Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "volatile sub stances" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Current status of fluoride volatility method development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fluoride Volatility Method is based on a separation process, which comes out from the specific property of uranium, neptunium and plutonium to form volatile hexafluorides whereas most of fission products (mainly lanthanides) and higher transplutonium elements (americium, curium) present in irradiated fuel form nonvolatile tri-fluorides. Fluoride Volatility Method itself is based on direct fluorination of the spent fuel, but before the fluorination step, the removal of cladding material and subsequent transformation of the fuel into a powdered form with a suitable grain size have to be done. The fluorination is made with fluorine gas in a flame fluorination reactor, where the volatile fluorides (mostly UF{sub 6}) are separated from the non-volatile ones (trivalent minor actinides and majority of fission products). The subsequent operations necessary for partitioning of volatile fluorides are the condensation and evaporation of volatile fluorides, the thermal decomposition of PuF{sub 6} and the finally distillation and sorption used for the purification of uranium product. The Fluoride Volatility Method is considered to be a promising advanced pyrochemical reprocessing technology, which can mainly be used for the reprocessing of oxide spent fuels coming from future GEN IV fast reactors.

Uhlir, J.; Marecek, M.; Skarohlid, J. [UJV - Nuclear Research Institute, Research Centre Rez, CZ-250 68 Husinec - Rez 130 (Czech Republic)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Cognitive Space 1 The Strong Cognitive Stance as a Conceptual Basis for the Role of Information in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cognitive Space 1 The Strong Cognitive Stance as a Conceptual Basis for the Role of Information@ils.unc.edu Abstract This paper analyzes different approaches that have been taken to describe and utilize cognitive space for use with information systems. A "strong cognitive stance" on the role of information

Newby, Gregory B.

3

Estimation of Quasi-Stiffness and Propulsive Work of the Human Ankle in the Stance Phase of Walking  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimation of Quasi-Stiffness and Propulsive Work of the Human Ankle in the Stance Phase of Walking of human legs. This work aims to establish statistical models that allow us to predict the ankle quasi-stiffness and net mechanical work for adults walking on level ground. During the stance phase of walking, the ankle

Dollar, Aaron M.

4

What Is Price Volatility  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

What Is Price Volatility? What Is Price Volatility? The term "price volatility" is used to describe price fluctuations of a commodity. Volatility is measured by the day-to-day percentage difference in the price of the commodity. The degree of variation, not the level of prices, defines a volatile market. Since price is a function of supply and demand, it follows that volatility is a result of the underlying supply and demand characteristics of the market. Therefore, high levels of volatility reflect extraordinary characteristics of supply and/or demand. Prices of basic energy (natural gas, electricity, heating oil) are generally more volatile than prices of other commodities. One reason that energy prices are so volatile is that many consumers are extremely limited in their ability to substitute other fuels when the price, of natural gas

5

Derivative Usage and Performance Volatility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Derivative usage that reduces return volatility is frequently termed hedging, and derivative usage that increases return volatility is called speculation. ... reduce or increase their return volatility with deriv...

Weiying Jia; Yi Kang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Figure 1. Ankle behavior can be approximated by a linear torsional spring in the progression stage of the stance phase of normal gait.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 1. Ankle behavior can be approximated by a linear torsional spring in the progression stage of the stance phase of normal gait. Abstract--In this paper we explore the mechanical behavior of the ankle in the progression stage of stance during normal walking. We show that the torque/angle behavior of the ankle during

Dollar, Aaron M.

7

Oil Price Volatility  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Speculation and Oil Price Volatility Speculation and Oil Price Volatility Robert J. Weiner Robert J. Weiner Professor of International Business, Public Policy & Professor of International Business, Public Policy & Public Administration, and International Affairs Public Administration, and International Affairs George Washington University; George Washington University; Membre Associ Membre Associ é é , GREEN, Universit , GREEN, Universit é é Laval Laval EIA Annual Conference Washington Washington 7 April 2009 7 April 2009 1 FACTORS DRIVNG OIL PRICE VOLATILITY FACTORS DRIVNG OIL PRICE VOLATILITY ► ► Market fundamentals Market fundamentals . . Fluctuations in supply, Fluctuations in supply, demand, and market power demand, and market power Some fundamentals related to expectations of Some fundamentals related to expectations of

8

Fluorination behavior of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} in the presence of F{sub 2} and O{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To apply the fluoride volatility process to the spent nuclear fuel, fluorination of UO{sub 2} by fluorine has been studied. In this reaction, it is possible that the U-O-F compounds, such as UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}, are produced. Therefore, study of such compounds is useful in order to know the fluorination behavior of UO{sub 2}. This paper presents the fluorination behavior of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} in the presence of F{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, analyzed by thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) method using anti-corrosion type differential thermo-balance. In fluorine gas, exothermic peaks appeared and volatilization of UF{sub 6}. In oxygen gas, only slowly pace decomposition was measured from UO{sub 22} to UF{sub 6} and UO{sub 3}. (authors)

Matsuda, Minoru; Sato, Nobuaki; Kirishima, Akira; Tochiyama, Osamu [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8577 (Japan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Petroleum Outlook:.More Volatility?  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Outlook: More Volatility? Outlook: More Volatility? 3/19/01 Click here to start Table of Contents Petroleum Outlook: More Volatility? Product Price Volatility-This Year and in the Future WTI Crude Oil Price: Potential for Volatility Around Base Case OPEC Crude Oil Production 1998-2001 Annual World Oil Demand Growth by Region, 1991-2001 Low Total OECD Oil Stocks* Keep Market Balance Tight Fundamentals Explain High Crude Oil Prices Product Price Spreads Over Crude Oil Reflect Product Market-Based Volatility U.S. Distillate Inventories Distillate Winter Demand Stronger Than Temperatures Would Imply High Production Offset Lack of Inventory High Production Came From High Yields & High Inputs High Margins Bring High Imports Gasoline Price Volatility Is a Concern This Summer Gasoline Volatility

10

Digestion and rumen volatile fatty acid production by heifers fed reconstituted sorghum grain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ce oE M. STER OF SCIENCE January 1969 major Sub dace: Anbmal Science DIGESTION AND RlRCEN VOLATILE FATTY ACE) PRODUCTION BY REIZERS . "~ RECONSTITUTED SCRCEWI GRAIN A Tbests EDUARDO J. FA'is'I XM Approved as to s /le and oontent by...) Appendix 'cable Page Analyses of Variance of Volatile Patty Acids in liicrnno~es/Ill& liliter of Bmaen PluM Analyses of Variance of Nolo Percent Volatile Patty Acids in Ruraen gamples A9 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Sorghum grain i. s the principal...

Pantin, Eduardo Jose

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Macro determinants of volatility and volatility spillover in energy markets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We analyze the time-varying volatility and spillover effects in crude oil, heating oil, and natural gas futures markets by incorporating changes in important macroeconomic variables and major political and weather-related events into the conditional variance equations. We allow asymmetric responses to random disturbances in each market as well as to good and bad economic news related to the overall economy. Results show the presence of asymmetric effects in both random disturbances and macroeconomic variables. A bidirectional volatility spillover effect is found between natural gas and crude oil and between the natural gas and heating oil markets. Crude oil volatility is found to increase following major political, financial, and natural events. Seasonality and day-of-the-week effects are found in the crude oil and heating oil markets.

