Sample records for volt ampere reactive

  1. Development of an Enhanced GenVARR™ (Generator Volt Ampere Reactive Reserve) System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schatz, Joe E.

    2009-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Transmission system operators require near real time knowledge of reactive power capability to reliably operate large electric power transmission systems. Reactive power produced by, or capable of being produced by, a power generator is often estimated based on a series of mega volt amperes (MVA) capability curves for the generator. These curves indicate the ability of the generator to produce real and reactive power under a variety of conditions. In transmission planning and operating studies, it is often assumed, based on estimates for these capability curves, that the generator can provide its rated MVA capability output when needed for system stability However, generators may not always operate at levels depicted by the maximum MVA capability curve due to present constraints. Transmission system operators utilizing the generators’ capability curves for operation decisions regarding transmission system stability or for planning horizons may overestimate the capability of the generators to supply reactive power when required. Southern Company has enhanced GenVARR(TM), the system of plant data query, retrieval, and analysis and calculates the actual – not estimated -- remaining reactive power output capability. The remaining reactive output is considered spinning reserve and is displayed graphically to transmission control center and generating plant operators to identify real time VAR limits. GenVARR is capable of aggregating generators from a defined region, or other user selectable combinations, to represent the available reserves that the operators are specifically interested in. GenVARR(TM) has been put into live production operation and is expected to significantly improve the overall visibility of the reactive reserve capability of the system. This new version of GenVARR(TM) significantly enhances the products structure and performance, and enables links to other key transmission system operation tools.

  2. Chevrolet Volt Vehicle Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Chevrolet Volt Vehicle Demonstration Fleet Summary Report Reporting period: October 2011 through December 2011 Number of vehicles: 135 Number of vehicle days driven: 4,746 All...

  3. Chevrolet Volt Vehicle Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Volt Vehicle Demonstration Fleet Summary Report Reporting period: January 2013 through March 2013 Number of vehicles: 146 Number of vehicle days driven: 6,680 4292013 2:38:13 PM...

  4. Clock for and CAMAC hardware for measurement of volt-amphere characteristic of thermionic converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DZHASHIASHVILI, Yu.N.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a clock that is controlled by a computer through a CAMAC output-register module. The clock trigger the load of a thermionic converter for measurement of the volt-ampere charecteristic for 10 msec and synchronizes the start of measurement with the phase of the applied voltage. A schemitic diagram of the clock is shown. The clock increases the data-acquisition speed in successive measurement of several VACs with a limited amount of buffer memory.

  5. Conservation of reactive electromagnetic energy in reactive time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerald Kaiser

    2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The complex Poynting theorem (CPT) is extended to a canonical time-scale domain $(t,s)$. Time-harmonic phasors are replaced by the positive-frequency parts of general fields, which extend analytically to complex time $t+is$, with $s>0$ interpreted as a time resolution scale. The real part of the extended CPT gives conservation in $t$ of a time-averaged field energy, and its imaginary part gives conservation in $s$ of a time-averaged reactive energy. In both cases, the averaging windows are determined by a Cauchy kernel of width $\\Delta t\\sim \\pm s$. This completes the time-harmonic CPT, whose imaginary part is generally supposed to be vaguely `related to' reactive energy without giving a conservation law, or even an expression, for the latter. The interpretation of $s$ as reactive time, tracking the leads and lags associated with stored capacitative and inductive energy, gives a simple explanation of the volt-ampere reactive (var) unit measuring reactive power: a var is simply one Joule per reactive second. The related 'complex radiation impedance density' is introduced to represent the field's local reluctance to radiate.

  6. Conservation of reactive electromagnetic energy in reactive time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Gerald

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The complex Poynting theorem (CPT) is extended to a canonical time-scale domain $(t,s)$. Time-harmonic phasors are replaced by the positive-frequency parts of general fields, which extend analytically to complex time $t+is$, with $s>0$ interpreted as a time resolution scale. The real part of the extended CPT gives conservation in $t$ of a time-averaged field energy, and its imaginary part gives conservation in $s$ of a time-averaged reactive energy. In both cases, the averaging windows are determined by a Cauchy kernel of width $\\Delta t\\sim \\pm s$. This completes the time-harmonic CPT, whose imaginary part is generally supposed to be vaguely `related to' reactive energy without giving a conservation law, or even an expression, for the latter. The interpretation of $s$ as reactive time, tracking the leads and lags associated with stored capacitative and inductive energy, gives a simple explanation of the volt-ampere reactive (var) unit measuring reactive power: a var is simply one Joule per reactive second. T...

  7. AVTA: 2012 Chevrolet Volt PHEV Downloadable Dynamometer Database...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chevrolet Volt PHEV Downloadable Dynamometer Database Reports AVTA: 2012 Chevrolet Volt PHEV Downloadable Dynamometer Database Reports The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced...

  8. 2011 Chevrolet Volt EREV Accelerated Testing - June 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Chevrolet Volt EREV Accelerated Testing - June 2013 Two model year 2011 Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicles (EREVs) entered Accelerated testing during March 2011 in a...

  9. EV Project Chevrolet Volt Vehicle Summary Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    charging events per day when the vehicle was driven 1.5 EV Project Chevrolet Volt Vehicle Summary Report Region: ALL Number of vehicles: 1895 Reporting period: April 2013 through...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - ampere average current Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    students' difficulties with Ampere's law Colin S. Wallace1, Summary: . In terms of Ampere's law, this course spent five lectures on current distributions, Ampere's...

  11. Nissan Leafs and Chevrolet Volts Reporting Data in The EV Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Knoxville 88 Leafs 17 Volts DC 7 Leafs 177 Volts San Diego 657 Leafs 153 Volts 300 Smart Electric Drives Tucson 79 Leafs 7 Volts Chattanooga 50 Leafs 11 Volts Copyright: 2009...

  12. A Tariff for Reactive Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two kinds of power are required to operate an electric power system: real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive or VARs. Reactive power supply is one of a class of power system reliability services collectively known as ancillary services, and is essential for the reliable operation of the bulk power system. Reactive power flows when current leads or lags behind voltage. Typically, the current in a distribution system lags behind voltage because of inductive loads such as motors. Reactive power flow wastes energy and capacity and causes voltage droop. To correct lagging power flow, leading reactive power (current leading voltage) is supplied to bring the current into phase with voltage. When the current is in phase with voltage, there is a reduction in system losses, an increase in system capacity, and a rise in voltage. Reactive power can be supplied from either static or dynamic VAR sources. Static sources are typically transmission and distribution equipment, such as capacitors at substations, and their cost has historically been included in the revenue requirement of the transmission operator (TO), and recovered through cost-of-service rates. By contrast, dynamic sources are typically generators capable of producing variable levels of reactive power by automatically controlling the generator to regulate voltage. Transmission system devices such as synchronous condensers can also provide dynamic reactive power. A class of solid state devices (called flexible AC transmission system devices or FACTs) can provide dynamic reactive power. One specific device has the unfortunate name of static VAR compensator (SVC), where 'static' refers to the solid state nature of the device (it does not include rotating equipment) and not to the production of static reactive power. Dynamic sources at the distribution level, while more costly would be very useful in helping to regulate local voltage. Local voltage regulation would reduce system losses, increase circuit capacity, increase reliability, and improve efficiency. Reactive power is theoretically available from any inverter-based equipment such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, fuel cells, microturbines, and adjustable-speed drives. However, the installation is usually only economical if reactive power supply is considered during the design and construction phase. In this report, we find that if the inverters of PV systems or the generators of combined heat and power (CHP) systems were designed with capability to supply dynamic reactive power, they could do this quite economically. In fact, on an annualized basis, these inverters and generators may be able to supply dynamic reactive power for about $5 or $6 per kVAR. The savings from the local supply of dynamic reactive power would be in reduced losses, increased capacity, and decreased transmission congestion. The net savings are estimated to be about $7 per kVAR on an annualized basis for a hypothetical circuit. Thus the distribution company could economically purchase a dynamic reactive power service from customers for perhaps $6/kVAR. This practice would provide for better voltage regulation in the distribution system and would provide an alternate revenue source to help amortize the cost of PV and CHP installations. As distribution and transmission systems are operated under rising levels of stress, the value of local dynamic reactive supply is expected to grow. Also, large power inverters, in the range of 500 kW to 1 MW, are expected to decrease in cost as they become mass produced. This report provides one data point which shows that the local supply of dynamic reactive power is marginally profitable at present for a hypothetical circuit. We expect that the trends of growing power flow on the existing system and mass production of inverters for distributed energy devices will make the dynamic supply of reactive power from customers an integral component of economical and reliable system operation in the future.

  13. AVTA: Chevrolet Volt 2013 Testing Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe results of testing done on a 2013 Chevrolet Volt. Baseline and battery testing data collected at Argonne National Laboratory is available in summary and CSV form on the Argonne Downloadable Dynometer Database site (http://www.transportation.anl.gov/D3/2013_chevy_volt_phev.html). The reports for download here are based on research done at Idaho National Laboratory. Taken together, these reports give an overall view of how this vehicle functions under extensive testing.

  14. Nissan Leafs and Chevrolet Volts Reporting Data in The EV Project...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    898 Leafs 164 Volts Oregon 541 Leafs 133 Volts 30 Smart Electric Drives San Francisco 1708 Leafs Los Angeles 424 Leafs 338 Volts Chicago 26 Leafs 129 Volts Atlanta 153 Leafs 75...

  15. Bonneville Power Ampere Annex Z-995 Building

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Vancouver, WA The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), a federal agency headquartered in Portland, Oregon, provides about half of the electricity used in the Pacific Northwest and operates more than three-fourths of the region's high-voltage transmission. Because BPA markets power at cost from 31 federal dams, its rates are among the least expensive electricity in the country. The Ampere Annex project is a renovation of an exisiting 60-year-old standard warehouse building located within the Ross Complex.

  16. Reports on Initial Results of Smart Grid Investment Grant Projects...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and time-based rates; adding advanced voltage and volt-ampere reactive (VAR) optimization (VVO) technologies; and installing advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). For more...

  17. AVTA: 2011 Chevrolet Volt Testing Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe results of testing done on a Chevrolet Volt 2011. The baseline performance testing provides a point of comparison for the other test results. Taken together, these reports give an overall view of how this vehicle functions under extensive testing. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  18. GreenVolts | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat Jump to:Photon Place: Golden,GreenVolts Jump to: navigation, search Logo:

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: HelioVolt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik Spoerke SSLS Exhibit at ExploraGlobal SandiaVermontFacilityHeFlHelioVolt

  20. HydroVolts | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat Jump to:PhotonHolyName HousingIII WindHybrids PlusHydroVolts Jump to:

  1. Amper Central Solar SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300Algoil JumpAltergy SystemsAmerican EnergyAmericus,AmeyaAmity,AmoghaAmper

  2. A Method for Evaluating Volt-VAR Optimization Field Demonstrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In a regulated business environment a utility must be able to validate that deployed technologies provide quantifiable benefits to the end-use customers. For traditional technologies there are well established procedures for determining what benefits will be derived from the deployment. But for many emerging technologies procedures for determining benefits are less clear and completely absent in some cases. Volt-VAR Optimization is a technology that is being deployed across the nation, but there are still numerous discussions about potential benefits and how they are achieved. This paper will present a method for the evaluation, and quantification of benefits, for field deployments of Volt-VAR Optimization technologies. In addition to the basic methodology, the paper will present a summary of results, and observations, from two separate Volt-VAR Optimization field evaluations using the proposed method.

  3. Reactive-power compensation of coal mining excavators by using a new-generation STATCOM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilgin, H.F.; Ermis, M.; Kose, K.N.; Cadirci, I.; Acik, A.; Demirci, T.; Terciyanli, A.; Kocak, C.; Yorukoglu, M. [TUBITAK Information Technology & Electronic Research Institute, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with the development and implementation of a current-source-converter-based static synchronous compensator (CSC-STATCOM) applied to the volt-ampere-reactive (VAR) compensation problem of coal mining excavators. It is composed of a +/- 750-kVAR full-bridge CSC with selective harmonic elimination, a low-pass input filter tuned to 200 Hz, and a Delta/Y-connected coupling transformer for connection to medium-voltage load bus. Each power semiconductor switch is composed of an asymmetrical integrated gate commutated thyristor (IGCT) connected in series with a reverse-blocking diode and switched at 500 Hz to eliminate 5th, 7th, 11th, and 13th current harmonics produced by the CSC. Operating principles, power stage, design of dc link, and input filter are also described in this paper. It has been verified by field tests that the developed STATCOM follows rapid fluctuations in nearly symmetrical lagging and leading VAR consumption of electric excavators, resulting in nearly unity power factor on monthly basis, and the harmonic current spectra in the lines of CSC-STATCOM at the point of common coupling comply with the IEEE Standard 519-1992.

  4. Nissan Leafs and Chevrolet Volts Reporting Data in The EV Project...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    December 2012 Washington State 893 Leafs 98 Volts Oregon 549 Leafs 94 Volts 30 Smart Electric Drives San Francisco 1730 Lea fs Los Angeles 497 Lea fs 165 Vo lts Chicago 29...

  5. AVTA: Chevrolet Volt ARRA Vehicle Demonstration Project Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports summarize data collected from a project General Motors conducted to deploy 150 2011 Chevrolet Volts around the country. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  6. Measurements of the volt-ampere characteristics and the breakdown voltages of direct-current helium and hydrogen discharges in microgaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klas, M.; Matej?ik, Š. [Department of Experimental Physics, Comenius University, Mlynskadolina F2, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Radjenovi?, B.; Radmilovi?-Radjenovi?, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 57, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The discharge phenomena for micro meter gap sizes include many interesting problems from engineering and physical perspectives. In this paper, the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical results of the breakdown voltage and current-voltage characteristics of the direct-current helium and hydrogen discharges. The measurements were performed at a constant pressure of around one atmosphere, while varying the gap size between two parallel plane tungsten electrodes between 1??m and 100??m. From the measured breakdown voltage curves, the effective yields and the ionization coefficients were derived for both gases. Present data for the ionization coefficients correlate with the data obtained for the breakdown voltage curves measured for fixed 100??m interelectrode separation. The current-voltage characteristics were plotted for the various gap sizes illustrating the role of the field emission effects in the microgaps. Based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory, the enhancement factors were determined. The gap spacing dependence of the field emission current can be explained by the introduction of two ideas, the first being a space charge effect by emitted electrons, and the second a change in the breakdown mechanism. Experimental results, presented here, demonstrate that Townsend phenomenology breaks down when field emission becomes the key mechanism affecting the breakdown and deforming the left hand side of the breakdown voltage curves.

  7. AVTA: ARRA EV Project Chevrolet Volt Data Summary Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports provide summary overviews of the 2,600 plug-in hybrid electric Chevrolet Volts deployed through the EV Project. It also deployed about 14,000 Level 2 PEV chargers and 300 DC fast chargers. Background data on how this data was collected is in the EV Project: About the Reports. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  8. 2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN 0815 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2-29678 2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN 0815 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results Tyler Gray Jeffrey Wishart Matthew Shirk July 2013 The Idaho National Laboratory is a U.S....

  9. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Benchmark Testing of the Chevrolet Volt Onboard Charger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Carlson

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a report for public consumption, for the AVTA website, detailing the testing and analysis of the benchmark testing conducted on the Chevrolet Volt on-board charger.

  10. Actual Versus Estimated Utility Factor of a Large Set of Privately Owned Chevrolet Volts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Thomas Bradley; Stephen Schey

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to determine the overall fuel economy of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the amount of operation in charge depleting (CD) versus charge sustaining modes must be determined. Mode of operation is predominantly dependent on customer usage of the vehicle and is therefore highly variable. The utility factor (UF) concept was developed to quantify the distance a group of vehicles has traveled or may travel in CD mode. SAE J2841 presents a UF calculation method based on data collected from travel surveys of conventional vehicles. UF estimates have been used in a variety of areas, including the calculation of window sticker fuel economy, policy decisions, and vehicle design determination. The EV Project, a plug-in electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration being conducted across the United States, provides the opportunity to determine the real-world UF of a large group of privately owned Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicles. Using data collected from Volts enrolled in The EV Project, this paper compares the real-world UF of two groups of Chevrolet Volts to estimated UF's based on J2841. The actual observed fleet utility factors (FUF) for the MY2011/2012 and MY2013 Volt groups studied were observed to be 72% and 74%, respectively. Using the EPA CD ranges, the method prescribed by J2841 estimates a FUF of 65% and 68% for the MY2011/2012 and MY2013 Volt groups, respectively. Volt drivers achieved higher percentages of distance traveled in EV mode for two reasons. First, they had fewer long-distance travel days than drivers in the national travel survey referenced by J2841. Second, they charged more frequently than the J2841 assumption of once per day - drivers of Volts in this study averaged over 1.4 charging events per day. Although actual CD range varied widely as driving conditions varied, the average CD ranges for the two Volt groups studied matched the EPA CD range estimates, so CD range variation did not affect FUF results.

  11. Aerosol-Jet-Printed, 1 Volt HBridge Drive Circuit on Plastic with Integrated Electrochromic Pixel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Chris H.

    Aerosol-Jet-Printed, 1 Volt HBridge Drive Circuit on Plastic with Integrated Electrochromic Pixel electrochromic (EC) pixel as large as 4 mm2 that is printed on the same substrate. All of the key components, flexible electronics, electrochromic pixel, transistor, capacitor, ion gel 1. INTRODUCTION Printing

  12. How many electric miles do Nissan Leafs and Chevrolet Volts in The EV Project travel?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents travel statistics and metrics describing the driving behavior of Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt drivers in the EV Project. It specifically quantifies the distance each group of vehicles drives each month. This paper will be published to INL's external website and will be accessible by the general public.

  13. Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umstadter, Donald

    Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse Xiaofang Wang emission from the interaction of an ultrafast ( 29 fs), intense ( 1018 W/cm2 ) laser pulse with underdense of such an ultrafast laser pulse with matter and possible new approaches to MeV electron generation. In this paper we

  14. How much are Chevrolet Volts in The EV Project driven in EV Mode?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes key conclusions from analysis of data collected from Chevrolet Volts participating in The EV Project. Topics include how many miles are driven in EV mode, how far vehicles are driven between charging events, and how much energy is charged from the electric grid per charging event.

  15. The characteristics of arcing faults in 480-volt power distribution systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Yu?

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    December 1994 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ARCING FAULTS IN 480-VOLT POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS A Thesis by YU SHI Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: B. Don Russell (Chair of Committee) . M. Hua g (Member) , 24 . Yurt (Member) M. Kezunovic (Member) A. D. Patton (Head of Department) December 1994 Major Subject; Electrical Engineering...

  16. Where do Chevrolet Volt drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates where Chevy Volt drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at home, work, or some other location.

  17. Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch in Real-Time S. Salamat Sharif1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, James H.

    ) an improvement in the volt- age profile and voltage stability, and 2) a savings in ac- tive power loss of view. A reduction in active power loss gained from ORPD can save a significant amount of money reactive power dispatch, power loss minimization, optimization methods 1 Introduction Optimal power

  18. Connectivity-Enhanced Route Selection and Adaptive Control for the Chevrolet Volt: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.; Wood, E.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and General Motors evaluated connectivity-enabled efficiency enhancements for the Chevrolet Volt. A high-level model was developed to predict vehicle fuel and electricity consumption based on driving characteristics and vehicle state inputs. These techniques were leveraged to optimize energy efficiency via green routing and intelligent control mode scheduling, which were evaluated using prospective driving routes between tens of thousands of real-world origin/destination pairs. The overall energy savings potential of green routing and intelligent mode scheduling was estimated at 5% and 3% respectively. These represent substantial opportunities considering that they only require software adjustments to implement.

  19. A FAMILY OF TWENTY-AMPERES POWER SUPPLIES FOR MULTI-POLE CORRECTORS FOR ACCELERATORS AND STORAGE RINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozak, Victor R.

    A FAMILY OF TWENTY-AMPERES POWER SUPPLIES FOR MULTI- POLE CORRECTORS FOR ACCELERATORS AND STORAGE of accelerator facilities and storage ring complexes in broad range of output power. Some tasks, e.g. powering-150, correspondingly. The power supplies developed meet the requirements of the up-to-date accelerator facilities

  20. 2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN 0815 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), including testing the PHEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 12,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Chevrolet Volt PHEV (VIN 1G1RD6E48BU100815). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  1. What Kind of Charging Infrastructure Do Chevrolet Volt Drivers in The EV Project Use and When Do They Use It?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shawn Salisbury

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document will present information describing the charging behavior of Chevrolet Volts that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will included aggregated data from more than 1,800 vehicles regarding locations, power levels, and time-of-day of charging events performed by those vehicles. This document will be published to the INL AVTA website.

  2. Fast Energy Loss Computation and Fuzzy-Based Shunt Capacitor Insertion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    system and to measure the Volt- Ampere, KVolt and KVAR and draw the daily load curve for residential power, reactive power, load voltage, load current, power factor, and the shunt capacitors current. It is found that when 2.7 MVAR bank capacitor is inserted in the network the load current is decreased from

  3. Reactive Maintenance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reactive maintenance follows a run-it-until-it-breaks strategy where no actions or efforts are taken to maintain equipment as intended by the manufacturer. Studies indicate this is still the predominant mode of maintenance for Federal facilities.

  4. Toroidal ripple transport of beam ions in the mega-ampere spherical tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClements, K. G. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hole, M. J. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physical Science and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The transport of injected beam ions due to toroidal magnetic field ripple in the mega-ampere spherical tokamak (MAST) is quantified using a full orbit particle tracking code, with collisional slowing-down and pitch-angle scattering by electrons and bulk ions taken into account. It is shown that the level of ripple losses is generally rather low, although it depends sensitively on the major radius of the outer midplane plasma edge; for typical values of this parameter in MAST plasmas, the reduction in beam heating power due specifically to ripple transport is less than 1%, and the ripple contribution to beam ion diffusivity is of the order of 0.1 m{sup 2} s{sup -1} or less. It is concluded that ripple effects make only a small contribution to anomalous transport rates that have been invoked to account for measured neutron rates and plasma stored energies in some MAST discharges. Delayed (non-prompt) losses are shown to occur close to the outer midplane, suggesting that banana-drift diffusion is the most likely cause of the ripple-induced losses.

  5. Electron-Atom Superelastic Scattering in Magnesium at Millielectron Volt Energies T. Baynard, A. C. Reber, R. F. Niedziela,| S. A. Darveau, B. Prutzman,# and R. S. Berry*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, R. Stephen

    Electron-Atom Superelastic Scattering in Magnesium at Millielectron Volt Energies T. Baynard, A. C energy dependence of magnesium from threshold to 1400 eV10 with an energy resolution of 250 meV. Similar

  6. Optimization of Solar Cell Design for Use with GreenVolts CPV System: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-00281

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, S.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GreenVolts, a Bay area start-up, was developing a CPV system that was based on a unique reflective optical design. They were interested in adapting the inverted GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs cell structure designed at NREL for use in their system. The purpose of this project was to optimize the inverted GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs cell for operation in the GreenVolts optical system.

  7. Reactive Gliosis Reactive Oxygen Species: Superoxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . By sensing the electric signals generated by other 3368 Reactive Gliosis #12;individuals, mormyrids are alsoReactive Gliosis Glial Scar Reactive Oxygen Species: Superoxide Anions Neuroinflammation motor output. Reafferent Control in Electric Communication Reafferent Control in Electric Communication

  8. Causal Analysis of the Inadvertent Contact with an Uncontrolled Electrical Hazardous Energy Source (120 Volts AC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David E. James; Dennis E. Raunig; Sean S. Cunningham

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On September 25, 2013, a Health Physics Technician (HPT) was performing preparations to support a pneumatic transfer from the HFEF Decon Cell to the Room 130 Glovebox in HFEF, per HFEF OI 3165 section 3.5, Field Preparations. This activity involves an HPT setting up and climbing a portable ladder to remove the 14-C meter probe from above ball valve HBV-7. The HPT source checks the meter and probe and then replaces the probe above HBV-7, which is located above Hood ID# 130 HP. At approximately 13:20, while reaching past the HBV-7 valve position indicator switches in an attempt to place the 14-C meter probe in the desired location, the HPT’s left forearm came in contact with one of the three sets of exposed terminals on the valve position indication switches for HBV 7. This resulted in the HPT receiving an electrical shock from a 120 Volt AC source. Upon moving the arm, following the electrical shock, the HPT noticed two exposed electrical connections on a switch. The HPT then notified the HFEF HPT Supervisor, who in turn notified the MFC Radiological Controls Manager and HFEF Operations Manager of the situation. Work was stopped in the area and the hazard was roped off and posted to prevent access to the hazard. The HPT was escorted by the HPT Supervisor to the MFC Dispensary and then preceded to CFA medical for further evaluation. The individual was evaluated and released without any medical restrictions. Causal Factor (Root Cause) A3B3C01/A5B2C08: - Knowledge based error/Attention was given to wrong issues - Written Communication content LTA, Incomplete/situation not covered The Causal Factor (root cause) was attention being given to the wrong issues during the creation, reviews, verifications, and actual performance of HFEF OI-3165, which covers the need to perform the weekly source check and ensure placement of the probe prior to performing a “rabbit” transfer. This resulted in the hazard not being identified and mitigated in the procedure. Work activities with in HFEF-OI-3165 placed the HPT in proximity of an unmitigated hazard directly resulting in this event. Contributing Factor A3B3C04/A4B5C04: - Knowledge Based Error, LTA Review Based on Assumption That Process Will Not Change - Change Management LTA, Risks/consequences associated with change not adequately reviewed/assessed Prior to the pneumatic system being out of service, the probe and meter were not being source checked together. The source check issue was identified and addressed during the period of time when the system was out of service. The corrective actions for this issue resulted in the requirement that a meter and probe be source checked together as it is intended to be used. This changed the activity and required an HPT to weekly, when in use, remove and install the probe from above HBV-7 to meet the requirement of LRD 15001 Part 5 Article 551.5. Risks and consequences associated with this change were not adequately reviewed or assessed. Failure to identify the hazard associated with this change directly contributed to this event.

  9. Guidance Document Reactive Chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    showers and chillers. Health Hazards: The reactive chemicals are grouped primarily because of the physical

  10. Capacitor-Less VAR Compensator Based on a Matrix Converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, Divya Rathna

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    greatly contributed to the completion of this work. I owe my gratitude to them for always believing in me and helping me through my academic pursuit. vii NOMENCLATURE VAR Volt-ampere reactive MC 3-phase ac-to-3-phase ac matrix converter v1... [10] ...... 12 10 Equivalent circuit of a capacitor................................................................. 13 11 Basic layout of a 3/3 MC............................................................................ 16 12 Block diagram...

  11. Chevrolet Volt Vehicle Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overall gasoline fuel economy (mpg) 85.0 Overall AC electrical energy consumption (AC Whmi) 181 Average Trip Distance 11.8 Total distance traveled (mi) 38,769 Average Ambient...

  12. Chevrolet Volt Vehicle Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overall gasoline fuel economy (mpg) 73.7 Overall AC electrical energy consumption (AC Whmi) 170 Average Trip Distance 12.6 Total distance traveled (mi) 370,987 Average Ambient...

  13. Chevrolet Volt Vehicle Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overall gasoline fuel economy (mpg) 67.8 Overall AC electrical energy consumption (AC Whmi) 180 Average Trip Distance 12.8 Total distance traveled (mi) 346,409 Average Ambient...

  14. Chevrolet Volt Vehicle Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overall gasoline fuel economy (mpg) 74.8 Overall AC electrical energy consumption (AC Whmi) 185 Average Trip Distance 13.1 Total distance traveled (mi) 208,165 Average Ambient...

  15. Chevrolet Volt Vehicle Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overall gasoline fuel economy (mpg) 72.5 Overall AC electrical energy consumption (AC Whmi) 166 Average Trip Distance 12.1 Total distance traveled (mi) 385,849 Average Ambient...

  16. Chevrolet Volt Vehicle Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    8.2 Overall AC electrical energy consumption (AC Whmi) 157 Average Trip Distance 12.3 Total distance traveled (mi) 407,245 Average Ambient Temperature (deg F) 67.9 Electric...

  17. Chevrolet Volt Vehicle Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    70.1 Overall AC electrical energy consumption (AC Whmi) 169 Average Trip Distance 12.3 Total distance traveled (mi) 2,817,365 Average Ambient Temperature (deg F) 62.4 Electric...

  18. Chevrolet Volt Vehicle Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    All operation Overall gasoline fuel economy (mpg) 66.6 Overall AC electrical energy consumption (AC Whmi) 171 Average Trip Distance 11.9 Total distance traveled (mi) 370,316...

  19. Using Bayesian analysis and Gaussian processes to infer electron temperature and density profiles on the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nessi, G. T. von; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A unified, Bayesian inference of midplane electron temperature and density profiles using both Thomson scattering (TS) and interferometric data is presented. Beyond the Bayesian nature of the analysis, novel features of the inference are the use of a Gaussian process prior to infer a mollification length-scale of inferred profiles and the use of Gauss-Laguerre quadratures to directly calculate the depolarisation term associated with the TS forward model. Results are presented from an application of the method to data from the high resolution TS system on the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak, along with a comparison to profiles coming from the standard analysis carried out on that system.

  20. Orange and Rockland Case Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    capital expenditures, (3) operational savings, (4) lower electricity costs, and (5) lower electricity consumption and environmental emissions through voltage and volt-amperes...

  1. Reactive power compensator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Woodinville, WA); Chen, Mingliang (Kirkland, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Huang, Tony (Seattle, WA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  2. Reactive Power Compensator.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Venkata, S.S.; Chen, M.; Andexler, G.; Huang, T.

    1992-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation. 26 figs.

  3. Reactive Power Compensating System.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1985-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.

  4. 25000 Volts Under the Sea

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value ofRPT-55983, Rev.

  5. Sky Volt | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g Grant ofRichardtonManagement, 2009) | OpenSixth Dimension

  6. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized in Supercritical Fluid. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified...

  7. Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Abstract: The formation...

  8. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  9. CX-006633: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Office As a result of lightning, the 2500 kilovolt-ampere 13.8 kilovolt480 volts transformer that normally supplies power to the switchgear was damaged. The transformer repair...

  10. Particle Swarm Optimization Based Reactive Power Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sujin, P R; Linda, M Mary

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive power plays an important role in supporting the real power transfer by maintaining voltage stability and system reliability. It is a critical element for a transmission operator to ensure the reliability of an electric system while minimizing the cost associated with it. The traditional objectives of reactive power dispatch are focused on the technical side of reactive support such as minimization of transmission losses. Reactive power cost compensation to a generator is based on the incurred cost of its reactive power contribution less the cost of its obligation to support the active power delivery. In this paper an efficient Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based reactive power optimization approach is presented. The optimal reactive power dispatch problem is a nonlinear optimization problem with several constraints. The objective of the proposed PSO is to minimize the total support cost from generators and reactive compensators. It is achieved by maintaining the whole system power loss as minimum...

  11. Reactive Power Support Services in Electricity Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reactive Power Support Services in Electricity Markets Costing and Pricing of Ancillary Services Final Project Report Power Systems Engineering Research Center A National Science Foundation Industry Reactive Power Support Services in Electricity Markets Costing and Pricing of Ancillary Services Project

  12. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choose the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  13. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandel, Navdeep S

    Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species (mROS) as a natural by-product of electron transport chain activity. While initial studies focused on the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, a recent paradigm shift ...

  14. Deep Reactive Ion Etching | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: CrudeOffice ofINL isSeparationsRelevantDeep Reactive Ion

  15. Layered reactive particles with controlled geometries, energies, and reactivities, and methods for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, Gregory M; Knepper, Robert Allen; Weihs, Timothy P; Gash, Alexander E; Sze, John S

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An energetic composite having a plurality of reactive particles each having a reactive multilayer construction formed by successively depositing reactive layers on a rod-shaped substrate having a longitudinal axis, dividing the reactive-layer-deposited rod-shaped substrate into a plurality of substantially uniform longitudinal segments, and removing the rod-shaped substrate from the longitudinal segments, so that the reactive particles have a controlled, substantially uniform, cylindrically curved or otherwise rod-contoured geometry which facilitates handling and improves its packing fraction, while the reactant multilayer construction controls the stability, reactivity and energy density of the energetic composite.

  16. Anisotropic reactive ion etching of vanadium dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radle, Byron K

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Weichold Vanadium dioxide (V02) was anisotropically reactive ion etched using carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) . CF4, as an etch gas, provided the chemistry along with the control needed to achieve an anisotropic etch. This chemistry was practically inert... with vanadium quite easily. This leads to interest in using a fluorine- based chemistry. The goal of this research is to produce a selective anisotropic reactive ion etch for VO2 /photoresist using only carbon tetrafluoride (CFq) . Reactive ion etching...

  17. Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Report:Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8 Support.August 2004

  18. Exploring the reactivity of bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinberg, Christine Elaine

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 1. Introduction: The Reactivity of Bacterial Multicomponent Monooxygenases Bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases constitute a remarkable family of enzymes that oxidize small, inert hydrocarbon substrates using ...

  19. Permeable Reactive Barriers | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    react with a contaminant plume in ground water. Typically, PRBs are emplaced by replacing soils with reactive material in a trench cut through a contaminated ground water aquifer....

  20. Method for reactivating catalysts and a method for recycling supercritical fluids used to reactivate the catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thompson, David N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Raymond P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of reactivating a catalyst, such as a solid catalyst or a liquid catalyst. The method comprises providing a catalyst that is at least partially deactivated by fouling agents. The catalyst is contacted with a fluid reactivating agent that is at or above a critical point of the fluid reactivating agent and is of sufficient density to dissolve impurities. The fluid reactivating agent reacts with at least one fouling agent, releasing the at least one fouling agent from the catalyst. The at least one fouling agent becomes dissolved in the fluid reactivating agent and is subsequently separated or removed from the fluid reactivating agent so that the fluid reactivating agent may be reused. A system for reactivating a catalyst is also disclosed.

  1. REACTIVE LOAD MODELINGIMPACTS ONNODAL PRICESINPOOL MODELELECTRICITYMARKETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    REACTIVE LOAD MODELINGIMPACTS ONNODAL PRICESINPOOL MODELELECTRICITYMARKETS EttoreBompard, Enrico of the nodal prices in competitive electricity markets based on the Pool paradigm. Such prices focus of the paper is on the explicit evaluation of the impactsof the reactive load onthenodal real

  2. REACTIVE ENVIRONMENTS AND AUGMENTED MEDIA SPACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooperstock, Jeremy R.

    REACTIVE ENVIRONMENTS AND AUGMENTED MEDIA SPACES by Jeremy R. Cooperstock A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Graduate Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Toronto © Copyright by Jeremy R. Cooperstock, 1996 #12;ii REACTIVE

  3. Reactive Support and Voltage Control Service: Key Issues and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    reactive support and voltage control services. Keywords ­ Competitive Electricity Markets, Reactive PowerReactive Support and Voltage Control Service: Key Issues and Challenges George Gross^, Paolo Marannino° and Gianfranco Chicco* ^ Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University

  4. Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and Diesel Fuel Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI)...

  5. A smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for reactive transport...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for reactive transport and mineral precipitation in porous and fractured porous media. A smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for reactive...

  6. EV Project Chevrolet Volt Vehicle Summary Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    fuel economy (mpg) 155 Overall electrical energy consumption (AC Whmi) 242 Number of trips 147,886 Total distance traveled (mi) 1,184,265 Avg trip distance (mi) 8.0 Avg distance...

  7. EV Project Chevrolet Volt Vehicle Summary Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Usage Overall fuel economy (mpg) 131 Overall electrical energy consumption (AC Whmi) 271 Number of trips 13,819 Total distance traveled (mi) 108,115 Avg trip distance (mi)...

  8. EV Project Chevrolet Volt Vehicle Summary Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Usage Overall fuel economy (mpg) 136 Overall electrical energy consumption (AC Whmi) 222 Number of trips 286,682 Total distance traveled (mi) 2,392,509 Avg trip distance...

