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Sample records for volcano taupo volcanic

  1. TECTONIC VERSUS VOLCANIC ORIGIN OF THE SUMMIT DEPRESSION AT MEDICINE LAKE VOLCANO, CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Leon Gwynn

    2010-05-01

    Medicine Lake Volcano is a Quaternary shield volcano located in a tectonically complex and active zone at the transition between the Basin and Range Province and the Cascade Range of the Pacific Province. The volcano is topped by a 7x12 km elliptical depression surrounded by a discontinuous constructional ring of basaltic to rhyolitic lava flows. This thesis explores the possibility that the depression may have formed due to regional extension (rift basin) or dextral shear (pull-apart basin) rather than through caldera collapse and examines the relationship between regional tectonics and localized volcanism. Existing data consisting of temperature and magnetotelluric surveys, alteration mineral studies, and core logging were compiled and supplemented with additional core logging, field observations, and fault striae studies in paleomagnetically oriented core samples. These results were then synthesized with regional fault data from existing maps and databases. Faulting patterns near the caldera, extension directions derived from fault striae P and T axes, and three-dimensional temperature and alteration mineral models are consistent with slip across arcuate ring faults related to magma chamber deflation during flank eruptions and/or a pyroclastic eruption at about 180 ka. These results are not consistent with a rift or pull-apart basin. Limited subsidence can be attributed to the relatively small volume of ash-flow tuff released by the only known major pyroclastic eruption and is inconsistent with the observed topographic relief. The additional relief can be explained by constructional volcanism. Striae from unoriented and oriented core, augmented by striae measurements in outcrop suggest that Walker Lane dextral shear, which can be reasonably projected from the southeast, has probably propagated into the Medicine Lake area. Most volcanic vents across Medicine Lake Volcano strike north-south, suggesting they are controlled by crustal weakness related to Basin and

  2. Tectonic versus volcanic origin of the summit depression at Medicine Lake Volcano, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Leon Gwynn

    2010-05-01

    Medicine Lake Volcano is a Quaternary shield volcano located in a tectonically complex and active zone at the transition between the Basin and Range Province and the Cascade Range of the Pacific Province. The volcano is topped by a 7x12 km elliptical depression surrounded by a discontinuous constructional ring of basaltic to rhyolitic lava flows. This thesis explores the possibility that the depression may have formed due to regional extension (rift basin) or dextral shear (pull-apart basin) rather than through caldera collapse and examines the relationship between regional tectonics and localized volcanism. Existing data consisting of temperature and magnetotelluric surveys, alteration mineral studies, and core logging were compiled and supplemented with additional core logging, field observations, and fault striae studies in paleomagnetically oriented core samples. These results were then synthesized with regional fault data from existing maps and databases. Faulting patterns near the caldera, extension directions derived from fault striae P and T axes, and three-dimensional temperature and alteration mineral models are consistent with slip across arcuate ring faults related to magma chamber deflation during flank eruptions and/or a pyroclastic eruption at about 180 ka. These results are not consistent with a rift or pull-apart basin. Limited subsidence can be attributed to the relatively small volume of ash-flow tuff released by the only known major pyroclastic eruption and is inconsistent with the observed topographic relief. The additional relief can be explained by constructional volcanism. Striae from unoriented and oriented core, augmented by striae measurements in outcrop suggest that Walker Lane dextral shear, which can be reasonably projected from the southeast, has probably propagated into the Medicine Lake area. Most volcanic vents across Medicine Lake Volcano strike north-south, suggesting they are controlled by crustal weakness related to Basin and

  3. Predicting and validating the tracking of a Volcanic Ash Cloud during the 2006 Eruption of Mt. Augustine Volcano

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webley, Peter W.; Atkinson, D.; Collins, Richard L.; Dean, K.; Fochesatto, J.; Sassen, Kenneth; Cahill, Catherine F.; Prata, A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Mizutani, K.

    2008-11-01

    On 11 January 2006, Mount Augustine volcano in southern Alaska began erupting after 20-year repose. The Anchorage Forecast Office of the National Weather Service (NWS) issued an advisory on 28 January for Kodiak City. On 31 January, Alaska Airlines cancelled all flights to and from Anchorage after multiple advisories from the NWS for Anchorage and the surrounding region. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) had reported the onset of the continuous eruption. AVO monitors the approximately 100 active volcanoes in the Northern Pacific. Ash clouds from these volcanoes can cause serious damage to an aircraft and pose a serious threat to the local communities, and to transcontinental air traffic throughout the Arctic and sub-Arctic region. Within AVO, a dispersion model has been developed to track the dispersion of volcanic ash clouds. The model, Puff, was used operational by AVO during the Augustine eruptive period. Here, we examine the dispersion of a volcanic ash cloud from Mount Augustine across Alaska from 29 January through the 2 February 2006. We present the synoptic meteorology, the Puff predictions, and measurements from aerosol samplers, laser radar (or lidar) systems, and satellites. UAF aerosol samplers revealed the presence of volcanic aerosols at the surface at sites where Puff predicted the ash clouds movement. Remote sensing satellite data showed the development of the ash cloud in close proximity to the volcano and a sulfur-dioxide cloud further from the volcano consistent with the Puff predictions. Lidars showed the presence of volcanic aerosol with consistent characteristics aloft over Alaska and were capable of detecting the aerosol, even in the presence of scattered clouds and where the cloud is too thin/disperse to be detected by remote sensing satellite data. The lidar measurements revealed the different trajectories of ash consistent with the Puff predictions. Dispersion models provide a forecast of volcanic ash cloud movement that might be

  4. Volcanic lightning and plume behavior reveal evolving hazards during the April 2015 eruption of Calbuco Volcano, Chile

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Van Eaton, Alexa R.; Behnke, Sonja Ann; Amigo, Alvaro; Bertin, Daniel; Mastin, Larry G.; Giacosa, Raul E.; Gonzalez, Jeronimo; Valderrama, Oscar; Fontijn, Karen

    2016-04-12

    Soon after the onset of an eruption, model forecasts of ash dispersal are used to mitigate the hazards to aircraft, infrastructure, and communities downwind. However, it is a significant challenge to constrain the model inputs during an evolving eruption. Here we demonstrate that volcanic lightning may be used in tandem with satellite detection to recognize and quantify changes in eruption style and intensity. Using the eruption of Calbuco volcano in southern Chile on 22 and 23 April 2015, we investigate rates of umbrella cloud expansion from satellite observations, occurrence of lightning, and mapped characteristics of the fall deposits. Our remotemore » sensing analysis gives a total erupted volume that is within uncertainty of the mapped volume (0.56 ± 0.28 km3 bulk). Furthermore, observations and volcanic plume modeling further suggest that electrical activity was enhanced both by ice formation in the ash clouds >10 km above sea level and development of a low-level charge layer from ground-hugging currents.« less

  5. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

  6. Applications of the VLF Induction Method For Studying Some Volcanic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the VLF Induction Method For Studying Some Volcanic Processes of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  7. Active System For Monitoring Volcanic Activity- A Case Study...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    For Monitoring Volcanic Activity- A Case Study Of The Izu-Oshima Volcano, Central Japan Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  8. A 3D Magnetic Structure Of Izu-Oshima Volcano And Their Changes...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    data show that the volcanic edifice of Izu-Oshima Volcano has a mean magnetization intensity ranging from 10.4 to 12.1 Am. The derived 3D magnetic structure shows low...

  9. The eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, December 14,1989-August 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brantley, S.R.

    1990-12-01

    This paper reports on explosive volcanic activity at Redoubt Volcano, 177 km southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, which generated numerous tephra plumes that disrupted air traffic above southern Alaska, damaged aircraft, and caused locally heavy tephra fall. Pyroclastic flows triggered debris flows that inundated part of an oil-tanker facility, temporarily suspending oil production in Cook Inlet. The newly established Alaska Volcano Observatory increased its monitoring effort and disseminated volcanic hazard information to government agencies, industry, and the public.

  10. New Model of Earth's Interior Reveals Clues to Hotspot Volcanoes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Model of Earth's Interior Reveals Clues to Hotspot Volcanoes New Model of Earth's Interior Reveals Clues to Hotspot Volcanoes October 29, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov volcanic-hotspots1.jpg This 3D view of the top 1,000 kilometers of Earth's mantle beneath the central Pacific shows the relationship between seismically-slow "plumes" and channels imaged in the UC Berkeley study. Green cones on the ocean floor mark islands associated with "hotspot"

  11. Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: LIDAR of Newberry Volcano 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jaffe, Todd

    Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: LIDAR of Newberry Volcano 2012

  12. Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: LIDAR of Newberry Volcano 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jaffe, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: LIDAR of Newberry Volcano 2012

  13. Geothermal Exploration of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waibel, Albert F.; Frone, Zachary S.; Blackwell, David D.

    2014-12-01

    Davenport Newberry (Davenport) has completed 8 years of exploration for geothermal energy on Newberry Volcano in central Oregon. Two deep exploration test wells were drilled by Davenport on the west flank of the volcano, one intersected a hydrothermal system; the other intersected isolated fractures with no hydrothermal interconnection. Both holes have bottom-hole temperatures near or above 315°C (600°F). Subsequent to deep test drilling an expanded exploration and evaluation program was initiated. These efforts have included reprocessing existing data, executing multiple geological, geophysical, geochemical programs, deep exploration test well drilling and shallow well drilling. The efforts over the last three years have been made possible through a DOE Innovative Exploration Technology (IET) Grant 109, designed to facilitate innovative geothermal exploration techniques. The combined results of the last 8 years have led to a better understanding of the history and complexity of Newberry Volcano and improved the design and interpretation of geophysical exploration techniques with regard to blind geothermal resources in volcanic terrain.

  14. Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration Engineered Geothermal Systems, Low Temp, Exploration Demonstration Projects. Project objective: To demonstrate ...

  15. Seismicity and structure of Akutan and Makushin Volcanoes, Alaska, using joint body and surface wave tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syracuse, E. M.; Maceira, M.; Zhang, H.; Thurber, C. H.

    2015-02-18

    Joint inversions of seismic data recover models that simultaneously fit multiple constraints while playing upon the strengths of each data type. Here, we jointly invert 14 years of local earthquake body wave arrival times from the Alaska Volcano Observatory catalog and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves based upon ambient noise measurements for local Vp, Vs, and hypocentral locations at Akutan and Makushin Volcanoes using a new joint inversion algorithm.The velocity structure and relocated seismicity of both volcanoes are significantly more complex than many other volcanoes studied using similar techniques. Seismicity is distributed among several areas beneath or beyond the flanks of both volcanoes, illuminating a variety of volcanic and tectonic features. The velocity structures of the two volcanoes are exemplified by the presence of narrow high-Vp features in the near surface, indicating likely current or remnant pathways of magma to the surface. A single broad low-Vp region beneath each volcano is slightly offset from each summit and centered at approximately 7 km depth, indicating a potential magma chamber, where magma is stored over longer time periods. Differing recovery capabilities of the Vp and Vs datasets indicate that the results of these types of joint inversions must be interpreted carefully.

  16. Seismicity and structure of Akutan and Makushin Volcanoes, Alaska, using joint body and surface wave tomography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Syracuse, E. M.; Maceira, M.; Zhang, H.; Thurber, C. H.

    2015-02-18

    Joint inversions of seismic data recover models that simultaneously fit multiple constraints while playing upon the strengths of each data type. Here, we jointly invert 14 years of local earthquake body wave arrival times from the Alaska Volcano Observatory catalog and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves based upon ambient noise measurements for local Vp, Vs, and hypocentral locations at Akutan and Makushin Volcanoes using a new joint inversion algorithm.The velocity structure and relocated seismicity of both volcanoes are significantly more complex than many other volcanoes studied using similar techniques. Seismicity is distributed among several areas beneath or beyond the flanks ofmore » both volcanoes, illuminating a variety of volcanic and tectonic features. The velocity structures of the two volcanoes are exemplified by the presence of narrow high-Vp features in the near surface, indicating likely current or remnant pathways of magma to the surface. A single broad low-Vp region beneath each volcano is slightly offset from each summit and centered at approximately 7 km depth, indicating a potential magma chamber, where magma is stored over longer time periods. Differing recovery capabilities of the Vp and Vs datasets indicate that the results of these types of joint inversions must be interpreted carefully.« less

  17. Principal Types of Volcanoes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Types of Volcanoes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Principal Types of Volcanoes Abstract Abstract unavailable. Author John Watson...

  18. Volcanoes in Virginia!

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Johnson, Elizabeth Baedke [James Madison University

    2014-06-25

    The recent earthquake may have you wondering what other surprises Virginia's geology may hold. Could there be a volcanic eruption in Virginia? Probably not today, but during the Eocene, about 35-48 million years ago, a number of mysterious eruptions occurred in western Virginia. This talk investigates the possible origins of these eruptions, and what they can tell us about the crust and mantle underneath Virginia.

  19. Shield Volcano | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    W 103,500,000,000 mW 0.104 GW 1.035e-4 TW 578.15 K305 C 581 F 1,040.67 R Java - Darajat Geothermal Area Sunda Volcanic Arc Subduction Zone Volcanics 255 MW255,000 kW...

  20. SIMULATION OF THE ICELAND VOLCANIC ERUPTION OF APRIL 2010 USING THE ENSEMBLE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, R.

    2011-05-10

    The Eyjafjallajokull volcanic eruption in Iceland in April 2010 disrupted transportation in Europe which ultimately affected travel plans for many on a global basis. The Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) is responsible for providing guidance to the aviation industry of the transport of volcanic ash clouds. There are nine such centers located globally, and the London branch (headed by the United Kingdom Meteorological Office, or UKMet) was responsible for modeling the Iceland volcano. The guidance provided by the VAAC created some controversy due to the burdensome travel restrictions and uncertainty involved in the prediction of ash transport. The Iceland volcanic eruption provides a useful exercise of the European ENSEMBLE program, coordinated by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy. ENSEMBLE, a decision support system for emergency response, uses transport model results from a variety of countries in an effort to better understand the uncertainty involved with a given accident scenario. Model results in the form of airborne concentration and surface deposition are required from each member of the ensemble in a prescribed format that may then be uploaded to a website for manipulation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is the lone regular United States participant throughout the 10-year existence of ENSEMBLE. For the Iceland volcano, four separate source term estimates have been provided to ENSEMBLE participants. This paper focuses only on one of those source terms. The SRNL results in relation to other modeling agency results along with useful information obtained using an ensemble of transport results will be discussed.

  1. Seismic energy data analysis of Merapi volcano to test the eruption time prediction using materials failure forecast method (FFM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anggraeni, Novia Antika

    2015-04-24

    The test of eruption time prediction is an effort to prepare volcanic disaster mitigation, especially in the volcano’s inhabited slope area, such as Merapi Volcano. The test can be conducted by observing the increase of volcanic activity, such as seismicity degree, deformation and SO2 gas emission. One of methods that can be used to predict the time of eruption is Materials Failure Forecast Method (FFM). Materials Failure Forecast Method (FFM) is a predictive method to determine the time of volcanic eruption which was introduced by Voight (1988). This method requires an increase in the rate of change, or acceleration of the observed volcanic activity parameters. The parameter used in this study is the seismic energy value of Merapi Volcano from 1990 – 2012. The data was plotted in form of graphs of seismic energy rate inverse versus time with FFM graphical technique approach uses simple linear regression. The data quality control used to increase the time precision employs the data correlation coefficient value of the seismic energy rate inverse versus time. From the results of graph analysis, the precision of prediction time toward the real time of eruption vary between −2.86 up to 5.49 days.

  2. Late Cenozoic volcanism in the Lassen area, southernmost Cascade Range, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clynne, M.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.; Dalrymple, G.B. )

    1993-04-01

    Volcanism in the southernmost Cascade Range can be characterized on two scales. Regional volcanism is predominantly basaltic to andesitic, and hundreds of coalescing volcanoes of small volume (10[sup [minus]3] to 10[sup 1] km[sup 3]) with short lifetimes have built a broad platform. Superimposed on the regional volcanism are a few long-lived ([approximately]10[sup 6] years) much larger (>10 [sup 2] km[sup 3]) volcanic centers. Each of these larger centers consists of a basaltic-andesite to andesite composite cone and flanking silicic domes and flows. The evolution of these volcanic centers conforms to a generalized three-stage model during which a conspicuous edifice is constructed. Stages 1 and 2 comprise a dominantly andesitic composite cone; Stage 3 marks a change to dominantly silicic volcanism and is accompanied by development of a hydrothermal system in the permeable core of the andesitic composite cone. Subsequent fluvial and glacial erosion produces a caldera-like depression with a topographically high resistant rim of Stage 2 lavas surrounding the deeply eroded, hydrothermally altered core of the composite cone. Two types of basalt are recognized in the southernmost Cascades; medium-K calc-alkaline (CAB) and low-K olivine tholeiite (LKOT). CAB exhibits considerable geochemical diversity and is the parent magma for the volcanic-center lavas and the majority of the evolved regional lavas. LKOT is chemically homogeneous, and outcrops sporadically in association with extensional tectonics of the Basin and Range Province, and is related to Pleistocene encroachment of Basin-and-Range tectonics on the subduction-related volcanism of the Cascade Range.

  3. Volcanic studies at Katmai

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    The Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) is a national effort supported by the Department of Energy, the US Geological Survey, and the National Science Foundation. One of the projects proposed for the CSDP consists of drilling a series of holes in Katmai National Park in Alaska to give a third dimension to the model of the 1912 eruption of Novarupta, and to investigate the processes of explosive volcanism and hydrothermal transport of metals (Eichelberger et al., 1988). The proposal for research drilling at Katmai states that ``the size, youth, elevated temperature, and simplicity of the Novarupta vent make it a truly unique scientific target.`` The National Park Service (NPS), which has jurisdiction, is sympathetic to aims of the study. However, NPS wishes to know whether Katmai is indeed uniquely suited to the research, and has asked the Interagency Coordinating Group to support an independent assessment of this claim. NPS suggested the National Academy of Sciences as an appropriate organization to conduct the assessment. In response, the National Research Council -- the working arm of the Academy -- established, under the aegis of its US Geodynamics Committee, a panel whose specific charge states: ``The proposed investigation at Katmai has been extensively reviewed for scientific merit by the three sponsoring and participating agencies. Thus, the scientific merit of the proposed drilling at Katmai is not at issue. The panel will review the proposal for scientific drilling at Katmai and prepare a short report addressing the specific question of the degree to which it is essential that the drilling be conducted at Katmai as opposed to volcanic areas elsewhere in the world.``

  4. Uranium and thorium decay series disequilibria in young volcanic rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Two of the central questions in igneous geochemistry that study of radioactive disequilibria can help to answer are: what are the rates of magma genesis; and what are the timescales of magma separation and transport. In addition to the temporal information that may be extracted from disequilibria data, the {sup 230}Th/{sup 232}Th of a young rock may be used as a tracer of the Th/U ratio of its source region. Measurements were made by isotope dilution alpha-spectrometry of {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, and {sup 232}Th in 20 subduction related, 3 oceanic intraplate, and 10 continental intraplate volcanics. {sup 210}Pb was measured in all, {sup 226}Ra was measured in about half, and {sup 228}Th was measured in 10 of the most recent samples. Disequilibrium between {sup 228}Th and {sup 232}Th was found only in the Nacarbonatite samples from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania, which is attributable to {sup 228}Ra/{sup 232}Th {approximately} 27 at the time of eruption. These rocks also have {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th > 60. Three Ra-enrichment models are developed which constrain carbonatite magma formation at less than 20 years before eruption. The effects of different partial melting processes on the {sup 238}U decay series are investigated. If mid-ocean ridge basalts are formed by a dynamic melting process, the {sup 230}Th/{sup 232}Th of the basalts provides a minimum estimate of the Th/U ratio of the source region. The {sup 238}U enrichment in arc volcanics is probably the results of metasomatism of the source by fluids derived from the subducting slab, and the {sup 230}Th enrichment observed for other volcanics is probably due to the partial melting process in the absence of U-bearing fluids.