Berna Karali; Octavio A. Ramirez

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

In Search of a Statistically Valid Volatility Risk Factor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The cross- section of volatility and expected returns, Theof a Statistically Valid Volatility Risk Factor (revised)of a Statistically Valid Volatility Risk Factor Robert M.

Anderson, Robert M.; Bianchi, Stephen W.; Goldberg, Lisa R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Volatility in natural gas and oil markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using daily futures price data, I examine the behavior of natural gas and crude oil price volatility since 1990. I test whether there has been a significant trend in volatility, whether there was a short-term increase in ...

Pindyck, Robert S.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Characteristics of the volatile organic compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Program (VOC-Arid ID) is targeted at demonstration and testing of technologies for the evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants at arid DOE sites. The initial demonstration site is an area of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) contamination located near the center of the Hanford Site. The movement of CCl{sub 4} and other volatile organic contaminants in the subsurface is very complex. The problem at the Hanford Site is further complicated by the concurrent discharge of other waste constituents including acids, lard oil, organic phosphates, and transuranic radionuclides. In addition, the subsurface environment is very complex, with large spatial variabilities in hydraulic properties. A thorough understanding of the problem is essential to the selection of appropriate containment, retrieval, and/or in situ remedial technologies. The effectiveness of remedial technologies depends on knowing where the contaminants are, how they are held up in a given physical and chemical subsurface environment; and knowing the physical, chemical, and microbiological changes that are induced by the various remedial technologies.

Last, G.V.; Lenhard, R.J.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Evans, J.C.; Roberson, K.R.; Spane, F.A.; Amonette, J.E.; Rockhold, M.L.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Volatile compounds from marine algae  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Volatile compounds from marine algae ... Seasonal Variations of Bromophenols in Brown Algae (Padina arborescens, Sargassum siliquastrum, and Lobophora variegata) Collected in Hong Kong ... Seasonal Variations of Bromophenols in Brown Algae (Padina arborescens, Sargassum siliquastrum, and Lobophora variegata) Collected in Hong Kong ...

Richard E. Moore

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

5, 463499, 2008 Oxygenated volatiles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of flooding on the exchange of the volatile C2-compounds ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid between leaves Discussion EGU Abstract The effect of root inundation on the leaf emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde in stomatal conduc-10 tance. Flooding of the roots resulted in leaf emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde

Boyer, Edmond

17

Volatile abundances in submarine glasses from the North Fiji and Lau back-arc basins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Glasses from submarine lavas of the North Fiji and lau back-arc basins were analyzed by high-temperature mass spectrometry for volatiles. Abundances for H{sub 2}O, Cl, F, S and CO{sub 2} in glasses ranging in composition from depleted, primitive MORB to enriched, transitional tholeiites are reported. The samples divide into three groups based on K{sub 2}O vs. H{sub 2}O, Ba/Zr vs. H{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O vs. P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/H{sub 2}O variation diagrams. At similar Mg No., the least evolved samples studied are nearly identical to N-type MORB in H{sub 2}O abundances but show Cl contents enriched by a factor of 5. More enriched samples, classified as back-arc basin basalts (BABB) on the basis of major/trace elements and isotopes, are not as hydrous (at similar Mg No.) as those from the Mariana and East Scotia Sea back-arc basins. The data indicate that not all back-arc basins erupt lavas with the distinct volatile and other elemental characteristics of lavas from the Mariana Trough and Scotia Sea.

Aggrey, K.E.; Muenow, D.W.; Sinton, J.M. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (USA))

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Volatility clustering in land markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analysis. Applying a Lagrange Multiplier (LM) test for AutoRegressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (ARCH) effects in the Canadian land markets, we find that clustering in land price returns exists in Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and British Columbia... by even higher volatility and vice versa. III. Data and Descriptive Statistics The monthly land price index for each individual province is obtained from Statistics Canada, covering all of the Canadian provinces (Alberta, Ontario, Quebec...

Bao, Helen X. H.; Huang, Hui; Huang, Yu-Lieh; Lin, Pin-te

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Atmospheric degradation mechanism of CF{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recognition of the adverse effect of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) release into the atmosphere has led to an international effort to replace CFCs with environmentally acceptable alternatives. Hydrofluoroethers (HFEs) are a class of compounds which have been developed to replace CFCs in applications such as the cleaning of electronic equipment, heat transfer agents in refrigeration systems, and carrier fluids for lubricant deposition. HFEs are volatile compounds and are released into the atmosphere when used. CF{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} has not been used commercially but is one of the simplest fluoroethers and serves as a model compound for the group of fluorinated ethers. A smog chamber/FTIR technique was used to study the Cl atom initiated oxidation of CF{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} in 700 Torr of N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} at 296 K. Using relative rate techniques it was determined that {kappa}(Cl + CF{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) = (1.4 {+-} 0.2) {times} 10{sup {minus}13} and {kappa}(Cl + CF{sub 3}OC(O)H) = (9.8 {+-} 1.2) {times} 10{sup {minus}15} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. At 700 Torr of N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} diluent at 296 K reaction with O{sub 2} is the only loss mechanism of the CF{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}O{sup {sm_bullet}} radical. The infrared spectra of the peroxy nitrates CF{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}O{sub 2}NO{sub 2} and CF{sub 3}OC(O)O{sub 2}NO{sub 2} were recorded and compared to the nonfluorinated analogues CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}O{sub 2}NO{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}OC(O)O{sub 2}NO{sub 2}. The thermal decomposition rate of CF{sub 3}OC(O)NO{sub 2} is (2.3 {+-} 0.1) {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1} in 700 Torr of N{sub 2} at 295.8 K. The reaction of CF{sub 3}OC(O)O{sub 2} radicals with HO{sub 2} radicals gives CF{sub 3}OC(O)H in a yield of (80 {+-} 11)%. The results are discussed with respect to the atmospheric degradation mechanism of CF{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} and other ethers.

Christensen, L.K. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)] [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Wallington, T.J.; Guschin, A.; Hurley, M.D. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Ford Research lab.] [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Ford Research lab.

1999-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

20

Silicon Nanowires for Non-Volatile Memory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Silicon Nanowires for Non-Volatile Memory P R O J E C T L E A D E R : Curt A. Richter (NIST) C O L approaches for silicon nanowire non-volatile memory. K E Y A C C O M P L I S H M E N T S Fabricated novel non-volatile memory cells with silicon nanowire channels and Al2 O3 /HfO2 /SiO2 gate dielectric storage stacks

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "volatile sub stances" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Elastic Prices and Volatile Energy Generation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? New possibilities are developing in the infrastructure of electrical systems to meet the new demand of more volatile power generation. This study focuses on (more)

Daln, Anders

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Jumps and stochastic volatility in crude oil futures prices using conditional moments of integrated volatility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We evaluate alternative models of the volatility of commodity futures prices based on high-frequency intraday data from the crude oil futures markets for the October 2001December 2012 period. These models are implemented with a simple GMM estimator that matches sample moments of the realized volatility to the corresponding population moments of the integrated volatility. Models incorporating both stochastic volatility and jumps in the returns series are compared on the basis of the overall fit of the data over the full sample period and subsamples. We also find that jumps in the returns series add to the accuracy of volatility forecasts.