  9. EV Project Chevrolet Volt Vehicle Summary Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Usage Overall fuel economy (mpg) 139 Overall electrical energy consumption (AC Whmi) 293 Number of trips 76,425 Total distance traveled (mi) 609,737 Avg trip distance...

  10. Maintenance Sheet for 2013 Chevrolet Volt

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0DU103929 Date Mileage Description Cost 342013 4,876 Replaced relay assembly, engine control module, and 12V battery - under warranty NC 342013 4,876 Reflashed parking brake...

  11. EV Project Chevrolet Volt Vehicle Summary Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Vehicle Summary Report Region: ALL Number of vehicles: 1766 Reporting period: January 2013 through March 2013 1 A trip is defined as all the driving done between consecutive...

  12. HelioVolt Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio:Greer CountyCorridorPart AInformationHelioDynamics Ltd

  13. HelioVolt Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio:Greer CountyCorridorPart AInformationHelioDynamics LtdInc Jump to:

  14. GreenVolts Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat Jump to:Photon Place: Golden,

  15. COAL SLAGGING AND REACTIVITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Jason D. Laumb

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Union Fenosa's La Robla I Power Station is a 270-MW Foster Wheeler arch-fired system. The unit is located at the mine that provides a portion of the semianthracitic coal. The remaining coals used are from South Africa, Russia, Australia, and China. The challenges at the La Robla I Station stem from the various fuels used, the characteristics of which differ from the design coal. The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the Lehigh University Energy Research Center (LUERC) undertook a program to assess problematic slagging and unburned carbon issues occurring at the plant. Full-scale combustion tests were performed under baseline conditions, with elevated oxygen level and with redistribution of air during a site visit at the plant. During these tests, operating information, observations and temperature measurements, and coal, slag deposit, and fly ash samples were obtained to assess slagging and unburned carbon. The slagging in almost all cases appeared due to elevated temperatures rather than fuel chemistry. The most severe slagging occurred when the temperature at the sampling port was in excess of 1500 C, with problematic slagging where first-observed temperatures exceeded 1350 C. The presence of anorthite crystals in the bulk of the deposits analyzed indicates that the temperatures were in excess of 1350 C, consistent with temperature measurements during the sampling period. Elevated temperatures and ''hot spots'' are probably the result of poor mill performance, and a poor distribution of the coal from the mills to the specific burners causes elevated temperatures in the regions where the slag samples were extracted. A contributing cause appeared to be poor combustion air mixing and heating, resulting in oxygen stratification and increased temperatures in certain areas. Air preheater plugging was observed and reduces the temperature of the air in the windbox, which leads to poor combustion conditions, resulting in unburned carbon as well as slagging. A second phase of the project involved advanced analysis of the baseline coal along with an Australian coal fired at the plant. These analysis results were used in equilibrium thermodynamic modeling along with a coal quality model developed by the EERC to assess slagging, fouling, and opacity for the coals. Bench-scale carbon conversion testing was performed in a drop-tube furnace to assess the reactivity of the coals. The Australian coal had a higher mineral content with significantly more clay minerals present than the baseline coal. The presence of these clay minerals, which tend to melt at relatively low temperatures, indicated a higher potential for problematic slagging than the baseline coal. However, the pyritic minerals, comprising over 25% of the baseline mineral content, may form sticky iron sulfides, leading to severe slagging in the burner region if local areas with reducing conditions exist. Modeling results indicated that neither would present significant fouling problems. The Australian coal was expected to show slagging behavior much more severe than the baseline coal except at very high furnace temperatures. However, the baseline coal was predicted to exhibit opacity problems, as well as have a higher potential for problematic calcium sulfate-based low-temperature fouling. The baseline coal had a somewhat higher reactivity than the Australian coal, which was consistent with both the lower average activation energy for the baseline coal and the greater carbon conversion at a given temperature and residence time. The activation energy of the baseline coal showed some effect of oxygen on the activation energy, with E{sub a} increasing at the lower oxygen concentration, but may be due to the scatter in the baseline coal kinetic values at the higher oxygen level tested.

  16. Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bollinger, Lawrence R. (Schenectady, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor comprises supports stacked above reactor core for holding control rods. Couplers associated with the supports and a vertically movable drive shaft have lugs at their lower ends for engagement with the supports.

  17. Fossil plant layup and reactivation conference: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fossil Plant Layup and Reactivation Conference was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on April 14--15, 1992. The Conference was sponsored by EPRI and hosted by Entergy Services, Inc. to bring together representatives from utilities, consulting firms, manufacturers and architectural engineers. Eighteen papers were presented in three sessions. These sessions were devoted to layup procedures and practices, and reactivation case studies. A panel discussion was held on the second day to interactively discuss layup and reactivation issues. More than 80 people attended the Conference. This report contains technical papers and a summary of the panel discussion. Of the eighteen papers, three are related to general, one is related to regulatory issues, three are related to specific equipment, four are related to layup procedures and practices, and seven are layup and reactivation case studies.

  18. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Tyler J. (Pasco, WA); Holdren, Jr., George R. (Kennewick, WA); Kaplan, Daniel I. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques.

  19. A Tariff for Reactive Power - IEEE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a suggested tariff or payment for the local supply of reactive power from distributed energy resources. The authors consider four sample customers, and estimate the cost of supply of reactive power for each customer. The power system savings from the local supply of reactive power are also estimated for a hypothetical circuit. It is found that reactive power for local voltage regulation could be supplied to the distribution system economically by customers when new inverters are installed. The inverter would be supplied with a power factor of 0.8, and would be capable of local voltage regulation to a schedule supplied by the utility. Inverters are now installed with photovoltaic systems, fuel cells and microturbines, and adjustable-speed motor drives.

  20. Consideration of spatial effects in reactivity measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matveenko, I. P., E-mail: matveenko@ippe.ru; Lititskii, V. A.; Shokod'ko, A. G. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Various methods of considering spatial effects in reactivity measurements are presented. These methods are employed both at the critical (mainly fast-neutron) facilities and at the BN-600 reactor.

  1. Systematic approach for chemical reactivity evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldeeb, Abdulrehman Ahmed

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Screening Tool (RSST) and the Automatic Pressure Tracking Adiabatic Calorimeter (APTAC) were employed to evaluate the reactive systems experimentally. The RSST detected exothermic behavior and measured the overall liberated energy. The APTAC simulated...

  2. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, T.J.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques. 3 figs.

  3. Reactive Attachment Disorder: Concepts, Treatment, and Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Uta M.; Petr, Chris

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) is a disorder characterized by controversy, both with respect to its definition and its treatment. By definition, the RAD diagnosis attempts to characterize and explain the origin of ...

  4. Relative reactivities of solid benzoic acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warwas, Edwin James

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    RELATIVE REACTIVITIES OF SOLID BENZOIC ACIDS A Thesis By EDWIN J, WARWAS Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A8rM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1967' Major... Subject: Chemistry RELATIVE REACTIVITIES OF SOLID BENZOIC ACIDS A Thesis By EDWIN J. WARWAS Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ASSAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MAST ER OF S CIENCE January...

  5. Eoeective Recognizability and Model Checking of Reactive Fioeo Automata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutre, Grégoire

    Electre. For this, we deøne a particular behavioral model for Electre programs, Reactive Fioeo Au­ tomata speciøed with the reactive language Electre [CR95]. A reactive pro­ gram is supposed to reactEoeective Recognizability and Model Checking of Reactive Fioeo Automata G. Sutre 1 , A. Finkel 1

  6. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  7. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  8. Studies on Waterborne Pathogen Reactivation after Disinfection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaur, Jasjeet

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    ultraviolet (LP UV) irradiation at five titanium dioxide (TiO_(2)) concentrations (1 g/L, 0.5 g/L, 0.75 g/L, and 0.1 g/L) to achieve 5 log_(10) reduction of a laboratory E. coli K-12 strain (ATCC® 10798). Regrowth and reactivation of E. coli in dark and light...

  9. Gasification reactivities of solid biomass fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and operation of the biomass based gasification processes require knowledge about the biomass feedstocks characteristics and their typical gasification behaviour in the process. In this study, the gasification reactivities of various biomasses were investigated in laboratory scale Pressurized Thermogravimetric apparatus (PTG) and in the PDU-scale (Process Development Unit) Pressurized Fluidized-Bed (PFB) gasification test facility of VTT.

  10. Controlling uranium reactivity March 18, 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Karsten

    for the last decade. Most of their work involves depleted uranium, a more common form of uraniumMarch 2008 Controlling uranium reactivity March 18, 2008 Uranium is an often misunderstood metal uranium research. In reality, uranium presents a wealth of possibilities for funda- mental chemistry. Many

  11. Assessment of the Economic Potential of Microgrids for Reactive Power Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appen, Jan von

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive Power from Distributed Energy”, The Electricityvoltage. Electricity consumers’ demand for reactive power ison electricity supply security, the costs of local reactive

  12. Parallel Web Scripting with Reactive Constraints Thibaud Hottelier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodik, Rastisla

    Parallel Web Scripting with Reactive Constraints Thibaud Hottelier James Ide Doug Kimelman Ras Bodik Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at Berkeley Technical Report to lists, requires prior specific permission. #12;Parallel Web Scripting with Reactive Constraints Thibaud

  13. (Vg = 2 volts, Fp = 3,7 volts). Dans le circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the process is incom- plete. But since it is advantageous to have thermionic convertors workingat temperatures and the latter was used simultaneously for the ionization process. In general, when the energy to be converted

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL REACTIVITY OF SOLID STATE HYDRIDE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J; Donald Anton, D

    2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In searching for high gravimetric and volumetric density hydrogen storage systems, it is inevitable that higher energy density materials will be used. In order to make safe and commercially acceptable condensed phase hydrogen storage systems, it is important to understand quantitatively the risks involved in using and handling these materials and to develop appropriate mitigation strategies to handle potential material exposure events. A crucial aspect of the development of risk identification and mitigation strategies is the development of rigorous environmental reactivity testing standards and procedures. This will allow for the identification of potential risks and implementation of risk mitigation strategies. Modified testing procedures for shipping air and/or water sensitive materials, as codified by the United Nations, have been used to evaluate two potential hydrogen storage materials, 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}. The modified U.N. procedures include identification of self-reactive substances, pyrophoric substances, and gas-emitting substances with water contact. The results of these tests for air and water contact sensitivity will be compared to the pure material components where appropriate (e.g. LiBH{sub 4} and MgH{sub 2}). The water contact tests are divided into two scenarios dependent on the hydride to water mole ratio and heat transport characteristics. Air contact tests were run to determine whether a substance will spontaneously react with air in a packed or dispersed form. In the case of the 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2} material, the results from the hydride mixture compared to the pure materials results showed the MgH{sub 2} to be the least reactive component and LiBH{sub 4} the more reactive. The combined 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2} resulted in a material having environmental reactivity between these two materials. Relative to 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2}, the chemical hydride NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} was observed to be less environmentally reactive.

  15. The Simulation of Synchronous Reactive Systems In Ptolemy II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Simulation of Synchronous Reactive Systems In Ptolemy II by Paul Whitaker Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, in partial;_____________________________________________________________________ Simulation of Synchronous Reactive Systems in Ptolemy II ii Abstract The Synchronous Reactive (SR) domain

  16. Autonomic Reactive Systems via Online Learning Sanjit A. Seshia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    Autonomic Reactive Systems via Online Learning Sanjit A. Seshia Department of Electrical@eecs.berkeley.edu Abstract-- Reactive systems are those that maintain an ongoing interaction with their environment- covering a class of reactive systems from run-time failures. This class of systems comprises those whose

  17. Towards Synthesis of Reactive & Robust Behavior Chains Amol D. Mali

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mali, Amol D.

    Towards Synthesis of Reactive & Robust Behavior Chains Amol D. Mali Electrical Engg. & Computer robots need to be reactive and robust. Behavior-based robots that identify and repair the failures have of reactivity and robustness have been hitherto only informally used and have been loaded with var- ious

  18. A Synchronous Approach to Reactive System Design1 Charles Andr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    André, Charles

    our experience teaching discrete-event reactive systems to Electrical Engineering students. The courseA Synchronous Approach to Reactive System Design1 Charles André I3S Laboratory ­ UNSA/CNRS BP 121 This paper was presented at the 12th EAEEIE Annual Conf., 14-16 May 2001, Nancy (France). Abstract Reactive

  19. On Some Properties of Instantaneous Active and Reactive Powers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czarnecki, Leszek S.

    On Some Properties of Instantaneous Active and Reactive Powers Leszek S. CZARNECKI, Fellow IEEE Louisiana State University, USA Abstract: Some features of the instantaneous active and reactive powers p control. Also it was shown that the instantaneous reactive power q cannot be interpreted as a measure

  20. Nuclear reactivity control using laser induced polarization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowman, Charles D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A control element for reactivity control of a fission source provides an atomic density of .sup.3 He in a control volume which is effective to control criticality as the .sup.3 He is spin-polarized. Spin-polarization of the .sup.3 He affects the cross section of the control volume for fission neturons and hence, the reactivity. An irradiation source is directed within the .sup.3 He for spin-polarizing the .sup.3 He. An alkali-metal vapor may be included with the .sup.3 He where a laser spin-polarizes the alkali-metal atoms which in turn, spin-couple with .sup.3 He to spin-polarize the .sup.3 He atoms.

  1. Nuclear reactivity control using laser induced polarization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowman, Charles D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A control element for reactivity control of a fission source provides an atomic density of .sup.3 He in a control volume which is effective to control criticality as the .sup.3 He is spin-polarized. Spin-polarization of the .sup.3 He affects the cross section of the control volume for fission neutrons and hence, the reactivity. An irradiation source is directed within the .sup.3 He for spin-polarizing the .sup.3 He. An alkali-metal vapor may be included with the .sup.3 He where a laser spin-polarizes the alkali-metal atoms which in turn, spin-couple with .sup.3 He to spin-polarize the .sup.3 He atoms.

  2. Mined land reclamation by biological reactivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gozon, J.S.; Konya, C.J.; Lukovic, S.S.; Lundquist, R.G.; Olah, J.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mine reclamation technique, developed in Europe, restores land to full productivity within two years without topsoil replacement. The method deliberately reestablishes within one year following mining, the required biological balance between microbes, enzymes, and trace elements in the rock spoil rather than waiting five or more years for natural processes to restore balance. The technique is called Biological Reactivation (BR). This paper discusses the feasibility of BR reclamation after surface mining operations in the US. Staff of the Ohio Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute completed an OSM-sponsored research project on BR in which physical and chemical tests characterized 140 spoil samples obtained from 10 surface mining operations. Test results indicated that Biological Reactivation technology could be effectively applied, at least in the test areas sampled within Appalachia. Preliminary estimates make clear that the new technique reduces reclamation costs on prime farmland by approximately 95% compared to topsoil segregation and replacement methods.

  3. Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor. [LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bollinger, L.R.

    1982-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention, which resulted from a contact with the United States Department of Energy, relates to a control mechanism for a nuclear reactor and, more particularly, to an assembly for selectively shifting different numbers of reactivity modifying rods into and out of the core of a nuclear reactor. It has been proposed heretofore to control the reactivity of a breeder reactor by varying the depth of insertion of control rods (e.g., rods containing a fertile material such as ThO/sub 2/) in the core of the reactor, thereby varying the amount of neutron-thermalizing coolant and the amount of neutron-capturing material in the core. This invention relates to a mechanism which can advantageously be used in this type of reactor control system.

  4. A novel reactive processing technique: using telechelic polymers to reactively compatibilize polymer blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashcraft, Earl C [ORNL; Ji, Haining [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Difunctional reactive polymers, telechelics, were used to reactively form multiblock copolymers in situ when melt-blended with a blend of polystyrene and polyisoprene. To quantify the ability of the copolymer to compatibilize the blends, the time evolution of the domain size upon annealing was analyzed by SEM. It was found that the most effective parameter to quantify the ability of the copolymer to inhibit droplet coalescence is Kreltstable, the relative coarsening constant multiplied by the stabilization time. These results indicate that intermediate-molecular-weight telechelic pairs of both highly reactive Anhydride-PS-Anhydride/NH2-PI-NH2 and slower reacting Epoxy-PS-Epoxy/COOH-PI-COOH both effectively suppress coalescence, with the optimal molecular weight being slightly above the critical molecular weight of the homopolymer,Mc. The effects of telechelic loading were also investigated, where the optimal loading concentration for this system was 0.5 wt %, as higher concentrations exhibited a plasticizing effect due to the presence of unreacted low-molecular-weight telechelics present in the blend. A determination of the interfacial coverage of the copolymer shows that a conversion of 1.5-3.0% was required for 20% surface coverage at 5.0 wt % telechelic loading, indicating a large excess of telechelics in this system. At the optimal loading level of 0.5 wt %, a conversion of 15% was required for 20% surface coverage. The results of these experiments provide a clear understanding of the role of telechelic loading and molecular weight on its ability to reactively form interfacial modifiers in phase-separated polymer blends and provide guidelines for the development of similar reactive processing schemes that can use telechelic polymers to reactively compatibilize a broad range of polymer blends.

  5. IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 ``Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core`` problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated.

  6. IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core'' problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated.

  7. Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of Chemical Reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Qingsheng

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    released and the rate of energy released for a specific reactive chemical. 2.1 DSC DSC is a popular screening tool (safe and fast) and can provide an overall indication of exothermic activity of the chemical being tested. In a DSC, a sample and a... endothermic or exothermic reaction. When the rate of heat generation in the sample exceeds a particular value, the heat supply to the sample is cut off and this additional heat gain is attributed to exothermic activity within the sample.17 From the DSC...

  8. Preparation of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, Ming-Shing (Laramie, WY, NJ); Chen, James M. (Rahway, NJ); Yang, Ralph T. (Amherst, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of fine particles of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate by means of a solid state process which comprises firing a mixture of calcium sulfate, silica and a reducing additive selected from the group consisting of calcium sulfide, carbon, carbon monoxide, methane and hydrogen, at a temperature of about 850.degree.-1000.degree. C. A carrier gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide may also be added, if desired. A high concentration of sulfur dioxide is a by-product of this process.

  9. Preparation of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, M.S.; Chen, J.M.; Yang, R.T.

    1980-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of fine particles of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate by means of a solid state process which comprises firing a mixture of calcium sulfate, silica, and a reducing additive selected from the group consisting of calcium sulfide, carbon, carbon monoxide, methane, and hydrogen, at a temperature of about 850 to 1000/sup 0/C. A carrier gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide may also be added, if desired. A high concentration of sulfur dioxide is a by-product of this process.

  10. 1/00 Ampere 1/9 THE INTEGRAL FORM OF AMPERE'S LAW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glashausser, Charles

    is zero. If the closed line integral around a closed path is not zero, you know that there is a net, polygon, etc. If there is no net current passing through the plane of the closed path, the line integral around the path is zero. This does not mean there is no B field present along the path. Rather it means

  11. Section 10: Turbulence and reactive flows 1 Section 10: Turbulence and reactive flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    premixed combustion is recently a theme of interest in gas turbines and other industrial applications flames #12;2 Section 10: Turbulence and reactive flows for gas turbine application. In: International Gas combustion LES in- cluding thickened flame model A. Hosseinzadeh, A. Sadiki, J. Janicka (TU Darmstadt) Lean

  12. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution in CO2- and Water-Based Geothermal Reservoirs Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last...

  13. Reactive Dehydration technology for Production of Fuels and Chemicals...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Catalytic and Reactive Distillation) for compact, inexpensive production of biomass-based chemicals from complex aqueous mixtures. SeparationPurification of Biomass...

  14. Comparison of Conventional Diesel and Reactivity Controlled Compressio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load limit High Efficiency Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression...

  15. Chemically Reactive Working Fluids for the Capture and Transport...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power Solar Enegy Collection and Transmission Chemically Reactive Working Fluids Low-Cost Light Weigh Thin Film Solar Concentrators...

  16. Chemical Analysis of Complex Organic Mixtures Using Reactive...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mass Spectrometry. Abstract: Reactive nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry was utilized for the analysis of...

  17. Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    plus OH sign), reactiv- propane ing different gases gases atisoprene (plus sign), propane (star) and propene (triangle).NMHC includes ethane, ethene, propane, propene, i-butane, n-

  18. Completing the complex Poynting theorem: Conservation of reactive energy in reactive time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerald Kaiser

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The complex Poynting theorem is extended canonically to a time-scale domain $(t, s)$ by replacing the phasors of time-harmonic fields by the analytic signals $X(r, t+is)$ of fields $X(r,t)$ with general time dependence. The imaginary time $s>0$ is shown to play the role of a time resolution scale, and the extended Poynting theorem splits into two conservation laws: its real part gives the conservation in $t$ of the scale-averaged active energy at fixed $s$, and its imaginary part gives the conservation in $s$ of the scale-averaged reactive energy at fixed $t$. At coarse scales (large $s$, slow time), where the system reduces to the circuit level, this may have applications to the theory of electric power transmission and conditioning. At fine scales (small $s$, fast time) it describes reactive energy dynamics in radiating systems.

  19. The Specification and Execution of Heterogeneous Synchronous Reactive Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Specification and Execution of Heterogeneous Synchronous Reactive Systems by Stephen Anthony in Engineering---Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences in the GRADUATE DIVISION of the UNIVERSITY of Heterogeneous Synchronous Reactive Systems Copyright ã 1997 by Stephen Anthony Edwards #12; Abstract

  20. A Modified Reactive Control Framework for Cooperative Mobile Robots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Modified Reactive Control Framework for Cooperative Mobile Robots J. Salido a , J.M. Dolan a , J Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon Univ. Pittsburgh, PA 15213­3890 USA. Purely reactive approaches such as that of Brooks are efficient, but lack a mechanism for global control

  1. Reactive Sputtering of Bismuth Vanadate Photoanodes for Solar Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javey, Ali

    Reactive Sputtering of Bismuth Vanadate Photoanodes for Solar Water Splitting Le Chen,, Esther of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 has remained relatively underexplored. Here, we report the synthesis of BiVO4 thin films by reactive

  2. Reactive Rearrangement of Parts under Sensor Inaccuracy: Particle Filter Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reactive Rearrangement of Parts under Sensor Inaccuracy: Particle Filter Approach Hal^uk Bayram, Electrical and Electronic Engineering Bogazici University, Bebek 34342 Istanbul Turkey Abstract-- The paper will be left undisturbed, the robot is required to employ a reactive strategy. A feedback-based event

  3. Reactive oxygen species deglycosilate glomerular a-dystroglycan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Kevin P.

    Reactive oxygen species deglycosilate glomerular a-dystroglycan NPJ Vogtla¨nder1 , WPM Tamboer1 open. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to degrade and depolymerize carbohydrates, and to playDa in skeletal muscle, ranging from 120 kDa in brain to 190 kDa in the Torpedo electric organ.8

  4. Towards Interactive Timing Analysis for Designing Reactive Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Towards Interactive Timing Analysis for Designing Reactive Systems Insa Fuhrmann David Broman Steven Smyth Reinhard von Hanxleden Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California Interactive Timing Analysis for Designing Reactive Systems Insa Fuhrmann1 , David Broman2,3 , Steven Smyth1

  5. Reactive ion etched substrates and methods of making and using

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rucker, Victor C. (San Francisco, CA); Shediac, Rene (Oakland, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Havenstrite, Karen L. (New York, NY)

    2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein are substrates comprising reactive ion etched surfaces and specific binding agents immobilized thereon. The substrates may be used in methods and devices for assaying or isolating analytes in a sample. Also disclosed are methods of making the reactive ion etched surfaces.

  6. Tropospheric Reactive Nitrogen Speciation, Deposition, and Chemistry at Harvard Forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and absolute contributions of nitric acid (HNO3) and NOx (nitric oxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) to totalTropospheric Reactive Nitrogen Speciation, Deposition, and Chemistry at Harvard Forest A thesis. Steven C. Wofsy Cassandra Volpe Horii Tropospheric Reactive Nitrogen Speciation, Deposition

  7. On-Road Emission Measurements of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    , nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), and nitrous acid (HONO) produced by internalOn-Road Emission Measurements of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds from Three California Cities G A R Y measurements of reactive nitrogen compounds from light-duty vehicles. At the San Jose and wLA sites

  8. ALUMINOSILICATE-COATED SILICA SAND FOR REACTIVE TRANSPORT EXPERIMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flury, Markus

    ALUMINOSILICATE-COATED SILICA SAND FOR REACTIVE TRANSPORT EXPERIMENTS By JORGE ANTONIO JEREZ transport experiments; Dr. Barbara Williams and Jason Shira from University of Idaho for providing access-COATED SILICA SAND FOR REACTIVE TRANSPORT EXPERIMENTS Abstract by Jorge Antonio Jerez Briones, Ph.D. Washington

  9. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - ameliorating reactive oxygen Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    structure and surface relaxation Summary: reactivity of each type of oxygen the adsorption of hydrogen over different oxygen sites is studied. Full... oxygen is the reactive...

  11. Metal-Pyrrolide Complexes in Three-fold Symmetry: Synthesis, Structure, Reactivity and Magnetism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, William Hill

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structure, Reactivity and Magnetism by William Hill Harman AStructure, Reactivity and Magnetism by William Hill Harmanlost time. Dave taught me magnetism and what it takes to win

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of iridium complexes bearing the ligand diphenylphosphidoboratabenzene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arizpe, Luis (Luis Alfredo)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis, structure, and reactivity properties of three iridium square planar complexes bearing the anionic phosphine ligand diphenylphosphidoboratabenzene (DPB) are described. Reactivity studies show a rate enhancement ...

  13. Aging Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species andBactericid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species andBactericidal Activity in Peritoneal Macrophages by Aging Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species andBactericidal...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - accumulate reactive oxygen Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reactive oxygen Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: accumulate reactive oxygen Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 CLINICAL CONCEPTS AND...

  15. Reactivity of iron-bearing minerals and CO2 sequestration: A...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reactivity of iron-bearing minerals and CO2 sequestration: A multi-disciplinary experimental approach Re-direct Destination: The reactivity of sandstones was studied under...

  16. J PPHYS IV FRANCE 7 ( 1997) Colloque C4, SupplCmentau Journal de Physique I11d'octobre 1997

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Negative DifferentialResistance, Oscillations and Constrictionsof Low Pressure, Low Current Discharges Z developed to provide observabies that include: breakdown voltage, volt- ampere characteristics (which and the profile of the Low current oscillations, frequency and damping of the induced oscillations, current growth

  17. FUEL CELL R&D AND DEMONSTRATION Robert E. Fields, E. John Rowley,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) offered by fuel cells may more than compensate for higher cost and fuel supply issues. Figure 1. A Victory, active/passive PEM fuel cell stack and a 24-volt, 3.4 ampere-hour sealed lead acid battery pack (4 x LC Tank DC-DC Converter Batteries Speed Controller Traction Motor Fuel Cell Stack MAIN BOARD Cell Voltages

  18. Reactive Blast Waves from Composite Charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigated here is the performance of composite explosives - measured in terms of the blast wave they drive into the surrounding environment. The composite charge configuration studied here was a spherical booster (1/3 charge mass), surrounded by aluminum (Al) powder (2/3 charge mass) at an initial density of {rho}{sub 0} = 0.604 g/cc. The Al powder acts as a fuel but does not detonate - thereby providing an extreme example of a 'non-ideal' explosive (where 2/3 of the charge does not detonate). Detonation of the booster charge creates a blast wave that disperses the Al powder and ignites the ensuing Al-air mixture - thereby forming a two-phase combustion cloud embedded in the explosion. Afterburning of the booster detonation products with air also enhances and promotes the Al-air combustion process. Pressure waves from such reactive blast waves have been measured in bomb calorimeter experiments. Here we describe numerical simulations of those experiments. A Heterogeneous Continuum Model was used to model the dispersion and combustion of the Al particle cloud. It combines the gasdynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a dilute continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models of Khasainov. It incorporates a combustion model based on mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) was used to capture the energy-bearing scales of the turbulent flow on the computational grid, and to track/resolve reaction zones. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g and 10-kg composite charges were performed. Computed pressure histories (red curve) are compared with measured waveforms (black curves) in Fig. 1. Comparison of these results with a waveform for a non-combustion case in nitrogen (blue curve) demonstrates that a reactive blast wave was formed. Cross-sectional views of the temperature field at various times are presented in Fig. 2, which shows that the flow is turbulent. Initially, combustion occurs at the fuel-air interface, and the energy release rate is controlled by the rate of turbulent mixing. Eventually, oxidizer becomes distributed throughout the cloud via ballistic mixing of the particles with air; energy release then occurs in a distributed combustion mode, and Al particle kinetics controls the energy release rate. Details of the Heterogeneous Continuum Model and results of the numerical simulations of composite charge explosions will be described in the paper.

  19. The Safe Storage Study for Autocatalytic Reactive Chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Lijun

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) report, Improving Reactive Hazard Management, there are 37 out of 167 accidents, which occurred in a storage tank or a storage area. This fact demonstrates that thermal runaway...

  20. Reactivity of the Quinone Methide of Butylated hydroxytoluene in Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willcockson, Maren Gulsrud

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    BHT is a common antioxidant in pharmaceutical formulations and when oxidized it forms a quinone methide (QM). QM is a highly reactive electrophilic species which can undergo nucleophilic addition. This research investigated ...

  1. Evaluation of Methods to Predict Reactivity of Gold Nanoparticles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    relationship to the concept of frontier molecular orbital theory. The d-band theory of Hammer and Nørskov is perhaps the most widely used predictor of reactivity on metallic...

  2. Pre-plated reactive diffusion-bonded battery electrode plaques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maskalick, Nicholas J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high strength, metallic fiber battery plaque is made using reactive diffusion bonding techniques, where a substantial amount of the fibers are bonded together by an iron-nickel alloy.

  3. Dynamic Reactive Power Control of Isolated Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falahi, Milad

    2012-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation presents dynamic reactive power control of isolated power systems. Isolated systems include MicroGrids in islanded mode, shipboard power systems operating offshore, or any other power system operating in islanded mode intentionally...

  4. Mechanical properties of amorphous Lix Si alloys: a reactive...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was downloaded on 08102013 at 15:46 Please note that terms and conditions apply. Mechanical properties of amorphous Li x Si alloys: a reactive force field study View the table...

  5. Reactive oxygen species: a breath of life or death?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fruehauf, John P; Meyskens, Frank L Jr

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AP1, activator protein-1; ODD, oxygen-dependent degradationSignaling response when oxygen levels decrease (Fig. 1C;3. Halliwell B. Reactive oxygen species in living sys- tems:

  6. Local Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turitsyn, Konstantin S; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the re...

  7. (Electronic structure and reactivities of transition metal clusters)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following are reported: theoretical calculations (configuration interaction, relativistic effective core potentials, polyatomics, CASSCF); proposed theoretical studies (clusters of Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Os, Ru; transition metal cluster ions; transition metal carbide clusters; bimetallic mixed transition metal clusters); reactivity studies on transition metal clusters (reactivity with H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, hydrocarbons; NO and CO chemisorption on surfaces). Computer facilities and codes to be used, are described. 192 refs, 13 figs.

  8. Application of the ''reactivity constraint approach'' to automatic reactor control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard, J.A.; Henry, A.F.; Lanning, D.D.

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ''reactivity constraint approach'' is described and demonstrated to be an effective and reliable means for the automatic control of power in nuclear reactors. This approach functions by restricting the effect of the delayed neutron populations to that which can be balanced by an induced change in the prompt population. This is done by limiting the net reactivity to the amount that can be offset by reversing the direction of motion of the automated control mechanism. The necessary reactivity constraints are obtained from the dynamic period equation, which gives the instantaneous reactor period as a function of the reactivity and the rate of change of reactivity. The derivation of this equation is described with emphasis on the recently obtained ''alternate'' formulation. Following a discussion of the behavior of each term of this alternate equation as a function of reactivity, its use in the design and operation of a nonlinear, closed-loop, digital controller for reactor power is in the design and operation of a nonlinear, closed-loop, digital controller for reactor power is described. Details of the initial experimental trials of the resulting controller are given.

  9. Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 336 Time-Scale Analysis for Reactive Deposition of Ozone via Passive Reactive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 336 Time-Scale Analysis for Reactive Deposition) homogeneous reactions with indoor pollutants. The #12;Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 336 latter

  10. Application of Partial-Order Methods to Reactive Programs with Event Memorization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with event memorization. The reactive systems are specified with an asynchronous reactive language Electre, 3 (2001) 287-316" #12;2 Electre: an Asynchronous Reactive Language with Event Memorization 3 2 of a semantic model of an asyn- chronous reactive language: Electre [PRH92, CR95]. Indeed, this language

  11. Development and Evaluation of a State-of-the-Science Reactive Plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yang

    for plume rise, plume visibility, and stack opacity (5). Examples of other reactive plume models include

  12. Early maturation processes in coal. Part 2: Reactive dynamics simulations using the ReaxFF reactive force field on Morwell Brown coal structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    for each source rock. This allowed the bulk rate of oil and gas generation for a source rockEarly maturation processes in coal. Part 2: Reactive dynamics simulations using the ReaxFF reactive

  13. Apparatus for making environmentally stable reactive alloy powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, I.E.; Lograsso, B.K.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for making powder from a metallic melt by atomizing the melt to form droplets and reacting the droplets downstream of the atomizing location with a reactive gas. The droplets are reacted with the gas at a temperature where a solidified exterior surface is formed thereon and where a protective refractory barrier layer (reaction layer) is formed whose penetration into the droplets is limited by the presence of the solidified surface so as to avoid selective reduction of key reactive alloyants needed to achieve desired powder end use properties. The barrier layer protects the reactive powder particles from environmental constituents such as air and water in the liquid or vapor form during subsequent fabrication of the powder to end-use shapes and during use in the intended service environment. 7 figs.

  14. Environmentally stable reactive alloy powders and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, I.E.; Lograsso, B.K.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for making powder from a metallic melt by atomizing the melt to form droplets and reacting the droplets downstream of the atomizing location with a reactive gas. The droplets are reacted with the gas at a temperature where a solidified exterior surface is formed thereon and where a protective refractory barrier layer (reaction layer) is formed whose penetration into the droplets is limited by the presence of the solidified surface so as to avoid selective reduction of key reactive alloys needed to achieve desired powder end use properties. The barrier layer protects the reactive powder particles from environmental constituents such as air and water in the liquid or vapor form during subsequent fabrication of the powder to end-use shapes and during use in the intended service environment. 7 figs.

  15. Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design de...

  16. 2013 Chevrolet Volt - VIN 3929 - Advanced Vehicle Testing - Beginning...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Voltage 3 : 3.00 V Thermal Management: Active - Liquid cooled BATTERY LABORATORY TEST RESULTS SUMMARY Vehicle Mileage and Testing Date Vehicle Odometer: 4,007 mi Date of...

  17. Chevrolet Volt for a Smart Planet Video Transcript

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gassenfeit, GM: A smarter automotive industry is one that can foresee the future and then bring it to market pla

  18. 2011 Chevrolte Volt - VIN 0815 - Advanced Vehicle Testing - Baseline...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    chassis does not exceed 5 mA at any time the vehicle is connected to an off-board power supply. (24) The automatic disconnect for the ESS batteries shall be capable of...

  19. 2013 Chevrolte Volt - VIN 3929 - Advanced Vehicle Testing - Baseline...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    chassis does not exceed 5 mA at any time the vehicle is connected to an off-board power supply. (24) The automatic disconnect for the ESS batteries shall be capable of...

  20. Chevy Volt Electrifies DOE Headquarters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate Earth DayFuels Chemical KineticCheron Wicker About UsChevy

  1. The Department of Energy's Innovation in GM's Chevrolet Volt | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of Energy StrainClientDesignOfficeThe 21stCELLSDepartmentEnergyof

  2. Some operating features of a 100,000-volt transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Raymond

    1914-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    . A high resistance carborundum rod in series with the gap was shattered by the flow of current. This gap was spaced at 1 5/6 inches. 2. The line and transformers were thrown together by means of a low tension switch at Shoshone and the gap...