  5. Validation of Innovation Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Validation of Innovation Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano Validation of Innovation Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano Validation of Innovation Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. newberry_peer2013.pdf (1.69 MB) More Documents & Publications Newberry EGS Demonstration Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration Novel use of 4D Monitoring Techniques to Improve

  6. Acoustic waves in the atmosphere and ground generated by volcanic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ichihara, Mie; Lyons, John; Oikawa, Jun; Takeo, Minoru

    2012-09-04

    This paper reports an interesting sequence of harmonic tremor observed in the 2011 eruption of Shinmoe-dake volcano, southern Japan. The main eruptive activity started with ashcloud forming explosive eruptions, followed by lava effusion. Harmonic tremor was transmitted into the ground and observed as seismic waves at the last stage of the effusive eruption. The tremor observed at this stage had unclear and fluctuating harmonic modes. In the atmosphere, on the other hand, many impulsive acoustic waves indicating small surface explosions were observed. When the effusion stopped and the erupted lava began explosive degassing, harmonic tremor started to be transmitted also to the atmosphere and observed as acoustic waves. Then the harmonic modes became clearer and more stable. This sequence of harmonic tremor is interpreted as a process in which volcanic degassing generates an open connection between the volcanic conduit and the atmosphere. In order to test this hypothesis, a laboratory experiment was performed and the essential features were successfully reproduced.

  7. Wairakei Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Taupo Volcanic Zone Plant Information Facility Type Binary, Wet Steam Owner Contact Energy Number of Units 12 1 Commercial Online Date 1958 Power Plant Data Type of Plant...

  8. Volcanic episodes near Yucca Mountain as determined by paleomagnetic studies as Lathrop Wells, Crater Flat, and Sleeping Butte, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Champion, D.E.

    1991-12-31

    It has been suggested that mafic volcanism in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is both recent (20 ka) and a product of complex {open_quotes}polycyclic{close_quotes} eruptions. This pattern of volcanism, as interpreted by some workers at the Lathrop Wells volcanic complex, comprises a sequence of numerous small-volume eruptions that become more tephra-producing over time. Such sequences are thought to occur over timespans as long as 100,000 years. However, paleomagnetic studies of the tephra and lava flows from mafic volcanoes near Yucca Mountain fail to find evidence of repeated eruptive activity over timespans of 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5} years, even though samples have been taken that represent approximately 95% of the products of these volcanoes. Instead, the eruptions seem to have occurred as discrete episodes at each center and thus can be considered to be {open_quotes}monogenetic.{close_quotes} Dates of these episodes have been obtained by the proven radiometric-geochronometer methods of K-Ar or {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar dating.

  9. Two-dimensional simulations of explosive eruptions of Kick-em Jenny and other submarine volcanos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gisler, Galen R.; Weaver, R. P.; Mader, Charles L.; Gittings, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    Kick-em Jenny, in the Eastern Caribbean, is a submerged volcanic cone that has erupted a dozen or more times since its discovery in 1939. The most likely hazard posed by this volcano is to shipping in the immediate vicinity (through volcanic missiles or loss-of-buoyancy), but it is of interest to estimate upper limits on tsunamis that might be produced by a catastrophic explosive eruption. To this end, we have performed two-dimensional simulations of such an event in a geometry resembling that of Kick-em Jenny with our SAGE adaptive mesh Eulerian multifluid compressible hydrocode. We use realistic equations of state for air, water, and basalt, and follow the event from the initial explosive eruption, through the generation of a transient water cavity and the propagation of waves away from the site. We find that even for extremely catastrophic explosive eruptions, tsunamis from Kick-em Jenny are unlikely to pose significant danger to nearby islands. For comparison, we have also performed simulations of explosive eruptions at the much larger shield volcano Vailuluu in the Samoan chain, where the greater energy available can produce a more impressive wave. In general, however, we conclude that explosive eruptions do not couple well to water waves. The waves that are produced from such events are turbulent and highly dissipative, and don't propagate well. This is consistent with what we have found previously in simulations of asteroid-impact generated tsunamis. Non-explosive events, however, such as landslides or gas hydrate releases, do couple well to waves, and our simulations of tsunamis generated by subaerial and sub-aqueous landslides demonstrate this.

  10. Results of geothermal gradient core hole TCB-1, Tecuamburro volcano geothermal site, Guatemala, Central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, A.I.; Chipera, S.; Counce, D.; Gardner, J.; Goff, S.; Goff, F.; Heiken, G.; Laughlin, A.W.; Musgrave, J.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr. ); Aycinena, S.; Martinelli, L. ); Castaneda, O.; Revolorio, M.; Roldan, A. . Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion); D

    1992-02-01

    Results of geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical field studies conducted in 1988 and 1989 at the Tecuamburro volcano geothermal site in Guatemala indicated that there is a substantial shallow heat source beneath the area of youngest volcanism. To obtain information on subsurface temperatures and temperature gradients, stratigraphy, hydrothermal alteration, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids, a geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to 808 m low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro volcano Complex, 300 km south of a 300-m-diameter phreatic crater, Laguna Ixpaco, dated at 2,910 years. Gases from acid-sulfate springs near Laguna Ixpaco consistently yield maximum estimated subsurface temperatures of 250--300{degrees}C. The temperature versus depth curve from TCB-1 does not show isothermal conditions and the calculated thermal gradients from 500--800 m is 230{degrees}C/km. Bottom hole temperature is 238{degrees}C. Calculated heat flow values are nearly 9 heat flow units (HFU). The integration of results from the TCB-1 gradient core hole with results from field studies provides strong evidence that the Tecuamburro area holds great promise for containing a commercial geothermal resource.

  11. The preliminary results: Seismic ambient noise Rayleigh wave tomography around Merapi volcano, central Java, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trichandi, Rahmantara; Yudistira, Tedi; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Zulhan, Zulfakriza; Saygin, Erdinc

    2015-04-24

    Ambient noise tomography is relatively a new method for imaging the shallow structure of the Earth subsurface. We presents the application of this method to produce a Rayleigh wave group velocity maps around the Merapi Volcano, Central Java. Rayleigh waves group velocity maps were reconstructed from the cross-correlation of ambient noise recorded by the DOMERAPI array which consists 43 broadband seismometers. In the processing stage, we first filtered the observation data to separatethe noise from the signal that dominated by the strong volcanic activities. Next, we cross-correlate the filtered data and stack to obtain the Green’s function for all possible station pairs. Then we carefully picked the peak of each Green’s function to estimate the dispersion trend and appliedMultiple Filter Technique to obtain the dispersion curve. Inter-station group velocity curvesare inverted to produceRayleigh wave group velocity maps for periods 1 to 10 s. The resulted Rayleigh group velocity maps show the interesting features around the Merapi Volcano which generally agree with the previous studies. Merapi-Lawu Anomaly (MLA) is emerged as a relatively low anomaly in our group velocity maps.

  12. Computation of probabilistic hazard maps and source parameter estimation for volcanic ash transport and dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madankan, R.; Pouget, S.; Singla, P.; Bursik, M.; Dehn, J.; Jones, M.; Patra, A.; Pavolonis, M.; Pitman, E.B.; Singh, T.; Webley, P.

    2014-08-15

    Volcanic ash advisory centers are charged with forecasting the movement of volcanic ash plumes, for aviation, health and safety preparation. Deterministic mathematical equations model the advection and dispersion of these plumes. However initial plume conditions height, profile of particle location, volcanic vent parameters are known only approximately at best, and other features of the governing system such as the windfield are stochastic. These uncertainties make forecasting plume motion difficult. As a result of these uncertainties, ash advisories based on a deterministic approach tend to be conservative, and many times over/under estimate the extent of a plume. This paper presents an end-to-end framework for generating a probabilistic approach to ash plume forecasting. This framework uses an ensemble of solutions, guided by Conjugate Unscented Transform (CUT) method for evaluating expectation integrals. This ensemble is used to construct a polynomial chaos expansion that can be sampled cheaply, to provide a probabilistic model forecast. The CUT method is then combined with a minimum variance condition, to provide a full posterior pdf of the uncertain source parameters, based on observed satellite imagery. The April 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajkull volcano in Iceland is employed as a test example. The puff advection/dispersion model is used to hindcast the motion of the ash plume through time, concentrating on the period 1416 April 2010. Variability in the height and particle loading of that eruption is introduced through a volcano column model called bent. Output uncertainty due to the assumed uncertain input parameter probability distributions, and a probabilistic spatial-temporal estimate of ash presence are computed.

  13. Alaska Plans Geothermal Leasing at Volcano | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plans Geothermal Leasing at Volcano Alaska Plans Geothermal Leasing at Volcano June 26, 2008 - 4:19pm Addthis ANCHORAGE, Alaska - In Alaska, a state rich in oil and gas, officials are seeking to stir interest in a different source of underground energy -- the geothermal heat simmering beneath the volcanoes and hot springs that dot the landscape that could power thousands of homes. The state Division of Oil and Gas is preparing a lease sale that would allow companies to explore the geothermal

  14. Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity...

  15. Self Potential At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Haleakala Volcano Area Exploration Technique Self Potential Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References...

  16. Rock Sampling At San Francisco Volcanic Field Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Francisco Volcanic Field Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Rock Sampling At San Francisco Volcanic...

  17. Field Mapping At San Francisco Volcanic Field Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Francisco Volcanic Field Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Field Mapping At San Francisco Volcanic...

  18. Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments; Multi-phase Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys in Overt & Subtle Volcanic Systems, Hawaii & Maui Blind...

  19. Seismicity And Fluid Geochemistry At Lassen Volcanic National...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Park Area (Janik & Mclaren, 2010) Static Temperature Survey At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik & Mclaren, 2010) Surface Gas Sampling At Lassen Volcanic...

  20. Isotopic Analysis At San Juan Volcanic Field Area (Larson & Jr...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Juan Volcanic Field Area (Larson & Jr, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis At San Juan Volcanic Field...

  1. Comparative soil CO2 flux measurements and geostatisticalestimation methods on masaya volcano, nicaragua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, J.L.; Bergfeld, D.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Granieri, D.; Varley, N.; Werner, C.

    2004-04-27

    We present a comparative study of soil CO{sub 2} flux (F{sub CO2}) measured by five groups (Groups 1-5) at the IAVCEI-CCVG Eighth Workshop on Volcanic Gases on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Groups 1-5 measured F{sub CO2} using the accumulation chamber method at 5-m spacing within a 900 m{sup 2} grid during a morning (AM) period. These measurements were repeated by Groups 1-3 during an afternoon (PM) period. All measured F{sub CO2} ranged from 218 to 14,719 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}. Arithmetic means and associated CO{sub 2} emission rate estimates for the AM data sets varied between groups by {+-}22%. The variability of the five measurements made at each grid point ranged from {+-}5 to 167% and increased with the arithmetic mean. Based on a comparison of measurements made by Groups 1-3 during AM and PM times, this variability is likely due in large part to natural temporal variability of gas flow, rather than to measurement error. We compared six geostatistical methods (arithmetic and minimum variance unbiased estimator means of uninterpolated data, and arithmetic means of data interpolated by the multiquadric radial basis function, ordinary kriging, multi-Gaussian kriging, and sequential Gaussian simulation methods) to estimate the mean and associated CO{sub 2} emission rate of one data set and to map the spatial F{sub CO2} distribution. While the CO{sub 2} emission rates estimated using the different techniques only varied by {+-}1.1%, the F{sub CO2} maps showed important differences. We suggest that the sequential Gaussian simulation method yields the most realistic representation of the spatial distribution of F{sub CO2} and is most appropriate for volcano monitoring applications.

  2. Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration - Phase I Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Osborn, Susan Petty, Trenton T. Cladouhos, Joe Iovenitti, Laura Nofziger, Owen Callahan, Douglas S. Perry and Paul L. Stern

    2011-10-23

    Phase I of the Newberry Volcano Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Demonstration included permitting, community outreach, seismic hazards analysis, initial microseismic array deployment and calibration, final MSA design, site characterization, and stimulation planning. The multi-disciplinary Phase I site characterization supports stimulation planning and regulatory permitting, as well as addressing public concerns including water usage and induced seismicity. A review of the project'™s water usage plan by an independent hydrology consultant found no expected impacts to local stakeholders, and recommended additional monitoring procedures. The IEA Protocol for Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems was applied to assess site conditions, properly inform stakeholders, and develop a comprehensive mitigation plan. Analysis of precision LiDAR elevation maps has concluded that there is no evidence of recent faulting near the target well. A borehole televiewer image log of the well bore revealed over three hundred fractures and predicted stress orientations. No natural, background seismicity has been identified in a review of historic data, or in more than seven months of seismic data recorded on an array of seven seismometers operating around the target well. A seismic hazards and induced seismicity risk assessment by an independent consultant concluded that the Demonstration would contribute no additional risk to residents of the nearest town of La Pine, Oregon. In Phase II of the demonstration, an existing deep hot well, NWG 55-29, will be stimulated using hydroshearing techniques to create an EGS reservoir. The Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration is allowing geothermal industry and academic experts to develop, validate and enhance geoscience and engineering techniques, and other procedures essential to the expansion of EGS throughout the country. Successful development will demonstrate to the American public that EGS can play a

  3. Validation of Innovation Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano Principal Investigator and Presenter: Albert Waibel Columbia GeoScience for Davenport Newberry ("Davenport") This presentation does not contain any proprietary confidential, or otherwise restricted information. 2 | US DOE Geothermal Program eere.energy.gov Relevance/Impact of Research * Newberry Volcano is a blind resource location (no surface features such as hot springs, fumaroles, faults or surface geochemical

  4. Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy for Newberry Volcano Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano DOE Geothermal Technologies Peer Review - 2010. Project summary: To effectively combine numerous exploration technologies to gather important data. Once information is combined into 3-D models, a target drilling location will be determined. Deep well capable of finding commercial quantities of geothermal resource will be drilled to validate methodology.

  5. Jan. 24 Science Series Lecturer to Discuss Volcanoes in Virginia! |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Jan. 24 Science Series Lecturer to Discuss Volcanoes in Virginia! Jan. 24 Science Series Lecturer to Discuss Volcanoes in Virginia! Newport News, Va., Dec. 12, 2011 - The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility kicks off its 2012 science lecture series on Tuesday, Jan. 24, with a discussion about the region's geologically active past. Guest speaker Elizabeth Johnson, assistant professor with the Geology and Environmental Sciences department at James Madison University,

  6. The Cobb-Eickelberg seamount chain: Hotspot volcanism with mid-ocean ridge basalt affinity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desonie, D.L.; Duncan, R.A. )

    1990-08-10

    Cobb hotspot, currently located beneath Axial seamount on the Juan de Fuca ridge, has the temporal but not the isotopic characteristics usually attributed to a mantle plume. The earlier volcanic products of the hotspot, form eight volcanoes in the Cobb-Eickelberg seamount (CES) chain, show a westward age progression away from the hotspot and a westward increase in the age difference between the seamounts and the crust on which they formed. These results are consistent with movement of the Pacific plate over a fixed Cobb hotspot and eventual encroachment by the westwardly migrating Juan de Fuca ridge. CES lavas are slightly enriched in alkalies and incompatible elements relative to those of the Juan de Fuca ridge but they have Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions virtually identical to those found along the ridge. Therefore, Cobb hotspot is a stationary, upper mantle melting anomaly whose volcanic products show strong mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) affinity. These observations can be explained by low degrees of partial melting of entrained heterogeneous upper mantle MORB source material within a thermally driven lower mantle diapir or by an intrinsic MORB-like composition of the deeper mantle source region from which northeast Pacific plumes rise.

  7. Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration Stimulation Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trenton T. Cladouhos, Matthew Clyne, Maisie Nichols,; Susan Petty, William L. Osborn, Laura Nofziger

    2011-10-23

    As a part of Phase I of the Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration project, several data sets were collected to characterize the rock volume around the well. Fracture, fault, stress, and seismicity data has been collected by borehole televiewer, LiDAR elevation maps, and microseismic monitoring. Well logs and cuttings from the target well (NWG 55-29) and core from a nearby core hole (USGS N-2) have been analyzed to develop geothermal, geochemical, mineralogical and strength models of the rock matrix, altered zones, and fracture fillings (see Osborn et al., this volume). These characterization data sets provide inputs to models used to plan and predict EGS reservoir creation and productivity. One model used is AltaStim, a stochastic fracture and flow software model developed by AltaRock. The software's purpose is to model and visualize EGS stimulation scenarios and provide guidance for final planning. The process of creating an AltaStim model requires synthesis of geologic observations at the well, the modeled stress conditions, and the stimulation plan. Any geomechanical model of an EGS stimulation will require many assumptions and unknowns; thus, the model developed here should not be considered a definitive prediction, but a plausible outcome given reasonable assumptions. AltaStim is a tool for understanding the effect of known constraints, assumptions, and conceptual models on plausible outcomes.

  8. The scaling relationship between self-potential and fluid flow on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, J.L.; Hilley, G.E.; Conner, C.

    2003-11-11

    The concurrent measurement of self-potential (SP) and soil CO{sub 2} flux (F{sub s}{sup CO2}) in volcanic systems may be an important tool to monitor intrusive activity and understand interaction between magmatic and groundwater systems. However, quantitative relationships between these parameters must be established to apply them toward understanding processes operating at depth. Power-law scaling exponents calculated for SP and F{sub s}{sup CO2} measured along a fault on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua indicate a nonlinear relationship between these parameters. Scaling exponents suggest that there is a declining increase in SP with a given increase in F{sub s}{sup CO2}, until a threshold (log F{sub s}{sup CO2} {approx} 2.5 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) above which SP remains constant with increasing F{sub s}{sup CO2}. Implications for subsurface processes that may influence SP at Masaya are discussed.

  9. 3-D Density Model Of Mt Etna Volcano (Southern Italy) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Density Model Of Mt Etna Volcano (Southern Italy) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: 3-D Density Model Of Mt Etna Volcano (Southern...

  10. Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Map showing location of wells permitted, drilled and seismic test 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jaffe, Todd

    Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Map showing location of wells permitted, drilled & seismic test, 2012

  11. Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Map showing location of wells permitted, drilled and seismic test 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jaffe, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Map showing location of wells permitted, drilled & seismic test, 2012

  12. New Model of Earth's Interior Reveals Clues to Hotspot Volcanoes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov volcanic-hotspots1.jpg This 3D view of the top 1,000 kilometers of Earth's mantle beneath the central Pacific shows the relationship between...

  13. Center for Volcanic and Tectonic Studies, Department of Geoscience annual report, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, E.I. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Center for Volcanic and Tectonic Studies

    1990-11-01

    This report summarizes our activities during the period October 1, 1989 to September 30, 1990. Our goal was to develop an understanding of late-Miocene and Pliocene volcanism in the Great Basin by studying Pliocene volcanoes in the vicinity of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Field studies during this period concentrated on the Quaternary volcanoes in Crater Flat, Yucca Mountain, Fortification Hill, at Buckboard Mesa and Sleeping Butte, and in the Reveille Range. Also, a study was initiated on structurally disrupted basaltic rocks in the northern White Hills of Mohave County, Arizona. As well as progress reports of our work in Crater Flat, Fortification Hill and the Reveille Range, this paper also includes a summary of model that relates changing styles of Tertiary extension to changing magmatic compositions, and a summary of work being done in the White Hills, Arizona. In the Appendix, we include copies of published papers not previously incorporated in our monthly reports.

  14. Hierarchical probabilistic regionalization of volcanism for Sengan region, Japan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balasingam, Pirahas; Park, Jinyong; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Kulatilake, Pinnaduwa H. S. W.

    2005-03-01

    A 1 km square regular grid system created on the Universal Transverse Mercator zone 54 projected coordinate system is used to work with volcanism related data for Sengan region. The following geologic variables were determined as the most important for identifying volcanism: geothermal gradient, groundwater temperature, heat discharge, groundwater pH value, presence of volcanic rocks and presence of hydrothermal alteration. Data available for each of these important geologic variables were used to perform directional variogram modeling and kriging to estimate geologic variable vectors at each of the 23949 centers of the chosen 1 km cell grid system. Cluster analysis was performed on the 23949 complete variable vectors to classify each center of 1 km cell into one of five different statistically homogeneous groups with respect to potential volcanism spanning from lowest possible volcanism to highest possible volcanism with increasing group number. A discriminant analysis incorporating Bayes theorem was performed to construct maps showing the probability of group membership for each of the volcanism groups. The said maps showed good comparisons with the recorded locations of volcanism within the Sengan region. No volcanic data were found to exist in the group 1 region. The high probability areas within group 1 have the chance of being the no volcanism region. Entropy of classification is calculated to assess the uncertainty of the allocation process of each 1 km cell center location based on the calculated probabilities. The recorded volcanism data are also plotted on the entropy map to examine the uncertainty level of the estimations at the locations where volcanism exists. The volcanic data cell locations that are in the high volcanism regions (groups 4 and 5) showed relatively low mapping estimation uncertainty. On the other hand, the volcanic data cell locations that are in the low volcanism region (group 2) showed relatively high mapping estimation uncertainty

  15. Overview Of Electromagnetic Methods Applied In Active Volcanic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the understanding of volcanoes by being the method which is most sensitive to change in temperature and, therefore, can best map heat budget and hydrological character to aid in...