Christopher F. Baum; Paola Zerilli

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Exhaust Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust Evaluation of how sampling details affect the measurement of volatile organic compounds in...

24

Detection of Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy. Abstract: Previous work on detection of low-volatility liquid organic (and...

25

Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractioins of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractioins...

26

Volatile organic compound sensing devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs.

Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Moore, Glenn A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Reagen, William K. (Stillwater, MN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Volatile organic compound sensing devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs. 15 figs.

Lancaster, G.D.; Moore, G.A.; Stone, M.L.; Reagen, W.K.

1995-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

28

Securing non-volatile memory regions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods, apparatus and articles of manufacture to secure non-volatile memory regions are disclosed. An example method disclosed herein comprises associating a first key pair and a second key pair different than the first key pair with a process, using the first key pair to secure a first region of a non-volatile memory for the process, and using the second key pair to secure a second region of the non-volatile memory for the same process, the second region being different than the first region.

Faraboschi, Paolo; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy; Muralimanohar, Naveen

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

29

Volatile constituents in a wood pyrolysis oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Science VOLATILE CONSTITUTENTS IN A WOOD PYROLYSIS OIL A Thesis SHIH-CHIEN LIN Appro d as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) Head of epa tmen (Member Member Nay 1978 442936 ABSTRACT Volatile Constituents in a Wood Pyrolysis Oil.../120 Supelcoport. Other trace constituents of volatile acid were also 'dentifi="' by trap- ping the substances from the C. C. column into i: n;- 0-sh ped capillary tube and subjecting to mass spectrometry. The corrosivity of pyrolysis oil and it, volati'e acids...

Lin, Shih-Chien

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Evaluation of how sampling details affect the measurement of volatile organic compounds in diesel exhaust

31

The Role of Volatiles in Coal Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Our knowledge of the role of volatiles in coal combustion ranges at this time from the self-evident to the ambiguous. The clearest point on which all agree is that pyrolysis will occur during the total coal co...

Robert H. Essenhigh; Eric M. Suuberg

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from Biomass Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from biomass combustion have been investigated. VOC contribute both to ... 0.510 MW. A variety of biomass fuel types and combustion equipment was covered. The su...

Lennart Gustavsson; Mats-Lennart Karlsson

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Experimental studies and thermodynamic modelling of volatilities of uranium, plutonium, and americium from their oxides and from their oxides interacted with ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to identify the types and amounts of volatile gaseous species of U, Pu, and Am that are produced in the combustion chamber offgases of mixed waste oxidation processors. Primary emphasis is on the Rocky Flats Plant Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Transpiration experiments have been carried out on U{sub 3}O{sub 8}(s), U{sub 3}O{sub 8} interacted with various ash materials, PuO{sub 2}(s), PuO{sub 2} interacted with ash materials, and a 3%PuO{sub 2}/0.06%AmO{sub 2}/ash material, all in the presence of steam and oxygen, and at temperatures in the vicinity of 1,300 K. UO{sub 3}(g) and UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) have been identified as the uranium volatile species and thermodynamic data established for them. Pu and Am are found to have very low volatilities, and carryover of Pu and Am as fine dust particulates is found to dominate over vapor transport. The authors are able to set upper limits on Pu and Am volatilities. Very little lowering of U volatility is found for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} interacted with typical ashes. However, ashes high in Na{sub 2}O (6.4 wt %) or in CaO (25 wt %) showed about an order of magnitude reduction in U volatility. Thermodynamic modeling studies were carried out that show that for aluminosilicate ash materials, it is the presence of group I and group II oxides that reduces the activity of the actinide oxides. K{sub 2}O is the most effective followed by Na{sub 2}O and CaO for common ash constituents. A more major effect in actinide activity lowering could be achieved by adding excess group I or group II oxides to exceed their interaction with the ash and lead to direct formation of alkali or alkaline earth uranates, plutonates, and americates.

Krikorian, O.H.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Adamson, M.G.; Fontes, A.S. Jr.; Fleming, D.L.

1993-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

Bioorganic nanodots for non-volatile memory devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years we are witnessing an intensive integration of bio-organic nanomaterials in electronic devices. Here we show that the diphenylalanine bio-molecule can self-assemble into tiny peptide nanodots (PNDs) of ?2 nm size, and can be embedded into metal-oxide-semiconductor devices as charge storage nanounits in non-volatile memory. For that purpose, we first directly observe the crystallinity of a single PND by electron microscopy. We use these nanocrystalline PNDs units for the formation of a dense monolayer on SiO{sub 2} surface, and study the electron/hole trapping mechanisms and charge retention ability of the monolayer, followed by fabrication of PND-based memory cell device.

Amdursky, Nadav; Shalev, Gil; Handelman, Amir; Natan, Amir; Rosenwaks, Yossi [School of Electrical Engineering, Iby and Aladar Fleischman Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Litsyn, Simon; Szwarcman, Daniel; Rosenman, Gil, E-mail: rgil@post.tau.ac.il [School of Electrical Engineering, Iby and Aladar Fleischman Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); StoreDot LTD, 16 Menahem Begin St., Ramat Gan (Israel); Roizin, Yakov [School of Electrical Engineering, Iby and Aladar Fleischman Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); TowerJazz, P.O. Box 619, Migdal HaEmek 23105 (Israel)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Metal segregation in supported bimetallic catalysts:. gamma. -Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-supported CO hydrogenation catalysts prepared from RhOs/sub 3/, Rh/sub 4/, and FeOs/sub 3/ clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-supported metals were prepared from (H/sub 2/RhOs/sub 3/(CO)/sub 10/(acetylacetonate)), (Rh/sub 4/(CO)/sub 12/), and (H/sub 2/FeOs/sub 3/(CO)/sub 13/). The samples were characterized by infrared spectroscopy after reaction with CO + H/sub 2/ and tested as catalysts for conversion of CO + H/sub 2/ in a flow reactor at 200 and 270/sup 0/C and 10 atm. Used catalysts were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The catalyst lost Os during operation, presumably as a result of formation of volatile carbonyls. The catalytic reaction products were a nearly Schulz-Flory-Anderson distribution of hydrocarbons with small yields of dimethyl ether (formed from methanol). The performance of the catalyst prepared from the RhOs/sub 3/ clusters was closely similar to that of the catalyst prepared from the Rh/sub 4/ cluster. Characterization of the samples after treatment in CO + H/sub 2/ and after catalysis demonstrated that the RhOs/sub 3/ clusters broke apart, first giving triosmium clusters and mononuclear Rh complexes and then, at higher temperatures, giving Rh crystallites and mononuclear Os complexes. The catalytic activity for hydrocarbon synthesis is attributed to the Rh metal; the activity for methanol synthesis is tentatively associated with ionic Rh complexes. The FeOs/sub 3/ catalyst was two orders of magnitude less active than the Rh Os/sub 3/ catalyst, apparently consisting of small iron oxide particles and mononuclear Os complexes. The selectivity of this catalyst for dimethyl ether formation increased markedly with time onstream in the flow reactor; after 55 h, 36 mol% of the organic product was ether. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Budge, J.R.; Lucke, B.F.; Gates, B.C.; Toran, J.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Modelling oil price volatility with structural breaks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we provide two main innovations: (i) we analyze oil prices of two prominent markets namely West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Brent using the two recently developed tests by Narayan and Popp (2010) and Liu and Narayan, 2010 both of which allow for two structural breaks in the data series; and (ii) the latter method is modified to include both symmetric and asymmetric volatility models. We identify two structural breaks that occur in 1990 and 2008 which coincidentally correspond to the Iraqi/Kuwait conflict and the global financial crisis, respectively. We find evidence of persistence and leverage effects in the oil price volatility. While further extensions can be pursued, the consideration of asymmetric effects as well as structural breaks should not be jettisoned when modelling oil price volatility.

