ma beam current, 5 to 12 microns D/sub 2/, and a gap length of 1 centimeter.

  7. High voltage electric substation performance in earthquakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eidinger, J.; Ostrom, D.; Matsuda, E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines the performance of several types of high voltage substation equipment in past earthquakes. Damage data is provided in chart form. This data is then developed into a tool for estimating the performance of a substation subjected to an earthquake. First, suggests are made about the development of equipment class fragility curves that represent the expected earthquake performance of different voltages and types of equipment. Second, suggestions are made about how damage to individual pieces of equipment at a substation likely affects the post-earthquake performance of the substation as a whole. Finally, estimates are provided as to how quickly a substation, at various levels of damage, can be restored to operational service after the earthquake.

  8. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoff, Brian Douglas; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  9. Enrico Fermi Award Nominations | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Enrico Fermi Achieves First Self Sustain Nuclear Chain Reaction Enrico Fermi Achieves First Self Sustain Nuclear Chain Reaction Chicago, IL Metallurgical Laboratory scientists led by Enrico Fermi achieve the first self-sustained nuclear chain reaction in pile constructed under the west grandstand at Stagg field in Chicago

    Enrico Fermi Award Nominations News News Home Featured Articles Science Headlines 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008

  10. Low Voltage White Phosphorescent OLED Achievements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and its research partners at Princeton University and the University of Southern California have succeeded in developing a white phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED™) that achieved a record efficiency of 20 lumens per watt. This achievement is the result of the team's collaborative efforts to increase the efficiency of PHOLED lighting by focusing on two critical factors: lowering the drive voltages and increasing the amount of light extracted.

  11. HIGH VOLTAGE, HIGH CURRENT SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dike, R.S.; Lier, D.W.; Schofield, A.E.; Tuck, J.L.

    1962-04-17

    A high voltage and current spark gap switch comprising two main electrodes insulatingly supported in opposed spaced relationship and a middle electrode supported medially between the main electrodes and symmetrically about the median line of the main electrodes is described. The middle electrode has a perforation aligned with the median line and an irradiation electrode insulatingly supported in the body of the middle electrode normal to the median line and protruding into the perforation. (AEC)

  12. Electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott

    2001-01-01

    Employing an electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck particularly suited for holding wafers and masks in sub-atmospheric operations will significantly reduce the likelihood of contaminant deposition on the substrates. The electrostatic chuck includes (1) an insulator block having a outer perimeter and a planar surface adapted to support the substrate and comprising at least one electrode (typically a pair of electrodes that are embedded in the insulator block), (2) a source of voltage that is connected to the at least one electrode, (3) a support base to which the insulator block is attached, and (4) a primary electrostatic shield ring member that is positioned around the outer perimeter of the insulator block. The electrostatic chuck permits control of the voltage of the lithographic substrate; in addition, it provides electrostatic shielding of the stray electric fields issuing from the sides of the electrostatic chuck. The shielding effectively prevents electric fields from wrapping around to the upper or front surface of the substrate, thereby eliminating electrostatic particle deposition.

  13. Electro-optic voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Thomas M.; Davidson, James R.; Woods, Gregory K.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers.

  14. Electro-optic voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, T.M.; Davidson, J.R.; Woods, G.K.

    1999-08-17

    The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers. 6 figs.

  15. Solid Electrolyte: the Key for High-Voltage Lithium Batteries...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solid Electrolyte: the Key for High-Voltage Lithium Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solid Electrolyte: the Key for High-Voltage Lithium Batteries Authors: Li, ...

  16. Voltage modulation of propagating spin waves in Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nawaoka, Kohei; Shiota, Yoichi; Miwa, Shinji; Tamura, Eiiti; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Shinjo, Teruya; Suzuki, Yoshishige

    2015-05-07

    The effect of a voltage application on propagating spin waves in single-crystalline 5?nm-Fe layer was investigated. Two micro-sized antennas were employed to excite and detect the propagating spin waves. The voltage effect was characterized using AC lock-in technique. As a result, the resonant field of the magnetostatic surface wave in the Fe was clearly modulated by the voltage application. The modulation is attributed to the voltage induced magnetic anisotropy change in ferromagnetic metals.

  17. Towards predicting voltage dependences of electrode/electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Towards predicting voltage dependences of electrodeelectrolyte interfacial processesnin lithium ion batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards predicting ...

  18. Model Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Induction Motors | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Induction Motors Model Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Induction Motors These Model Repair Specifications are intended to cover routine repair and rewind of low-voltage random-wound three-phase AC squirrel cage induction motors. Model Repair Specifications for Low Voltage Induction Motors (November 1999) (1.31 MB) More Documents & Publications DOE Navigant Master Presentation Improving Motor and Drive System Performance - A Sourcebook

  19. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1998-05-19

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil. 5 figs.

  20. Voltage and current transducer harmonic sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domijan, A. Jr.

    1998-10-01

    This work presents the results of a study on the sensitivity of real power as a function of harmonic magnitudes and angles. These transducers are ones that are typical of those used, in combination with metering instruments, to measure the performance of variable-speed drives. Frequency response tests were performed on two different signal transducers (voltage and current) up to the 50th harmonic in accordance with Institute of Electrical and Electronics engineers (IEEE) Standard 519-1992. Results from these tests gave maximum magnitude percentage errors of {minus}2.2% (at 15th harmonic) and maximum phase shifts of +3.3 (at 50th harmonic) for voltage (at 120 V) and maximum percentage error of {minus}1.9% (at 2d harmonic) and maximum phase shift of {minus}4.3 for current (at 5 A). Using the percentage errors at 120 V and 5 A throughout the 60 Hz through 3,000 Hz range, in harmonic magnitudes and harmonic angles exhibited by the transducers, mathematical analysis was done on two sets of distorted signals and a sensitivity analysis was done to determine what would be the impact of the actual transducers` errors on the final calculation of real power. Variations of {minus}1.48% and {minus}1.60% were obtained. Then, assuming a maximum 5% change in current harmonic magnitudes and angles, a maximum real power percent variation of 0.02% and 2.47% were obtained for the same two sets of field-recorded voltage and current waveforms sets.

  1. Apparatus for producing voltage and current pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirbie, Hugh; Dale, Gregory E.

    2010-12-21

    An apparatus having one or more modular stages for producing voltage and current pulses. Each module includes a diode charging means to charge a capacitive means that stores energy. One or more charging impedance means are connected to the diode charging means to provide a return current pathway. A solid-state switch discharge means, with current interruption capability, is connected to the capacitive means to discharge stored energy. Finally, a control means is provided to command the switching action of the solid-state switch discharge means.

  2. Capacitively coupled RF voltage probe having optimized flux linkage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, James A.; Sparks, Dennis O.

    1999-02-02

    An RF sensor having a novel current sensing probe and a voltage sensing probe to measure voltage and current. The current sensor is disposed in a transmission line to link all of the flux generated by the flowing current in order to obtain an accurate measurement. The voltage sensor is a flat plate which operates as a capacitive plate to sense voltage on a center conductor of the transmission line, in which the measured voltage is obtained across a resistance leg of a R-C differentiator circuit formed by the characteristic impedance of a connecting transmission line and a capacitance of the plate, which is positioned proximal to the center conductor.

  3. High Voltage GaN Schottky Rectifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CAO,X.A.; CHO,H.; CHU,S.N.G.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHYI,J.-I.; DANG,G.T.; HAN,JUNG; LEE,C.-M.; PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; WILSON,R.G.; ZHANG,A.P.

    1999-10-25

    Mesa and planar GaN Schottky diode rectifiers with reverse breakdown voltages (V{sub RB}) up to 550V and >2000V, respectively, have been fabricated. The on-state resistance, R{sub ON}, was 6m{Omega}{center_dot} cm{sup 2} and 0.8{Omega}cm{sup 2}, respectively, producing figure-of-merit values for (V{sub RB}){sup 2}/R{sub ON} in the range 5-48 MW{center_dot}cm{sup -2}. At low biases the reverse leakage current was proportional to the size of the rectifying contact perimeter, while at high biases the current was proportional to the area of this contact. These results suggest that at low reverse biases, the leakage is dominated by the surface component, while at higher biases the bulk component dominates. On-state voltages were 3.5V for the 550V diodes and {ge}15 for the 2kV diodes. Reverse recovery times were <0.2{micro}sec for devices switched from a forward current density of {approx}500A{center_dot}cm{sup -2} to a reverse bias of 100V.

  4. Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hatch, Anson; Singh, Anup K.

    2012-04-24

    We report unique findings on the voltage dependence of protein exclusion from the pores of nanoporous polymer exclusion membranes. The pores are small enough that proteins are excluded from passage with low applied electric fields, but increasing the field enables proteins to pass through. The requisite field necessary for a change in exclusion is protein-specific with a correlation to protein size. The field-dependence of exclusion is important to consider for preconcentration applications. The ability to selectively gate proteins at exclusion membranes is also a promising means for manipulating and characterizing proteins. We show that field-gated exclusion can be used to selectively remove proteins from a mixture, or to selectively trap protein at one exclusion membrane in a series.

  5. Manifestation of Voltages on Pristine- and Thin Film-Coated Lithium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    voltage - most critical for modeling interfacial Electrochemical process in lithium ion batteries Voltage dependence governs Li+ intercalation into anodecathode, passivation ...

  6. High voltage switches having one or more floating conductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werne, Roger W.; Sampayan, Stephen; Harris, John Richardson

    2015-11-24

    This patent document discloses high voltage switches that include one or more electrically floating conductor layers that are isolated from one another in the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes. The presence of the one or more electrically floating conductor layers between the top and bottom switch electrodes allow the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes to exhibit a higher breakdown voltage than the breakdown voltage when the one or more electrically floating conductor layers are not present between the top and bottom switch electrodes. This increased breakdown voltage in the presence of one or more electrically floating conductor layers in a dielectric medium enables the switch to supply a higher voltage for various high voltage circuits and electric systems.

  7. Group 3: Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Group 3: Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage Group 3: Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage This PowerPoint presentation, focused on humidity, temperature and voltage testing, was originally presented by John Wohlgemuth at the NREL 2013 PV Module Reliability Workshop on Feb. 26-27, 2013 in Denver, CO. It summarizes the activities of a working group chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module life versus stresses associated with humidity,

  8. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Lawrence T.; McIver, III, John K.

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  9. High-Voltage Insulators and Components - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search High-Voltage Insulators and Components Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary One of the ongoing challenges to improving performance in capacitors and other high-voltage electrical structures is to identify and reduce the factors that cause failure. High-voltage devices typically fail following excessive

  10. Voltage Fade, an ABR Deep Dive Project: Status and Outcomes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage Fade, an ABR Deep Dive Project: Status and Outcomes Project ID: ES161 Anthony Burrell Voltage Fade Team Annual Merit Review Washington DC, June 16-20, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. 2 Overview Timeline * Start: October 1, 2012 * End: Sept. 30, 2014 * Percent complete: 75% Budget * Voltage Fade project * $3,900K Barriers * Calendar/cycle life of lithium-ion cells being developed for PHEV and EV batteries that

  11. A multilevel voltage-source inverter with separate dc sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting, voltage balancing, fuel cell and photovoltaic utility systems interfacing, etc. The new M-level inverter consists of (M-1)2...

  12. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages Motors are designed to operate within ... When motors operate at conditions of over and undervoltage, motor effciency and other ...

  13. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale ...

  14. A multilevel voltage-source inverter with separate dc sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    including static var generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting, voltage balancing, fuel cell and photovoltaic utility systems interfacing, etc. ...

  15. Effects of discharge voltage waveform on the discharge characteristics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    atmospheric plasma jet Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of discharge voltage waveform on the discharge characteristics in a helium atmospheric plasma jet We ...

  16. Voltage Tunable Strong Coupling with Planar Metamaterials: From...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    From Fundamentals to Optoelectronic Devices. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Voltage Tunable Strong Coupling with Planar Metamaterials: From Fundamentals to ...

  17. Towards predicting the voltage drop between electrode and electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    drop between electrode and electrolyte in lithium ion batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards predicting the voltage drop between electrode and electrolyte ...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Voltage Fade,...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Voltage Fade, an ABR Deep Dive Project: Status and Outcomes Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen ...

  19. How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations at Interfaces and in ... Subject: bio-inspired, energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), defects, ...

  20. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. PDF icon ape003tolbert2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Wide Bandgap Materials Smart ...

  1. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape03marlino.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Smart Integrated Power Module ...

  2. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line ...

  3. DE-EE0005449 High-Voltage Solid Polymer ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY (NETL) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Vi Final Technical Report High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Award ...

  4. Triple voltage dc-to-dc converter and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2008-08-05

    A circuit and method of providing three dc voltage buses and transforming power between a low voltage dc converter and a high voltage dc converter, by coupling a primary dc power circuit and a secondary dc power circuit through an isolation transformer; providing the gating signals to power semiconductor switches in the primary and secondary circuits to control power flow between the primary and secondary circuits and by controlling a phase shift between the primary voltage and the secondary voltage. The primary dc power circuit and the secondary dc power circuit each further comprising at least two tank capacitances arranged in series as a tank leg, at least two resonant switching devices arranged in series with each other and arranged in parallel with the tank leg, and at least one voltage source arranged in parallel with the tank leg and the resonant switching devices, said resonant switching devices including power semiconductor switches that are operated by gating signals. Additional embodiments having a center-tapped battery on the low voltage side and a plurality of modules on both the low voltage side and the high voltage side are also disclosed for the purpose of reducing ripple current and for reducing the size of the components.

  5. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review ...

  6. Demonstration of Magnesium Intercalation into a High-Voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    17, 2015, Research Highlights Demonstration of Magnesium Intercalation into a High-Voltage ... Scientific Achievement First demonstration of reversible insertion of multivalent ...

  7. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Studies on Lithium Manganese Rich MNC Composite Cathodes ... Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials

  8. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC ... must understand the evolution of chemical composition and morphology of battery ...

  9. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. ...

  10. A Multilevel Voltage-Source Inverter with Separate DC Sources

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    including static var generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting, voltage balancing, fuel cell and photovoltaic utility systems interfacing, etc. ...

  11. Electro-optic voltage sensor for sensing voltage in an E-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James R.; Crawford, Thomas M.; Seifert, Gary D.

    2002-03-26

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor and system capable of accurate operation at high voltages has a sensor body disposed in an E-field. The body receives a source beam of electromagnetic radiation. A polarization beam displacer separates the source light beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations. A wave plate rotates the linear polarization to rotated polarization. A transducer utilizes Pockels electro-optic effect and induces a differential phase shift on the major and minor axes of the rotated polarization in response to the E-field. A prism redirects the beam back through the transducer, wave plate, and polarization beam displacer. The prism also converts the rotated polarization to circular or elliptical polarization. The wave plate rotates the major and minor axes of the circular or elliptical polarization to linear polarization. The polarization beam displacer separates the beam into two beams of orthogonal linear polarization representing the major and minor axes. The system may have a transmitter for producing the beam of electro-magnetic radiation; a detector for converting the two beams into electrical signals; and a signal processor for determining the voltage.

  12. Effects of load voltage on voltage breakdown modes of electrical exploding aluminum wires in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen Yang, Zefeng; Wang, Kun; Chao, Youchuang; Shi, Zongqian; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici

    2015-06-15

    The effects of the load voltage on the breakdown modes are investigated in exploding aluminum wires driven by a 1 kA, 0.1 kA/ns pulsed current in air. From laser probing images taken by laser shadowgraphy, schlieren imaging, and interferometry, the position of the shockwave front, the plasma channel, and the wire core edge of the exploding product can be determined. The breakdown mode makes a transition from the internal mode, which involves breakdown inside the wire core, to the shunting mode, which involves breakdown in the compressed air, with decreasing charging voltage. The breakdown electrical field for a gaseous aluminum wire core of nearly solid density is estimated to be more than 20 kV/cm, while the value for gaseous aluminum of approximately 0.2% solid density decreases to 15–20 kV/cm. The breakdown field in shunting mode is less than 20 kV/cm and is strongly affected by the vaporized aluminum, the desorbed gas, and the electrons emitted from the wire core during the current pause. Ohmic heating during voltage collapses will induce further energy deposition in the current channel and thus will result in different expansion speeds for both the wire core and the shockwave front in the different modes.

  13. Satellite power system (SPS). Rectenna siting: availability and distribution of nominally eligible sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Siting of 60 ground receiving stations (rectennas) for the SPS may pose a problem due to the large area per rectenna (15,000 hectares, 38,000 acres) and numerous siting constraints. This study analyzes areas potentially eligible for rectenna sites by mapping, at a national scale, those conditions which would preclude rectenna construction. These exclusion variables which reflect restricted lands, topography, safety, national policy and electromagnetic (microwave) effects, have been computer encoded and tabulated. Subsequent analysis of the nine electric power planning regions that make up the contiguous states indicate an apparently adequate number of nominally eligible sites in all regions in comparison to projected electrical generation. Eligibility in this context means only that areas were not excluded in this national level analysis; more detailed investigation may reveal purely local constraints or smaller scale exclusions. A second major qualification relates to small isolated eligible areas. Eliminating individual eligible clusters with less than nine times the area of one rectenna eliminates much of the Eastern US; a four-to-one adjacent eligible area test poses no such problem. An independant study of the placement of 60 nominal sites in relation to projected load centers reveals that, even with modest transmission distances, the supply of eligible areas is not a key constraint, except perhaps in the Mid-Atlantic (Electric Reliability) Council Region. Even when several less critical (potential) exclusions are considered, more than 19% of the US is eligible; every region except Mid-Atlantic has at least 50 times an many eligible sites as are required.

  14. Low-voltage gas-discharge device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kovarik, V.J.; Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1982-06-08

    An electronic device of the type wherein current flow is conducted by an ionized gas comprising a cathode of the type heated by ionic bombardment, an anode, means for maintaining a predetermined pressure in the region between the anode and the cathode and means for maintaining a field in the region is described. The field, which is preferably a combined magnetic and electric field, is oriented so that the mean distance traveled by electrons before reaching the anode is increased. Because of this increased distance traveled electrons moving to the anode will ionize a large number of gas atoms, thus reducing the voltage necessary to initiate gas breakdown. In a preferred embodiment the anode is a main hollow cathode and the cathode is a smaller igniter hollow cathode located within and coaxial with the main hollow cathode. An axial magnetic field is provided in the region between the hollow cathodes in order to facilitate gas breakdown in that region and initiate plasma discharge from the main hollow cathode.

  15. Bonfire-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it bonfire-safe includes a first layer of an explosive charge of CP, or a primary explosive, and a second layer of a secondary organic explosive charge, such as PETN, which has a degradation temperature lower than the autoignition temperature of the CP or primary explosives. The first layer is composed of a pair of increments disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to and in contact with an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The second layer is composed of a plurality of increments disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to and in contact with the first layer on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first layer is loaded under a sufficient high pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to achieve ignition, whereas the second layer is loaded under a sufficient low pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. Each increment of the first and second layers has an axial length-to-diameter ratio of one-half. 2 figs.

  16. Bonfire-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Morton L.

    1990-01-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it bonfire-safe includes a first layer of an explosive charge of CP, or a primary explosive, and a second layer of a secondary organic explosive charge, such as PETN, which has a degradation temperature lower than the autoignition temperature of the CP or primary explosives. The first layer is composed of a pair of increments disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to and in contact with an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The second layer is composed of a plurality of increments disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to and in contact with the first layer on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first layer is loaded under a sufficient high pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to achieve ignition, whereas the second layer is loaded under a sufficient low pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. Each increment of the first and second layers has an axial length-to-diameter ratio of one-half.

  17. Solid electrolyte: The key for high-voltage lithium batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Juchuan; Ma, Cheng; Chi, Miaofang; Liang, Chengdu; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2014-10-14

    A solid-state high-voltage (5 V) lithium battery is demonstrated to deliver a cycle life of 10 000 with 90% capacity retention. Furthermore, the solid electrolyte enables the use of high-voltage cathodes and Li anodes with minimum side reactions, leading to a high Coulombic efficiency of 99.98+%.

  18. High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es113_amine_2011_p.pdf (246.67 KB) More Documents & Publications High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries

  19. Cadmium telluride solar cells: Record-breaking voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poplawsky, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Here, the performance of CdTe solar cells — cheaper alternatives to silicon photovoltaics — is hampered by their low output voltages, which are normally well below the theoretical limit. Now, record voltages of over 1 V have been reported in single-crystal CdTe heterostructure solar cells, which are close to those of benchmark GaAs cells.

  20. Living and Working Safely Around High-Voltage Power Lines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2001-06-01

    High-voltage transmission lines can be just as safe as the electrical wiring in the homes--or just as dangerous. The crucial factor is ourselves: they must learn to behave safely around them. This booklet is a basic safety guide for those who live and work around power lines. It deals primarily with nuisance shocks due to induced voltages, and with potential electric shock hazards from contact with high-voltage lines. References on possible long-term biological effects of transmission lines are shown. In preparing this booklet, the Bonneville Power Administration has drawn on more than 50 years of experience with high-voltage transmission. BPA operates one of the world`s largest networks of long-distance, high-voltage lines. This system has more than 400 substations and about 15,000 miles of transmission lines, almost 4,400 miles of which are operated at 500,000 volts.

  1. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1996-10-15

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 figs.

  2. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W.; Lange, Arnold C.

    1996-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage put under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  3. Statement from Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman on the Nomination of Thomas P. D'Agostino as Under Secretary for Nuclear Security and Administrator of NNSA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "Today the President announced his intention to nominate Thomas P. D'Agostino as Under Secretary for Nuclear Security and Administrator of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA).

  4. High voltage dc-dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W.; Lange, Arnold C.

    1995-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  5. High voltage dc--dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1995-05-23

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 Figs.

  6. Electro-optic voltage sensor with beam splitting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K.; Renak, Todd W.; Davidson, James R.; Crawford, Thomas M.

    2002-01-01

    The invention is a miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages without use of the dedicated voltage dividing hardware typically found in the prior art. The invention achieves voltage measurement without significant error contributions from neighboring conductors or environmental perturbations. The invention employs a transmitter, a sensor, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor. Within the sensor the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect produces a modulation of the beam's polarization, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent conversely-amplitude-modulated signals, from which the voltage of the E-field is determined by the signal processor. The use of converse AM signals enables the signal processor to better distinguish signal from noise. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  7. Electro-optic voltage sensor with Multiple Beam Splitting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory K.; Renak, Todd W.; Crawford, Thomas M.; Davidson, James R.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature electro-optic voltage sensor system capable of accurate operation at high voltages without use of the dedicated voltage dividing hardware. The invention achieves voltage measurement without significant error contributions from neighboring conductors or environmental perturbations. The invention employs a transmitter, a sensor, a detector, and a signal processor. The transmitter produces a beam of electromagnetic radiation which is routed into the sensor. Within the sensor the beam undergoes the Pockels electro-optic effect. The electro-optic effect produces a modulation of the beam's polarization, which is in turn converted to a pair of independent conversely-amplitude-modulated signals, from which the voltage of the E-field is determined by the signal processor. The use of converse AM signals enables the signal processor to better distinguish signal from noise. The sensor converts the beam by splitting the beam in accordance with the axes of the beam's polarization state (an ellipse) into at least two AM signals. These AM signals are fed into a signal processor and processed to determine the voltage between a ground conductor and the conductor on which voltage is being measured.

  8. Optically triggered high voltage switch network and method for switching a high voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Andexler, George; Silberkleit, Lee I.

    1993-01-19

    An optically triggered solid state switch and method for switching a high voltage electrical current. A plurality of solid state switches (350) are connected in series for controlling electrical current flow between a compensation capacitor (112) and ground in a reactive power compensator (50, 50') that monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b and 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. An optical transmitter (100) controlled by the reactive power compensation system produces light pulses that are conveyed over optical fibers (102) to a switch driver (110') that includes a plurality of series connected optical triger circuits (288). Each of the optical trigger circuits controls a pair of the solid state switches and includes a plurality of series connected resistors (294, 326, 330, and 334) that equalize or balance the potential across the plurality of trigger circuits. The trigger circuits are connected to one of the distribution lines through a trigger capacitor (340). In each switch driver, the light signals activate a phototransistor (300) so that an electrical current flows from one of the energy reservoir capacitors through a pulse transformer (306) in the trigger circuit, producing gate signals that turn on the pair of serially connected solid state switches (350).

  9. System for instrumenting and manipulating apparatuses in high voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jordan, Kevin

    2016-06-07

    A system for energizing, operating and manipulating apparatuses in high voltage systems. The system uses a dielectric gas such as SF.sub.6 as a driving power supply for a pneumatic motor which ultimately charges a battery or other energy storage device. The stored energy can then be used for instrumentation equipment, or to power any electrical equipment, in the high voltage deck. The accompanying method provides for the use of the SF6 system for operating an electrical device in a high-voltage environment.