  16. Health-hazard Evaluation Report Heta 90-179-2172, National Park Service, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hilo, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burr, G.A.; Stephenson, R.L.; Kawamoto, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    In response to a request from the National Park Service, an evaluation was undertaken of possible hazardous exposures to volcanic emissions, both gases and particulates, at the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (SIC-7999) on the island of Hawaii in the State of Hawaii. Concerns included exposures to sulfur-dioxide (7446095) (SO2), asphalt decomposition products from burning pavement, acid mists when lava enters the ocean, volcanic caused smog, and Pele's hair (a fibrous glass like material). Two other related requests for study were also received in regard to civil defense workers in these areas. No detectable levels of SO2 were found during long term colorimetric detector tube sampling used to characterize park workers' personal full shift exposures. Short term detector tube samples collected near a naturally occurring sulfur vent showed SO2 levels of 1.2 parts per million (ppm). Work related symptoms reported by more than 50% of the respondents included headache, eye irritation, throat irritation, cough, and phlegm. Chest tightness or wheezing and shortness of breath were also frequently reported. Samples collected for hydrochloric-acid (7647010) and hydrofluoric-acid (7664393) recorded concentrations of up to 15ppm for the former and 1.0ppm for the latter acid. Airborne particulates in the laze plume were comprised largely of chloride salts. Airborne fibers were detected at a concentration of 0.16 fibers per cubic centimeter. The authors conclude that excessive exposure to SO2 can occur at some locations within the park. The authors recommend that workers and visitors to the park be informed of the potential for exposures.

  17. Seismic Hazards at Kilauea and Mauna LOA Volcanoes, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Fred W.

    1994-04-22

    A significant seismic hazard exists in south Hawaii from large tectonic earthquakes that can reach magnitude 8 and intensity XII. This paper quantifies the hazard by estimating the horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) in south Hawaii which occurs with a 90% probability of not being exceeded during exposure times from 10 to 250 years. The largest earthquakes occur beneath active, unbuttressed and mobile flanks of volcanoes in their shield building stage.

  18. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Lassen Volcanic National Park...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik & Mclaren, 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  19. Geothermometry At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Thompson...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thompson, 1985) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Thompson, 1985) Exploration...

  20. Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments; Multi-phase Geophysical...

  1. Ground Magnetics At San Francisco Volcanic Field Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Francisco Volcanic Field Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Magnetics At San Francisco...

  2. Ground Gravity Survey At San Francisco Volcanic Field Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Francisco Volcanic Field Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At San Francisco...

  3. Data Acquisition-Manipulation At San Francisco Volcanic Field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Data Acquisition-Manipulation At San Francisco Volcanic Field Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004)...

  4. Isotopic Analysis At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Park Area (Janik & Mclaren, 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location Lassen Volcanic National Park Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness...

  5. Surface Gas Sampling At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik & Mclaren, 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Lassen...

  6. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Lassen Volcanic National Park...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Lassen Volcanic National Park Area Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References J. Michael...

  7. Geothermal Literature Review At San Francisco Volcanic Field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermal Literature Review At San Francisco Volcanic Field Area (Morgan, Et Al., 2003) Exploration...

  8. Flow Test At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik & Mclaren...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Flow Test At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik & Mclaren, 2010) Exploration Activity...

  9. Collection and Analysis of Geothermal and Volcanic Water and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Geothermal and Volcanic Water and Gas Discharges Authors Werner F. Giggenbach and R.L. Goguel Published Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chemistry Division,...

  10. A Morphometric Analysis Of The Submarine Volcanic Ridge South...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Of Pico Island, Azores Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Morphometric Analysis Of The Submarine Volcanic Ridge...

  11. New gamma-ray observatory begins operations at Sierra Negra volcano...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New gamma-ray observatory begins operations at Sierra Negra volcano in the state of Puebla, Mexico Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos...

  12. Map of Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Todd Jaffe

    2012-01-01

    A map showing location of wells permitted, drilled and seismic test, as part of validation of innovative exploration technologies done for the Newberry Volcano project in 2012

  13. Summary of Pu?u ?O?o - Kupaianaha Eruption, Kilauea Volcano...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Survey, 2012 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Summary of Puu Oo - Kupaianaha Eruption, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii...

  14. CV-1b: Magmatic - Intrusive | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone in New Zealand. A cross section view of the Taupo Volcanic Zone in New Zealand (ref: Book: North New Zealand) According to Moeck and Beardsmore, magmatic-intrusive...

  15. Rock Sampling At San Juan Volcanic Field Area (Larson & Jr, 1986...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Juan Volcanic Field Area (Larson & Jr, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Rock Sampling At San Juan Volcanic Field Area...

  16. Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Seismic data - raw taken by Apex Hipoint for 1st test 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jaffe, Todd

    Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Seismic data - raw taken by Apex Hipoint for 1st test 2012

  17. Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Raw data used to prepare the Gravity Report by Zonge 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jaffe, Todd

    Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Raw data used to prepare the Gravity Report by Zonge 2012

  18. Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Seismic data - raw taken by Apex Hipoint for 1st test 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jaffe, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Seismic data - raw taken by Apex Hipoint for 1st test 2012

  19. Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Raw data used to prepare the Gravity Report by Zonge 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jaffe, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Raw data used to prepare the Gravity Report by Zonge 2012

  20. Surface Mercury Geochemistry As A Guide To Volcanic Vent Structure...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mercury Geochemistry As A Guide To Volcanic Vent Structure And Zones Of High Heat Flow In The Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, Alaska Jump to: navigation,...

  1. Modeling-Computer Simulations At San Juan Volcanic Field Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Juan region, to further investigate both the thermal history of the region and the nature of the influence of the San Juan volcanic field thermal source on the thermal history...

  2. A Distinction Technique Between Volcanic And Tectonic Depression...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Modeling Of Gravity Anomaly- A Case Study Of The Hohi Volcanic Zone, Central Kyushu, Japan Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A...

  3. A Miocene Island-Arc Volcanic Seamount- The Takashibiyama Formation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Island-Arc Volcanic Seamount- The Takashibiyama Formation, Shimane Peninsula, Sw Japan Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Miocene...

  4. CT Scan of Earth Links Mantle Plumes with Volcanic Hotspots

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CT Scan of Earth Links Mantle Plumes with Volcanic Hotspots CT Scan of Earth Links Mantle Plumes with Volcanic Hotspots Simulations Run at NERSC Show How Seismic Waves Travel Through Mantle September 2, 2015 Robert Sanders, rlsanders@berkeley.edu, (510) 643-6998 NERSC PI: Barbara Romanowicz Lead Institution: University of California, Berkeley Project Title: Imaging and Calibration of Mantle Structure at Global and Regional Scales Using Full-Waveform Seismic Tomography NERSC Resources Used:

  5. Volcanic hazards of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackett, W.R.; Smith, R.P.

    1994-12-01

    Potential volcanic hazards are assessed, and hazard zone maps are developed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and adjacent areas. The basis of the hazards assessment and mapping is the past volcanic history of the INEL region, and the apparent similarity of INEL volcanism with equivalent, well-studied phenomena in other regions of active volcanism, particularly Hawaii and Iceland. The most significant hazards to INEL facilities are associated with basaltic volcanism, chiefly lava flows, which move slowly and mainly threaten property by inundation or burning. Related hazards are volcanic gases and tephra, and ground disturbance associated with the ascent of magma under the volcanic zones. Several volcanic zones are identified in the INEL area. These zones contain most of the volcanic vents and fissures of the region and are inferred to be the most probable sites of future INEL volcanism. Volcanic-recurrence estimates are given for each of the volcanic zones based on geochronology of the lavas, together with the results of field and petrographic investigations concerning the cogenetic relationships of INEL volcanic deposits and associated magma intrusion. Annual probabilities of basaltic volcanism within the INEL volcanic zones range from 6.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} per year (average 16,000-year interval between eruptions) for the axial volcanic zone near the southern INEL boundary and the Arco volcanic-rift zone near the western INEL boundary, to 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} per year (average 100,000-year interval between eruptions) for the Howe-East Butte volcanic rift zone, a geologically old and poorly defined feature of the central portion of INEL. Three volcanic hazard zone maps are developed for the INEL area: lava flow hazard zones, a tephra (volcanic ash) and gas hazard zone, and a ground-deformation hazard zone. The maps are useful in land-use planning, site selection, and safety analysis.

  6. Gravity and magnetic anomalies associated with Tertiary volcanism and a Proterozoic crustal boundary, Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Navajo Nation (Arizona)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donovan-Ealy, P.F. . Geology Dept.); Hendricks, J.D. )

    1992-01-01

    The Hopi Buttes volcanic field is located in the Navajo Nation of northeastern Arizona, near the southern margin of the Colorado Plateau. Explosive phreatomagmatic eruptions from late Miocene to mid-Pliocene time produced more than 300 maar-diatremes and deposited limburgite tuffs and tuff breccia and monchiquite dikes, necks and flows within a roughly circular 2,500 km[sup 2] area. The volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks make up the middle member of the Bidahochi Formation, whose lower and upper members are lacustrine and fluvial, respectively. The Bidahochi Formation overlies gently dipping Mesozoic sedimentary rocks exposed in the southwestern portion of the volcanic field. Two significant gravity and magnetic anomalies appear within the Hopi Buttes volcanic field that are unlike the signatures of other Tertiary volcanic fields on the Colorado Plateau. A circular 20 mGal negative gravity anomaly is centered over exposed sedimentary rocks in the southwestern portion of the field. The anomaly may be due to the large volume of low density pyroclastic rocks in the volcanic field and/or extensive brecciation of the underlying strata from the violent maar eruptions. The second significant anomaly is the northeast-trending Holbrook lineament, a 5 km-wide gravity and magnetic lineament that crosses the southeastern part of the volcanic field. The lineament reflects substantial gravity and magnetic decreases of 1.67 mGals/km and 100 gammas/km respectively, to the southeast. Preliminary two-dimensional gravity and magnetic modeling suggests the lineament represents a major Proterozoic crustal boundary and may correlate with one of several Proterozoic faults exposed in the transition zone of central Arizona. Gravity modeling shows a 3--5 km step'' in the Moho near the crustal boundary. The decrease in depth of the Moho to the northwest indicates either movement along the fault or magmatic upwelling beneath the volcanic field.

  7. New gamma-ray observatory begins operations at Sierra Negra volcano...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New gamma-ray observatory begins operations New gamma-ray observatory begins operations at Sierra Negra volcano in the state of Puebla, Mexico The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov ...

  8. Summary of Pu u O o - Kupaianaha Eruption, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pu u O o - Kupaianaha Eruption, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Summary of Pu u O o - Kupaianaha Eruption,...

  9. Magmatic-tectonic evolution of a volcanic rifted margin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eldholm, O. )

    1990-05-01

    Many North Atlantic margins are underlain by huge volcanic edifices near the continent-ocean boundary. A crustal hole drilled at the outer Voering Plateau during ODP (Ocean Drilling Project) Leg 104 has provided important constraints on the breakup history and the subsequent margin evolution by penetrating more than 900 m of igneous rocks and interbedded sediment below a post-early Eocene cover. The recovered basement rocks constitute two different volcanic series. The Upper Series, comprising a seaward-dipping reflector wedge, consists of transitional mid-oceanic tholeiitic lava flows and thin volcaniclastic sediments. Dacitic flows, some dikes and thicker sediments constitute the Lower Series. The margin evolved by Paleocene crustal extension, uplift and pervasive intrusion in the rift zone. Just prior to breakup, magma from shallow crustal melts produced the Lower Series. The Upper Series was constructed during an intense, rapidly waning subaerial surge following breakup in the earliest Eocene. The Upper Series covers both new oceanic crust and large areas of continental crust. The dipping wedge was formed by subsidence due to loading and thermal contraction probably amplified by a tectonic force. When the surge had abated, the injection center subsided and a normal oceanic crust was formed. A direct temporal and compositional relationship exists between the onshore North Atlantic Volcanic Province and the volcanic margins. Whereas the central transverse part of the province, near the Iceland hotspot has been active for 60 m.y., the volcanic margins reflect a 2,000-km-long transient phenomenon lasting only 3 m.y. The breakup volcanism and lack of initial subsidence are related to a regional, about 50C{degree}, increased temperature at the base of the lithosphere (hot carpet) combined with opening in previously extended crust.

  10. Isotopic prediction of eruption volume at continental volcanoes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, F.V.; Valentine, G.A.; Crowe, B.M.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to determine whether isotopic techniques can be used to assess the eruption potential and eruption volume of continental stratovolcanoes. Large-volume eruptions from stratovolcanoes pose significant hazards to population and infrastructure in many parts of the world. We are testing whether this technique will allow a short- to medium-term (decades to millennia) probabilistic hazard assessment of large-volume eruptions. If successful, the technique will be useful to countries or regions that must consider medium to long-term volcanic (e.g., nuclear waste facilities). We have begun sample acquisition and isotopic measurements at two stratovolcanoes, Pico de Orizaba in eastern Mexico and Daisen in western Japan.

  11. Status of volcanism studies for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, B.; Perry, F.; Murrell, M.; Poths, J.; Valentine, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wells, S. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Bowker, L.; Finnegan, K. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Geissman, J.; McFadden, L.

    1995-02-01

    Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. Geophysical data are described for the YMR and are used as an aid to understand the distribution of basaltic volcanic centers. Chapter 4 discusses the petrologic and geochemical features of basaltic volcanism in the YMR, the southern Great Basin and the Basin and Range province. The long time of activity and characteristic small volume of the Postcaldera basalt of the YMR result in one of the lowest eruptive rates in a volcanic field in the southwest United States. Chapter 5 summarizes current concepts of the segregation, ascent, and eruption of basalt magma. Chapter 6 summarizes the history of volcanism studies (1979 through early 1994), including work for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project and overview studies by the state of Nevada and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Chapter 7 summarizes probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment using a three-part conditional probability model. Chapter 8 describes remaining volcanism work judged to be needed to complete characterization studies for the YMR. Chapter 9 summarizes the conclusions of this volcanism status report.

  12. Approach, methods and results of an individual elicitation for the volcanism expert judgment panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1996-06-01

    Probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA) of future magnetic disruption of the Yucca Mountain site was completed as a participating member of the volcanism export judgment panel conducted by Geomatrix Consultants for the Department of Energy. The purpose of this summary is to describe the data assumptions, methods, and results of the elicitation and to contrast this assessment with past volcanism studies conducted for the Yucca Mountain Project.

  13. Volcanic gas emissions and their effect on ambient air character

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography was assembled to service an agreement between Department of Energy and the USGS to provide a body of references and useful annotations for understanding background gas emissions from Kilauea volcano. The current East Rift Zone (ERZ) eruption of Kilauea releases as much as 500,000 metric tonnes of SO{sub 2} annually, along with lesser amounts of other chemically and radiatively active species including H{sub 2}S, HCl, and HF. Primary degassing locations on Kilauea are located in the summit caldera and along the middle ERZ. The effects of these emissions on ambient air character are a complex function of chemical reactivity, source geometry and effusivity, and local meteorology. Because of this complexity, we organized the bibliography into three main sections: (1) characterizing gases as they leave the edifice; (2) characterizing gases and chemical reaction products away from degassing sources; and (3) Hawaii Island meteorology.

  14. Preliminary geologic map of the Sleeping Butte volcanic centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, B.M.; Perry, F.V.

    1991-07-01

    The Sleeping Butte volcanic centers comprise two, spatially separate, small-volume (<0.1 km{sup 3}) basaltic centers. The centers were formed by mildly explosive Strombolian eruptions. The Little Black Peak cone consists of a main scoria cone, two small satellitic scoria mounds, and associated lobate lava flows that vented from sites at the base of the scoria cone. The Hidden Cone center consists of a main scoria cone that developed on the north-facing slope of Sleeping Butte. The center formed during two episodes. The first included the formation of the main scoria cone, and venting of aa lava flows from radial dikes at the northeast base of the cone. The second included eruption of scoria-fall deposits from the summit crater. The ages of the Little Black Peak and the Hidden Cone are estimated to be between 200 to 400 ka based on the whole-rock K-Ar age determinations with large analytical undertainty. This age assignment is consistent with qualitative observations of the degree of soil development and geomorphic degradation of volcanic landforms. The younger episode of the Hidden Cone is inferred to be significantly younger and probably of Late Pleistocene or Holocene age. This is based on the absence of cone slope rilling, the absence of cone-slope apron deposits, and erosional unconformity between the two episodes, the poor horizon- development of soils, and the presence of fall deposits on modern alluvial surfaces. Paleomagnetic data show that the centers record similar but not identical directions of remanent magnetization. Paleomagnetic data have not been obtained for the youngest deposits of the Hidden Cone center. Further geochronology, soils, geomorphic, and petrology studies are planned of the Sleeping Butte volcanic centers 20 refs., 3 figs.

  15. sup 40 Ar- sup 39 Ar and K-Ar dating of K-rich rocks from the Roccamonfina volcano, Roman Comagmatic Region, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Brozolo, F.R.; Di Girolamo, P.; Turi, B.; Oddone, M. )

    1988-06-01

    Roccamonfina is the northernmost Volcano of the Campanian area of the K-rich Roman comagmatic Region of Italy. It erupted a huge amount of pyroclastics and lavas belonging to both the Leucite-Basanite and Leucitite Series (LBLS) and the Shoshonite Series (SS), spread over an area of about 300 km{sup 2}. The above series correspond to the High-K Series (HKS) and Low-K Series (LKS) of Appleton (1971), respectively. {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar and K-Ar dating of samples from both series gave ages ranging from 0.656 to 0.096 Ma for the SS and from 1.03( ) to 0.053 Ma for the LBLS. These results indicate that the products of the two series were outpoured together at least between 0.7 and 0.1 Ma age, i.e. during both the so-called pre-caldera phase and the post-caldera phase of activity. The latest products of the volcanism at Roccamonfina were erupted just before the deposition of the Grey Campanian Ignimbrite, which erupted from vents located about 50 km to the south in the Phlegrean Fields near Naples and has an age of about 33,000 years. Taking into account all the available all the available radiometric data the authors conclude that Roccamonfina was active between 1.5 and 0.05 Ma ago, in excellent agreement with the stratigraphic evidence. In this same time span is concentrated the activity of all the centers of the Roman Region north of Naples.

  16. Ra-Th disequilibria: Timescale of carbonatite magma formation at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R.W.; Gill, J.B.; Bruland, K.W. )

    1988-04-01

    This paper discusses geologic models dealing with the formation of carbonatites from recent lavas of the Oldoninyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania. This paper also acts as a rebutal to an earlier writing which discussed potential flaws in the collection and dating of the carbonatites. The paper goes on to provide activity ratios from different carbonatites and discussion the lack of evidence for fractional crystallization in a olivine sovite magma.

  17. Implications of volcano-tectonic patterns in the Oregon cascades for geothermal exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Priest, G.R.; Woller, N.M.; Black, G.L.; Evans, S.H.; Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    Basin and Range and subduction-related processes may have combined to produce voluminous mafic volcanism and very high heat flow in the central Oregon High Cascades during the last 9 m.y. This high rate of volcanism and heat flow prevails south of the Clackamas River right lateral wrench fault zone. South of this zone the volume of mafic volcanic rocks less than 9 m.y. old increases abruptly and regional heat flow increases by at least 20 mW/m/sup 2/. A similar, but larger, increase in volcanism and heat flow characterizes the transition from the Blue Mountain block to the Basin and Range Province at the Brothers right lateral wrench fault zone. A significant amount of the 0 to 9 m.y.B.P. mafic volcanic rock in the Cascades is basalt, with one or all of the following attributes of contemporaneous basalts of the Brothers Fault Zone-Basin and Range province: (1) anomalously high alkali and iron content relative to normal calc-alkaline rocks; (2) diktytaxitic texture with titaniferous groundmass clinopyroxene. This suggests a common petrogenesis for these basalts, perhaps from partial melting related to Basin and Range spreading. Potential operation of two partial melting mechanisms in the Oregon High Cascades may cause a high rate of magmatic heat transferral from mantle regions relative to transferral in the Basin and Range. This means that the High Cascades probably has the highest geothermal potential of any province in Oregon, especially where intercepted by youthful faults. North-south faults which bound a large area of Pliocene to Pleistocene subsidence along the High Cascade axis are good exploration targets. Silicic volcanism at the Brothers Fault zone intersection makes this the best exploration target in Oregon.