Afees A. Salisu; Ismail O. Fasanya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Volatile Species Retention During Metallic Fuel Casting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Bases on these results it is very probably that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

Randall S. Fielding; Douglas L. Proter

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Non-volatile memory for checkpoint storage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system, method and computer program product for supporting system initiated checkpoints in high performance parallel computing systems and storing of checkpoint data to a non-volatile memory storage device. The system and method generates selective control signals to perform checkpointing of system related data in presence of messaging activity associated with a user application running at the node. The checkpointing is initiated by the system such that checkpoint data of a plurality of network nodes may be obtained even in the presence of user applications running on highly parallel computers that include ongoing user messaging activity. In one embodiment, the non-volatile memory is a pluggable flash memory card.

Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Cipolla, Thomas M.; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Ohmacht, Martin; Takken, Todd E.

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

39

Forecasting Volatility in Stock Market Using GARCH Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Forecasting volatility has held the attention of academics and practitioners all over the world. The objective for this master's thesis is to predict the volatility in stock market by using generalized autoregressive ...

Yang, Xiaorong

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Sequential #optimal consumption and investment for stochastic volatility markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sequential #­optimal consumption and investment for stochastic volatility markets with unknown investment and consumption problem for a Black­Scholes financial market with stochastic volatility sequential estimation. We show that the consumption and investment strategy calculated through

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "volatile sub stances" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Volatility Relationship between Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper utilizes calculated historical volatility and GARCH models to compare the historical price volatility behavior of crude oil, motor gasoline and heating oil in U.S. markets since 1990. ... GARCH/TARCH m...

Thomas K. Lee; John Zyren

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

X-ray elemental online analyzer measures volatiles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of an online XRF analyser for determining the volatiles content of coal is outlined. 3 figs.

Klein, A.; Pilz, K.; Reich, K. [Indutech Instruments GmbH, Simmersfeld (Germany)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

COMMODITY PRICE VOLATILITY ACROSS EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 COMMODITY PRICE VOLATILITY ACROSS EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES John T. Cuddington* and Hong Liang** March 10, 2003 ABSTRACT This paper documents a new "stylized fact" regarding the relative price 1880 to 1996, this key relative price among two categories of tradable goods is shown to exhibit

44

Volatilization characteristics of solid recovered fuels (SRFs)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The volatilization characteristics of three MSW-derived materials (FO, RT and FL) produced by local waste-management companies were investigated as potential solid recovered fuels (SRFs). FL was prepared from sorted domestic waste and consisted of non-recyclable plastics, refuse paper and biomass. RT and FO were obtained through active hygienization of unsorted MSW and refuse materials from selective waste-collection streams. RT was rich in plastics and had low biomass, whereas FO was mainly biomass and refuse paper. The rate of energy release during volatilization depended on the content of biomass and plastic, especially at a low conversion. Major contaminants had different rates of volatilization. Nitrogen and sulfur tended to accumulate in the charred solid, and were released as SO2 and nitrous oxides during both the volatilizationcombustion stage and the char burning stage. Chlorine release was faster for the fuels rich in plastic waste. According to their ash melting characteristics and slagging indexes (Fs: 1188C for FO, 1192C for RT and 1234C for FL) the three fuels were equivalent to commercial SRFs. The three fuels showed potential as standardized SRF, although it would be desirable to reduce their chlorine content and, in the case of FO, to increase its heating value.

Daniel Montan; Snia Abell; Xavier Farriol; Csar Berrueco

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Understanding Price Volatility in Electricity Markets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper illustrates notions of volatility associated with power systems spot prices for electricity. The paper demonstrates a frequency-domain method useful to separate out periodic price variations from random variations. It then uses actual observed ... Keywords: electricity spot pricing, risk management

Fernando L. Alvarado; Rajesh Rajaraman

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Proboscis extension reflex platform for volatiles and semi-volatiles detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention provides an apparatus for the detection of volatile and semi-volatile chemicals using the olfactory abilities of honey bees that are trained to respond to the presence of a specific chemical in a sample of gas with the proboscis extension reflex (PER). In particular, the geometry and arrangement of the parts of the apparatus are such that the amount of surface area in contact with the sample of gas prior to its introduction to the bees is minimized to improve the detection of particular volatile and semi-volatile that have a tendency to "stick" to contacting surfaces, especially certain chemicals associated with explosives and narcotics. According to another aspect of the present invention, a pre-concentrating means is incorporated with the device to effectively increase the concentration of "sticky" chemicals presented to the insects.

Wingo, Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM); McCabe, Kirsten J. (Los Alamos, NM); Haarmann, Timothy K. (Jemez Pueblo, NM)

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

47

Approximate hedging problem with transaction costs in stochastic volatility markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Approximate hedging problem with transaction costs in stochastic volatility markets Thai Huu Nguyen stochastic volatility markets with transaction costs using a new form for enlarged volatility in Leland between the present setting and high frequency markets with transaction costs. Possibilities to improve

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

48

Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the ...

Herndon, S. C.

49

Oxidation and volatilization of a niobium alloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the findings from a preliminary investigation into oxidation and volatilization characteristics of a niobium alloy. Niobium is a candidate alloy for use in plasma facing components (PFCS) in experimental fusion reactors like the Intemational Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). An experimental alloy was tailored to simulate small changes in chemistry which could result from transmutations from irradiation. The alloy was exposed in air and steam between 800[degree]C and 1200[degree]C. Volatilized products and hydrogen were collected and measured. Post-test examinations were also performed on the samples to determine the amount of material loss during the exposures. The obtained measurements of volatilization flux (g/m[sup 2]-s), hydrogen generation rates (liters/m[sup 2]-s), and recession rates (mm/s) are data which can be used for safety analyses and material performance to predict consequences which may result from an accident involving the ingress of air or steam into the plasma chamber of fusion reactor. In our volatility tests, only molybdenum and niobium were found at release levels above the detection limit. Although molybdenum is present at only 0.12 wt%, the quantities of this element volatilized in air are nearly comparable to the quantities of niobium released. The niobium release in steam is only three to four times higher than that of molybdenum in steam. The hydrogen production of the niobium alloy is compared with other PFC materials that we have tested, specifically, beryllium, graphite, and a tunesten alloy. At high temperatures, the hydrogen production rate of the niobium alloy is among the lowest of these materials, significantly lower than beryllium. To understand what this means in an accident situation, modeling is necessary to predict temperatures, and therefore total hydrogen production. The INEL is currently doing this modeling.