  10. High voltage bushing having weathershed and surrounding stress relief collar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1981-01-01

    A high voltage electric bushing comprises a hollow elongated dielectric weathershed which encloses a high voltage conductor. A collar formed of high voltage dielectric material is positioned over the weathershed and is bonded thereto by an interface material which precludes moisture-like contaminants from entering between the bonded portions. The collar is substantially thicker than the adjacent weathershed which it surrounds, providing relief of the electric stresses which would otherwise appear on the outer surface of the weathershed. The collar may include a conductive ring or capacitive foil to further relieve electric stresses experienced by the bushing.

  11. Dynamic voltage compensation on distribution feeders using flywheel energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weissbach, R.S.; Karady, G.G.; Farmer, R.G.

    1999-04-01

    Advancements in power electronics bearings and materials have made flywheel energy storage systems a viable alternative to electrochemical batteries. A future application of such a device is as an uninterruptible power supply for critical loads on a distribution feeder. However, the same power electronics and flywheel system could also be used for dynamic voltage compensation. A comparison is made between series and parallel connection of such dynamic compensation techniques used to maintain rated load voltage on distribution feeders when there are momentary dips in the supply voltage. For each case a mathematical model is presented and analyzed. The two cases are compared and the series compensation technique is more effective.

  12. Price Incentivised Electric Vehicle Charge Control for Community Voltage Regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Damian; Baroncelli, Fabio; Fowler, Christopher; Boundy, David; Pratt, Annabelle

    2014-11-03

    With the growing availability of Electric Vehicles, there is a significant opportunity to use battery 'smart-charging' for voltage regulation. This work designs and experimentally evaluates a system for price-incentivised electric vehicle charging. The system is designed to eliminate negative impacts to the user while minimising the cost of charging and achieving a more favourable voltage behaviour throughout the local grid over time. The practical issues associated with a real-life deployment are identified and resolved. The efficacy of the system is evaluated in the challenging scenario in which EVs are deployed in six closely distributed homes, serviced by the same low voltage residential distribution feeder.

  13. High-voltage air-core pulse transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1981-08-01

    High voltage air core pulse transformers are best suited to applications outside the normal ranges of conventional magnetic core transformers. In general these include charge transfer at high power levels and fast pulse generation with comparatively low energy. When properly designed and constructed, they are capable of delivering high energy transfer efficiency and have demonstrated superior high voltage endurance. The general types designed for high voltage pulse generation and energy transfer applications are described. Special emphasis is given to pulse charging systems which operate up to the multi-megavolt range. (WHK)

  14. Conduction below 100 °C in nominal Li6ZnNb4O14

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Yunchao; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Gill, Lance W.; Edward W. Hagaman; Wang, Yangyang; Sokolov, Alexei P.; Dai, Sheng; Ma, Cheng; Chi, Miaofang; Veith, Gabriel M.; et al

    2015-09-15

    The increasing demand for a safe rechargeable battery with a high energy density per cell is driving a search for a novel solid electrolyte with a high Li+ or Na+ conductivity that is chemically stable in a working Li-ion or Na-ion battery. Li6ZnNb4O14 has been reported to exhibit a σ Li > 10-2 S cm-1 at 250 °C, but to disproportionate into multiple phases on cooling from 850 °C to room temperature. An investigation of the room-temperature Li-ion conductivity in a porous pellet of a multiphase product of a nominal Li6ZnNb4O14 composition is shown to have bulk σ Li 3.3more » x 10-5 S cm-1 at room temperature that increases to 1.4 x 10-4 S cm-1 by 50 °C. 7Li MAS NMR spectra were fitted to two Lorentzian lines, one of which showed a dramatic increase with increasing temperature. As a result, a test for water stability indicates that Li+ may move to the particle and grain surfaces to react with adsorbed water as occurs in the garnet Li+ conductors.« less

  15. Scenarios constructed for nominal flow in the presence of a repository at Yucca Mountain and vicinity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barr, G.E.; Hunter, R.L.; Dunn, E.; Flint, A.

    1995-03-01

    Scenario development for the system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project defines a scenario as a well-posed problem connecting an initiating event with radionuclide release to the accessible environment by a logical and physically possible combination or sequence of features, events, and processes. Drawing on the advice and assistance of the Project`s principal investigators (PIs), a collection of release scenarios initiated by the nominal ground-water flow occurring in the vicinity of the potential Yucca Mountain high-level-waste repository is developed and described in pictorial form. This collection of scenarios is intended to provide a framework to assist PIs in recognizing essential field and calculational analyses, to assist performance assessment in providing guidance to site characterization, and to continue the effort to exhaustively identify all features, events, and processes important to releases. It represents a step in the iterative process of identifying what details of the potential site are important for safe disposal. 67 refs.

  16. U.S. Nominal Cost per Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Well Drilled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Thousand Dollars per Well) Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Well Drilled (Thousand Dollars per Well) U.S. Nominal Cost per Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Well Drilled (Thousand Dollars per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 54.9 54.5 58.6 55.0 55.8 60.6 68.4 72.9 81.5 88.6 1970's 94.9 94.7 106.4 117.2 138.7 177.8 191.6 227.2 280.0 331.4 1980's 367.7 453.7 514.4 371.7 326.5 349.4 364.6 279.6 354.7 362.2 1990's 383.6 421.5 382.6 426.8 483.2

  17. U.S. Nominal Cost per Dry Well Drilled (Thousand Dollars per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Dry Well Drilled (Thousand Dollars per Well) U.S. Nominal Cost per Dry Well Drilled (Thousand Dollars per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 44.0 45.2 50.8 48.2 48.5 53.1 56.9 61.5 66.2 70.2 1970's 80.9 86.8 94.9 105.8 141.7 177.2 190.3 230.2 281.7 339.6 1980's 376.5 464.0 515.4 366.5 329.2 372.3 389.2 259.1 366.4 355.4 1990's 367.5 441.2 357.6 387.7 491.5 481.2 541.0 655.6 973.2 1,115.5 2000's 1,075.4 1,620.4 1,673.4 2,065.1 1,977.3 2,392.9

  18. U.S. Nominal Cost per Foot of Crude Oil Wells Drilled (Dollars per Foot)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Oil Wells Drilled (Dollars per Foot) U.S. Nominal Cost per Foot of Crude Oil Wells Drilled (Dollars per Foot) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 13.22 13.11 13.41 13.20 13.12 13.94 15.04 16.61 18.63 19.28 1970's 19.29 18.41 20.77 22.54 27.82 34.17 37.35 41.16 49.72 58.29 1980's 66.36 80.40 86.34 72.65 66.32 66.78 68.35 58.35 62.28 64.92 1990's 69.17 73.75 69.50 67.52 70.57 78.09 70.60 90.48 108.88 156.45 2000's 125.96 153.72 194.55 221.13 298.45

  19. U.S. Nominal Cost per Foot of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Wells Drilled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Dollars per Foot) Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Wells Drilled (Dollars per Foot) U.S. Nominal Cost per Foot of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Wells Drilled (Dollars per Foot) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 13.01 12.85 13.31 12.69 12.86 13.44 14.95 15.97 16.83 17.56 1970's 18.84 19.03 20.76 22.50 28.93 36.99 40.46 46.81 56.63 67.70 1980's 77.02 94.30 108.73 83.34 71.90 75.35 76.88 58.71 70.23 73.55 1990's 76.07 82.64 70.27 75.30 79.49 87.22

  20. U.S. Nominal Cost per Foot of Dry Wells Drilled (Dollars per Foot)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Dry Wells Drilled (Dollars per Foot) U.S. Nominal Cost per Foot of Dry Wells Drilled (Dollars per Foot) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 10.56 10.56 11.20 10.58 10.64 11.21 12.34 12.87 12.88 13.23 1970's 15.21 16.02 17.28 19.22 26.76 33.86 36.94 43.49 52.55 64.60 1980's 73.70 90.03 104.09 79.10 67.18 73.69 76.53 51.05 66.96 67.61 1990's 67.49 83.05 67.82 72.56 86.60 84.60 95.74 115.09 157.79 182.99 2000's 181.83 271.63 284.17 345.94 327.91

  1. U.S. Nominal Cost per Foot of Natural Gas Wells Drilled (Dollars per Foot)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Natural Gas Wells Drilled (Dollars per Foot) U.S. Nominal Cost per Foot of Natural Gas Wells Drilled (Dollars per Foot) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 18.57 17.65 18.10 17.19 18.57 18.35 21.75 23.05 24.05 25.58 1970's 26.75 27.70 27.78 27.46 34.11 46.23 49.78 57.57 68.37 80.66 1980's 95.16 122.17 146.20 108.37 88.80 93.09 93.02 69.55 84.65 86.86 1990's 90.73 93.10 72.83 83.15 81.90 95.97 98.67 117.55 127.94 138.42 2000's 138.39 172.05 175.78

  2. U.S. Nominal Cost per Natural Gas Well Drilled (Thousand Dollars per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Natural Gas Well Drilled (Thousand Dollars per Well) U.S. Nominal Cost per Natural Gas Well Drilled (Thousand Dollars per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 102.7 94.7 97.1 92.4 104.8 101.9 133.8 141.0 148.5 154.3 1970's 160.7 166.6 157.8 155.3 189.2 262.0 270.4 313.5 374.2 443.1 1980's 536.4 698.6 864.3 608.1 489.8 508.7 522.9 380.4 460.3 457.8 1990's 471.3 506.6 426.1 521.2 535.1 629.7 616.0 728.6 815.6 798.4 2000's 756.9 896.5 991.9

  3. Data summary for nominal 500 ?m DUO2 Kernels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunn, John D

    2004-04-01

    This document is a compilation of characterization data obtained on the nominal 500 {micro}m DUO{sub 2} kernels produced by ORNL for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program to satisfy the FY03 WBS 3.1.2 task milestone No.2.2 kg of kernels were produced and combined in two composite lots. DUN-500 was a 1630 g composite sieved between 500 {+-} 2 {micro}m and 534 {+-} 2 {micro}m ASTM E161 electroformed sieves. DUN-482 was a 385.6 g composite sieved between 482 {+-} 2 {micro}m and 518 {+-} 2 {micro}m ASTM E161 electroformed sieves. Size, shape, density, and microstructural analysis were performed on a 100 g sublot (DUN-500-S-1) riffled from the DUN-500 composite. Size and shape were also measured on a 100 g sublot (DUN-482-S-1) riffled from the DUN-482 composite. For comparison, analysis was also performed on kernels extracted from the German reference fuel EUO 2358-2365 (AGR-06).

  4. Heavy and light hole transport in nominally undoped GaSb substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kala, Hemendra; Umana-Membreno, Gilberto A.; Jolley, Gregory; Akhavan, Nima Dehdashti; Antoszewski, Jaroslaw; Faraone, Lorenzo; Patrashin, Mikhail A.; Akahane, Kouichi

    2015-01-19

    In this work, we report results of a study of electronic transport in nominally undoped p-type GaSb wafers typically employed as substrate material for the epitaxial growth of InAs/GaInSb type-II superlattices. Magnetic field dependent Hall-effect measurements and high-resolution mobility spectrum analysis clearly indicate p-type conductivity due to carriers in both the heavy and light hole bands. The extracted hole concentrations indicate a thermal activation energy of 17.8 meV for the dominant native acceptor-like defects. A temperature-independent effective mass ratio of 9.0 ± 0.8 was determined from the ratio of measured heavy and light hole concentrations. Over the 56 K–300 K temperature range, the light hole mobility was found to be 4.7 ± 0.7 times higher than the heavy hole mobility. The measured room temperature mobilities for the light and heavy holes were 2550 cm{sup 2}/Vs and 520 cm{sup 2}/Vs, respectively.

  5. Influence of Barrier Design on Current Collapse in High Voltage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Influence of Barrier Design on Current Collapse in High Voltage AlGaNGaN HEMTs. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Barrier Design on Current Collapse in High ...

  6. Influence of Barrier Design on Current Collapse in High Voltage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Influence of Barrier Design on Current Collapse in High Voltage AlGaNGaN HEMTs. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Barrier Design on Current ...

  7. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chorpening, Benjamin T.; Thornton, Jimmy D.; Huckaby, E. David; Fincham, William

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  8. Control voltage and power fluctuations when connecting wind farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berinde, Ioan Bălan, Horia Oros, Teodora Susana

    2015-12-23

    Voltage, frequency, active power and reactive power are very important parameters in terms of power quality. These parameters are followed when connecting any power plant, the more the connection of wind farms. Connecting wind farms to the electricity system must not cause interference outside the limits set by regulations. Modern solutions for fast and automatic voltage control and power fluctuations using electronic control systems of reactive power flows. FACTS (Flexible Alternating Current Transmision System) systems, established on the basis of power electronic circuits ensure control of electrical status quantities to achieve the necessary transfer of power to the power grid. FACTS devices can quickly control parameters and sizes of state power lines, such as impedance line voltages and phase angles of the voltages of the two ends of the line. Their use can lead to improvement in power system operation by increasing the transmission capacity of power lines, power flow control lines, improved static and transient stability reserve.

  9. IEEE 342 Node Low Voltage Networked Test System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Phanivong, Phillippe K.; Lacroix, Jean-Sebastian

    2014-07-31

    The IEEE Distribution Test Feeders provide a benchmark for new algorithms to the distribution analyses community. The low voltage network test feeder represents a moderate size urban system that is unbalanced and highly networked. This is the first distribution test feeder developed by the IEEE that contains unbalanced networked components. The 342 node Low Voltage Networked Test System includes many elements that may be found in a networked system: multiple 13.2kV primary feeders, network protectors, a 120/208V grid network, and multiple 277/480V spot networks. This paper presents a brief review of the history of low voltage networks and how they evolved into the modern systems. This paper will then present a description of the 342 Node IEEE Low Voltage Network Test System and power flow results.

  10. Voltage Dependent Charge Storage Modes and Capacity in Subnanometer Pores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Rui; Meunier, V.; Huang, Jingsong; Wu, Peng; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2012-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that charge storage in subnanometer pores follows a distinct voltage-dependent behavior. Specifically, at lower voltages, charge storage is achieved by swapping co-ions in the pore with counterions in the bulk electrolyte. As voltage increases, further charge storage is due mainly to the removal of co-ions from the pore, leading to a capacitance increase. The capacitance eventually reaches a maximum when all co-ions are expelled from the pore. At even higher electrode voltages, additional charge storage is realized by counterion insertion into the pore, accompanied by a reduction of capacitance. The molecular mechanisms of these observations are elucidated and provide useful insight for optimizing energy storage based on supercapacitors.

  11. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles The purpose of this project was for Seeo to develop a high energy lithium based technology with targets of ...

  12. Voltage Regulator Chip: Power Supplies on a Chip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    ADEPT Project: CPES at Virginia Tech is finding ways to save real estate on a computer's motherboard that could be used for other critical functions. Every computer processor today contains a voltage regulator that automatically maintains a constant level of electricity entering the device. These regulators contain bulky components and take up about 30% of a computer's motherboard. CPES at Virginia Tech is developing a voltage regulator that uses semiconductors made of gallium nitride on silicon (GaN-on-Si) and high-frequency soft magnetic material. These materials are integrated on a small, 3D chip that can handle the same amount of power as traditional voltage regulators at 1/10 the size and with improved efficiency. The small size also frees up to 90% of the motherboard space occupied by current voltage regulators.

  13. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Blacksburg, VA)

    2002-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  14. Design & Fabrication of a High-Voltage Photovoltaic Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felder, Jennifer; /North Carolina State U. /SLAC

    2012-09-05

    Silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells are alternative energy sources that are important in sustainable power generation. Currently, applications of PV cells are limited by the low output voltage and somewhat low efficiency of such devices. In light of this fact, this project investigates the possibility of fabricating high-voltage PV cells on float-zone silicon wafers having output voltages ranging from 50 V to 2000 V. Three designs with different geometries of diffusion layers were simulated and compared in terms of metal coverage, recombination, built-in potential, and conduction current density. One design was then chosen and optimized to be implemented in the final device design. The results of the simulation serve as a feasibility test for the design concept and provide supportive evidence of the effectiveness of silicon PV cells as high-voltage power supplies.

  15. Fault Detection and Isolation in Low-Voltage DC Distribution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PDF Document Publication CU2941D-3222D (DC Microgrid) Marketing Summary.pdf (172 KB) ... Small-scale low-voltage distribution systems, such as a microgrid, have many advantages to ...

  16. High-frequency calibration of inductive voltage dividers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, I.A.; Bryant, S.

    1994-12-31

    We have constructed a semi-automated system for calibrating Inductive Voltage Dividers (IVDs) in the frequency range 5-300 kHz, with a target measurement uncertain of lppm at 300 kHz.

  17. Voltage-matched configurations for multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Novel methods for interconnecting the subcells of a multijunction solar cell are investigated. The subcells are connected in parallel in these new methods. The bandgaps of the subcells must be selected for matched voltages when operated in parallel. We refer to multijunction solar cells with the subcells connected in parallel as having a voltage-matched configuration. Computer analyses of multijunction solar cells with a voltage-matched configuration and with series-connected subcells were performed. Roughly, the same performance with either approach for a multijunction cell with optimized bandgaps was found. Several advantages for the voltage-matched configuration relative to multijunction solar cells with series-connected subcells were identified, including wider selection of bandgaps for optimal performance, less sensitivity to radiation damage, and less sensitivity to spectral variations.

  18. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-06-24

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

  19. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    2001-04-03

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  20. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1997-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  1. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Eitouni, Hany; Yang, Jin; Pratt, Russell; Wang, Xiao; Grape, Ulrik The purpose of this project was for Seeo to develop a...

  2. Chloromethyl chlorosulfate as a voltage delay inhibitor in lithium cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, F.M.

    1991-04-05

    Chloromethyl chlorosulfate (CMCS) is used as a passive film growth inhibitor in electrochemical cells to minimize voltage delay and low-voltage discharge. Film growth on lithium anodes is significantly diminished when CMCS is added to SOCl{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} electrolytes of lithium batteries. The CMCS also has the effect of extending the shelf-life of Li/SOCl{sub 2} and Li/SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} batteries.

  3. Chloromethyl chlorosulfate as a voltage delay inhibitor in lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, Frank M.

    1993-01-01

    Chloromethyl chlorosulfate (CMCS) is used as a passive film growth inhibitor in electrochemical cells to minimize voltage delay and low-voltage discharge. Film growth on lithium anodes is significantly diminished when CMCS is added to SOCl.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 electrolytes of lithium batteries. The CMCS also has the effect of extending the shelf-life of Li/SOCl.sub.2 and Li/SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 batteries.

  4. Chloromethyl chlorosulfate as a voltage delay inhibitor in lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, F.M.

    1993-04-13

    Chloromethyl chlorosulfate (CMCS) is used as a passive film growth inhibitor in electrochemical cells to minimize voltage delay and low-voltage discharge. Film growth on lithium anodes is significantly diminished when CMCS is added to SOCl[sub 2] and SO[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] electrolytes of lithium batteries. The CMCS also has the effect of extending the shelf-life of Li/SOCl[sub 2] and Li/SO[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] batteries.

  5. High voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1982-01-01

    A high voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery which comprises a plurality of strips of tandem junction solar cells of hydrogenated amorphous silicon having one optical path and electrically interconnected by a tunnel junction. The layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon, arranged in a tandem configuration, can have the same bandgap or differing bandgaps. The tandem junction strip solar cells are series connected to produce a solar battery of any desired voltage.

  6. Variable Voltage Substation Electric Fire and Emergency Response |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Variable Voltage Substation Electric Fire and Emergency Response Variable Voltage Substation Electric Fire and Emergency Response Question from Participant: My question is from an emergency response perspective. It was stated that it took ~ ½ for electricians to de-energize the electrical components before firefighters were allowed in to fight the fire. This delay causes more damage to equipment and potential propagation of the fire. Is there not a "master"

  7. Voltage shifts and defect-dipoles in ferroelectric capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, W.L.; Pike, G.E.; Dimos, D.

    1996-12-01

    We review the processes and mechanisms by which voltage offsets occur in the hysteresis loop of ferroelectric materials. Simply stated, voltage shifts arise from near-interfacial charge trapping in the ferroelectric. We show that the impetus behind voltage shifts in ferroelectric capacitors is the net polarization, with the net polarization being determined by the perovskite and the aligned defect-dipole components. Some common defect-dipoles in the PZT system are lead vacancy-oxygen vacancy complexes. One way to change the net polarization in the ferroelectric is to subject the PZT capacitor to a dc bias at elevated temperature; this process is spectroscopically shown to align defect-dipoles along the direction of the applied electric field. The alignment of defect-dipoles can strongly impact several material properties. One such impact is that it can lead to enhanced voltage shifts (imprint). It is proposed that the net polarization determines the spatial location of the asymmetrically trapped charge that are the cause for the voltage shifts. An enhanced polarization at one electrode interface can lead to larger voltage shifts since it lowers the electrostatic potential well for electron trapping, i.e., more electron trapping can occur. Defect-dipole alignment is also shown to increase the UV sensitivity of the ferroelectric.

  8. High voltage electrical amplifier having a short rise time

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, David J.; Dallum, Gregory E.

    1991-01-01

    A circuit, comprising an amplifier and a transformer is disclosed that produces a high power pulse having a fast response time, and that responds to a digital control signal applied through a digital-to-analog converter. The present invention is suitable for driving a component such as an electro-optic modulator with a voltage in the kilovolt range. The circuit is stable at high frequencies and during pulse transients, and its impedance matching circuit matches the load impedance with the output impedance. The preferred embodiment comprises an input stage compatible with high-speed semiconductor components for amplifying the voltage of the input control signal, a buffer for isolating the input stage from the output stage; and a plurality of current amplifiers connected to the buffer. Each current amplifier is connected to a field effect transistor (FET), which switches a high voltage power supply to a transformer which then provides an output terminal for driving a load. The transformer comprises a plurality of transmission lines connected to the FETs and the load. The transformer changes the impedance and voltage of the output. The preferred embodiment also comprises a low voltage power supply for biasing the FETs at or near an operational voltage.

  9. A Multiattribute Utility Analysis of Sites Nominated For Characterization For the First Radioactive Waste Repository- A Decision Aiding Methodology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In December 1984, the Department of Energy (DOE) published draft environmental assessments (EAs) to support the proposed nomination of five sites and the recommendation of three sites for characterization for the first radioactive-waste repository. A chapter common to all the draft EAs (Chapter 7) presented rankings of the five sites against the postclosure and the preclosure technical siting guidelines. To determine which three sites appeared most favorable for recommendation for characterization, three simple quantitative methods were used to aggregate the rankings assigned to each site for the various technical guidelines. In response to numerous comments on the methods, the DOE has undertaken a formal application of one of them (hereafter referred to as the decision-aiding methodology) for the purpose of obtaining a more rigorous evaluation of the nominated sites.

  10. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1997-03-11

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360{degree}/n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. 7 figs.

  11. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W.; Lange, Arnold C.

    1997-01-01

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360.degree./n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load.

  12. Voltage control in pulsed system by predict-ahead control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Anthony N.; Watson, James A.; Sampayan, Stephen E.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for predict-ahead pulse-to-pulse voltage control in a pulsed power supply system is disclosed. A DC power supply network is coupled to a resonant charging network via a first switch. The resonant charging network is coupled at a node to a storage capacitor. An output load is coupled to the storage capacitor via a second switch. A de-Q-ing network is coupled to the resonant charging network via a third switch. The trigger for the third switch is a derived function of the initial voltage of the power supply network, the initial voltage of the storage capacitor, and the present voltage of the storage capacitor. A first trigger closes the first switch and charges the capacitor. The third trigger is asserted according to the derived function to close the third switch. When the third switch is closed, the first switch opens and voltage on the node is regulated. The second trigger may be thereafter asserted to discharge the capacitor into the output load.

  13. Voltage control in pulsed system by predict-ahead control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, A.N.; Watson, J.A.; Sampayan, S.E.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus for predict-ahead pulse-to-pulse voltage control in a pulsed power supply system is disclosed. A DC power supply network is coupled to a resonant charging network via a first switch. The resonant charging network is coupled at a node to a storage capacitor. An output load is coupled to the storage capacitor via a second switch. A de-Q-ing network is coupled to the resonant charging network via a third switch. The trigger for the third switch is a derived function of the initial voltage of the power supply network, the initial voltage of the storage capacitor, and the present voltage of the storage capacitor. A first trigger closes the first switch and charges the capacitor. The third trigger is asserted according to the derived function to close the third switch. When the third switch is closed, the first switch opens and voltage on the node is regulated. The second trigger may be thereafter asserted to discharge the capacitor into the output load. 4 figs.