  3. CyVolt Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentratingRenewable Solutions LLC JumpCrow Lake Wind JumpCuttings Analysis At

  4. AVTA: 2012 Chevrolet Volt PHEV Downloadable Dynamometer Database Reports |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment of Energy 601 High26-OPAM63-OPAMGuidanceAVTASmartHondaCNG

  5. AVTA: 2013 Chevrolet Volt Testing Results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment of Energy 601Department of Energy Toyota Prius PHEVofMalibu

  6. SeaVolt Technologies formerly Sea Power Associates | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to: navigation, searchVirginiaRooseveltVISantonOpen EnergyScio,Scott1°,Life

  7. Plasma & reactive ion etching to prepare ohmic contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a low-resistance electrical contact between a metal and a layer of p-type CdTe surface by plasma etching and reactive ion etching comprising: a) placing a CdS/CdTe layer into a chamber and evacuating said chamber; b) backfilling the chamber with Argon or a reactive gas to a pressure sufficient for plasma ignition; and c) generating plasma ignition by energizing a cathode which is connected to a power supply to enable the plasma to interact argon ions alone or in the presence of a radio-frequency DC self-bias voltage with the p-CdTe surface.

  8. Dielectric covered hairpin probe for its application in reactive plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gogna, G. S.; Gaman, C.; Turner, M. M. [NCPST, School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Karkari, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research Center, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The hairpin probe is a well known technique for measuring local electron density in low temperature plasmas. In reactive plasmas, the probe characteristics are affected by surface sputtering, contamination, and secondary electron emission. At higher densities, the plasma absorbs the entire electromagnetic energy of hairpin and hence limits the density measurements. These issues can be resolved by covering the hairpin surface with a thin layer of dielectric. In this letter, the dielectric contribution to the probe characteristics is incorporated in a theory which is experimentally verified. The dielectric covering improves the performance of probe and also allows the hairpin tip to survive in reactive plasma where classical electrical probes are easily damaged.

  9. Non-Energetic Reactive Armor (NERA) and Semi-Energetic Reactive Armor (SERA) FY13 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Langhorst; Nikki Rasmussen; Andrew Robinson

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INL researchers have proposed prototypes for future lightweight armor systems that reside in a technology gap between explosive reactive armor and passive armor. The targets were designed to react under impact and throw a steel front plate into the path of the projectile, forcing the projectile to engage more of the front plate during its penetration process. These prototypes are intended to exhibit the enhanced efficiency of explosive reactive armor without the collateral damage often associated with explosive reactive armor. One of the prototype systems, Semi Energetic Reactive Armor (SERA), functions similarly to explosive reactive armor, but features a reactive material that reacts much slower than explosive reactive armor. Two different SERA test groups were built and featuring different ratios of aluminum Teflon(copyright) powders pressed into 0.5 in. thick energetic tiles and sandwiched between 0.25 in. thick RHA plates. The other prototype system, Non Energetic Reactive Armor (NERA), utilizes the strain energy in compressed rubber to launch a front flyer plate into the path of an incoming projectile. It is comprised of a 1 in. thick rubber layer sandwiched between two 0.25 in. thick RHA plates with bolt holes around the perimeter. Bolts are inserted through the entire target and tightened to compress the rubber sheet to significant strain levels (approximately 40%). A fourth group of targets was tested as a control group. It featured a 0.5 in. thick rubber sheet sandwiched between two 0.25 in. thick RHA plates, similar to the NERA test articles, but the rubber is uncompressed. The four test groups (uncompressed rubber, compressed rubber, 70/30 Al/PTFE, 50/50 Al/PTFE) were each fabricated with three identical test articles in each group. All twelve targets were subjected to ballistic testing at the National Security Test Range on July 17, 2013. They were tested with 0.5 in. diameter steel rods shot at a consistent velocity at each target. In order to characterize the energetic materials, break wires were embedded in the targets and burn velocities were measured. The residual mass method was used to compare the target performance of each group and final performance data is presented below.

  10. MARKETS FOR REACTIVE POWER AND RELIABILITY: A WHITE PAPER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 MARKETS FOR REACTIVE POWER AND RELIABILITY: A WHITE PAPER Engineering and Economics of Electricity Research Group (E3 RG) CORNELL UNIVERSITY E3 RG contributing authors: Robert Thomas, Director the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and in part by the National Science

  11. Surface tension in a reactive binary mixture of incompressible fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Struchtrup, Henning

    Surface tension in a reactive binary mixture of incompressible fluids Henning Struchtrup Institute with a distributed form of surface tension. The model describes chemistry, diffusion, viscosity and heat transfer tension at the front. Keywords: Binary mixtures, Surface tension, Irreversible thermodynamics, Hele

  12. Dependency Analysis for Control Flow Cycles in Reactive Communicating Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leue, Stefan

    of the system. The way in which cycle executions are combined is not ar- bitrary since cycles may depend are combined is certainly not arbitrary. For instance, the repetition of one cycle may rely on the repetitionsDependency Analysis for Control Flow Cycles in Reactive Communicating Processes Stefan Leue1 , Alin

  13. Dependency Analysis for Control Flow Cycles in Reactive Communicating Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiterer, Harald

    processes of the system. The way in which cycle executions are combined is not ar- bitrary since cycles may in which cycle executions are combined is certainly not arbitrary. For instance, the repetition of oneDependency Analysis for Control Flow Cycles in Reactive Communicating Processes Stefan Leue1 , Alin

  14. Active and reactive power in stochastic resonance for energy harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kubota, Madoka; Hikihara, Takashi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A power allocation to active and reactive power in stochastic resonance is discussed for energy harvesting from mechanical noise. It is confirmed that active power can be increased at stochastic resonance, in the same way of the relationship between energy and phase at an appropriate setting in resonance.

  15. Permeable Reactive Biobarriers for the Containment of Heavy Metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    . Heavy metals are leached as ground water reaches the exposed ores. Arizona has a rich historyPermeable Reactive Biobarriers for the Containment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Acid Mine) is defined as the presence heavy metals, increased acidity, and sulfate as a direct result of mining

  16. Reactive materials can quickly form plugs for blowout control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flak, L.H. [Wright Boots and Coots, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Various types of reactive materials, or gunk, can react directly with produced fluids (oil, condensate, or brine) or with an additionally injected fluid to form a plug to kill blowout wells or shut off large flow paths. Several recent blowouts were successfully controlled with reactive plugs; other conventional methods would have been more difficult operationally and cost more. Several plug mixtures are available on the market and can be made to suit the type of application and any particular environmental concerns. With proper planning and application, reactive plugs should be considered as a prime well control method when injection into the blowout flow path is available. This method of blowout control can save significant time and expense. The paper discusses the two basic methods of using reactive fluids depending on the flow path available, the use of cements, application steps, environmental concerns, and three case histories: a horizontal well in Texas, a high pressure, high temperature well offshore Louisiana, and a gas blowout in Argentina.

  17. Toward a new paradigm for reactive flow modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitt, Robert Gerard

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditional reactive flow modeling provides a computational representation of shock initiation of energetic materials. Most reactive flow models require ad hoc assumptions to obtain robust simulations, assumptions that result from partitioning energy and volume change between constituents in a reactive mixture. For example, most models assume pressure and/or temperature equilibrium for the mixture. Many mechanical insults to energetic materials violate these approximations. Careful analysis is required to ensure that the model assumptions and limitations are not exceeded. One limitation is that the shock to detonation transition is replicated only for strong planar shocks. Many models require different parameters to match data from thin pulse, ramp wave, or multidimensional loading, an approach that fails for complex loading. To accurately simulate reaction under non-planar shock impact scenarios a new formalism is required. The continuum mixture theory developed by Baer and Nunziato is used to eliminate ad hoc assumptions and limitations of current reactive flow models. This modeling paradigm represents the multiphase nature of reacting condensed/gas mixtures. Comparisons between simulations and data are presented.

  18. Substituent Effects on the Reactivity of the Silicon-Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leigh, William J.

    Canada L8S 4M1 Received April 28, 2000 ABSTRACT Laser flash photolysis of various organosilicon compounds as a reactive intermediate in the high-temperature pyrolysis of a silacyclobutane deriva- tive.9 Hundreds describes our efforts to employ these techniquess laser flash photolysis methods in particularsto study

  19. Author's personal copy Reactivity of lithium exposed graphite surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    on the surface [18]. Hence the effect of lithium on plasma­wall interactions is expected to dependAuthor's personal copy Reactivity of lithium exposed graphite surface S.S. Harilal a, *, J in fusion devices [1­5]. For example, wall conditioning with thin lithium layers gives rise to low hydrogen

  20. A REACTIVE APPROACH FOR MINING PROJECT EVALUATION UNDER PRICE UNCERTAINTY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Ken

    deterministic forward commodity price which, in most cases, historical data demonstrates to be quite volatileA REACTIVE APPROACH FOR MINING PROJECT EVALUATION UNDER PRICE UNCERTAINTY Meimei Zhang and operating cash flow. This industry is usually considered high risk because of historically volatile

  1. Neutron economic reactivity control system for light water reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, Robert G. (Glenville, NY); McCoy, Daniel F. (Latham, NY); Merriman, Floyd C. (Rotterdam, NY); Gregurech, Steve (Scotia, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutron reactivity control system for a LWBR incorporating a stationary seed-blanket core arrangement. The core arrangement includes a plurality of contiguous hexagonal shaped regions. Each region has a central and a peripheral blanket area juxapositioned an annular seed area. The blanket areas contain thoria fuel rods while the annular seed area includes seed fuel rods and movable thoria shim control rods.

  2. Stability, electronic structure and reactivity of the polymerized fullerite forms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stability, electronic structure and reactivity of the polymerized fullerite forms V.V. Belavina , L density distribution from selected crystal orbitals of polymerized C60 forms was carried out. Linear chain with the highest occupied (HO) and lowest unoccupied (LU) bands. The polymerized C60 forms were found to be less

  3. Field, Laboratory, and Modeling Study of Reactive Transport of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University of New York, Flushing, New York 11367, Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Bay, MA, shed light on coupled control of chemistry and hydrology on reactive transport), phosphate (5), and oxyanions of molybdenum (6) and uranium (7, 8) in aquifers. In addition

  4. Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance Muhammad A. Al and rectifying sec- tions of a reacti®e distillation column can degrade performance. This effect, if true®e distillation columns cannot use conser®ati®e estimates of tray numbers, that is, we cannot simply add excess

  5. Towards Energy-Efficient Reactive Thermal Management in Instrumented Datacenters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pompili, Dario

    Towards Energy-Efficient Reactive Thermal Management in Instrumented Datacenters Ivan Rodero, Eun techniques used to alleviate thermal anomalies (i.e., hotspots) in cloud datacenter's servers of by reducing such as voltage scaling that also can be applied to reduce the temperature of the servers in datacenters. Because

  6. Generalized Chemical Reactivity of Curved Surfaces: Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Deepak

    . Following the decomposition, the total reaction energy Etotal, which is the index of chemical reactivity, can be divided into three terms: strain energy Estrain, C-X binding energy EC-X, and global relaxation in a CNT can enhance the hydrogenation energy at the location of the excess deformation so

  7. Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sulc, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

  8. Reactive Phosphorus Removal from Aquaculture and Poultry Productions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Reactive Phosphorus Removal from Aquaculture and Poultry Productions Systems Using Polymeric and poultry production wastewater effluents. The sorbent used was a cross-linked polyamine (PAA,HCl) polymeric poultry and aquaculture wastewater effluents. Upon treatment, phosphorus anion concentrations were reduced

  9. Abduction with Negation as Failure for Active and Reactive Rules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toni, Francesca

    Abduction with Negation as Failure for Active and Reactive Rules Fariba Sadri and Francesca Toni suggested abductive logic programming as a suitable formalism to represent active databases and intelligent agents. In particular, abducibles in abductive logic programs can be used to repre- sent actions

  10. Nitrogen dynamics in flow-through microcosms of reactive media.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    wastewater inputs to estuaries is similarly an important issue. Individual wastewater treatments have been University, Worcester MA December 19, 2005 Marine Biological Laboratory 1 #12;Abstract There have been many, the Marine Biological Laboratory is currently testing two experimental permeable reactive barriers along

  11. Reactive Transport Modeling and Geophysical Monitoring of Bioclogging at Reservoir Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    Reactive Transport Modeling and Geophysical Monitoring of Bioclogging at Reservoir Scale Vikranth scale using a combination of reactive transport modeling and geophysical imaging tools (EM & seismic Sacramento basin, California; the model well (Citizen Green #1) was characterized using sonic, electrical

  12. An Aircraft Electric Power Testbed for Validating Automatically Synthesized Reactive Control Protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu , Huan

    An Aircraft Electric Power Testbed for Validating Automatically Synthesized Reactive Control reactive synthesis; testbed; aircraft electric power system 1. INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION Aircraft of Pennsylvania utopcu@seas.upenn.edu ABSTRACT Modern aircraft increasingly rely on electric power for sub

  13. Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens O. Yaroshchuk,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens O. Yaroshchuk,1 V photoaligning layers by thin layers of reactive mesogens, strong enhancement in LC alignment stability layer, the photoalignment technique minimizes me- chanical damage and electric charging, provides

  14. Pollution-enhanced reactive chlorine chemistry in the eastern tropical Atlantic boundary layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    doi:10.1029/2008GL036666, 2009 Pollution-enhanced reactiveE. S. Saltzman (2009), Pollution-enhanced reactive chlorine5 L08810 LAWLER ET AL. : POLLUTION-ENHANCED CLX IN THE MBL

  15. Solution-mediated strategies for synthesizing metal oxides, borates and phosphides using nanocrystals as reactive precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henkes, Amanda Erin

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of their high surface area (and hence, increased reactivity) nanocrystals can be used as reactive precursors in the low-temperature synthesis of solid state materials. When nanocrystals are used as reactants, the temperatures needed...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - atom-diatom reactive scattering Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diatom reactive scattering Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atom-diatom reactive scattering Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Eur. Phys....

  17. Photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals synthesized by reactive laser Daria Riabinina,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals synthesized by reactive laser ablation Daria Riabinina reactive laser ablation in oxygen atmosphere followed by annealing. We observe a strong photoluminescence size, obtained independently by fitting photoluminescence spectra and from x-ray diffraction patterns

  18. Bioinformatic analysis of xenobiotic reactive metabolite target proteins and their interacting partners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanzlik, Robert P.; Fang, Jianwen; Koen, Yakov M.

    2009-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Background Protein covalent binding by reactive metabolites of drugs, chemicals and natural products can lead to acute cytotoxicity. Recent rapid progress in reactive metabolite target protein identification has shown ...

  19. Chemical Reactivity of Reduced TiO2(110): The dominant role of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactivity of Reduced TiO2(110): The dominant role of surface defects in oxygen chemisorption. Chemical Reactivity of Reduced TiO2(110): The dominant role of surface defects in...

  20. Using Reactive Rules to Guide a Forward-Chaining Murray Shanahan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shanahan, Murray

    1 Using Reactive Rules to Guide a Forward-Chaining Planner Murray Shanahan Department of Electrical.shanahan@ic.ac.uk Keywords: planning and execution, reactive planning, robot planning Abstract This paper presents a planning technique in which a flawed set of reactive rules is used to guide a stochastic forward-chaining search

  1. A pulser for medium-frequency modulated direct-current reactive sputter deposition of insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Hui

    for medium-frequency modulated direct-current dc reactive sputter deposition of electrical insulators at the target surface inherent to high- deposition-rate reactive sputtering of electrical insulators. TypicallyA pulser for medium-frequency modulated direct-current reactive sputter deposition of insulators G

  2. Abstract This paper reviews specific issues and challenges in reactive power management within the competitive electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    and physical considerations and so depends on the market players and the electricity market rules. Reactive local nature of reactive power restricts its ability to be transmitted over electrically large distancesAbstract ­ This paper reviews specific issues and challenges in reactive power management within

  3. TO APPEAR IN IEEE TRANSACTION ON POWER SYSTEMS 1 Effect of Reactive Power Limit Modeling on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    , generator capability curves, maximum loadability, voltage stability, electrical energy markets, reactive- active power in electric power systems. Although there are other important reactive power sourcesTO APPEAR IN IEEE TRANSACTION ON POWER SYSTEMS 1 Effect of Reactive Power Limit Modeling on Maximum

  4. CARIBBEAN COLLOQUIUM ON POWER QUALITY (CCPQ), JUNE 2003 100 Defining Reactive Power in Circuit Transients via

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stankoviæ, Aleksandar

    CARIBBEAN COLLOQUIUM ON POWER QUALITY (CCPQ), JUNE 2003 100 Defining Reactive Power in Circuit the notion of reactive power during circuit transients. The definition we propose is based on the concept, namely Short- Time Fourier Coefficients and Haar Wavelets. We illustrate this "dynamic" reactive power

  5. Finite Bisimulation of Reactive Untimed Infinite State Systems Modeled as Automata with Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Ratnesh

    1 Finite Bisimulation of Reactive Untimed Infinite State Systems Modeled as Automata with Variables for reactive untimed infinite state systems called input- output extended finite automaton (I/O-EFA), which of a finite bisimilar abstraction. The results are illustrated through examples that model reactive software

  6. Toward Optimized Bioclogging and Biocementation Through Combining Advanced Geophysical Monitoring and Reactive Transport Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    and electrical techniques); (ii) developing and using a reactive transport simulator capable of predicting and Reactive Transport Modeling Approaches Christopher G Hubbard1 , Susan S. Hubbard1 , Yuxin Wu1 , Vikranth heterogeneities at the field scale. Optimization of these strategies requires advances in mechanistic reactive

  7. Voltage Control of Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation using Reactive Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Voltage Control of Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation using Reactive Power to control voltage of distribution networks with DG using reactive power compensation approach. In this paper profile within the specified limits, it is essential to regulate the reactive power of the compensators

  8. Generation of reactive oxygen species by a persulfide (BnSSH) Tonika Chatterji,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Kent. S.

    Generation of reactive oxygen species by a persulfide (BnSSH) Tonika Chatterji, Kripa Keerthi generate reactive oxygen species under biologically rele- vant conditions via the sequence of reactions by reactive oxygen species generated in this manner may contribute to the cytotoxic properties of leinamycin

  9. Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    , methanol recovery 1. Introduction A process of producing TAME via reactive distillation has been presented the bulk of the reaction between C5 and methanol to produce TAME and a reactive distillation. MethanolDesign of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process

  10. Analytical solutions for sequentially coupled one-dimensional reactive transport problems Part I: Mathematical derivations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    Analytical solutions for sequentially coupled one-dimensional reactive transport problems ­ Part I-species reactive transport equations coupled through sorption and sequential first-order reactions are commonly. Although researchers have been attempting to solve various forms of these reactive transport equations

  11. VOF-BASED SIMULATION OF REACTIVE MASS TRANSFER ACROSS DEFORMABLE INTERFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bothe, Dieter

    . of the bubbles is there- fore of fundamental importance for effective design of the reactor. In case of fast-based approach for the Direct Numerical Simulation of reactive mass transfer in gas-liquid flows is described simulation results are presented for non reactive and reactive mass transfer from rising gas bubbles

  12. AMPERE AVERAGE CURRENT PHOTOINJECTOR AND ENERGY RECOVERY LINAC*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    for an ERL based on these units. INTRODUCTION A frontier of very high power Free-Electron Lasers (FEL.) and Jefferson Laboratory to push the frontier of high-brightness ERLs. There are three main elements bunches. Second is a cathode capable of generating high charge electron bunches at the right repetition

  13. Tracking thermal fronts with temperature-sensitive, chemically reactive tracers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, B.A.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos is developing tracer techniques using reactive chemicals to track thermal fronts in fractured geothermal reservoirs. If a nonadsorbing tracer flowing from the injection to production well chemically reacts, its reaction rate will be a strong function of temperature. Thus the extent of chemical reaction will be greatest early in the lifetime of the system, and less as the thermal front progresses from the injection to production well. Early laboratory experiments identified tracers with chemical kinetics suitable for reservoirs in the temperature range of 75 to 100/sup 0/C. Recent kinetics studies have focused on the kinetics of hydrolysis of derivatives of bromobenzene. This class of reactions can be used in reservoirs ranging in temperature from 150 to 275/sup 0/C, which is of greater interest to the geothermal industry. Future studies will include laboratory adsorption experiments to identify possibly unwanted adsorption on granite, development of sensitive analytical techniques, and a field demonstration of the reactive tracer concept.

  14. Reactivity impact of delayed neutron spectra on MCNP calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosteller, R.D.; Werner, C.J.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The new features in MCNP4C, the latest version of the MCNP Monte Carlo code, include the capability to sample from delayed as well as prompt fission emission spectra. Previous versions of MCNP all have sampled exclusively from prompt spectra. Delayed neutrons typically account for <1% of all neutrons emitted from fission, but the emission spectra for delayed neutrons are somewhat softer than those for prompt neutrons. Because of the softer spectrum, delayed neutrons are less likely to leak from the system, and they also are less likely to cause fission in isotopes that have an effective threshold for fission (e.g., {sup 238}U and {sup 240}Pu). Consequently, the inclusion of delayed neutron spectra can have a small but significant effect on reactivity calculations. This study performs MCNP4C calculations for a series of established benchmarks and quantifies the reactivity impact of the delayed neutron spectra.

  15. Engine combustion control at low loads via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A compression ignition (diesel) engine uses two or more fuel charges during a combustion cycle, with the fuel charges having two or more reactivities (e.g., different cetane numbers), in order to control the timing and duration of combustion. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot). At low load and no load (idling) conditions, the aforementioned results are attained by restricting airflow to the combustion chamber during the intake stroke (as by throttling the incoming air at or prior to the combustion chamber's intake port) so that the cylinder air pressure is below ambient pressure at the start of the compression stroke.

  16. Reactive Membrane Barriers for Containment of Subsurface Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William A. Arnold; Edward L. Cussler

    2007-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this project was to develop reactive membrane barriers--a new and flexible technique to contain and stabilize subsurface contaminants. Polymer membranes will leak once a contaminant is able to diffuse through the membrane. By incorporating a reactive material in the polymer, however, the contaminant is degraded or immobilized within the membrane. These processes increase the time for contaminants to breakthrough the barrier (i.e. the lag time) and can dramatically extend barrier lifetimes. In this work, reactive barrier membranes containing zero-valent iron (Fe{sup 0}) or crystalline silicotitanate (CST) were developed to prevent the migration of chlorinated solvents and cesium-137, respectively. These studies were complemented by the development of models quantifying the leakage/kill time of reactive membranes and describing the behavior of products produced via the reactions within the membranes. First, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes containing Fe{sup 0} and CST were prepared and tested. Although PVA is not useful in practical applications, it allows experiments to be performed rapidly and the results to be compared to theory. For copper ions (Cu{sup 2+}) and carbon tetrachloride, the barrier was effective, increasing the time to breakthrough over 300 times. Even better performance was expected, and the percentage of the iron used in the reaction with the contaminants was determined. For cesium, the CST laden membranes increased lag times more than 30 times, and performed better than theoretical predictions. A modified theory was developed for ion exchangers in reactive membranes to explain this result. With the PVA membranes, the effect of a groundwater matrix on barrier performance was tested. Using Hanford groundwater, the performance of Fe{sup 0} barriers decreased compared to solutions containing a pH buffer and high levels of chloride (both of which promote iron reactivity). For the CST bearing membrane, performance improved by a factor of three when groundwater was used in place of deionized water. The performance of high density polyethylene (HDPE) membranes containing Fe{sup 0} was then evaluating using carbon tetrachloride as the target contaminant. Only with a hydrophilic additive (glycerol), was the iron able to extend lag times. Lag times were increased by a factor of 15, but only 2-3% of the iron was used, likely due to formation of oxide precipitates on the iron surface, which slowed the reaction. With thicker membranes and lower carbon tetrachloride concentrations, it is expected that performance will improve. Previous models for reactive membranes were also extended. The lag time is a measurement of when the barrier is breached, but contaminants do slowly leak through prior to the lag time. Thus, two parameters, the leakage and the kill time, were developed to determine when a certain amount of pollutant has escaped (the kill time) or when a given exposure (concentration x time) occurs (the leakage). Finally, a model was developed to explain the behavior of mobile reaction products in reactive barrier membranes. Although the goal of the technology is to avoid such products, it is important to be able to predict how these products will behave. Interestingly, calculations show that for any mobile reaction products, one half of the mass will diffuse into the containment area and one half will escape, assuming that the volumes of the containment area and the surrounding environment are much larger than the barrier membrane. These parameters/models will aid in the effective design of barrier membranes.

  17. Catalytic destruction of groundwater contaminants in reactive extraction wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Reinhard, Martin (Stanford, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for remediating groundwater contaminated with halogenated solvents, certain metals and other inorganic species based on catalytic reduction reactions within reactive well bores. The groundwater treatment uses dissolved hydrogen as a reducing agent in the presence of a metal catalyst, such a palladium, to reduce halogenated solvents (as well as other substituted organic compounds) to harmless species (e.g., ethane or methane) and immobilize certain metals to low valence states. The reactive wells function by removing water from a contaminated water-bearing zone, treating contaminants with a well bore using catalytic reduction, and then reinjecting the treated effluent into an adjacent water-bearing zone. This system offers the advantages of a compact design with a minimal surface footprint (surface facilities) and the destruction of a broad suite of contaminants without generating secondary waste streams.

  18. Dynamics of inelastic and reactive gas-surface collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smoliar, L.A.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of inelastic and reactive collisions in atomic beam-surface scattering are presented. The inelastic scattering of hyperthermal rare gaseous atoms from three alkali halide surfaces (LiF, NaCl, GI)was studied to understand mechanical energy transfer in unreactive systems. The dynamics of the chemical reaction in the scattering of H(D) atoms from the surfaces of LIF(001) and the basal plane of graphite were also studied.

  19. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

  20. Parallel computation of multigroup reactivity coefficient using iterative method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susmikanti, Mike [Center for Development of Nuclear Informatics, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia PUSPIPTEK Area, Tangerang (Indonesia)] [Center for Development of Nuclear Informatics, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia PUSPIPTEK Area, Tangerang (Indonesia); Dewayatna, Winter [Center for Nuclear Fuel Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia PUSPIPTEK Area, Tangerang (Indonesia)] [Center for Nuclear Fuel Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia PUSPIPTEK Area, Tangerang (Indonesia)

    2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the research activities to support the commercial radioisotope production program is a safety research target irradiation FPM (Fission Product Molybdenum). FPM targets form a tube made of stainless steel in which the nuclear degrees of superimposed high-enriched uranium. FPM irradiation tube is intended to obtain fission. The fission material widely used in the form of kits in the world of nuclear medicine. Irradiation FPM tube reactor core would interfere with performance. One of the disorders comes from changes in flux or reactivity. It is necessary to study a method for calculating safety terrace ongoing configuration changes during the life of the reactor, making the code faster became an absolute necessity. Neutron safety margin for the research reactor can be reused without modification to the calculation of the reactivity of the reactor, so that is an advantage of using perturbation method. The criticality and flux in multigroup diffusion model was calculate at various irradiation positions in some uranium content. This model has a complex computation. Several parallel algorithms with iterative method have been developed for the sparse and big matrix solution. The Black-Red Gauss Seidel Iteration and the power iteration parallel method can be used to solve multigroup diffusion equation system and calculated the criticality and reactivity coeficient. This research was developed code for reactivity calculation which used one of safety analysis with parallel processing. It can be done more quickly and efficiently by utilizing the parallel processing in the multicore computer. This code was applied for the safety limits calculation of irradiated targets FPM with increment Uranium.

  1. Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Sulc; Konstantin Turitsyn; Scott Backhaus; Michael Chertkov

    2010-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design decision that weighs on the speed and quality of communication required is whether the control should be centralized or distributed (i.e. local). In general, we find that local control schemes are capable for maintaining voltage within acceptable bounds. We consider the benefits of choosing different local variables on which to control and how the control system can be continuously tuned between robust voltage control, suitable for daytime operation when circuit conditions can change rapidly, and loss minimization better suited for nighttime operation.

  2. Ionic Liquids: Radiation Chemistry, Solvation Dynamics and Reactivity Patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wishart, J.F.

    2011-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are a rapidly expanding family of condensed-phase media with important applications in energy production, nuclear fuel and waste processing, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. ILs generally have low volatilities and are combustion-resistant, highly conductive, recyclable and capable of dissolving a wide variety of materials. They are finding new uses in chemical synthesis, catalysis, separations chemistry, electrochemistry and other areas. Ionic liquids have dramatically different properties compared to conventional molecular solvents, and they provide a new and unusual environment to test our theoretical understanding of primary radiation chemistry, charge transfer and other reactions. We are interested in how IL properties influence physical and dynamical processes that determine the stability and lifetimes of reactive intermediates and thereby affect the courses of reactions and product distributions. We study these issues by characterization of primary radiolysis products and measurements of their yields and reactivity, quantification of electron solvation dynamics and scavenging of electrons in different states of solvation. From this knowledge we wish to learn how to predict radiolytic mechanisms and control them or mitigate their effects on the properties of materials used in nuclear fuel processing, for example, and to apply IL radiation chemistry to answer questions about general chemical reactivity in ionic liquids that will aid in the development of applications listed above. Very early in our radiolysis studies it became evident that the slow solvation dynamics of the excess electron in ILs (which vary over a wide viscosity range) increase the importance of pre-solvated electron reactivity and consequently alter product distributions and subsequent chemistry. This difference from conventional solvents has profound effects on predicting and controlling radiolytic yields, which need to be quantified for the successful use under radiolytic conditions. Electron solvation dynamics in ILs are measured directly when possible and estimated using proxies (e.g. coumarin-153 dynamic emission Stokes shifts or benzophenone anion solvation) in other cases. Electron reactivity is measured using ultrafast kinetics techniques for comparison with the solvation process.

  3. Survey of Reactive Power Planning Methods Wenjuan Zhang, Student Member, IEEE, Leon M. Tolbert, Senior Member, IEEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    Survey of Reactive Power Planning Methods Wenjuan Zhang, Student Member, IEEE, Leon M. Tolbert, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract Reactive power planning (RPP) involves optimal allocation and determination to solve the RPP problem. Index Terms -- reactive power planning, reactive power optimization, optimal

  4. Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murdoch, L. [FRx Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States); [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Siegrist, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Vesper, S. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Many contaminated areas consist of a source area and a plume. In the source area, the contaminant moves vertically downward from a release point through the vadose zone to an underlying saturated region. Where contaminants are organic liquids, NAPL may accumulate on the water table, or it may continue to migrate downward through the saturated region. Early developments of permeable barrier technology have focused on intercepting horizontally moving plumes with vertical structures, such as trenches, filled with reactive material capable of immobilizing or degrading dissolved contaminants. This focus resulted in part from a need to economically treat the potentially large volumes of contaminated water in a plume, and in part from the availability of construction technology to create the vertical structures that could house reactive compounds. Contaminant source areas, however, have thus far remained largely excluded from the application of permeable barrier technology. One reason for this is the lack of conventional construction methods for creating suitable horizontal structures that would place reactive materials in the path of downward-moving contaminants. Methods of hydraulic fracturing have been widely used to create flat-lying to gently dipping layers of granular material in unconsolidated sediments. Most applications thus far have involved filling fractures with coarse-grained sand to create permeable layers that will increase the discharge of wells recovering contaminated water or vapor. However, it is possible to fill fractures with other compounds that alter the chemical composition of the subsurface. One early application involved development and field testing micro-encapsulated sodium percarbonate, a solid compound that releases oxygen and can create aerobic conditions suitable for biodegradation in the subsurface for several months.

  5. Method for preparing hydride configurations and reactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1988-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing highly hydrogen-reactive surfaces on metals which normally require substantial heating, high pressures, or an extended induction period, which involves pretreatment of said surfaces with either a non-oxidizing acid or hydrogen gas to form a hydrogen-bearing coating on said surfaces, and subsequently heating said coated metal in the absence of moisture and oxygen for a period sufficient to decompose said coating and cooling said metal to room temperature. Surfaces so treated will react almost instantaneously with hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure. The method is particularly applicable to uranium, thorium, and lanthanide metals.

  6. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,--SpeedingSpeedingSpeeding access to scienceSpeedingReactive

  7. Low Reactivity SI Engine Lubricant Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001Long-Term Storage ofEnergyReactivity SI Engine

  8. Redox-Reactive Membrane Vesicles produced by Shewanella. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST 800-53 RevisionDivision andIonRedox-Reactive

  9. Project Profile: Chemically Reactive Working Fluids | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d FNEPA/309Department ofDepartmentProjectatChemically Reactive Working

  10. Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rod to obtain required reactivity worth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, John V. (Munhall, PA); Carlson, William R. (Scott Township, Allegheny County, PA); Yarbrough, Michael B. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rods are described, wherein geometric combinations of relatively weak neutron absorber materials such as stainless steel, zirconium or INCONEL, and relatively strong neutron absorber materials, such as hafnium, silver-indium cadmium and boron carbide, are used to obtain the reactivity worths required to reach zero boron change load follow. One embodiment includes a grey rod which has combinations of weak and strong neutron absorber pellets in a stainless steel cladding. The respective pellets can be of differing heights. A second embodiment includes a grey rod with a relatively thick stainless steel cladding receiving relatively strong neutron absorber pellets only. A third embodiment includes annular relatively weak netron absorber pellets with a smaller diameter pellet of relatively strong absorber material contained within the aperture of each relatively weak absorber pellet. The fourth embodiment includes pellets made of a homogeneous alloy of hafnium and a relatively weak absorber material, with the percentage of hafnium chosen to obtain the desired reactivity worth.

  11. Synthesis of belite cement clinker of high hydraulic reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kacimi, Larbi [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes, Departement de Chimie, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie d'Oran, B.P. 1505, El-M'nouar, U.S.T. Oran (Algeria)], E-mail: kacimi20002000@yahoo.fr; Simon-Masseron, Angelique [Laboratoire des Materiaux a Porosite Controlee, CNRS UMR 7016, Universite de Haute-Alsace, 3, rue Alfred-Werner, F-68093 Mulhouse cedex (France)], E-mail: A.Simon@univ-mulhouse.fr; Salem, Souria [Departement d'Architecture, Faculte de Genie Civile, USTO-Oran (Algeria)], E-mail: zinaisalem@yahoo.fr; Ghomari, Abdelhamid [Departement de Chimie, U.A.I.B., Route de Belahcel, Mostaganem (Algeria)], E-mail: belkey@hotmail.com; Derriche, Zoubir [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes, Departement de Chimie, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie d'Oran, B.P. 1505, El-M'nouar, U.S.T. Oran (Algeria)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is concerned with the increase of the cooling rate of belite clinker, by using the water quenching for the chemical stabilization of reactive belite, which improves the hydraulic properties of this clinker. The addition of adequate mineralizers, as NaF and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, contributes to the improvement of the clinker properties obtained at low burning temperature. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and optical microscopy were used to determine the chemical and mineralogical compositions of this clinker. The samples were analyzed by means of a scanning electronic microscope connected with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer to detect the composition of the belite phase and its morphology. Physical and mechanical properties of this clinker cement were determined. The results show that the belite clinker obtained at 1150 {sup o}C, with lime saturation factor 0.67, is characterized by a great hydraulic reactivity, similar to that of the ordinary alite clinker. The addition of 2% of NaF and the water quenching improved the chemical, mineralogical and structural properties, while improving the cement hydraulic properties.