Smolik, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Volatility forecasting with smooth transition exponential smoothing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adaptive exponential smoothing methods allow smoothing parameters to change over time, in order to adapt to changes in the characteristics of the time series. This paper presents a new adaptive method for predicting the volatility in financial returns. It enables the smoothing parameter to vary as a logistic function of user-specified variables. The approach is analogous to that used to model time-varying parameters in smooth transition generalised autoregressive conditional heteroskedastic (GARCH) models. These non-linear models allow the dynamics of the conditional variance model to be influenced by the sign and size of past shocks. These factors can also be used as transition variables in the new smooth transition exponential smoothing (STES) approach. Parameters are estimated for the method by minimising the sum of squared deviations between realised and forecast volatility. Using stock index data, the new method gave encouraging results when compared to fixed parameter exponential smoothing and a variety of GARCH models.

James W. Taylor

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Pressure maintenance in a volatile oil reservoir  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reservoir. Historically, produced and makeup gas was injected to maintain pressure. In today's economy. gas has an increasing market value compared to the price of oil. Therefore, it becomes increasingly difficult to justify economically the injection... of produced gas and the purchase of additional make up gas to maintain reservoir pressure. Accordingly, water injection to maintain pressure becomes more favorable economically. This research investigated water injection into a volatile oil reservoir...

Schuster, Bruce Alan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

52

NETL: Ambient Monitoring - Contribution of Semi-volatile Organic Material  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Semi-volatile Organics in PM Semi-volatile Organics in PM This project is a cooperative effort between Brigham Young University (BYU) and researchers from the DOE-NETL Office of Science and and Engineering Research to determine the contribution of semi-volatile particulate organic compounds (SVOC) to total ambient suspended fine particulate mass at the NETL-Pittsburgh air monitoring facility. Project funding comes from DOE‘s University Coal Research (UCR) program. The hypothesis of the project is that fine particulate mass will be significantly under-determined in urban environments using single filter samplers such as the PM2.5 Federal Reference Method (FRM) because of the loss of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) from the particles during sampling and storage. It is postulated that fine particulate mass, including the semi-volatile fine particulate organic species, are an appropriate surrogate for the components of fine particles which are associated with observed mortality and morbidity effects in epidemiological studies. Further, it is postulated that the most important fraction of the semi-volatile organic material with respect to exacerbation of health problems will be semi-volatile secondary compounds formed from reactions of volatile organic material with ozone and nitrogen oxides. Under-determination of these semi-volatile species will tend to over emphasize the importance of non-volatile fine particulate components such as sulfate or may reduce the significance of correlations with measured health effects.

53

Atmospheric chemistry of CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH{sub 2}CF{sub 3}: UV spectra and kinetic data for CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH({sm_bullet})CF{sub 3} and CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH(OO{sm_bullet})CF{sub 3} radicals, and atmospheric fate of CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH(O{sm_bullet})CF{sub 3} radicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recognition of the adverse effect of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) release into the atmosphere has led to an international effort to replace CFCs with environmentally acceptable alternatives. Hydrofluoroethers (HFEs) are fluids designed to replace CFCs in applications such as the cleaning of electronic equipment, heat transfer agents in refrigeration systems, and carrier fluids for lubricant deposition. HFEs are volatile compounds and will be released into the atmosphere during its use. In the atmosphere, photochemical oxidation of HFEs will lead to the formation of fluorinated esters and fluorinated formates. The atmospheric fate of these products is unknown at the present. To improve their understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of esters the authors have studied the atmospheric chemistry of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyltrifluoroacetate CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH{sub 2}CF{sub 3} (bp = 55.0 C). This compound provides insight into the behavior of alkyl, alkyl peroxy, and alkoxy radicals formed {alpha} to the ester functionality. The atmospheric fate of CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH(O{sup {sm_bullet}})CF{sub 3} radicals was investigated in a FTIR smog chamber. Three loss processes for the CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH(O{sup {sm_bullet}})CF{sub 3} radicals were identified at 296 K and 700 Torr total pressure, reaction with O{sub 2} to form CF{sub 3}C(O)OC(O)CF{sub 3}, {alpha}-rearrangement to form CF{sub 3}C(O){sm_bullet} radicals and CF{sub 3}C(O)OH, and decomposition via a mechanism which is unclear. In 760 Torr of air at 296 K, 65% of the CF{sub 3}C(O)OCH(O{sm_bullet})CF{sub 3} radicals react with oxygen, 18% undergo {alpha}-rearrangement, while the fate of the remaining 17% is unclear.

Stein, T.N.N.; Christensen, L.K.; Platz, J.; Sehested, J.; Nielsen, O.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry Dept.] [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry Dept.; Wallington, T.J. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Ford Research Lab.] [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Ford Research Lab.

1999-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

54

GADOLINIUM SOLUBILITY AND VOLATILITY DURING DWPF PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding of gadolinium behavior, as it relates to potential neutron poisoning applications at the DWPF, has increased over the past several years as process specific data have been generated. Of primary importance are phenomena related to gadolinium solubility and volatility, which introduce the potential for gadolinium to be separated from fissile materials during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) and Melter operations. Existing data indicate that gadolinium solubilities under moderately low pH conditions can vary over several orders of magnitude, depending on the quantities of other constituents that are present. With respect to sludge batching processes, the gadolinium solubility appears to be highly affected by iron. In cases where the mass ratio of Fe:Gd is 300 or more, the gadolinium solubility has been observed to be low, one milligram per liter or less. In contrast, when the ratio of Fe:Gd is 20 or less, the gadolinium solubility has been found to be relatively high, several thousands of milligrams per liter. For gadolinium to serve as an effective neutron poison in CPC operations, the solubility needs to be limited to approximately 100 mg/L. Unfortunately, the Fe:Gd ratio that corresponds to this solubility limit has not been identified. Existing data suggest gadolinium and plutonium are not volatile during melter operations. However, the data are subject to inherent uncertainties preventing definitive conclusions on this matter. In order to determine if gadolinium offers a practical means of poisoning waste in DWPF operations, generation of additional data is recommended. This includes: Gd solubility testing under conditions where the Fe:Gd ratio varies from 50 to 150; and Gd and Pu volatility studies tailored to quantifying high temperature partitioning. Additional tests focusing on crystal aging of Gd/Pu precipitates should be pursued if receipt of gadolinium-poisoned waste into the Tank Farm becomes routine.

Reboul, S

2008-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

55

Volatiles as a link between planetary interiors and the environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Volatiles derived from planetary interiors influence magma evolution and environmental processes. Over appropriate timescales, Earth's mantle, crust, ocean, and atmosphere constitute coupled systems. The apparently synchronous ...