  14. A statistical approach to designing mitigation for induced ac voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J. [Electro Sciences, Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Induced voltage levels on buried pipelines collocated with overhead electric power transmission lines are usually mitigated by means of grounding the pipeline. Maximum effectiveness is obtained when grounds are placed at discrete locations along the pipeline where the peak induced voltages occur. The degree of mitigation achieved is dependent upon the local soil resistivity at these locations. On occasion it may be necessary to employ an extensive distributed grounding system, for example, a parallel buried wire connected to the pipe at periodic intervals. In this situation the a priori calculation of mitigated voltage levels is sometimes made assuming an average value for the soil resistivity. Over long distances, however, the soil resistivity generally varies as a log-normally distributed random variable. The effect of this variability upon the predicted mitigated voltage levels is examined. It is found that the predicted levels exhibit a statistical variability which precludes a precise determination of the mitigated voltage levels. Thus, post commissioning testing of the emplaced mitigation system is advisable.

  15. Method of inhibiting voltage suppression lithium/fluorinated carbon batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shia, G.A.; Friedland, D.J.

    1987-08-11

    An improved lithium/fluorinated carbon battery is described wherein the cathode comprises a blend of at least two different CF/sub x/ compositions which are derived from petroleum-based coke products which have been prepared by heat treatment at a temperature between about 800/sup 0/C and 2,0006/sup 0/C: (a) a bulk CF/sub x/ and (b) an additive CF/sub x/ and wherein from about 0.5 percent to about 50 percent of (b) is characterized as having a closed circuit voltage of at least 150 mV above the plateau voltage of the bulk CF/sub x/ and a specific capacity above 600 mAH/g. A method is also described for the elimination of suppression of the closed circuit voltage of a Li/CF/sub x/ battery during the initial part of its discharge.

  16. INDUCTIVE VOLTAGE ADDER NETWORK ANALYSIS AND MODEL SIMPLIFICATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZHANG,W.; NG, W.; PAI, C.; SANDBERG, J.; TAN, Y.; TIAN, Y.

    2007-06-17

    Inductive voltage adder topology has attracted great attentions in pulse power community for near two decades. However, there has been lack of literatures on inductive voltage adder network analysis and circuit design model. We have recently developed a simplified model and a set of simple formulas. An expanded model and more detailed analysis are presented in this paper. Our model reveals the relationship of output waveform parameters and hardware designs. Computer simulations have demonstrated that parameter estimation based on this approach is accurate. This approach can be used in early stages of project development to assist feasibility study, geometry selection in engineering design, and parameter selection of critical components. A set of fundamental estimation formulas including system impedance, rise time, and number of stages are presented. This approach is also applicable to induction LINAC design. In addition, the model presented in this paper shows a new topology of high voltage waveform generator.

  17. Voltage Impacts of Utility-Scale Distributed Wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, A.

    2014-09-01

    Although most utility-scale wind turbines in the United States are added at the transmission level in large wind power plants, distributed wind power offers an alternative that could increase the overall wind power penetration without the need for additional transmission. This report examines the distribution feeder-level voltage issues that can arise when adding utility-scale wind turbines to the distribution system. Four of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory taxonomy feeders were examined in detail to study the voltage issues associated with adding wind turbines at different distances from the sub-station. General rules relating feeder resistance up to the point of turbine interconnection to the expected maximum voltage change levels were developed. Additional analysis examined line and transformer overvoltage conditions.

  18. Interfacial morphology of low-voltage anodic aluminium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Naiping; Dongcinn, Xuecheng; He, Xueying; Argekar, Sandip; Zhang, Yan; Browning, Jim; Schaefer, Dale

    2013-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and neutron reflectivity (NR), as well as ultra-smallangle X-ray scattering (USAXS), are used to examine the in-plane and surfacenormal structure of anodic films formed on aluminium alloy AA2024 and pure aluminium. Aluminium and alloy films up to 3500 A thick were deposited on Si wafers by electron beam evaporation of ingots. Porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) films are formed by polarizing at constant voltage up to 20 V noble to the open circuit potential. The voltage sweet spot (5 V) appropriate for constant-voltage anodization of such thin films was determined for both alloy and pure Al. In addition, a new concurrent voltage- and current-control protocol was developed to prepare films with larger pores (voltages higher than 5 V), but formed at a controlled current so that pore growth is slow enough to avoid stripping the aluminium substrate layer. USAXS shows that the pore size and interpore spacing are fixed in the first 10 s after initiation of anodization. Pores then grow linearly in time, at constant radius and interpore spacing. Using a combination of XRR and NR, the film density and degree of hydration of the films were determined from the ratio of scattering length densities. Assuming a chemical formula Al2O3xH2O, it was found that x varies from 0.29 for the native oxide to 1.29 for AAO grown at 20 V under concurrent voltage and current control. The average AAO film density of the porous film at the air surface is 2.45 (20) g cm3. The density of the barrier layer at the metal interface is 2.9 (4) g cm3, which indicates that this layer is also quite porous

  19. Elevated voltage level I{sub DDQ} failure testing of integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Righter, A.W.

    1996-05-21

    Burn in testing of static CMOS IC`s is eliminated by I{sub DDQ} testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip. 4 figs.

  20. Requirements for a Standard Test to Rate the Durability of PV Modules at System Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.; Bennett, I.; Kloos, M.

    2011-02-01

    Degradation modes in photovoltaic modules under system bias voltage stress are described and classified.

  1. Elevated voltage level I.sub.DDQ failure testing of integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Righter, Alan W.

    1996-01-01

    Burn in testing of static CMOS IC's is eliminated by I.sub.DDQ testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip.

  2. Modeling Current-Voltage Curves Using Bilinear Interpolation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, B.; del Cueto, J.; Sekulic, B.

    2004-08-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) curves for photovoltaic (PV) modules representing all PV technologies were modeled by bilinearly interpolating the I-V curves from a PV module's four reference I-V curves. The interpolation was performed first with respect to open-circuit voltage to account for PV module temperature, and second with respect to short-circuit current to account for irradiance. The modeled I-V curves compared closely with measured I-V curves for 26 PV modules located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  3. High voltage switch triggered by a laser-photocathode subsystem

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Ping; Lundquist, Martin L.; Yu, David U. L.

    2013-01-08

    A spark gap switch for controlling the output of a high voltage pulse from a high voltage source, for example, a capacitor bank or a pulse forming network, to an external load such as a high gradient electron gun, laser, pulsed power accelerator or wide band radar. The combination of a UV laser and a high vacuum quartz cell, in which a photocathode and an anode are installed, is utilized as triggering devices to switch the spark gap from a non-conducting state to a conducting state with low delay and low jitter.

  4. Interpretation of high voltage solar array discharge experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, N.J.; Underwood, C.S.; Jones, M.R. )

    1990-12-01

    High voltage operation of photovoltaic power sources in low Earth orbit is limited by the probability of discharged in the array. These discharges are initiated by an interaction between the negative voltage portions of the array (relative to the space plasma potential) and the space plasma environment. Laboratory experiments have been conducted to characterize these discharges. The authors propose a model that suggests experiments conducted to date have measured transients related to the decharging of the solar cell cover glass as a result of a discharge rather than the discharge itself. The excellent agreement between the experiment data and the analytical predictions argues for the validity of this model.

  5. Voltage Control Devices on the IEEE 8500 Node Test Feeder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.

    2010-01-06

    The IEEE Test Cases provide researchers with distribution system models that can be used to validate new analytic methods. The newest of these models is the 8500-node test feeder which contains multiple devices for voltage control. In addition to a substation regulator there are multiple inline regulators as well as capacitor banks. This paper will discuss the detail in which voltage control devises should be modeled when examining large distribution systems. This discussion will include issues associated with power flow analysis for a single time step as well as for time series analysis.

  6. Effects of Distributed Energy Resources on Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ruchi; Tuffner, Francis K.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2011-10-10

    Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is one of the cheapest technologies which can be intelligently leveraged to provide considerable energy savings. The addition of renewables in the form of distributed resources can affect the entire power system, but more importantly, affects the traditional substation control schemes at the distribution level. This paper looks at the effect on energy consumption, peak load reduction, and voltage profile changes due to the addition of distributed generation in a distribution feeder using combinations of volt var control. An IEEE 13-node system is used to simulate the various cases. Energy savings and peak load reduction for different simulation scenarios are compared.

  7. Method of determining the open circuit voltage of a battery in a closed circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, William E.

    1980-01-01

    The open circuit voltage of a battery which is connected in a closed circuit is determined without breaking the circuit or causing voltage upsets therein. The closed circuit voltage across the battery and the current flowing through it are determined under normal load and then a fractional change is made in the load and the new current and voltage values determined. The open circuit voltage is then calculated, according to known principles, from the two sets of values.

  8. Current isolating epitaxial buffer layers for high voltage photodiode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Cooper, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    An array of photodiodes in series on a common semi-insulating substrate has a non-conductive buffer layer between the photodiodes and the semi-insulating substrate. The buffer layer reduces current injection leakage between the photodiodes of the array and allows optical energy to be converted to high voltage electrical energy.

  9. Ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goerz, David A.; Wilson, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    An ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator includes individual high-performance components that are closely coupled and integrated into an extremely compact assembly. In one embodiment, a repetitively-switched, ultra-compact Marx generator includes low-profile, annular-shaped, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors with contoured edges and coplanar extended electrodes used for primary energy storage; low-profile, low-inductance, high-voltage, pressurized gas switches with compact gas envelopes suitably designed to be integrated with the annular capacitors; feed-forward, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors attached across successive switch-capacitor-switch stages to couple the necessary energy forward to sufficiently overvoltage the spark gap of the next in-line switch; optimally shaped electrodes and insulator surfaces to reduce electric field stresses in the weakest regions where dissimilar materials meet, and to spread the fields more evenly throughout the dielectric materials, allowing them to operate closer to their intrinsic breakdown levels; and uses manufacturing and assembly methods to integrate the capacitors and switches into stages that can be arranged into a low-profile Marx generator.

  10. Low Beam Voltage, 10 MW, L-Band Cluster Klystron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teryaev, V.; Yakovlev, V.P.; Kazakov, S.; Hirshfield, J.L.; /Yale U. /Omega-P, New Haven

    2009-05-01

    Conceptual design of a multi-beam klystron (MBK) for possible ILC and Project X applications is presented. The chief distinction between this MBK design and existing 10-MW MBK's is the low operating voltage of 60 kV. There are at least four compelling reasons that justify development at this time of a low-voltage MBK, namely (1) no pulse transformer; (2) no oil tank for high-voltage components and for the tube socket; (3) no high-voltage cables; and (4) modulator would be a compact 60-kV IGBT switching circuit. The proposed klystron consists of four clusters containing six beams each. The tube has common input and output cavities for all 24 beams, and individual gain cavities for each cluster. A closely related optional configuration, also for a 10 MW tube, would involve four totally independent cavity clusters with four independent input cavities and four 2.5 MW output ports, all within a common magnetic circuit. This option has appeal because the output waveguides would not require a controlled atmosphere, and because it would be easier to achieve phase and amplitude stability as required in individual SC accelerator cavities.

  11. High voltage gas insulated transmission line with continuous particle trapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Dale, Steinar J. (Monroeville, PA)

    1983-01-01

    This invention provides a novel high voltage gas insulated transmission line utilizing insulating supports spaced at intervals with snap-in means for supporting a continuous trapping apparatus and said trapping apparatus having perforations and cutouts to facilitate trapping of contaminating particles and system flexibility.

  12. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Studies indicate that in-plant electrical distribution system losses—due to voltage unbalance, over- and undervoltage, low power factor, undersized conductors, leakage to ground, and poor connections—can account for less than 1% to more than 4% of total plant electrical energy consumption.

  13. Use of Static Compensators for Voltage Control at 330- and 500-kV Substations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dement'ev, Yu. A.; Kochkin, V. I.; Idiatullov, R. M.; Papafanasopulo, S. G.; Smirnov, A. A.; Smirnov, S. G.

    2003-05-15

    A scheme for compensating the reactive power and controlling the voltage of high-voltage, intermediate-voltage, and low-voltage buses of 330 - 500-kV substations, which consist of static thyristor compensators (STC) on low-voltage autotransformers and controlled shunting reactors on high-voltage lines, is presented. It is shown that the STC can be created step-by-step beginning with the reactive part on substations with low-loaded lines. Results of installation of reactor groups of STC stepwise-controlled by vacuum switches at 330- and 500-kV substations are presented. Tests of the reactor groups have proved their high efficiency.

  14. High-voltage supply for neutron tubes in well-logging applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humphreys, D.R.

    1982-09-15

    A high voltage supply is provided for a neutron tube used in well logging. The biased pulse supply of the invention combines DC and full pulse techniques and produces a target voltage comprising a substantial negative DC bias component on which is superimposed a pulse whose negative peak provides the desired negative voltage level for the neutron tube. The target voltage is preferably generated using voltage doubling techniques and employing a voltage source which generates bipolar pulse pairs having an amplitude corresponding to the DC bias level.

  15. High-output microwave detector using voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiota, Yoichi Suzuki, Yoshishige; Miwa, Shinji; Tamaru, Shingo; Nozaki, Takayuki; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji

    2014-11-10

    We investigated the voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) with various DC bias voltage and input RF power in magnetic tunnel junctions. We found that the DC bias monotonically increases the homodyne detection voltage due to the nonlinear FMR originating in an asymmetric magnetization-potential in the free layer. In addition, the linear increase of an output voltage to the input RF power in the voltage-induced FMR is more robust than that in spin-torque FMR. These characteristics enable us to obtain an output voltage more than ten times than that of microwave detectors using spin-transfer torque.

  16. Superstrate sub-cell voltage-matched multijunction solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mascarenhas, Angelo; Alberi, Kirstin

    2016-03-15

    Voltage-matched thin film multijunction solar cell and methods of producing cells having upper CdTe pn junction layers formed on a transparent substrate which in the completed device is operatively positioned in a superstate configuration. The solar cell also includes a lower pn junction formed independently of the CdTe pn junction and an insulating layer between CdTe and lower pn junctions. The voltage-matched thin film multijunction solar cells further include a parallel connection between the CdTe pn junction and lower pn junctions to form a two-terminal photonic device. Methods of fabricating devices from independently produced upper CdTe junction layers and lower junction layers are also disclosed.

  17. Analysis of Solar Cell Quality Using Voltage Metrics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toberer, E. S.; Tamboli, A. C.; Steiner, M.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-06-01

    The highest efficiency solar cells provide both excellent voltage and current. Of these, the open-circuit voltage (Voc) is more frequently viewed as an indicator of the material quality. However, since the Voc also depends on the band gap of the material, the difference between the band gap and the Voc is a better metric for comparing material quality of unlike materials. To take this one step further, since Voc also depends on the shape of the absorption edge, we propose to use the ultimate metric: the difference between the measured Voc and the Voc calculated from the external quantum efficiency using a detailed balance approach. This metric is less sensitive to changes in cell design and definition of band gap. The paper defines how to implement this metric and demonstrates how it can be useful in tracking improvements in Voc, especially as Voc approaches its theoretical maximum.

  18. Intermodulation electrostatic force microscopy for imaging surface photo-voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borgani, Riccardo Forchheimer, Daniel; Thorn, Per-Anders; Haviland, David B.; Bergqvist, Jonas; Ingans, Olle

    2014-10-06

    We demonstrate an alternative to Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for imaging surface potential. The open-loop, single-pass technique applies a low-frequency AC voltage to the atomic force microscopy tip while driving the cantilever near its resonance frequency. Frequency mixing due to the nonlinear capacitance gives intermodulation products of the two drive frequencies near the cantilever resonance, where they are measured with high signal to noise ratio. Analysis of this intermodulation response allows for quantitative reconstruction of the contact potential difference. We derive the theory of the method, validate it with numerical simulation and a control experiment, and we demonstrate its utility for fast imaging of the surface photo-voltage on an organic photo-voltaic material.

  19. Methods for improving solar cell open circuit voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jordan, John F.; Singh, Vijay P.

    1979-01-01

    A method for producing a solar cell having an increased open circuit voltage. A layer of cadmium sulfide (CdS) produced by a chemical spray technique and having residual chlorides is exposed to a flow of hydrogen sulfide (H.sub.2 S) heated to a temperature of 400.degree.-600.degree. C. The residual chlorides are reduced and any remaining CdCl.sub.2 is converted to CdS. A heterojunction is formed over the CdS and electrodes are formed. Application of chromium as the positive electrode results in a further increase in the open circuit voltage available from the H.sub.2 S-treated solar cell.

  20. Evaluation of Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) on a National Level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2010-09-29

    Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is a reduction of energy consumption resulting from a reduction of feeder voltage. While there have been numerous CVR systems deployed in North America there has been little substantive analytic analysis of the effect; the majority of the published results are based on empirical field measurements. Since these results are based on empirical measurements it is difficult to extrapolate how this technology will behave on the various types of distribution feeders found throughout the nation. This report has utilized the Taxonomy of Prototypical feeder developed under the Modern Grid Initiative (MGI), now the Modern Grid Strategy (MGS), in order to estimate the benefits of CVR on multiple distribution feeder types. This information will then be used to determine an estimate of the national benefits of a wide scale deployment of CVR.

  1. Voltage-matched multijunction solar cell architectures for integrating PV

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technologies - Energy Innovation Portal Find More Like This Return to Search Voltage-matched multijunction solar cell architectures for integrating PV technologies National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative aims to reduce the total installed cost of solar energy systems to $.06 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) by the year 2020. Reducing the cost of solar electricity requires that solar cell

  2. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling Friday, August 29, 2014 Renewable energy is critical for the future of humankind. One bottleneck is energy storage because the harvest and consumption of energy are typically separated in time and/or location. Hence, efficient, low-cost, safe and durable batteries are

  3. High-voltage compatible, full-depleted CCD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen Edward

    2007-09-18

    A charge coupled device for detecting electromagnetic and particle radiation is described. The device includes a high-resistivity semiconductor substrate, buried channel regions, gate electrode circuitry, and amplifier circuitry. For good spatial resolution and high performance, especially when operated at high voltages with full or nearly full depletion of the substrate, the device can also include a guard ring positioned near channel regions, a biased channel stop, and a biased polysilicon electrode over the channel stop.

  4. Distribution capacitor automation that controls voltage and saves energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, B.R.

    1994-12-31

    The Electric Distribution Business Line of Southern California Edison Company (SCE) has begun a program to improve the distribution system operations and electrical efficiency. The program, called the Distribution System Efficiency Enhancement Program (DSEEP), consists of five principal projects: Automated Switching, Circuit Lock-Out Alarming, Substation Monitoring and Control, Outage Management, and Distribution Capacitor Automation Project (DCAP). DCAP is the largest and most sophisticated of the projects being implemented. The project takes advantage of fine-tuning customer voltages for conservation voltage regulation (CVR) benefits as well as minimizes line losses by reducing unnecessary reactive power flow. DCAP can also help to increase transmission line and substation capacity by improving system power factor. The DCAP system takes advantage of the distributed processing capability of meters, capacitor controllers, radios, and substation processors. DCAP uses two-way packet radios and new electronic meters that read real-time customer voltages as well as energy consumption. The radios transmit customer meter voltage information and capacitor status to substation processors, where a control algorithm runs to determine which capacitors should be turned on or off. The objective of DCAP is to reduce over-all net energy transfer from the substation to the customer and meet system VAR requirements. SCE has tested the system on 66 circuit capacitors (including 3 substation capacitors) on 18 circuits served from two substations. The positive results of the DCAP demonstrations has led to an aggressive roll-out plan for system-wide implementation of automating over 7600 switched capacitors by year-end 1995.

  5. Small Electric Voltage Alters Conductivity in Key Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric Voltage Alters Conductivity in Key Materials - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste

  6. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for analysis of microelectromechanical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walraven, Jeremy A.; Cole, Jr., Edward I.

    2002-01-01

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device with or without on-board integrated circuitry. One embodiment of the TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the MEM device while scanning a focused laser beam over electrically-active members therein to produce localized heating which alters the power demand of the MEM device and thereby changes the voltage of the constant-current source. This changing voltage of the constant-current source can be measured and used in combination with the position of the focused and scanned laser beam to generate an image of any short-circuit defects in the MEM device (e.g. due to stiction or fabrication defects). In another embodiment of the TIVA apparatus, an image can be generated directly from a thermoelectric potential produced by localized laser heating at the location of any short-circuit defects in the MEM device, without any need for supplying power to the MEM device. The TIVA apparatus can be formed, in part, from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of MEM devices.

  7. Voltage distortion in distribution feeders with nonlinear loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emanuel, A.E.; Janczak, J. ); Pileggi, D.J.; Gulachenski, E.M.; Root, C.E.; Breen, M. ); Gentile, T.J. )

    1994-01-01

    The voltage of three real-life 13.8kV feeders supplying customers with non-linear loads was analyzed by means of computer simulations. Three classes of non-linear loads were considered. Each class is characteristic for different types of ac to dc converters such as the input dc supply used for adjustable-speed-drives, battery chargers, PC's, TV's and electronically ballasted lights. The analysis is based on the determination of the most harmonic susceptible busses and their response to each harmonic frequency. A new expeditive method that takes into account the background harmonic voltage phasor, and an equivalent bus impedance was developed and used to compute the maximum non-linear loads that yields VTHD = 5%, (Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion). The main conclusion of this work is that when mitigation methods are not used, for a 15kV class feeder with a maximum 10MVA installed load, the total non-linear residential load should not exceed 300kW if the ITHD <30% (Current Total Harmonic Distortion), and 100kW if ITHD >100%.

  8. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jr., Edward I.

    2000-01-01

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC) either from a device side of the IC or through the IC substrate to locate any open-circuit or short-circuit defects therein. The TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the IC while scanning a focused laser beam over electrical conductors (i.e. a patterned metallization) in the IC to produce localized heating of the conductors. This localized heating produces a thermoelectric potential due to the Seebeck effect in any conductors with open-circuit defects and a resistance change in any conductors with short-circuit defects, both of which alter the power demand by the IC and thereby change the voltage of a source or power supply providing the constant-current biasing. By measuring the change in the supply voltage and the position of the focused and scanned laser beam over time, any open-circuit or short-circuit defects in the IC can be located and imaged. The TIVA apparatus can be formed in part from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of ICs.

  9. Fiber optic current monitor for high-voltage applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renda, George F.

    1992-01-01

    A current monitor which derives its power from the conductor being measured for bidirectionally measuring the magnitude of current (from DC to above 50 khz) flowing through a conductor across which a relatively high level DC voltage is applied, includes a pair of identical transmitter modules connected in opposite polarity to one another in series with the conductor being monitored, for producing from one module a first light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in one direction through the conductor during one period of time, and from the other module a second light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in the opposite direction through the conductor during another period of time, and a receiver located in a safe area remote from the high voltage area for receiving the first and second light signals, and converting the same to first and second voltage signals having levels indicative of the magnitude of current being measured at a given time.

  10. Fiber optic current monitor for high-voltage applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renda, G.F.

    1992-04-21

    A current monitor which derives its power from the conductor being measured for bidirectionally measuring the magnitude of current (from DC to above 50 khz) flowing through a conductor across which a relatively high level DC voltage is applied, includes a pair of identical transmitter modules connected in opposite polarity to one another in series with the conductor being monitored, for producing from one module a first light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in one direction through the conductor during one period of time, and from the other module a second light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in the opposite direction through the conductor during another period of time, and a receiver located in a safe area remote from the high voltage area for receiving the first and second light signals, and converting the same to first and second voltage signals having levels indicative of the magnitude of current being measured at a given time. 6 figs.

  11. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages - Motor Tip Sheet #9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    Motors are designed to operate within +/- 10% of their nameplate rated voltages. When motors operate at conditions of over- or under-voltage, motor efficiency and other performance parameters are degraded.

  12. High-Voltage Broadband-Over-Powerline (HV-BPL) Field Test Report...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Voltage Broadband-Over-Powerline (HV-BPL) Field Test Report Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: High-Voltage Broadband-Over-Powerline (HV-BPL) Field Test...

  13. Strategies for Voltage Control and Transient Stability Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    2013-09-25

    As wind generation grows, its influence on power system performance will becoming increasingly noticeable. Wind generation di ffers from traditional forms of generation in numerous ways though, motivating the need to reconsider the usual approaches to power system assessment and performance enhancement. The project has investigated the impact of wind generation on transient stability and voltage control, identifying and addressing issues at three distinct levels of the power system: 1) at the device level, the physical characteristics of wind turbine generators (WTGs) are quite unlike those of synchronous machines, 2) at the wind-farm level, the provision of reactive support is achieved through coordination of numerous dissimilar devices, rather than straightforward generator control, and 3) from a systems perspective, the location of wind-farms on the sub-transmission network, coupled with the variability inherent in their power output, can cause complex voltage control issues. The project has sought to develop a thorough understanding of the dynamic behaviour of type-3 WTGs, and in particular the WECC generic model. The behaviour of such models is governed by interactions between the continuous dynamics of state variables and discrete events associated with limits. It was shown that these interactions can be quite complex, and may lead to switching deadlock that prevents continuation of the trajectory. Switching hysteresis was proposed for eliminating deadlock situations. Various type-3 WTG models include control blocks that duplicate integrators. It was shown that this leads to non-uniqueness in the conditions governing steady-state, and may result in pre- and post-disturbance equilibria not coinciding. It also gives rise to a zero eigenvalue in the linearized WTG model. In order to eliminate the anomalous behaviour revealed through this investigation, WECC has now released a new generic model for type-3 WTGs. Wind-farms typically incorporate a variety of

  14. Self-monitoring high voltage transmission line suspension insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stemler, Gary E.; Scott, Donald N.