  18. Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Geochemistry data from 55-29 and 46-16 wells at Newberry 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jaffe, Todd

    Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Geochemistry data from 55-29 and 46-16 wells at Newberry 2012

  19. Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Geochemistry data from 55-29 and 46-16 wells at Newberry 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jaffe, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Geochemistry data from 55-29 and 46-16 wells at Newberry 2012

  20. Temporal relations of volcanism and hydrothermal systems in two areas of the Jemez volcanic field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WoldeGabriel, G.; Goff, F. )

    1989-11-01

    Two hydrothermal alteration events (8.07 Ma, one sample; 6.51-5.60 Ma, six samples) related to the waning stages of late Miocene volcanism ({ge} 13 to {le} 5.8 Ma) are recognized at the Cochiti district (southeast Jemez Mountains). Most of the K/Ar dates (0.83 {plus minus} 0.11-0.66 {plus minus} 0.21 Ma, four samples) in the hydrothermally altered, caldera-fill rocks of core hole VC-2A at Sulfur Springs, Valles caldera, indicate post-Valles caldera hydrothermal alteration. A sample from acid-altered landslide debris of postcaldera tuffs from the upper 13 m of the core hole was too young to be dated by the K/Ar method and is possibly associated with current hot-spring activity and the youngest pulses of volcanism. Oxygen-isotope data from illite/smectite clays in the Cochiti district are zonally distributed and range from {minus}2.15{per thousand} to {plus}7.97{per thousand} (SMOW), depending upon temperature, extent of rock-fluid interaction, and composition. The samples from VC-2A get lighter with depth ({minus}0.20{per thousand} to {plus}1.62{per thousand}). The K/Ar and oxygen-isotope data provide strong evidence that the epithermal quartz-vein-hosted gold-silver mineralization at Cochiti and the sub-ore grade molybdenite at VC-2A were deposited in the late Miocene (5.99-5.60 Ma) and mid-Quaternary ({approximately}0.66 Ma), respectively, by hydrothermal fluids composed primarily of meteoric water.

  1. Age and location of volcanic centers less than or equal to 3...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    age, are shown. Location of the volcanic vents and rocks were taken from Luedke and Smith (1978). Ages were obtained from the original literature in all cases except for McKee...

  2. A Physical Model For The Origin Of Volcanism Of The Tyrrhenian...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Of Neapolitan Area Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Physical Model For The Origin Of Volcanism Of The Tyrrhenian Margin- The...

  3. Age and location of volcanic centers less than or equal to 3...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Location of the volcanic vents and rocks were taken from Luedke and Smith (1978). Ages ... ages of various rocks they dated, so locations were taken from Luedke and Smith (1978). ...

  4. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy In The Jemez Volcanic Field, New...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy In The Jemez Volcanic Field, New Mexico Abstract Large, young calderas...

  5. Eruptive history and petrochemistry of the Bulusan volcanic complex: Implications for the hydrothermal system and volcanic hazards of Mt. Bulusan, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delfin, F.G. Jr.; Panem, C.C.; Defant, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    Two contrasting conceptual models of the postcaldera magmatic system of the Bulusan volcanic complex are constructed on the basis of a synthesis of volcanological, petrochemical, and petrologic data. These models predict that hydrothermal convection below the complex will occur either in discrete, structurally-focused zones or over a much broader area. Both models, however, agree that hydrothermal fluids at depth will be highly acidic and volcanic-related. Future ash-fall eruptions and mudflows are likely to affect the area previously chosen for possible drilling. Such risks, combined with the expected acidic character of the hydrothermal system, argue against drilling into this system.

  6. Preliminary results of wildcat drilling in Absaroka volcanic rocks, Hot Springs County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, M.H.; Sundell, K.A.

    1986-08-01

    Recent drilling of three remote, high-elevation wildcat wells has proven that excellent Paleozoic reservoirs are present at shallow depths beneath Eocene volcaniclastic rocks. The Tensleep and Madison Formations are fluid filled above an elevation of 8000 ft, and all Paleozoic formations exhibit shows of oil and gas. These prolific reservoir rocks have produced billions of barrels of oil from the adjacent Bighorn and Wind river basins, and they pinch out with angular unconformity against the base of the volcanics, providing enormous potential for stratigraphic oil accumulations. Vibroseis and portable seismic data have confirmed and further delineate large anticlines of Paleozoic rocks, which were originally discovered by detailed surface geologic mapping. These structures can be projected along anticlinal trends from the western Owl Creek Mountains to beneath the volcanics as well. The overlying volcanics are generally soft, reworked sediments. However, large, hard boulders and blocks of andesite-dacite, which were previously mapped as intrusives, are present and are the result of catastrophic landslide/debris flow. The volcanics locally contain highly porous and permeable sandstones and abundant bentonite stringers. Oil and gas shows were observed throughout a 2400-ft thick interval of the Eocene Tepee Trail and Aycross Formations. Shows were recorded 9100 ft above sea level in the volcanic rocks. A minimum of 10 million bbl of oil (asphaltum) and an undetermined amount of gases and lighter oils have accumulated within the basal volcanic sequence, based on the evaluation of data from two drill sites. Significant amounts of hydrocarbons have migrated since the volcanics were deposited 50 Ma. Large Laramide anticlines were partially eroded and breached into the Paleozoic formations and resealed by overlying volcanics with subsequent development of a massive tar seal.

  7. Improve earthquake hypocenter using adaptive simulated annealing inversion in regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal observation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ry, Rexha Verdhora; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-24

    Observation of earthquakes is routinely used widely in tectonic activity observation, and also in local scale such as volcano tectonic and geothermal activity observation. It is necessary for determining the location of precise hypocenter which the process involves finding a hypocenter location that has minimum error between the observed and the calculated travel times. When solving this nonlinear inverse problem, simulated annealing inversion method can be applied to such global optimization problems, which the convergence of its solution is independent of the initial model. In this study, we developed own program codeby applying adaptive simulated annealing inversion in Matlab environment. We applied this method to determine earthquake hypocenter using several data cases which are regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal field. The travel times were calculated using ray tracing shooting method. We then compared its results with the results using Geiger’s method to analyze its reliability. Our results show hypocenter location has smaller RMS error compared to the Geiger’s result that can be statistically associated with better solution. The hypocenter of earthquakes also well correlated with geological structure in the study area. Werecommend using adaptive simulated annealing inversion to relocate hypocenter location in purpose to get precise and accurate earthquake location.

  8. Modeled tephra ages from lake sediments, base of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiff, C J; Kaufman, D S; Wallace, K L; Werner, A; Ku, T L; Brown, T A

    2007-02-25

    A 5.6-m-long lake sediment core from Bear Lake, Alaska, located 22 km southeast of Redoubt Volcano, contains 67 tephra layers deposited over the last 8750 cal yr, comprising 15% of the total thickness of recovered sediment. Using 12 AMS {sup 14}C ages, along with the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 210}Pb activities of recent sediment, we evaluated different models to determine the age-depth relation of sediment, and to determine the age of each tephra deposit. The age model is based on a cubic smooth spline function that was passed through the adjusted tephra-free depth of each dated layer. The estimated age uncertainty of the 67 tephras averages {+-} 105 yr (1{sigma}). Tephra-fall frequency at Bear Lake was among the highest during the past 500 yr, with eight tephras deposited compared to an average of 3.7 per 500 yr over the last 8500 yr. Other periods of increased tephra fall occurred 2500-3500, 4500-5000, and 7000-7500 cal yr. Our record suggests that Bear Lake experienced extended periods (1000-2000 yr) of increased tephra fall separated by shorter periods (500-1000 yr) of apparent quiescence. The Bear Lake sediment core affords the most comprehensive tephrochronology from the base of the Redoubt Volcano to date, with an average tephra-fall frequency of once every 130 yr.

  9. Combined U-Th/He and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of post-shield lavas from the Mauna Kea and Kohala volcanoes, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aciego, S.M.; Jourdan, F.; DePaolo, D.J.; Kennedy, B.M.; Renne, P.R.; Sims, K.W.W.

    2009-10-01

    Late Quaternary, post-shield lavas from the Mauna Kea and Kohala volcanoes on the Big Island of Hawaii have been dated using the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar and U-Th/He methods. The objective of the study is to compare the recently demonstrated U-Th/He age method, which uses basaltic olivine phenocrysts, with {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages measured on groundmass from the same samples. As a corollary, the age data also increase the precision of the chronology of volcanism on the Big Island. For the U-Th/He ages, U, Th and He concentrations and isotopes were measured to account for U-series disequilibrium and initial He. Single analyses U-Th/He ages for Hamakua lavas from Mauna Kea are 87 {+-} 40 ka to 119 {+-} 23 ka (2{sigma} uncertainties), which are in general equal to or younger than {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages. Basalt from the Polulu sequence on Kohala gives a U-Th/He age of 354 {+-} 54 ka and a {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar age of 450 {+-} 40 ka. All of the U-Th/He ages, and all but one spurious {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages conform to the previously proposed stratigraphy and published {sup 14}C and K-Ar ages. The ages also compare favorably to U-Th whole rock-olivine ages calculated from {sup 238}U - {sup 230}Th disequilibria. The U-Th/He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results agree best where there is a relatively large amount of radiogenic {sup 40}Ar (>10%), and where the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 36}Ar intercept calculated from the Ar isochron diagram is close to the atmospheric value. In two cases, it is not clear why U-Th/He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages do not agree within uncertainty. U-Th/He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results diverge the most on a low-K transitional tholeiitic basalt with abundant olivine. For the most alkalic basalts with negligible olivine phenocrysts, U-Th/He ages were unattainable while {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results provide good precision even on ages as low as 19 {+-} 4 ka. Hence, the strengths and weaknesses of the U-Th/He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar methods are

  10. Sky-polarization data for volcanic and non-volcanic periods. Report for April-September 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longtin, D.R.; Volz, F.E.

    1986-10-01

    Volz has monitored the Arago and Babinet neutral points at Lexington and Bedford, Mass. for the years 1968 to 1986. These data, along with measurements of turbidity, twilight color ratio, solar aureole, and cloud and snow cover, have been assembled into a data base and checked for error. The neutral-point data were then corrected for day-to-day variations in tropospheric turbidity and separated into groups that coincide with time periods of known volcanic influences and seasonal events. 3-D plots indicate that both the Arago and Babinet points were strongly affected by the presence of the El Chichon dust cloud; however, the features were not as pronounced as in the tropics. Measurements made after the El Chichon eruptions also suggest a movement of the neutral points after sunset which was not observed after the eruptions of Mt. Pelee in 1902 and Katmai in 1911. The present measurements did not show an effect from the eruptions of Fuego in 1971 and late 1974.

  11. Uranium mineralization in fluorine-enriched volcanic rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burt, D.M.; Sheridan, M.F.; Bikun, J.; Christiansen, E.; Correa, B.; Murphy, B.; Self, S.

    1980-09-01

    Several uranium and other lithophile element deposits are located within or adjacent to small middle to late Cenozoic, fluorine-rich rhyolitic dome complexes. Examples studied include Spor Mountain, Utah (Be-U-F), the Honeycomb Hills, Utah (Be-U), the Wah Wah Mountains, Utah (U-F), and the Black Range-Sierra Cuchillo, New Mexico (Sn-Be-W-F). The formation of these and similar deposits begins with the emplacement of a rhyolitic magma, enriched in lithophile metals and complexing fluorine, that rises to a shallow crustal level, where its roof zone may become further enriched in volatiles and the ore elements. During initial explosive volcanic activity, aprons of lithicrich tuffs are erupted around the vents. These early pyroclastic deposits commonly host the mineralization, due to their initial enrichment in the lithophile elements, their permeability, and the reactivity of their foreign lithic inclusions (particularly carbonate rocks). The pyroclastics are capped and preserved by thick topaz rhyolite domes and flows that can serve as a source of heat and of additional quantities of ore elements. Devitrification, vapor-phase crystallization, or fumarolic alteration may free the ore elements from the glassy matrix and place them in a form readily leached by percolating meteoric waters. Heat from the rhyolitic sheets drives such waters through the system, generally into and up the vents and out through the early tuffs. Secondary alteration zones (K-feldspar, sericite, silica, clays, fluorite, carbonate, and zeolites) and economic mineral concentrations may form in response to this low temperature (less than 200 C) circulation. After cooling, meteoric water continues to migrate through the system, modifying the distribution and concentration of the ore elements (especially uranium).

  12. A compound power-law model for volcanic eruptions: Implications for risk assessment of volcanism at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Chih-Hsiang

    1994-10-17

    Much of the ongoing debate on the use of nuclear power plants in U.S.A. centers on the safe disposal of the radioactive waste. Congress, aware of the importance of the waste issue, passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, requiring the federal government to develop a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high level radioactive wastes from civilian nuclear power plants. The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) in 1983 to identify potential sites. When OCRWM had selected three potential sites to study, Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which directed the DOE to characterize only one of those sites, Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada. For a site to be acceptable, theses studies must demonstrate that the site could comply with regulations and guidelines established by the federal agencies that will be responsible for licensing, regulating, and managing the waste facility. Advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Recent volcanism in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain is readily recognized as an important factor in determining future public and environmental safety because of the possibility of direct disruption of a repository site by volcanism. In particular, basaltic volcanism is regarded as direct and unequivocal evidence of deep-seated geologic instability. In this paper, statistical analysis of volcanic hazard assessment at the Yucca Mountain site is discussed, taking into account some significant geological factors raised by experts. Three types of models are considered in the data analysis. The first model assumes that both past and future volcanic activities follow a homogeneous Poisson process (HPP).

  13. Quaternary volcanism, tectonics, and sedimentation in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackett, W.R.; Smith, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the regional context and describe localities for a two-day field excursion in the vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). We address several geologic themes: (1) Late Cenozoic, bimodal volcanism of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), (2) the regional tectonics and structural geology of the Basin and Range province to the northwest of the ESRP, (3) fluvial, lacustrine, and aeolian sedimentation in the INEL area, and (4) the influence of Quaternary volcanism and tectonics on sedimentation near the INEL.

  14. Quaternary volcanism, tectonics, and sedimentation in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackett, W.R.; Smith, R.P.

    1992-09-01

    In this article, we discuss the regional context and describe localities for a two-day field excursion in the vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). We address several geologic themes: (1) Late Cenozoic, bimodal volcanism of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), (2) the regional tectonics and structural geology of the Basin and Range province to the northwest of the ESRP, (3) fluvial, lacustrine, and aeolian sedimentation in the INEL area, and (4) the influence of Quaternary volcanism and tectonics on sedimentation near the INEL.

  15. Self-potential, soil co2 flux, and temperature on masaya volcano, nicaragua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, J.L.; Connor, C.; St-Amand, K.; Stix, J.; Spinner, W.

    2003-07-01

    We investigate the spatial relationship between self-potential (SP), soil CO{sub 2} flux, and temperature and the mechanisms that produce SP anomalies on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. We measured SP, soil CO{sub 2} fluxes (<1 to 5.0 x 10{sup 4} g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}), and temperatures (26 to 80 C) within an area surrounding a normal fault, adjacent to Comalito cinder cone (2002-2003). These variables are well spatially correlated. Wavelengths of SP anomalies are {le}100 m, and high horizontal SP gradients flank the region of elevated flux and temperature. Carbon isotopic compositions of soil CO{sub 2} ({delta}{sup 13}C = -3.3 to -1.1{per_thousand}) indicate a deep gas origin. Given the presence of a deep water table (100 to 150 m), high gas flow rates, and subsurface temperatures above liquid boiling points, we suggest that rapid fluid disruption is primarily responsible for positive SP anomalies here. Concurrent measurement of SP, soil CO{sub 2} flux, and temperature may be a useful tool to monitor intrusive activity.

  16. Chemistry of spring and well waters on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, and vicinity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janik, C.J.; Nathenson, M.; Scholl, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    Published and new data for chemical and isotopic samples from wells and springs on Kilauea Volcano and vicinity are presented. These data are used to understand processes that determine the chemistry of dilute meteoric water, mixtures with sea water, and thermal water. Data for well and spring samples of non-thermal water indicate that mixing with sea water and dissolution of rock from weathering are the major processes that determine the composition of dissolved constituents in water. Data from coastal springs demonstrate that there is a large thermal system south of the lower east rift of Kilauea. Samples of thermal water from shallow wells in the lower east rift and vicinity have rather variable chemistry indicating that a number of processes operate in the near surface. Water sampled from the available deep wells is different in composition from the shallow thermal water, indicating that generally there is not a significant component of deep water in the shallow wells. Data for samples from available deep wells show significant gradients in chemistry and steam content of the reservoir fluid. These gradients are interpreted to indicate that the reservoir tapped by the existing wells is an evolving vapor-dominated system.

  17. An evaluation of the effect of volcanic eruption on the solar radiation at Australian and Canadian stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yatko, B.R.; Garrison, J.D.

    1996-11-01

    Peak (most probable) and average values of {angstrom}`s turbidity coefficient {beta} and peak (most probable) and average values of the diffuse index k{sub d} are obtained from the solar radiation data from 21 stations in Australia and 5 stations in Canada. These data exhibit clear increases in their values when the volcanic aerosols in the stratosphere increase following volcanic eruptions of sufficient magnitude. The effect of the eruptions of Fuego (1974), El Chichon (1982) and Pinatubo (1991) are seen most clearly in the data. The effect of lesser eruptions is also seen. The store of volcanic aerosols in the stratosphere shifts with the season so that scattering by volcanic aerosols in the spring half of the year is stronger than in the fall.

  18. Localization of Volcanic Activity: Topographic Effects on Dike Propagation, Eruption and COnduit Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.S. Gaffney; B. Damjanac

    2006-05-12

    Magma flow in a dike rising in a crack whose strike runs from a highland or a ridge to an adjacent lowland has been modeled to determine the effect of topography on the flow. It is found that there is a distinct tendency for the flow to be diverted away from the highland end of the strike toward the lowland. Separation of the geometric effect of the topography from its effect on lateral confining stresses on the crack indicates that both contribute to the effect but that the effect of stress is less important. Although this analysis explains a tendency for volcanic eruptions to occur in low lands, it does not preclude eruptions on highlands. The particular configuration modeled mimics topography around the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, so that the results may indicate some reduction in the volcanic hazard to the site.

  19. Geologic and geophysical investigations of the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ander, M.E.; Heiken, G.; Eichelberger, J.; Laughlin, A.W.; Huestis, S.

    1981-05-01

    A positive, northeast-trending gravity anomaly, 90 km long and 30 km wide, extends southwest from the Zuni uplift, New Mexico. The Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, an alignment of 74 basaltic vents, is parallel to the eastern edge of the anomaly. Lavas display a bimodal distribution of tholeiitic and alkalic compositions, and were erupted over a period from 4 Myr to present. A residual gravity profile taken perpendicular to the major axis of the anomaly was analyzed using linear programming and ideal body theory to obtain bounds on the density contrast, depth, and minimum thickness of the gravity body. Two-dimensionality was assumed. The limiting case where the anomalous body reaches the surface gives 0.1 g/cm/sup 3/ as the greatest lower bound on the maximum density contrast. If 0.4 g/cm/sup 3/ is taken as the geologically reasonable upper limit on the maximum density contrast, the least upper bound on the depth of burial is 3.5 km and minimum thickness is 2 km. A shallow mafic intrusion, emplaced sometime before Laramide deformation, is proposed to account for the positive gravity anomaly. Analysis of a magnetotelluric survey suggests that the intrusion is not due to recent basaltic magma associated with the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field. This large basement structure has controlled the development of the volcanic field; vent orientations have changed somewhat through time, but the trend of the volcanic chain followed the edge of the basement structure. It has also exhibited some control on deformation of the sedimentary section.

  20. Comparative analysis of core drilling and rotary drilling in volcanic terrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flynn, T.; Trexler, D.T.; Wallace, R.H. Jr.