Black, Benjamin A. (Benjamin Alexander)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Price and volatility relationships in the Australian electricity market.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis presents a collection of papers that has been published, accepted or submitted for publication. They assess price, volatility and market relationships in the (more)

Higgs, Helen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated exploratory work towards the development of new field screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of carbon-halogen bonds. Commercially available heated diode and corona discharge leak detectors were procured and evaluated for halogenated VOC response. The units were modified to provide a digital readout of signal related to VOC concentration. Sensor response was evaluated with carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE), which represent halogenated VOCs with and without double bonds. The response characteristics were determined for the VOCs directly in headspace in Tedlar bag containers. Quantitation limits in air were estimated. Potential interferences from volatile hydrocarbons, such as toluene and heptane, were evaluated. The effect of humidity was studied also. The performance of the new devices was evaluated in the laboratory by spiking soil samples and monitoring headspace for halogenated VOCs. A draft concept of the steps for a new analytical method was outlined. The results of the first year effort show that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work towards the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

A Comment on \\The Cross-Section of Volatility and Expected Returns": The Statistical Signi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on "The Cross-Section of Volatility and Expected Returns":on The Cross-Section of Volatility and Expected Returns:the pricing of aggregate volatility risk and idiosyncratic

Anderson, Robert M.; Bianchi, Stephen W.; Goldberg, Lisa R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

The impact of oil price shocks on the stock market return and volatility relationship  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper examines the impact of structural oil price shocks on the covariance of U.S. stock market return and stock market volatility. We construct from daily data on return and volatility the covariance of return and volatility at monthly frequency. The measures of daily volatility are realized-volatility at high frequency (normalized squared return), conditional-volatility recovered from a stochastic volatility model, and implied-volatility deduced from options prices. Positive shocks to aggregate demand and to oil-market specific demand are associated with negative effects on the covariance of return and volatility. Oil supply disruptions are associated with positive effects on the covariance of return and volatility. The spillover index between the structural oil price shocks and covariance of stock return and volatility is large and highly statistically significant.

Wensheng Kang; Ronald A. Ratti; Kyung Hwan Yoon

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Terrorism, country attributes, and the volatility of stock returns  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study investigates the interplay between terrorism and finance, focusing on the stock return volatility of American firms targeted by terrorist attacks. We find terrorism risk is an important factor in explaining the volatility of stock returns, which should be taken into account when modelling volatility. Using a volatility event-study approach and a new bootstrapping technique, we find volatility increases on the day of the attack and remain significant for at least fifteen days following the day of the attack. Cross-sectional analysis of the abnormal volatility indicates that the impact of terrorist attacks differs according to the country characteristics in which the incident occurred. We find that firms operating in wealthier, or more democratic countries, face greater volatility in stock returns relative to firms operating in developing countries. Firm exposure varies with the nature of country location, with country wealth and level of democracy playing an important role in explaining the likelihood of a terrorist attack. Our results show that despite significant terrorist events this past decade, stock markets in developed countries have not taken terrorist risk into sufficient consideration.

Naceur Essaddam; John M. Karagianis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "volatile sub stances" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

2011-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

62

Growth History Of Kilauea Inferred From Volatile Concentrations In  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

History Of Kilauea Inferred From Volatile Concentrations In History Of Kilauea Inferred From Volatile Concentrations In Submarine-Collected Basalts Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Growth History Of Kilauea Inferred From Volatile Concentrations In Submarine-Collected Basalts Details Activities (4) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: Major-element and volatile (H2O, CO2, S) compositions of glasses from the submarine flanks of Kilauea Volcano record its growth from pre-shield into tholeiite shield-stage. Pillow lavas of mildly alkalic basalt at 2600-1900 mbsl on the upper slope of the south flank are an intermediate link between deeper alkalic volcaniclastics and the modern tholeiite shield. Lava clast glasses from the west flank of Papau Seamount are subaerial Mauna Loa-like tholeiite and mark the contact between the two

63

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units Title Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-4083E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Parthasarathy, Srinandini, Randy L. Maddalena, Marion L. Russell, and Michael G. Apte Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract Sixteen previously occupied temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess emissions of volatile organic compounds. The whole trailer emission factors were evaluated for 36 VOCs including formaldehyde. Indoor sampling was carried out in the THUs located in Purvis staging yard in Mississippi, USA. Indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) were also measured in all the trailers during sampling. Indoor temperatures were varied (increased or decreased) in a selection of THUs using the

64

Volatility of Vanadia from Vanadia-Based SCR Catalysts under...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Vanadia from Vanadia-Based SCR Catalysts under Accelerated Aging Conditions Volatility of Vanadia from Vanadia-Based SCR Catalysts under Accelerated Aging Conditions TiO2-supported...

65

Volatility and Growth: Credit Constraints and the Composition of Investment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

How does uncertainty and credit constraints affect the cyclical composition of investment and thereby volatility and growth? This paper addresses this question within a model where firms engage in two types of investment: ...

Aghion, Philippe

66

A nonparametric GARCH model of crude oil price return volatility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of parametric GARCH models to characterise crude oil price volatility is widely observed in the empirical literature. In this paper, we consider an alternative approach involving nonparametric method to model and forecast oil price return volatility. Focusing on two crude oil markets, Brent and West Texas Intermediate (WTI), we show that the out-of-sample volatility forecast of the nonparametric GARCH model yields superior performance relative to an extensive class of parametric GARCH models. These results are supported by the use of robust loss functions and the Hansen's (2005) superior predictive ability test. The improvement in forecasting accuracy of oil price return volatility based on the nonparametric GARCH model suggests that this method offers an attractive and viable alternative to the commonly used parametric GARCH models.

Aijun Hou; Sandy Suardi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Financial distortions and the distribution of global volatility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, I study the interactions between various aspects of the financial system and macroeconomic volatility in a globally integrated environment. In Chapter 1, I illustrate that an efficient allocation of liquidity ...

Eden, Maya Rachel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

The impact of fuel price volatility on transportation mode choice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent years, the price of oil has driven large fluctuations in the price of diesel fuel, which is an important cost component in freight logistics. This thesis explores the impact of fuel price volatility on supply ...

Kim, Eun Hie

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

In Vitro Genotoxicity of Particulate and Semi-Volatile Organic...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Particulate and Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Exhaust Materails from a Set of Gasoline and a Set of Diesel Engine Vehicles Operated at 30F In Vitro Genotoxicity of Particulate...

70

Alternative route for the preparation of CoSb{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}Si derivatives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An alternative manufacturing route has been developed for cobalt triantimonide and magnesium disilicide derivatives. Elemental powders were mixed in stoichiometric proportions, cold pressed into cylindrical preforms and heated in oxygen-free environment to initiate the exothermic reaction. According to DTA/TG measurements and observations under high-temperature microscope, the onset of reaction occurred at a temperature not exceeding the melting point of the more volatile component, i.e. antimony in the case of CoSb{sub 3} and magnesium in the case of Mg{sub 2}Si. The reaction products were additionally heat treated to secure homogenization. Dense sinters were obtained by hot uniaxial pressing of the obtained powders in moderate temperature-and-pressure conditions. Several advantages were identified in the proposed technology: absence of liquid phases, relatively short time of the synthesis, possibility of in-situ or ex-situ doping and grain size control. - Graphical abstract: (1) Manufacturing flow sheet for CoSb{sub 3} (milling included) and Mg{sub 2}Si (no milling). (2) Micrographs of CoSb{sub 3} product. (3) Micrographs of Mg{sub 2}Si product. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The combustion synthesis followed by HP was used for the manufacturing of CoSb{sub 3} or Mg{sub 2}Si. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The time of reaction is shorter compared with many other synthesis methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The process is scalable and practically wasteless.