    1981-01-01

    A high voltage transmission line suspension insulator (18 or 22) which monitors its own dielectric integrity. A dielectric rod (10) has one larger diameter end fitting attachable to a transmission line and another larger diameter end fitting attachable to a support tower. The rod is enclosed in a dielectric tube (14) which is hermetically sealed to the rod's end fittings such that a liquidtight space (20) is formed between the rod and the tube. A pressurized dielectric liquid is placed within that space. A discoloring dye placed within this space is used to detect the loss of the pressurized liquid.

  15. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Druce, Robert L.; Kirbie, Hugh C.; Newton, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current.

  16. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Druce, R.L.; Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.

    1998-06-30

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current. 1 fig.

  17. Hazard classification assessment for the High Voltage Initiator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cogan, J.D.

    1994-04-19

    An investigation was conducted to determine whether the High Voltage Initiator (Sandia p number 395710; Navy NAVSEA No. 6237177) could be assigned a Department of Transportation (DOT) hazard classification of ``IGNITERS, 1.4G, UN0325`` under Code of Federal Regulations, 49 CFR 173.101, when packaged per Mound drawing NXB911442. A hazard classification test was performed, and the test data led to a recommended hazard classification of ``IGNITERS, 1.4G, UN0325,`` based on guidance outlined in DOE Order 1540.2 and 49 CFR 173.56.

  18. High-voltage R-F feedthrough bushing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grotz, G.F.

    1982-09-03

    Described is a multi-element, high voltage radio frequency bushing for transmitting rf energy to an antenna located in a vacuum container. The bushing includes a center conductor of complex geometrical shape, an outer coaxial shield conductor, and a thin-walled hollow truncated cone insulator disposed between central and outer conductors. The shape of the center conductor, which includes a reverse curvature portion formed of a radially inwardly directed shoulder and a convex portion, controls the uniformity of the axial surface gradient on the insulator cone. The outer shield has a first substantially cylindrical portion and a second radially inwardly extending truncated cone portion.

  19. Magnetic shielding of Hall thrusters at high discharge voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G. Hofer, Richard R.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.

    2014-08-07

    A series of numerical simulations and experiments have been performed to assess the effectiveness of magnetic shielding in a Hall thruster operating in the discharge voltage range of 300–700 V (I{sub sp} ≈ 2000–2700 s) at 6 kW, and 800 V (I{sub sp} ≈ 3000) at 9 kW. At 6 kW, the magnetic field topology with which highly effective magnetic shielding was previously demonstrated at 300 V has been retained for all other discharge voltages; only the magnitude of the field has been changed to achieve optimum thruster performance. It is found that magnetic shielding remains highly effective for all discharge voltages studied. This is because the channel is long enough to allow hot electrons near the channel exit to cool significantly upon reaching the anode. Thus, despite the rise of the maximum electron temperature in the channel with discharge voltage, the electrons along the grazing lines of force remain cold enough to eliminate or reduce significantly parallel gradients of the plasma potential near the walls. Computed maximum erosion rates in the range of 300–700 V are found not to exceed 10{sup −2} mm/kh. Such rates are ∼3 orders of magnitude less than those observed in the unshielded version of the same thruster at 300 V. At 9 kW and 800 V, saturation of the magnetic circuit did not allow for precisely the same magnetic shielding topology as that employed during the 6-kW operation since this thruster was not designed to operate at this condition. Consequently, the maximum erosion rate at the inner wall is found to be ∼1 order of magnitude higher (∼10{sup −1} mm/kh) than that at 6 kW. At the outer wall, the ion energy is found to be below the sputtering yield threshold so no measurable erosion is expected.

  20. Inhibiting voltage suppression in lithium/fluorinated carbon batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shia, G.A.; Nalewajek, D.; Pyszczek, M.F.

    1988-12-13

    This patent describes a lithium/fluorinated carbon battery having a reduced initial voltage suppression which comprises the incorporation in the battery cathode of fluorinated carbon which has been reacted with a compound selected from the group consisting of a Group IA metal-alkyl compound and a Group IA metal-aryl compound, which Group IA metal-aryl compound has at least 10 carbon atoms, until surface fluorine on the fluorinated carbon has been stripped and alkyl or aryl groups from the Group IA metal-alkyl compound or Group IA metal-aryl compound are substituted for surface fluorine atoms.

  1. Lithium/fluorinated carbon battery with no voltage delay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tung, H.S.; Friedland, D.J.; Sukornick, B.; Mc Curry, L.E.; Eibeck, R.E.; Lockyer, G.D.

    1987-07-21

    A method is described for producing an improved fluorinated carbon, for use as a cathode active material in a lithium fluorinated carbon battery, which inhibits initial voltage delay upon discharge, which comprises: (a) introducing a comminuted carbon into a static bed reactor; (b) foring a bed of the carbon to a depth of at least 0.5 cm; and (c) subjecting the carbon bed to a fluorination reaction under controlled reaction time with fluorine to produce an inhomogeneous fluorinated carbon product and until the carbon attains a weight gain of at least 10 percent.

  2. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Divan, Deepak; Moghe, Rohit; Tholomier, Damien

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  3. Antenna-coupled arrays of voltage-biased superconducting bolometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Michael J.; Lee, Adrian T.; Richards, P.L.; Schwan, D.; Skidmore, J.T.; Smith, A.D.; Spieler, H.; Yoon, Jongsoo

    2001-07-23

    We report on the development of antenna-coupled Voltage-biased Superconducting Bolometers (VSBs) which use Transition-edge Sensors (TES). Antenna coupling can greatly simplify the fabrication of large multi-frequency bolometer arrays compared to horn-coupled techniques. This simplification can make it practical to implement 1000+ element arrays that fill the focal plane of mm/sub-mm wave telescopes. We have designed a prototype device with a double-slot dipole antenna, integrated band-defining filters, and a membrane-suspended bolometer. A test chip has been constructed and will be tested shortly.

  4. Outdoor PV Module Degradation of Current-Voltage Parameters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R. M.; Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module degradation rate analysis quantifies the loss of PV power output over time and is useful for estimating the impact of degradation on the cost of energy. An understanding of the degradation of all current-voltage (I-V) parameters helps to determine the cause of the degradation and also gives useful information for the design of the system. This study reports on data collected from 12 distinct mono- and poly-crystalline modules deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. Most modules investigated showed < 0.5%/year decrease in maximum power due to short-circuit current decline.

  5. Light-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jr., Edward I.; Soden, Jerry M.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC), The invention uses a focused light beam that is scanned over a surface of the IC to generate a light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA) signal for analysis of the IC, The LIVA signal may be used to generate an image of the IC showing the location of any defects in the IC; and it may be further used to image and control the logic states of the IC. The invention has uses for IC failure analysis, for the development of ICs, for production-line inspection of ICs, and for qualification of ICs.

  6. Light-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Soden, J.M.

    1995-07-04

    An apparatus and method are described for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC). The invention uses a focused light beam that is scanned over a surface of the IC to generate a light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA) signal for analysis of the IC. The LIVA signal may be used to generate an image of the IC showing the location of any defects in the IC; and it may be further used to image and control the logic states of the IC. The invention has uses for IC failure analysis, for the development of ICs, for production-line inspection of ICs, and for qualification of ICs. 18 figs.

  7. An accurate continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong Yue; Li Binhong

    2011-02-15

    A continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformers is presented in this paper. The sensor of this system is based on a kind of electronic instrument current transformer, which is a clamp-shape air core coil. This system uses an optical fiber transmission system for its signal transmission and power supply. Finally the digital integrator and fourth-order convolution window algorithm as error calculation methods are realized by the virtual instrument with a personal computer. It is found that this system can calibrate a high voltage current transformer while energized, which means avoiding a long calibrating period in the power system and the loss of power metering expense. At the same time, it has a wide dynamic range and frequency band, and it can achieve a high accuracy measurement in a complex electromagnetic field environment. The experimental results and the on-site operation results presented in the last part of the paper, prove that it can reach the 0.05 accuracy class and is easy to operate on site.

  8. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: Long-length cable modeling and analysis HTS wire evaluation and testing Cable testing for AC losses Optimized cooling system design Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  9. Bi-directional power control system for voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrigan, N.R.; King, R.D.; Schwartz, J.E.

    1999-05-11

    A control system for a voltage converter includes: a power comparator for comparing a power signal on input terminals of the converter with a commanded power signal and producing a power comparison signal; a power regulator for transforming the power comparison signal to a commanded current signal; a current comparator for comparing the commanded current signal with a measured current signal on output terminals of the converter and producing a current comparison signal; a current regulator for transforming the current comparison signal to a pulse width modulator (PWM) duty cycle command signal; and a PWM for using the PWM duty cycle command signal to control electrical switches of the converter. The control system may further include: a command multiplier for converting a voltage signal across the output terminals of the converter to a gain signal having a value between zero (0) and unity (1), and a power multiplier for multiplying the commanded power signal by the gain signal to provide a limited commanded power signal, wherein power comparator compares the limited commanded power signal with the power signal on the input terminals. 10 figs.

  10. Bi-directional power control system for voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrigan, Neil Richard; King, Robert Dean; Schwartz, James Edward

    1999-01-01

    A control system for a voltage converter includes: a power comparator for comparing a power signal on input terminals of the converter with a commanded power signal and producing a power comparison signal; a power regulator for transforming the power comparison signal to a commanded current signal; a current comparator for comparing the commanded current signal with a measured current signal on output terminals of the converter and producing a current comparison signal; a current regulator for transforming the current comparison signal to a pulse width modulator (PWM) duty cycle command signal; and a PWM for using the PWM duty cycle command signal to control electrical switches of the converter. The control system may further include: a command multiplier for converting a voltage signal across the output terminals of the converter to a gain signal having a value between zero (0) and unity (1), and a power multiplier for multiplying the commanded power signal by the gain signal to provide a limited commanded power signal, wherein power comparator compares the limited commanded power signal with the power signal on the input terminals.

  11. Methods, systems and apparatus for controlling third harmonic voltage when operating a multi-space machine in an overmodulation region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perisic, Milun; Kinoshita, Michael H; Ranson, Ray M; Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel

    2014-06-03

    Methods, system and apparatus are provided for controlling third harmonic voltages when operating a multi-phase machine in an overmodulation region. The multi-phase machine can be, for example, a five-phase machine in a vector controlled motor drive system that includes a five-phase PWM controlled inverter module that drives the five-phase machine. Techniques for overmodulating a reference voltage vector are provided. For example, when the reference voltage vector is determined to be within the overmodulation region, an angle of the reference voltage vector can be modified to generate a reference voltage overmodulation control angle, and a magnitude of the reference voltage vector can be modified, based on the reference voltage overmodulation control angle, to generate a modified magnitude of the reference voltage vector. By modifying the reference voltage vector, voltage command signals that control a five-phase inverter module can be optimized to increase output voltages generated by the five-phase inverter module.

  12. Monolithic high voltage nonlinear transmission line fabrication process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, Gregory A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for fabricating sequential inductors and varactor diodes of a monolithic, high voltage, nonlinear, transmission line in GaAs is disclosed. An epitaxially grown laminate is produced by applying a low doped active n-type GaAs layer to an n-plus type GaAs substrate. A heavily doped p-type GaAs layer is applied to the active n-type layer and a heavily doped n-type GaAs layer is applied to the p-type layer. Ohmic contacts are applied to the heavily doped n-type layer where diodes are desired. Multiple layers are then either etched away or Oxygen ion implanted to isolate individual varactor diodes. An insulator is applied between the diodes and a conductive/inductive layer is thereafter applied on top of the insulator layer to complete the process.

  13. Monolithic high voltage nonlinear transmission line fabrication process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, G.A.

    1994-10-04

    A process for fabricating sequential inductors and varistor diodes of a monolithic, high voltage, nonlinear, transmission line in GaAs is disclosed. An epitaxially grown laminate is produced by applying a low doped active n-type GaAs layer to an n-plus type GaAs substrate. A heavily doped p-type GaAs layer is applied to the active n-type layer and a heavily doped n-type GaAs layer is applied to the p-type layer. Ohmic contacts are applied to the heavily doped n-type layer where diodes are desired. Multiple layers are then either etched away or Oxygen ion implanted to isolate individual varistor diodes. An insulator is applied between the diodes and a conductive/inductive layer is thereafter applied on top of the insulator layer to complete the process. 6 figs.

  14. Effect of DC voltage pulses on memristor behavior.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Brian R.

    2013-10-01

    Current knowledge of memristor behavior is limited to a few physical models of which little comprehensive data collection has taken place. The purpose of this research is to collect data in search of exploitable memristor behavior by designing and implementing tests on a HP Labs Rev2 Memristor Test Board. The results are then graphed in their optimal format for conceptualizing behavioral patterns. This series of experiments has concluded the existence of an additional memristor state affecting the behavior of memristors when pulsed with positively polarized DC voltages. This effect has been observed across multiple memristors and data sets. The following pages outline the process that led to the hypothetical existence and eventual proof of this additional state of memristor behavior.

  15. System and method for floating-substrate passive voltage contrast

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Mark W.; Cole, Jr., Edward I.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Soden, Jerry M.; Walraven, Jeremy A.; Pimentel, Alejandro A.

    2009-04-28

    A passive voltage contrast (PVC) system and method are disclosed for analyzing ICs to locate defects and failure mechanisms. During analysis a device side of a semiconductor die containing the IC is maintained in an electrically-floating condition without any ground electrical connection while a charged particle beam is scanned over the device side. Secondary particle emission from the device side of the IC is detected to form an image of device features, including electrical vias connected to transistor gates or to other structures in the IC. A difference in image contrast allows the defects or failure mechanisms be pinpointed. Varying the scan rate can, in some instances, produce an image reversal to facilitate precisely locating the defects or failure mechanisms in the IC. The system and method are useful for failure analysis of ICs formed on substrates (e.g. bulk semiconductor substrates and SOI substrates) and other types of structures.

  16. Curing system for high voltage cross linked cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bahder, George; Katz, Carlos; Bopp, Louis A.

    1978-01-01

    This invention makes extruded, vulcanized, high voltage cables insulated with thermosetting compounds at much higher rates of production and with superior insulation of reduced thickness and with reduced cavities or voids in the insulation. As the cable comes from an extruder, it passes into a curing chamber with a heat booster that quickly raises the insulation to a temperature at which it is cured much more quickly than with steam heating of the prior art. A high temperature liquid in contact with the insulation maintains the high temperature; and because of the greater curing heat, the cable can travel through the curing chamber at a faster rate and into a cooling tube where it contacts with a cooling liquid under high pressure. The insulation compound is treated to reduce the size of cavities; and the high pressure maintained by the curing and cooling mediums prevent expansion of cavities before the insulation is set.

  17. A SIMPLIFIED APPROACH TO ANALYZE AND MODEL INDUCTIVE VOLTAGE ADDER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZHANG,W.; ENG, W.; PAI, C.; SANDBERG, J.; TAN, Y.; TIAN, Y.

    2007-06-25

    We have recently developed a simplified model and a set of simple formulas for inductive voltage adder design. This model reveals the relationship of output waveform parameters and hardware designs. A computer simulation has demonstrated that parameter estimation based on this approach is accurate as compared to an actual circuit. This approach can be used in early stages of project development to assist feasibility study, geometry selection in engineering design, and parameter selection of critical components. In this paper, we give the deduction of a simplified model. Among the estimation formulas we present are those for pulse rise time, system impedance, and number of stages. Examples are used to illustrate the advantage of this approach. This approach is also applicable to induction LINAC design.

  18. High-voltage atmospheric breakdown across intervening rutile dielectrics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Simpson, Sean; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Pasik, Michael Francis

    2013-09-01

    This report documents work conducted in FY13 on electrical discharge experiments performed to develop predictive computational models of the fundamental processes of surface breakdown in the vicinity of high-permittivity material interfaces. Further, experiments were conducted to determine if free carrier electrons could be excited into the conduction band thus lowering the effective breakdown voltage when UV photons (4.66 eV) from a high energy pulsed laser were incident on the rutile sample. This report documents the numerical approach, the experimental setup, and summarizes the data and simulations. Lastly, it describes the path forward and challenges that must be overcome in order to improve future experiments for characterizing the breakdown behavior for rutile.

  19. Low voltage secondary network cable reliability study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    In an attempt to find clues to the causes of manhole fires and explosions, researchers removed several aged low voltage network cables from service on the United Illuminating Company system. Examination of their physical, chemical, and electrical properties indicated that any deterioration of the cables that had occurred during their approximately 35 year service life was minor and did not affect reliability for continued service. Cables were found to have retained excellent properties despite their long age in service. For example, AC breakdown strength, dissipation factor, and percent elongation were all satisfactory. Insulation was coherent, not brittle; and the jackets did not crack or craze on bending. The tested cables compare favorably, physically and electrically, with non-jacketed rubber cables presently in service.

  20. High voltage design structure for high temperature superconducting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tekletsadik, Kasegn D.

    2008-05-20

    In accordance with the present invention, modular corona shields are employed in a HTS device to reduce the electric field surrounding the HTS device. In a exemplary embodiment a fault current limiter module in the insulation region of a cryogenic cooling system has at least one fault current limiter set which employs a first corona shield disposed along the top portion of the fault current limiter set and is electrically coupled to the fault current limiter set. A second corona shield is disposed along the bottom portion of the fault current limiter set and is electrically coupled to the fault current limiter set. An insulation barrier is disposed within the insulation region along at least one side of the fault current limiter set. The first corona shield and the second corona shield act together to reduce the electric field surrounding the fault limiter set when voltage is applied to the fault limiter set.

  1. Probabilistic Vulnerability Assessment Based on Power Flow and Voltage Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jian; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.; Ferryman, Thomas A.

    2010-04-30

    Risk assessment of large scale power systems has been an important problem in power system reliability study. Probabilistic technique provides a powerful tool to solve the task. In this paper, we present the results of a study on probabilistic vulnerability assessment on WECC system. Cumulant based expansion method is applied to obtain the probabilistic distribution function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of power flows on transmission lines and voltage. Overall risk index based on the system vulnerability analysis is calculated using the WECC system. The simulation results based on WECC system is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The methodology can be applied to the risk analysis on large scale power systems.

  2. High-voltage, low-inductance gas switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruner, Frederick R.; Stygar, William A.

    2016-03-22

    A low-inductance, air-insulated gas switch uses a de-enhanced annular trigger ring disposed between two opposing high voltage electrodes. The switch is DC chargeable to 200 kilovolts or more, triggerable, has low jitter (5 ns or less), has pre-fire and no-fire rates of no more than one in 10,000 shots, and has a lifetime of greater than 100,000 shots. Importantly, the switch also has a low inductance (less than 60 nH) and the ability to conduct currents with less than 100 ns rise times. The switch can be used with linear transformer drives or other pulsed-power systems.

  3. Sacramento Area Voltage Support Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2002-11-15

    The Western Area Power Administration's Central Valley Project transmission system forms an integral part of the interconnected Sacramento area transmission grid. Western is contractually responsible to oversee that the system is operated in accordance with strict reliability standards. Growth in the greater Sacramento, California area and power imported from generation outside the region, have increased the demand on the interconnected electric transmission system, leading to transmission system overloads and reducing the reliability and security of the area power system. Western has prepared this Sacramento Area Voltage Support (SVS) Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in compliance with Federal laws, regulations and guidelines, principally the ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (NEPA). This Draft EIS evaluates the potential environmental effects of physical improvements to the area's power system. Enhancements are needed to improve system reliability and provide voltage support for the Sacramento area. The results of public scoping meetings, workshops, meetings with agencies, and earlier studies by Western and area utilities helped to develop a range of alternatives for analysis. The Proposed Action involves: Constructing a new double-circuit, 230-kV transmission line paralleling the existing double-circuit, 230-kV line from the O'Banion Substation to the Elverta Substation; Realigning a portion of the existing Cottonwood-Roseville single-circuit, 230-kV transmission line north of Elverta Substation; and Reconductoring the existing double-circuit, 230-kV transmission line from the Elverta Substation to the Tracy Substation. Public Hearings on the Draft EIS will be held between December 9-12, 2002. Comments on this Draft EIS are encouraged and should be sent to Ms. Loreen McMahon (above). Comments must be received by December 30, 2002.

  4. Sacramento Area Voltage Support Final Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2003-09-19

    The Western Area Power Administration's Central Valley Project transmission system forms an integral part of the interconnected Sacramento area transmission grid. Western is contractually responsible to oversee that the system is operated in accordance with strict reliability standards. Growth in the greater Sacramento, California area and power imported from generation outside the region, have increased the demand on the interconnected electric transmission system, leading to transmission system overloads and reducing the reliability and security of the area power system. Western has prepared this Sacramento Area Voltage Support (SVS) Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in compliance with Federal laws, regulations and guidelines, principally the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This Draft EIS evaluates the potential environmental effects of physical improvements to the area's power system. Enhancements are needed to improve system reliability and provide voltage support for the Sacramento area. The results of public scoping meetings, workshops, meetings with agencies, and earlier studies by Western and area utilities helped to develop a range of alternatives for analysis. The Proposed Action involves: (1) Constructing a new double-circuit, 230-kV transmission line paralleling the existing double-circuit, 230-kV line from the O'Banion Substation to the Elverta Substation; (2) Realigning a portion of the existing Cottonwood-Roseville single-circuit, 230-kV transmission line north of Elverta Substation; and (3) Reconductoring the existing double-circuit, 230-kV transmission line from the Elverta Substation to the Tracy Substation. Public Hearings on the Draft EIS will be held between December 9-12, 2002. Comments on this Draft EIS are encouraged and should be sent to Ms. Loreen McMahon (above). Comments must be received by December 30, 2002.

  5. Local Voltage Support from Distributed Energy Resources to Prevent Air Conditioner Motor Stalling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baone, Chaitanya A; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D

    2010-01-01

    Microgrid voltage collapse often happens when there is a high percentage of low inertia air-conditioning (AC) motors in the power systems. The stalling of the AC motors results in Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery (FIDVR). A hybrid load model including typical building loads, AC motor loads, and other induction motor loads is built to simulate the motoring stalling phenomena. Furthermore, distributed energy resources (DE) with local voltage support capability are utilized to boost the local bus voltage during a fault, and prevent the motor stalling. The simulation results are presented. The analysis of the simulation results show that local voltage support from multiple DEs can effectively and economically solve the microgrid voltage collapse problem.

  6. Pulsed voltage electrospray ion source and method for preventing analyte electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary

    2011-12-27

    An electrospray ion source and method of operation includes the application of pulsed voltage to prevent electrolysis of analytes with a low electrochemical potential. The electrospray ion source can include an emitter, a counter electrode, and a power supply. The emitter can include a liquid conduit, a primary working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, and a spray tip, where the liquid conduit and the working electrode are in liquid communication. The counter electrode can be proximate to, but separated from, the spray tip. The power system can supply voltage to the working electrode in the form of a pulse wave, where the pulse wave oscillates between at least an energized voltage and a relaxation voltage. The relaxation duration of the relaxation voltage can range from 1 millisecond to 35 milliseconds. The pulse duration of the energized voltage can be less than 1 millisecond and the frequency of the pulse wave can range from 30 to 800 Hz.

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Voltage Fade, an ABR Deep

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dive Project: Status and Outcomes | Department of Energy Voltage Fade, an ABR Deep Dive Project: Status and Outcomes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Voltage Fade, an ABR Deep Dive Project: Status and Outcomes Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the status and outcomes of Voltage Fade, an ABR Deep Dive Project. es161_burrell_2014_o.pdf

  8. Systems and methods for process and user driven dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallik, Arindam; Lin, Bin; Memik, Gokhan; Dinda, Peter; Dick, Robert

    2011-03-22

    Certain embodiments of the present invention provide a method for power management including determining at least one of an operating frequency and an operating voltage for a processor and configuring the processor based on the determined at least one of the operating frequency and the operating voltage. The operating frequency is determined based at least in part on direct user input. The operating voltage is determined based at least in part on an individual profile for processor.

  9. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  10. Dynamic voltage-current characteristics for a water jet plasma arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Jiaxiang; Lan Sheng; Xu Zuoming

    2008-05-05

    A virtual instrument technology is used to measure arc current, arc voltage, dynamic V-I characteristics, and nonlinear conductance for a cone-shaped water jet plasma arc under ac voltage. Experimental results show that ac arc discharge mainly happens in water vapor evaporated from water when heated. However, due to water's cooling effect and its conductance, arc conductance, reignition voltage, extinguish voltage, and current zero time are very different from those for ac arc discharge in gas work fluid. These can be valuable to further studies on mechanism and characteristics of plasma ac discharge in water, and even in gas work fluid.