  12. Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. Mitigating the hazards associated with reactive metal hydrides during an accident while finding a way to keep the original capability of the active material intact during normal use has been the focus of this work. These composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride, in this case a prepared sodium alanate (chosen as a representative reactive metal hydride). It was found that the polymerization of styrene and divinyl benzene could be initiated using AIBN in toluene at 70 degC. The resulting composite materials can be either hard or brittle solids depending on the cross-linking density. Thermal decomposition of these styrene-based composite materials is lower than neat polystyrene indicating that the chemical nature of the polymer is affected by the formation of the composite. The char-forming nature of cross-linked polystyrene is low and therefore, not an ideal polymer for hazard mitigation. To obtain composite materials containing a polymer with higher char-forming potential, siloxane-based monomers were investigated. Four vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Like the styrene materials, these composite materials exhibited thermal decomposition behavior significantly different than the neat polymers. Specifically, the thermal decomposition temperature was shifted approximately 100 degC lower than the neat polymer signifying a major chemical change to the polymer network. Thermal analysis of the cycled samples was performed on the siloxane-based composite materials. It was found that after 30 cycles the siloxane-containing polymer composite material has similar TGA/DSC-MS traces as the virgin composite material indicating that the polymer is physically intact upon cycling. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride in the form of a composite material reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. This

  13. Reactive-coupling-induced normal mode splittings in microdisk resonators coupled to waveguides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Sumei; Agarwal, G. S. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the optomechanical design introduced by M. Li et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 223901 (2009)], which is very effective for investigation of the effects of reactive coupling. We show the normal mode splitting that is due solely to reactive coupling rather than due to dispersive coupling. We suggest feeding the waveguide with a pump field along with a probe field and scanning the output probe for evidence of reactive-coupling-induced normal mode splitting.

  14. Effect of different intravenous iron preparations on lymphocyte intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and subpopulation survival.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Ajay; Zhuo, Jiaying; Zha, Junli; Reddy, Srinivasa; Olp, Jonathan; Pai, Amy

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IV iron compounds induced greater intracellular ROS generation,IV iron preparations on intracellular reactive oxygen species generationIV iron preparations on intracellular immune cell ROS generation

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - acquired reactive perforating Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies and Information Sciences 2 Thesis for the Degree of Licentiate of Philosophy Reactive Shared Objects Summary: variations in order to achieve good perfor- mance...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - anti-glutathione peroxidase-antibody reactive...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Reactive Support and Voltage Control Service: Key Issues and Challenges George Gross, Paolo... -mail: gianfranco.chicco@polito.it Abstract -- This paper reviews...

  17. Accelerated test methods for evaluating alkali-silica reactivity of recycled concrete aggregates.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert C (Author)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This thesis reports the findings of a study carried out to determine the effectiveness of Accelerated Tests in evaluating the Alkali-Silica Reactivity of Recycled Concrete… (more)

  18. Modelling of reactive gas transport in unsaturated soil. A coupled thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical approach.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masum, Shakil Al

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This thesis presents the development of a reactive gas transport equation under coupled framework of thermal, hydraulic, chemical and mechanical (THCM) behaviour of variably saturated… (more)

  19. Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murdoch, L. [FRX Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Siegrist, B.; Meiggs, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes the use of hydraulic fracturing to increase permeability in geologic formations where in-situ remedial action of contaminant plumes will be performed. Several in-situ treatment strategies are discussed including the use of hydraulic fracturing to create in situ redox zones for treatment of organics and inorganics. Hydraulic fracturing methods offer a mechanism for the in-situ treatment of gently dipping layers of reactive compounds. Specialized methods using real-time monitoring and a high-energy jet during fracturing allow the form of the fracture to be influenced, such as creation of assymmetric fractures beneath potential sources (i.e. tanks, pits, buildings) that should not be penetrated by boring. Some examples of field applications of this technique such as creating fractures filled with zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate halogenated hydrocarbons, and the use of granular activated carbon to adsorb compounds are discussed.

  20. Anode reactive bleed and injector shift control strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cai, Jun [Rochester, NY; Chowdhury, Akbar [Pittsford, NY; Lerner, Seth E [Honeoye Falls, NY; Marley, William S [Rush, NY; Savage, David R [Rochester, NY; Leary, James K [Rochester, NY

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for correcting a large fuel cell voltage spread for a split sub-stack fuel cell system. The system includes a hydrogen source that provides hydrogen to each split sub-stack and bleed valves for bleeding the anode side of the sub-stacks. The system also includes a voltage measuring device for measuring the voltage of each cell in the split sub-stacks. The system provides two levels for correcting a large stack voltage spread problem. The first level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack well before a normal reactive bleed would occur, and the second level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack and opening the bleed valve of the other sub-stack when the cell voltage spread is close to stack failure.

  1. Distributed control for optimal reactive power compensation in smart microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolognani, Saverio

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the problem of optimal reactive power compensation for the minimization of power distribution losses in a smart microgrid. We first propose an approximate model for the power distribution network, which allows us to cast the problem into the class of convex quadratic, linearly constrained, optimization problems. We also show how this model provides the tools for a distributed approach, in which agents have a partial knowledge of the problem parameters and state, and can only perform local measurements. Then, we design a randomized, gossip-like optimization algorithm, providing conditions for convergence together with an analytic characterization of the convergence speed. The analysis shows that the best performance can be achieved when we command cooperation among agents that are neighbors in the smart microgrid topology. Numerical simulations are included to validate the proposed model and to confirm the analytic results about the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Method of measuring reactive acoustic power density in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1985-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining reactive acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, an apparatus for conducting the method, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas. 5 figs.

  3. Properties of Reactive Oxygen Species by Quantum Monte Carlo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Zen; Bernhardt L. Trout; Leonardo Guidoni

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of Chemistry, Biology and Atmospheric Science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab-initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as $N^3-N^4$, where $N$ is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

  4. Properties of reactive oxygen species by quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zen, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica, La Sapienza - Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Trout, Bernhardt L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Guidoni, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardo.guidoni@univaq.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Università degli studi de L'Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67100 Coppito, L'Aquila (Italy)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of chemistry, biology, and atmospheric science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution, and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular, we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as N{sup 3} ? N{sup 4}, where N is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

  5. Intelligent Voltage and Reactive Power Control of Mini-Hydro Power Stations for Maximisation of Real

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Gareth

    1 Intelligent Voltage and Reactive Power Control of Mini-Hydro Power Stations for Maximisation Control (APFC) modes. The ability to export active and reactive power from mini-hydro power generators electrical power generation from renewable resources. Additionally, the potential early retiral of central

  6. ORNL/TM-2008/083 A Tariff for Reactive Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    ORNL/TM-2008/083 A Tariff for Reactive Power 2008 Prepared by Christopher Tufon, Pacific Gas & Electric Company Alan G. Isemonger, California Independent System Operator Brendan Kirby, ORNL, Knowledge and Transportation Science Division A Tariff for Reactive Power Christopher Tufon Alan G. Isemonger Brendan Kirby

  7. Small Inverter-Interfaced Distributed Energy Resources for Reactive Power Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    to provide reactive power support. I. INTRODUCTION Electrical generators connected to ac power grids mustSmall Inverter-Interfaced Distributed Energy Resources for Reactive Power Support Alejandro D. Dom´inguez-Garc´ia, Christoforos N. Hadjicostis, Philip T. Krein, and Stanton T. Cady Department of Electrical and Computer

  8. Specification and Design of Reactive Systems B.S. (National Chiao-Tung University) 1991

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Reactive Systems by Bilung Lee Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering ­ Electrical Engineering and ComputerSpecification and Design of Reactive Systems by Bilung Lee B.S. (National Chiao-Tung University of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering ­ Electrical Engineering and Computer

  9. Parameters of Postocclusive Reactive Hyperemia Measured by Near Infrared Spectroscopy in Patients with Peripheral Vascular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ljubljana, University of

    Parameters of Postocclusive Reactive Hyperemia Measured by Near Infrared Spectroscopy in Patients PRESERN-STRUKELJ,2 and DAMIJAN MIKLAVC IC 1 1 University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering study was to determine the parameters of the postocclusive reactive hyperemia test that could help

  10. Intelligent Network-Layer Management for Wireless Mesh Networks: Dynamic Tuning of a Reactive Routing Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolner, Brian H.

    1 Intelligent Network-Layer Management for Wireless Mesh Networks: Dynamic Tuning of a Reactive Routing Protocol Dan Marconett, Minsoo Lee, Xiaohui Ye and S. J. Ben Yoo Dept. of Electrical and Computer learning to dynamically modify reactive routing protocol parameters in real-time, to better facilitate

  11. Automatic Testing of Reactive Systems \\Lambda Pascal Raymond, Xavier Nicollin, Nicolas Halbwachs y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halbwachs, Nicolas

    Automatic Testing of Reactive Systems \\Lambda Pascal Raymond, Xavier Nicollin, Nicolas Halbwachs y V'erimag z , Grenoble ­ France Daniel Weber x Schneider Electric, Grenoble ­ France Abstract This paper addresses the problem of automatizing the production of test sequences for reactive systems. We

  12. Stability of planar reactive fronts in external fields Arkady B. Rovinsky,* Anatol M. Zhabotinsky,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, Irving R.

    in reactive systems due to external fields such as electric fields or pressure gradients, may significantlyStability of planar reactive fronts in external fields Arkady B. Rovinsky,* Anatol M. Zhabotinsky arise naturally in systems sub- jected to external fields, such as electric fields or pressure gradients

  13. MEASURING REACTIVE MARKET POWER Fernando L. Alvarado Thomas Overbye Peter Sauer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MEASURING REACTIVE MARKET POWER Fernando L. Alvarado Thomas Overbye Peter Sauer The University-Hirschman Index) can be used to measure reactive power market concentration. The proposed method is illustrated by means of a simple example. Keywords: Electric power transmission, monopoly, mar- ket concentration. 1

  14. Rollable multicolor display using electrically induced blueshift of a cholesteric reactive mesogen mixture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Rollable multicolor display using electrically induced blueshift of a cholesteric reactive mesogen September 2006 Electrically controllable blueshift of the reflection band in a planar cholesteric reactive mesogen cell is observed. The responsible mechanism is electric-field-induced Helfrich deformation J. Chem

  15. PATHS: Analysis of PATH Duration Statistics and their Impact on Reactive MANET Routing Protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    PATHS: Analysis of PATH Duration Statistics and their Impact on Reactive MANET Routing Protocols Department of Electrical Engineering University of Southern California {narayans,fbai,bkrishna,helmy}@usc.edu ABSTRACT We develop a detailed approach to study how mobility im- pacts the performance of reactive MANET

  16. 39333939 ORNL/TM-2008/174 Local Dynamic Reactive Power for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    39333939 ORNL/TM-2008/174 Local Dynamic Reactive Power for Correction of System Voltage Problems Local Dynamic Reactive Power for Correction of System Voltage Problems John D. Kueck* D. Tom Rizy Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Professor of Electrical Engineering at University of Tennessee

  17. Concentrations and Snow-Atmosphere Fluxes of Reactive Nitrogen at Summit, Greenland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Concentrations and Snow-Atmosphere Fluxes of Reactive Nitrogen at Summit, Greenland J. W. Munger AT SUMMIT, GREENLAND 2 Abstract. Concentrations and fluxes of NOy (total reactive nitrogen), ozone concentra at Summit, Greenland. Median NOy concentrations declined from 947 ppt in May to 444 ppt by July. NOy fluxes

  18. Modeling of Hydrogen Storage Materials: A Reactive Force Field for NaH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Modeling of Hydrogen Storage Materials: A Reactive Force Field for NaH Ojwang' J.G.O.*, Rutger van is the fall in potential energy surface during heating. Keywords: hydrogen storage, reactive force field governing hydrogen desorption in NaH. During the abstraction process of surface molecular hydrogen charge

  19. Lycopene cyclase paralog CruP protects against reactive oxygen species in oxygenic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtzel, Eleanore

    , quenching singlet oxygen generated during the water-splitting process of photo- synthesis (10, 11). VariousLycopene cyclase paralog CruP protects against reactive oxygen species in oxygenic photosynthetic cyclase. Instead, we show that CruP aids in preventing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS

  20. Optical fibers by butyl methacrylate reactive extrusion Berthet Romuald, Chalamet Yvan, Taha Mohamed*, Zerroukhi Amar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    limitations. Reactive extrusion experiments were carried out in a twin-screw extruder and the effect optical fibbers, polymethacrylate. Introduction Twin screw extruders are playing an increasing role of reactive extrusion is explained by the different advantages offered by the use of the twin-screw extruders

  1. Reactive power management of distribution networks with wind generation for improving voltage stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    -loadability Reactive power margin Wind turbine a b s t r a c t This paper proposes static and dynamic VAR planningReactive power management of distribution networks with wind generation for improving voltage February 2013 Available online Keywords: Composite load Distributed generation D-STATCOM Q

  2. Reactive Power Operation Analysis of a Single-Phase EV/PHEV Bidirectional Battery Charger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    --More battery powered electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) will be introduced, charger, electric vehicle, EV, PHEV, reactive power, V2G. I. INTRODUCTION According to the international of the electric grid by supplying ancillary services such as reactive power compensation, voltage regulation

  3. Multicomponent reactive transport modeling at the Ratones uranium mine, Cceres (Spain)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Multicomponent reactive transport modeling at the Ratones uranium mine, Cáceres (Spain) Modelación management. The Ratones uranium mine was abandoned and flooded in 1974. Due to its reducing underground water, uranium, reactive transport, granite hydrochemistry, Ratones mine. Resumen La inundación de minas

  4. General Multiobjective Force Field Optimization Framework, with Application to Reactive Force Fields for Silicon Carbide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Fields for Silicon Carbide Andres Jaramillo-Botero,* Saber Naserifar, and William A. Goddard, III: (1) the ReaxFF reactive force field for modeling the adiabatic reactive dynamics of silicon carbide specific force field parameters for tripod metal templates, tripodMO(CO)3, using the root mean square

  5. Analytical solutions for sequentially coupled one-dimensional reactive transport problems Part II: Special cases,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    Analytical solutions for sequentially coupled one-dimensional reactive transport problems ­ Part II solutions to multi-species reactive transport equations coupled through sorption and sequential first special-case transport scenarios involving zero initial condition, identical retardation factors and zero

  6. A transport based one-dimensional perturbation code for reactivity calculations in metal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenz, T.R.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A one-dimensional reactivity calculation code is developed using first order perturbation theory. The reactivity equation is based on the multi-group transport equation using the discrete ordinates method for angular dependence. In addition to the first order perturbation approximations, the reactivity code uses only the isotropic scattering data, but cross section libraries with higher order scattering data can still be used with this code. The reactivity code obtains all the flux, cross section, and geometry data from the standard interface files created by ONEDANT, a discrete ordinates transport code. Comparisons between calculated and experimental reactivities were done with the central reactivity worth data for Lady Godiva, a bare uranium metal assembly. Good agreement is found for isotopes that do not violate the assumptions in the first order approximation. In general for cases where there are large discrepancies, the discretized cross section data is not accurately representing certain resonance regions that coincide with dominant flux groups in the Godiva assembly. Comparing reactivities calculated with first order perturbation theory and a straight {Delta}k/k calculation shows agreement within 10% indicating the perturbation of the calculated fluxes is small enough for first order perturbation theory to be applicable in the modeled system. Computation time comparisons between reactivities calculated with first order perturbation theory and straight {Delta}k/k calculations indicate considerable time can be saved performing a calculation with a perturbation code particularly as the complexity of the modeled problems increase.

  7. A gas-kinetic scheme for reactive ows Yongsheng Lian, Kun Xu*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Kun

    A gas-kinetic scheme for reactive ¯ows Yongsheng Lian, Kun Xu* Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong in revised form 22 July 1999; accepted 22 July 1999 Abstract In this paper, the gas-kinetic BGK scheme for the compressible ¯ow equations is extended to chemical reactive ¯ow. The mass fraction of the unburnt gas

  8. A Tariff for Reactive Power 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    to the distribution system economically by customers when new inverters are installed. The inverter would be supplied, and adjustable-speed motor drives. Index Terms--Inverter, Power Factor, Reactive Power, Tariff, Voltage efficiency. Reactive power is theoretically available from any inverter-based equipment such as photovoltaic

  9. Learning Reactive Neurocontrollers using Simulated Annealing for Mobile Philippe Lucidarme, Alain Ligeois

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Learning Reactive Neurocontrollers using Simulated Annealing for Mobile Robots Philippe Lucidarme a method based on simulated annealing to learn reactive behaviors. This work is related with multi is a neural network and we use a simulated annealing techniques to learn the synaptic weights. We'll first

  10. Computational mapping reveals dramatic effect of Hoogsteen breathing on duplex DNA reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vajda, Sandor

    Computational mapping reveals dramatic effect of Hoogsteen breathing on duplex DNA reactivity Formaldehyde has long been recognized as a haz- ardous environmental agent highly reactive with DNA. Recently-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for observing weakly specific interactions of small organic

  11. Passive Ozone Control Through Use of Reactive Indoor Wall and Ceiling Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Passive Ozone Control Through Use of Reactive Indoor Wall and Ceiling Materials Paper # 715 Donna A and unpainted drywall as passive ozone control surfaces in a room-sized laboratory chamber. Mean deposition-50%, resulted in increased reactivity for activated carbon. In our model for a typical house, about 35

  12. X-ray microtomography characterization of porosity, permeability and reactive surface changes during dissolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luquot, Linda

    X-ray microtomography characterization of porosity, permeability and reactive surface changes from X-ray microtomography data obtained before and after a set of dissolution experiments of pure.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Reactive transport Carbon storage Permeability X-ray microtomography 1

  13. Abstract--This paper proposes a two-level framework for the operation of a competitive market for reactive power ancillary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    and the selected reactive power service providers. Index Terms- System operation, ancillary services, electricity reactive power provisions in the context of deregulated electricity markets, namely, reactive power for reactive power ancillary services. It is argued that the first-level, i.e. reactive power procurement

  14. Multicomponent reactive transport modeling of uranium bioremediation field experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Yilin; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Morrison, Stan J.; Amonette, James E.; Long, Philip E.

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Biostimulation field experiments with acetate amendment are being performed at a former uranium mill tailings site in Rifle, Colorado, to investigate subsurface processes controlling in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater. An important part of the research is identifying and quantifying field-scale models of the principal terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs) during biostimulation and the consequent biogeochemical impacts to the subsurface receiving environment. Integrating abiotic chemistry with the microbially mediated TEAPs in the reaction network brings into play geochemical observations (e.g., pH, alkalinity, redox potential, major ions, and secondary minerals) that the reactive transport model must recognize. These additional constraints provide for a more systematic and mechanistic interpretation of the field behaviors during biostimulation. The reaction network specification developed for the 2002 biostimulation field experiment was successfully applied without additional calibration to the 2003 and 2007 field experiments. The robustness of the model specification is significant in that 1) the 2003 biostimulation field experiment was performed with 3 times higher acetate concentrations than the previous biostimulation in the same field plot (i.e., the 2002 experiment), and 2) the 2007 field experiment was performed in a new unperturbed plot on the same site. The biogeochemical reactive transport simulations accounted for four TEAPs, two distinct functional microbial populations, two pools of bioavailable Fe(III) minerals (iron oxides and phyllosilicate iron), uranium aqueous and surface complexation, mineral precipitation, and dissolution. The conceptual model for bioavailable iron reflects recent laboratory studies with sediments from the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site that demonstrated that the bulk (~90%) of Fe(III) bioreduction is associated with the phyllosilicates rather than the iron oxides. The uranium reaction network includes a U(VI) surface complexation model based on laboratory studies with Old Rifle UMTRA sediments and aqueous complexation reactions that include ternary complexes (e.g., calcium-uranyl-carbonate). The bioreduced U(IV), Fe(II), and sulfide components produced during the experiments are strongly associated with the solid phases and may play an important role in long-term uranium immobilization.

  15. Local Dynamic Reactive Power for Correction of System Voltage Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL; Li, Huijuan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Adhikari, Sarina [ORNL; Irminger, Philip [ORNL

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distribution systems are experiencing outages due to a phenomenon known as local voltage collapse. Local voltage collapse is occurring in part because modern air conditioner compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage dip than older motors. These motors can stall in less than 3 cycles (.05s) when a fault, such as on the sub-transmission system, causes voltage to sag to 70 to 60%. The reasons for this susceptibility are discussed in the report. During the local voltage collapse, voltages are depressed for a period of perhaps one or two minutes. There is a concern that these local events are interacting together over larger areas and may present a challenge to system reliability. An effective method of preventing local voltage collapse is the use of voltage regulation from Distributed Energy Resources (DER) that can supply or absorb reactive power. DER, when properly controlled, can provide a rapid correction to voltage dips and prevent motor stall. This report discusses the phenomenon and causes of local voltage collapse as well as the control methodology we have developed to counter voltage sag. The problem is growing because of the use of low inertia, high efficiency air conditioner (A/C) compressor motors and because the use of electric A/C is growing in use and becoming a larger percentage of system load. A method for local dynamic voltage regulation is discussed which uses reactive power injection or absorption from local DER. This method is independent, rapid, and will not interfere with conventional utility system voltage control. The results of simulations of this method are provided. The method has also been tested at the ORNL s Distributed Energy Communications and Control (DECC) Laboratory using our research inverter and synchronous condenser. These systems at the DECC Lab are interconnected to an actual distribution system, the ORNL distribution system, which is fed from TVA s 161kV sub-transmission backbone. The test results are also provided and discussed. The simulations and testing show that local voltage control from DER can prevent local voltage collapse. The results also show that the control can be provided so quickly, within 0.5 seconds, that is does not interfere with conventional utility methods.

  16. Final Report- Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Report - Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support

  17. ESTIMATING THE UNCERTAINTY IN REACTIVITY ACCIDENT NEUTRONIC CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DIAMOND,D.J.; YANG,C.Y.; ARONSON,A.L.

    1998-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the uncertainty in calculations of the rod ejection accident in a pressurized water reactor is being carried out for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper is a progress report on that study. Results are presented for the sensitivity of core energy deposition to the key parameters: ejected rod worth, delayed neutron fraction, Doppler reactivity coefficient, and fuel specific heat. These results can be used in the future to estimate the uncertainty in local fuel enthalpy given some assumptions about the uncertainty in the key parameters. This study is also concerned with the effect of the intra-assembly representation in calculations. The issue is the error that might be present if assembly-average power is calculated, and pin peaking factors from a static calculation are then used to determine local fuel enthalpy. This is being studied with the help of a collaborative effort with Russian and French analysts who are using codes with different intra-assembly representations. The US code being used is PARCS which calculates power on an assembly-average basis. The Russian code being used is BARS which calculates power for individual fuel pins using a heterogeneous representation based on a Green's Function method.

  18. Estimating the uncertainty in reactivity accident neutronic calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, D.J.; Yang, C.Y.; Aronson, A.L.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the uncertainty in calculations of the rod ejection accident in a pressurized water reactor is being carried out for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper is a progress report on that study. Results are presented for the sensitivity of core energy deposition to the key parameters: ejected rod worth, delayed neutron fraction, Doppler reactivity coefficient, and fuel specific heat. These results can be used in the future to estimate the uncertainty in local fuel enthalpy given some assumptions about the uncertainty in the key parameters. This study is also concerned with the effect of the intra-assembly representation in calculations. The issue is the error that might be present if assembly-average power is calculated, and pin peaking factors from a static calculation are then used to determine local fuel enthalpy. This is being studied with the help of a collaborative effort with Russian and French analysts who are using codes with different intra-assembly representations. The US code being used is PARCS which calculates power on an assembly-average basis. The Russian code being used is BARS which calculates power for individual fuel pins using a heterogeneous representation based on a Green`s Function method.

  19. Etching radical controlled gas chopped deep reactive ion etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olynick, Deidre; Rangelow, Ivo; Chao, Weilun

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for silicon micromachining techniques based on high aspect ratio reactive ion etching with gas chopping has been developed capable of producing essentially scallop-free, smooth, sidewall surfaces. The method uses precisely controlled, alternated (or chopped) gas flow of the etching and deposition gas precursors to produce a controllable sidewall passivation capable of high anisotropy. The dynamic control of sidewall passivation is achieved by carefully controlling fluorine radical presence with moderator gasses, such as CH.sub.4 and controlling the passivation rate and stoichiometry using a CF.sub.2 source. In this manner, sidewall polymer deposition thicknesses are very well controlled, reducing sidewall ripples to very small levels. By combining inductively coupled plasmas with controlled fluorocarbon chemistry, good control of vertical structures with very low sidewall roughness may be produced. Results show silicon features with an aspect ratio of 20:1 for 10 nm features with applicability to nano-applications in the sub-50 nm regime. By comparison, previous traditional gas chopping techniques have produced rippled or scalloped sidewalls in a range of 50 to 100 nm roughness.

  20. Spectroscopy, Thermochemistry, and Reactivity of Lanthanide and Actinide Molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morse, Michael D.; Armentrout, Peter B.

    2012-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The research undertaken under this grant is described in this document. The document describes progress in the construction of an instrument for recording photodissociation action spectra of mass-selected cryo-cooled cations. The instrument is not yet functional, but we anticipate trapping ions and conducting photodissociation experiments before the end of the year. It also describes resonant two-photon ionization spectra that have been recorded for uranium mononitride (UN) in the visible portion of the spectrum. These experiments are still underway at the present time. Although the spectra are a bit difficult to properly fit, due to upper state perturbations, it appears that the molecule has a ground state with {Omega} = 3.5 and a bond length of approximately 1.76 {angstrom}. Finally, results on the thermochemistry and reactivity of Th{sup +} are presented. In these studies the bond energies of the following bonds have been determined: D{sub 0}(Th{sup +}-2O) = 10.2 {+-} 0.2 eV; D0(Th{sup +}-N) = 6.69 {+-} 0.35 eV; D0(Th{sup +}-O) = 8.40 {+-} 0.28 eV; D{sub 0}(OTh{sup +}-O) = 1.8 {+-} 0.4 eV.

  1. Reactive gases evolved during pyrolysis of Devonian oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coburn, T.T.; Crawford, R.W.; Gregg, H.R.; Oh, M.S.

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer modeling of oil shale pyrolysis is an important part of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Oil Shale Program. Models containing detailed chemistry have been derived from an investigation of Colorado oil shale. We are currently attempting to use models to treat more completely reactions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in the retort to better understand emissions. Batch retorting work on Devonian oil shale is proving particularly useful for this study of nitrogen/sulfur chemistry. Improved analytical methods have been developed to quantitatively determine reactive volatiles at the parts-per-million level. For example, the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS) is used in the chemical ionization (CI) mode to provide real-time analytical data on ammonia evolution as the shale is pyrolyzed. A heated transfer line and inlet ensure rapid and complete introduction of ammonia to the instrument by preventing water condensation. Ammonia and water release data suitable for calculating kinetic parameters have been obtained from a New Albany Shale sample. An MS/MS technique with the TQMS in the electron ionization (EI) mode allows hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and certain trace organic sulfur compounds to be monitored during oil shale pyrolysis. Sensitivity and selectivity for these compounds have been increased by applying artificial intelligence techniques to tuning of the spectrometer. Gas evolution profiles (100 to 900/sup 0/C) are reported for hydrogen sulfide, water, ammonia, and trace sulfur species formed during pyrolysis of Devonian oil shale. Implications for retorting chemistry are discussed. 18 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Predictive modeling of reactive wetting and metal joining.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Swol, Frank B.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance, reproducibility and reliability of metal joints are complex functions of the detailed history of physical processes involved in their creation. Prediction and control of these processes constitutes an intrinsically challenging multi-physics problem involving heating and melting a metal alloy and reactive wetting. Understanding this process requires coupling strong molecularscale chemistry at the interface with microscopic (diffusion) and macroscopic mass transport (flow) inside the liquid followed by subsequent cooling and solidification of the new metal mixture. The final joint displays compositional heterogeneity and its resulting microstructure largely determines the success or failure of the entire component. At present there exists no computational tool at Sandia that can predict the formation and success of a braze joint, as current capabilities lack the ability to capture surface/interface reactions and their effect on interface properties. This situation precludes us from implementing a proactive strategy to deal with joining problems. Here, we describe what is needed to arrive at a predictive modeling and simulation capability for multicomponent metals with complicated phase diagrams for melting and solidification, incorporating dissolutive and composition-dependent wetting.

  3. Reactivity initiated accident test series Test RIA 1-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinson, Z.R.; El-Genk, M.S.; Fukuda, S.K.; LaPointe, R.E.; Osetek, D.J.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test RIA 1-4, the first 9-rod fuel rod bundle RIA Test to be performed at BWR hot startup conditions, was completed on April 16, 1980. The test was performed in the Power Burst Facility (PBF). Objective for Test RIA 1-4 was to provide information regarding loss-of-coolable fuel rod geometry following a RIA event for a peak fuel enthalpy equivalent to the present licensing criteria of 280 cal/g. The most severe RIA is the postulated Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) control rod drop during reactor startup. Therefore the test was conducted at BWR hot startup coolant conditions (538 K, 6.45 MPa, 0.8 1/sec). The test sequence began with steady power operation to condition the fuel, establish a short-lived fission product inventory, and calibrate the calorimetric measurements and core power chambers, neutron flux and gamma flux detectors. The test train was removed from the in-pile tube (IPT) to replace one of the fuel rods with a nominally identical irradiated rod and twelve flux wire monitors. A 2.8 ms period power burst was then performed. Coolant flow measurements were made before and after the power burst to characterize the flow blockage that occurred as a result of fuel rod failure.

  4. Reactivity of iron-bearing minerals and CO2 sequestration: A multi-disciplinary experimental approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoonen, Martin A. [Stony Brook University] (ORCID:0000000271331160)

    2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The reactivity of sandstones was studied under conditions relevant to the injection of supercritical carbon dioxide in the context of carbon geosequestration. The emphasis of the study was on the reactivity of iron-bearing minerals when exposed to supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and scCO2 with commingled aqueous solutions containing H2S and/or SO2. Flow through and batch experiments were conducted. Results indicate that sandstones, irrespective of their mineralogy, are not reactive when exposed to pure scCO2 or scCO2 with commingled aqueous solutions containing H2S and/or SO2 under conditions simulating the environment near the injection point (flow through experiments). However, sandstones are reactive under conditions simulating the edge of the injected CO2 plume or ahead of the plume (batch experiments). Sandstones containing hematite (red sandstone) are particularly reactive. The composition of the reaction products is strongly dependent on the composition of the aqueous phase. The presence of dissolved sulfide leads to the conversion of hematite into pyrite and siderite. The relative amount of the pyrite and siderite is influenced by the ionic strength of the solution. Little reactivity is observed when sulfite is present in the aqueous phase. Sandstones without hematite (grey sandstones) show little reactivity regardless of the solution composition.

  5. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 22, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2007 2177 Review of Reactive Power Planning: Objectives,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 22, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2007 2177 Review of Reactive Power Member, IEEE, and Leon M. Tolbert, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--The key of reactive power planning (RPP), or Var planning, is the optimal allocation of reactive power sources con- sidering location and size

  6. Tin-Based Reactive Solders for Ceramic/Metal Joints RAKESH R. KAPOOR and THOMAS W . EAGAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ( { ) Tin-Based Reactive Solders for Ceramic/Metal Joints RAKESH R. KAPOOR and THOMAS W . EAGAR engine com- ponents), wear parts, tool materials, electrical feed- throughs, and metal contacts on ceramics. To overcome this problem, reactive metals are added to the filler metai.11- 181These reactive

  7. 718 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 9, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2001 Reactive Power and Unbalance Compensation Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stankoviæ, Aleksandar

    718 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 9, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2001 Reactive Power as reactive power and unbalance compensators, e.g., Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM). The approach practice. Index Terms--Active filters, adaptive control, dissipative sys- tems, nonlinear systems, reactive

  8. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 17, NO. 2, MAY 2002 283 Unbundled Reactive Support Service: Key

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    in the acquisition and pricing of the reactive support service. Index Terms--Ancillary services, electricity marketsIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 17, NO. 2, MAY 2002 283 Unbundled Reactive Support Service exposition of generator-provided reactive support as an unbundled ancillary service under open access

  9. PAPER ACCEPTED TO IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, Nov. 2008 1 Reactive Power and Voltage Control in Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    PAPER ACCEPTED TO IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, Nov. 2008 1 Reactive Power and Voltage) problem associated with reactive power and voltage control in distribution systems to minimize daily--Distribution systems, reactive power control, voltage control, optimal switching operations, mixed integer nonlinear

  10. Abstract--This paper discusses various complex issues associated with reactive power management and pricing in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    --Ancillary services, electricity markets, deregulation, reactive power management, system operation. I. INTRODUCTION, and recommended strengthening the reactive power and voltage control practices in all North American Electric, provision by the utilities of reactive power was embedded within the electricity supply to customers

  11. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2008 2905 Eliminate Reactive Power and Increase System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2008 2905 Eliminate Reactive Power of "reactive power" is de- fined, and the corresponding equations are derived for isolated bidirectional dc­dc converters. It is shown that the reactive power in traditional phase-shift control is inherent

  12. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 17, NO. 2, MAY 2002 243 Allocation of the Reactive Power Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 17, NO. 2, MAY 2002 243 Allocation of the Reactive Power the reactive power support requirements pro- vided by the generators in multitransaction networks. The allocat- able reactive support requirements are defined with respect to the support required for the network

  13. Abstract: In this paper we provide a systematic review of generator-provided reactive support as an unbundled ancillary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the provision of reactive power and voltage support was bundled with other services in supplying electricity electricity. Under open access, however, reactive support and voltage control from generation sources becomes1 Abstract: In this paper we provide a systematic review of generator-provided reactive support

  14. Abstract--This paper proposes a reactive power dispatch model that takes into account both the technical and economical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    the reactive power and voltage control practices in all North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC and transformers taps deviations [12]. In the context of deregulated electricity markets, reactive power dispatch1 Abstract--This paper proposes a reactive power dispatch model that takes into account both

  15. INHIBITION OF CASPASE-LIKE ACTIVITIES PREVENTS THE APPEARANCE OF REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES AND DARK-INDUCED APOPTOSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berges, John A.

    cells revealed by SYTOX-green staining, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we usedINHIBITION OF CASPASE-LIKE ACTIVITIES PREVENTS THE APPEARANCE OF REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES AND DARK viability; Dunaliella tertiolecta; phosphatidylserine; phytoplankton; reactive oxygen species; unicellular

  16. RESUS-D-12-00285 Mild hypothermia reduces per-ischemic reactive oxygen species production4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    this dysfunction through per-ischemic3 inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation.4 Methods: First, ROS ischemic injuries through complex events2 involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation 1, 2RESUS-D-12-00285 1 2 3 Mild hypothermia reduces per-ischemic reactive oxygen species production4

  17. Reactivity of low-valent nickel-1,3-BIS (o-Diphenylphosphinophenylthio) propane (arom-PSSP) with small molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jeehee

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The reactivity of NiO(arom-PSSP) with small molecules was studied in comparison to the reactivity of NIO(PSSP) which was studied by previous members of our group. The low-valent nickel atom in this arom-PSSP ligand exhibited reactivity toward small...

  18. Mechanical models of fracture reactivation and slip on bedding surfaces during folding of the asymmetric anticline at Sheep Mountain, Wyoming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borja, Ronaldo I.