Godlewska, E., E-mail: godlewsk@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Krakow (Poland); Mars, K.; Zawadzka, K. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Krakow (Poland)] [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Krakow (Poland)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

71

Modelling of NO{sub x} reduction strategies applied to 350 MW(e) utility boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computational fluid dynamics model has been combined with a NO{sub x} chemistry post-processor to predict the formation and destruction of nitric oxide in three-dimensional furnaces burning pulverized fuel. The model considers the complex interaction of turbulent flow, heat transfer, combustion, and NO{sub x} reaction chemistry. Lagrangian particle dynamics are used to track burning pulverized coal particles through the computational cells. Fuel nitrogen is released in proportion to the burnout of the particle. A range of combustion NO{sub x} reduction strategies has been applied to two 350 MW(e) utility boilers burning different coals. A medium volatile bituminous coal is fired using low NO{sub x} burners in one furnace and a sub-bituminous coal is burnt using conventional swirl burners in a different furnace. The strategies include: burner out of service, overfire air, reduction in excess air, change in particle size, and fuel reburn. In general NO{sub x} predictions are better for the sub-bituminous coal than for the medium volatile bituminous coal. Typical NO{sub x} prediction errors are {+-} 10 percent.

Visona, S.P.; Singh, B. [AUSTA Electric, Brisbane (Australia); Stanmore, B.R. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Brisbane (Australia)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Volatiles from sheep wool and the modification of wool odour  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Compounds in the headspace of a variety of wool samples and greases have been analysed with the aid of solid phase microextraction using a carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane coated fibre. Volatiles were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, while sulphur-containing compounds were analysed using gas chromatography/pulsed flame photometric detector. The volatile organic compounds released from scoured sheep wool and wool grease were investigated in vials under dry and humid conditions between 20 and 40C. A laboratory scale scouring apparatus was also used to investigate the emission of volatiles at different stages of the wool scouring process. A variety of volatile compounds, including sulphur-containing compounds, were emitted with their concentration increasing with temperature and humidity in most cases. There was a progressive decrease in the number of volatiles released after various stages of the wool scouring process. Wool grease emitted an assortment of volatile compounds, many of which were also detected in the headspace of scoured wool. Degradation of wool and particularly wool grease is thought to be responsible for the occurrence of the detected compounds. Use of an odour index helped identify possible contributors to the odour of wool, but unqualified proof remains elusive because of the possibility that compounds present at concentrations below detection limits may have made a contribution. A major aim of this work was to improve the odour of scoured wool. To achieve this aim two antioxidants were separately incorporated into the wool scouring process. In both cases, this resulted in a reduction of the number of headspace volatile compounds detected, and a distinct improvement in the pleasantness of the odour with an accompanying reduction in the odour intensity.

A.M Lisovac; D Shooter

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing work toward the development of new screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of halogens. In prior work, the devices were tested for response to carbon tetrachloride, heptane, toluene, and water vapors. In the current work, sensor response was evaluated with sixteen halogenated VOCs relative to carbon tetrachloride. The results show that the response of the various chlorinated VOCs is within an order of magnitude of the response to carbon tetrachloride for each of the sensors. Thus, for field screening a single response factor can be used. Both types of leak detectors are being further modified to provide an on-board LCD signal readout, which is related to VOC concentration. The units will be fully portable and will operate with 115-V line or battery power. Signal background, noise level, and response data on the Bacharach heated diode detector and the TIF corona discharge detector show that when the response curves are plotted against the log of concentration, the plot is linear to the upper limit for the particular unit, with some curvature at lower levels. When response is plotted directly against concentration, the response is linear at the low end and is curved at the high end. The dynamic ranges for carbon tetrachloride of the two devices from the lower detection limit (S/N=2) to signal saturation are 4-850 vapor parts per million (vppm) for the corona discharge unit and 0.01-70 vppm for the heated diode unit. Additional circuit modifications are being made to lower the detection limit and increase the dynamic response range of the corona discharge unit. The results indicate that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work toward the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Temporal Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount St Helens,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temporal Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount St Helens, Temporal Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount St Helens, Usa, 1980-1994 Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Temporal Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount St Helens, Usa, 1980-1994 Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Fumarole discharges (95-560°C) collected from the dacite dome inside Mount St. Helens crater show temporal changes in their isotopic and chemical compositions. A ΔD vs. Δ18O plot shows that condensed waters from the gases are mixtures of meteoric and magmatic components, but that the apparent magmatic end-member in 1994 was depleted by about 7‰ in ΔD relative to the apparent end-member in 1980. Based on ΔD modeling, approximately 63% of shallow, post-1980 magma has yet to degas.

75

Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Details Activities (4) Areas (4) Regions (0) Abstract: A system for analysis of inclusion gas contents based upon quadrupole mass spectrometry has been designed, assembled and tested during the first 7 months of funding. The system is currently being tested and calibrated using inclusions with known gas contents from active geothermal systems. Analyses are in progress on inclusions from the Salton Sea, Valles Caldera, Geysers, and Coso geothermal systems. Author(s): Mckibben, M. A.

76

Magnetic properties of (FeIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}){sub 1-x}(In{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub x} alloy single crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

(FeIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}){sub 1-x}(In{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub x} alloy single crystals are grown by oriented crystallization in the entire range of component concentrations. For the single crystals, studies of the magnetic properties are carried out in the temperature range 4-300 K and the magnetic-field range 0-14 T. It is established that almost all of the alloys are paramagnetic materials at temperatures down to the lowest achievable temperatures ({approx}4 K). It is shown that the ground magnetic phase state of the alloys is the spin-glass state with the freezing temperature steadily increasing with increasing Fe{sup 2+} cation content. The most probable causes and mechanism of formation of the magnetic state of the (FeIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}){sub 1-x}(In{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub x} crystals are discussed.

Bodnar, I. V., E-mail: chemzav@bsuir.by; Novikova, M. A. [Belarussian State University of Information and Radio Electronics (Belarus); Trukhanov, S. V. [National Academy of Sciences, Scientific and Practical Center for Material Science (Belarus)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Integration of Micro Patterning Techniques into Volatile Functional Materials and Advanced Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Novel micro patterning techniques have been developed for the patterning of volatile functional materials which cannot be conducted by conventional photolithography. First, in order to create micro patterns of volatile materials (such as bio...

Hong, Jung M.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

78

Marginalization and aggregation of exponential smoothing models in forecasting portfolio volatility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper examines exponentially weighted moving average models for predicting volatility and assessing risk in portfolios. It proposes a method that identifies the decay factors of the marginal volatility mo...

Giacomo Sbrana; Andrea Silvestrini

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

A two-dimensional volatility basis set Part 2: Diagnostics of organic-aerosol evolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the use of a two-dimensional volatility-oxidation space (2-D-VBS) to describe organic-aerosol chemical evolution. The space is built around two coordinates, volatility and the degree of oxidation, both of which ...

Donahue, N. M.

80

Earnings and labour market volatility in Britain, with a transatlantic comparison  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We contribute new evidence about earnings and labour market volatility in Britain over the period 19922008, for women as well as men, and provide transatlantic comparisons (Most research about volatility refers to earnings volatility for US men.). Earnings volatility declined slightly for both men and women over the period but the changes are not statistically significant. When we look at labour market volatility, i.e. also including individuals with zero earnings in the calculations, there is a statistically significant decline in volatility for both women and men, with the fall greater for men. Using variance decompositions, we demonstrate that the fall in labour market volatility is largely accounted for by changes in employment attachment rates. We show that volatility trends in Britain, and what contributes to them, differ from their US counterparts in several respects.