  11. State-of-the-art Fuel Cell Voltage Durability Status: 2015 Composite Data Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, Jennfier; Dinh, Huyen; Ainscough, Chris; Saur, Genevieve

    2015-05-01

    This publication includes 14 composite data products (CDPs) produced in 2015 for fuel cell technology status, focusing on state-of-the-art fuel cell voltage durability.

  12. Effects of moisture on the life of power plant cables: Part 1, Medium-voltage cables; Part 2, Low-voltage cables. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toman, G.J.; Morris, G.W.; Holzman, P.

    1994-08-01

    Motivated by the concern that in-service moisture may decrease the useful life of medium and low-voltage electrical cables in power plants, EPRI investigators surveyed plant operators, examined cable failure experience, and assessed the need to develop unproved life prediction techniques. The survey revealed that only 34 medium-voltage cable failures have occurred in the more than 1000 plant-years of experience represented. In addition, moisture effects such as voltage-induced water-freeing have not been the primary cause of the failures but are one contributor among several, including manufacturing defects, installation damage, and inadvertent damage to cable by field equipment the study concludes that medium-voltage cables are rehable and there is insufficient interest on the part of surveyed utilities to warrant further R&D on cable condition evaluation techniques at this time. In addition, moisture-related degradation is not a significant concern for low-voltage cables. This two-part report discusses,the limitations of existing cable field testing techniques and highlights measures for maximizing the useful life of medium- and low-voltage power plant cables.

  13. Low Voltage High Precision Spatial Light ModulatorsFinal Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papavasiliou, A P

    2005-02-09

    The goal of this project was to make LLNL a leader in Spatial Light Modulators (SLMs) by developing the technology that will be needed by the next generation of SLMs. We would use new lower voltage actuators and bond those actuators directly to controlling circuitry to break the fundamental limitations that constrain current SLM technology. This three-year project was underfunded in the first year and not funded in the second year. With the funding that was available, we produced actuators and designs for the controlling circuitry that would have been integrated in the second year. Spatial light modulators (SLMs) are arrays of tiny movable mirrors that modulate the wave-fronts of light. SLMs can correct aberrations in incoming light for adaptive optics or modulate light for beam control, optical communication and particle manipulation. MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) is a technology that utilizes the microfabrication tools developed by the semiconductor industry to fabricate a wide variety of tiny machines. The first generation of MEMS SLMs have improved the functionality of SLMs while drastically reducing per pixel cost making arrays on the order of 1000 pixels readily available. These MEMS SLMs however are limited by the nature of their designs to be very difficult to scale above 1000 pixels and have very limited positioning accuracy. By co-locating the MEMS mirrors with CMOS electronics, we will increase the scalability and positioning accuracy. To do this we will have to make substantial advances in SLM actuator design, and fabrication.

  14. High voltage power supply with modular series resonant inverters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dreifuerst, Gary R.; Merritt, Bernard T.

    1995-01-01

    A relatively small and compact high voltage, high current power supply for a laser utilizes a plurality of modules containing series resonant half bridge inverters. A pair of reverse conducting thyristors are incorporated in each series resonant inverter module such that the series resonant inverter modules are sequentially activated in phases 360.degree./n apart, where n=number of modules for n>2. Selective activation of the modules allows precise output control reducing ripple and improving efficiency. Each series resonant half bridge inverter module includes a transformer which has a cooling manifold for actively circulating a coolant such as water, to cool the transformer core as well as selected circuit elements. Conductors connecting and forming various circuit components comprise hollow, electrically conductive tubes such as copper. Coolant circulates through the tubes to remove heat. The conductive tubes act as electrically conductive lines for connecting various components of the power supply. Where it is desired to make electrical isolation breaks, tubes comprised of insulating material such as nylon are used to provide insulation and continue the fluid circuit.

  15. High voltage power supply with modular series resonant inverters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dreifuerst, G.R.; Merritt, B.T.

    1995-07-18

    A relatively small and compact high voltage, high current power supply for a laser utilizes a plurality of modules containing series resonant half bridge inverters. A pair of reverse conducting thyristors are incorporated in each series resonant inverter module such that the series resonant inverter modules are sequentially activated in phases 360{degree}/n apart, where n=number of modules for n>2. Selective activation of the modules allows precise output control reducing ripple and improving efficiency. Each series resonant half bridge inverter module includes a transformer which has a cooling manifold for actively circulating a coolant such as water, to cool the transformer core as well as selected circuit elements. Conductors connecting and forming various circuit components comprise hollow, electrically conductive tubes such as copper. Coolant circulates through the tubes to remove heat. The conductive tubes act as electrically conductive lines for connecting various components of the power supply. Where it is desired to make electrical isolation breaks, tubes comprised of insulating material such as nylon are used to provide insulation and continue the fluid circuit. 11 figs.

  16. Circuit for monitoring temperature of high-voltage equipment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Martin E.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved circuit for measuring temperature in a region at high electric potential and generating a read-out of the same in a region at lower potential. The circuit is specially designed to combine high sensitivity, stability, and accuracy. A major portion of the circuit situated in the high-potential region can take the form of an integrated circuit. The preferred form of the circuit includes an input section which is situated in the high-potential region and comprises a temperature-compensated thermocouple circuit for sensing temperature, an oscillator circuit for generating a train of ramp voltages whose rise time varies inversely with the thermocouple output, a comparator and switching circuit for converting the oscillator output to pulses whose frequency is proportional to the thermocouple output, and a light-emitting diode which is energized by these pulses. An optical coupling transmits the light pulses generated by the diode to an output section of the circuit, situated in a region at ground. The output section comprises means for converting the transmitted pulses to electrical pulses of corresponding frequency, means for amplifying the electrical pulses, and means for displaying the frequency of the same. The preferred embodiment of the overall circuit is designed so that the frequency of the output signal in hertz and tenths of hertz is equal to the sensed temperature in degrees and tenths of degrees.

  17. Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duckworth, D.C.; Marcus, R.K.; Donohue, D.L.; Lewis, T.A.

    1994-06-28

    A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components. 11 figures.

  18. Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duckworth, Douglas C.; Marcus, R. Kenneth; Donohue, David L.; Lewis, Trousdale A.

    1994-01-01

    A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components.

  19. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es024_jow_2012_o.pdf (6.21 MB) More Documents & Publications High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries Progress in Electrolyte Component R&D within the ABR Program, 2009 thru 2013

  20. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es024_jow_2011_p.pdf (1.87 MB) More Documents & Publications High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries Molecular dynamics simulation and ab intio studies of electrolytes and electrolyte/electrode interfaces

  1. Vector spin modeling for magnetic tunnel junctions with voltage dependent effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manipatruni, Sasikanth Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Young, Ian A.

    2014-05-07

    Integration and co-design of CMOS and spin transfer devices requires accurate vector spin conduction modeling of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices. A physically realistic model of the MTJ should comprehend the spin torque dynamics of nanomagnet interacting with an injected vector spin current and the voltage dependent spin torque. Vector spin modeling allows for calculation of 3 component spin currents and potentials along with the charge currents/potentials in non-collinear magnetic systems. Here, we show 4-component vector spin conduction modeling of magnetic tunnel junction devices coupled with spin transfer torque in the nanomagnet. Nanomagnet dynamics, voltage dependent spin transport, and thermal noise are comprehended in a self-consistent fashion. We show comparison of the model with experimental magnetoresistance (MR) of MTJs and voltage degradation of MR with voltage. Proposed model enables MTJ circuit design that comprehends voltage dependent spin torque effects, switching error rates, spin degradation, and back hopping effects.

  2. Voltage switching of a VO{sub 2} memory metasurface using ionic gel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldflam, M. D.; Liu, M. K.; Chapler, B. C.; Stinson, H. T.; Sternbach, A. J.; McLeod, A. S.; Basov, D. N.; Zhang, J. D.; Geng, K.; Royal, M.; Jokerst, N. M.; Smith, D. R.; Kim, Bong-Jun; Averitt, R. D.; Kim, H-T.

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate an electrolyte-based voltage tunable vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) memory metasurface. Large spatial scale, low voltage, non-volatile switching of terahertz (THz) metasurface resonances is achieved through voltage application using an ionic gel to drive the insulator-to-metal transition in an underlying VO{sub 2} layer. Positive and negative voltage application can selectively tune the metasurface resonance into the “off” or “on” state by pushing the VO{sub 2} into a more conductive or insulating regime respectively. Compared to graphene based control devices, the relatively long saturation time of resonance modification in VO{sub 2} based devices suggests that this voltage-induced switching originates primarily from electrochemical effects related to oxygen migration across the electrolyte–VO{sub 2} interface.

  3. Switch contact device for interrupting high current, high voltage, AC and DC circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Via, Lester C.; Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Ryan, John M.

    2005-01-04

    A high voltage switch contact structure capable of interrupting high voltage, high current AC and DC circuits. The contact structure confines the arc created when contacts open to the thin area between two insulating surfaces in intimate contact. This forces the arc into the shape of a thin sheet which loses heat energy far more rapidly than an arc column having a circular cross-section. These high heat losses require a dramatic increase in the voltage required to maintain the arc, thus extinguishing it when the required voltage exceeds the available voltage. The arc extinguishing process with this invention is not dependent on the occurrence of a current zero crossing and, consequently, is capable of rapidly interrupting both AC and DC circuits. The contact structure achieves its high performance without the use of sulfur hexafluoride.

  4. Optical voltage and current sensors used in a revenue metering system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cease, T.W.; Driggans, J.G. ); Weikel, S.J. )

    1991-10-01

    This paper discusses the development of an optical voltage sensor as part of an all optic or Faraday effect was used to implement a Magneto-Optic Voltage Transducer (MOVT) to measure voltage by sensing the current flow through a capacitor connected from a 161 kV transmission line to ground. The current sensor was a Magneto-Optic Current Transducer (MOCT), developed previously. The unique design of the voltage sensors using the magneto-optic effects allows the implementation of that revenue metering system using all optical sensors. This method of measuring voltage was previously unproven. The components of the all optical sensor revenue metering system, the site installation, and the data acquisition system used to monitor the system are described. Decisions leading to the design of the MOVT are discussed.

  5. Non-contact current and voltage sensor having detachable housing incorporating multiple ferrite cylinder portions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Gary D.; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C.; Schappert, Michael A.

    2016-04-26

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing formed from two portions that mechanically close around the wire and that contain the current and voltage sensors. The current sensor is a ferrite cylinder formed from at least three portions that form the cylinder when the sensor is closed around the wire with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap between two of the ferrite portions along the circumference to measure current. A capacitive plate or wire is disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  6. Non-contact current and voltage sensing method using a clamshell housing and a ferrite cylinder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Gary D.; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C.; Schappert, Michael

    2016-04-26

    A method of measurement using a detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient technique for to measuring current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing that contains the current and voltage sensors, which may be a ferrite cylinder with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap along the circumference to measure current, or alternative a winding provided through the cylinder along its axis and a capacitive plate or wire disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  7. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y+36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-11

    A comparison study between Y+36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y+36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to bothmore »crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y+36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y+36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y+36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. Furthermore, when the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.« less

  8. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y + 36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Cular, S.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2015-08-15

    A comparison study between Y + 36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y + 36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y + 36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y + 36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y + 36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. When the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.

  9. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y+36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-11

    A comparison study between Y+36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y+36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y+36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y+36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y+36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. Furthermore, when the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.

  10. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y+36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-11

    A comparison study between Y+36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y+36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to bothmore » crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y+36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y+36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y+36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. Furthermore, when the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.« less

  11. Hierarchical Control Scheme for Improving Transient Voltage Recovery of a DFIG-Based WPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jinho; Muljadi, Eduard; Kang, Yong Cheol

    2015-06-05

    Modern grid codes require that wind power plants (WPPs) inject reactive power according to the voltage dip at a point of interconnection (POI). This requirement helps to support a POI voltage during a fault. However, if a fault is cleared, the POI and wind turbine generator (WTG) voltages are likely to exceed acceptable levels unless the WPP reduces the injected reactive power quickly. This might deteriorate the stability of a grid by allowing the disconnection of WTGs to avoid any damage. This paper proposes a hierarchical control scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based WPP. The proposed scheme aims to improve the reactive power injecting capability during the fault and suppress the overvoltage after the fault clearance. To achieve the former, an adaptive reactive power-to-voltage scheme is implemented in each DFIG controller so that a DFIG with a larger reactive power capability will inject more reactive power. To achieve the latter, a washout filter is used to capture a high frequency component contained in the WPP voltage, which is used to remove the accumulated values in the proportional-integral controllers. Test results indicate that the scheme successfully supports the grid voltage during the fault, and recovers WPP voltages without exceeding the limit after the fault clearance.

  12. PMU-Aided Voltage Security Assessment for a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, H.; Zhang, Y. C.; Zhang, J. J.; Muljadi, E.

    2015-04-08

    Because wind power penetration levels in electric power systems are continuously increasing, voltage stability is a critical issue for maintaining power system security and operation. The traditional methods to analyze voltage stability can be classified into two categories: dynamic and steady-state. Dynamic analysis relies on time-domain simulations of faults at different locations; however, this method needs to exhaust faults at all locations to find the security region for voltage at a single bus. With the widely located phasor measurement units (PMUs), the Thevenin equivalent matrix can be calculated by the voltage and current information collected by the PMUs. This paper proposes a method based on a Thevenin equivalent matrix to identify system locations that will have the greatest impact on the voltage at the wind power plant’s point of interconnection. The number of dynamic voltage stability analysis runs is greatly reduced by using the proposed method. The numerical results demonstrate the feasibility, effectiveness, and robustness of the proposed approach for voltage security assessment for a wind power plant.

  13. Influence of voltage rise time on microwave generation in relativistic backward wave oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ping; Deng, Yuqun; Sun, Jun; Teng, Yan; Shi, Yanchao; Chen, Changhua

    2015-10-15

    In relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWOs), although the slow wave structure (SWS) and electron beam determine the main characteristics of beam-wave interaction, many other factors can also significantly affect the microwave generation process. This paper investigates the influence of voltage rise time on beam-wave interaction in RBWOs. Preliminary analysis and PIC simulations demonstrate if the voltage rise time is moderately long, the microwave frequency will gradually increase during the startup process until the voltage reaches its amplitude, which can be explained by the dispersion relation. However, if the voltage rise time is long enough, the longitudinal resonance of the finitely-long SWS will force the RBWO to work with unwanted longitudinal modes for a while and then gradually hop to the wanted longitudinal mode, and this will lead to an impure microwave frequency spectrum. Besides, a longer voltage rise time will delay the startup process and thus lead to a longer microwave saturation time. And if unwanted longitudinal modes are excited due to long voltage rise time, the microwave saturation time will be further lengthened. Therefore, the voltage rise time of accelerators adopted in high power microwave technology should not be too long in case unwanted longitudinal modes are excited.

  14. An Annotated Bibliography of High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) Devices, 1991-1993.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litzenberger, Wayne; Lava, Val

    1994-08-01

    References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).

  15. Revenue metering error caused by induced voltage from adjacent transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, M.B. )

    1992-04-01

    A large zero sequence voltage was found to have been induced onto a 138 kV line from adjacent 500 kV lines where these share the same transmission right-of-way. This zero sequence voltage distorted the 2-1/2-element revenue metering schemes used for two large industrial customer supplied directly from the affected 138 kV line. As a result, these two customers were overcharged, on average, approximately 3.5% for 15 years. This paper describes the work done to trace the origins of the zero sequence voltage, quantify the metering error, and calculate customer refunds which, in the end, totalled $4 million.

  16. Experimental investigation of breakdown voltage characteristics of single-gap and multigap pseudosparks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C.J.; Rhee, M.J.

    1995-06-01

    Simple empirical scaling laws that can be applied universally are determined for breakdown voltage characteristics of single-gap and multigap pseudosparks. For the single-gap pseudospark, the breakdown voltage is found to be a function of the product of the gas pressure squared, the anode-cathode gap distance, and the hollow cavity diameter, p{sup 2}dD, and a function of the product pd for a gap distance less than and greater than three times the cavity diameter, respectively. For the multigap pseudospark, however, the breakdown voltage is found to be only a function of the product p{sup 2}dD.

  17. Antiferromagentic resonance detected by direct current voltages in MnF{sub 2}/Pt bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, Philipp; Schreier, Michael Lotze, Johannes; Huebl, Hans; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Gross, Rudolf

    2015-12-21

    We performed coplanar waveguide-based broadband ferromagnetic resonance experiments on the antiferromagnetic insulator MnF{sub 2}, while simultaneously recording the DC voltage arising in a thin platinum film deposited onto the MnF{sub 2}. The antiferromagnetic resonance is clearly reflected in both the transmission through the waveguide as well as the DC voltage in the Pt strip. The DC voltage remains largely unaffected by field reversal and thus presumably stems from microwave rectification and/or heating effects. However, we identify a small magnetic field orientation dependent contribution, compatible with antiferromagnetic spin pumping theory.

  18. High-voltage crowbar protection for the large CDF axial drift chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binkley, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Stuermer, W.; Wagner, R.L.; /Fermilab

    2004-01-01

    The Central Outer Tracker (COT) is a big cylindrical drift chamber that provides charged particle tracking for the Collider Detector at Fermilab experiment. To protect the COT, the large stored energy in the high voltage system needs to be removed quickly when a problem is sensed. For the high voltage switch, a special-order silicon-controlled-rectifier was chosen over more readily available integrated gate bipolar transistors because of layout and reliability questions. The considerations concerning the high voltage switch, the prototype performance, and the experience of more than two years of running are described.

  19. A 1-V series-array Josephson voltage standard operated at 35 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, F.; Koehler, H.; Weber, P.; Bluethner, K.; Meyer, H. )

    1990-11-01

    Josephson voltage standards utilize microwave-induced constant voltage steps in the dc characteristic of Josephson tunnel junctions. This paper describes the design and operation of array circuits with 108 and 2000 junctions connected in series. In contrast with similar realizations, simple {ital Q}-band equipment is used for the microwave supply. The microwave attenuation of 1000 junctions was about 1 dB. The version with 2000 junctions generated Josephson voltages up to 1.2 V when operated at 35 GHz. The stability times of the quantized levels were, under normal laboratory conditions (unshielded room), better than 10 min.

  20. High-voltage crowbar circuit with cascade-triggered series ignitrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, W.R.

    A series string of ignitrons for switching a large current at high voltage to ground is discussed. Switching is initiated by means of a negative trigger pulse applied to the cathode of the lowest voltage level ignitron next to ground to draw ground current through diodes in the ignitor circuit. The trigger pulse is applied thereby to the next higher ignitron cathode and sequentially to the remainder of the ignitrons in the string through diodes in respective ignitor circuits. Full line voltage is held off of nonconducting diodes and ignitrons by means of varistors.

  1. High-voltage crowbar circuit with cascade-triggered series ignitrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, William R. [Orinda, CA

    1980-11-04

    A series string of ignitrons for switching a large current at high voltage to ground. Switching is initiated by means of a negative trigger pulse applied to the cathode of the lowest voltage level ignitron next to ground to draw ground current through diodes in the ignitor circuit. The trigger pulse is applied thereby to the next higher ignitron cathode and sequentially to the remainder of the ignitrons in the string through diodes in respective ignitor circuits. Full line voltage is held off of nonconducting diodes and ignitrons by means of varistors.

  2. High-voltage crowbar circuit with cascade-triggered series ignitrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, W.R.

    1980-11-04

    A series string of ignitrons for switching a large current at high voltage to ground. Switching is initiated by means of a negative trigger pulse applied to the cathode of the lowest voltage level ignitron next to ground to draw ground current through diodes in the ignitor circuit. The trigger pulse is applied thereby to the next higher ignitron cathode and sequentially to the remainder of the ignitrons in the string through diodes in respective ignitor circuits. Full line voltage is held off of nonconducting diodes and ignitrons by means of varistors. 1 fig.

  3. Princeton Power Systems (TRL 5 6 Component)- Marine High-Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Energy Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Princeton Power Systems (TRL 5 6 Component) - Marine High-Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Energy Storage

  4. SIC ENABLED HIGH-FREQUENCY MEDIUM VOLTAGE DRIVE FOR HIGH-SPEED...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A medium voltage drive system using SiC semiconductors and a high-speed motor to reduce ... MV high frequency drive, (ii) a high-speed motor, and (iii) advanced insulation systems. ...

  5. System-area operating margin assessment and security enhancement against voltage collapse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berizzi, A.; Bresesti, P.; Marannino, P.; Granelli, G.P.; Montagna, M.

    1996-08-01

    The (very) short term reactive power scheduling function, to be adopted by ENEL Spa, takes into account the voltage stability requirements in a preventive application of the security function. In this environment the procedure determines the voltage collapse distance of the global system and of the areas controlled by the Secondary Voltage Regulation (SVR) both in short (24 hours ahead) and in a very short term (few hours or fractions of hour ahead). The procedure also schedules the control actions to be taken in emergency states in a preventive way. Area or system-wise indicators, based on nodal sensitivities and/or eigen (singular) value analysis, provide effective measures of the margins of the system with respect to the risk of voltage collapse and the related corrective actions. Applications of the procedure to the EHV network and to a subtransmission area of the ENEL system are presented in the paper.

  6. Current-voltage characteristics of dc corona discharges in air between coaxial cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Yuesheng; Zhang, Bo He, Jinliang

    2015-02-15

    This paper presents the experimental measurement and numerical analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of dc corona discharges in air between coaxial cylinders. The current-voltage characteristics for both positive and negative corona discharges were measured within a specially designed corona cage. Then the measured results were fitted by different empirical formulae and analyzed by the fluid model. The current-voltage characteristics between coaxial cylinders can be expressed as I = C(U − U{sub 0}){sup m}, where m is within the range 1.5–2.0, which is similar to the point-plane electrode system. The ionization region has no significant effect on the current-voltage characteristic under a low corona current, while it will affect the distribution for the negative corona under a high corona current. The surface onset fields and ion mobilities were emphatically discussed.

  7. ANUEADflM-31 Electric Power High-Voltage Transmission Lines:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... design options to reduce human exposure to EMFs from high-voltage transmission lines. ... assumed for the 345-kV designs: 150-R rights-of-way for overhead lines, 50-ft ...

  8. Correlation between cathode properties, burning voltage, and plasma parameters of vacuum arcs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Yotsombat, Banchob; Binder, Robert

    2001-06-15

    Burning voltages of vacuum arcs were measured for 54 cathode materials and compared with literature data. As anticipated, a correlation between the arc burning voltage and the plasma temperature was found. However, more importantly, a correlation between the cohesive energy of the cathode material and the arc burning voltage could be demonstrated. This link between a cathode material property, the cohesive energy, and a discharge property, the arc burning voltage, is essential for the operation of the vacuum arc discharge because is determines the plasma temperature. Energy balance considerations show that this {open_quotes}cohesive energy rule{close_quotes} is responsible for several other secondary relationships, such as the correlation between the mean ion charge state and the boiling temperature of the cathode. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Lumileds Develops High-Voltage LED Light Engine with Integrated Driver

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, Lumileds has developed a high-voltage LED light engine with an integrated driver, achieving an efficacy greater than 128 lm/W at a luminous flux greater than 4,100 lm...

  10. Characteristics of titanium dioxide nanostructures synthesized via electrochemical anodization at different applied voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheong, Y. L.; Yam, F. K.; Hassan, Z.

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents the study of the growth of nanostructure titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) via electrochemical anodization method. Both constant and alternating anodization voltage would be applied in this study. The effects of applied voltage on the morphological and structural properties were studied. Images of field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) revealed that morphology of nanostructure could be manipulated by changing the type and amount of applied voltage. Besides that, X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that crystalline structures (anatase and rutile) could be obtained after being annealed at 700°C for 60 minutes. By analysing the data in XRD measurements, crystallite size of the TiO{sub 2} could be calculated by using the Scherrer method. Besides that, the relationship between mean crystallites sizes and anodization voltage would also be further studied in this paper.

  11. Arc voltage distribution skewness as an indicator of electrode gap during vacuum arc remelting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, Rodney L.; Zanner, Frank J.; Grose, Stephen M.

    1998-01-01

    The electrode gap of a VAR is monitored by determining the skewness of a distribution of gap voltage measurements. A decrease in skewness indicates an increase in gap and may be used to control the gap.

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High-Voltage, High-Capacity Polyanion Cathodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by U of Texas at Austin at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high-voltage, high...

  13. The Dependence of Nucleation Density on the Bias Voltage in the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We report nucleation densities on Ir(100) surfaces that exceed 1011 cm-2 and remain roughly unchanged in a narrow bias voltage range of 50 V starting at 125 V. At lower and higher ...

  14. PMU-Aided Voltage Security Assessment for a Wind Power Plant...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PMU-Aided Voltage Security Assessment for a Wind Power Plant Preprint H. Jiang, 1 Y.C. Zhang, 2 J.J. Zhang, 1 and E. Muljadi 2 1 University of Denver 2 National Renewable Energy ...