    Mechanical models of fracture reactivation and slip on bedding surfaces during folding June 2008 Accepted 5 June 2008 Available online 13 June 2008 Keywords: Fold Fracture reactivation Bed methods to investigate the reactivation of fractures (opening and shearing) and the development of bedding

  19. Estimation of reactive fluxes in gradient stochastic systems using an analogy with electric circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron, M.K., E-mail: cameron@math.umd.edu

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •The MaxFlux functional should be called the resistivity functional. •A Hamilton–Jacobi approach for computing transition paths in collective variables. •Conversion of the network of reactive channels into an electric circuit. •Test on the Alanine-Dipeptide. Perfect agreement. •Application to the problem of CO escape from Myoglobin. -- Abstract: We propose an approach for finding dominant reactive channels and calculating percentages of reactive flux through each channel in chemical systems driven by a deterministic potential force and a small thermal noise. We assume that the temperature is low enough so that the reactive flux focuses around a finite number of paths connecting the reactant and the product states. These paths can be found in a systematic way by solving a Hamilton–Jacobi equation for the so called MaxFlux functional. We argue that the name “MaxFlux” is misleading: it should be called the resistivity functional instead. Once the network of transition paths is found, one can define an equivalent electric circuit and find the currents through each of its wires. These currents give estimates of the reactive flux along the corresponding transition paths. We test our approach on the problem of finding transition paths in the Alanine-Dipeptide with two dihedral angles where the reactive current can be computed exactly. The percentages of the reactive flux through each reactive channel given by our approach turn out to be in remarkable agreement with the exact ones. We apply this approach to the problem of finding escape paths of a CO molecule from a Myoglobin protein. We find a collection of exit locations and establish percentages of the reactive flux through each of them.

  20. Testing and Evaluation of a Power Factor Correction for Power-Savings Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alotaibi, A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was then reduced from 13.9 to 3.0 kVAR (kilo volts amps reactive), the apparent power was decreased from 17.5 to 11.0 kVA (kilo volts amps). and the current was reduced from 23.4 to 14.5 amps. The Ministry of Electricity & Water (MEW) in Kuwait is expected...

  1. Kinetics and mechanisms of reactions involving small aromatic reactive intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, M.C. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small aromatic radicals such as C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O and C{sub 6}H{sub 4} are key prototype species of their homologs. C{sub 6}H{sub 5} and its oxidation product, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O are believed to be important intermediates which play a pivotal role in hydrocarbon combustion, particularly with regard to soot formation. Despite their fundamental importance, experimental data on the reaction mechanisms and reactivities of these species are very limited. For C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, most kinetic data except its reactions with NO and NO{sub 2}, were obtained by relative rate measurements. For C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O, the authors have earlier measured its fragmentation reaction producing C{sub 5}H{sub 5} + CO in shock waves. For C{sub 6}H{sub 4}, the only rate constant measured in the gas phase is its recombination rate at room temperature. The authors have proposed to investigate systematically the kinetics and mechanisms of this important class of molecules using two parallel laser diagnostic techniques--laser resonance absorption (LRA) and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry (REMPI/MS). In the past two years, study has been focused on the development of a new multipass adsorption technique--the {open_quotes}cavity-ring-down{close_quotes} technique for kinetic applications. The preliminary results of this study appear to be quite good and the sensitivity of the technique is at least comparable to that of the laser-induced fluorescence method.

  2. Reactive trace metals in the stratified central North Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruland, K.W. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)); Orians, K.J. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Cowen, J.P. (Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States))

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vertical concentration profiles of the dissolved and suspended particulate phases were determined for a suite of reactive trace metals, Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cd, during summertime at a station in the center of the North Pacific gyre. During summer the euphotic zone becomes stratified, forming a shallow (0-25 m), oligotrophic, mixed layer overlying a subsurface (25-140 m), strongly-stratified region. The physical, biological, and chemical structure within the euphotic zone during this period enhanced the effect of atmospheric inputs of Al, Fe, and Mn on mixed layer concentrations. For example, the concentration of dissolved Fe in the surface mixed layer was eighteen times that observed at a depth of 100 m. The observed aeolian signature of these metals matched that predicted from estimates of atmospheric input during the period between the onset of stratification and sampling. The distributions of suspended particulate Al, Fe, and Mn all exhibited minima in the euphotic zone and increased with depth into the main thermocline. Particulate Al and Fe were then uniform with depth below 1000 m before increasing in the near bottom nepheloid layer. Average particulate phase concentrations in intermediate and deep waters of the central North Pacific were 1.0, 0.31, and 0.055 nmol[center dot]kg[sup [minus]1] for Al, Fe, and Mn, respectively. The distribution of particulate Cd exhibited a maximum within the subsurface euphotic zone. Particulate zinc also exhibited a surface maximum, albeit a smaller one. Concentrations of particulate Zn and Cd in intermediate and deep waters were 17 and 0.2 pmol[center dot]kg[sup [minus]1]. Substantial interbasin differences in particulate trace metals occur. Concentrations of suspended particulate Al, Fe, and Mn were three to four times lower in the central North Pacific than recently reported for the central North Atlantic gyre, consistent with differences in atmospheric input to these two regions.

  3. Photoconductivity in reactively evaporated copper indium selenide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urmila, K. S., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Asokan, T. Namitha, E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Pradeep, B., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala (India); Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena [Thin Film Research Laboratory, Union Christian College, Aluva, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Copper indium selenide thin films of composition CuInSe{sub 2} with thickness of the order of 130 nm are deposited on glass substrate at a temperature of 423 ±5 K and pressure of 10{sup ?5} mbar using reactive evaporation, a variant of Gunther's three temperature method with high purity Copper (99.999%), Indium (99.999%) and Selenium (99.99%) as the elemental starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies shows that the films are polycrystalline in nature having preferred orientation of grains along the (112) plane. The structural type of the film is found to be tetragonal with particle size of the order of 32 nm. The structural parameters such as lattice constant, particle size, dislocation density, number of crystallites per unit area and strain in the film are also evaluated. The surface morphology of CuInSe{sub 2} films are studied using 2D and 3D atomic force microscopy to estimate the grain size and surface roughness respectively. Analysis of the absorption spectrum of the film recorded using UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range from 2500 nm to cutoff revealed that the film possess a direct allowed transition with a band gap of 1.05 eV and a high value of absorption coefficient (?) of 10{sup 6} cm{sup ?1} at 570 nm. Photoconductivity at room temperature is measured after illuminating the film with an FSH lamp (82 V, 300 W). Optical absorption studies in conjunction with the good photoconductivity of the prepared p-type CuInSe{sub 2} thin films indicate its suitability in photovoltaic applications.

  4. Hydrogen Reactivity on Highly-hydroxylated TiO2(110) Surfaces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TiO2(110) Surfaces Prepared via Carboxylic Acid Adsorption and Photolysis. Hydrogen Reactivity on Highly-hydroxylated TiO2(110) Surfaces Prepared via Carboxylic Acid...

  5. Influence of calcite on uranium(VI) reactive transport in the groundwater–river mixing zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Rui; Liu, Chongxuan; Greskowiak, Janek; Prommer, Henning; Zachara, John M.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2014-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Calcite is an important mineral that can affect uranyl reactive transport in subsurface sediments. This study investigated the distribution of calcite and its influence on uranyl adsorption and reactive transport in the groundwater-river mixing zone at US Hanford 300A, Washington State. Simulations using a 2D reactive transport model under field-relevant hydrogeochemical conditions revealed a complex distribution of calcite concentration as a result of dynamic groundwater-river interactions. The calcite concentration distribution in turn affected the spatial and temporal changes in aqueous carbonate, calcium, and pH, which subsequently influenced U(VI) mobility and discharge rates into the river. The results implied that calcite distribution and its concentration dynamics is an important consideration for field characterization, monitoring, and reactive transport prediction.

  6. Photochemical Transformation of Carboxylated Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes: Role of Reactive Oxygen Species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    in consumer and industrial products (e.g., electronics, composite materials, and sporting equipment) mayPhotochemical Transformation of Carboxylated Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes: Role of Reactive Oxygen investigated the photochemical transformation of carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (COOH

  7. The reactive metabolite target protein database (TPDB) – a web-accessible resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanzlik, Robert P.; Koen, Yakov M.; Theertham, Bhargav; Dong, Yinghua; Fang, Jianwen

    2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Background The toxic effects of many simple organic compounds stem from their biotransformation to chemically reactive metabolites which bind covalently to cellular proteins. To understand the mechanisms of cytotoxic ...

  8. S-nitrosothiols and reactive oxygen species in plant disease resistance and development 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brzezek, Kerstin

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitric oxide (NO) as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in defence signalling in plants. After successful recognition of an invading pathogen, an increase in ROS occurs, the ’oxidative burst’; ...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - automatic reactive power Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    power Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Power control of a wind farm with active stall wind turbines and AC grid connection Summary: , reactive power control and automatic voltage...

  10. On the Evolution of Reactive Components A Process-Algebraic Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller-Olm, Markus

    On the Evolution of Reactive Components ­ A Process-Algebraic Approach ­ Markus M¨uller-Olm1 1999 #12;162 Markus M¨uller-Olm, Bernhard Steffen, and Rance Cleaveland in out in out overflow in out

  11. Leaching of Metals from Fly ash-Amended Permeable Reactive Barriers Doina L. Morar 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    (Petzrick 2001). Unfortunately, this HCC fly ash cannot be beneficially reused in the construction industry organic and inorganic pollutants. Specific reactive materials such as wood chips, limestone, manure (USEPA

  12. Reactive Point Processes: A New Approach to Predicting Power Failures in Underground Electrical Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ertekin, Seyda

    2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive point processes (RPP’s) are a new statistical model designed for predicting discrete events, incorporating self-exciting, self-regulating, and saturating components. The self-excitement occurs as a result of a ...

  13. Reactive species and DNA damage in chronic inflammation: Reconciling chemical mechanisms and biological fates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lonkar, Pallavi

    Chronic inflammation has long been recognized as a risk factor for many human cancers. One mechanistic link between inflammation and cancer involves the generation of nitric oxide, superoxide and other reactive oxygen and ...

  14. Reactive ion etching: Optimized diamond membrane fabrication for transmission electron microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Luozhou

    Commonly used preparation method for thin diamond membranes by focused ion beam (FIB) techniques results in surface damage. Here, the authors introduce an alternative method based on reactive ion etching (RIE). To compare ...

  15. Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

  16. Combining thorium with burnable poison for reactivity control of a very long cycle BWR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inoue, Yuichiro, 1969-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of utilizing thorium together with gadolinium, erbium, or boron burnable absorber in BWR fuel assemblies for very long cycle is investigated. Nuclear characteristics such as reactivity and power distributions ...

  17. Assessment of the Economic Potential of Microgrids for Reactive Power Supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appen, Jan von; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Momber, Ilan; Klapp, David; Scheven, Alexander von

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As power generation from variable distributed energy resources (DER) grows, energy flows in the network are changing, increasing the requirements for ancillary services, including voltage support. With the appropriate power converter, DER can provide ancillary services such as frequency control and voltage support. This paper outlines the economic potential of DERs coordinated in a microgrid to provide reactive power and voltage support at its point of common coupling. The DER Customer Adoption Model assesses the costs of providing reactive power, given local utility rules. Depending on the installed DER, the cost minimizing solution for supplying reactive power locally is chosen. Costs include the variable cost of the additional losses and the investment cost of appropriately over-sizing converters or purchasing capacitors. A case study of a large health care building in San Francisco is used to evaluate different revenue possibilities of creating an incentive for microgrids to provide reactive power.

  18. Hall mobility of cuprous oxide thin films deposited by reactive direct-current magnetron sputtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yun Seog

    Cuprous oxide (Cu[subscript 2]O) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for photovoltaic applications. We report Hall mobilities of polycrystalline Cu[subscript 2]O thin films deposited by reactive dc magnetron ...

  19. Analysis of Reactivity Induced Accident for Control Rods Ejection with Loss of Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hend Mohammed El Sayed Saad; Hesham Mohammed Mohammed Mansour; Moustafa Aziz Abd El Wahab

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding of the time-dependent behavior of the neutron population in nuclear reactor in response to either a planned or unplanned change in the reactor conditions, is a great importance to the safe and reliable operation of the reactor. In the present work, the point kinetics equations are solved numerically using stiffness confinement method (SCM). The solution is applied to the kinetics equations in the presence of different types of reactivities and is compared with different analytical solutions. This method is also used to analyze reactivity induced accidents in two reactors. The first reactor is fueled by uranium and the second is fueled by plutonium. This analysis presents the effect of negative temperature feedback with the addition positive reactivity of control rods to overcome the occurrence of control rod ejection accident and damaging of the reactor. Both power and temperature pulse following the reactivity- initiated accidents are calculated. The results are compared with previous works and satisfactory agreement is found.

  20. Social comparison test using women's subjective and physiological reactivity to thin and average size models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamez, Jeannine Paola

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The current study examined the subjective and physiological reactivity to body image stimuli among females engaging in a social comparison task. Study I was conducted to select images of thin and average size models and neutral objects for Study...

  1. Analysis of Reactivity Induced Accident for Control Rods Ejection with Loss of Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saad, Hend Mohammed El Sayed; Wahab, Moustafa Aziz Abd El

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding of the time-dependent behavior of the neutron population in nuclear reactor in response to either a planned or unplanned change in the reactor conditions, is a great importance to the safe and reliable operation of the reactor. In the present work, the point kinetics equations are solved numerically using stiffness confinement method (SCM). The solution is applied to the kinetics equations in the presence of different types of reactivities and is compared with different analytical solutions. This method is also used to analyze reactivity induced accidents in two reactors. The first reactor is fueled by uranium and the second is fueled by plutonium. This analysis presents the effect of negative temperature feedback with the addition positive reactivity of control rods to overcome the occurrence of control rod ejection accident and damaging of the reactor. Both power and temperature pulse following the reactivity- initiated accidents are calculated. The results are compared with previous works and...

  2. Static reactive power compensators for high-voltage power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study conducted to summarize the role of static reactive power compensators for high voltage power system applications is described. This information should be useful to the utility system planning engineer in applying static var systems (SVS) to high voltage as (HVAC) systems. The static var system is defined as a form of reactive power compensator. The general need for reactive power compensation in HVAC systems is discussed, and the static var system is compared to other devices utilized to provide reactive power compensation. Examples are presented of applying SVS for specific functions, such as the prevention of voltage collapse. The operating principles of commercially available SVS's are discussed in detail. The perormance and active power loss characteristics of SVS types are compared.

  3. Calculation of the reactivity feedback due to core-assembly bowing in LMFBRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nonuniformity of the temperature distribution in an LMFBR leads to differential thermal expansion of the walls of an assembly hexcan. These thermal expansion differentials cause the hexcan to distort or bow. Consequentially, the assembly experiences a spatial displacement, which results in a change in reactivity for the core. A computational model to calculate the reactivity feedback due to material displacements induced by assembly bowing effects has been developed.

  4. Multiple steady states during reactive distillation of methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nijhuis, S.A. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Chemical Engineering Dept.); Kerkhof, F.P.J.M.; Mak, A.N.S. (Comprimo Engineers and Contractors, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results of computer simulations of the synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a fixed-bed reactor and in a reactive distillation column. These calculations clearly showed the advantages of MTBE synthesis in a catalytic distillation tower. Furthermore, the computer simulations showed that multiple steady states may occur in the reactive distillation column during MTBE synthesis in a broad range of operating conditions. An analysis of some sensitivity studies is presented.

  5. Conditioned changes in pain reactivity: conditioned stimuli elicit hypoalgesia under a wide range of test conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illich, Paul Anthony

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conditioned hypoalgesia, two recent reports suggest that a conditioned stimulus (CS) which has been paired with an aversive event may sometimes produce an increase in pain reactivity, or "hyperalgesia" rather than hypoalgesia (Davis & Henderson, 1985...-Evans hooded rats) (Davis & Henderson, 1985; Lysle & Fowler, 1988). Currently, it is not clear what determines whether a stimulus which has been paired with an aversive event will elicit either an increase or decrease in pain reactivity. In the present...

  6. Flash Pyrolysis of Biomass with Reactive and Non-Reactive Gases: Summary Report for Period July 1983 through September 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

    1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this program is to study the conversion of biomass to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels and chemical feedstocks by a flash or rapid pyrolysis technique. During this period of study pine wood was flash pyrolyzed in atmospheres of methane and helium at a pressure of 50 psi and at temperatures up to 1050 C. The 1-inch I.D. entrained downflow tubular reactor was used in these experiments. Product yields of methane, ethane, ethylene, BTX, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were determined as a function of temperature and gas to wood ratio. Of particular interest were the ethylene and BTX yields. These represented as much as 29.6% and 24.6% of the carbon contained in the feed wood respectively when flash pyrolyzing in methane (flash methanolysls) and 14.7% and 9.7% when pyrolyzing in helium. In the case of flash methanolysis of wood the yields of ethylene and benzene increased with increasing methane to wood feed ratios. In the case of flash pyrolysis in helium the yields of ethylene and BTX decreased with increasing helium gas to wood feed ratios. These results indicate a mechanism by which a free radical reactive species originating from the wood interacts with the methane pyrolyzing gas to produce an enhanced yield of ethylene and benzene. The flash methanolysis of lignin extract from wood produced lower yields of ethylene, indicating the yields mainly originate from the cellulosic fractions of the wood. Some work was also performed on substituting wood ash for sillca flour (Cab-O-Sil) to allow free flow of wood particles through the entrained flow reactor. Preliminary process design and analysis indicates an economically competitive process for the flash methanolysis of wood for the production of methanol, benzene and ethylene. Future plans include completing the studies on obtaining the process chemistry of the flash methanolysis of woods, to obtain a better understanding of the enhanced ethylene and benzene yield and to investigate other biomass forms.

  7. Automated Impedance Tomography for Monitoring Permeable Reactive Barrier Health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaBrecque, D J; Adkins, P L

    2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was the development of an autonomous, automated electrical geophysical monitoring system which allows for near real-time assessment of Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) health and aging and which provides this assessment through a web-based interface to site operators, owners and regulatory agencies. Field studies were performed at four existing PRB sites; (1) a uranium tailing site near Monticello, Utah, (2) the DOE complex at Kansas City, Missouri, (3) the Denver Federal Center in Denver, Colorado and (4) the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana. Preliminary surface data over the PRB sites were collected (in December, 2005). After the initial round of data collection, the plan was modified to include studies inside the barriers in order to better understand barrier aging processes. In September 2006 an autonomous data collection system was designed and installed at the EPA PRB and the electrode setups in the barrier were revised and three new vertical electrode arrays were placed in dedicated boreholes which were in direct contact with the PRB material. Final data were collected at the Kansas City, Denver and Monticello, Utah PRB sites in the fall of 2007. At the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana, nearly continuous data was collected by the autonomous monitoring system from June 2006 to November 2007. This data provided us with a picture of the evolution of the barrier, enabling us to examine barrier changes more precisely and determine whether these changes are due to installation issues or are normal barrier aging. Two rounds of laboratory experiments were carried out during the project. We conducted column experiments to investigate the effect of mineralogy on the electrical signatures resulting from iron corrosion and mineral precipitation in zero valent iron (ZVI) columns. In the second round of laboratory experiments we observed the electrical response from simulation of actual field PRBs at two sites: the Kansas City barrier and the East Helena barrier. As these sites are also used for our field monitoring efforts, this allowed for a comparison between field and laboratory. In column studies with high concentrations of calcium and carbonate/bicarbonate, we observed that the increase of electrical resistivity and decrease of polarization magnitude is significant and is mainly controlled by the precipitation of calcium carbonates. In general, the electrical properties of all of the barriers studied follow a pattern. New barriers are fairly resistive with in-situ conductivity only a few times background (outside the barrier) values. Older barriers get increasingly conductive, with failed barriers showing values of over 100 S/m. The induced polarization response is more complicated. Chargeability values increase over time for young barriers, are largest for healthy barriers in the middle of their lifespan, and decrease as the barrier ages These results suggest that normalized IP appears promising as a measure of barrier age.

  8. A Preliminary Analysis of the Economics of Using Distributed Energy as a Source of Reactive Power Supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; King, Thomas F [ORNL

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major blackout affecting 50 million people in the Northeast United States, where insufficient reactive power supply was an issue, and an increased number of filings made to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission by generators for reactive power has led to a closer look at reactive power supply and compensation. The Northeastern Massachusetts region is one such area where there is an insufficiency in reactive power compensation. Distributed energy due to its close proximity to loads seems to be a viable option for solving any present or future reactive power shortage problems. Industry experts believe that supplying reactive power from synchronized distributed energy sources can be 2 to 3 times more effective than providing reactive support in bulk from longer distances at the transmission or generation level. Several technology options are available to supply reactive power from distributed energy sources such as small generators, synchronous condensers, fuel cells or microturbines. In addition, simple payback analysis indicates that investments in DG to provide reactive power can be recouped in less than 5 years when capacity payments for providing reactive power are larger than $5,000/kVAR and the DG capital and installation costs are lower than $30/kVAR. However, the current institutional arrangements for reactive power compensation present a significant barrier to wider adoption of distributed energy as a source of reactive power. Furthermore, there is a significant difference between how generators and transmission owners/providers are compensated for reactive power supplied. The situation for distributed energy sources is even more difficult, as there are no arrangements to compensate independent DE owners interested in supplying reactive power to the grid other than those for very large IPPs. There are comparable functionality barriers as well, as these smaller devices do not have the control and communications requirements necessary for automatic operation in response to local or system operators. There are no known distributed energy asset owners currently receiving compensation for reactive power supply or capability. However, there are some cases where small generators on the generation and transmission side of electricity supply have been tested and have installed the capability to be dispatched for reactive power support. Several concerns need to be met for distributed energy to become widely integrated as a reactive power resource. The overall costs of retrofitting distributed energy devices to absorb or produce reactive power need to be reduced. There needs to be a mechanism in place for ISOs/RTOs to procure reactive power from the customer side of the meter where distributed energy resides. Novel compensation methods should be introduced to encourage the dispatch of dynamic resources close to areas with critical voltage issues. The next phase of this research will investigate in detail how different options of reactive power producing DE can compare both economically and functionally with shunt capacitor banks. Shunt capacitor banks, which are typically used for compensating reactive power consumption of loads on distribution systems, are very commonly used because they are very cost effective in terms of capital costs. However, capacitor banks can require extensive maintenance especially due to their exposure to lightning at the top of utility poles. Also, it can be problematic to find failed capacitor banks and their maintenance can be expensive, requiring crews and bucket trucks which often requires total replacement. Another shortcoming of capacitor banks is the fact that they usually have one size at a location (typically sized as 300, 600, 900 or 1200kVAr) and thus don't have variable range as do reactive power producing DE, and cannot respond to dynamic reactive power needs. Additional future work is to find a detailed methodology to identify the hidden benefit of DE for providing reactive power and the best way to allocate the benefit among customers, utilities, transmission companies or RTOs.

  9. Reactive power interconnection requirements for PV and wind plants : recommendations to NERC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, Jason (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Walling, Reigh (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Peter, William (SunPower, Richmond, CA); Von Engeln, Edi (NV Energy, Reno, NV); Seymour, Eric (AEI, Fort Collins, CO); Nelson, Robert (Siemens Wind Turbines, Orlando, FL); Casey, Leo (Satcon, Boston, MA); Ellis, Abraham; Barker, Chris. (SunPower, Richmond, CA)

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Voltage on the North American bulk system is normally regulated by synchronous generators, which typically are provided with voltage schedules by transmission system operators. In the past, variable generation plants were considered very small relative to conventional generating units, and were characteristically either induction generator (wind) or line-commutated inverters (photovoltaic) that have no inherent voltage regulation capability. However, the growing level of penetration of non-traditional renewable generation - especially wind and solar - has led to the need for renewable generation to contribute more significantly to power system voltage control and reactive power capacity. Modern wind-turbine generators, and increasingly PV inverters as well, have considerable dynamic reactive power capability, which can be further enhanced with other reactive support equipment at the plant level to meet interconnection requirements. This report contains a set of recommendations to the North-America Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) as part of Task 1-3 (interconnection requirements) of the Integration of Variable Generation Task Force (IVGTF) work plan. The report discusses reactive capability of different generator technologies, reviews existing reactive power standards, and provides specific recommendations to improve existing interconnection standards.

  10. Power-One produces the industry's broadest selection of linear power supplies with output voltages from 5 volts through 250 volts. Rugged

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    -A 5V @ 9A (Note 1,5) N 5V HD5-12/OVP-A 5V @ 12A (Note 1,5) D HE5-18/OVP-A 5V @ 18A (Note 1,5) E F5 regulatory standards, and is CE Marked to the Low Voltage Directive (LVD). INTERNATIONAL SERIES LINEARS marked to Low Voltage Directive · 100% Burn-In · 2 Year Warranty · Overvoltage Protection (OVP) Standard

  11. Advancing reactive tracer methods for measuring thermal evolution in CO2-and water-based geothermal reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. This project aims to develop reactive tracer method for monitoring thermal drawdown in enhanced geothermal systems.

  12. Abstract--This paper proposes a distributed generator (DG) placement methodology based on newly defined term reactive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    . Index Terms--Distributed generator (DG), reactive power loadability, solar, voltage regulation, wind generator. I. INTRODUCTION istributed generation based on renewable energy sources offers a promising

  13. Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 141 Removal of Indoor Ozone with Reactive Materials: Preliminary Results and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 141 Removal of Indoor Ozone with Reactive Materials air quality. #12;Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 141 Removing ozone from indoor

  14. Methods and apparatuses for reagent delivery, reactive barrier formation, and pest control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Tyler [Pasco, WA; Kaplan, Daniel I [Aiken, SC; Last, George [Richland, WA

    2002-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A reagent delivery method includes positioning reagent delivery tubes in contact with soil. The tubes can include a wall that is permeable to a soil-modifying reagent. The method further includes supplying the reagent in the tubes, diffusing the reagent through the permeable wall and into the soil, and chemically modifying a selected component of the soil using the reagent. The tubes can be in subsurface contact with soil, including groundwater, and can be placed with directional drilling equipment independent of groundwater well casings. The soil-modifying reagent includes a variety of gases, liquids, colloids, and adsorbents that may be reactive or non-reactive with soil components. The method may be used inter alia to form reactive barriers, control pests, and enhance soil nutrients for microbes and plants.

  15. Why methyl tert-butyl ether production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauan, S.; Hertzberg, T.; Lien, K.M. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an explanation of why methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions. Widely different composition profiles and conversions may, as already reported by Krishna and others, results with identical column specifications, depending on the initial estimates provided. A hypothesis yielding a qualitative understanding of this phenomenon has been developed. The inert n-butene plays a key role in the proposed explanation: As the reaction mixture is diluted with n-butene, the activity coefficient of methanol increases substantially and the temperature decreases. This dilution has a profound effect on the equilibrium conversion, enabling MTBE to escape from the reactive zone without decomposition. When methanol is fed below or in the lower part of the reactive zone of the column, the ``lifting capacity`` of the minimum boiling point MTBE-methanol azeotrope will also be important.

  16. Validation of ATR SINDA using SPERT-3 reactivity-initiated transient test data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, C.H.; Ambrosek, R.G.; Wadkins, R.P. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal-hydraulic analyses of Special Power Excursion Reactor Test-3 (SPERT-3) reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) test data are presented to validate ATR SINDA, a three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic computer code used to conduct transient analysis of Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel plates. Because SPERT-3-C core test results are the only existing data of reactivity insertions for plate-type reactors, validating ATR SINDA is important for safety analysis of postulated reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) for the plate-type ATR operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The SPERT-3 facility was designed to study the kinetic behavior and safety of pressurized, light water-moderated reactors.

  17. WSi2/Si Multilayer Sectioning by Reactive Ion Etching for Multilayer Laue Lens Fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouet, N.; Conley, R.; Biancarosaa, J.; Divanc, R.; Macrander, A. T.

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SPIE Conference paper/talk presentation: Introduction: Reactive ion etching (RIE) has been employed in a wide range of fields such as semiconductor fabrication, MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), and refractive x-ray optics with a large investment put towards the development of deep RIE. Due to the intrinsic differing chemistries related to reactivity, ion bombardment, and passivation of materials, the development of recipes for new materials or material systems can require intense effort and resources. For silicon in particular, methods have been developed to provide reliable anisotropic profiles with good dimensional control and high aspect ratios1,2,3, high etch rates, and excellent material to mask etch selectivity...

  18. Preprint version Workshop on Robot Motion Planning: Online, Reactive, and in Real-time, 2012 IEEE/RSJ IROS, Vilamoura, Portugal A Synergetic High-level/Reactive Planning Framework with Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preprint version Workshop on Robot Motion Planning: Online, Reactive, and in Real-time, 2012 IEEE/RSJ IROS, Vilamoura, Portugal A Synergetic High-level/Reactive Planning Framework with Application to Human parametrization of the trajectory and assumes a basic environ- ment representation. As an application, the online

  19. Abstract Reactive Power Compensation in Electric Systems is usually studied as a constrained Single-objective Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    Abstract Reactive Power Compensation in Electric Systems is usually studied as a constrained of calculation, better defined Pareto Front and a larger number of Pareto solutions. Index Terms Reactive Power.mail: {bbaran, jvallejo, rramos}@cnc.una.py). U. Fernández is with the National Electricity Administration

  20. Aluminum composition dependence of reactive ion etching of AIGaAs with CCI2F2:02

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Aluminum composition dependence of reactive ion etching of AIGaAs with CCI2F2:02 s. J. Pearton, W; accepted for publication 12 May 1989) The etch rate and surface chemistry of Al"Ga, _ xAs after reactive. Annealing at 500 °C for 30 s almost restores the initial electrical properties of the material

  1. Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation, Journal Vol. XIII, No. 1, 2007 Physical Interpretation of the Reactive Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czarnecki, Leszek S.

    &% Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation, Journal Vol. XIII, No. 1, 2007 Physical Interpretation of the Reactive Power in Terms of the CPC Power Theory LeszekS.CZARNECKI,FellowIEEE,MIEE Louisiana State. Just the opposite, the interpretation of the reactive power Q as an effect of energy

  2. Fabrication of planar quantum magnetic disk structure using electron beam lithography, reactive ion etching, and chemical mechanical polishing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrication of planar quantum magnetic disk structure using electron beam lithography, reactive ion, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 Received 2 June's size and location, and reactive ion etching was used to form an SiO2 template. Nickel electroplating

  3. Abstract--This paper proposes an optimization based method of planning reactive power control for electric transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Ratnesh

    1 Abstract--This paper proposes an optimization based method of planning reactive power control for electric transmission systems to endow them with the capability of being reconfigured to a secure planning, reactive power control, reconfiguration, voltage stability. I. INTRODUCTION PPROPRIATE long

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE STRUCTURE AND REACTIVITY OF A NICKEL(II)-TRIPEPTIDE MIMIC OF NICKEL SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glass, Amanda M.

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    . However, prior to this work, the structure and chemical reactivity of the nickel-peptide complex were undefined. The work presented herein involves structural and reactivity investigations of the MAP-tag bound with NiII in the dianionic complex [Ni-NCC]2...

  5. Reactive oxygen species and Udx1 during early sea urchin development Julian L. Wong, Gary M. Wessel*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wessel, Gary M.

    Reactive oxygen species and Udx1 during early sea urchin development Julian L. Wong, Gary M. Wessel Abstract Sea urchin fertilization is marked by a massive conversion of molecular oxygen to hydrogen of these defective embryos. We also report an unequal distribution of reactive oxygen species between sister

  6. A Case Study on Reactive Protocols for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Huan

    A Case Study on Reactive Protocols for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution Huan Xu1, Ufuk Topcu2 electric power system that meets system requirements and reacts dynamically to changes in internal system to more-electric aircraft architectures possible. Conventional architectures utilize a combination

  7. SPACE WEATHER AND THE INCIDENCE OF REACTIVE "OFF-COST" OPERATIONS IN THE PJM POWER GRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrijver, Karel

    SPACE WEATHER AND THE INCIDENCE OF REACTIVE "OFF-COST" OPERATIONS IN THE PJM POWER GRID 7.6 Kevin F the price of electricity in the PJM power grid. In this paper we examine one of the mechanisms by which space weather impacts the electricity market in the PJM power grid. The starting point of this paper

  8. Reactive Protocols for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution Huan Xu, Ufuk Topcu, and Richard M. Murray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Richard M.

    Reactive Protocols for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution Huan Xu, Ufuk Topcu, and Richard M. Murray Abstract-- The increasing complexity of electric power sys- tems leads to integration and verification challenges. We consider the problem of designing a control protocol for the aircraft electric

  9. Synthesis and reactivity of molybdenum organometallic complexes supported by amide ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hock, Adam S. (Adam Scott)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 1. Synthesis and Reactivity of Molybdenum Alkyl Complexes Supported by a Diamidoamine Ligand. The synthesis of a new diamidoamine ligand, CH3N[CH2CH2NH(3-(CF3)C6H4)]2 (H2L) is reported. Molybdenum complexes of the ...

  10. Green's function for reversible geminate reaction with volume reactivity Svetlana S. Khokhlova and Noam Agmon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agmon, Noam

    Green's function for reversible geminate reaction with volume reactivity Svetlana S. Khokhlova OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 137, 184103 (2012) Green's function for reversible geminate reaction with volume can occur within a finite reaction sphere. We obtain the Green's function solution for the Laplace

  11. Distributed control of reactive power flow in a radial distribution circuit with high photovoltaic penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sule, Petr [NEW MEXICO CONSORTIUM

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show how distributed control of reactive power can serve to regulate voltage and minimize resistive losses in a distribution circuit that includes a significant level of photovoltaic (PV) generation. To demonstrate the technique, we consider a radial distribution circuit with a single branch consisting of sequentially-arranged residential-scale loads that consume both real and reactive power. In parallel, some loads also have PV generation capability. We postulate that the inverters associated with each PV system are also capable of limited reactive power generation or consumption, and we seek to find the optimal dispatch of each inverter's reactive power to both maintain the voltage within an acceptable range and minimize the resistive losses over the entire circuit. We assume the complex impedance of the distribution circuit links and the instantaneous load and PV generation at each load are known. We compare the results of the optimal dispatch with a suboptimal local scheme that does not require any communication. On our model distribution circuit, we illustrate the feasibility of high levels of PV penetration and a significant (20% or higher) reduction in losses.

  12. New Strontium-based Bioactive Glasses: Physicochemical Reactivity and Delivering Capability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 New Strontium-based Bioactive Glasses: Physicochemical Reactivity and Delivering Capability, strontium- doped bioactive glasses are of major interest; their key property relies on the increased that closely resembles to the biological apatite present in bones. Compared to strontium-free materials

  13. Wind Farm Reactive Support and Voltage Control Daniel F. Opila Abdi M. Zeynu Ian A. Hiskens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    Wind Farm Reactive Support and Voltage Control Daniel F. Opila Abdi M. Zeynu Ian A. Hiskens Abstract--Wind farms typically contain a variety of voltage control equipment including tap or wind farm; it is desirable to treat all the equipment as an integrated system rather than independent

  14. Self-assembly of silicide quantum dot arrays on stepped silicon surfaces by reactive epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortega, Enrique

    investigated on the epitaxy and self- organization of laterally nanostructured transition metal TM silicideSelf-assembly of silicide quantum dot arrays on stepped silicon surfaces by reactive epitaxy L to be a flexible and a convenient method for the preparation of dense arrays of Co silicide quantum dots

  15. Extracting the Acoustic pressure field from Large Eddy Simulation of confined reactive flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicoud, Franck

    and non-premixed open flames3,4 as well as in more complex cases such as gas turbine combustors must be large enough to include the sources of noise as well as part of the acoustic near field.6 VeryExtracting the Acoustic pressure field from Large Eddy Simulation of confined reactive flows Camilo

  16. Simulation of reactive transport of uranium(VI) in groundwater with variable chemical conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    stored in poorly designed facilities or where it has been leached from U mill tailings [USDOE, 1996Simulation of reactive transport of uranium(VI) in groundwater with variable chemical conditions alluvial aquifer beneath a former U(VI) mill located near Naturita, CO, was simulated using a surface

  17. Reactive power control of grid-connected wind farm based on adaptive dynamic programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Haibo

    is widely used in the wind power system for its advantages over other two types [5]. The characteristicsReactive power control of grid-connected wind farm based on adaptive dynamic programming Yufei Tang Wind farm Power system Adaptive control a b s t r a c t Optimal control of large-scale wind farm has

  18. Direct conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xin

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    the fermentation conversion. In this case, fermentation broth contains ammonium salts (e.g., ammonium acetate, propionate, butyrate, pentanoate). Therefore, the downstream processing steps (including extraction, purification, esterification, and product... separation) must be compatible with the ammonium carboxylate salts formed in the fermentation. This research focuses on converting fermentation broth carboxylate salts into their corresponding acids via “acid springing.” Reactive extraction and thermal...