    1987-04-01

    Initially, the goal of this report is to compare and contrast penetration rates of rotary-mud drilling and core drilling in young volcanic terranes. It is widely recognized that areas containing an abundance of recent volcanic rocks are excellent targets for geothermal resources. Exploration programs depend heavily upon reliable subsurface information, because surface geophysical methods may be ineffective, inconclusive, or both. Past exploration drilling programs have mainly relied upon rotary-mud rigs for virtually all drilling activity. Core-drilling became popular several years ago, because it could deal effectively with two major problems encountered in young volcanic terranes: very hard, abrasive rock and extreme difficulty in controlling loss of circulation. In addition to overcoming these difficulties, core-drilling produced subsurface samples (core) that defined lithostratigraphy, structure and fractures far better than drill-chips. It seemed that the only negative aspect of core drilling was cost. The cost-per-foot may be two to three times higher than an ''initial quote'' for rotary drilling. In addition, penetration rates for comparable rock-types are often much lower for coring operations. This report also seeks to identify the extent of wireline core drilling (core-drilling using wireline retrieval) as a geothermal exploration tool. 25 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Modeling Temporal-Spatial Earthquake and Volcano Clustering at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Parsons; G.A. Thompson; A.H. Cogbill

    2006-05-31

    The proposed national high-level nuclear repository at Yucca Mountain is close to Quaternary faults and cinder cones. The frequency of these events is low, with indications of spatial and temporal clustering, making probabilistic assessments difficult. In an effort to identify the most likely intrusion sites, we based a 3D finite element model on the expectation that faulting and basalt intrusions are primarily sensitive to the magnitude and orientation of the least principal stress in extensional terranes. We found that in the absence of fault slip, variation in overburden pressure caused a stress state that preferentially favored intrusions at Crater Flat. However, when we allowed central Yucca Mountain faults to slip in the model, we found that magmatic clustering was not favored at Crater Flat or in the central Yucca Mountain block. Instead, we calculated that the stress field was most encouraging to intrusions near fault terminations, consistent with the location of the most recent volcanism at Yucca Mountain, the Lathrop Wells cone. We found this linked fault and magmatic system to be mutually reinforcing in the model in that dike inflation favored renewed fault slip.

  2. Comment on Ra-Th disequilibria systematics: Timescale of carbonatite magma formation at Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gittins, J. )

    1988-04-01

    This paper discusses potential flaws in study by Williams, Gill, and bruland (1986) dealing with the extreme disequilibria between uranium and thorium series nuclides in alkalic carbonatite lava specimens. It discusses the apparent discrepencies between chemical compositions of lava which were reported from the same eruption. Clarification is made on the actual timing of eruptions in this volcanic region and the effects this would have on the petrogenesis interpretation of these rocks.

  3. Contact metasomatic and hydrothermal minerals in the SH2 deep well, Sabatini Volcanic District, Latium, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavarretta, G.; Tecce, F.

    1987-01-01

    Metasomatic and hydrothermal minerals were logged throughout the SH2 geothermal well, which reached a depth of 2498 m in the Sabatini volcanic district. Below 460 m of volcanics, where the newly formed minerals were mainly chlorite, calcite and zeolites (mostly phillipsite), drilling entered the Allochthonous Flysch Complex. Evidence of the ''Cicerchina facies'' was found down to 1600 m depth. Starting from 1070 m, down to hole bottom, a contact metasomatic complex was defined by the appearance of garnet. Garnet together with K-fledspar, vesuvianite, wilkeite, cuspidine, harkerite, wollastonite and apatite prevail in the top part of the contact metasomatic complex. Vesuvianite and phlogopite characterize the middle part. Phlogopite, pyroxene, spinel and cancrinite predominate in the bottom part. The 1500 m thick metasomatic complex indicates the presence at depth of the intrusion of a trachytic magma which released hot fluids involved in metasomatic mineral-forming reactions. Minerals such as harkerite, wilkeite, cuspidine, cancrinite, vesuvianite and phlogopite indicate the intrusive melt had a high volatile content which is in agreement with the very high explosivity index of this volcanic district. The system is at present sealed by abundant calcite and anhydrite. It is proposed that most, if not all, of the sulphates formed after reaction of SO/sub 2/ with aqueous calcium species rather than from sulphates being remobilized from evaporitic (Triassic) rocks as previously inferred. The hypothesis of a CO/sub 2/-rich deep-derived fluid ascending through major fracture systems and contrasting cooling in the hottest areas of Latium is presented.

  4. Atmospheric Dispersal and Dispostion of Tephra From a Potential Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Keating; W.Statham

    2004-02-12

    The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation of the conceptual and mathematical model (ASHPLUME) for atmospheric dispersal and subsequent deposition of ash on the land surface from a potential volcanic eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This report also documents the ash (tephra) redistribution conceptual model. The ASHPLUME conceptual model accounts for incorporation and entrainment of waste fuel particles associated with a hypothetical volcanic eruption through the Yucca Mountain repository and downwind transport of contaminated tephra. The ASHPLUME mathematical model describes the conceptual model in mathematical terms to allow for prediction of radioactive waste/ash deposition on the ground surface given that the hypothetical eruptive event occurs. This model report also describes the conceptual model for tephra redistribution from a basaltic cinder cone. Sensitivity analyses and model validation activities for the ash dispersal and redistribution models are also presented. Analyses documented in this model report will improve and clarify the previous documentation of the ASHPLUME mathematical model and its application to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application (TSPA-LA) igneous scenarios. This model report also documents the redistribution model product outputs based on analyses to support the conceptual model.

  5. ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSAL AND DEPOSITION OF TEPHRA FROM A POTENTIAL VOLCANIC ERUPTION AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Harrington

    2004-10-25

    The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation of the conceptual and mathematical model (Ashplume) for atmospheric dispersal and subsequent deposition of ash on the land surface from a potential volcanic eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This report also documents the ash (tephra) redistribution conceptual model. These aspects of volcanism-related dose calculation are described in the context of the entire igneous disruptive events conceptual model in ''Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169989], Section 6.1.1). The Ashplume conceptual model accounts for incorporation and entrainment of waste fuel particles associated with a hypothetical volcanic eruption through the Yucca Mountain repository and downwind transport of contaminated tephra. The Ashplume mathematical model describes the conceptual model in mathematical terms to allow for prediction of radioactive waste/ash deposition on the ground surface given that the hypothetical eruptive event occurs. This model report also describes the conceptual model for tephra redistribution from a basaltic cinder cone. Sensitivity analyses and model validation activities for the ash dispersal and redistribution models are also presented. Analyses documented in this model report update the previous documentation of the Ashplume mathematical model and its application to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application (TSPA-LA) igneous scenarios. This model report also documents the redistribution model product outputs based on analyses to support the conceptual model. In this report, ''Ashplume'' is used when referring to the atmospheric dispersal model and ''ASHPLUME'' is used when referencing the code of that model. Two analysis and model reports provide direct inputs to this model report, namely ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and Number of Waste Packages Hit by Igneous Intrusion''. This model report provides direct inputs to

  6. The Occurrence of Pyrrhotite in the Ngawha Geothermal System, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, M.E.; Browne, P.R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Ngawha geothermal system is low in all sulfide minerals, but in comparison to systems in the Taupo Volcanic Zone it contains more widely distributed pyrrhotite which is currently depositing, mainly in fractures. This reflects the high proportion of vapor in the Ngawha system. Pyrrhotite is most common in the upper part of the reservoir and lower part of the aquitard. The Ngawha pyrrhotite is of monoclinic and monoclinic + hexagonal structure.

  7. Long-term desorption behavior of uranium and neptunium in heterogeneous volcanic tuff materials /

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, Cynthia A.

    2010-05-01

    Uranium and neptunium desorption were studied in long-term laboratory experiments using four well-characterized volcanic tuff cores collected from southeast of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The objectives of the experiments were to 1. Demonstrate a methodology aimed at characterizing distributions of sorption parameters (attributes of multiple sorption sites) that can be applied to moderately-sorbing species in heterogeneous systems to provide more realistic reactive transport parameters and a more realistic approach to modeling transport in heterogeneous systems. 2. Focus on uranium and neptunium because of their high solubility, relatively weak sorption, and high contributions to predicted dose in Yucca Mountain performance assessments. Also, uranium is a contaminant of concern at many DOE legacy sites and uranium mining sites.

  8. The Lathrop Wells volcanic center: Status of field and geochronology studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, B.; Morley, R.; Wells, S.; Geissman, J.; McDonald, E.; McFadden, L.; Perry, F.; Murrell, M.; Poths, J.; Forman, S.

    1993-03-01

    The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is located 20 km south of the potential Yucca Mountain site, at the south end of the Yucca Mountain range. It has long been recognized as the youngest basalt center in the region. However, determination of the age and eruptive history of the center has proven problematic. The purpose of this paper is to describe the status of field and geochronology studies of the Lathrop Wells center. Our perspective is that it is critical to assess all possible methods for obtaining cross-checking data to resolve chronology and field problems. It is equally important to consider application of the range of chronology methods available in Quaternary geologic research. Such an approach seeks to increase the confidence in data interpretations through obtaining convergence among separate isotopic, radiogenic, and age-correlated methods. Finally, the assumptions, strengths, and weaknesses of each dating method need to be carefully described to facilitate an impartial evaluation of results.

  9. Effects of Volcanism, Crustal Thickness, and Large Scale Faulting on the Development and Evolution of Geothermal Systems: Collaborative Project in Chile

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Effects of Volcanism, Crustal Thickness, and Large Scale Faulting on the Development and Evolution of Geothermal Systems: Collaborative Project in Chile presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  10. Four-year prospective study of the respiratory effects of volcanic ash from Mt. St. Helens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buist, A.S.; Vollmer, W.M.; Johnson, L.R.; Bernstein, R.S.; McCamant, L.E.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the 4-yr follow-up of 712 loggers exposed over an extended period to varying levels of fresh volcanic ash from the 1980 eruptions of Mt. St. Helens. Concerns related to the irritant effect the ash might have on the airways and also to its fibrogenic potential if exposures were intense and continued over many years. Our subjects were divided into 3 groups: high, low, and no exposure. Baseline testing was begun in June 1980, 1 month after the major eruption, and follow-up testing continued on an annual basis through 1984; 88% of the loggers have been tested at least 3 times. Analysis of lung function data showed that a significant, exposure-related decline in FEV1 occurred during the first year after the eruption. The decline was short-lived, however, and by 1984 the differences between exposure groups were no longer significant. Self-reported symptoms of cough, phlegm, and wheeze showed a similar pattern. No ash-related changes were seen in chest roentgenograms taken in 1980 and in 1984. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the inhaled ash caused mucus hypersecretion and/or airway inflammation that reversed when the exposure levels decreased. The ash levels to which the loggers were exposed were low compared with permissible occupational levels for nuisance dusts, but generally higher than the total suspended particulate levels permissible in ambient air.

  11. Heteromorphism and crystallization paths of katungites, Navajo volcanic field, Arizona, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laughlin, A.W.; Charles, R.W.; Aldrich, M.J. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A swarm of thin, isochemical but heteromorphic dikes crops out in the valley of Hasbidito Creek in NE Arizona. The swarm is part of the dominantly potassic, mid-Tertiary Navajo volcanic field of the Colorado Plateau. Whole-rock chemical analyses of five samples from four of the dikes indicate that they are chemically identical to the katungites of Uganda. These dikes show the characteristic seriate-porphyritic texture of lamprophyres. Samples of an olivine-melilitite dike from the same swarm lack this texture and the chemical analysis, while similar to those of the other dikes, shows effects from the incorporation of xenocrystic olivine. Over 20 mineral phases have been identified in the Arizona samples and as many as 18 phases may occur in a single sample. The major phases are phlogopite, olivine, perovskite, opaque oxides, +- melilite and +- clinopyroxene. Based upon the modal mineralogies and textures of ten dike samples, we recognize five general non-equilibrium assemblages. Comparison of these assemblages with recent experimental results shows that they represent various combinations of complete and incomplete reactions. Reaction relations were determined by entering melt and phase compositions into the computer program GENMIX to obtain balanced reactions. By combining petrographic observations with mineral chemical data, balanced reactions from GENMIX, and the recently determined phase diagrams we are able to trace crystallization paths for the katungite magma.

  12. Analysis of fractures in volcanic cores from Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Prothro, L.B.; Roberson, K.E.

    1997-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in Nye County, southern Nevada, was the location of 828 announced underground nuclear tests, conducted between 1951 and 1992. Approximately one-third of these tests were detonated near or below the water table. An unavoidable consequence of these testing activities was introducing radionuclides into the subsurface environment, impacting groundwater. Groundwater flows beneath the NTS almost exclusively through interconnected natural fractures in carbonate and volcanic rocks. Information about these fractures is necessary to determine hydrologic parameters for future Corrective Action Unit (CAU)-specific flow and transport models which will be used to support risk assessment calculations for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Underground Test Area (UGTA) remedial investigation. Fracture data are critical in reducing the uncertainty of the predictive capabilities of CAU-specific models because of their usefulness in generating hydraulic conductivity values and dispersion characteristics used in transport modeling. Specifically, fracture aperture and density (spacing) are needed to calculate the permeability anisotropy of the formations. Fracture mineralogy information is used qualitatively to evaluate diffusion and radionuclide retardation potential in transport modeling. All these data can best be collected through examination of core samples.

  13. Aeromagnetic Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    At Kilauea Summit Area (Zablocki, 1978) Kilauea Summit Area Applications of the VLF Induction Method For Studying Some Volcanic Processes of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Aeromagnetic...

  14. Mantle Helium And Carbon Isotopes In Separation Creek Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cold springs in the Separation Creek area near South Sister volcano carry a strong mantle signal, indicating the presence of fresh basaltic magma in the volcanic plumbing system....

  15. Microsoft Word - C_American Indian Resource Document.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Obsidian is a glass-like stone produced by volcanoes. Indian people used a green volcanic ... Continued Operation of the Department of EnergyNational Nuclear Security Administration ...

  16. Lava Dome | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Horst and Graben Shield Volcano Flat Lava Dome Stratovolcano Cinder Cone Caldera Depression Resurgent Dome Complex "Volcanic or lava domes are formed by relatively small,...

  17. Investigation of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade volcanic arc: First phase of a program for scientific drilling in the Cascade Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Priest, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    A phased, multihole drilling program with associated science is proposed as a means of furthering our understanding of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade Range of Washington, Oregon, and northern California. The information obtained from drilling and ancillary geological and geophysical investigations will contribute to our knowledge in the following general areas: (1) the magnitude of the regional background heat flow of parts of the Quaternary volcanic belt dominated by the most abundant volcanic rock types, basalt and basaltic andesite; (2) the nature of the heat source responsible for the regional heat-flow anomaly; (3) the characteristics of the regional hydrothermal and cold-water circulation; the rates of volcanism for comparison with models for the rate and direction of plate convergence of the Cascades; (5) the history of deformation and volcanism in the volcanic arc that can be related to subduction; (6) the present-day stress regime of the volcanic arc and the relation of these stresses to plate interactions and possible large earthquakes; and the current geometry of the subducted oceanic plate below the Cascade Range and the relationship of the plate to the distribution of heat flow, Quaternary volcanism, and Quaternary deformation. Phase I research will be directed toward a detailed investigation of the Santiam Pass segment. In concert with the Santiam Pass research, a detailed study of the nearby Breitenbush Hot Springs area is also recommended as a component of Phase I. The object of the Breitenbush research is to study one of the hottest known Cascade hydrothermal systems, which coincidentally also has a good geological and geophysical data base. A coordinated program of drilling, sampling, subsurface measurements, and surface surveys will be associated with the drilling of several holes.

  18. Identification of Focal Mechanisms of Seisms Occurring in the San Salvador Volcano-Ilopango Lake Area Between 1994 and March 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maria Mendez Martinez, Luz de; Portillo, Mercy

    2009-04-19

    We studied the geographic area located in the central part of El Salvador, between the San Salvador Volcano (Quezaltepec) and Ilopango Lake. Its latitude is between 13 deg. 36' and 13 deg. 54', and longitude is between -89 deg. 18' and -88 deg. 57'. This area is directly affected by the WNW axis, the most prominent weak tectonic system in the region. Our research aimed to determine the focal mechanisms of seisms occurring in the studied area between 1994 and March 2005. Our analysis provided information about displacement types of the geological faults, using the wave impulse P method and computer applications ARCGIS and SEISAN, with the subroutine FOCMEC. Information of the studied seisms was obtained from the National Service of Territorial Studies (SNET) database. Geographic models used in the preparation of maps are from the geographic information system of the School of Physics at the University of El Salvador. The 37 focal mechanisms on the map of faults were identified in digital seismographs to determinate the arrival polarity of the wave P for each seism station. Data from the focal mechanisms were analyzed and correlated with their replications. The analysis allowed us to identify evidences to consider the fault continuity not reported by the last geological mission in El Salvador conducted in the 1970s. The fault continuity is located northwest of the studied geographical area, between San Salvador City and the San Salvador Volcano. The compression and strain axes for this area are two main horizontal force axes. The average orientation for the strain axis is NNE-SSW, and WNW-SEE for the compression axis. There is also important seismic activity in the Ilopango Lake and surrounding area. However, data did not allow us to make any inference. The tensors distribution resulted in a high dispersion corresponding to typical fauces models.

  19. Dynamic coupling of volcanic CO2 flow and wind at the HorseshoeLake tree kill, Mammoth Mountain, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, J.L.; Hilley, G.E.; Tosha, T.; Aoyagi, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Benson, S.M.

    2006-11-20

    We investigate spatio-temporal relationships between soilCO2 flux (FCO2), meteorological variables, and topography over a ten-dayperiod (09/12/2006 to 09/21/2006) at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill,Mammoth Mountain, CA. Total CO2 discharge varied from 16 to 52 t d-1,suggesting a decline in CO2 emissions over decadal timescales. Weobserved systematic changes in FCO2 in space and time in association witha weather front with relatively high wind speeds from the west and lowatmospheric pressures. The largest FCO2 changes were observed inrelatively high elevation areas. The variations in FCO2 may be due todynamic coupling of wind-driven airflow through the subsurface and flowof source CO2 at depth. Our results highlight the influence of weatherfronts on volcanic gas flow in the near-surface environment and how thisinfluence can vary spatially within a study area.

  20. Briefing package for the Yucca Flat pre-emptive review, including overview, UZ model, SZ volcanics model and summary and conclusions sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwicklis, Edward Michael; Keating, Elizabeth H

    2010-12-02

    Much progress has been made in the last several years in modeling radionuclide transport from tests conducted both in the unsaturated zone and saturated volcanic rocks of Yucca Flat, Nevada. The presentations to the DOE NNSA pre-emptive review panel contained herein document the progress to date, and discuss preliminary conclusions regarding the present and future extents of contamination resulting from past nuclear tests. The presentations also discuss possible strategies for addressing uncertainty in the model results.

  1. Iridium geochemistry of volcanic ash layers from the early Eocene rifting of the northeastern North Atlantic and some other Phanerozoic events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitz, B.; Asaro, F. |

    1996-04-01

    This study shows that some types of explosive volcanism can result in significant Ir anomalies (up to 750 ppt); however, these are readily discerned from impact-related, extraterrestrial Ir amomalies by other chemical and mineralogical criteria. Iridium and major and trace elements were analyzed in 34 of the >180 volcanic ash layers in the Fur Formation of early Eocene age in Denmark. These ashes originate from explosive volcanism during rifting of the Greenland-Eurasia continent and subsequent sea-floor spreading in the young northeastern North Atlantic. In addition, 15 older Phanerozoic ashes, associated with other dramatic global events, have been analyzed for Ir. The Fur Formation ashes are unusually well preserved and have a wide compositional range - for example, rhyolitic, dacitic, tholeiitic and alkaline basaltic, mafic alkaline, and different salic alkaline ashes, and ashes with intermediate or unknown magma origin. Iridium shows a bimodal distribution, where all types of salic (alkaline as well as subalkaline) ashes have very low Ir concentrations (<50 ppt), similar to values for average continental crust, whereas all types of basaltic ashes show higher concentrations, generally in the range 70-450 ppt. A strongly alkaline, mafic (nephelinitic) ash holds 102{+-}29 ppt Ir. 97 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Hydrothermal systems in two areas of the Jemez volcanic field: Sulphur Springs and the Cochiti mining district

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WoldeGabriel, G.

    1989-03-01

    K/Ar dates and oxygen isotope data were obtained on 13 clay separates (<2 ..mu..m) of thermally altered mafic and silicic rocks from the Cochiti mining district (SE Jemez Mountains) and Continental Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP) core hole VC-2A (Sulphur Springs, Valles caldera). Illite with K/sub 2/O contents of 6.68%--10.04% is the dominant clay in the silicic rocks, whereas interstratified illite/smectites containing 1.4%--5.74% K/sub 2/O constitute the altered andesites. Two hydrothermal alteration events are recognized at the Cochiti area (8.07 m.y., n = 1, and 6.5--5.6 m.y., n = 6). The older event correlates with the waning stages of Paliza Canyon Formation andesite volcanism (greater than or equal to13 to less than or equal to8.5 m.y.), whereas the younger event correlates with intrusions and gold- and silver-bearing quartz veins associated with the Bearhead Rhyolite (7.54--5.8 m.y.). The majority of K/Ar dates in the hydrothermally altered, caldera-fill rocks of core hole VC-2A (0.83--0.66 m.y., n = 4) indicate that hydrothermal alteration developed contemporaneously with resurgence and ring fracture Valles Rhyolite domes (0.89--0.54 m.y.). One date of 0 +- 0.10 m.y. in acid-altered landslide debris of postcaldera tuffs from the upper 13 m of the core hole probably correlates with Holocene hydrothermal activity possibly associated with the final phases of the Valles Rhyolite (0.13 m.y.).