  15. Spontaneous aggregation of lithium ion coordination polymers in fluorinated electrolytes for high-voltage batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malliakas, Christos D.; Leung, Kevin; Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2016-03-31

    Fluorinated carbonate solvents are pursued as liquid electrolytes for high-voltage Li-ion batteries. We report aggregation of [Li+(FEC)3]n polymer species from fluoroethylene carbonate containing electrolytes and scrutinized the causes for this behavior.

  16. State-of-the-Art Fuel Cell Voltage Durability Status: Spring 2013 Composite Data Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Saur, G.; Peters, M.; Post, M.; Ainscough, C.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes composite data products (CDPs) produced in 2013 for state-of-the-art fuel cell voltage durability status.

  17. Generation of negative hydrogen ions in low-voltage cesium-hydrogen discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baksht, F.G.; Djuzhev, G.A.; Elizarov, L.I.; Ivanov, V.G.; Kostin, A.A.; Shkolnik, S.M. )

    1992-10-05

    Theory of low-voltage (LV) Cs--H[sub 2] discharge is presented. LV arc plasma is created in consequence of ionization of small Cs amount (N[sub Cs]/N[sub H[sub 2

  18. Manufacturing challenges of optical current and voltage sensors for utility applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakymyshyn, C.P.; Brubaker, M.A.; Johnston, P.M.; Reinbold, C.

    1997-12-01

    Measurement of voltages and currents in power transmission and distribution systems are critical to the electric utility industry for both revenue metering and reliability. Nonconventional instrument transformers based on intensity modulation of optical signals have been reported in the literature for more than 20 years. Recently described devices using passive bulk optical sensor elements include the Electro-Optic Voltage Transducer (EOVT) and Magneto-Optic Current Transducer (MOCT). These technologies offer substantial advantages over conventional instrument transformers in accuracy, optical isolation bandwidth, environmental compatibility, weight and size. This paper describes design and manufacturing issues associated with the EOVT and the Optical Metering Unit (OMU) recently introduced by ABB with field installation results presented for prototype units in the 345 kV and 420 kV voltage classes. The OMU incorporates an EOVT and MOCT to monitor the voltage and current on power transmission lines using a single free-standing device.

  19. Project resumes: biological effects from electric fields associated with high-voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts of research projects are presented in the following areas: measurements and special facilities; cellular and subcellular studies; physiology; behavior; environmental effects; modeling, scaling and dosimetry; and high voltage direct current. (ACR)

  20. New technique for improving voltage regulation in Li/FeS/sub 2/ thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godshall, N.A.; Baldwin, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Lithiation of the FeS/sub 2/ cathode material lowers the voltage of the initial discharge (which is often too high for many applications) and raises the voltage of the battery at the end of discharge (which is often too low due to a second voltage plateau). In the example of the Sandia ten-cell Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2/ long-life thermal battery, lithiating the cathode improves the voltage regulation from 12.8 to 0.5% during the initial 5 minutes of discharge and from 38 to 12% over the entire 60 minute discharge time. Batteries employing the new lithiated cathode material were also subjected to dynamic mechanical environments, both before and during electrochemical discharge. No adverse changes in either the electrical or mechanical properties of these batteries was observed, relative to standard composition batteries.

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Seeo, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high-voltage solid polymer...

  2. Arc voltage distribution skewness as an indicator of electrode gap during vacuum arc remelting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, R.L.; Zanner, F.J.; Grose, S.M.

    1998-01-13

    The electrode gap of a VAR is monitored by determining the skewness of a distribution of gap voltage measurements. A decrease in skewness indicates an increase in gap and may be used to control the gap. 4 figs.

  3. Neutron burst form a high-voltage discharge between palladium electrodes in D sub 2 gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y.E. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-12-01

    In this paper a recent experimental observation of a neutron flux burst at a rate of 2 {times} 10{sup 4} times the background rate during a high ac voltage stimulation between two deuterated palladium electrodes in D{sub 2} gas is explained in terms of the experimentally measured deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion cross sections. Theoretical criteria and experimental conditions for improving D-D fusion rates with the use of pulsed high-dc voltages are described.

  4. Cermet insert high voltage holdoff for ceramic/metal vacuum devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ierna, William F.

    1987-01-01

    An improved metal-to-ceramic seal is provided wherein the ceramic body of the seal contains an integral region of cermet material in electrical contact with the metallic member, e.g., an electrode, of the seal. The seal is useful in high voltage vacuum devices, e.g., vacuum switches, and increases the high-voltage holdoff capabilities of such devices. A method of fabricating such seals is also provided.

  5. Cermet insert high voltage holdoff improvement for ceramic/metal vacuum devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ierna, W.F.

    1986-03-11

    An improved metal-to-ceramic seal is provided wherein the ceramic body of the seal contains an integral region of cermet material in electrical contact with the metallic member, e.g., an electrode, of the seal. The seal is useful in high voltage vacuum devices, e.g., vacuum switches, and increases the high-voltage holdoff capabilities of such devices. A method of fabricating such seals is also provided.

  6. A statistical approach to designing mitigation for induced AC voltages on pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J. [Electro Sciences Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Induced voltage levels on buried pipelines co-located with overhead electric power transmission lines are usually mitigated by grounding the pipeline. Maximum effectiveness is obtained when grounds are placed where the peak induced voltages occur. Mitigation depends on the local soil resistivity. It may be necessary to employ an extensive distributed grounding system. Over long distances, however, the soil resistivity generally varies as a log-normally distributed random variable. The effect of this variability is examined.

  7. System Voltage Potential-Induced Degradation Mechanisms in PV Modules and Methods for Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Smith, R.; Glick, S.; Pankow, J.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.; Bennett, I.; Kloos, M.

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, degradation and power loss have been observed in PV modules resulting from the stress exerted by system voltage bias. This is due in part to qualification tests and standards that do not adequately evaluate for the durability of modules to the long-term effects of high voltage bias experienced in fielded arrays. High voltage can lead to module degradation by multiple mechanisms. The extent of the voltage bias degradation is linked to the leakage current or coulombs passed from the silicon active layer through the encapsulant and glass to the grounded module frame, which can be experimentally determined; however, competing processes make the effect non-linear and history-dependent. Appropriate testing methods and stress levels are described that demonstrate module durability to system voltage potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms. This information, along with outdoor testing that is in progress, is used to estimate the acceleration factors needed to evaluate the durability of modules to system voltage stress. Na-rich precipitates are observed on the cell surface after stressing the module to induce PID in damp heat with negative bias applied to the active layer.

  8. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these

  9. A combined compensation method for the output voltage of an insulated core transformer power supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.; Yang, J. Liu, K. F.; Qin, B.; Chen, D. Z.

    2014-06-15

    An insulated core transformer (ICT) power supply is an ideal high-voltage generator for irradiation accelerators with energy lower than 3 MeV. However, there is a significant problem that the structure of the segmented cores leads to an increase in the leakage flux and voltage differences between rectifier disks. A high level of consistency in the output of the disks helps to achieve a compact structure by improving the utilization of both the rectifier components and the insulation distances, and consequently increase the output voltage of the power supply. The output voltages of the disks which are far away from the primary coils need to be improved to reduce their inhomogeneity. In this study, by investigating and comparing the existing compensation methods, a new combined compensation method is proposed, which increases the turns on the secondary coils and employs parallel capacitors to improve the consistency of the disks, while covering the entire operating range of the power supply. This method turns out to be both feasible and effective during the development of an ICT power supply. The non-uniformity of the output voltages of the disks is less than 3.5% from no-load to full-load, and the power supply reaches an output specification of 350 kV/60 mA.

  10. Quantitative interpretation of the transition voltages in gold-poly(phenylene) thiol-gold molecular junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Kunlin; Bai, Meilin; Hou, Shimin; Sanvito, Stefano

    2013-11-21

    The transition voltage of three different asymmetric Au/poly(phenylene) thiol/Au molecular junctions in which the central molecule is either benzene thiol, biphenyl thiol, or terphenyl thiol is investigated by first-principles quantum transport simulations. For all the junctions, the calculated transition voltage at positive polarity is in quantitative agreement with the experimental values and shows weak dependence on alterations of the Au-phenyl contact. When compared to the strong coupling at the Au-S contact, which dominates the alignment of various molecular orbitals with respect to the electrode Fermi level, the coupling at the Au-phenyl contact produces only a weak perturbation. Therefore, variations of the Au-phenyl contact can only have a minor influence on the transition voltage. These findings not only provide an explanation to the uniformity in the transition voltages found for ?-conjugated molecules measured with different experimental methods, but also demonstrate the advantage of transition voltage spectroscopy as a tool for determining the positions of molecular levels in molecular devices.

  11. A SiC NMOS Linear Voltage Regulator for High-Temperature Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valle-Mayorga, JA; Rahman, A; Mantooth, HA

    2014-05-01

    The first SiC integrated circuit linear voltage regulator is reported. The voltage regulator uses a 20-V supply and generates an output of 15 V, adjustable down to 10 V. It was designed for loads of up to 2 A over a temperature range of 25-225 degrees C. It was, however, successfully tested up to 300 degrees C. The voltage regulator demonstrated load regulations of 1.49% and 9% for a 2-A load at temperatures of 25 and 300 degrees C, respectively. However, the load regulation is less than 2% up to 300 degrees C for a 1-A load. The line regulation with a 2-A load at 25 and 300 degrees C was 17 and 296 mV/V, respectively. The regulator was fabricated in a Cree 4H-SiC 2-mu m experimental process and consists of 1000, 32/2-mu m NMOS depletion MOSFETs as the pass device, an integrated error amplifier with enhancement MOSFETs, and resistor loads, and uses external feedback and compensation networks to ensure operational integrity. It was designed to be integrated with high-voltage vertical power MOSFETs on the same SiC substrate. It also serves as a guide to future attempts for voltage regulation in any type of integrated SiC circuitry.

  12. Design, conditioning, and performance of a high voltage, high brightness dc photoelectron gun with variable gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxson, Jared; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Dobbins, John; Liu, Xianghong; Smolenski, Karl

    2014-09-15

    A new high voltage photoemission gun has been constructed at Cornell University which features a segmented insulator and a movable anode, allowing the cathode-anode gap to be adjusted. In this work, we describe the gun's overall mechanical and high voltage design, the surface preparation of components, as well as the clean construction methods. We present high voltage conditioning data using a 50 mm cathode-anode gap, in which the conditioning voltage exceeds 500 kV, as well as at smaller gaps. Finally, we present simulated emittance results obtained from a genetic optimization scheme using voltage values based on the conditioning data. These results indicate that for charges up to 100 pC, a 30 mm gap at 400 kV has equal or smaller 100% emittance than a 50 mm gap at 450 kV, and also a smaller core emittance, when placed as the source for the Cornell energy recovery linac photoinjector with bunch length constrained to be <3 ps rms. For 100 pC up to 0.5 nC charges, the 50 mm gap has larger core emittance than the 30 mm gap, but conversely smaller 100% emittance.

  13. Al00.3Ga0.7N PN diode with breakdown voltage >1600 V

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Allerman, A. A.; Armstrong, A. M.; Fischer, A. J.; Dickerson, J. R.; Crawford, M. H.; King, M. P.; Moseley, M. W.; Wierer, J. J.; Kaplar, R. J.

    2016-07-21

    Demonstration of Al00.3Ga0.7N PN diodes grown with breakdown voltages in excess of 1600 V is reported. The total epilayer thickness is 9.1 μm and was grown by metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy on 1.3-mm-thick sapphire in order to achieve crack-free structures. A junction termination edge structure was employed to control the lateral electric fields. A current density of 3.5 kA/cm2 was achieved under DC forward bias and a reverse leakage current <3 nA was measured for voltages <1200 V. The differential on-resistance of 16 mΩ cm2 is limited by the lateral conductivity of the n-type contact layer required by the front-surface contactmore » geometry of the device. An effective critical electric field of 5.9 MV/cm was determined from the epilayer properties and the reverse current–voltage characteristics. To our knowledge, this is the first aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN)-based PN diode exhibiting a breakdown voltage in excess of 1 kV. Finally, we note that a Baliga figure of merit (Vbr2/Rspec,on) of 150 MW/cm2 found is the highest reported for an AlGaN PN diode and illustrates the potential of larger-bandgap AlGaN alloys for high-voltage devices.« less

  14. Development of a quantum-voltage-calibrated noise thermometer at NIM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, J.; Zhang, J. T.; Fu, Y.; Rogalla, H.; Pollarolo, A.; Benz, S. P.

    2013-09-11

    A quantum-voltage-calibrated Johnson-noise thermometer was developed at NIM, which measures the Boltzmann constant k by comparing the thermal noise across a 100 ? sense resistor at the temperature of the triple point of water with the pseudo-random frequency-comb voltage waveform synthesized with a bipolar-pulse-driven quantum-voltage-noise source. A measurement with integration period of 10 hours and bandwidth of 640 kHz resulted in a relative offset of 0.510{sup ?6} from the current CODATA value of k, and a type A relative standard uncertainty of 2310{sup ?6}. Benefiting from closely matched noise powers and transmission-line impedances and small nonlinearities in the cross-correlation electronics, the derived k shows self-consistent values and standard uncertainties for different measurement bandwidths.

  15. Fiber-optic voltage sensor with cladded fiber and evanescent wave variation detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Charles B.

    1992-01-01

    A fiber optic voltage sensor is described which includes a source of light, a reference fiber for receiving a known percentage of the light and an electrostrictive element having terminals across which is applied, a voltage to be measured. The electrostrictive element is responsive to the applied voltage to assume an altered physical state. A measuring fiber also receives a known percentage of light from the light source and is secured about the electrostrictive element. The measuring fiber is provided with a cladding and exhibits an evanescent wave in the cladding. The measuring fiber has a known length which is altered when the electrostrictive element assumes its altered physical state. A differential sensor is provided which senses the intensity of light in both the reference fiber and the measuring fiber and provides an output indicative of the difference between the intensities.

  16. Fiber-optic voltage sensor with cladded fiber and evanescent wave variation detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, C.B.

    1992-12-15

    A fiber optic voltage sensor is described which includes a source of light, a reference fiber for receiving a known percentage of the light and an electrostrictive element having terminals across which is applied, a voltage to be measured. The electrostrictive element is responsive to the applied voltage to assume an altered physical state. A measuring fiber also receives a known percentage of light from the light source and is secured about the electrostrictive element. The measuring fiber is provided with a cladding and exhibits an evanescent wave in the cladding. The measuring fiber has a known length which is altered when the electrostrictive element assumes its altered physical state. A differential sensor is provided which senses the intensity of light in both the reference fiber and the measuring fiber and provides an output indicative of the difference between the intensities. 3 figs.

  17. Multilevel-Dc-Bus Inverter For Providing Sinusoidal And Pwm Electrical Machine Voltages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Gui-Jia [Knoxville, TN

    2005-11-29

    A circuit for controlling an ac machine comprises a full bridge network of commutation switches which are connected to supply current for a corresponding voltage phase to the stator windings, a plurality of diodes, each in parallel connection to a respective one of the commutation switches, a plurality of dc source connections providing a multi-level dc bus for the full bridge network of commutation switches to produce sinusoidal voltages or PWM signals, and a controller connected for control of said dc source connections and said full bridge network of commutation switches to output substantially sinusoidal voltages to the stator windings. With the invention, the number of semiconductor switches is reduced to m+3 for a multi-level dc bus having m levels. A method of machine control is also disclosed.

  18. Static reactive power compensators for high-voltage power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    A study conducted to summarize the role of static reactive power compensators for high voltage power system applications is described. This information should be useful to the utility system planning engineer in applying static var systems (SVS) to high voltage as (HVAC) systems. The static var system is defined as a form of reactive power compensator. The general need for reactive power compensation in HVAC systems is discussed, and the static var system is compared to other devices utilized to provide reactive power compensation. Examples are presented of applying SVS for specific functions, such as the prevention of voltage collapse. The operating principles of commercially available SVS's are discussed in detail. The perormance and active power loss characteristics of SVS types are compared.

  19. Extremum seeking-based optimization of high voltage converter modulator rise-time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheinker, Alexander; Bland, Michael; Krstic, Miroslav; Audia, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    We digitally implement an extremum seeking (ES) algorithm, which optimizes the rise time of the output voltage of a high voltage converter modulator (HVCM) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) HVCM test stand by iteratively, simultaneously tuning the first 8 switching edges of each of the three phase drive waveforms (24 variables total). We achieve a 50 ?s rise time, which is reduction in half compared to the 100 ?s achieved at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Considering that HVCMs typically operate with an output voltage of 100 kV, with a 60Hz repetition rate, the 50 ?s rise time reduction will result in very significant energy savings. The ES algorithm will prove successful, despite the noisy measurements and cost calculations, confirming the theoretical results that the algorithm is not affected by noise whose frequency components are independent of the perturbing frequencies.

  20. A multiattribute utility analysis of sites nominated for characterization for the first radioactive-waste repository: A decision-aiding methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In December 1984, the Department of Energy (DOE) published draft environmental assessments (EAs) to support the proposed nomination of five sites and the recommendation of three sites for characterization for the first radioactive-waste repository. A chapter common to all the draft EAs (Chapter 7) presented rankings of the five sites against the postclosure and the preclosure technical siting guidelines. To determine which three sites appeared most favorable for recommendation for characterization, three simple quantitative methods were used to aggregate the rankings assigned to each site for the various technical guidelines. In response to numerous comments on the methods, the DOE has undertaken a formal application of one of them (hereafter referred to as the decision-aiding methodology) for the purpose of obtaining a more rigorous evaluation of the nominated sites. The application of the revised methodology is described in this report. The method of analysis is known as multiattribute utility analysis; it is a tool for providing insights as to which sites are preferable and why. The decision-aiding methodology accounts for all the fundamental considerations specified by the siting guidelines and uses as source information the data and evaluations reported or referenced in the EAs. It explicitly addresses the uncertainties and value judgments that are part of all siting problems. Furthermore, all scientific and value judgments are made explicit for the reviewer. An independent review of the application of the decision-aiding methodology has been conducted by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Academy of Sciences; the comments of the Board are included as an appendix to this report.

  1. Calmodulin and calcium differentially regulate the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-dependent sodium channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaudioso, Christelle; Carlier, Edmond; Youssouf, Fahamoe; Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 ; Clare, Jeffrey J.; Debanne, Dominique; Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 ; Alcaraz, Gisele; Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Both Ca{sup ++}-Calmodulin (CaM) and Ca{sup ++}-free CaM bind to the C-terminal region of Nav1.1. {yields} Ca{sup ++} and CaM have both opposite and convergent effects on I{sub Nav1.1}. {yields} Ca{sup ++}-CaM modulates I{sub Nav1.1} amplitude. {yields} CaM hyperpolarizes the voltage-dependence of activation, and increases the inactivation rate. {yields} Ca{sup ++} alone antagonizes CaM for both effects, and depolarizes the voltage-dependence of inactivation. -- Abstract: Mutations in the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-gated sodium channel are responsible for mild to severe epileptic syndromes. The ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM) bound to rat brain Nav1.1 and to the human Nav1.1 channel expressed by a stably transfected HEK-293 cell line. The C-terminal region of the channel, as a fusion protein or in the yeast two-hybrid system, interacted with CaM via a consensus C-terminal motif, the IQ domain. Patch clamp experiments on HEK1.1 cells showed that CaM overexpression increased peak current in a calcium-dependent way. CaM had no effect on the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation, and accelerated the inactivation kinetics. Elevating Ca{sup ++} depolarized the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation and slowed down the fast inactivation kinetics, and for high concentrations this effect competed with the acceleration induced by CaM alone. Similarly, the depolarizing action of calcium antagonized the hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage-dependence of activation due to CaM overexpression. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements suggested that Ca{sup ++} could bind the Nav1.1 C-terminal region with micromolar affinity.

  2. Voltage polarity manipulation of the magnetoresistance sign in organic spin valve devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, S. W.; Chen, B. B.; Wang, P.; Zhou, Y.; Shi, Y. J.; Yue, F. J.; Ding, H. F.; Wu, D.

    2014-06-30

    The spin transport in organic spin valve (OSV) devices has been systematically investigated by inserting a low work function material Al between ferromagnetic electrode and organic layer. The resistance and current-voltage curve symmetry are dramatically altered as increasing Al thickness, indicating that an electron-unipolar OSV is obtained. Moreover, the magnetoresistance sign depends on the voltage polarity for certain Al thickness. We attribute this phenomenon to the Fermi and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbits energies of the two electrodes responding to the spin injection and detection, respectively. These findings provide a simple approach to control both the carrier type and the spin direction simultaneously.

  3. High voltage capability electrical coils insulated with materials containing SF.sub.6 gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lanoue, Thomas J.; Zeise, Clarence L.; Wagenaar, Loren; Westervelt, Dean C.

    1988-01-01

    A coil is made having a plurality of layers of adjacent metal conductor windings subject to voltage stress, where the windings have insulation therebetween containing a small number of minute disposed throughout its cross-section, where the voids are voids filled with SF.sub.6 gas to substitute for air or other gaseous materials in from about 60% to about 95% of the cross-sectional void volume in the insulation, thus incorporating an amount of SF.sub.6 gas in the cross-section of the insulation effective to substantially increase corona inception voltages.

  4. Magnetic lens apparatus for a low-voltage high-resolution electron microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crewe, Albert V.

    1996-01-01

    A lens apparatus in which a beam of charged particles of low accelerating voltage is brought to a focus by a magnetic field, the lens being situated behind the target position. The lens comprises an electrically-conducting coil arranged around the axis of the beam and a magnetic pole piece extending along the axis of the beam at least within the space surrounded by the coil. The lens apparatus comprises the sole focusing lens for high-resolution imaging in a low-voltage scanning electron microscope.

  5. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles The purpose of this project was for Seeo to develop a high energy lithium based technology with targets of over 500 Wh/l and 325 Wh/kg. Seeo would leverage the work already achieved with its unique proprietary solid polymer DryLyteTM technology in cells which had a specific energy density of 220

  6. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the ? pulsed-power accelerator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Waisman, E.? M.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M.? E.; Wenger, D.? F.; Fowler, W.? E.; Johnson, W.? A.; Basilio, L.? I.; Coats, R.? S.; Jennings, C.? A.; Sinars, D.? B.; et al

    2014-11-08

    Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM). Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerators vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerators vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m) by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerators magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs)moreand a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R.D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010)] that showed efficient

  7. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the Z pulsed-power accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waisman, E. M.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M. E.; Wenger, D. F.; Fowler, W. E.; Johnson, W. A.; Basilio, L. I.; Coats, R. S.; Jennings, C. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Vesey, R. A.; Jones, B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Lemke, R. W.; Martin, M. R.; Schrafel, P. C.; Lewis, S. A.; Moore, J. K.; Savage, M. E.; Stygar, W. A.

    2014-12-08

    Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM). Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerators vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerators vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m) by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerators magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) and a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R. D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010)] that showed

  8. A practical approach to accurate fault location on extra high voltage teed feeders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aggarwal, R.K.; Coury, D.V.; Johns, A.T. . School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering); Kalam, A. )

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes the basis of an alternative approach for accurately locating faults on teed feeders and the technique developed utilizes fault voltages and currents at all three ends. The method is virtually independent of fault resistance and largely insensitive to variations in source impedance, teed and line configurations, including line untransposition. The paper presents the basic theory of the technique which is then extensively tested using simulated primary system voltage and current waveforms which in turn include the transducer/hardware errors encountered in practice. The performance clearly shows a high degree of accuracy attained.

  9. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the Z pulsed-power accelerator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Waisman, E. M.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M. E.; Wenger, D. F.; Fowler, W. E.; Johnson, W. A.; Basilio, L. I.; Coats, R. S.; Jennings, C. A.; Sinars, D. B.; et al

    2014-12-08

    Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM). Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerator’s vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerator’s vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m) by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerator’s magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs)more » and a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R. D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010)] that showed

  10. Method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a high temperature super-conducting transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golner, Thomas M.; Mehta, Shirish P.

    2005-07-26

    A method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a super-conducting transformer is provided that includes a first super-conducting coil set, a second super-conducting coil set, and a third super-conducting coil set. The first, second and third super-conducting coil sets are connected via an insulated interconnect system that includes insulated conductors and insulated connectors that are utilized to connect the first, second, and third super-conducting coil sets to the high voltage leads.

  11. Method and apparatus for remote tube crevice detection by current and voltage probe resistance measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kikta, T.J.; Mitchell, R.D.

    1992-11-24

    A method and apparatus for determining the extent of contact between an electrically conducting tube and an electrically conductive tubesheet surrounding the tube, based upon the electrical resistance of the tube and tubesheet. A constant current source is applied to the interior of the electrically conducting tube by probes and a voltmeter is connected between other probes to measure the voltage at the point of current injection, which is inversely proportional to the amount of contact between the tube and tubesheet. Namely, the higher the voltage measured by the voltmeter, the less contact between the tube and tubesheet. 4 figs.