  19. On the Evolution of Reactive Components --A ProcessAlgebraic Approach --

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller-Olm, Markus

    On the Evolution of Reactive Components -- A Process­Algebraic Approach -- Markus MË?uller­Olm 1­Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999 #12; 162 Markus MË?uller­Olm, Bernhard Ste#en, and Rance Cleaveland in out in out

  20. Examination of a PHEV Bidirectional Charger System for V2G Reactive Power Compensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    . Keywords - PHEV; charger; V2G; reactive power; battery I. INTRODUCTION Today, hybrid electric vehicles to power the vehicle for a daily commute. PHEVs provide electricity- only drive option up to a specified which is valuable to the electric power grid. The possibility of using battery-powered vehicles

  1. PEV-based Reactive Power Compensation for Wind DG Units: A Stackelberg Game Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    . Keywords--Distributed generation, wind power integration, plug-in electric vehicles, reactive power]. In [6], Li et al. used stochastic programming to obtain the optimal plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) power be compensated locally, we consider a scenario where a wind DG unit is co-located with a plug-in electric vehicle

  2. Modular Formalization of Reactive Modules in Ming-Hsien Tsai1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Bow-Yaw

    Modular Formalization of Reactive Modules in COQ Ming-Hsien Tsai1,2 and Bow-Yaw Wang1 1 Institute systems in proof assistants consists of several tedious tasks. Firstly, system behavior has, interleaving versus concur- rent semantics need be resolved in behavioral specification. Secondly, system

  3. Specificationbased Testing of Reactive Software: A Case Study in Technology Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porter, Adam

    Specification­based Testing of Reactive Software: A Case Study in Technology Transfer Lalita be effective in practice. The case study illustrates that technology transfer efforts can benefit from that limit formal methods technology transfer. We also found that there is often a tension between the scope

  4. Reaction localization and softening of texturally hardened mylonites in a reactivated fault zone, central Argentina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitmeyer, Steven J.

    , central Argentina S. J. WHITMEYER1 * AND R. P. WINTSCH2 1 Department of Earth Sciences, Boston University, central Argentina, experienced multiple ductile deformation and faulting events that involved a variety of replacement reactions in a partially open system. Key words: Argentina; reaction localization; reactivation

  5. Reactivity and stability of platinum and platinum alloy catalysts toward the oxygen reduction reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calvo, Sergio Rafael

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Density functional theory (DFT) is used to study the reactivity of Pt and Pt-M (M: Pd, Co, Ni, V, and Rh) alloy catalysts towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as a function of the alloy overall composition and surface atomic distribution...

  6. A model for reactive porous transport during re-wetting of hardened concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    A model for reactive porous transport during re-wetting of hardened concrete Michael Chapwanya residing in the porous concrete matrix. The main hypothesis in this model is that the reaction product hydration; Porous media; Reaction-diffusion equations; Vari- able porosity. 1. Introduction Concrete

  7. ADVANCING REACTIVE TRACER METHODS FOR MONITORING THERMAL DRAWDOWN IN GEOTHERMAL ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell A. Plummer; Carl D. Palmer; Earl D. Mattson; George D. Redden; Laurence C. Hull

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive tracers have long been considered a possible means of measuring thermal drawdown in a geothermal system, before significant cooling occurs at the extraction well. Here, we examine the sensitivity of the proposed method to evaluate reservoir cooling and demonstrate that while the sensitivity of the method as generally proposed is low, it may be practical under certain conditions.

  8. Reactive Diffusion in Cu-Nb-Sn Internal Tin Superconducting Wires for the ITER Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, James

    project, which investigates the production of electricity by means of nuclear fusion, have been studied and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray Micro-Tomography (XMT density of the superconductor. Further understanding of the reactive diffusion to optimise the heat

  9. Uranium Tris-aryloxide Derivatives Supported by Triazacyclononane: Engendering a Reactive Uranium(III)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Karsten

    , we are currently investigating the coordina- tion chemistry of uranium metal centers with classicalUranium Tris-aryloxide Derivatives Supported by Triazacyclononane: Engendering a Reactive Uranium, and Karsten Meyer* Contribution from the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UniVersity of California

  10. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS (ACCEPTED NOVEMBER 8, 2014) 1 Stochastic Reactive Power Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannakis, Georgios

    response, and electric vehicles. Advances in photovoltaic (PV) inverters offer new opportunitiesIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS (ACCEPTED NOVEMBER 8, 2014) 1 Stochastic Reactive Power are being challenged by reverse power flows and voltage fluctuations due to renewable generation, demand

  11. Development and Validation of ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Hydrocarbon Chemistry Catalyzed by Nickel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    and theoretical studies show that steps not only provide a low energy barrier for the chemisorption of methane of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State UniVersity, UniVersity Park, PennsylVania 16801 Recei reactions catalyzed by nickel surfaces and particles using reactive molecular dynamics on thousands of atoms

  12. Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott [ORNL; Hanson, Reed M [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactivity controlled compression ignition is a low-temperature combustion technique that has been shown, both in computational fluid dynamics modeling and single-cylinder experiments, to obtain diesel-like efficiency or better with ultra-low nitrogen oxide and soot emissions, while operating primarily on gasoline-like fuels. This paper investigates reactivity controlled compression ignition operation on a four-cylinder light-duty diesel engine with production-viable hardware using conventional gasoline and diesel fuel. Experimental results are presented over a wide speed and load range using a systematic approach for achieving successful steady-state reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion. The results demonstrated diesel-like efficiency or better over the operating range explored with low engine-out nitrogen oxide and soot emissions. A peak brake thermal efficiency of 39.0% was demonstrated for 2600 r/min and 6.9 bar brake mean effective pressure with nitrogen oxide emissions reduced by an order of magnitude compared to conventional diesel combustion operation. Reactivity controlled compression ignition emissions and efficiency results are compared to conventional diesel combustion operation on the same engine.

  13. Adaptive Accelerated ReaxFF Reactive Dynamics with Validation from Simulating Hydrogen Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Adaptive Accelerated ReaxFF Reactive Dynamics with Validation from Simulating Hydrogen Combustion concept (BB), which we validate here for describing hydrogen combustion. The bond order, undercoordination determined the detailed sequence of reactions for hydrogen combustion with and without the BB. We validate

  14. Crystallization and layering induced by heating a reactive porous Mark A. Hallworth and Herbert E. Huppert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    is heated, convective processes cause solidification in a remote region. These concepts suggest novel postCrystallization and layering induced by heating a reactive porous medium Mark A. Hallworth; accepted 8 June 2004; published 2 July 2004. [1] Normally heating causes melting and not solidification

  15. Improving Reactivity Against Target Organothiophosphates via Active-Site Directed Mutagenisis of a Bacterial Phosphotriesterase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Githens, Tyler 1986-

    2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    the initial screen and were targets for steady state kinetic characterization of active site mutants. Site directed mutagenesis of binding sites was conducted and the most reactive point mutants, F132G, F132V and S308G, were used as backgrounds for subsequent...

  16. A Numerical Model for Miscible Displacement of Multi-Component Reactive Species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Azarouala a Water Department/Groundwater and Geochemistry Modeling, BRGM (French Geological Survey) 3 of our approach. Therefore, the model may prove useful for many practical applications. 1. INTRODUCTION Demands to undertake modeling analysis of coupled groundwater ow, solute transport, and reactive water

  17. PARALLEL PROCESSING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL FIELD-SCALE REACTIVE TRANSPORT APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    BRGM (French Geological Survey), Water Department, Groundwater and Geochemistry Modeling 3, Avenue C for the mixed hybrid finite element kernel. Com- putations of the reaction step are performed using a newly- tions. 1. INTRODUCTION The shape and scope of multi-component reactive transport models changed dramati

  18. STOMP-ECKEChem: An Engineering Perspective on Reactive Transport in Geologic Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Mark D.; Fang, Yilin

    2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    ECKEChem (Equilibrium, Conservation, Kinetic Equation Chemistry) is a reactive transport module for the STOMP suite of multifluid subsurface flow and transport simulators that was developed from an engineering perspective. STOMP comprises a suite of operational modes that are distinguished by the solved coupled conservation equations with capabilities for a variety of subsurface applications (e.g., environmental remediation and stewardship, geologic sequestration of greenhouse gases, gas hydrate production, and oil shale production). The ECKEChem module was designed to provide integrated reactive transport capabilities across the suite of STOMP simulator operational modes. The initial application for the ECKEChem module was in the simulation of the mineralization reactions that occurred with the injection of supercritical carbon dioxide into deep Columbia River basalt formations, where it was implemented in the STOMP-CO2 simulator. The STOMP-ECKEChem solution approach to modeling reactive transport in multifluid geologic media is founded on an engineering perspective: (1) sequential non-iterative coupling between the flow and reactive transport is sufficient, (2) reactive transport can be modeled by operator splitting with local geochemistry and global transport, (3) geochemistry can be expressed as a system of coupled nonlinear equilibrium, conservation and kinetic equations, (4) a limited number of kinetic equation forms are used in geochemical practice. This chapter describes the conceptual approach to converting a geochemical reaction network into a series of equilibrium, conservation and kinetic equations, the implementation of ECKEChem in STOMP, the numerical solution approach, and a demonstration of the simulator on a complex application involving desorption of uranium from contaminated field-textured sediments.

  19. Chemical Analysis of Complex Organic Mixtures Using Reactive Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laskin, Julia; Eckert, Peter A.; Roach, Patrick J.; Heath, Brandi S.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laskin, Alexander

    2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry was utilized for the analysis of secondary organic aerosol produced through ozonolysis of limonene (LSOA). Previous studies showed that LSOA constituents are multifunctional compounds containing aldehyde and ketone groups. In this study, we used the selectivity of the Girard T (GT) reagent towards carbonyl compounds to examine the utility of reactive nano-DESI for the analysis of complex organic mixtures. In these experiments, 1-100 {micro}M GT solution was used as a working solvent for reactive nano-DESI analysis. Abundant products of a single addition of GT to LSOA constituents were observed at GT concentrations in excess of 10 {micro}M. We found that LSOA compounds with 18-20 carbon atoms (dimers) and 27-30 carbon atoms (trimers) react with GT through a simple addition reaction resulting in formation of the carbinolamine derivative. In contrast, reactions of GT with monomeric species result in formation of both the carbinolamine and the hydrazone derivatives. In addition, several monomers did not react with GT on the timescale of our experiment. These molecules were characterized by relatively high values of the double bond equivalent (DBE) and low oxygen content. Furthermore, because addition of a charged GT tag to a neutral molecule eliminates the discrimination against the low proton affinity compounds in the ionization process, reactive nano-DESI analysis enables quantification of individual compounds in the complex mixture. For example, we were able to estimate for the first time the amounts of dimers and trimers in the LSOA mixture. Specifically, we found that the most abundant LSOA dimer was detected at ca. 0.5 pg level and the total amount of dimers and trimers in the analyzed sample was just around 11 pg. Our results indicate that reactive nano-DESI is a valuable approach for examining the presence of specific functional groups and quantification of compounds possessing these groups in complex mixtures.

  20. Zinc Thiolate Reactivity toward Nitrogen Oxides: Insights into the Interaction of Zn[superscript 2+] with S-Nitrosothiols and Implications for Nitric Oxide Synthase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozhukh, Julia

    Zinc thiolate complexes containing N[subscript 2]S tridentate ligands were prepared to investigate their reactivity toward reactive nitrogen species, chemistry proposed to occur at the zinc tetracysteine thiolate site of ...

  1. Overview on backfill materials and permeable reactive barriers for nuclear waste disposal facilities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Holt, Kathleen Caroline; Hasan, Mahmoud A. (Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt)

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A great deal of money and effort has been spent on environmental restoration during the past several decades. Significant progress has been made on improving air quality, cleaning up and preventing leaching from dumps and landfills, and improving surface water quality. However, significant challenges still exist in all of these areas. Among the more difficult and expensive environmental problems, and often the primary factor limiting closure of contaminated sites following surface restoration, is contamination of ground water. The most common technology used for remediating ground water is surface treatment where the water is pumped to the surface, treated and pumped back into the ground or released at a nearby river or lake. Although still useful for certain remediation scenarios, the limitations of pump-and-treat technologies have recently been recognized, along with the need for innovative solutions to ground-water contamination. Even with the current challenges we face there is a strong need to create geological repository systems for dispose of radioactive wastes containing long-lived radionuclides. The potential contamination of groundwater is a major factor in selection of a radioactive waste disposal site, design of the facility, future scenarios such as human intrusion into the repository and possible need for retrieving the radioactive material, and the use of backfills designed to keep the radionuclides immobile. One of the most promising technologies for remediation of contaminated sites and design of radioactive waste repositories is the use of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). PRBs are constructed of reactive material(s) to intercept and remove the radionuclides from the water and decontaminate the plumes in situ. The concept of PRBs is relatively simple. The reactive material(s) is placed in the subsurface between the waste or contaminated area and the groundwater. Reactive materials used thus far in practice and research include zero valent iron, hydroxyapatite, magnesium oxide, and others. As the contaminant moves through the reactive material, the contaminant is either sorbed by the reactive material or chemically reacts with the material to form a less harmful substance. Because of the high risk associated with failure of a geological repository for nuclear waste, most nations favor a near-field multibarrier engineered system using backfill materials to prevent release of radionuclides into the surrounding groundwater.

  2. On Reactive Power Flow and Voltage Stability in Microgrids Basilio Gentile, John W. Simpson-Porco, Florian Dorfler, Sandro Zampieri, and Francesco Bullo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bullo, Francesco

    ], where an approximate solution to the reactive power flow equations was developed for electrical networksOn Reactive Power Flow and Voltage Stability in Microgrids Basilio Gentile, John W. Simpson-Porco, Florian D¨orfler, Sandro Zampieri, and Francesco Bullo Abstract-- This paper focuses on reactive power

  3. Abstract--The U.S. power industry is under great pressure to provide reactive power or Var support. Although it is generally

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    Abstract--The U.S. power industry is under great pressure to provide reactive power or Var support to provide local reactive power support, a thorough quantitative investigation of the economic benefit reactive power compensation. This paper investigates the benefits including reduced losses, shifting

  4. Veri cation of Embedded Reactive Fi o Systems Frdric Herbreteau 1,2 , Franck Cassez 1 , Alain Finkel 3 , Olivier Roux 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutre, Grégoire

    in the Electre [8] reactive language. A major #12; 2 F. Herbreteau and al. feature of this languageVeri#28;cation of Embedded Reactive Fi#27;o Systems Frédéric Herbreteau 1,2 , Franck Cassez 1 ERL, 253 Cory Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Abstract. Reactive Fi#27;o

  5. Nucleation kinetics during homoepitaxial growth of TiN(001) by reactive magnetron sputtering Marcel A. Wall, David G. Cahill, I. Petrov, D. Gall, and J. E. Greene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Daniel

    Nucleation kinetics during homoepitaxial growth of TiN(001) by reactive magnetron sputtering Marcel to study the nucleation of homoepitaxial TiN layers grown on TiN(001) by ultrahigh vacuum reactive kinet- ics of TiN, a two-component refractory ceramic, on TiN 001 . TiN, typically deposited by reactive

  6. Groundwater Reactive Transport Models, 2012, 141-159 141 Fan Zhang, Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh, Jack C. Parker and Xiaonan Shi (Eds)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Richard

    Groundwater Reactive Transport Models, 2012, 141-159 141 Fan Zhang, Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh, Jack C: Reactive Flow & Transport Code for Use on Laptops to Leadership-Class Supercomputers G. E. Hammond1 , P. C, a next-generation reactive flow and transport code for modeling subsurface processes, has been designed

  7. Experimental investigation of piston heat transfer under conventional diesel and reactivity-controlled compression ignition combustion regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL; Hendricks, Terry Lee [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Ghandhi, Jaal B [University of Wisconsin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The piston of a heavy-duty single-cylinder research engine was instrumented with 11 fast-response surface thermocouples, and a commercial wireless telemetry system was used to transmit the signals from the moving piston. The raw thermocouple data were processed using an inverse heat conduction method that included Tikhonov regularization to recover transient heat flux. By applying symmetry, the data were compiled to provide time-resolved spatial maps of the piston heat flux and surface temperature. A detailed comparison was made between conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition combustion operations at matched conditions of load, speed, boost pressure, and combustion phasing. The integrated piston heat transfer was found to be 24% lower, and the mean surface temperature was 25 C lower for reactivity-controlled compression ignition operation as compared to conventional diesel combustion, in spite of the higher peak heat release rate. Lower integrated piston heat transfer for reactivity-controlled compression ignition was found over all the operating conditions tested. The results showed that increasing speed decreased the integrated heat transfer for conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition. The effect of the start of injection timing was found to strongly influence conventional diesel combustion heat flux, but had a negligible effect on reactivity-controlled compression ignition heat flux, even in the limit of near top dead center high-reactivity fuel injection timings. These results suggest that the role of the high-reactivity fuel injection does not significantly affect the thermal environment even though it is important for controlling the ignition timing and heat release rate shape. The integrated heat transfer and the dynamic surface heat flux were found to be insensitive to changes in boost pressure for both conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition. However, for reactivity-controlled compression ignition, the mean surface temperature increased with changes in boost suggesting that equivalence ratio affects steady-state heat transfer.

  8. Reactivity of surface carbon deposited on supported Rh catalysts by the disproportionation of CO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orita, H.; Naito, S.; Tamaru, K.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent investigations on hydrocarbon synthesis from CO and H/sub 2/ over Group VIII metals have proposed that the surface carbon formed by the dissociation of CO is an intermediate for hydrocarbon formation. It implies that metals which dissociate CO readily (e.g., Ni, Co, and Ru) are good catalysts for hydrocarbon synthesis unless the surface carbon is bound too strongly. There is a certain controversy in the literature on whether CO undergoes dissociation on Rh surfaces under UHV conditions. In the present work, the authors have investigated the reactivity of surface carbon deposited on TiO/sub 2/- or SiO/sub 2/-supported Rh catalysts in the presence of molecularly adsorbed CO by means of the isotopic tracer technique and have made a direct comparison of the reactivity of adsorbed CO with that of surface carbon. It has been revealed that three forms of carbon are produced by the disproportionation of CO.

  9. XCHEM-1D: A Heat Transfer/Chemical Kinetics Computer Program for multilayered reactive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, R.J.; Baer, M.R.; Hobbs, M.L.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An eXplosive CHEMical kinetics code, XCHEM, has been developed to solve the reactive diffusion equations associated with thermal ignition of energetic materials. This method-of-lines code uses stiff numerical methods and adaptive meshing to resolve relevant combustion physics. Solution accuracy is maintained between multilayered materials consisting of blends of reactive components and/or inert materials. Phase change and variable properties are included in one-dimensional slab, cylindrical and spherical geometries. Temperature-dependent thermal properties have been incorporated and the modification of thermal conductivities to include decomposition effects are estimated using solid/gas volume fractions determined by species fractions. Gas transport properties, including high pressure corrections, have also been included. Time varying temperature, heat flux, convective and thermal radiation boundary conditions, and layer to layer contact resistances have also been implemented.

  10. Metal/polymer adhesion enhancement by reactive ion assisted interface bonding and mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, P.K. [Department of Physics, Southern Oregon University, Ashland, Oregon 97520 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Southern Oregon University, Ashland, Oregon 97520 (United States); Lu, T. [Department of Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The adhesion strength between sputter deposited Al on Teflon AF 1600 was increased from {lt}0.15N/mm to {gt}0.7N/mm by treating the interface with reactive ion assisted interface bonding and mixing (RIAIBM) and subsequent annealing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicate the RIAIBM process and subsequent annealing promotes material mixing, implantation of the reactive species, bond breaking, and new bond formation at the interface. These factors are known to increase adhesion strength. The implementation of RIAIBM is straight forward and is suitable for application to both metal-on-polymer and polymer-on-metal systems. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Apparatus and method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for shaping of damage free surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr; Jeffrey W. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication apparatus and methods are disclosed for shaping and finishing difficult materials with no subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use an atmospheric pressure mixed gas plasma discharge as a sub-aperture polisher of, for example, fused silica and single crystal silicon, silicon carbide and other materials. In one example, workpiece material is removed at the atomic level through reaction with fluorine atoms. In this example, these reactive species are produced by a noble gas plasma from trace constituent fluorocarbons or other fluorine containing gases added to the host argon matrix. The products of the reaction are gas phase compounds that flow from the surface of the workpiece, exposing fresh material to the etchant without condensation and redeposition on the newly created surface. The discharge provides a stable and predictable distribution of reactive species permitting the generation of a predetermined surface by translating the plasma across the workpiece along a calculated path.

  12. Study of catalytic effects of mineral matter level on coal reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzocco, Nestor J.; Klunder, Edgar B.; Krastman, Donald

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal liquefaction experiments using a 400-lb/day bubble-column reactor tested the catalytic effects of added mineral matter level on coal conversion, desulfurization, and distillate yields in continuous operation under recycle conditions, with specific emphasis on the use of a disposable pyrite catalyst indigenous to the feed coal. Western Kentucky No. 11 run-of-mine (ROM) and washed coals were used as feedstocks to determine the effects of levels of mineral matter, specifically iron compounds. Liquefaction reactivity as characterized by total distillate yield was lower for washed coal, which contained less mineral matter. Liquefaction reactivity was regained when pyrite concentrate was added as a disposable catalyst to the washed coal feed in sufficient quantity to match the feed iron concentration of the run-of-mine coal liquefaction test run.

  13. Hydrogen absorption characteristics of amorphous LaNi[sub 5. 0] films prepared by reactive sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakaguchi, H.; Tsujimoto, T.; Adachi, Ginya (Osaka University, Suita (Japan))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous LaNi[sub 5] thin films are expected to be one of the promising materials for use in hydrogen separation and battery electrodes, because the durability of the films is great in regard to the hydrogen absorption-desorption cycling process and the films have excellent resistance to harmful impurities in the hydrogen gas in comparison with the crystalline bulk material. An amorphous LaNi[sub 5.0] film having high hydrogen density and low hydrogen-induced stress was obtained by means of a reactive sputtering method using an Ar-H[sub 2] gas mixture. Pressure-composition isotherms show that the amount of hydrogen (H/LaNi[sub 5.0]) taken up by a formula weight of LaNi[sub 5.0] is about 1.5 times larger for the reactive sputtered film than for the conventional sputtered film prepared by using Ar gas. 18 refs., 1 fig, 1 tabs.

  14. Intrinsic reactivity feedback characteristics for safety analysis of heterogeneous and homogeneous LMFBR core designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doncals, R.A.; Lake, J.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a comparison of the intrinsic reactivity feedback characteristics of homogeneous and heterogeneous LMFBR designs. The comparisons are shown for a 1000 MWth LMFBR core design. However, the applicability of the conclusions drawn from these comparisons are generic to larger LMFBRs. Consistent sodium void worth distributions have been calculated for heterogeneous and homogeneous 1000 MWth LMFBR core designs. The basic calculations were performed with three dimensional models using ENDF/B-III cross section data and first order perturbation theory.

  15. Increased Blood Glucose is Related to Disturbed Cerebrovascular Pressure Reactivity After Traumatic Brain Injury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donnelly, Joseph; Sudhan, Nazneen; Varsos, Georgios V.; Nasr, Nathalie; Jalloh, Ibrahim; Liu, Xiuyun; Dias, Celeste; Sekhon, Mypinder; Carpenter, Keri L. H.; Menon, David K.; Hutchinson, Peter J.; Smielewski, Peter; Czosnyka, Marek

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Joseph Donnelly Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Box 167, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom. United Kingdom Email: jd634@cam.ac.uk Phone: +44 (0) 1223 336946 0DQXVFULSW &OLFN#3... glucose concentration impairs endothelial, and smooth muscle cell responses both in the cerebral and peripheral vasculature. Clearly, further investigation on the link between glucose and pressure reactivity in the TBI population is warranted...

  16. A reactive contingency analysis algorithm using MW and MVAR distribution factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, D.G.; Maahs, L.J. (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection, Norristown, PA (US))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an algorithm that can be used in analyzing reactive power flow contingencies. This approach uses MW distribution factors (DFAX) in conjunction with newly developed VAR distribution factors (RDFAX) to solve for the post-contingency bus voltage magnitude changes of an interconnecter EHV system. A prototype version of the algorithm described in this paper is presently being tested at the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) interconnection office.

  17. Synthesis and reactivity of compounds containing ruthenium-carbon, -nitrogen, and -oxygen bonds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartwig, J.F.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The products and mechanisms of the thermal reactions of several complexes of the general structure (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru(X)(Y) and (DMPM){sub 2}Ru(X)(Y) where X and Y are hydride, aryl, and benzyl groups, have been investigated. The mechanism of decomposition depends critically on the structure of the complex and the medium in which the thermolysis is carried out. The alkyl hydride complexes are do not react with alkane solvent, but undergo C-H activation processes with aromatic solvents by several different mechanisms. Thermolysis of (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru(Ph)(Me) or (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru(Ph){sub 2} leads to the ruthenium benzyne complex (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru({eta}{sup 2}-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}) (1) by a mechanism which involves reversible dissociation of phosphine. In many ways its chemistry is analogous to that of early rather than late organo transition metal complexes. The synthesis, structure, variable temperature NMR spectroscopy and reactivity of ruthenium complexes containing aryloxide or arylamide ligands are reported. These complexes undergo cleavage of a P-C bond in coordinated trimethylphosphine, insertion of CO and CO{sub 2} and hydrogenolysis. Mechanistic studies on these reactions are described. The generation of a series of reactive ruthenium complexes of the general formula (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru(R)(enolate) is reported. Most of these enolates have been shown to bind to the ruthenium center through the oxygen atom. Two of the enolate complexes 8 and 9 exist in equilibrium between the O- and C-bound forms. The reactions of these compounds are reported, including reactions to form oxygen-containing metallacycles. The structure and reactivity of these ruthenium metallacycles is reported, including their thermal chemistry and reactivity toward protic acids, electrophiles, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and trimethylsilane. 243 refs., 10 tabs.

  18. The effect of a subcritical lattice on the reactivity of a coupled critical assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slagle, Henry Roach

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE INTERACTION BETWEEN A SUBCRITICAL LATTICE COUPLED WITH THE AGN-201 CORE Geometry Assumed for Solution of Plux Equations ~ General Solution of One-group, Three-region Flux Equat'lolls' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Applications of Mathematical... Solution to the Actual Conversion of Induced Buckling Change to Reactivity Worth o + ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o 10 II ~ BXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE SUBCRITICAL LATTICE AND THE AGN-201 CORE Description of the Experimental...

  19. Author's personal copy Strength evolution of a reactive frictional interface is controlled

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -hold-slide experiments are conducted on a bare interface with various materials in contact (glass/glass, salt/glass, and salt/salt) with or without the presence of a reactive fluid and the slider-surface pull-off force for the salt/glass case; by a factor of 3 for the salt/salt case; and by about a factor of 20 when saturated

  20. Structure formation upon reactive direct current magnetron sputtering of transition metal oxide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ngaruiya, J.M.; Kappertz, O.; Mohamed, S.H.; Wuttig, M. [I. Physikalisches Institut der RWTH Aachen, D-52056 Aachen, Germany and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Box 62000 Nairobi (Kenya); I. Physikalisches Institut der RWTH Aachen, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2004-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparative study of reactive direct current magnetron sputtering for different transition metal oxides reveals crystalline films at room temperature for group 4 and amorphous films for groups 5 and 6. This observation cannot be explained by the known growth laws and is attributed to the impact of energetic particles, originating from the oxidized target, on the growing film. This scenario is supported by measured target characteristics, the evolution of deposition stress of the films, and the observed backsputtering.

  1. In situ formation of magnetite reactive barriers in soil for waste stabilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactive barriers containing magnetite and methods for making magnetite reactive barriers in situ in soil for sequestering soil contaminants including actinides and heavy metals, organic materials, iodine and technetium are disclosed. According to one embodiment, a two-step reagent introduction into soil takes place. In the first step, free oxygen is removed from the soil by separately injecting into the soil aqueous solutions of iron (II) salt, for example FeCl.sub.2, and base, for example NaOH or NH.sub.3 in about a 1:1 volume ratio. Then, in the second step, similar reagents are injected a second time (however, according to about a 1:2 volume ratio, iron to salt) to form magnetite. The magnetite formation is facilitated, in part, due to slow intrusion of oxygen into the soil from the surface. The invention techniques are suited to injection of reagents into soil in proximity to a contamination plume or source allowing in situ formation of the reactive barrier at the location of waste or hazardous material. Mixing of reagents to form. precipitate is mediated and enhanced through movement of reagents in soil as a result of phenomena including capillary action, movement of groundwater, soil washing and reagent injection pressure.

  2. Dominant delayed neutron precursors to model reactivity predictions for multiple fissioning nuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loaiza, D.J.; Haskin, F.E.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The product of cumulative yield and probability of neutron emission is used to assess the relative importance of known delayed neutron precursors. Thirteen precursors are consistently dominant. Nonlinear fits to experimental delayed neutron decay data distinguish the decay constants of the three longest-lived dominant precursors: {sup 87}Br, {sup 137}I, and {sup 88}Br. Sensitivity calculations based on a six-to seven-group transformation lead to a proposed seven-group formulation in which the group decay constants are those of dominant precursors: {sup 87}Br, {sup 137}I, {sup 88}Br, {sup 93}Rb, {sup 139}I, {sup 91}Br, and {sup 96}Rb. An alternative six-group formulation is obtained by using the mean of the {sup 137}I and {sup 88}Br decay constants for group 2. The use of the suggested dominant precursor decay constants improves the goodness of fit to experimental data compared to that obtained from nonlinear least squares in which both group yields and decay constants are determined empirically. Reactivity worth and transient analyses confirm that the positive reactivity scale is preserved in the transformation. A known bias in the negative reactivity scale is eliminated by forcing the half-life of the longest-lived group to be the 55.9-s half-life of {sup 87}Br. The proposed use of dominant precursor decay constants offers significant simplifications in data analysis and the analysis of fast, epithermal, and thermal reactors with multiple fissioning nuclides.

  3. Reactive Power Laboratory: Synchronous Condenser Testing&Modeling Results - Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, SD

    2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject report documents the work carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during months 5-7 (May-July 2005) of a multi-year research project. The project has the overall goal of developing methods of incorporating distributed energy (DE) that can produce reactive power locally and for injecting into the distribution system. The objective for this new type of DE is to be able to provide voltage regulation and dynamic reactive power reserves without the use of extensive communication and control systems. The work performed over this three-month period focused on four aspects of the overall objective: (1) characterization of a 250HP (about 300KVAr) synchronous condenser (SC) via test runs at the ORNL Reactive Power Laboratory; (2) development of a data acquisition scheme for collecting the necessary voltage, current and power readings at the synchronous condenser and on the distribution system; (3) development of algorithms for analyzing raw test data from the various test runs; and (4) validation of a steady-state model for the synchronous condenser via the use of a commercial software package to study its effects on the ORNL 13.8/2.4kV distribution network.

  4. RAFT: A simulator for ReActive Flow and Transport of groundwater contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chilakapati, A.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the use of the simulator RAFT for the ReActive flow and Transport of groundwater contaminants. RAFT can be used as a predictive tool in the design and analysis of laboratory and field experiments or it can be used for the estimation of model/process parameters from experiments. RAFT simulates the reactive transport of groundwater contaminants in one, two-, or three-dimensions and it can model user specified source/link configurations and arbitrary injection strategies. A suite of solvers for transport, reactions and regression are employed so that a combination of numerical methods best suited for a problem can be chosen. User specified coupled equilibrium and kinetic reaction systems can be incorporated into RAFT. RAFT is integrated with a symbolic computational language MAPLE, to automate code generation for arbitrary reaction systems. RAFT is expected to be used as a simulator for engineering design for field experiments in groundwater remediation including bioremediation, reactive barriers and redox manipulation. As an integrated tool with both the predictive ability and the ability to analyze experimental data, RAFT can help in the development of remediation technologies, from laboratory to field.

  5. GUINEVERE experiment: Kinetic analysis of some reactivity measurement methods by deterministic and Monte Carlo codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianchini, G.; Burgio, N.; Carta, M. [ENEA C.R. CASACCIA, via Anguillarese, 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria Roma (Italy); Peluso, V. [ENEA C.R. BOLOGNA, Via Martiri di Monte Sole, 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Fabrizio, V.; Ricci, L. [Univ. of Rome La Sapienza, C/o ENEA C.R. CASACCIA, via Anguillarese, 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria Roma (Italy)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The GUINEVERE experiment (Generation of Uninterrupted Intense Neutrons at the lead Venus Reactor) is an experimental program in support of the ADS technology presently carried out at SCK-CEN in Mol (Belgium). In the experiment a modified lay-out of the original thermal VENUS critical facility is coupled to an accelerator, built by the French body CNRS in Grenoble, working in both continuous and pulsed mode and delivering 14 MeV neutrons by bombardment of deuterons on a tritium-target. The modified lay-out of the facility consists of a fast subcritical core made of 30% U-235 enriched metallic Uranium in a lead matrix. Several off-line and on-line reactivity measurement techniques will be investigated during the experimental campaign. This report is focused on the simulation by deterministic (ERANOS French code) and Monte Carlo (MCNPX US code) calculations of three reactivity measurement techniques, Slope ({alpha}-fitting), Area-ratio and Source-jerk, applied to a GUINEVERE subcritical configuration (namely SC1). The inferred reactivity, in dollar units, by the Area-ratio method shows an overall agreement between the two deterministic and Monte Carlo computational approaches, whereas the MCNPX Source-jerk results are affected by large uncertainties and allow only partial conclusions about the comparison. Finally, no particular spatial dependence of the results is observed in the case of the GUINEVERE SC1 subcritical configuration. (authors)

  6. Reactivation of the Shock-Tunnel Facility at Fort Cronkhite. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report describes the results of work undertaken to reactivate the Shock Tunnel Facility at Battery Townsley, Fort Cronkhite, Marin County, California. The facility has been reactivated and can not be utilized for blast testing. The major emphasis will be testing of concepts pertaining to programs of interest to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and in particular to civil defense oriented research. However, a wide variety of testing requirements can be accommodated. For example, past programs at the facility have included: tests of debris from trees subjected to blast for Bell Telephone Laboratories; tests of the response of aluminum hull panels to blast loading and of the response of a model surface effects ship for the Naval Ship Research and Development center, and tests of the response of a radome prototype to blast loading conducted for ANCOM (the radome manufacturer). The Shock Tunnel Facility is located in a former coastal defense 16-inch gun emplacement constructed by the US Army beginning in 1938. It was converted in 1967 to serve as a facility for full-scale testing of the loading and response of structural elements and civil defense equipment. It remained in operation until November 1976 when Battery Townsley was turned over to the National Park Service. Work under the present purchase order consisted of the following major tasks: (I) cleanup and secure the facility, (II) reactivate the shock tunnel, and (III) design permanent facility improvements. (WHK)

  7. Scalable Distributed Automation System: Scalable Real-time Decentralized Volt/VAR Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GENI Project: Caltech is developing a distributed automation system that allows distributed generators—solar panels, wind farms, thermal co-generation systems—to effectively manage their own power. To date, the main stumbling block for distributed automation systems has been the inability to develop software that can handle more than 100,000 distributed generators and be implemented in real time. Caltech’s software could allow millions of generators to self-manage through local sensing, computation, and communication. Taken together, localized algorithms can support certain global objectives, such as maintaining the balance of energy supply and demand, regulating voltage and frequency, and minimizing cost. An automated, grid-wide power control system would ease the integration of renewable energy sources like solar power into the grid by quickly transmitting power when it is created, eliminating the energy loss associated with the lack of renewable energy storage capacity of the grid.