  3. Hydrothermal dolomitization of Jurassic-Cretaceous limestones in the southern Alps (Italy): Relation to tectonics and volcanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cervato, C. )

    1990-05-01

    Dolomitization has affected up to 750m of the Jurassic and Cretaceous pelagic carbonate sequence of the southern continental margin of the Alpine Tethys; the sequence crops out in the southern Alps of Italy (Monti Lessini). Late Paleocene to Miocene extrusion of basaltic tuffs, breccias, and lavas was contemporaneous with the dolomitization was was associated with extensive tectonism in an ancient back-arc basin. More than 200 samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, cathodoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy, stable isotope ratios (carbon, oxygen, strontium), and clay mineralogy. The dolomite contains 40% to 50% MgCO{sub 3}. In thin sections, the crystal size distribution is unimodal (about 100 {mu}m), possibly indicating a single nucleation for the main crystallization phase. The {delta}{sup 13}C of the dolomite is not appreciably different from the undolomitized pelagic limestone (+1.0{per thousand} to +2.0{per thousand} Peedee belemnite (PDB)). The {delta}{sup 18}O variation (-5.0{per thousand} to -13.0{per thousand} PDB) is due to temperature variation in the system. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio in the dolomite (0.70839-0.70867) is consistent with the ratio in late Oligocene-Miocene marine water. Clay minerals in limestone and dolomite differ in the presence of neoformed Mg-chlorite, indicating a maximum temperature of about 150C for dolomitization. The dolomite is suggested to have a hydrothermal origin. The heat flow associated with the volcanism allowed marine water to penetrate the system and circulate in convective cells through the tectonic breccias, locally dolomitizing the limestone.

  4. The Timber Mountain magmato-thermal event: An intense widespread culmination of magmatic and hydrothermal activity at the southwestern Nevada volcanic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, M.R. Jr.

    1988-05-01

    Eruption of the Rainier Mesa and Ammonia Tanks Members Timber Mountain Tuff at about 11.5 and 11.3 Ma, respectively, resulted in formation of the timber Mountain (TM) caldera; new K-Ar ages show that volcanism within and around the TM caldera continued for about 1 m.y. after collapse. Some TM age magmatic activity took place west and southeast of the TM caldera in the Beatty -- Bullfrog Hills and Shoshone Mountain areas, suggesting that volcanic activity at the TM caldera was an intense expression of an areally extensive magmatic system active from about 11.5 to 10Ma. Epithermal Au-Ag, Hg and fluorite mineralization and hydrothermal alteration are found in both within and surrounding the Timber Mountain -- Oasis Valley caldera complex. New K-Ar ages date this hydrothermal activity between about 13 and 10 Ma, largely between about 11.5 and 10 Ma, suggesting a genetic relation of hydrothermal activity to the TM magmatic system.

  5. Development of a geothermal resource in a fractured volcanic formation: Case study of the Sumikawa Geothermal Field, Japan. Final report, May 1, 1995--November 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, S.K.; Combs, J.; Pritchett, J.W.

    1997-07-01

    The principal purpose of this case study of the Sumikawa Geothermal Field is to document and to evaluate the use of drilling logs, surface and downhole geophysical measurements, chemical analyses and pressure transient data for the assessment of a high temperature volcanic geothermal field. This comprehensive report describes the work accomplished during FY 1993-1996. A brief review of the geological and geophysical surveys at the Sumikawa Geothermal Field is presented (Section 2). Chemical data, consisting of analyses of steam and water from Sumikawa wells, are described and interpreted to indicate compositions and temperatures of reservoir fluids (Section 3). The drilling information and downhole pressure, temperature and spinner surveys are used to determine feedzone locations, pressures and temperatures (Section 4). Available injection and production data from both slim holes and large-diameter wells are analyzed to evaluate injectivity/productivity indices and to investigate the variation of discharge rate with borehole diameter (Section 5). New interpretations of pressure transient data from several wells are discussed (Section 6). The available data have been synthesized to formulate a conceptual model for the Sumikawa Geothermal Field (Section 7).

  6. Cascades/Aleutian Play Fairway Analysis: Data and Map Files

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa Shevenell

    2015-11-15

    Contains Excel data files used to quantifiably rank the geothermal potential of each of the young volcanic centers of the Cascade and Aleutian Arcs using world power production volcanic centers as benchmarks. Also contains shapefiles used in play fairway analysis with power plant, volcano, geochemistry and structural data.

  7. Sequence stratigraphy of carbonate buildups developed in an active tectonic/volcanic setting: Triassic (Late Ladinian and Carnian) of the Dolomites, northern Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yose, L.A. ); Littmann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    Late Ladinian and Carnian deposits of the Dolomites record the evolution of carbonate buildups developed during the waning phases of a major period of volcanism and strike-slip tectonics. Each separate buildup provides an independent record of eustasy, tectonism, and competing carbonate and volcaniclastic sedimentation. Palynomorphs, calibrated with ammonites, are used to correlate between buildups and provide a means for distinguishing local variations in buildup histories from regional, synchronous trends in sedimentation which may record third-order eustasy. Although individual buildup histories vary dramatically, two depositional sequences may be recorded at a regional scale: one of late Ladinian age (early to late Longobardian) and another of late Ladinian to middle Carnian age (late Longobardian to Cordevolian). A relative sea-level fall in the late Ladinian resulted in an increased supply of volcaniclastics that onlap the flanks of many buildups and/or downslope shifts in carbonate production. Buildups of the second sequence developed in response to a relative sea-level rise and are similar in diversity to those of the first sequence. Extensive buildup progradation and accretion during this phase, concomitant with mixed-carbonate/volcaniclastic basin filling and diminished tectonic activity, result in a regional suturing of the complex paleogeography developed during the middle Ladinian. Local paleogeography, determined by the distribution of earlier platforms in addition to tectonic and volcanogenic processes, is interpreted as the primary control over buildup geometries and the variability of buildups within sequences. However, the regional extent and synchroneity of the sequences described above many record third-order eustasy.

  8. Adventive Hydrothermal Circulation On Stromboli Volcano (Aeolian...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on May 2008 a multidisciplinary study involving Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Self-Potential (SP), CO2 soil diffuse degassing and soil...

  9. Geology of Kilauea Volcano | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. Authors Richard B. Moore and Frank A. Trusdell Published Journal Geothermics, 1993 DOI Not Provided Check for...

  10. Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration Geothermal Project | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Known Geothermal Resource Area ("Newberry"). Four deep, high temperature, very low permeability, production-size wells have been completed at Newberry, including two currently...

  11. Annotated bibliography hydrogeology of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Scholl, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    The report consists of report documentation and short abstracts relating to the hydrology, geology, rainfall, ground water, water table and evapotranspiration, etc. relating to the whole island.

  12. Haleakala Volcano Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean Capacity: Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and Infrastructure...

  13. Haleakala Volcano Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean Capacity: Click "Edit With...

  14. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volcanoes Description: Build your own model volcano to demonstrate volcanic activity by combining baking soda and vinegar causing an acid-base reaction. Acetic acid (a weak acid) reacts with and neutralizes sodium bicarbonate (a base). The carbon dioxide that is given off is a gas. Carbon dioxide is responsible for the fizzing and bubbling during the 'eruption'. Ingredients: Baking soda, Vinegar Dish soap (optional), Food coloring (optional) 1 paper plate (9" ), 1 small Dixie cup (3 oz)

  15. Geological hazards programs and research in the U. S. A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filson, J.R. )

    1988-01-01

    Geological hazards have been studied for centuries, but government support of research to lessen their effects is relatively new. This article briefly describes government programs and research underway in the U.S.A. that are directed towards reducing losses of life and property from earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and landslides. The National Earthquake program is described, including four basic research areas: plate tectonics; estimation of the earthquakes; and effects and hazards assessment. The Volcano Studies Program has three areas of research: fundamentals of volcanoes; hazards assessments; and volcano monitoring. Three research areas are included in landslide studies: land slide processes; prediction; inventory and susceptibility studies.

  16. DECOVALEX-THMC Task D: Long-Term Permeability/Porosity Changes inthe EDZ and Near Field due to THM and THC Processes in Volcanic andCrystaline-Bentonite Systems, Status Report October 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Sonnenthal, E.; Barr, D.

    2005-11-01

    The DECOVALEX project is an international cooperativeproject initiated by SKI, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, withparticipation of about 10 international organizations. The name DECOVALEXstands for DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation againstExperiments. The general goal of this project is to encouragemultidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modelingcoupled processes in geologic formations in support of the performanceassessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. Three multi-yearproject stages of DECOVALEX have been completed in the past decade,mainly focusing on coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanicalprocesses.Currently, a fourth three-year project stage of DECOVALEX isunder way, referred to as DECOVALEX-THMC. THMC stands for Thermal,Hydrological, Mechanical, and Chemical processes. The new project stageaims at expanding the traditional geomechanical scope of the previousDECOVALEX project stages by incorporating geochemical processes importantfor repository performance. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leadsTask D of the new DECOVALEX phase, entitled "Long-termPermeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THC andTHM Processes for Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems." In itsleadership role for Task D, DOE coordinates and sets the direction forthe cooperative research activities of the international research teamsengaged in Task D.

  17. Ohaaki Geothermal Power Station | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Station General Information Name Ohaaki Geothermal Power Station Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Location 20km NE of Taupo, Waikato, New Zealand Coordinates...

  18. Poihipi Power Station | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Poihipi Power Station General Information Name Poihipi Power Station Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Location Poihipi Road, Near Taupo, Waikato, New Zealand...

  19. Rotokawa Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Plant General Information Name Rotokawa Geothermal Power Plant Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Location 14km NE of Taupo, Waikato, New Zealand Coordinates...

  20. Stratovolcano | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Neogene to Recent Volcanics 30 MW30,000 kW 30,000,000 W 30,000,000,000 mW 0.03 GW 3.0e-5 TW References 1.0 1.1 John Watson. Principal Types of Volcanoes Internet. 2011....

  1. Isotope Geochemistry Of Minerals And Fluids From Newberry Volcano...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    20 hour flow test are -10.2 and -109, respectively. The D value of the hydrothermal water indicates recharge from outside the caldera. Authors William W. Carothers, Robert H....

  2. Analysis Of Multiple Scattering At Vesuvius Volcano, Italy, Using...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of d0.1 km2s for the frequency range of 2-16 Hz. Assuming the dominance of S-waves in the coda and a typical S-wave velocity of around 1.5 kms, this corresponds to a...

  3. Mudpots, Mud Pools, or Mud Volcanoes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Control Structure Host Rock Age Host Rock Lithology Mean Capacity Mean Reservoir Temp Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region Accommodation...

  4. A Strontium Isotopic Study Of Newberry Volcano, Central Oregon...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    upper crust facilitates contamination of basaltic magma rising through it. Authors Gordon G. Goles and Richard St J. Lambert Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal...

  5. Aster Watches The World'S Volcanoes- A New Paradigm For Volcanological...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The spatial resolutions are 15 mpixel in the visible, 30 mpixel in the near-IR, and 90 mpixel at thermal wavelengths, and the swath width is 60 km. ASTER instrument...

  6. Chemistry of spring and well waters on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    determine the chemistry of dilute meteoric water, mixtures with sea water,and thermal water. Data for well and spring samples of non-thermal water indicate that mixing with sea...

  7. Direct-Current Resistivity At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    deviations from expected ratios. One well was also found to have an abnormally high sulfate concentration. All three wells are located in the same general area and are sampling...

  8. Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    deviations from expected ratios. One well was also found to have an abnormally high sulfate concentration. All three wells are located in the same general area and are sampling...

  9. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Haleakala Volcano Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    deviations from expected ratios. One well was also found to have an abnormally high sulfate concentration. All three wells are located in the same general area and are sampling...

  10. Gas Flux Sampling At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    deviations from expected ratios. One well was also found to have an abnormally high sulfate concentration. All three wells are located in the same general area and are sampling...

  11. Geoelectric Studies on the East Rift, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    these areas was chosen as the site of a test hole. Authors G. V. KELLER, C. K. SKOKAN, J. J. SKOKAN, J. DANIELS, J. P. KAUAHIKAUA, D. P. KLEIN and C. J. ZABLOCKI Published...

  12. Eruptive and Geomorphic Processes at the Lathrop Wells Scoria Cone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Valentine; D.J. Krier; F.V. Perry; G. Heiken

    2006-08-03

    The {approx}80 ka Lathrop Wells volcano (southern Nevada, U.S.A.) preserves evidence for a range of explosive processes and emplacement mechanisms of pyroclastic deposits and lava fields in a small-volume basaltic center. Early cone building by Strombolian bursts was accompanied by development of a fan-like lava field reaching {approx}800 m distance from the cone, built upon a gently sloping surface. Lava flows carried rafts of cone deposits, which provide indirect evidence for cone facies in lieu of direct exposures in the active quarry. Subsequent activity was of a violent Strombolian nature, with many episodes of sustained eruption columns up to a few km in height. These deposited layers of scoria lapilli and ash in different directions depending upon wind direction at the time of a given episode, reaching up to {approx}20 km from the vent, and also produced the bulk of the scoria cone. Lava effusion migrated from south to north around the eastern base of the cone as accumulation of lavas successively reversed the topography at the base of the cone. Late lavas were emplaced during violent Strombolian activity and continued for some time after explosive eruptions had waned. Volumes of the eruptive products are: fallout--0.07 km{sup 3}, scoria cone--0.02 km{sup 3}, and lavas--0.03 km{sup 3}. Shallow-derived xenolith concentrations suggest an upper bound on average conduit diameter of {approx}21 m in the uppermost 335 m beneath the volcano. The volcano was constructed over a period of at least seven months with cone building occurring only during part of that time, based upon analogy with historical eruptions. Post-eruptive geomorphic evolution varied for the three main surface types that were produced by volcanic activity: (1) scoria cone, (2) low relief surfaces (including lavas) with abundant pyroclastic material, and (3) lavas with little pyroclastic material. The role of these different initial textures must be accounted for in estimating relative ages of

  13. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  14. High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Mapping Of Volcanic Terrain, Yellowstone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    anomalies coincides with the mapped extent of several post-caldera rhyolitic lavas. Linear magnetic anomalies reflect the rectilinear fault systems characteristic of...

  15. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Lassen Volcanic National Park...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and hot springs in the Lassen area for comparison. Analytical methods are outlined in Goff and Janik (2002, p.305). References Cathy J. Janik, Marcia K. McLaren (2010) Seismicity...

  16. Static Temperature Survey At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    indicate that the well has penetrated a lateral outflow plume of thermal water (Goff et al., 1988). References Cathy J. Janik, Marcia K. McLaren (2010) Seismicity And Fluid...

  17. Cenozoic volcanic geology of the Basin and Range province in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Basin and Range province in Hidalgo County, southwestern New Mexico Authors Deal, E. G., Elston, W.E., Erb, E. E., Peterson, S. L., & Reiter and D. E. Conference 29th Field...

  18. A Volcanologist'S Review Of Atmospheric Hazards Of Volcanic Activity...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a process of particle aggregation (Sorem, 1982; Carey and Sigurdsson, 1982; Rose and Hoffman, 1982). There is some evidence to suggest that particle aggregation is particularly...

  19. Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Lassen Volcanic National Park...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    portions of both the random and non-random components of the seismicity. The methodology employed compares the seismicity distributions with a generalized Poisson...

  20. Type D: Sedimentary-hosted, Volcanic-related Resource | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    F 1,035.27 R References Colin F. Williams, Marshall J. Reed and Arlene F. Anderson. 2011. Updating the Classification of Geothermal Resources - Presentation. In:...

  1. CT Scan of Earth Links Mantle Plumes with Volcanic Hotspots

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC PI: Barbara Romanowicz Lead Institution: University of California, Berkeley Project ... Image: Scott French, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California, ...

  2. A Pliocene Shoaling Basaltic Seamount- Ba Volcanic Group At Rakiraki...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    or temporary storage in shoreline or shallow water environments prior to redeposition. Red, oxidised lava and scoria clasts in bedded breccia and conglomerate also imply that the...

  3. A Preparation Zone For Volcanic Explosions Beneath Naka-Dake...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    activity including a decrease in the level of the lake water, mud eruptions, and red hot glows on the crater wall. Temporal variations in the geomagnetic field observed...

  4. San Francisco Volcanic Field Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Environmental Issues Click "Edit With Form" above to add content Exploration History First Discovery Well Completion Date: Well Name: Location: Depth: Initial Flow...

  5. Helium Isotopes in Geothermal and Volcanic Gases of the Western...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    are also occurring, although near-surface, pH-related CO2HCO3 equilibria obscure the nature of this effect.Substantial changes in View the MathML source ratios were observed in...

  6. Effects of Volcanism, Crustal Thickness, and Large Scale Faulting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    meeting held in Denver, Colorado. collaborativeprojectchilepeer2013.pdf (916.09 KB) ... Systems, Hawaii & Maui Validation of Innovation Exploration Technologies for Newberry ...

  7. CV-2b: Plutonic - Inactive Volcanism | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    properties:2 Geologic Setting - Convergent Margins with Recent Plutonism (< 3 Ma), Young Orogens, Post-orogenic Phase Heat SourceStorage Properties of Reservoir - Young...

  8. Type B: Andesitic Volcanic Resource | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to moderate Surface manifestations - Restricted- depending on depth and shallow ground water Permeability - Low to moderate fracture permeability - often high Examples Want to...

  9. Stratigraphic Nomenclature of Volcanic Rocks in the Jemez Mountains...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the formations are refined by radiometric dating. Authors Roy A. Bailey, Robert Leland Smith and Clarence Samuel Ross Published U.S. Geological Survey, 1969 DOI Not Provided Check...

  10. Geothermometry At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    sample taken had a pH of 8.35 and contained 2100 ppm Cl and 0.55 ppm NH3. Ratios of Na+K+ and Na+Cl remained nearly constant throughout the flow test. Cation geothermometers...

  11. Saturated Zone Plumes in Volcanic Rock: Implications for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Kelkar; R. Roback; B. Robinson; G. Srinivasan; C. Jones; P. Reimus

    2006-02-14

    This paper presents a literature survey of the occurrences of radionuclide plumes in saturated, fractured rocks. Three sites, Idaho National laboratory, Hanford, and Oak Ridge are discussed in detail. Results of a modeling study are also presented showing that the length to width ratio of a plume starting within the repository footprint at the Yucca Mountain Project site, decreases from about 20:1 for the base case to about 4:1 for a higher value of transverse dispersivity, indicating enhanced lateral spreading of the plume. Due to the definition of regulatory requirements, this lateral spreading does not directly impact breakthrough curves at the 18 km compliance boundary, however it increases the potential that a plume will encounter reducing conditions, thus significantly retarding the transport of sorbing radionuclides.

  12. COLLOQUIUM: Volcanism, Impacts and Mass Extinctions: Causes and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at PPPL, adult visitors must show a government-issued photo I.D. - for example, a passport or a driver's license. Non-U.S. citizens must show a government-issued photo I.D.,...

  13. Groundwater in the Southwestern Part of the Jemez Mountains Volcanic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the base flow of the streams, and is the source of water supply in the region. This report is a brief preliminary description of ground water in part of the Jemez Mountains...

  14. Magnetic Modeling Of The Phlegraean Volcanic District With Extension...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    structures associated with CFc and Ischia, Procida-Vivara, Ventotene and Santo Stefano islands, have been interpreted as igneous bodies that may be solidified intrusions or...

  15. Heterogeneous Structure Around the Jemez Volcanic Field, New...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    such as magma ascent from the upper mantle to the crust. Authors Takeshi Nishimura, Michael Fehler, W. Scott Baldridge, Peter Roberts and Lee Steck Published Journal...

  16. Effects of Volcanism, Crustal Thickness, and Large Scale Faulting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... at Stanford Geothermal Workshop Feb. 2013 Interpret data in context of regional and local geology Initial interpretation completed - analysis ongoing Ongoing 12 | US DOE ...