  12. Method and apparatus for remote tube crevice detection by current and voltage probe resistance measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kikta, Thomas J.; Mitchell, Ronald D.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the extent of contact between an electrically conducting tube and an electrically conductive tubesheet surrounding the tube, based upon the electrical resistance of the tube and tubesheet. A constant current source is applied to the interior of the electrically conducting tube by probes and a voltmeter is connected between other probes to measure the voltage at the point of current injection, which is inversely proportional to the amount of contact between the tube and tubesheet. Namely, the higher the voltage measured by the voltmeter, the less contact between the tube and tubesheet.

  13. Unidirectional anisotropy in the spin pumping voltage in yttrium iron garnet/platinum bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vilela-Leao, L. H.; Salvador, C.; Azevedo, A.; Rezende, S. M.

    2011-09-05

    Detailed measurements of the dc voltage generated in a thin Pt layer deposited on films of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) have been carried out to study the spin pumping effect produced by magnetostatic (MS) modes excited by a microwave field. In relatively thick YIG films the modes are far apart so that one can identify clearly the spin pumping voltage in V{sub SP} produced by each MS mode. We have discovered that when the sputter deposition of the thin Pt layer is made on the YIG film magnetized by a static magnetic field, V{sub SP} exhibits a strong unidirectional anisotropy.

  14. Method and apparatus for controlling LCL converters using asymmetric voltage cancellation techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee Devro; Sharp, Bryan Thomas; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-01-26

    A method and apparatus for LCL resonant converter control utilizing Asymmetric Voltage Cancellation is described. The methods to determine the optimal trajectory of the control variables are discussed. Practical implementations of sensing load parameters are included. Simple PI, PID and fuzzy logic controllers are included with AVC for achieving good transient response characteristics with output current regulation.

  15. Method for improving voltage regulation of batteries, particularly Li/FeS.sub.2 thermal batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Godshall, Ned A.

    1988-01-01

    Batteries are improved, especially with respect to voltage regulation properties, by employing as anode and cathode compositions, those which fall in a thermodynamically invariant region of the metallurgical phase diagram of the combination of the constituent components. The invention is especially useful in the Li/FeS.sub.2 system.

  16. Method for improving voltage regulation of batteries, particularly Li/FeS/sub 2/ thermal batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Godshall, N.A.

    1986-06-10

    Batteries are improved, especially with respect to voltage regulation properties, by employing as anode and cathode compositions, those which fall in a thermodynamically invariant region of the metallurgical phase diagram of the combination of the constituent components. The invention is especially useful in the Li/FeS/sub 2/ system.

  17. Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William Banning; Momii, Steven Thomas

    2000-01-01

    A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

  18. Application of Newton's optimal power flow in voltage/reactive power control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjelogrlic, M.; Babic, B.S. ); Calovic, M.S. ); Ristanovic, P. )

    1990-11-01

    This paper considers an application of Newton's optimal power flow to the solution of the secondary voltage/reactive power control in transmission networks. An efficient computer program based on the latest achievements in the sparse matrix/vector techniques has been developed for this purpose. It is characterized by good robustness, accuracy and speed. A combined objective function appropriate for various system load levels with suitable constraints, for treatment of the power system security and economy is also proposed. For the real-time voltage/reactive power control, a suboptimal power flow procedure has been derived by using the reduced set of control variables. This procedure is based on the sensitivity theory applied to the determination of zones for the secondary voltage/reactive power control and corresponding reduced set of regulating sources, whose reactive outputs represent control variables in the optimal power flow program. As a result, the optimal power flow program output becomes a schedule to be used by operators in the process of the real-time voltage/reactive power control in both normal and emergency operating states.

  19. Method for reducing fuel cell output voltage to permit low power operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reiser, Carl A.; Landau, Michael B.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel cell performance is degraded by recycling a portion of the cathode exhaust through the cells and, if necessary, also reducing the total air flow to the cells for the purpose of permitting operation below a power level which would otherwise result in excessive voltage.

  20. Organic thin film devices with stabilized threshold voltage and mobility, and method for preparing the devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nastasi, Michael Anthony; Wang, Yongqiang; Fraboni, Beatrice; Cosseddu, Piero; Bonfiglio, Annalisa

    2013-06-11

    Organic thin film devices that included an organic thin film subjected to a selected dose of a selected energy of ions exhibited a stabilized mobility (.mu.) and threshold voltage (VT), a decrease in contact resistance R.sub.C, and an extended operational lifetime that did not degrade after 2000 hours of operation in the air.

  1. Investigation about decoupling capacitors of PMT voltage divider effects on neutron-gamma discrimination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Divani, Nazila Firoozabadi, Mohammad M.; Bayat, Esmail

    2014-11-24

    Scintillators are almost used in any nuclear laboratory. These detectors combine of scintillation materials, PMT and a voltage divider. Voltage dividers are different in resistive ladder design. But the effect of decoupling capacitors and damping resistors haven’t discussed yet. In this paper at first a good equilibrium circuit designed for PMT, and it was used for investigating about capacitors and resistors in much manner. Results show that decoupling capacitors have great effect on PMT output pulses. In this research, it was tried to investigate the effect of Capacitor’s value and places on PMT voltage divider in Neutron-Gamma discrimination capability. Therefore, the voltage divider circuit for R329-02 Hamamatsu PMT was made and Zero Cross method used for neutron-gamma discrimination. The neutron source was a 20Ci Am-Be. Anode and Dynode pulses and discrimination spectrum were saved. The results showed that the pulse height and discrimination quality change with the value and setting of capacitors.

  2. Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William Banning; Momii, Steven Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

  3. Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail III, William Banning; Momii, Steven Thomas

    2003-06-10

    A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

  4. Revisiting single photon avalanche diode current-voltage modeling and transient characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Javitt, M.; Savuskan, V. Merhav, T.; Nemirovsky, Y.

    2014-05-28

    A model for the current-voltage and transient behavior of Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) based on device physics is presented. The results of the model are compared to actual measurements and a reasonable fit is seen. Additionally, the model provides a useful tool for designing quenching circuitry and determining optimal operation conditions of the SPAD.

  5. Low-voltage harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier in G band

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, Y. S.; Guo, Y. W.; Kao, B. H.; Chen, C. H.; Wang, Z. W.; Hung, C. L.; Chang, T. H.

    2015-12-15

    Harmonic multiplying operation in a gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier (gyro-TWA) permits for magnetic field reduction and frequency multiplication. Lowering a beam voltage is an important step toward miniaturization of a harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA. However, the additional degree of freedom that is provided by the multitude cyclotron harmonics in a low-voltage harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA still easily generates various competing modes. An improved mode-selective circuit, using circular waveguides with various radii, can provide the rejection points within the frequency range to suppress competing modes. Simulated results reveal that the mode-selective circuit can provide an attenuation of more than 14 dB to suppress the competing modes. Furthermore, the performance of the gyro-TWA is analyzed for studying the sensitivity of the saturated output power and full width at half maximum bandwidth of the gyro-TWA to the beam voltage and the magnetic field. A stable low-voltage harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA with the mode-selective circuit is predicted to yield a peak output power of 24 kW at 200.4 GHz, corresponding to a saturated gain of 56 dB at an interaction efficiency of 20%. The full width at half maximum bandwidth is 3.0 GHz.

  6. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-15

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached −225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (<10 pA) using a 40 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7 MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ∼22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100 pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.

  7. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloymore » (Ti-6AI-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached -225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (<10 pA) using a 40 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7 MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ~22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100 pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.« less

  8. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti-6AI-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached -225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (<10 pA) using a 40 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7 MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ~22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100 pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.

  9. Voltage sensing systems and methods for passive compensation of temperature related intrinsic phase shift

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James R.; Lassahn, Gordon D.

    2001-01-01

    A small sized electro-optic voltage sensor capable of accurate measurement of high levels of voltages without contact with a conductor or voltage source is provided. When placed in the presence of an electric field, the sensor receives an input beam of electromagnetic radiation into the sensor. A polarization beam displacer serves as a filter to separate the input beam into two beams with orthogonal linear polarizations. The beam displacer is oriented in such a way as to rotate the linearly polarized beams such that they enter a Pockels crystal at a preferred angle of 45 degrees. The beam displacer is therefore capable of causing a linearly polarized beam to impinge a crystal at a desired angle independent of temperature. The Pockels electro-optic effect induces a differential phase shift on the major and minor axes of the input beam as it travels through the Pockels crystal, which causes the input beam to be elliptically polarized. A reflecting prism redirects the beam back through the crystal and the beam displacer. On the return path, the polarization beam displacer separates the elliptically polarized beam into two output beams of orthogonal linear polarization representing the major and minor axes. In crystals that introduce a phase differential attributable to temperature, a compensating crystal is provided to cancel the effect of temperature on the phase differential of the input beam. The system may include a detector for converting the output beams into electrical signals, and a signal processor for determining the voltage based on an analysis of the output beams. The output beams are amplitude modulated by the frequency of the electric field and the amplitude of the output beams is proportional to the magnitude of the electric field, which is related to the voltage being measured.

  10. Strain-optic voltage monitor wherein strain causes a change in the optical absorption of a crystalline material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, J.D.

    1997-01-14

    A voltage monitor which uses the shift in absorption edge of crystalline material to measure strain resulting from electric field-induced deformation of piezoelectric or electrostrictive material, providing a simple and accurate means for measuring voltage applied either by direct contact with the crystalline material or by subjecting the material to an electric field. 6 figs.

  11. A new low-voltage plateau of Na₃V₂(PO₄)₃ as an anode for Na-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jian, Zelang; Sun, Yang; Ji, Xiulei

    2015-04-04

    A low-voltage plateau at ~0.3 V is discovered during the deep sodiation of Na₃V₂(PO₄)₃ by combined computational and experimental studies. This new low-voltage plateau doubles the sodiation capacity of Na₃V₂(PO₄)₃, turning it into a promising anode for Na-ion batteries.

  12. Strain-optic voltage monitor wherein strain causes a change in the optical absorption of a crystalline material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1997-01-01

    A voltage monitor which uses the shift in absorption edge of crystalline material to measure strain resulting from electric field-induced deformation of piezoelectric or electrostrictive material, providing a simple and accurate means for measuring voltage applied either by direct contact with the crystalline material or by subjecting the material to an electric field.

  13. Marine High Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Storage DE-EE0003640 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Hoffmann, PhD; Aspinall, Rik

    2012-12-10

    Design, Development, and test of the three-port power converter for marine hydrokinetic power transmission. Converter provides ports for AC/DC conversion of hydrokinetic power, battery storage, and a low voltage to high voltage DC port for HVDC transmission to shore. The report covers the design, development, implementation, and testing of a prototype built by PPS.

  14. The effect of voltage waveform and tube diameter on transporting cold plasma strings through a flexible dielectric tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohbatzadeh, Farshad; Omran, Azadeh Valinataj

    2014-11-15

    In this work, we developed transporting atmospheric pressure cold plasma using single electrode configuration through a sub-millimetre flexible dielectric tube beyond 100 cm. It was shown that the waveform of the applied high voltage is essential for controlling upstream and downstream plasma inside the tube. In this regard, sawtooth waveform enabled the transport of plasma with less applied high voltage compared to sinusoidal and pulsed form voltages. A cold plasma string as long as 130 cm was obtained by only 4 kV peak-to-peak sawtooth high voltage waveform. Optical emission spectroscopy revealed that reactive chemical species, such as atomic oxygen and hydroxyl, are generated at the tube exit. The effect of tube diameter on the transported plasma was also examined: the smaller the diameter, the higher the applied voltage. The device is likely to be used for sterilization, decontamination, and therapeutic endoscopy as already suggested by other groups in recent past years.

  15. Effect of temperature on the current (capacitance and conductance)voltage characteristics of Ti/n-GaAs diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ejderha, K.; Duman, S. Urhan, F.; Nuhoglu, C.; Turut, A.

    2014-12-21

    In this study, Ti/n-GaAs Schottky barrier diode has been fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering. The currentvoltage, capacitancevoltage, and conductancevoltage characteristics of Ti/nGaAs diode have been investigated in the temperature range of 80320?K. The ideality factor and barrier height values have been calculated from the forward currentvoltage characteristics. The variation of the diode parameters with the sample temperature has been attributed to the presence of the lateral inhomogeneities of the barrier height. The temperature dependent capacitancevoltage characteristics have been measured to calculate the carrier concentration, diffusion potential, barrier height, and temperature coefficient of the barrier height (??=??0.65?meV K{sup ?1}). The fact that the temperature coefficient of the barrier height changes from metal to metal has been ascribed to the chemical nature of the contact metal or metal electronegativity.

  16. Conduction below 100 °C in nominal Li6ZnNb4O14

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yunchao; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Gill, Lance W.; Edward W. Hagaman; Wang, Yangyang; Sokolov, Alexei P.; Dai, Sheng; Ma, Cheng; Chi, Miaofang; Veith, Gabriel M.; Manthiram, Arumugam; Goodenough, John B.

    2015-09-15

    The increasing demand for a safe rechargeable battery with a high energy density per cell is driving a search for a novel solid electrolyte with a high Li+ or Na+ conductivity that is chemically stable in a working Li-ion or Na-ion battery. Li6ZnNb4O14 has been reported to exhibit a σ Li > 10-2 S cm-1 at 250 °C, but to disproportionate into multiple phases on cooling from 850 °C to room temperature. An investigation of the room-temperature Li-ion conductivity in a porous pellet of a multiphase product of a nominal Li6ZnNb4O14 composition is shown to have bulk σ Li 3.3 x 10-5 S cm-1 at room temperature that increases to 1.4 x 10-4 S cm-1 by 50 °C. 7Li MAS NMR spectra were fitted to two Lorentzian lines, one of which showed a dramatic increase with increasing temperature. As a result, a test for water stability indicates that Li+ may move to the particle and grain surfaces to react with adsorbed water as occurs in the garnet Li+ conductors.

  17. Proton conducting sodium alginate electrolyte laterally coupled low-voltage oxide-based transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yang Hui; Wan, Qing; Qiang Zhu, Li; Shi, Yi

    2014-03-31

    Solution-processed sodium alginate electrolyte film shows a high proton conductivity of ?5.5??10{sup ?3} S/cm and a high lateral electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitance of ?2.0??F/cm{sup 2} at room temperature with a relative humidity of 57%. Low-voltage in-plane-gate indium-zinc-oxide-based EDL transistors laterally gated by sodium alginate electrolytes are fabricated on glass substrates. The field-effect mobility, current ON/OFF ratio, and subthreshold swing of such EDL transistors are estimated to be 4.2 cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1}, 2.8??10{sup 6}, and 130?mV/decade, respectively. At last, a low-voltage driven resistor-load inverter is also demonstrated. Such in-plane-gate EDL transistors have potential applications in portable electronics and low-cost biosensors.

  18. A high voltage pulse power supply for metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Araujo, W. W. R.; Sgubin, L. G.; Sochugov, N. S.; Spirin, R. E.; Brown, I. G.

    2010-12-15

    We describe the design and implementation of a high voltage pulse power supply (pulser) that supports the operation of a repetitively pulsed filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition facility in plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (Mepiiid) mode. Negative pulses (micropulses) of up to 20 kV in magnitude and 20 A peak current are provided in gated pulse packets (macropulses) over a broad range of possible pulse width and duty cycle. Application of the system consisting of filtered vacuum arc and high voltage pulser is demonstrated by forming diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films with and without substrate bias provided by the pulser. Significantly enhanced film/substrate adhesion is observed when the pulser is used to induce interface mixing between the DLC film and the underlying Si substrate.

  19. Large voltage-induced modification of spin-orbit torques in Pt/Co/GdOx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emori, Satoru Bauer, Uwe; Woo, Seonghoon; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2014-12-01

    We report on large modifications of current-induced spin-orbit torques in a gated Pt/Co/Gd-oxide microstrip due to voltage-driven O{sup 2−} migration. The Slonczewski-like and field-like torques are quantified using a low-frequency harmonic technique based on the polar magneto-optical Kerr effect. Voltage-induced oxidation of Co enhances the Slonczewski-like torque by as much as an order of magnitude and simultaneously reduces the anisotropy energy barrier by a factor of ∼5. Such magneto-ionic tuning of interfacial spin-orbit effects may significantly enhance the efficiency of magnetization switching and provide additional degrees of freedom in spintronic devices.

  20. Non-equilibrium scaling analysis of the Kondo model with voltage bias

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritsch, Peter Kehrein, Stefan

    2009-05-15

    The quintessential description of Kondo physics in equilibrium is obtained within a scaling picture that shows the buildup of Kondo screening at low temperature. For the non-equilibrium Kondo model with a voltage bias, the key new feature are decoherence effects due to the current across the impurity. In the present paper, we show how one can develop a consistent framework for studying the non-equilibrium Kondo model within a scaling picture of infinitesimal unitary transformations (flow equations). Decoherence effects appear naturally in third order of the {beta}-function and dominate the Hamiltonian flow for sufficiently large voltage bias. We work out the spin dynamics in non-equilibrium and compare it with finite temperature equilibrium results. In particular, we report on the behavior of the static spin susceptibility including leading logarithmic corrections and compare it with the celebrated equilibrium result as a function of temperature.

  1. Development of optimized PPP insulated pipe-cable systems in the commercial voltage range. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allam, E.M.; McKean, A.L.

    1992-05-01

    The primary objectives of this project included the development of an alternate domestic source of Paper-Polypropylene-Paper (PPP) laminate and the development of optimized designs for PPP-insulated pipe-type cable systems in the commercial voltage range. The development of a domestic source of PPP laminate was successfully completed. This laminate was utilized throughout the program for fabrication of full-size prototype cables submitted for laboratory qualification tests. Selected cables at rated voltages of 138, 230 and 345kV have been designed, fabricated and subjected to the series of qualification tests leading to full laboratory qualification. An optimized design of 2000 kcmil, 345kV cable insulated with 600 mils of domestic PPP laminate was fabricated and successfully passed all laboratory qualification tests. This cable design was subsequently installed at Waltz Mill to undergo the series of field tests leading to full commercial qualification.

  2. Development of optimized PPP insulated pipe-cable systems in the commercial voltage range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allam, E.M.; McKean, A.L. )

    1992-05-01

    The primary objectives of this project included the development of an alternate domestic source of Paper-Polypropylene-Paper (PPP) laminate and the development of optimized designs for PPP-insulated pipe-type cable systems in the commercial voltage range. The development of a domestic source of PPP laminate was successfully completed. This laminate was utilized throughout the program for fabrication of full-size prototype cables submitted for laboratory qualification tests. Selected cables at rated voltages of 138, 230 and 345kV have been designed, fabricated and subjected to the series of qualification tests leading to full laboratory qualification. An optimized design of 2000 kcmil, 345kV cable insulated with 600 mils of domestic PPP laminate was fabricated and successfully passed all laboratory qualification tests. This cable design was subsequently installed at Waltz Mill to undergo the series of field tests leading to full commercial qualification.

  3. Optimizing the CEBAF Injector for Beam Operation with a Higher Voltage Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.E. Hannon, A.S. Hofler, R. Kazimi

    2011-03-01

    Recent developments in the DC gun technology used at CEBAF have allowed an increase in operational voltage from 100kV to 130kV. In the near future this will be extended further to 200kV with the purchase of a new power supply. The injector components and layout at this time have been designed specifically for 100kV operation. It is anticipated that with an increase in gun voltage and optimization of the layout and components for 200kV operation, that the electron bunch length and beam brightness can be improved upon. This paper explores some upgrade possibilities for a 200kV gun CEBAF injector through beam dynamic simulations.

  4. Control method for peak power delivery with limited DC-bus voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, John; Xu, Longya; Bhargava, Brij B.

    2006-09-05

    A method for driving a neutral point-clamped multi-level voltage source inverter supplying a synchronous motor is provided. A DC current is received at a neutral point-clamped multi-level voltage source inverter. The inverter has first, second, and third output nodes. The inverter also has a plurality of switches. A desired speed of a synchronous motor connected to the inverter by the first second and third nodes is received by the inverter. The synchronous motor has a rotor and the speed of the motor is defined by the rotational rate of the rotor. A position of the rotor is sensed, current flowing to the motor out of at least two of the first, second, and third output nodes is sensed, and predetermined switches are automatically activated by the inverter responsive to the sensed rotor position, the sensed current, and the desired speed.

  5. Voltage dependence of the differential capacitance of a p{sup +}-n junction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shekhovtsov, N. A.

    2013-04-15

    The dependences of the differential capacitance and current of a p{sup +}-n junction with a uniformly doped n region on the voltage in the junction region are calculated. The p{sup +}-n junction capacitance controls the charge change in the junction region taking into account a change in the electric field of the quasi-neutral n region and a change in its bipolar drift mobility with increasing excess charge-carrier concentration. It is shown that the change in the sign of the p{sup +}-n junction capacitance with increasing injection level is caused by a decrease in the bipolar drift mobility as the electron-hole pair concentration in the n region increases. It is shown that the p{sup +}-n junction capacitance decreases with increasing reverse voltage and tends to a constant positive value.

  6. Statistics of voltage drop in distribution circuits: a dynamic programming approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turitsyn, Konstantin S

    2010-01-01

    We analyze a power distribution line with high penetration of distributed generation and strong variations of power consumption and generation levels. In the presence of uncertainty the statistical description of the system is required to assess the risks of power outages. In order to find the probability of exceeding the constraints for voltage levels we introduce the probability distribution of maximal voltage drop and propose an algorithm for finding this distribution. The algorithm is based on the assumption of random but statistically independent distribution of loads on buses. Linear complexity in the number of buses is achieved through the dynamic programming technique. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm by analyzing a simple 4-bus system with high variations of load levels.

  7. Current-voltage characteristics of layer-by-layer self-assembled colloidal thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jafri, S. H. M.; Dutta, J.; Sweatman, D.; Sharma, A. B.

    2006-09-25

    Self-organized construction of advanced materials and devices has been carried out starting with tailor-made colloidal nanoparticles as building blocks. Multilayer thin films of gold nanoparticles stabilized by glutamates and zinc sulfide nanoparticles capped with chitosan were self-organized by a modified polyelectrolyte deposition process. Resistive current-voltage characteristic was observed in devices (less than 50 layers). The conduction onset in thicker devices (>50 layers) was found to be at applied voltages of {approx}1.6, {approx}1.94, and {approx}2.79 V for 75, 100, and 150 layer structures, respectively. Devices exhibit similar behavior in forward and reverse biases and the electrical characteristics were repeatable.

  8. Medium-Voltage Cables in Nuclear Plant Applications - State of Industry and Conditioning Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.M. Braun

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 This report reviews the types of medium-voltage (MV) cables in use in nuclear power plants and the techniques that are currently available to assess the condition of MV cable systems. The project identified the types of cable systems in nuclear plants and their operating conditions and then assessed the aging and failure mechanisms of these cables and suitable diagnostic test techniques. In addition, ways to alleviate conditions that cause the most severe aging were identified.

  9. Process for diffusing metallic coatings into ceramics to improve their voltage withstanding capabilities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, H. Craig; Zuhr, Herbert F.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a method for diffusing a coating of manganese powder and titanium powder into a ceramic to improve its voltage hold off withstanding capability. The powder coated ceramic is fired for from about 30 to about 90 minutes within about one atmosphere of wet hydrogen at a temperature within the range of from about 1450.degree. to about 1520.degree. C to cause the mixture to penetrate into the ceramic to a depth on the order of a millimeter.

  10. Multi-winding Homopolar Electric Machine Offers Variable Voltage at Low

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rotational Speed - Energy Innovation Portal Wind Energy Wind Energy Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Multi-winding Homopolar Electric Machine Offers Variable Voltage at Low Rotational Speed Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryA nineteenth century invention by Michael Faraday, the Faraday disc machine, has undergone a twenty-first century improvement at ORNL. Now known as a homopolar

  11. Note: Numerical simulation and experimental validation of accelerating voltage formation for a pulsed electron accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, I.

    2014-06-15

    This paper describes the development of a computation model of a pulsed voltage generator for a repetitive electron accelerator. The model is based on a principle circuit of the generator, supplemented with the parasitics elements of the construction. Verification of the principle model was achieved by comparison of simulation with experimental results, where reasonable agreement was demonstrated for a wide range of generator load resistance.

  12. Chemical detection and laser wavelength stabilization employing spectroscopic absorption via laser compliance voltage sensing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2016-01-12

    Systems and methods are disclosed that provide a direct indication of the presence and concentration of an analyte within the external cavity of a laser device that employ the compliance voltage across the laser device. The systems can provide stabilization of the laser wavelength. The systems and methods can obviate the need for an external optical detector, an external gas cell, or other sensing region and reduce the complexity and size of the sensing configuration.