  8. Winery pairs vines with volts, leads the way for solar on BPA...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vineyard. You'll find productive bugs, not poisons. And now, you'll also find 4,100 solar panels, painstakingly placed on the 1,000 acre estate to harvest the sun's rays. The...

  9. Data Analysis and Reporting of the 150 Chevrolet Volt ARRA Demonstration Fleet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard "Barney" Carlson

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report for the GM Vehicle Demo analysis and reporting. I'd like it to be posted to the AVTA website. It contains no new information than what is in Quarterly reports that were previously approved by GM.

  10. On a donc ici Soit, par exemple, une lampe de i oo volts, porte la telnpra-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    °. Le rapport entre la chaleur due au phénomène de Peltier et la chaleur totale développée dans le différence entre la densité du liquide et celle du milieu ambiant, et, si Fig. 2. Si l'on considère seulement

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: HelioVolt Modules Installed at RTC Sites

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive SolarEducation Programs:CRFProvideAidsCanal,Grid IntegrationHRSAM Sandia

  12. The Breakthrough Behind the Chevy Volt Battery | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2 and NbSe2 .2004The AtmosphericHomologous toThe

  13. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measurement of Thermal Evolution in Geothermal Reservoirs: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell A. Plummer; Carl D. Palmer; Earl D. Mattson; Laurence C. Hull; George D. Redden

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The injection of cold fluids into engineered geothermal system (EGS) and conventional geothermal reservoirs may be done to help extract heat from the subsurface or to maintain pressures within the reservoir (e.g., Rose et al., 2001). As these injected fluids move along fractures, they acquire heat from the rock matrix and remove it from the reservoir as they are extracted to the surface. A consequence of such injection is the migration of a cold-fluid front through the reservoir (Figure 1) that could eventually reach the production well and result in the lowering of the temperature of the produced fluids (thermal breakthrough). Efficient operation of an EGS as well as conventional geothermal systems involving cold-fluid injection requires accurate and timely information about thermal depletion of the reservoir in response to operation. In particular, accurate predictions of the time to thermal breakthrough and subsequent rate of thermal drawdown are necessary for reservoir management, design of fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting of economic return. A potential method for estimating migration of a cold front between an injection well and a production well is through application of reactive tracer tests, using chemical whose rate of degradation is dependent on the reservoir temperature between the two wells (e.g., Robinson 1985). With repeated tests, the rate of migration of the thermal front can be determined, and the time to thermal breakthrough calculated. While the basic theory behind the concept of thermal tracers has been understood for some time, effective application of the method has yet to be demonstrated. This report describes results of a study that used several methods to investigate application of reactive tracers to monitoring the thermal evolution of a geothermal reservoir. These methods included (1) mathematical investigation of the sensitivity of known and hypothetical reactive tracers, (2) laboratory testing of novel tracers that would improve method sensitivity, (3) development of a software tool for design and interpretation of reactive tracer tests and (4) field testing of the reactive tracer temperature monitoring concept.

  14. Procedures for the storage and digestion of natural waters for the determination of lterable reactive phosphorus, total lterable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canberra, University of

    Review Procedures for the storage and digestion of natural waters for the determination and digestion of water samples for ®lterable reactive phosphorus (FRP), total ®lterable phosphorus (TFP samples contain digestion of samples

  15. Elastic properties of B-C-N films grown by N{sub 2}-reactive sputtering from boron carbide targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salas, E.; Jiménez Riobóo, R. J.; Jiménez-Villacorta, F.; Prieto, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)] [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Sánchez-Marcos, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain) [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Dept. Química-Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Muñoz-Martín, A.; Prieto, J. E.; Joco, V. [Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)] [Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Boron-carbon-nitrogen films were grown by RF reactive sputtering from a B{sub 4}C target and N{sub 2} as reactive gas. The films present phase segregation and are mechanically softer than boron carbide films (a factor of more than 2 in Young's modulus). This fact can turn out as an advantage in order to select buffer layers to better anchor boron carbide films on substrates eliminating thermally induced mechanical tensions.

  16. LEVEL OF HIGH-SENSITIVITY C-REACTIVE PROTEIN IN SAUDI PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC STABLE CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J Ayub; Med Coll Abbottabad; Syed Shahid Habib

    Background: Inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is an independent predictor of future cardiovascular events and it predicts risk of incident hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the serum levels of the circulating acute-phase reactant high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in Saudi patients with chronic stable Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Methods: This cross

  17. Application of a Virtual Reactivity Feedback Control Loop in Non-Nuclear Testing of a Fast Spectrum Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Al, 35812 (United States); Forsbacka, Matthew [NASA Headquarters, 300 E St. S, Washington, DC 20465 (United States)

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For a compact, fast-spectrum reactor, reactivity feedback is dominated by core deformation at elevated temperature. Given the use of accurate deformation measurement techniques, it is possible to simulate nuclear feedback in non-nuclear electrically heated reactor tests. Implementation of simulated reactivity feedback in response to measured deflection is being tested at the Nasa Marshall Space Flight Center Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF). During tests of the SAFE-100 reactor prototype, core deflection was monitored using a high resolution camera. 'Virtual' reactivity feedback was accomplished by applying the results of Monte Carlo calculations (MCNPX) to core deflection measurements; the computational analysis was used to establish the reactivity worth of various core deformations. The power delivered to the SAFE-100 prototype was then adjusted accordingly via kinetics calculations. The work presented in this paper will demonstrate virtual reactivity feedback as core power was increased from 1 kWt to 10 kWt, held approximately constant at 10 kWt, and then allowed to decrease based on the negative thermal reactivity coefficient. (authors)

  18. Reactivity of tributyl phosphate degradation products with nitric acid: Relevance to the Tomsk-7 accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barney, G.S.; Cooper, T.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction of a degraded tributyl phosphate (TBP) solvent with nitric acid is thought to have caused the chemical explosion at the Tomsk-7 reprocessing plant at Tomsk, Russia in 1993. The estimated temperature of the organic layer was not high eneough to cause significant reaction of nitric acid with TBP or hydrocarbon diluent compounds. A more reactive organic compound was likely present in the organic layer that reacted with sufficient heat generation to raise the temperature to the point where an autocatalytic oxidation of the organic solvent was initiated. Two of the most likely reactive compounds that are present in degraded TBP solvents are n-butanol and n-butyl nitrate. The reactions of these compounds with nitric acid are the subject of this study. The objective of laboratory-scale tests was to identify chemical reactions that occur when n-butanol and n-butyl nitrate contact heated nitric acid solutions. Reaction products were identified and quantitified, the temperatures at which these reactions occur and heats of reaction were measured, and reaction variables (temperature, nitric acid concentration, organic concentration, and reaction time) were evaluated. Data showed that n-butyl nitrate is less reactive than n-butanol. An essentially complete oxidation reaction of n-butanol at 110-120 C produced four major reaction products. Mass spectrometry identified the major inorganic oxidation products for both n-butanol and n-butyl nitrate as nitric oxide and carbon dioxide. Calculated heats of reaction for n-butanol and n-butyl nitrate to form propionic acid, a major reaction product, are -1860 cal/g n-butanol and -953 cal/g n-butyl nitrate. These heats of reaction are significant and could have raised the temperature of the organic layer in the Tomsk-7 tank to the point where autocatalytic oxidation of other organic compounds present resulted in an explosion.

  19. Reactivity Accountability Attributed to Reflector Poisons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, David [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to develop a methodology to predict the reactivity impact as a function of outage time between cycles of 3He, 6Li, and other poisons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor s (HFIR) beryllium reflector. The reactivity worth at startup of the HFIR has been incorrectly predicted in the past after the reactor has been shut-down for long periods of time. The incorrect prediction was postulated to be due to the erroneous calculation of 3He buildup in the beryllium reflector. It is necessary to develop a better estimate of the start-of-cycle symmetric critical control element positions since if the estimated and actual symmetrical critical control element positions differ by more than $1.55 in reactivity (approximately one-half inch in control element startup position), HFIR is to be shutdown and a technical evaluation is performed to resolve the discrepancy prior to restart. 3He is generated and depleted during operation, but during an outage, the depletion of 3He ceases because it is a stable isotope. 3He is born from the radioactive decay of tritium, and thus the concentration of 3He increases during shutdown. SCALE, specifically the TRITON and CSAS5 control modules including the KENO V.A, COUPLE, and ORIGEN functional modules were utilized in this study. An equation relating the down time (td) to the change in symmetric control element position was generated and validated against measurements for approximately 40 HFIR operating cycles. The newly-derived correlation was shown to improve accuracy of predictions for long periods of down time.

  20. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity. Final technical report, September 1990--February 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.L.; Shams, K.G.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent research efforts in direct coal liquefaction are focused on lowering the level of reaction severity, identification and determination of the causes of retrogressive reactions, and improving the economics of the process. Ambient pretreatment of coals using methanol and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid was extensively studied in connection with low severity coal liquefaction. Ambient pretreatment of eight Argonne coals using methanol/HCl improved THF-soluble conversions 24.5 wt % (maf basis) for Wyodak subbituminous coal and 28.4 wt % for Beulah-Zap lignite with an average increase of 14.9 wt % for the eight Argonne coals at 623 K (350{degrees}C) reaction temperature and 30 minutes reaction time. Optimal pretreatment conditions were determined using Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coals. Acid concentration was the most important pretreatment variable studied; liquefaction reactivity increased with increasing acid concentration up to 2 vol %. The FTIR spectra of treated and untreated Wyodak coal samples demonstrated formation of carboxylic functional groups during pretreatment, a result of divalent (Ca, Mg) cationic bridge destruction. The extent of liquefaction reactivity directly correlated with the amount of calcium removed during pretreatment, and results from calcium ``addback`` experiments supported the observation that calcium adversely affected coal reactivity at low severity reaction conditions. Model compound studies using benzyl phenyl ether demonstrated that calcium cations catalyzed retrogressive reactions, inhibited hydrogenation reactions at low severity reaction conditions, and were more active at higher reaction temperatures. Based on kinetic data, mechanisms for hydrogenation-based inhibition and base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are proposed. The base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are shown to occur via a hydrogen abstraction mechanism where hydrogenation inhibition reactions are shown to take place via a surface quenching mechanism.

  1. Pyrolysis process for producing condensed stabilized hydrocarbons utilizing a beneficially reactive gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durai-Swamy, Kandaswamy (Culver City, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process for recovery of values contained in solid carbonaceous material, the solid carbonaceous material is comminuted and then subjected to pyrolysis, in the presence of a carbon containing solid particulate source of heat and a beneficially reactive transport gas in a transport flash pyrolysis reactor, to form a pyrolysis product stream. The pyrolysis product stream contains a gaseous mixture and particulate solids. The solids are separated from the gaseous mixture to form a substantially solids-free gaseous stream which comprises volatilized hydrocarbon free radicals newly formed by pyrolysis. Preferably the solid particulate source of heat is formed by oxidizing part of the separated particulate solids. The beneficially reactive transport gas inhibits the reactivity of the char product and the carbon-containing solid particulate source of heat. Condensed stabilized hydrocarbons are obtained by quenching the gaseous mixture stream with a quench fluid which contains a capping agent for stabilizing and terminating newly formed volatilized hydrocarbon free radicals. The capping agent is partially depleted of hydrogen by the stabilization and termination reaction. Hydrocarbons of four or more carbon atoms in the gaseous mixture stream are condensed. A liquid stream containing the stabilized liquid product is then treated or separated into various fractions. A liquid containing the hydrogen depleted capping agent is hydrogenated to form a regenerated capping agent. At least a portion of the regenerated capping agent is recycled to the quench zone as the quench fluid. In another embodiment capping agent is produced by the process, separated from the liquid product mixture, and recycled.

  2. Dynamics of confined reactive water in Smectic clay-zeolite composites.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitman, Michael C. [IBM Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY; Van Duin, Adri C. T. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of water confined to mesoporous regions in minerals such as swelling clays and zeolites is fundamental to a wide range of resource management issues impacting many processes on a global scale, including radioactive waste containment, desalination, and enhanced oil recovery. Large-scale atomic models of freely diffusing multilayer smectite particles at low hydration confined in a silicalite cage are used to investigate water dynamics in the composite environment with the ReaxFF reactive force field over a temperature range of 300 647 K. The reactive capability of the force field enabled a range of relevant surface chemistry to emerge, including acid/base equilibria in the interlayer calcium hydrates and silanol formation on the edges of the clay and inner surface of the zeolite housing. After annealing, the resulting clay models exhibit both mono- and bilayer hydration structures. Clay surface hydration redistributed markedly and yielded to silicalite water loading. We find that the absolute rates and temperature dependence of water dynamics compare well to neutron scattering data and pulse field gradient measures from relevant samples of Ca-montmorillonite and silicalite, respectively. Within an atomistic, reactive context, our results distinguish water dynamics in the interlayer Ca(OH)2 nH2O environment from water flowing over the clay surface, and from water diffusing within silicalite. We find that the diffusion of water when complexed to Ca hydrates is considerably slower than freely diffusing water over the clay surface, and the reduced mobility is well described by a difference in the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor rather than a change in activation energy.

  3. Dynamics of confined reactive water in smectite clay-zeolite composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitman, Michael C. [IBM Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY; Van Duin, Adri C. T. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of water confined to mesoporous regions in minerals such as swelling clays and zeolites is fundamental to a wide range of resource management issues impacting many processes on a global scale, including radioactive waste containment, desalination, and enhanced oil recovery. Large-scale atomic models of freely diffusing multilayer smectite particles at low hydration confined in a silicalite cage are used to investigate water dynamics in the composite environment with the ReaxFF reactive force field over a temperature range of 300 647 K. The reactive capability of the force field enabled a range of relevant surface chemistry to emerge, including acid/base equilibria in the interlayer calcium hydrates and silanol formation on the edges of the clay and inner surface of the zeolite housing. After annealing, the resulting clay models exhibit both mono- and bilayer hydration structures. Clay surface hydration redistributed markedly and yielded to silicalite water loading. We find that the absolute rates and temperature dependence of water dynamics compare well to neutron scattering data and pulse field gradient measures from relevant samples of Ca-montmorillonite and silicalite, respectively. Within an atomistic, reactive context, our results distinguish water dynamics in the interlayer Ca(OH)2 nH2O environment from water flowing over the clay surface, and from water diffusing within silicalite. We find that the diffusion of water when complexed to Ca hydrates is considerably slower than freely diffusing water over the clay surface, and the reduced mobility is well described by a difference in the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor rather than a change in activation energy.

  4. High Power, High Voltage FETs in Linear Applications: A User's Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. Greenough, E. Fredd, S. DePasquale

    2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The specifications of the current crop of highpower, high-voltage field-effect transistors (FETs) can lure a designer into employing them in high-voltage DC equipment. Devices with extremely low on-resistance and very high power ratings are available from several manufacturers. However, our experience shows that high-voltage, linear operation of these devices at near-continuous duty can present difficult reliability challenges at stress levels well-below their published specifications. This paper chronicles the design evolution of a 600 volt, 8 ampere shunt regulator for use with megawatt-class radio transmitters, and presents a final design that has met its reliability criteria.

  5. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockot, J.H.; Mikesell, H.E.; Jha, K.N.

    1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and a method are disclosed for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens. 7 figs.

  6. Algorithm for calculation of characterisitcs of thermionic electricity-generating assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babushkin, Yu.V.; Mendel'baum, M.A.; Savinov, A.P.; Sinyavskii, V.V.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical algorithm has been developed for calculating the kinetic characteristics of electricity-generating coaxial cells and assemblies; it is based on separate solution of the equations describing the thermal and electrical processes with their subsequent coordination by way of the volt-ampere characteristics of an elementary thermionic converter by means of piecewise-linear approximation of the nonlinear characteristics at the operating points. The possibilities and advantages of the proposed calculation algorithm for investigation of the transients occurring in the course of operation of the electricity generating assemblies (EGA) are indicated. Results are reported for sample calculations of several EGA static and kinetic characteristics. 10 refs.

  7. Texas LoanSTAR Monitoring and Analysis Program: Monitoring Equipment Installation Manual (October 1994)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bohmer, C.; Lippman, R.; McBride, J.; Casebolt, C.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by which the apparent power (amperes times volts) must be adjusted to obtain real power. Power in any single-phase or 3 phase 4 wire (3$-$W) system is equal to the sum of the power in the individual phases. The formula below is used to calculate power... the RTD output, reads the resistance which increases linearly with temperature, and calculates the temperature. For installations with long sensor lead lengths, the resistance of signal wire should be determined, and the DAS input channel must be offset...

  8. Realistic evaluation of fuel enthalpy during reactivity-initiated accidents in PWRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nunogane, N.; Uchida, T.; Morimoto, K. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Osaka (Japan); Nakajima, A.; Homma, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) simulation experiments using preirradiated fuels have been widely conducted in the NSRR in Japan and the CABRI reactor in France. Although the dependency of fuel failure on burnup has not been clearly determined so far, it is suggested that the failure threshold of irradiated fuel may be decreased compared with that of fresh fuel. The objective of this study is to confirm the conservatism in the current safety analysis and to evaluate the effect of the decrease in the threshold. The current safety analysis for a rod ejection accident for a pwr reactor at the end-of-cycle hot zero power (HZP) is summarized.

  9. Assessment of light water reactor fuel damage during a reactivity initiated accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Seiffert, S.L.; Martinson, Z.R.; McCardell, R.K.; Owen, D.E.; Fukuda, S.K.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an assessment of LWR fuel damage during a reactivity initiated accident and comments on the adequacy of the present USNRC design requirements. Results from early SPERT tests are reviewed and compared with results from recent computer simulations and PBF tests. A progression of fuel rod and cladding damage events is presented. High strain rate deformation of relatively cool irradiated cladding early in the transient may result in fracture at a radial average peak fuel enthalpy of approximately 140 cal/g UO/sub 2/. Volume expansion of previously irradiated fuel upon melting may cause deformation and rupture of the cladding, and coolant channel blockage at higher peak enthalpies.

  10. REVIEW AND ANALYSIS Research Activities at U.S. Government Agencies in Subsurface Reactive Transport Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    All T. Cygan; Caroline T. Stevens; Robert W. Puls; Steven B. Yabusaki; Robert D; David R. Turner

    Subsurface reactive transport modeling may be defi ned as the use of mathematical models to simulate the fate and transport of dissolved species and particulates in groundwater as these species are transported through porous media and react with each other, with mineral surfaces, and with microbes associated with the porous media matrix. This type of modeling has evolved over the last 30 yr from a specialized research topic involving a dozen or so practitioners (with often large stacks of computer punch cards) to a common offi ce tool found today on the personal computer (and occasional supercomputer) of many environmental chemists, geochemists, and soil scientists. The devel-

  11. Infiltration processing of boron carbide-, boron-, and boride-reactive metal cermets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halverson, Danny C. (Manteca, CA); Landingham, Richard L. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical pretreatment method is used to produce boron carbide-, boron-, and boride-reactive metal composites by an infiltration process. The boron carbide or other starting constituents, in powder form, are immersed in various alcohols, or other chemical agents, to change the surface chemistry of the starting constituents. The chemically treated starting constituents are consolidated into a porous ceramic precursor which is then infiltrated by molten aluminum or other metal by heating to wetting conditions. Chemical treatment of the starting constituents allows infiltration to full density. The infiltrated precursor is further heat treated to produce a tailorable microstructure. The process at low cost produces composites with improved characteristics, including increased toughness, strength.

  12. Calculating kinetics parameters and reactivity changes with continuous-energy Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiedrowski, Brian C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Forrest B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Paul [UNIV. WISCONSIN

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The iterated fission probability interpretation of the adjoint flux forms the basis for a method to perform adjoint weighting of tally scores in continuous-energy Monte Carlo k-eigenvalue calculations. Applying this approach, adjoint-weighted tallies are developed for two applications: calculating point reactor kinetics parameters and estimating changes in reactivity from perturbations. Calculations are performed in the widely-used production code, MCNP, and the results of both applications are compared with discrete ordinates calculations, experimental measurements, and other Monte Carlo calculations.

  13. In Situ Reactivity and TOF SIMS Analysis of Surfaces Prepared by Soft and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching.348 270 300Aptamers and Graphene OxideHighReactive

  14. Drop Dynamics and Speciation in Isolation of Metals from Liquid Wastes by Reactive Scavenging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arne J. Pearlstein; Alexander Scheeline

    2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Computational and experimental studies of the motion and dynamics of liquid drops in gas flows were conducted with relevance to reactive scavenging of metals from atomized liquid waste. Navier-Stoke's computations of deformable drops revealed a range of conditions from which prolate drops are expected, and showed how frajectiones of deformable drops undergoing deceleration can be computed. Experimental work focused on development of emission fluorescence, and scattering diagnostics. The instrument developed was used to image drop shapes, soot, and nonaxisymmetric departures from steady flow in a 22kw combustor

  15. AMPERE 2011, Toulouse Modeling -372 An Iterative Routine for Macroscopic Modeling of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakovlev, Vadim

    . The developed approach involves two software packages: QuickWave-3D, a simulator that uses the conformal finite for energy savings and faster processing of ceramic and metallic powders. The main benefit in comparison. This paper addresses the problem of numerical simulation of micro- wave sintering at a macroscopic scale

  16. ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a valuable role in continuing the new thought which was about to take solid shape under Tycho Brahe, Johann Kepler, and Isaac Newton. Scienti c change... Karimi, Reza 2012-07-16...

  17. ELECTROSTATIC PROBE DIAGNOSTICS ON THE LBL 10 AMPERE NEUTRAL BEAM ION SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schoenberg, Kurt F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Probes," in Plasma Diagnostics (Lochte- Holtgreven, eds. ),Electric Probes," in Plasma Diagnostic Techniques (R. H.Spatial probe diagnostics schematic. Radial plasma profile:

  18. A 2 MEG-AMPERE PROTOTYPE LEVITATED COIL FOR MULTIPOLE FUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, M.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power Research Institute (EPRI) agreement RP1190-1 with TRW.Power Research Institute (EPRI), May 1977. 9. M. A. Green, "by TRW ' and funded by EPRI. Many of the concepts developed

  19. Multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive transport model of the ventilation experiment in Opalinus clay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.; Major, J.C.

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During the construction and operational phases of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository constructed in a clay formation, ventilation of underground drifts will cause desaturation and oxidation of the rock. The Ventilation Experiment (VE) was performed in a 1.3 m diameter unlined horizontal microtunnel on Opalinus clay at Mont Terri underground research laboratory in Switzerland to evaluate the impact of desaturation on rock properties. A multiphase flow and reactive transport model of VE is presented here. The model accounts for liquid, vapor and air flow, evaporation/condensation and multicomponent reactive solute transport with kinetic dissolution of pyrite and siderite and local-equilibrium dissolution/precipitation of calcite, ferrihydrite, dolomite, gypsum and quartz. Model results reproduce measured vapor flow, liquid pressure and hydrochemical data and capture the trends of measured relative humidities, although such data are slightly overestimated near the rock interface due to uncertainties in the turbulence factor. Rock desaturation allows oxygen to diffuse into the rock and triggers pyrite oxidation, dissolution of calcite and siderite, precipitation of ferrihydrite, dolomite and gypsum and cation exchange. pH in the unsaturated rock varies from 7.8 to 8 and is buffered by calcite. Computed changes in the porosity and the permeability of Opalinus clay in the unsaturated zone caused by oxidation and mineral dissolution/precipitation are smaller than 5%. Therefore, rock properties are not expected to be affected significantly by ventilation of underground drifts during construction and operational phases of a HLW repository in clay.

  20. Evaluation of the coolant reactivity coefficient influence on the dynamic response of a small LFR system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenzi, S.; Bortot, S.; Cammi, A.; Ponciroli, R. [Dept. of Energy, Nuclear Engineering Div. - CeSNEF, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment of the coolant reactivity feedback influence on a small Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) dynamics has been made aimed at providing both qualitative and quantitative insights into the system transient behavior depending on the sign of the above mentioned coefficient. The need of such an investigation has been recognized since fast reactors cooled by heavy liquid metals show to be characterized by a strong coupling between primary and secondary systems. In particular, the coolant density and radial expansion coefficients have been attested to play a major role in determining the core response to any perturbed condition on the Steam Generator (SG) side. The European Lead-cooled System (ELSY)-based demonstrator (DEMO) has been assumed as the reference LFR case study. As a first step, a zero-dimensional dynamics model has been developed and implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK{sup R} environment; then typical transient scenarios have been simulated by incorporating the actual negative lead density reactivity coefficient and its opposite. In all the examined cases results have shown that the reactor behaves in a completely different way when considering a positive coolant feedback instead of the reference one, the system free dynamics resulting moreover considerably slower due to the core and SG mutually conflicting reactions. The outcomes of the present analysis may represent a useful feedback for both the core and the control system designers. (authors)

  1. On RELAP5-simulated High Flux Isotope Reactor reactivity transients: Code change and application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freels, J.D.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a new and innovative application for the RELAP5 code (hereafter referred to as the code''). The code has been used to simulate several transients associated with the (presently) draft version of the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) updated safety analysis report (SAR). This paper investigates those thermal-hydraulic transients induced by nuclear reactivity changes. A major goal of the work was to use an existing RELAP5 HFIR model for consistency with other thermal-hydraulic transient analyses of the SAR. To achieve this goal, it was necessary to incorporate a new self-contained point kinetics solver into the code because of a deficiency in the point-kinetics reactivity model of the Mod 2.5 version of the code. The model was benchmarked against previously analyzed (known) transients. Given this new code, four event categories defined by the HFIR probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) were analyzed: (in ascending order of severity) a cold-loop pump start; run-away shim-regulating control cylinder and safety plate withdrawal; control cylinder ejection; and generation of an optimum void in the target region. All transients are discussed. Results of the bounding incredible event transient, the target region optimum void, are shown. Future plans for RELAP5 HFIR applications and recommendations for code improvements are also discussed.

  2. On RELAP5-simulated High Flux Isotope Reactor reactivity transients: Code change and application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freels, J.D.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a new and innovative application for the RELAP5 code (hereafter referred to as ``the code``). The code has been used to simulate several transients associated with the (presently) draft version of the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) updated safety analysis report (SAR). This paper investigates those thermal-hydraulic transients induced by nuclear reactivity changes. A major goal of the work was to use an existing RELAP5 HFIR model for consistency with other thermal-hydraulic transient analyses of the SAR. To achieve this goal, it was necessary to incorporate a new self-contained point kinetics solver into the code because of a deficiency in the point-kinetics reactivity model of the Mod 2.5 version of the code. The model was benchmarked against previously analyzed (known) transients. Given this new code, four event categories defined by the HFIR probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) were analyzed: (in ascending order of severity) a cold-loop pump start; run-away shim-regulating control cylinder and safety plate withdrawal; control cylinder ejection; and generation of an optimum void in the target region. All transients are discussed. Results of the bounding incredible event transient, the target region optimum void, are shown. Future plans for RELAP5 HFIR applications and recommendations for code improvements are also discussed.

  3. Development of reactivity feedback effect measurement techniques under sub-critical condition in fast reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitano, A.; Nishi, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1 1, Shiraki, Tsuruga-shi, Fukui-ken, 919-1279 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195 (Japan); Okajima, S.; Kanemoto, S. [Univ. of Aizu, Tsuruga, Ikki-machi, Aizu-Wakamatsu-shi, Fukushima-ken, 965-8580 (Japan)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first-of-a-kind reactor has been licensed by a safety examination of the plant design based on the measured data in precedent mock-up experiments. The validity of the safety design can be confirmed without a mock-up experiment, if the reactor feed-back characteristics can be measured before operation, with the constructed reactor itself. The 'Synthesis Method', a systematic and sophisticated method of sub-criticality measurement, is proposed in this work to ensure the safety margin before operation. The 'Synthesis Method' is based on the modified source multiplication method (MSM) combined with the noise analysis method to measure the reference sub-criticality level for MSM. A numerical simulation for the control-rod reactivity worth and the isothermal feed-back reactivity was conducted for typical fast reactors of 100 MWe-size, 300 MWe-size, 750 MWe-size, and 1500 MWe-size to investigate the applicability of Synthesis Method. The number of neutron detectors and their positions necessary for the measurement were investigated for both methods of MSM and the noise analysis by a series of parametric survey calculations. As a result, it was suggested that a neutron detector located above the core center and three or more neutron detectors located above the radial blanket region enable the measurement of sub-criticality within 10% uncertainty from -$0.5 to -$2 and within 15% uncertainty for the deeper sub-criticality. (authors)

  4. Comparison of Reactivity Control Systems for the Submersion Subcritical Safe Space (S and 4) Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schriener, Timothy M.; El-Genk, Mohamed S. [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies and Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept., University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper compares the effectiveness of two control mechanisms for the S and 4 reactor, namely: (a) rotating BeO drums with 120 deg. thin segments of enriched B{sub 4}C in the radial reflector; and (b) sliding windows in the radial reflector. Investigated are the effects of using these control mechanisms on the differential reactor control worth, power generation profiles, and spatial neutrons flux distributions is the S and 4 reactor. For both control mechanism, the radial reflector has the same dimensions and volume. Results show that the difference in reactor performance with the two control mechanisms is small. The sliding reflector configuration features slightly lower mass and power peaking, and relatively more even fission power profiles in the core. The differential control worth for the sliding reflector segments is almost constant compared to that using rotating control drums, potentially simplifying the reactor control operation. The presence of a strong neutron absorber in the rotating drums slightly decreases the amount of excess reactivity at BOL compared with the sliding reflector configuration. However, the higher rate of reactivity depletion in the S and 4 reactor with the latter may negate this advantage.

  5. Arylpalladium Phosphonate Complexes as Reactive Intermediates in Phosphorus-Carbon Bond Forming Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, Mark C. [Bucknell University; Grimes, Thomas V. [University of North Texas; Wang, Xiaoping [ORNL; Cundari, Thomas R. [University of North Texas; Stockland, Robert A. Jr. [Bucknell University

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phosphorus-carbon bond formation from discrete transition metal complexes have been investigated through a combination of synthetic, spectroscopic, crystallographic, and computational methods. Reactive intermediates of the type (diphosphine)Pd(aryl)(P(O)(OEt)(2)) have been prepared, characterized, and studied as possible intermediates in metal-mediated coupling reactions. Several of the reactive intermediates were characterized crystallographicaliy, and a discussion of the solid state structures is presented. In contrast to other carbon-heteroelement bond forming reactions, palladium complexes containing electron-donating substituents on the aromatic fragment exhibited faster rates of reductive elimination. Large bite angle diphosphine ligands induced rapid rates of elimination, while bipyridine and small bite angle diphosphine ligands resulted in much slower rates of elimination. An investigation of the effect of typical impurities on the elimination reaction was carried out. While excess diphosphine, pyridine, and acetonitrile had little effect on the observed rate, the addition of water slowed the phosphorus-carbon bond forming reaction. Coordination of water to the complex was observed spectroscopically and crystallographically. Computational studies were utilized to probe the reaction pathways for P-C bond formation via Pd catalysis.

  6. Wettability and thermal stability of fluorocarbon films deposited by deep reactive ion etching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang Yanxin; Menon, Aric [MIC, Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Building 345 east, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluorocarbon films have low surface energy and can be used as antistiction coating for microelectromechanical systems. By using the passivation process in a deep reactive ion etcher, the fluorocarbon films can be deposited and integrated with other processes in the clean room. The properties such as wettability, surface energies, and thermal stability, have been investigated in detail. It has been found that the fluorocarbon films deposited have a static water contact angle of 109 deg. and a surface energy around 14.5 mJ/m{sup 2}, whereas as-received and as-deposited single silicon, poly silicon, and silicon nitride have a much lower water contact angle and a higher surface energy. The fluorocarbon films keep their good hydrophobicity up to 300 deg. C, and the degradation temperature depends on the thickness of the fluorocarbon films. Decomposition happens at lower temperatures (100-300 deg. C) even though the decomposition rate is quite slow without affecting the contact angle. The decomposition mechanism at low temperatures (less than 300 deg. C) might be different from that at high temperatures. It has been shown that the fluorocarbon film deposited by a deep reactive ion etcher tool provides very high hydrophobicity, low surface energy, good thermal stability, and antiadhesion behavior for use in nanoimprinting lithography.

  7. A reaction-based paradigm to model reactive chemical transport in groundwater with general kinetic and equilibrium reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Fan [ORNL; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh [University of Central Florida, Orlando; Parker, Jack C [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Pace, Molly [ORNL; Kim, Young Jin [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a reaction-based water quality transport model in subsurface flow systems. Transport of chemical species with a variety of chemical and physical processes is mathematically described by M partial differential equations (PDEs). Decomposition via Gauss-Jordan column reduction of the reaction network transforms M species reactive transport equations into two sets of equations: a set of thermodynamic equilibrium equations representing NE equilibrium reactions and a set of reactive transport equations of M-NE kinetic-variables involving no equilibrium reactions (a kinetic-variable is a linear combination of species). The elimination of equilibrium reactions from reactive transport equations allows robust and efficient numerical integration. The model solves the PDEs of kinetic-variables rather than individual chemical species, which reduces the number of reactive transport equations and simplifies the reaction terms in the equations. A variety of numerical methods are investigated for solving the coupled transport and reaction equations. Simulation comparisons with exact solutions were performed to verify numerical accuracy and assess the effectiveness of various numerical strategies to deal with different application circumstances. Two validation examples involving simulations of uranium transport in soil columns are presented to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate reactive transport with complex reaction networks involving both kinetic and equilibrium reactions.

  8. Variably Saturated Flow and Multicomponent Biogeochemical Reactive Transport Modeling of a Uranium Bioremediation Field Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Williams, Kenneth H.; Murray, Christopher J.; Ward, Anderson L.; Dayvault, Richard; Waichler, Scott R.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Spane, Frank A.; Long, Philip E.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field experiments at a former uranium mill tailings site have identified the potential for stimulating indigenous bacteria to catalyze the conversion of aqueous uranium in the +6 oxidation state to immobile solid-associated uranium in the +4 oxidation state. This effectively removes uranium from solution resulting in groundwater concentrations below actionable standards. Three-dimensional, coupled variably-saturated flow and biogeochemical reactive transport modeling of a 2008 in situ uranium bioremediation field experiment is used to better understand the interplay of transport rates and biogeochemical reaction rates that determine the location and magnitude of key reaction products. A comprehensive reaction network, developed largely through previous 1-D modeling studies, was used to simulate the impacts on uranium behavior of pulsed acetate amendment, seasonal water table variation, spatially-variable physical (hydraulic conductivity, porosity) and geochemical (reactive surface area) material properties. A principal challenge is the mechanistic representation of biologically-mediated terminal electron acceptor process (TEAP) reactions whose products significantly alter geochemical controls on uranium mobility through increases in pH, alkalinity, exchangeable cations, and highly reactive reduction products. In general, these simulations of the 2008 Big Rusty acetate biostimulation field experiment in Rifle, Colorado confirmed previously identified behaviors including (1) initial dominance by iron reducing bacteria that concomitantly reduce aqueous U(VI), (2) sulfate reducing bacteria that become dominant after {approx}30 days and outcompete iron reducers for the acetate electron donor, (3) continuing iron-reducer activity and U(VI) bioreduction during dominantly sulfate reducing conditions, and (4) lower apparent U(VI) removal from groundwater during dominantly sulfate reducing conditions. New knowledge on simultaneously active metal and sulfate reducers has been incorporated into the modeling. In this case, an initially small population of slow growing sulfate reducers is active from the initiation of biostimulation. Three-dimensional, variably saturated flow modeling was used to address impacts of a falling water table during acetate injection. These impacts included a significant reduction in aquifer saturated thickness and isolation of residual reactants and products, as well as unmitigated uranium, in the newly unsaturated vadose zone. High permeability sandy gravel structures resulted in locally high flow rates in the vicinity of injection wells that increased acetate dilution. In downgradient locations, these structures created preferential flow paths for acetate delivery that enhanced local zones of TEAP reactivity and subsidiary reactions. Conversely, smaller transport rates associated with the lower permeability lithofacies (e.g., fine) and vadose zone were shown to limit acetate access and reaction. Once accessed by acetate, however, these same zones limited subsequent acetate dilution and provided longer residence times that resulted in higher concentrations of TEAP products when terminal electron donors and acceptors were not limiting. Finally, facies-based porosity and reactive surface area variations were shown to affect aqueous uranium concentration distributions; however, the ranges were sufficiently small to preserve general trends. Large computer memory and high computational performance were required to simulate the detailed coupled process models for multiple biogeochemical components in highly resolved heterogeneous materials for the 110-day field experiment and 50 days of post-biostimulation behavior. In this case, a highly-scalable subsurface simulator operating on 128 processor cores for 12 hours was used to simulate each realization. An equivalent simulation without parallel processing would have taken 60 days, assuming sufficient memory was available.