  17. Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    isotope ratios in gases of thirty hot springs and geothermal wells and of five natural gas wells in the western United States show no relationship to regional conductive heat...

  18. Application Of Gravity And Deep Dipole Geoelectrics In The Volcanic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    classes, by a trial-and-error adjustment to the relationship between resistivity and density, a 3-D block model of the basement was finally constructed, which consistently...

  19. Lassen Volcanic National Park Geothermal Area | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Image needs updating Reference needed Missing content Broken link Other Additional Comments Cancel Submit Categories: Geothermal Available for Case Study Geothermal Resource Areas...

  20. Melt zones beneath five volcanic complexes in California: an...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bridge. Related Geothermal Exploration Activities Activities (4) Geothermal Literature Review At Coso Geothermal Area (1984) Geothermal Literature Review At Geysers...

  1. Melt Zones Beneath Five Volcanic Complexes in California: An...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    No.: LBL-18232. Related Geothermal Exploration Activities Activities (1) Geothermal Literature Review At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Goldstein & Flexser, 1984) Areas (1)...

  2. San Francisco Volcanic Field Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  3. Lassen Volcanic National Park Geothermal Area | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  4. San Juan Volcanic Field Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  5. San Juan Volcanic Field Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean Capacity: Click "Edit With...

  6. Volcanism, Structure, and Geochronology of Long Valley Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mono County, California Abstract Long Valley caldera, a 17- by 32-km elliptical depression on the east front of the Sierra Nevada, formed 0.7 m.y. ago during eruption of the...

  7. Temporal Relations of Volcanism and Hydrothermal Systems in Two...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and oxygen-isotope data provide strong evidence that the epithermal quartz-vein-hosted gold-silver mineralization at Cochiti and the sub-ore grade molybdenite at VC-2A were...

  8. Mercury Vapor At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Varekamp...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References J. C. Varekamp, P. R. Buseck (1983) Hg Anomalies In Soils- A Geochemical Exploration Method For Geothermal Areas Additional...

  9. Late Cenozoic volcanism, geochronology, and structure of the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    rocks that were erupted during two periods, as defined by K-Ar dating: (1) 4.0--2.5 m.y., approx.31 km3 of basalt, rhyodacite, dacite, andesite, and rhyolite, in descending...

  10. Hazard assessment in geothermal exploration: The case of Mt. Parker, Southern Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delfin, F.G. Jr.; Salonga, N.D.; Bayon, F.E.B.

    1996-12-31

    Hazard assessment of the Mt. Parker geothermal prospect, conducted in parallel with the surface exploration from 1992 to 1994, was undertaken to determine the long-term suitability of the prospect for development. By comparison with other acidic magmatic-hydrothermal systems in the Philippines, the geochemical data indicated minimal input of acidic magmatic fluids into Mt. Parker`s hydrothermal system. This system was regarded to be a neutral-pH and high-enthalpy chloride reservoir with temperature of at least 200-250{degrees}C. These favorable geochemical indications contrasted sharply with the C-14 and volcanological data indicating a shallow magmatic body with a potential for future eruption. This hazard led PNOC EDC to discontinue the survey and abandon the prospect by late 1994. On September 6, 1995, a flashflood of non-volcanic origin from the caldera lake killed nearly 100 people on the volcano`s northwestern flank.

  11. Total arsenic in water, fish, and sediments from Lake Xolotlan, Managua, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacayo, M.L.; Cruz, A.; Calero, S.; Lacayo, J.; Fomsgaard, I. )

    1992-09-01

    In recent years there has been increasing concern over arsenic in aquatic environments from such sources as arsenical pesticides, smelters, coal-fired power plants and erosion caused by extensive land use. Another important contribution to As in the environment is the release associated with volcanic activity and hot springs. Lake Xolotlan has a surface area of 1000 km[sup 2]. The content of arsenic in Lake Xolotlan has different origins, such as volcanic activity in the area, waste water from a geothermal plant situated in the Momotombo Volcano on the northwest coast of the lake and a high number of hot springs. The objective of the present study was to determine total As in water, sediments and fish in Lake Xolotlan at different sampling sites. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. New structural limits on magma chamber locations at the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallmann, P.C.; Pollard, D.D. ); Hildreth, W. ); Eichelberger, J.C. )

    1990-12-01

    New structural data from the Novarupta basin, Katmai National Park, Alaska, site of the largest volcanic eruption of this century (1912), provide limits for the location of magma chambers associated with this eruption. To investigate the subsurface structure of the 1912 vents, and to support an interdisciplinary study of this young volcanic system, a project of geologic mapping of surficial and bedrock structures in the vent region of the 1912 eruption has been undertaken. Landslide scarps, arcuate grabens, a monoclinal fold, and truncated ridges circumscribe the Novarupta basin, marking the inferred outer rim of the vent. A set of radial fissures crosses the southern margin of the basin, striking {approximately}140{degree}, subparallel to the dominant bedrock joint set. These fissures and joints, along with the local plate-motion vector and the inferred regional stress orientation, are consistent with a feeder dike propagating from a reservoir beneath Trident volcano to the eruptive vent.

  13. 238U Decay Series Systematics Of Young Lavas From Batur Volcano...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    or post-eruptive condensation of volatile Pb salts in vesicles. Authors K. H. Rubin, G. E. Wheller, M. O. Tanzer, J. D. MacDougall, R. Varne and R. Finkel Published...

  14. EA-1897: AltaRock's Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration near Bend, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to create an Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Demonstration Project involving new technology, techniques, and advanced monitoring protocols for the purpose of testing the feasibility and viability of EGS for renewable energy production.

  15. Geological Aspects Of The 2003-2004 Eruption Of Anatahan Volcano...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Eastern Crater in the eastern part of the summit caldera on the evening of 10 May. Brown tephra was sent mainly westward by strong winds. Small-scale pyroclastic surges were...

  16. Anomalously High B-Values In The South Flank Of Kilauea Volcano...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    down rift. The anomalously high b-values at the center of the South Flank, several kilometers away from the rift, may be explained by unusually high pore pressure throughout the...

  17. Structure Of The Lower East Rift Zone Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This survey was not successful in determining the depth of the high-velocity material. The longer traverse seismic refraction survey of 1977 outlined a high-velocity body...

  18. Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Drill Site Location Map 2010

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jaffe, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Newberry project drill site location map 2010. Once the exploration mythology is validated, it can be applied throughout the Cascade Range and elsewhere to locate and develop blind geothermal resources.

  19. Magmatic History Of The East Rift Zone Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    throughout the section demonstrate that these lavas have the same compositional range as historical Kilauea lavas and that there was no systematic geochemical variation for the...

  20. Structure of Precambrian crust in the U. S. from COCORP deep seismic profiling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1992-01-01

    COCORP and industry seismic reflection profiles probing beneath the thin veneer of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the US mid-continent are mapping a complex, largely unknown three dimensional mosaic of major fault zones and sutures, a highly variable Moho, and extensive sequences of unexplored volcanic and/or sedimentary strata. Key features of the Precambrian suggested by COCORP and other deep profiling include: Pervasive, distributed reflectivity, often diffractive, dominating the middle and lower crust. Moho that is rarely reflective, usually evident as a downward transition of distributed crustal reflectivity into mantle transparency. Volcano-clastic filled graben of the late Proterozoic Keweenawan rift buried beneath Paleozoic strata in Kansas and Michigan. Extensive, subhorizontal Precambrian stratification in the upper crust beneath the east- central US and the Texas-Oklahoma border region, argued to be either an extensive volcano-clastic basin, a voluminous felsic volcanic outpouring or a major intrusive sill complex. Crustal penetrating, dipping reflection zones that mark known (Grenville front) or inferred (Cashocton zone, Trans-Hudson orogen) shear zones. Non-reflective ( ) basement beneath the Appalachian foreland suggesting transparent massifs'' that serve as collisional buttresses during terrane accretion. Deep structure is sometimes at odds with simple extrapolations of surface geology. Clearly deep seismic profiling has only begun to reveal the buried craton in the US. It is time for an integrated program for the systematic exploration of this special scientific frontier.

  1. Geothermal Resources Assessment in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    The Hawaii Geothermal Resources Assessment Program was initiated in 1978. The preliminary phase of this effort identified 20 Potential Geothermal Resource Areas (PGRA's) using available geological, geochemical and geophysical data. The second phase of the Assessment Program undertook a series of field studies, utilizing a variety of geothermal exploration techniques, in an effort to confirm the presence of thermal anomalies in the identified PGRA's and, if confirmed, to more completely characterize them. A total of 15 PGRA's on four of the five major islands in the Hawaiian chain were subject to at least a preliminary field analysis. The remaining five were not considered to have sufficient resource potential to warrant study under the personnel and budget constraints of the program. The island of Kauai was not studied during the current phase of investigation. Geothermal field studies were not considered to be warranted due to the absence of significant geochemical or geophysical indications of a geothermal resource. The great age of volcanism on this island would further suggest that should a thermal resource be present, it would be of low temperature. The geothermal field studies conducted on Oahu focused on the caldera complexes of the two volcanic systems which form the island: Waianae volcano and Koolau volcano. The results of these studies and the interpreted probability for a resource are presented.

  2. Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments; Multi-phase Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys in Overt and Subtle Volcanic Systems, Hawai’i and Maui

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fercho, Steven; Owens, Lara; Walsh, Patrick; Drakos, Peter; Martini, Brigette; Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Kennedy, Burton M.

    2015-08-01

    Suites of new geophysical and geochemical exploration surveys were conducted to provide evidence for geothermal resource at the Haleakala Southwest Rift Zone (HSWRZ) on Maui Island, Hawai’i. Ground-based gravity (~400 stations) coupled with heli-bourne magnetics (~1500 line kilometers) define both deep and shallow fractures/faults, while also delineating potentially widespread subsurface hydrothermal alteration on the lower flanks (below approximately 1800 feet a.s.l.). Multi-level, upward continuation calculations and 2-D gravity and magnetic modeling provide information on source depths, but lack of lithologic information leaves ambiguity in the estimates. Additionally, several well-defined gravity lows (possibly vent zones) lie coincident with magnetic highs suggesting the presence of dike intrusions at depth which may represent a potentially young source of heat. Soil CO2 fluxes were measured along transects across geophysically-defined faults and fractures as well as young cinder cones along the HSWRZ. This survey generally did not detect CO2 levels above background, with the exception of a weak anomalous flux signal over one young cinder cone. The general lack of observed CO2 flux signals on the HSWRZ is likely due to a combination of lower magmatic CO2 fluxes and relatively high biogenic surface CO2 fluxes which mix with the magmatic signal. Similar surveys at the Puna geothermal field on the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone (KLERZ) also showed a lack of surface CO2 flux signals, however aqueous geochemistry indicated contribution of magmatic CO2 and He to shallow groundwater here. As magma has been intercepted in geothermal drilling at the Puna field, the lack of measured surface CO2 flux indicative of upflow of magmatic fluids here is likely due to effective “scrubbing” by high groundwater and a mature hydrothermal system. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations, δ13C compositions and 3He/4He values were sampled at Maui from several shallow groundwater samples indicating only minor additions of magmatic CO2 and He to the groundwater system, although much less than observed near Puna. The much reduced DIC and He abundances at Maui, along with a lack of hotsprings and hydrothermal alteration, as observed near Puna, does not strongly support a deeper hydrothermal system within the HSWRZ.

  3. Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments; Multi-phase Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys in Overt & Subtle Volcanic Systems, Hawaii & Maui

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Technologies Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project Objective: To use a combination of traditional geophysical and geochemical tools with exploration suites not typically used in geothermal exploration.

  4. Preliminary report on shallow research drilling in the Salton Sea region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newmark, R.L.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Younker, L.W.

    1988-01-14

    During two shallow thermal drilling programs, thermal measurements were obtained in 56 shallow (76.2 m) and one intermediate (457.3 m) depth holes located both onshore and offshore along the southern margin of the Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley, California. These data complete the surficial coverage of the thermal anomaly, revealing the shape and lateral extent of the hydrothermal system. The thermal data show the region of high thermal gradients to extend only a short distance offshore to the north of the Quaternary volcanic domes which are exposed along the southern shore of the Salton Sea. The central thermal anomaly has an arcuate shape, about 4 km wide and 12 km long. Across the center of the anomaly, the transition zone between locations exhibiting high thermal gradients and those exhibiting regional thermal gradients is quite narrow. Thermal gradients rise from near regional (0.09/degree/C/m) to extreme (0.83/degree/C/m) in only 2.4 km. The heat flow in the central part of the anomaly is greater than 600 mW/m/sup 2/ and in some areas exceeds 1200 mW/m/sup 2/. The shape of the thermal anomaly is asymmetric with respect to the line of volcanoes previously thought to represent the center of the field, with its center line offset south of the volcanic buttes. There is no broad thermal anomaly associated with the magnetic high that extends offshore to the northeast from the volcanic domes.

  5. CV-2a: Plutonic - Recent or Active Volcanism | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    dry steam geothermal field was the first geothermal resource to be utilized for electricity generation in 1911 (reference: reuk.co.uk) Famous plutonic geothermal plays...

  6. Late Cenozoic Ring Faulting and Volcanism in the Coso Range Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to the surface during the past few million years. Author Wendell A. Duffield Published Journal Geology, 1975 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org...

  7. The Long Valley/Mono Basin Volcanic Complex: A Preliminary Magnetotell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    exhibiting a variety of tectonic activity. Both the telluric field and magnetic induction arrows imply the presence of a structurally controlled east-west electric current...

  8. Some Aspects Of Exploration In Non-Volcanic Areas | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aeromagnetic Survey (Nannini, 1986) Ground Gravity Survey (Nannini, 1986) Ground Magnetics (Nannini, 1986) Reflection Survey (Nannini, 1986) Areas (1) Unspecified Regions (0)...

  9. Alteration Patterns In Volcanic Rocks Within An East-West Traverse...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    probably exceeded 100Ckm. There are also (iii) local alteration aureoles around gold-bearing quartz veins. The regional alteration assemblages include minerals that, under...

  10. Non-destructive determination of trace-element concentrations. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, G.E.; Zoller, W.H.; Walters, W.B.

    1980-08-01

    In this year's Report, the neutron-capture prompt ..gamma..-ray activation analysis (PGAA) for trace-element concentrations was used in several new types of samples such as: volcanic samples which included yellow deposits found near volcanoes, fresh ash samples, and suspended particles in plumes from Mt. St. Helens with aircraft; energy related samples which were coal, coal fly ash, oil shale, shale oil and oil; biological samples of freeze-dried blood and liver; neutron-capture cross-sections of borehole samples; and boron in semiconductor silicon. The report includes recommended ..gamma..-ray lines for quantitative determinations, systems improvements of the beam filter system, second sample position and data handling facilities.

  11. Geology of the Pavana geothermal area, Departamento de Choluteca, Honduras, Central America: Field report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eppler, D.B.; Heiken, G.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Paredes, J.R.; Duffield, W.A.

    1987-09-01

    The Pavana geothermal area is located in southern Honduras near the Gulf of Fonseca. This region is underlain by late Tertiary volcanic rocks. Within ranges near the geothermal manifestations, the rock sequences is characterized by intermediate to mafic laharic breccias and lavas overlain by silicic tuffs and lavas, which are in turn overlain by intermediate to mafic breccias, lavas, and tuffs. The nearest Quaternary volcanoes are about 40 km to the southwest, where the chain of active Central American volcanoes crosses the mouth of the Gulf of Fonseca. Structure of the Pavana area is dominated by generally northwest-trending, southwest-dipping normal faults. This structure is topographically expressed as northwest-trending escarpments that bound blocks of bedrock separated by asymmetric valleys that contain thin alluvial deposits. Thermal waters apparently issue from normal faults and are interpreted as having been heated during deep circulation along fault zones within a regional environment of elevated heat flow. Natural outflow from the main thermal area is about 3000 l/min of 60/sup 0/C water. Geothermometry of the thermal waters suggests a reservoir base temperature of about 150/sup 0/C.

  12. Alaska Open-file Report 144 Assessment of Thermal Springs Sites Aleutian Arc, Atka Island to Becherof Lake -- Preliminary Results and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motyka, R.J.; Moorman, M.A.; Liss, S.A.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty of more than 30 thermal spring areas reported to exist in the Aleutian arc extending from Atka Island to Becherof Lake were investigated during July and August, 1980. Thermal activity of three of these sites had diminished substantially or no longer existed. At least seven more sites where thermal-spring activity is probable or certain were not visited because of their remoteness or because of time constraints. The existence of several other reported thermal spring sites could not be verified; these sites are considered questionable. On the basis of geothermometry, subsurface reservoir temperatures in excess of 150 C are estimated for 10 of the thermal spring sites investigated. These sites all occur in or near regions of Recent volcanism. Five of the sites are characterized by fumaroles and steaming ground, indicating the presence of at least a shallow vapor-dominated zone. Two, the Makushin Valley and Glacier Valley thermal areas, occur on the flanks of active Mukushin Volcano located on Unalaska Island, and may be connected to a common source of heat. Gas geothermometry suggests that the reservoir feeding the Kliuchef thermal field, located on the flanks of Kliuchef volcano of northeast Atka Island, may be as high as 239 C.

  13. Mechanism of instantaneous coal outbursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, P.; Wang, H.Y.; Zhang, Y.X.

    2009-10-15

    Thousands of mine workers die every year from mining accidents, and instantaneous coal outbursts in underground coal mines are one of the major killers. Various models for these outbursts have been proposed, but the precise mechanism is still unknown. We hypothesize that the mechanism of coal outbursts is similar to magma fragmentation during explosive volcanic eruptions; i.e., it is caused by high gas pressure inside coal but low ambient pressure on it, breaking coal into pieces and releasing the high-pressure gas in a shock wave. Hence, coal outbursts may be regarded as another type of gas-driven eruption, in addition to explosive volcanic, lake, and possible ocean eruptions. We verify the hypothesis by experiments using a shock-tube apparatus. Knowing the mechanism of coal outbursts is the first step in developing prediction and mitigation measures. The new concept of gas-driven solid eruption is also important to a better understanding of salt-gas outbursts, rock-gas outbursts, and mud volcano eruptions.

  14. Understanding heat and groundwater flow through continental flood basalt provinces: insights gained from alternative models of permeability/depth relationships for the Columbia Plateau, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, Erick R.; Williams, Colin F.; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Voss, Clifford I.; Spane, Frank A.; DeAngelo, Jacob

    2015-02-01

    Heat-flow mapping of the western USA has identified an apparent low-heat-flow anomaly coincident with the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, a thick sequence of basalt aquifers within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A heat and mass transport model (SUTRA) was used to evaluate the potential impact of groundwater flow on heat flow along two different regional groundwater flow paths. Limited in situ permeability (k) data from the CRBG are compatible with a steep permeability decrease (approximately 3.5 orders of magnitude) at 600–900 m depth and approximately 40°C. Numerical simulations incorporating this permeability decrease demonstrate that regional groundwater flow can explain lower-than-expected heat flow in these highly anisotropic (kx/kz ~ 104) continental flood basalts. Simulation results indicate that the abrupt reduction in permeability at approximately 600 m depth results in an equivalently abrupt transition from a shallow region where heat flow is affected by groundwater flow to a deeper region of conduction-dominated heat flow. Most existing heat-flow measurements within the CRBG are from shallower than 600 m depth or near regional groundwater discharge zones, so that heat-flow maps generated using these data are likely influenced by groundwater flow. Substantial k decreases at similar temperatures have also been observed in the volcanic rocks of the adjacent Cascade Range volcanic arc and at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, where they result from low-temperature hydrothermal alteration.

  15. Shallow drilling in the Salton Sea region: The thermal anomaly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newmark, R.L.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Younker, L.W.

    1988-11-10

    During two shallow thermal drilling programs, thermal measurements were obtained in 56 shallow (76.2 m) and one intermediate (457.3 m) depth holes located both onshore and offshore along the southern margin of the Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley, California. These data complete the surficial coverage of the thermal anomaly, revealing the shape and lateral extent of the hydrothermal system. The thermal data show the region of high thermal gradients to extend only a short distance offshore to the north of the Quaternary volcanic domes which are exposed along the southern shore of the Salton Sea. The central thermal anomaly has an arcuate shape, about 4 km wide and 12 km long. Across the center of the anomaly, the transition zone between locations exhibiting high thermal gradients and those exhibiting regional thermal gradients is quite narrow. Thermal gradients rise from near regional (0.09 /sup 0/C/m) to extreme (0.83 /sup 0/C/m) in only 2.4 km. The heat flow in the central part of the anomaly is greater than 600 mW/m/sup 2/ and in the two local anomalies exceeds 1200 mW/m/sup 2/. The shape of the thermal anomaly is asymmetric with respect to the line of volcanoes previously thought to represent the center of the field, with its center line offset south of the volcanic buttes. There is no broad thermal anomaly associated with the magnetic high that extends offshore to the northeast from the volcanic domes.