  13. Chemical detection and laser wavelength stabilization employing spectroscopic absorption via laser compliance voltage sensing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taubman, Matthew S; Phillips, Mark C

    2014-03-18

    Systems and methods are disclosed that provide a direct indication of the presence and concentration of an analyte within the external cavity of a laser device that employ the compliance voltage across the laser device. The systems can provide stabilization of the laser wavelength. The systems and methods can obviate the need for an external optical detector, an external gas cell, or other sensing region and reduce the complexity and size of the sensing configuration.

  14. Novel Nonflammable Electrolytes for Secondary Magnesium Batteries and High Voltage Electrolytes for Electrochemcial Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Brian Dixon

    2008-12-30

    Magnesium has been used successfully in primary batteries, but its use in rechargeable cells has been stymied by the lack of suitable non-aqueous electrolyte that can conduct Mg+2 species, combined with poor stripping and plating properties. The development of a suitable cathode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries has also been a roadblock, but a nonflammable electrolyte is key. Likewise, the development of safe high voltage electrochemical supercapaitors has been stymied by the use of flammable solvents in the liquid electrolyte; to wit, acetonitrile. The purpose of the research conducted in this effort was to identify useful compositions of magnesium salts and polyphosphate solvents that would enable magnesium ions to be cycled within a secondary battery design. The polyphosphate solvents would provide the solvent for the magnesium salts while preventing the electrolyte from being flammable. This would enable these novel electrolytes to be considered as an alternative to THF-based electrolytes. In addition, we explored several of these solvents together with lithium slats for use as high voltage electrolytes for carbon-based electrochemical supercapacitors. The research was successful in that: 1) Magnesium imide dissolved in a phosphate ester solvent that contains a halogented phosphate ester appears to be the preferred electrolyte for a rechargeable Mg cell. 2) A combination of B-doped CNTs and vanadium phosphate appear to be the cathode of choice for a rechargeable Mg cell by virtue of higher voltage and better reversibility. 3) Magnesium alloys appear to perform better than pure magnesium when used in combination with the novel polyphosphate electrolytes. Also, this effort has established that Phoenix Innovation??s family of phosphonate/phosphate electrolytes together with specific lithium slats can be used in supercapacitor systems at voltages of greater than 10V.

  15. Control of plasma process by use of harmonic frequency components of voltage and current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Paul A.; Kamon, Mattan

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides for a technique for taking advantage of the intrinsic electrical non-linearity of processing plasmas to add additional control variables that affect process performance. The technique provides for the adjustment of the electrical coupling circuitry, as well as the electrical excitation level, in response to measurements of the reactor voltage and current and to use that capability to modify the plasma characteristics to obtain the desired performance.

  16. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Cell Current Versus Voltage (I-V)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cell Current Versus Voltage (I-V) The National Renewable Energy Laboratory Device Performance group uses three I-V systems to measure performance of individual solar cells. We use two systems for solar concentrator cells - a continuous-illumination concentrator and a high-intensity pulsed solar simulator. For non-concentrator solar cells and multijunction devices we use a Spectrolab X-25 solar simulator. The Spectrolab X-25 test stage also accommodates small modules. The following table provides

  17. A simple approximation for the current-voltage characteristics of high-power, relativistic diodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2016-06-10

    A simple approximation for the current-voltage characteristics of a relativistic electron diode is presented. The approximation is accurate from non-relativistic through relativistic electron energies. Although it is empirically developed, it has many of the fundamental properties of the exact diode solutions. Lastly, the approximation is simple enough to be remembered and worked on almost any pocket calculator, so it has proven to be quite useful on the laboratory floor.

  18. Low Voltage, Low Power Organic Light Emitting Transistors for AMOLED Displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M. A. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Liu, B. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Donoghue, E. P. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Kim, D. Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Reynolds, J. R. [University of Florida, Gainesville; So, Franky [University of Florida, Gainesville; Rinzler, A. G. [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2011-01-01

    Low voltage, low power dissipation, high aperture ratio organic light emitting transistors are demonstrated. The high level of performance is enabled by a carbon nanotube source electrode that permits integration of the drive transistor and the organic light emitting diode into an efficient single stacked device. Given the demonstrated performance, this technology could break the technical logjam holding back widespread deployment of active matrix organic light emitting displays at flat panel screen sizes.

  19. Cathode fall model and current-voltage characteristics of field emission driven direct current microplasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2013-11-15

    The post-breakdown characteristics of field emission driven microplasma are studied theoretically and numerically. A cathode fall model assuming a linearly varying electric field is used to obtain equations governing the operation of steady state field emission driven microplasmas. The results obtained from the model by solving these equations are compared with particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions simulation results for parameters including the plasma potential, cathode fall thickness, ion number density in the cathode fall, and current density vs voltage curves. The model shows good overall agreement with the simulations but results in slightly overpredicted values for the plasma potential and the cathode fall thickness attributed to the assumed electric field profile. The current density vs voltage curves obtained show an arc region characterized by negative slope as well as an abnormal glow discharge characterized by a positive slope in gaps as small as 10 ?m operating at atmospheric pressure. The model also retrieves the traditional macroscale current vs voltage theory in the absence of field emission.

  20. Voltage Regulation Using a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator with a Series Compensator: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, Ping; Wu, Ziping; Muljadi, Eduard; Gao, Wenzhong

    2015-08-24

    A wind power plant (WPP) is often operated at unity power factor, and the utility host where the WPP connects prefers to regulate the voltage. Although this may not be an issue in a stiff grid, the connection to a weak grid can be a problematic. This paper explores the advantages of having voltage regulation capability via reactive power control. Another issue in wind power generation is that not all turbines are able to control their reactive power due to technical reasons or contractual obligations. A synchronous condenser (SC) using a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is proposed to provide necessary reactive power for regulating voltage at a weak grid connection. A PMSG has the advantage of higher efficiency and reliability. Because of its lack of a field winding, a PMSG is typically controlled by a full-power converter, which can be costly. In the proposed system, the reactive power of the SC is controlled by a serially connected compensator operating in a closed-loop configuration. The compensator also damps the PMSG’s tendency to oscillate. The compensator’s VA rating is only a fraction of the rating of the SC and the PMSG. In this initial investigation, the proposed scheme is shown to be effective by computer simulations.

  1. Study of the Variation of Transverse Voltage in the 4 Rod Crab Cavity for LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Hall, G. Burt, C. Lingwood, R. Rimmer, H. Wang

    2011-04-01

    The planned high luminosity upgrade to LHC will utilise crab cavities to rotate the beam in order to increase the luminosity in the presence of a finite crossing angle. A compact design is required in order for the cavities to fit between opposing beam-lines. In this paper we discuss we discuss one option for the LHC crab cavity based on a 4 rod TEM deflecting cavity. Due to the large transverse size of the LHC beam the cavity is required to have a large aperture while maintaining a constant transverse voltage across the aperture. The cavity has been optimised to minimise the variation of the transverse voltage while keeping the peak surface electric and magnetic fields low for a given kick. This is achieved while fitting within the strict design space of the LHC. The variation of deflecting voltage across the aperture has been studied numerically and compared with numerical and analytical estimates of other deflecting cavity types. Performance measurements an aluminium prototype of this cavity are presented and compared to the simulated design.

  2. Degradation of Photovoltaic Modules Under High Voltage Stress in the Field: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    del Cueto, J. A.; Rummel, S. R.

    2010-08-01

    The degradation in performance for eight photovoltaic (PV) modules stressed at high voltage (HV) is presented. Four types of modules--tandem-junction and triple-junction amorphous thin-film silicon, plus crystalline and polycrystalline silicon modules--were tested, with a pair of each biased at opposite polarities. They were deployed outdoors between 2001 and 2009 with their respective HV leakage currents through the module encapsulation continuously monitored with a data acquisition system, along with air temperature and relative humidity. For the first 5 years, all modules were biased continuously at fixed 600 VDC, day and night. In the last 2 years, the modules were step-bias stressed cyclically up and down in voltage between 10 and 600 VDC, in steps of tens to hundreds of volts. This allowed characterization of leakage current versus voltage under a large range of temperature and moisture conditions, facilitating determination of leakage paths. An analysis of the degradation is presented, along with integrated leakage charge. In HV operation: the bulk silicon modules degraded either insignificantly or at rates of 0.1%/yr higher than modules not biased at HV; for the thin-film silicon modules, the added loss rates are insignificant for one type, or 0.2%/yr-0.6%/yr larger for the other type.

  3. In situ current voltage measurements for optimization of a novel fullerene acceptor in bulk heterojunction photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuttle, Christopher G.; Treat, Neil D.; Fan, Jian; Varotto, Alessandro; Hawker, Craig J.; Wudl, Fred; Chabinyc, Michael L.

    2011-10-31

    The evaluation of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of new materials for organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaics is difficult due to the large number of processing parameters possible. An efficient procedure to determine the optimum conditions for thermal treatment of polymer-based bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices using in situ current-voltage measurements is presented. The performance of a new fullerene derivative, 1,9-dihydro-64,65-dihexyloxy-1,9-(methano[1,2] benzomethano)fullerene[60], in BHJ photovolatics with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was evaluated using this methodology. The device characteristics of BHJs obtained from the in situ method were found to be in good agreement with those from BHJs annealed using a conventional process. This fullerene has similar performance to 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-[6,6]-methano fullerene in BHJs with P3HT after thermal annealing. For devices with thickness of 70 nm, the short circuit current was 6.24 mA/cm with a fill factor of 0.53 and open circuit voltage of 0.65 V. The changes in the current-voltage measurements during thermal annealing suggest that the ordering process in P3HT dominates the improvement in power conversion efficiency.

  4. Extremum seeking-based optimization of high voltage converter modulator rise-time

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scheinker, Alexander; Bland, Michael; Krstic, Miroslav; Audia, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    We digitally implement an extremum seeking (ES) algorithm, which optimizes the rise time of the output voltage of a high voltage converter modulator (HVCM) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) HVCM test stand by iteratively, simultaneously tuning the first 8 switching edges of each of the three phase drive waveforms (24 variables total). We achieve a 50 μs rise time, which is reduction in half compared to the 100 μs achieved at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Considering that HVCMs typically operate with an output voltage of 100 kV, with a 60Hz repetitionmore » rate, the 50 μs rise time reduction will result in very significant energy savings. The ES algorithm will prove successful, despite the noisy measurements and cost calculations, confirming the theoretical results that the algorithm is not affected by noise whose frequency components are independent of the perturbing frequencies.« less

  5. CRYOGENIC LIFETIME TESTS ON A COMMERCIAL EPOXY RESIN HIGH VOLTAGE BUSHING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwenterly, S W; Pleva, Ed; Ha, Tam T

    2012-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power devices operating in liquid nitrogen frequently require high-voltage bushings to carry the current leads from the superconducting windings to the room temperature grid connections. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is collaborating with Waukesha Electric Systems, SuperPower, and Southern California Edison to develop and demonstrate an HTS utility power transformer. Previous dielectric high voltage tests in support of this program have been carried out in test cryostats with commercial epoxy resin bushings from Electro Composites Inc. (ECI). Though the bushings performed well in these short-term tests, their long-term operation at high voltage in liquid nitrogen needs to be verified for use on the utility grid. Long-term tests are being carried out on a sample 28-kV-class ECI bushing. The bushing has a monolithic cast, cycloaliphatic resin body and is fire- and shatter-resistant. The test cryostat is located in an interlocked cage and is energized at 25 kVac around the clock. Liquid nitrogen (LN) is automatically refilled every 9.5 hours. Partial discharge, capacitance, and leakage resistance tests are periodically performed to check for deviations from factory values. At present, over 2400 hours have been accumulated with no changes in these parameters. The tests are scheduled to run for four to six months.

  6. UPGRADING THE CEBAF INJECTOR WITH A NEW BOOSTER, HIGHER VOLTAGE GUN, AND HIGHER FINAL ENERGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reza Kazimi, Arne Freyberger, Alicia Hofler, Andrew Hutton, Fay Hannon

    2012-07-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) accelerator at Jefferson Lab will be upgraded from 6 GeV to 12 GeV in the next few years. To meet the requirement of the new machine and to take the opportunity to improve the beam quality, the CEBAF injector will be upgraded with a higher voltage gun, a new booster, and a new accelerating RF module. The CEBAF injector creates and accelerates three beams at different currents simultaneously. The beams are interleaved, each at one third of the RF frequency, traveling through the same beam line. The higher voltage gun will lower the space charge effects. The new booster with optimized beam dynamics will complete the bunching process and provide initial acceleration matched to the new gun voltage. Using our latest SRF design, the new booster has significantly lower x/y coupling effects that should improve our beam setup and operation for the highly sensitive parity experiments scheduled for the CEBAF's future. Finally, the new accelerating RF module will roughly double the injector final energy to match the rest of the 12 GeV accelerator. In this paper we will provide more detail about this upgrade.

  7. Qualification High Voltage Testing of Short Triax HTS Cables in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, David Randy; Sauers, Isidor; Ellis, Alvin R; Tuncer, Enis; Gouge, Michael J; Demko, Jonathan A; Duckworth, Robert C; Rey, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    In order to qualify the electrical insulation design of future HTS cables installed in the electric grid, a number of high voltage qualification tests are generally performed in the laboratory on either single-phase model cables and/or actual three-phase cable samples. Prior to installation of the 200-m Triax HTS cable at the American Electric Power Bixby substation near Columbus, Ohio, in September, 2006, such tests were conducted on both single-phase model cables made at ORNL and tri-axial cable sections cut off from cable made on a production run. The three-phase tri-axial design provides some specific testing challenges since the ground shield and three phases are concentric about a central former with each phase separated by dielectric tape insulation immersed in liquid nitrogen. The samples were successfully tested and qualified for partial discharge inception, AC withstand, and lightning impulse where voltage is applied to one phase with the other phases grounded. In addition one of the phase pairs was tested for dc withstand as a ldquoworst caserdquo scenario to simulate the effect of VLF (Very Low Frequency) tests on the actual cable installed at the Bixby site. The model and prototype cables will be described and the high voltage test results summarized.

  8. Dynamic model based on voltage transfer curve for pattern formation in dielectric barrier glow discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ben; He, Feng; Ouyang, Jiting; Duan, Xiaoxi

    2015-12-15

    Simulation work is very important for understanding the formation of self-organized discharge patterns. Previous works have witnessed different models derived from other systems for simulation of discharge pattern, but most of these models are complicated and time-consuming. In this paper, we introduce a convenient phenomenological dynamic model based on the basic dynamic process of glow discharge and the voltage transfer curve (VTC) to study the dielectric barrier glow discharge (DBGD) pattern. VTC is an important characteristic of DBGD, which plots the change of wall voltage after a discharge as a function of the initial total gap voltage. In the modeling, the combined effect of the discharge conditions is included in VTC, and the activation-inhibition effect is expressed by a spatial interaction term. Besides, the model reduces the dimensionality of the system by just considering the integration effect of current flow. All these greatly facilitate the construction of this model. Numerical simulations turn out to be in good accordance with our previous fluid modeling and experimental result.

  9. Probing the initiation of voltage decay in Li-rich layered cathode materials at the atomic scale

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Yan; Ma, Cheng; Yang, Jihui; Li, Zicheng; Allard, Jr., Lawrence Frederick; Liang, Chengdu; Chi, Miaofang

    2015-01-01

    Li-rich layered oxides hold great promise for improving the energy density of present-day Li-ion batteries. However, their application is limited by the voltage decay upon cycling, and the origin of such a phenomenon is poorly understood. A major issue is determining the voltage range over which detrimental reactions originate. In the present study, a unique yet effective approach was employed to probe this issue. Instead of studying the materials during the first cycle, electrochemical behavior and evolution of the atomic structures were compared in extensively cycled specimens under varied charge/discharge voltages. With the upper cutoff voltage lowered from 4.8 tomore » 4.4 V, the voltage decay ceased to occur even after 60 cycles. In the meantime, the material maintained its layered structure without any spinel phase emerging at the surface, which is unambiguously shown by the atomic-resolution Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy. These results have conclusively demonstrated that structural/chemical changes responsible for the voltage decay began between 4.4 and 4.8 V, where the layered-to-spinel transition was the most dramatic structural change observed. Thus, this discovery lays important groundwork for the mechanistic understanding of the voltage decay in Li-rich layered cathode materials.« less

  10. Pete_Lyons_Nomination_Testimony

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    remain strong and vigilant components of the Nation's integrated defenses against terrorism. I was a consistent voice for improving partnerships with international regulatory...

  11. CallforNominationLetter.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  12. The currentvoltage and capacitancevoltage characteristics at high temperatures of Au Schottky contact to n-type GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    zerli, Halil; Karteri, ?brahim; Karata?, ?kr; Altindal, ?emsettin

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: The electronic parameters of the diode under temperature were investigated. The barrier heights have a Gaussian distribution. Au/n-GaAs diode exhibits a rectification behavior. - Abstract: We have investigated the temperature-dependent currentvoltage (IV) and capacitancevoltage (CV) characteristics of Au/n-GaAs Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) in the temperature range of 280415 K. The barrier height for the Au/n-type GaAs SBDs from the IV and CV characteristics have varied from 0.901 eV to 0.963 eV (IV) and 1.234 eV to 0.967 eV (CV), and the ideality factor (n) from 1.45 to 1.69 in the temperature range 280415 K. The conventional Richardson plots are found to be linear in the temperature range measured. Both the ln(I{sub 0}/T{sup 2}) versus (kT){sup ?1} and ln(I{sub 0}/T{sup 2}) versus (nkT){sup ?1} plots gives a straight line corresponding to activation energies 0.773 eV and 0.870 eV, respectively. A ?{sub b0} versus 1/T plot was drawn to obtain evidence of a Gaussian distribution of the BHs, and values of ?{sup }{sub b0} = 1.071 eV and ?{sub 0} = 0.094 V for the mean BH and zero-bias standard deviation have been obtained from this plot.

  13. Thickness independent reduced forming voltage in oxygen engineered HfO{sub 2} based resistive switching memories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharath, S. U. Kurian, J.; Komissinskiy, P.; Hildebrandt, E.; Alff, L.; Bertaud, T.; Walczyk, C.; Calka, P.; Schroeder, T.

    2014-08-18

    The conducting filament forming voltage of stoichiometric hafnium oxide based resistive switching layers increases linearly with layer thickness. Using strongly reduced oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films grown on polycrystalline TiN/Si(001) substrates, the thickness dependence of the forming voltage is strongly suppressed. Instead, an almost constant forming voltage of about 3?V is observed up to 200?nm layer thickness. This effect suggests that filament formation and switching occurs for all samples in an oxidized HfO{sub 2} surface layer of a few nanometer thickness while the highly oxygen deficient thin film itself merely serves as a oxygen vacancy reservoir.

  14. Biased low differential input impedance current receiver/converter device and method for low noise readout from voltage-controlled detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.; Popov, Vladimir E.

    2011-03-22

    A first stage electronic system for receiving charge or current from voltage-controlled sensors or detectors that includes a low input impedance current receiver/converter device (for example, a transimpedance amplifier), which is directly coupled to the sensor output, a source of bias voltage, and the device's power supply (or supplies), which use the biased voltage point as a baseline.

  15. Evaluation of the Cell Voltage of Electrolytic HI Concentration for Thermochemical Water-Splitting Iodine-Sulfur Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Mitsunori; Okuda, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiroyuki; Kubo, Shinji; Onuki, Kaoru

    2007-07-01

    Breakdown of the cell voltage in the electro-dialysis process for concentrating HIx solution (HI-H{sub 2}O-I{sub 2} mixture) was preliminarily examined in an effort to clarify the optimal operation condition as well as to optimize the cell design for the application to the thermochemical water-splitting IS process for large-scale hydrogen production. Basic data such as electric resistance of HIx solution, overvoltage of the iodine-iodide ion redox reaction at graphite electrode, and the membrane voltage drop, were measured using HIx solution with composition of interest. Also, a methodology for estimating the cell voltage was discussed. The calculated cell voltage agreed well with the experimental one indicating the validity of the procedure adopted. (authors)

  16. Connecting Renewables Directly to the Grid: Resilient Multi-Terminal HVDC Networks with High-Voltage High-Frequency Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-23

    GENI Project: GE is developing electricity transmission hardware that could connect distributed renewable energy sources, like wind farms, directly to the grid—eliminating the need to feed the energy generated through intermediate power conversion stations before they enter the grid. GE is using the advanced semiconductor material silicon carbide (SiC) to conduct electricity through its transmission hardware because SiC can operate at higher voltage levels than semiconductors made out of other materials. This high-voltage capability is important because electricity must be converted to high-voltage levels before it can be sent along the grid’s network of transmission lines. Power companies do this because less electricity is lost along the lines when the voltage is high.

  17. Methods, systems and apparatus for approximation of peak summed fundamental and third harmonic voltages in a multi-phase machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ransom, Ray M.; Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Kinoshita, Michael H.

    2012-07-31

    Methods, system and apparatus are provided for quickly approximating a peak summed magnitude (A) of a phase voltage (Vph) waveform in a multi-phase system that implements third harmonic injection.

  18. Real Power and Reactive Power Control of a Three-Phase Single-Stage-PV System and PV voltage Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huijuan; Xu, Yan; Adhikari, Sarina; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Irminger, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with power electronic interfaces can provide both real and reactive power to meet power system needs with appropriate control algorithms. This paper presents the control algorithm design for a three-phase single-stage grid-connected PV inverter to achieve either maximum power point tracking (MPPT) or a certain amount of real power injection, as well as the voltage/var control. The switching between MPPT control mode and a certain amount of real power control mode is automatic and seamless. Without the DC-to-DC booster stage, PV DC voltage stability is an important issue in the control design especially when the PV inverter is operating at maximum power point (MPP) with voltage/var control. The PV DC voltage collapse phenomenon and its reason are discussed. The method based on dynamic correction of the PV inverter output is proposed to ensure PV DC voltage stability. Simulation results of the single-stage PV system during system disturbances and fast solar irradiation changes confirm that the proposed control algorithm for single-stage PV inverters can provide appropriate real and reactive power services and ensure PV DC voltage stability during dynamic system operation and atmospheric conditions.

  19. Evaluation of electropolished stainless steel electrodes for use in DC high voltage photoelectron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BastaniNejad, Mahzad; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Forman, Eric; Covert, Steven; Hansknecht, John; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Matthew; Das, Lopa; Kelley, Michael; Williams, Phillip

    2015-07-01

    DC high voltage photoelectron guns are used to produce polarized electron beams for accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics research. Low-level field emission (~nA) from the cathode electrode degrades the vacuum within the photogun and reduces the photoelectron yield of the delicate GaAs-based photocathode used to produce the electron beams. High-level field emission (>μA) can cause significant damage the photogun. To minimize field emission, stainless steel electrodes are typically diamond-paste polished, a labor-intensive process often yielding field emission performance with a high degree of variability, sample to sample. As an alternative approach and as comparative study, the performance of electrodes electropolished by conventional commercially available methods is presented. Our observations indicate the electropolished electrodes exhibited less field emission upon the initial application of high voltage, but showed less improvement with gas conditioning compared to the diamond-paste polished electrodes. In contrast, the diamond-paste polished electrodes responded favorably to gas conditioning, and ultimately reached higher voltages and field strengths without field emission, compared to electrodes that were only electropolished. The best performing electrode was one that was both diamond-paste polished and electropolished, reaching a field strength of 18.7 MV/m while generating less than 100 pA of field emission. The speculate that the combined processes were the most effective at reducing both large and small scale topography. However, surface science evaluation indicates topography cannot be the only relevant parameter when it comes to predicting field emission performance.

  20. Evaluation of electropolished stainless steel electrodes for use in DC high voltage photoelectron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BastaniNejad, Mahzad Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Forman, Eric; Covert, Steven; Hansknecht, John; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Matthew; Das, Lopa; Kelley, Michael; Williams, Phillip

    2015-07-15

    DC high voltage photoelectron guns are used to produce polarized electron beams for accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics research. Low-level field emission (∼nA) from the cathode electrode degrades the vacuum within the photogun and reduces the photoelectron yield of the delicate GaAs-based photocathode used to produce the electron beams. High-level field emission (>μA) can cause significant damage the photogun. To minimize field emission, stainless steel electrodes are typically diamond-paste polished, a labor-intensive process often yielding field emission performance with a high degree of variability, sample to sample. As an alternative approach and as comparative study, the performance of electrodes electropolished by conventional commercially available methods is presented. Our observations indicate the electropolished electrodes exhibited less field emission upon the initial application of high voltage, but showed less improvement with gas conditioning compared to the diamond-paste polished electrodes. In contrast, the diamond-paste polished electrodes responded favorably to gas conditioning, and ultimately reached higher voltages and field strengths without field emission, compared to electrodes that were only electropolished. The best performing electrode was one that was both diamond-paste polished and electropolished, reaching a field strength of 18.7 MV/m while generating less than 100 pA of field emission. The authors speculate that the combined processes were the most effective at reducing both large and small scale topography. However, surface science evaluation indicates topography cannot be the only relevant parameter when it comes to predicting field emission performance.