  9. Bioreduction of Fe-bearing clay minerals and their reactivity toward pertechnetate (Tc-99)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, Michael E.; Dong, Hailiang; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Liu, Chongxuan; Edelmann, Richard E.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    99Technetium (99Tc) is a fission product of uranium-235 and plutonium-239 and poses a high environmental hazard due to its long half-life (t1/2 = 2.13 x 105 y), abundance in nuclear wastes, and environmental mobility under oxidizing conditions [i.e., Tc(VII)]. Under reducing conditions, Tc(VII) can be reduced to insoluble Tc(IV). Ferrous iron [Fe(II)], either in aqueous form or in mineral form, has been used to reduce Tc(VII) to Tc(IV). However, the reactivity of Fe(II) from clay minerals, other than nontronite, toward immobilization of Tc(VII) and its role in retention of reduced Tc(IV) have not been investigated. In this study the reactivity of a suite of clay minerals toward Tc(VII) reduction and immobilization was evaluated. The clay minerals chosen for this study included five members in the smectite-illite (S-I) series, (montmorillonite, nontronite, rectorite, mixed layered I-S, and illite), chlorite, and palygorskite. Fe-oxides were removed from these minerals with a modified dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) procedure. The total Fe content of these clay minerals, after Fe-oxide removal, ranged from 0.7 to 30.4% by weight, and the Fe(III)/Fe(total) ratio ranged from 44.9 to 98.5%. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy results showed that after Fe oxide removal the clay minerals were free of Fe-oxides. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that little dissolution occurred during the DCB treatment. Bioreduction experiments were performed in bicarbonate buffer (pH-7) with Fe(III) in the clay minerals as the sole electron acceptor, lactate as the sole electron donor, and Shewanella Putrifaciens CN32 cells as mediators. In select tubes, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfate (AQDS) was added as electron shuttle to facilitate electron transfer. The extent of Fe(III) bioreduction was the highest for chlorite (~43 wt%) and the lowest for palygorskite (~4.17 wt%). In the S-I series, NAu-2 was the most reducible (~31 %) and illite the least (~0.4 %). The extent and initial rate of bioreduction were positively correlated with the percent smectite in the S-I series (i.e., layer expandability). Fe(II) in the bioreduced clay minerals subsequently was used to reduce Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) in PIPES buffer. Similar to the trend of bioreduction, in the S-I series, reduced smectite showed the highest reactivity toward Tc(VII), and reduced illite exhibited the least. The initial rate of Tc(VII) reduction, after normalization to clay and Fe(II) concentrations, was positively correlated with the percent smectite in the S-I series. Fe(II) in chlorite and palygorskite was also reactive toward Tc(VII) reduction. These data demonstrate that crystal chemical parameters (layer expandability, Fe and Fe(II) contents, and surface area etc.) play important roles in controlling the extent and rate of bioreduction and the reactivity toward Tc(VII) reduction. Reduced Tc(IV) resides within clay mineral matrix, and this association could minimize any potential of reoxidation over long term.

  10. Surface reactivity and oxygen migration in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide films annealed in humid atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, Ken, E-mail: Watanabe.Ken@nims.go.jp [International Center for Young Scientists (ICYS-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)] [International Center for Young Scientists (ICYS-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Lee, Dong-Hee [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan) [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Materials and Structures Laboratory (MSL), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Sakaguchi, Isao; Haneda, Hajime [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)] [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Nomura, Kenji [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox S2-13, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan)] [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox S2-13, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Kamiya, Toshio [Materials and Structures Laboratory (MSL), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan) [Materials and Structures Laboratory (MSL), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy (MCES), Mailbox S2-13, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Hosono, Hideo [Materials and Structures Laboratory (MSL), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan) [Materials and Structures Laboratory (MSL), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox S2-13, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy (MCES), Mailbox S2-13, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan); Ohashi, Naoki, E-mail: Ohashi.Naoki@nims.go.jp [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan) [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy (MCES), Mailbox S2-13, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 (Japan)

    2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An isotope tracer study, i.e., {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O exchange using {sup 18}O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}{sup 18}O, was performed to determine how post-deposition annealing (PDA) affected surface reactivity and oxygen diffusivity of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) films. The oxygen tracer diffusivity was very high in the bulk even at low temperatures, e.g., 200?°C, regardless of PDA and exchange conditions. In contrast, the isotope exchange rate, dominated by surface reactivity, was much lower for {sup 18}O{sub 2} than for H{sub 2}{sup 18}O. PDA in a humid atmosphere at 400?°C further suppressed the reactivity of O{sub 2} at the a-IGZO film surface, which is attributable to –OH-terminated surface formation.

  11. Chemical Imaging and Dynamical Studies of Reactivity and Emergent Behavior in Complex Interfacial Systems. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sibener, Steven J. [University of Chicago, IL (United States)] [University of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This research program explored the efficacy of using molecular-level manipulation, imaging and scanning tunneling spectroscopy in conjunction with supersonic molecular beam gas-surface scattering to significantly enhance our understanding of chemical processes occurring on well-characterized interfaces. One program focus was on the spatially-resolved emergent behavior of complex reaction systems as a function of the local geometry and density of adsorbate-substrate systems under reaction conditions. Another focus was on elucidating the emergent electronic and related reactivity characteristics of intentionally constructed single and multicomponent atom- and nanoparticle-based materials. We also examined emergent chirality and self-organization in adsorbed molecular systems where collective interactions between adsorbates and the supporting interface lead to spatial symmetry breaking. In many of these studies we combined the advantages of scanning tunneling (STM) and atomic force (AFM) imaging, scanning tunneling local electronic spectroscopy (STS), and reactive supersonic molecular beams to elucidate precise details of interfacial reactivity that had not been observed by more traditional surface science methods. Using these methods, it was possible to examine, for example, the differential reactivity of molecules adsorbed at different bonding sites in conjunction with how reactivity is modified by the local configuration of nearby adsorbates. At the core of this effort was the goal of significantly extending our understanding of interfacial atomic-scale interactions to create, with intent, molecular assemblies and materials with advanced chemical and physical properties. This ambitious program addressed several key topics in DOE Grand Challenge Science, including emergent chemical and physical properties in condensed phase systems, novel uses of chemical imaging, and the development of advanced reactivity concepts in combustion and catalysis including carbon management. These activities directly benefitted national science objectives in the areas of chemical energy production and advanced materials development.

  12. Geophysical monitoring and reactive transport modeling of ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Y.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Spycher, N.; Hubbard, S.S.; Zhang, G.; Williams, K.H.; Taylor, J.; Fujita, Y.; Smith, R.

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation is the basis for a promising in-situ remediation method for sequestration of divalent radionuclide and trace metal ions. It has also been proposed for use in geotechnical engineering for soil strengthening applications. Monitoring the occurrence, spatial distribution, and temporal evolution of calcium carbonate precipitation in the subsurface is critical for evaluating the performance of this technology and for developing the predictive models needed for engineering application. In this study, we conducted laboratory column experiments using natural sediment and groundwater to evaluate the utility of geophysical (complex resistivity and seismic) sensing methods, dynamic synchrotron x-ray computed tomography (micro-CT), and reactive transport modeling for tracking ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation processes under site relevant conditions. Reactive transport modeling with TOUGHREACT successfully simulated the changes of the major chemical components during urea hydrolysis. Even at the relatively low level of urea hydrolysis observed in the experiments, the simulations predicted an enhanced calcium carbonate precipitation rate that was 3-4 times greater than the baseline level. Reactive transport modeling results, geophysical monitoring data and micro-CT imaging correlated well with reaction processes validated by geochemical data. In particular, increases in ionic strength of the pore fluid during urea hydrolysis predicted by geochemical modeling were successfully captured by electrical conductivity measurements and confirmed by geochemical data. The low level of urea hydrolysis and calcium carbonate precipitation suggested by the model and geochemical data was corroborated by minor changes in seismic P-wave velocity measurements and micro-CT imaging; the latter provided direct evidence of sparsely distributed calcium carbonate precipitation. Ion exchange processes promoted through NH{sub 4}{sup +} production during urea hydrolysis were incorporated in the model and captured critical changes in the major metal species. The electrical phase increases were potentially due to ion exchange processes that modified charge structure at mineral/water interfaces. Our study revealed the potential of geophysical monitoring for geochemical changes during urea hydrolysis and the advantages of combining multiple approaches to understand complex biogeochemical processes in the subsurface.

  13. QUANTIFICATION OF FUGITIVE REACTIVE ALKENE EMISSIONS FROM PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS WITH PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SENUM,G.I.; DIETZ,R.N.

    2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies demonstrate the impact of fugitive emissions of reactive alkenes on the atmospheric chemistry of the Houston Texas metropolitan area (1). Petrochemical plants located in and around the Houston area emit atmospheric alkenes, such as ethene, propene and 1,3-butadiene. The magnitude of emissions is a major uncertainty in assessing their effects. Even though the petrochemical industry reports that fugitive emissions of alkenes have been reduced to less than 0.1% of daily production, recent measurement data, obtained during the TexAQS 2000 experiment indicates that emissions are perhaps a factor of ten larger than estimated values. Industry figures for fugitive emissions are based on adding up estimated emission factors for every component in the plant to give a total estimated emission from the entire facility. The dramatic difference between estimated and measured rates indicates either that calculating emission fluxes by summing estimates for individual components is seriously flawed, possibly due to individual components leaking well beyond their estimated tolerances, that not all sources of emissions for a facility are being considered in emissions estimates, or that there are known sources of emissions that are not being reported. This experiment was designed to confirm estimates of reactive alkene emissions derived from analysis of the TexAQS 2000 data by releasing perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) at a known flux from a petrochemical plant and sampling both the perfluorocarbon tracer and reactive alkenes downwind using the Piper-Aztec research aircraft operated by Baylor University. PFTs have been extensively used to determine leaks in pipelines, air infiltration in buildings, and to characterize the transport and dispersion of air parcels in the atmosphere. Over 20 years of development by the Tracer Technology Center (TTC) has produced a range of analysis instruments, field samplers and PFT release equipment that have been successfully deployed in a large variety of experiments. PFTs are inert, nontoxic, noncombustible and nonreactive. Up to seven unique PFTs can be simultaneously released, sampled and analyzed and the technology is well suited for determining emission fluxes from large petrochemical facilities. The PFT experiment described here was designed to quantitate alkene emissions from a single petrochemical facility, but such experiments could be applied to other industrial sources or groups of sources in the Houston area.

  14. Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor short term thermal response to flow and reactivity transients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cleveland, J.C.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The analyses reported here have been conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Division of Regulatory Applications of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The short-term thermal response of the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is analyzed for a range of flow and reactivity transients. These include loss of forced circulation (LOFC) without scram, moisture ingress, spurious withdrawal of a control rod group, hypothetical large and rapid positive reactivity insertion, and a rapid core cooling event. The coupled heat transfer-neutron kinetics model is also described.

  15. Internal neutronics-temperature coupling in Serpent 2 - Reactivity differences resulting from choice of material property correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valtavirta, V. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the unique way of simultaneously solving the power and temperature distributions of a nuclear system with the Monte Carlo neutron transport code Serpent 2. The coupled solution is achieved through the implementation of an internal temperature solver and material property correlations in the code. The program structure is reviewed concerning the temperature solver and the internal correlations as well as the internal coupling between these two and the neutron transport part. To estimate the reactivity differences resulting from correlation choices a simple pin-cell case has been calculated. It is established, that some correlation choices may result in difference in reactivity of approximately 100 pcm. (authors)

  16. Interpretation of TRIGA reactivity transients with RELAP5/PARCS coupled-code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandini, G.; Meloni, P.; Polidori, M. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies Energy and the Environment, 4 Via Martin di Monte Sole, 40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the frame of future experiments to carried out upon TRIGA reactors, which aim to verify the real feasibility of the ADS (Accelerator Driven System) concept, it is essential to build a numerical tool able to simulate the dynamic behaviour of the reactor in subcritical configuration. This model developed to support the design of subcritical experiments and the safety analysis of the reactor, as a first step has to be assessed against the experimental data available for the critical reactor. To this purpose the thermal-hydraulic/ neutronic numerical model based on the RELAP5/PARCS coupled-code is been tested against the experimental reactivity transients conducted on the RC1-TRIGA reactor at the ENEA Casaccia Research Center in forecast of the TRADE (TRIGA Accelerator Driven Experiment) subcritical experience. The results of the calculations already performed show a qualitative good agreement with the experimental data and allow to address the future developments and improvements of the numerical model. (authors)

  17. Comparison of measured and calculated LWR fuel behavior during a hypothetical reactivity initiated accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukuda, S.K.; MacDonald, P.E.; Garner, R.W.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comparisons of measured and calculated LWR fuel rod responses during a reactivity initiated accident test are presented. The results indicate that the computer code, FRAP-T5, adequately calculates the fuel rod behavior up to the time at which the gap closes and provides a good thermal solution up to the time of gross fuel and cladding relocation. Three areas have been identified for further model development: (a) development of a fuel swelling model for near molten fuel temperatures; (b) incorporation of a deformable fuel pellet model that is applicable for the closed gap, high strain rate regime; and (c) expansion of the failure stress data base to include heat-up rates of up to 5000 K/s.

  18. Methods for modeling impact-induced reactivity changes in small reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tallman, Tyler N.; Radel, Tracy E.; Smith, Jeffrey A.; Villa, Daniel L.; Smith, Brandon M. (U. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Radel, Ross F.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Wilson, Paul Philip Hood (U. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI)

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes techniques for determining impact deformation and the subsequent reactivity change for a space reactor impacting the ground following a potential launch accident or for large fuel bundles in a shipping container following an accident. This technique could be used to determine the margin of subcriticality for such potential accidents. Specifically, the approach couples a finite element continuum mechanics model (Pronto3D or Presto) with a neutronics code (MCNP). DAGMC, developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, is used to enable MCNP geometric queries to be performed using Pronto3D output. This paper summarizes what has been done historically for reactor launch analysis, describes the impact criticality analysis methodology, and presents preliminary results using representative reactor designs.

  19. Effects of reactive element additions and sulfur removal on the oxidation behavior of FECRAL alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stasik, M.C.; Pettit, F.S.; Meier, G.H. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Ashary, A. (Praxair, Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Smialek, J.L. (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1994-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of this study have shown that desulfurization of FeCrAl alloys by hydrogen annealing can result in improvements in cyclic oxidation comparable to that achieved by doping with reactive elements. Moreover, specimens of substantial thicknesses can be effectively desulfurized because of the high diffusivity of sulfur in bcc iron alloys. The results have also shown that there is less stress generation during the cyclic oxidation of Y-doped FeCrAl compared to Ti-doped or desulfurized FeCrAl. This indicates that the growth mechanism, as well as the strength of the oxide/alloy interface, influences the ultimate oxidation morphology and stress state which will certainly affect the length of time the alumina remains protective.

  20. Utility of reactively sputtered CuN{sub x} films in spintronics devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang Yeyu [Physics Department, Goeteborg University, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Persson, J. [Physics Department, Goeteborg University, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); NanOsc AB, Electrum 205, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Zha, C. [Materials Physics Department, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Willman, J.; Miller, Casey W. [Department of Physics, Center for Integrated Functional Materials, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Aakerman, Johan [Physics Department, Goeteborg University, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); NanOsc AB, Electrum 205, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Materials Physics Department, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied nitrified copper (CuN{sub x}) thin films grown by reactive sputtering in the context of spintronic devices. The Ar-to-N{sub 2} flow ratio enables tunability of the electrical resistivity and surface roughness of the CuN{sub x} films, with the former increasing to nearly 20 times that of Cu, and the latter reduced to the atomic scale. Incorporating this into a Ta/CuN{sub x}/Ta seed stack for spin valves improves the current-in-plane (CIP) magnetoresistance; maximum magnetoresistance results with CuN{sub x} seed layer and Cu interlayer. Finally, finite element modeling results are presented that suggest the use of CuN{sub x} in nanocontact spin torque oscillators can enhance current densities by limiting the current spread through the device. This may positively impact threshold currents, power requirements, and device reliability.

  1. Catalytic reactive separation system for energy-efficient production of cumene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buelna, Genoveva (Nuevo Laredo, MX); Nenoff, Tina M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to an atmospheric pressure, reactive separation column packed with a solid acid zeolite catalyst for producing cumene from the reaction of benzene with propylene. Use of this un-pressurized column, where simultaneous reaction and partial separation occur during cumene production, allow separation of un-reacted, excess benzene from other products as they form. This high-yielding, energy-efficient system allows for one-step processing of cumene, with reduced need for product purification. Reacting propylene and benzene in the presence of beta zeolite catalysts generated a selectivity greater than 85% for catalytic separation reactions at a reaction temperature of 115 degrees C and at ambient pressure. Simultaneously, up to 76% of un-reacted benzene was separated from the product; which could be recycled back to the reactor for re-use.

  2. Tuning Reactivity and Electronic Properties through Ligand Reorganization within a Cerium Heterobimetallic Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Jerome R.; Gordon, Zachary; Booth, Corwin H.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Walsh, Patrick J.; Schelter, Eric J.

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Cerium compounds have played vital roles in organic, inorganic, and materials chemistry due to their reversible redox chemistry between trivalent and tetravalent oxidation states. However, attempts to rationally access molecular cerium complexes in both oxidation states have been frustrated by unpredictable reactivity in cerium(III) oxidation chemistry. Such oxidation reactions are limited by steric saturation at the metal ion, which can result in high energy activation barriers for electron transfer. An alternative approach has been realized using a rare earth/alkali metal/1,1'-BINOLate (REMB) heterobimetallic framework, which uses redox-inactive metals within the secondary coordination sphere to control ligand reorganization. The rational syntheses of functionalized cerium(IV) products and a mechanistic examination of the role of ligand reorganization in cerium(III) oxidation are presented.

  3. Organic/inorganic nanocomposites, methods of making, and uses as a permeable reactive barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocomposite materials having a composition including an inorganic constituent, a preformed organic polymer constituent, and a metal ion sequestration constituent are disclosed. The nanocomposites are characterized by being single phase, substantially homogeneous materials wherein the preformed polymer constituent and the inorganic constituent form an interpenetrating network with each other. The inorganic constituent may be an inorganic oxide, such as silicon dioxide, formed by the in situ catalyzed condensation of an inorganic precursor in the presence of the solvated polymer and metal ion sequestration constituent. The polymer constituent may be any hydrophilic polymer capable of forming a type I nanocomposite such as, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyethyleneoxide (PEO), polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and combinations thereof. Nanocomposite materials of the present invention may be used as permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remediate contaminated groundwater. Methods for making nanocomposite materials, PRB systems, and methods of treating groundwater are also disclosed.

  4. Neutron spectral reactivity comparison of /sup 235/U, /sup 233/U, /sup 239/Pu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBroom, R.C.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the process of storing fuel from reactors capable of breeding fissile material, it is possible that the beginning-of-life fissile loadings are not the most reactive for the fuel. In this context, it is necessary to consider the bred fissile isotopes to ensure conservative safety margins on storage of these fuels. Of particular interest for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant were fuels consisting primarily of /sup 235/U as the fissile isotope, such as those for the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-I and -II) and some light water breeder reactor (LWBR) test elements. This study examines the relative worth of additions of the isotopes /sup 239/Pu, /sup 233/U, and /sup 235/U to a /sup 235/U-fueled critical system. The equivalence relationship between fissile isotopes depends in a complex fashion on the neutron spectrum and the relative abundance of the isotopic species.

  5. Reactive and voltage monitoring: The challenge for the system operators in the 1980's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, J.D.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to gain perspective on the monitoring program for PJM, background relative to the physical characteristics and operating philosophy of the pool is offered. PJM is comprised of 11 electric utilities serving approximately 48,700 square miles, encompassing about 75% of Penna, 97% of N.J., all of Del and the District of Columbia, 60% of Md, and 1% of Va. The generating capability is comprised of 532 units at 116 generating stations, and totals approximately 45,000 MW. The PJM system peak load for 1980 was 34,420 MW. PJM has 27 tie lines with its neighboring systems. Although comprised of 11 utilities, the PJM system is operated as if it were a single company. Reasons for the PJM real-time monitoring system are presented and relevant details are discussed. Topics considered include operating criteria. Reactive and Voltage Monitoring, Current Operating Restrictions off-line analysis, and future requirements are discussed.

  6. Reactive ion etching-assisted surface-enhanced Raman scattering measurements on the single nanoparticle level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Si-Yi; Jiang, Xiang-Xu; Wei, Xin-Pan; Lee, Shuit-Tong, E-mail: apannale@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: yaohe@suda.edu.cn; He, Yao, E-mail: apannale@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: yaohe@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials - FUNSOM, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, and Devices Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Xu, Ting-Ting [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials - FUNSOM, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, and Devices Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-nanoparticle surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurement is of essential importance for both fundamental research and practical applications. In this work, we develop a class of single-particle SERS approaches, i.e., reactive ion etching (RIE)-assisted SERS measurements correlated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) strategy (RIE/SERS/SEM), enabling precise and high-resolution identification of single gold nanoparticle (AuNP) in facile and reliable manners. By using AuNP-coated silicon wafer and quartz glass slide as models, we further employ the developed RIE/SERS/SEM method for interrogating the relationship between SERS substrates and enhancement factor (EF) on the single particle level. Together with theoretical calculation using an established finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method, we demonstrate silicon wafer as superior SERS substrates, facilitating improvement of EF values.

  7. Boron-carbide-aluminum and boron-carbide-reactive metal cermets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halverson, Danny C. (Manteca, CA); Pyzik, Aleksander J. (Seattle, WA); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Seattle, WA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hard, tough, lightweight boron-carbide-reactive metal composites, particularly boron-carbide-aluminum composites, are produced. These composites have compositions with a plurality of phases. A method is provided, including the steps of wetting and reacting the starting materials, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected. Starting compositions, reaction temperatures, reaction times, and reaction atmospheres are parameters for controlling the process and resulting compositions. The ceramic phases are homogeneously distributed in the metal phases and adhesive forces at ceramic-metal interfaces are maximized. An initial consolidation step is used to achieve fully dense composites. Microstructures of boron-carbide-aluminum cermets have been produced with modulus of rupture exceeding 110 ksi and fracture toughness exceeding 12 ksi.sqroot.in. These composites and methods can be used to form a variety of structural elements.

  8. Fuel Cell Manufacturing Diagnostic Techniques: IR Thermography with Reactive Flow through Excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manak, A. J.; Ulsh, M.; Bender, G.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While design and material considerations for PEMFCs have a large impact on cost, it is also necessary to consider a transition to high volume production of fuel cell systems, including MEA components, to enable economies of scale and reduce per unit cost. One of the critical manufacturing tasks is developing and deploying techniques to provide in?process measurement of fuel cell components for quality control. This effort requires a subsidiary task: The study of the effect of manufacturing defects on performance and durability with the objective to establish validated manufacturing tolerances for fuel cell components. This work focuses on the development of a potential quality control method for gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs). The method consists of infrared (IR) thermography combined with reactive flow through (RFT) excitation. Detection of catalyst loading reduction defects in GDE catalyst layers will be presented.

  9. Physical properties of erbium implanted tungsten oxide filmsdeposited by reactive dual magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, Sodky H.; Anders, Andre

    2006-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous and partially crystalline WO3 thin films wereprepared by reactive dual magnetron sputtering and successively implantedby erbium ions with a fluence in the range from 7.7 x 1014 to 5 x 1015ions/cm2. The electrical and optical properties were studied as afunction of the film deposition parameters and the ion fluence. Ionimplantation caused a strong decrease of the resistivity, a moderatedecrease of the index of refraction and a moderate increase of theextinction coefficient in the visible and near infrared, while theoptical band gap remained almost unchanged. These effects could belargely ascribed to ion-induced oxygen deficiency. When annealed in air,the already low resistivities of the implanted samples decreased furtherup to 70oC, whereas oxidation, and hence a strong increase of theresistivity, was observed at higher annealing temperatures.

  10. Effect of Reactive Sputtering Parameters on TiAlN Nanocoating Structure and Morphology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budi, Esmar [Jurusan Fisika FMIPA Universitas Negeri Jakarta Jl. Pemuda No. 10 Rawamangun Jakarta 13220 (Indonesia); Razali, M. Mohd.; Nizam, A. R. Md. [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) Karung Berkunci No 1752 Pejabat Pos Durian Tunggal 76109 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2010-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of substrate bias and nitrogen flow rate on the TiAlN nanocoating structure and morphology has been investigated by using reactive unbalance DC magnetron sputtering. TiAlN nanocoating was deposited on the tungsten carbide insert tool and the structure and morphology were characterized by using XRD and AFM, respectively. The substrate bias was varied between 0 to -221 V and the nitrogen flow rate was varied between 30 to 72 sccm. The results showed that the structure of TiAlN nanocoating consisted of mainly (111) and (200) plane. The structure was significatly influenced by substrate bias in promoting finer crystal size and increased crystal plane spacing while the rms roughness of nanocoating was influenced by substrate bias and nitrogen flow rate.

  11. Method for cracking hydrocarbon compositions using a submerged reactive plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, P.C.

    1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for cracking a liquid hydrocarbon composition (e.g. crude oil) to produce a cracked hydrocarbon product. A liquid hydrocarbon composition is initially provided. An electrical arc is generated directly within the hydrocarbon composition so that the arc is entirely submerged in the composition. Arc generation is preferably accomplished using a primary and secondary electrode each having a first end submerged in the composition. The first ends of the electrodes are separated from each other to form a gap there between. An electrical potential is then applied to the electrodes to generate the arc within the gap. A reactive gas is thereafter delivered to the arc which forms a bubble around the arc. Gas delivery may be accomplished by providing a passageway through each electrode and delivering the gas through the passageways. The arc and gas cooperate to produce a plasma which efficiently cracks the hydrocarbon composition. 6 figs.

  12. Characterization of the reactive flow field dynamics in a gas turbine injector using high frequency PIV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbosa, Séverine; Ducruix, Sébastien

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work details the analysis of the aerodynamics of an experimental swirl stabilized burner representative of gas turbine combustors. This analysis is carried out using High Frequency PIV (HFPIV) measurements in a reactive situation. While this information is usually available at a rather low rate, temporally resolved PIV measurements are necessary to better understand highly turbulent swirled flows, which are unsteady by nature. Thanks to recent technical improvements, a PIV system working at 12 kHz has been developed to study this experimental combustor flow field. Statistical quantities of the burner are first obtained and analyzed, and the measurement quality is checked, then a temporal analysis of the velocity field is carried out, indicating that large coherent structures periodically appear in the combustion chamber. The frequency of these structures is very close to the quarter wave mode of the chamber, giving a possible explanation for combustion instability coupling.

  13. Method for cracking hydrocarbon compositions using a submerged reactive plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for cracking a liquid hydrocarbon composition (e.g. crude oil) to produce a cracked hydrocarbon product. A liquid hydrocarbon composition is initially provided. An electrical arc is generated directly within the hydrocarbon composition so that the arc is entirely submerged in the composition. Arc generation is preferably accomplished using a primary and secondary electrode each having a first end submerged in the composition. The first ends of the electrodes are separated from each other to form a gap therebetween. An electrical potential is then applied to the electrodes to generate the arc within the gap. A reactive gas is thereafter delivered to the arc which forms a bubble around the arc. Gas delivery may be accomplished by providing a passageway through each electrode and delivering the gas through the passageways. The arc and gas cooperate to produce a plasma which efficiently cracks the hydrocarbon composition.

  14. An Injectable Apatite Permeable Reactive Barrier for In Situ 90Sr Immobilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Szecsody, James E.; Fritz, Brad G.; Williams, Mark D.; Moore, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2014-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An injectable permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology was developed to sequester 90Sr in groundwater through the in situ formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases, specifically apatite that incorporates 90Sr into the chemical structure. An integrated, multi-scale development and testing approach was used that included laboratory bench-scale experiments, an initial pilot-scale field test, and the emplacement and evaluation of a 300-ft-long treatability-test-scale PRB. Standard groundwater wells were used for emplacement of the treatment zone, allowing treatment of contaminants too deep below ground surface for trench-and-fill type PRB technologies. The apatite amendment formulation uses two separate precursor solutions, one containing a Ca-citrate complex and the other a Na-phosphate solution, to form apatite precipitate in situ. Citrate is needed to keep calcium in solution long enough to achieve a more uniform and areally extensive distribution of precipitate formation. In the summer of 2008, the apatite PRB technology was applied as a 91-m (300-ft) -long permeable reactive barrier on the downgradient edge of a 90Sr plume beneath the Hanford Site in Washington State. The technology was deployed to reduce 90Sr flux discharging to the Columbia River. Performance assessment monitoring data collected to date indicate the barrier is meeting performance objectives. The average reduction in 90Sr concentrations at four downgradient compliance monitoring locations was 95% relative to the high end of the baseline range approximately 1 year after treatment, and continues to meet remedial objectives more than 4 years after treatment.

  15. Laboratory tests in support of the MSRE reactive gas removal system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudolph, J.C.; Del Cul, G.D.; Caja, J.; Toth, L.M.; Williams, D.F.; Thomas, K.S.; Clark, D.E.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since December 1969, at which time the molten salt mixture of LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ZrF{sub 4}-{sup 233}UF{sub 4} (64.5-30.3-5.0-0.13 mol%) was transferred to fuel salt drain tanks for storage. In the late 1980s, increased radiation in one of the gas lines from the drain tank was attributed to {sup 233}UF{sub 6}. In 1994 two gas samples were withdraw (from a gas line in the Vent House connecting to the drain tanks) and analyzed. Surprisingly, 350 mm Hg of F{sub 2}, 70 mm Hg of UF{sub 6}, and smaller amounts of other gases were found in both of the samples. To remote this gas from above the drain tanks and all of the associated piping, the reactive gas removal system (RGRS) was designed. This report details the laboratory testing of the RGRS, using natural uranium, prior to its implementation at the MSRE facility. The testing was performed to ensure that the equipment functioned properly and was sufficient to perform the task while minimizing exposure to personnel. In addition, the laboratory work provided the research and development effort necessary to maximize the performance of the system. Throughout this work technicians and staff who were to be involved in RGRS operation at the MSRE site worked directly with the research staff in completing the laboratory testing phase. Consequently, at the end of the laboratory work, the personnel who were to be involved in the actual operations had acquired all of the training and experience necessary to continue with the process of reactive gas removal.

  16. Effect of thermal treatment on coke reactivity and catalytic iron mineralogy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byong-chul Kim; Sushil Gupta; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Centre for Sustainable Materials Research and Technology

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron minerals in coke can catalyze its gasification and may affect coke behavior in the blast furnace. The catalytic behavior of iron depends largely upon the nature of the iron-bearing minerals. To determine the mineralogical changes that iron could undergo in the blast furnace, cokes made from three coals containing iron present in different mineral forms (clays, carbonates, and pyrite) were examined. All coke samples were heat-treated in a horizontal furnace at 1373, 1573, and 1773 K and then gasified with CO{sub 2} at 1173 K in a fixed bed reactor (FBR). Coke mineralogy was characterized using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of coke mineral matter prepared by low-temperature ashing (LTA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (FESEM/EDS). The mineralogy of the three cokes was most notably distinguished by differing proportions of iron-bearing phases. During heat treatment and subsequent gasification, iron-containing minerals transformed to a range of minerals but predominantly iron-silicides and iron oxides, the relative amounts of which varied with heat treatment temperature and gasification conditions. The relationship between initial apparent reaction rate and the amount of catalytic iron minerals - pyrrhotite, metallic iron, and iron oxides - was linear and independent of heat treatment temperature at total catalyst levels below 1 wt %. The study showed that the coke reactivity decreased with increasing temperature of heat treatment due to decreased levels of catalytic iron minerals (largely due to formation of iron silicides) as well as increased ordering of the carbon structure. The study also showed that the importance of catalytic mineral matter in determining reactivity declines as gasification proceeds. 37 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Mechanisms of aldehyde-induced bronchial reactivity: role of airway epithelium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leikauf, G.D. (Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, OH (United States))

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To investigate the relative irritant potencies of inhaled aldehydes, guinea pigs were exposed to formaldehyde or acrolein and specific total pulmonary resistance and bronchial reactivity to intravenous acetylcholine were assessed. The mechanisms associated with these responses were investigated by analyzing morphologic and biochemical changes in airway epithelial cells after in vivo and in vitro exposures. Immediately after exposure to formaldehyde or acrolein, specific resistance increased transiently and returned to control values within 30 to 60 minutes. Bronchial hyperreactivity, assessed by the acetylcholine dose necessary to double resistance, increased and became maximal two to six hours after exposure to at least 9 parts per million2 (ppm) formaldehyde or at least 1 ppm acrolein for two hours. The effect of exposure to 3 ppm formaldehyde for two hours was less than the effect of exposure to 1 ppm formaldehyde for eight hours; thus, extended exposures produced a disproportionate heightening of bronchial reactivity. Bronchial hyperreactivity often persisted for longer than 24 hours. Increases in three bronchoconstrictive eicosanoids, prostaglandin F2 alpha, thromboxane B2, and leukotriene C4, occurred immediately after exposure, whereas an influx of neutrophils into lavage fluid occurred 24 hours later. Histological examination of the tracheal epithelium and lamina propria also demonstrated a lack of inflammatory cell infiltration. Treatment with leukotriene synthesis inhibitors and receptor antagonists inhibited acrolein-induced hyperreactivity, supporting a causal role for these compounds in this response. Acrolein also stimulated eicosanoid release from bovine epithelial cells in culture. However, the profile of metabolites formed differed from that found in lavage fluid after in vivo exposure.

  18. Sub-50 nm high aspect-ratio silicon pillars, ridges, and trenches fabricated using ultrahigh resolution electron beam lithography and reactive ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    resolution electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching P. B. Fischer and S. Y. Chou University of Minnesota Department of Electrical Engineering, Minneapolis, Minnesota 554~3 (Received 29 July 1992 and chlorine based reactive ion etching. These nanoscale Si features can be further reduced to 10 nm using

  19. Abstract--This paper proposes a novel heuristic algorithm that helps alleviate the need for integer variables in a reactive power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    integrated systems, the cost of reactive power was generally embedded within the electricity tariff, while for integer variables in a reactive power procurement model for an Independent System Operator in deregulated electricity markets. The heuristic scheme works on a three-step approach involving the calculation of marginal

  20. {yjoh, jmcho, jbyoo, sdcha}@salmosa.kaist.ac.kr A Technique to Specify and Analyze Reactive and Real-Time Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Analyze Reactive and Real-Time Software Younju Oh, Jaemyoung Cho, Junbeom Yoo, Sungdeok Cha Div. of CS, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology requirements specification (SRS). Many specification languages are suggested to specify reactive and real