  16. Shallow Drilling In The Salton Sea Region, The Thermal Anomaly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newmark, R. L.; Kasameyer, P. W.; Younker, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    During two shallow thermal drilling programs, thermal measurements were obtained in 56 shallow (76.2 m) and one intermediate (457.3 m) depth holes located both onshore and offshore along the southern margin of the Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley, California. These data complete the surficial coverage of the thermal anomaly, revealing the shape and lateral extent of the hydrothermal system. The thermal data show the region of high thermal gradients to extend only a short distance offshore to the north of the Quaternary volcanic domes which are exposed along the southern shore of the Salton Sea. The thermal anomaly has an arcuate shape, about 4 km wide and 12 km long. Across the center of the anomaly, the transition zone between locations exhibiting high thermal gradients and those exhibiting regional thermal gradients is quite narrow. Thermal gradients rise from near regional (0.09 C/m) to extreme (0.83 C/m) in only 2.4 km. The heat flow in the central part of the anomaly is >600 mW/m{sup 2} and in some areas exceeds 1200 mW/m{sup 2}. The shape of the thermal anomaly is asymmetric with respect to the line of volcanoes previously thought to represent the center of the field, with its center line offset south of the volcanic buttes. There is no broad thermal anomaly associated with the magnetic high that extends offshore to the northeast from the volcanic domes. These observations of the thermal anomaly provide important constraints for models of the circulation of the hydrothermal system. Thermal budgets based on a simple model for this hydrothermal system indicate that the heat influx rate for local ''hot spots'' in the region may be large enough to account for the rate of heat flux from the entire Salton Trough.

  17. Geothermal prospecting by geochemical methods on natural gas and water discharges in the Vulsini Mts Volcanic District (Central Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duchi, V.; Minissale, A.A.; Ortino, S.; Romani, L.

    1987-01-01

    The Latera and Torre Alfina geothermal fields were discovered in the Vulsini Mts district (central Italy) in the 70s. The fluid produced by the two geothermal systems is a high rhoCO/sub 2/(around 7 MPa) sodium chloride solution (T.D.S. is 9200 ppm at Latera and 7800 at Torre Alfina), with high SiO/sub 2/ and H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ contents. The fluid temperature taken at well bottom is about 155/sup 0/C at Torre Alfina, whereas at Latera it ranges from 200 to over 350/sup 0/C. In spite of these temperatures, recorded in producing wells, previous geochemical prospectings using geothermometers in natural thermal manifestations had predicted temperatures no higher than 140/sup 0/C in all the Vulsini district. This contrasting feature between real temperatures and those evaluated during prospecting is caused by the fast circulation of large amounts of meteoric waters in the aquifer located in the shallow parts of the carbonate reservoir formations, and by the short interaction between the latter and the deep geothermal fluids. In the present study a new geochemical survey on thermal and cold springs, stream samples, as well as natural gas emissions has been carried out. A critical review of the main geothermometers, some considerations about the hydraulic behavior of the reservoir formations, and the cross comparison between NH/sub 4//sup +//B ratio, rhoCO/sub 2/ and SiO/sub 2/ content in both cold and thermal waters, have led to the conclusion that in the Vulsini Mts there are no shallow anomalous areas apart from those already discovered at Latera and Torre Alfina. The present method could be successfully applied in other geothermal systems, where the potential reservoir is represented by carbonate formations.

  18. CSDP: Seismology of continental thermal regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aki, K.

    1989-04-01

    This is a progress report for the past one year of research (year 2 of 5-year project) under the project titled CSDP: Seismology of Continental Thermal Regime'', in which we proposed to develop seismological interpretation theory and methods applicable to complex structures encountered in continental geothermal areas and apply them to several candidate sites for the Continental Scientific Drilling Project. During the past year, two Ph.D. thesis works were completed under the present project. One is a USC thesis on seismic wave propagation in anisotropic media with application to defining fractures in the earth. The other is a MIT thesis on seismic Q and velocity structure for the magma-hydrothermal system of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. The P.I. co-organized the first International Workshop on Volcanic Seismology at Capri, Italy in October 1988, and presented the keynote paper on the state-of-art of volcanic seismology''. We presented another paper at the workshop on Assorted Seismic Signals from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Another international meeting, namely, the Chapman Conference on seismic anisotropy in the earth's crust at Berkeley, California in May 1988, was co-organized by the co-P.I. (P.C.L), and we presented our work on seismic waves in heterogeneous and anisotropic media. Adding the publications and presentations made in the past year to the list for the preceding year, the following table lists 21 papers published, submitted or presented in the past two years of the present project. 65 refs., 334 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Major results of geophysical investigations at Yucca Mountain and vicinity, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, H.W.; Ponce, D.A.; Hunter, W.C.

    1995-12-31

    In the consideration of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for storing high level nuclear waste, a number of geologic concerns have been suggested for study by the National Academy of Sciences which include: (1) natural geologic and geochemical barriers, (2) possible future fluctuations in the water table that might flood a mined underground repository, (3) tectonic stability, and (4) considerations of shaking such as might be caused by nearby earthquakes or possible volcanic eruptions. This volume represents the third part of an overall plan of geophysical investigation of Yucca Mountain, preceded by the Site Characterization Plan (SCP; dated 1988) and the report referred to as the Geophysical White Paper, Phase 1, entitled Status of Data, Major Results, and Plans for Geophysical Activities, Yucca Mountain Project (Oliver and others, 1990). The SCP necessarily contained uncertainty about applicability and accuracy of methods then untried in the Yucca Mountain volcano-tectonic setting, and the White Paper, Phase 1, focused on summarization of survey coverage, data quality, and applicability of results. For the most part, it did not present data or interpretation. The important distinction of the current volume lies in presentation of data, results, and interpretations of selected geophysical methods used in characterization activities at Yucca Mountain. Chapters are included on the following: gravity investigations; magnetic investigations; regional magnetotelluric investigations; seismic refraction investigations; seismic reflection investigations; teleseismic investigations; regional thermal setting; stress measurements; and integration of methods and conclusions. 8 refs., 60 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Geophysical interpretations west of and within the northwestern part of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grauch, V.J.; Sawyer, D.A.; Fridrich, C.J.; Hudson, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    This report focuses on interpretation of gravity and new magnetic data west of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and within the northwestern part of NTS. The interpretations integrate the gravity and magnetic data with other geophysical, geological, and rock property data to put constraints on tectonic and magmatic features not exposed at the surface. West of NTS, where drill hole information is absent, these geophysical data provide the best available information on the subsurface. Interpreted subsurface features include calderas, intrusions, basalt flows and volcanoes, Tertiary basins, structurally high pre-Tertiary rocks, and fault zones. New features revealed by this study include (1) a north-south buried tectonic fault east of Oasis Mountain, which the authors call the Hogback fault; (2) an east striking fault or accommodation zone along the south side of Oasis Valley basin, which they call the Hot Springs fault; (3) a NNE striking structural zone coinciding with the western margins of the caldera complexes; (4) regional magnetic highs that probably represent a thick sequence of Tertiary volcanic rocks; and (5) two probable buried calderas that may be related to the tuffs of Tolicha Peak and of Sleeping Butte, respectively.

  1. Structure and tectonics of the South Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliev, M.; Ozbey, T.

    1995-08-01

    The South Caspian Basin is a large Alpine intermontane trough located between Azerbaijan and Western Turkmenistan in the South Caspian Sea. It is about 500 km by 300 km in size. The sedimentary section ranges from 10-15 km thickness near the basin edges and reaches has more than 20 km in the deepest part of the basin. All of the known hydrocarbon production is from the Pliocene-Quaternary section. Characteristic features of the South Caspian Basin include: (1) The enormous thickness of the sedimentary sections; (2) Thick, terrigenous Middle Pliocene sediments deposited under conditions of markedly contrasting tectonic movements-rapid sinking of the basin and growth of the surrounding mountain structures; (3) Extensive development of diapirism and mud volcanism and their geostructural association mainly with the marginal zone of the basin; (4) The block nature of the crystalline basement; and (5) The close relationship of the western part of the South Caspian to the Kura Depression. Individual structures can reach 35 kilometers in length with up to 3000 meters of closure. Structures are complicated by a high degree of crestal faulting, and commonly, mud diapirs and volcanoes. Based on the direction and intensity of structuring, five separate structural-tectonic regions can be identified within the South Caspian Basin: the Apsheron-Balkhan Fold Zone, the Apsheron Archipelago, the Baku Archipelago, the Turkmen Structural Terrace, the Central Fold Zone of the South Caspian.

  2. Object detection utilizing a linear retrieval algorithm for thermal infrared imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, M.S. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) spectroscopy and remote sensing have been proven to be extremely valuable tools for mineralogic discrimination. One technique for sub-pixel detection and data reduction, known as a spectral retrieval or unmixing algorithm, will prove useful in the analysis of data from scheduled TIR orbital instruments. This study represents the first quantitative attempt to identify the limits of the model, specifically concentrating on the TIR. The algorithm was written and applied to laboratory data, testing the effects of particle size, noise, and multiple endmembers, then adapted to operate on airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data of the Kelso Dunes, CA, Meteor Crater, AZ, and Medicine Lake Volcano, CA. Results indicate that linear spectral unmixmg can produce accurate endmember detection to within an average of 5%. In addition, the effects of vitrification and textural variations were modeled. The ability to predict mineral or rock abundances becomes extremely useful in tracking sediment transport, decertification, and potential hazard assessment in remote volcanic regions. 26 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Preliminary results of teleseismic double-difference relocation of earthquakes around Indonesian archipelago region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nugraha, Andri Dian Widiyantoro, Sri; Shiddiqi, Hasbi Ash; Ramdhan, Mohamad; Wandono,; Sutiyono,; Handayani, Titi; Nugroho, Hendro

    2015-04-24

    Indonesian archipelago region is located in active tectonic setting and high seismicity zone. During the last decade, Indonesian was experienced with destructive major earthquakes causing damage and victims. The information of precise earthquake location parameters are very important in partular for earthquake early warning to the society and for advance seismic studies. In this study, we attempted to improve hypocenter location compiled by BMKG for time periods of April, 2009 up to June, 2014 for about 22,000 earthquake events around Indonesian region. For the firts time, we applied teleseismic double-difference relocation algorithm (teletomoDD) to improve hypocenter region in Indonesia region combining regional and teleseismic stations. Hypocenter relocation was performed utilizing local, regional, and teleseismic P-wave arrival time data. Our relocation result show that travel-time RMS errors were greatly reduced compared to the BMKG catalog. Seismicity at shallower depth (less than 50?km) shows significantly improvement especially in depth, and refined shallow geological structures, e.g. trench and major strike slip faults. Clustered seismicity is also detected beneath volcanic region, and probably related volcano activities and also major faults nearby. In the Sunda arc region, seismicity at shallower depth centered at two major distributions parallel to the trench strike direction, i.e. around fore-arc and in mainland that related to major fault, e.g. the Sumatran fault, and volcanic fronts. Below Central Java region, relocated hypocenter result showed double seismic zone pattern. A seismic gap is detected around the Sunda-Banda transition zone where transition between oceanic subduction to continental crust collision of Australian plate occurs. In Eastern Indonesia region, shallow earthquakes are observed related to major strike slip faults, e.g. Sorong and Palu-Koro fault, volcanism, and shallow part of subduction and collision zones. We also compare our

  4. Searching For An Electrical-Grade Geothermal Resource In Northern...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is near Sunset Crater, a basaltic volcano less than 1,000 years old several several kilometers northeast of Flagstaff. Several silicic volcanoes nearby are young enough to have...

  5. Evaluation of Cesium, Strontium, and Lead Sorption, Desorption, and Diffusion in Volcanic Tuffs from Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site: Macroscopic and Spectroscopic Investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charalambos Papelis; Wooyong Um

    2003-03-01

    The interaction of radionuclides and other contaminants with minerals and other aquifer materials controls the rate of migration of these contaminants in groundwater. The stronger these interactions, the more a radionuclide will be retarded. Processes such as sorption and diffusion often control the migration of inorganic compounds in aquifers. In addition, these processes are often controlled by the nature of ions of interest, the nature of the aquifer materials, and the specific geochemical conditions. Parameters describing sorption and diffusion of radionuclides and other inorganic ions on aquifer materials are used in transport codes to predict the potential for migration of these contaminants into the accessible environment. Sorption and diffusion studies can help reduce the uncertainty of radionuclide transport modeling on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other nuclear testing areas. For example, reliable sorption equilibrium constants, obtained under a variety of conditions, can be used to suggest a plausible sorption mechanism and to provide retardation parameters that can be used in transport models. In addition, these experiments, performed under a variety of conditions, can lead to models that can accommodate changing geochemical conditions. Desorption studies can probe the reversibility of reactions and test whether the reversibility assumed by equilibrium models is justified. Kinetic studies can be used to probe the time-dependent limitations of reactions and suggest whether an equilibrium or kinetic model may be more appropriate. Finally, spectroscopic studies can be used to distinguish between different sorption mechanisms, and provide further guidance with respect to model selection.

  6. EERE Success Story-Oregon: DOE Advances Game-Changing EGS Geothermal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology at the Newberry Volcano | Department of Energy DOE Advances Game-Changing EGS Geothermal Technology at the Newberry Volcano EERE Success Story-Oregon: DOE Advances Game-Changing EGS Geothermal Technology at the Newberry Volcano April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis The AltaRock Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) demonstration project, at Newberry Volcano near Bend, Oregon, represents a key step in geothermal energy development, demonstrating that an engineered geothermal reservoir can be

  7. Ambient H sub 2 S monitoring in the vicinity of Hawaii's first geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrow, J.W. ); Thomas, D.M. ); Burkard, H.D. )

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1975, work began on Hawaii's first successful geothermal well in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano on the Island of Hawaii (Figure 1). By July, 1976, the well, named Hawaii Geothermal Project - A (HGP-A), was complete to a depth of almost 2 km and had encountered a volcanically driven hydrothermal system having a temperature in excess of 358{degrees} C and a fluid chemistry composed of a mixture of seawater, meteoric water, and volcanic volatiles. The principal chemical constituents of the fluid are listed in Table I. Note the relatively high H{sub 2}S concentration which ranged 900 - 1,000 ppmw. During the early testing of the well, the superheated geothermal fluid was allowed to flash at normal atmospheric pressure with steam and noncondensable gases being released unabated into the atmosphere. The high H{sub 2}S and noise (120 dBA) levels and the close proximity of the Leilani Estates residential subdivision were cause for concern and efforts were thus made to mitigate these impacts. Certain elements of the initial test protocol required that the well be allowed to flow freely and unabated. During these periods public notice and prewarning were the most feasible means of mitigation. At other times, the mixed fluid is separated into steam and brine phases with the steam phase being treated with NaOH and then released through a rock muffler. The brine phase is released through a separate muffling system. Chemical treatment of the stream with NaOH converts the H{sub 2}S into a soluble sulfide salt through the following reaction: H{sub 2}S(g) + NaOH {r arrow} NaHS(s) + H{sub 2}O. This paper discusses early flow testing revealed that the well was able to produce a steady flow of approximately 50,000 kg per hour of steam and water at a pressure of 1200 kPA and thus appeared suitable for power generation.

  8. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E

    2010-02-18

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a major geologic feature that cuts across Cameroon from the south west to the north east. It is a unique volcanic lineament which has both an oceanic and a continental sector and consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. The oceanic sector includes the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Po) and Sao Tome and Principe while the continental sector includes the Etinde, Cameroon, Manengouba, Bamboutos, Oku and Mandara mountains, as well as the Adamawa and Biu Plateaus. In addition to the CVL, three other major tectonic features characterize the region: the Benue Trough located northwest of the CVL, the Central African Shear Zone (CASZ), trending N70 degrees E, roughly parallel to the CVL, and the Congo Craton in southern Cameroon. The origin of the CVL is still the subject of considerable debate, with both plume and non-plume models invoked by many authors (e.g., Deruelle et al., 2007; Ngako et al, 2006; Ritsema and Allen, 2003; Burke, 2001; Ebinger and Sleep, 1998; Lee et al, 1994; Dorbath et al., 1986; Fairhead and Binks, 1991; King and Ritsema, 2000; Reusch et al., 2010). Crustal structure beneath Cameroon has been investigated previously using active (Stuart et al, 1985) and passive (Dorbath et al., 1986; Tabod, 1991; Tabod et al, 1992; Plomerova et al, 1993) source seismic data, revealing a crust about 33 km thick at the south-western end of the continental portion of the CVL (Tabod, 1991) and the Adamawa Plateau, and thinner crust (23 km thick) beneath the Garoua Rift in the north (Stuart et al, 1985) (Figure 1). Estimates of crustal thickness obtained using gravity data show similar variations between the Garoua rift, Adamawa Plateau, and southern part of the CVL (Poudjom et al., 1995; Nnange et al., 2000). In this study, we investigate further crustal structure beneath the CVL and the adjacent regions in

  9. Mechanical resilience and cementitious processes in Imperial Roman architectural mortar

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jackson, Marie D.; Landis, Eric N.; Brune, Philip F.; Vitti, Massimo; Chen, Heng; Li, Qinfei; Kunz, Martin; Wenk, Hans -Rudolf; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.

    2014-12-15

    The pyroclastic aggregate concrete of Trajan’s Markets (110 CE), now Museo Fori Imperiali in Rome, has absorbed energy from seismic ground shaking and long-term foundation settlement for nearly two millenia while remaining largely intact at the structural scale. The scientific basis of this exceptional service record is explored through computed tomography of fracture surfaces and synchroton X-ray microdiffraction analyses of a reproduction of the standardized hydrated lime–volcanic ash mortar that binds decimeter-sized tuff and brick aggregate in the conglomeratic concrete. The mortar reproduction gains fracture toughness over 180 d through progressive coalescence of calcium–aluminum-silicate–hydrate (C-A-S-H) cementing binder with Ca/(Si+Al) ≈more » 0.8–0.9 and crystallization of strätlingite and siliceous hydrogarnet (katoite) at ≥90 d, after pozzolanic consumption of hydrated lime was complete. Platey strätlingite crystals toughen interfacial zones along scoria perimeters and impede macroscale propagation of crack segments. In the 1,900 year old mortar, C-A-S-H has low Ca/(Si+Al) ≈ 0.45–0.75. Dense clusters of 2- to 30-µm strätlingite plates further reinforce interfacial zones, the weakest link of modern cement-based concrete, and the cementitious matrix. These crystals formed during long-term autogeneous reaction of dissolved calcite from lime and the alkali-rich scoriae groundmass, clay mineral (halloysite), and zeolite (phillipsite and chabazite) surface textures from the Pozzolane Rosse pyroclastic flow, erupted from the nearby Alban Hills volcano. The clast-supported conglomeratic fabric of the concrete presents further resistance to fracture propagation at the structural scale.« less

  10. Potential effects of the Hawaii geothermal project on ground-water resources on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorey, M.L.; Colvard, E.M.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides data and information on the quantity and quality of ground-water resources in and adjacent to proposed geothermal development areas on the Island of Hawaii Geothermal project for the development of as much as 500 MW of electric power from the geothermal system in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. Data presented for about 31 wells and 8 springs describe the chemical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of the ground-water system in and adjacent to the East Rift Zone. On the basis of this information, potential effects of this geothermal development on drawdown of ground-water levels and contamination of ground-water resources are discussed. Significant differences in ground-water levels and in the salinity and temperature of ground water within the study area appear to be related to mixing of waters from different sources and varying degrees of ground-water impoundment by volcanic dikes. Near Pahoa and to the east, the ground-water system within the rift is highly transmissive and receives abundant recharge from precipitation; therefore, the relatively modest requirements for fresh water to support geothermal development in that part of the east rift zone would result in minimal effects on ground-water levels in and adjacent to the rift. To the southwest of Pahoa, dike impoundment reduces the transmissivity of the ground-water system to such an extent that wells might not be capable of supplying fresh water at rates sufficient to support geothermal operations. Water would have to be transported to such developments from supply systems located outside the rift or farther downrift. Contaminant migration resulting from well accidents could be rapid because of relatively high ground-water velocities in parts of the region. Hydrologic monitoring of observation wells needs to be continued throughout development of geothermal resources for the Hawaii Geothermal Project to enable the early detection of leakage and migration of geothermal fluids.