Lorenzo Cappellari; Stephen P. Jenkins

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "volatile sub stances" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Evidence for tt?? Production and Measurement of (?<sub> tt?sub>)?/(?tt?>)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using data corresponding to 6.0 fb-1 of pp? collisions at ?s = 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector, we present a cross section measurement of top-quark pair production with an additional radiated photon, tt??. The events are selected by looking for a lepton (ell), a photon (?), significant transverse momentum imbalance (E<sub>T>), large total transverse energy, and three or more jets, with at least one identified as containing a b quark (b). The tt?? sample requires the photon to have 10 GeV or more of transverse energy, and to be in the central region. Using an event selection optimized for the tt?? candidate sample we measure the production cross section of tt? (?<sub>tt?>), and the ratio of cross sections of the two samples. Control samples in the dilepton+photon and lepton+photon+E<sub>T>, channels are constructed to aid in decay product identification and background measurements. We observe 30 tt?? candidate events compared to the standard model expectation of 26.9 3.4 events. We measure the tt?? cross section (?<sub>tt?>) to be 0.18 0.08 pb, and the ratio of ?<sub>tt?>? to ?<sub>tt?> to be 0.024 0.009. Assuming no tt?? production, we observe a probability of 0.0015 of the background events alone producing 30 events or more, corresponding to 3.0 standard deviations.

Aaltonen, T [Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B [Oviedo U.; Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S [INFN, Padua; Amidei, D [Michigan U.; Anastassov, A [Northwestern U.; Annovi, A [Frascati; Antos, J [Comenius U.; Apollinari, G [Fermilab; Appel, J A [Fermilab; Apresyan, A [Purdue U.; Arisawa, T [Waseda U.; Dubna, JINR

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

82

ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS FINAL REPORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Urea Formaldehyde Foam Insulation (UFFI), Consumer Productdiisobutyrate Urea Formaldehyde Foam Insulation orexpandable foam insulation Volatile Organic Chemical TMPD-

Maddalena, Randy L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Growth mechanism difference of sputtered HfO{sub 2} on Ge and on Si  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HfO{sub 2} films were deposited by the reactive sputtering on Ge and Si substrates simultaneously, and we found both the interface layer and the HfO{sub 2} film were thinner on Ge substrate than those on Si substrate. A metallic Hf layer has a crucial role for the thickness differences of both interface layer and HfO{sub 2} film, since those thickness differences were observed only when an ultrathin metallic Hf layer was predeposited before the reactive sputtering process. The role of metallic Hf in these phenomena is understandable by assuming the formation of a volatile Hf-Ge-O ternary compound at the early stage of the film growth. This result shows that the HfO{sub 2}/Ge system has an advantage over the HfO{sub 2}/Si system from the viewpoint of further reduction of the gate oxide film thickness.

Kita, Koji; Kyuno, Kentaro; Toriumi, Akira [Department of Materials Science, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

2004-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

84

Algorithms and Data Representations for Emerging Non-Volatile Memories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-volatile memory (NVM). NVMs provide excellent performance such as random access, high I/O speed, low power consumption, and so on. The storage density of NVMs keeps increasing following Moores law. However, higher storage density also brings significant data...

Li, Yue

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

85

Organizational Adaptation in Volatile Environments Kathleen M. Carley  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by environmental volatility. This paper uses a computational model of organizational learning to theorize about within an ecology of learning in which change is occurring at many levels -- individual, organizational organizational adaptation as resulting from strategic maneuvering in a learning ecology will be illustrated using

Sadeh, Norman M.

86

A Class of Stochastic Volatility Models for Environmental Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pharmaceuticals Inc. Ke Wang, Pfizer Inc. F. Jay Breidt, Colorado State University Richard A. Davis, Columbia stochastic volatility modeling to this context, resulting in a stochastic heteroscedastic process (SHP), which is unconditionally stationary and non-Gaussian. Conditional on a latent GP, the SHP

Breidt, F. Jay

87

Renewable Hydrogen from Nonvolatile Fuels by Reactive Flash Volatilization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with refined soy oil, biodiesel (the volatile methyl...heat supplied. This process produces ?70% selectivity...intensification of the process into millisecond time...powders is possible. The process also requires further experiments, long-term evaluation, and modeling to...

J. R. Salge; B. J. Dreyer; P. J. Dauenhauer; L. D. Schmidt

2006-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

88

Determination of Steam-Volatile Organic Acids in Fermentation Media by Gas-Liquid Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Articles Determination of Steam-Volatile Organic Acids in Fermentation...utility in the separation and quantitation of steam-volatile organic acids commonly produced...column of Carbowax 20 M + H3PO4 separated steam-volatile organic acids completely. The...

L. V. Packett; R. W. McCune

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

MAGNESIUM ABSORPTION IN THE CCUM OF RATS RELATED TO VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS PRODUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MAGNESIUM ABSORPTION IN THE C?CUM OF RATS RELATED TO VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS PRODUCTION Y. RAYSSIGUIER RELATIONS ENTRE L'ABSORPTION C,4ECALE DE MAGNESIUM CHEZ LE RAT ET LA PRODUCTION D'ACIDES GRAS VOLATILS du caecum, pH, acides gras volatils, activité microbienne. Introduction The mode of magnesium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

90

Volatility spillover effect of emerging markets and economic growth versus oil price volatility : the case of the Gulf Co-operation Council countries.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The relationship between stock markets returns, economic growth and oil price volatility has been an issue of considerable debate. While there are many studies showing (more)

Fayyad, Abdallah

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Modeling CO{sub 2}-Brine-Rock Interaction Including Mercury and H{sub 2}S Impurities in the Context of CO{sub 2} Geologic Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study uses modeling and simulation approaches to investigate the impacts on injectivity of trace amounts of mercury (Hg) in a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stream injected for geologic carbon sequestration in a sandstone reservoir at ~2.5 km depth. At the range of Hg concentrations expected (7-190 ppbV, or ~ 0.06-1.6 mg/std.m{sup 3}CO{sub 2}), the total volumetric plugging that could occur due to complete condensation of Hg, or due to complete precipitation of Hg as cinnabar, results in a very small porosity change. In addition, Hg concentration much higher than the concentrations considered here would be required for Hg condensation to even occur. Concentration of aqueous Hg by water evaporation into CO{sub 2} is also unlikely because the higher volatility of Hg relative to H{sub 2}O at reservoir conditions prevents the Hg concentration from increasing in groundwater as dry CO{sub 2} sweeps through, volatilizing both H{sub 2}O and Hg. Using a model-derived aqueous solution to represent the formation water, batch reactive geochemical modeling show that the reaction of the formation water with the CO{sub 2}-Hg mixture causes the pH to drop to about 4.7 and then become buffered near 5.2 upon reaction with the sediments, with a negligible net volume change from mineral dissolution and precipitation. Cinnabar (HgS(s)) is found to be thermodynamically stable as soon as the Hg-bearing CO{sub 2} reacts with the formation water which contains small amounts of dissolved sulfide. Liquid mercury (Hg(l)) is not found to be thermodynamically stable at any point during the simulation. Two-dimensional radial reactive transport simulations of CO{sub 2} injection at a rate of 14.8 kg/s into a 400 m-thick formation at isothermal conditions of 106C and average pressure near 215 bar, with varying amounts of Hg and H{sub 2}S trace gases, show generally that porosity changes only by about 0.05% (absolute, i.e., new porosity = initial porosity 0.0005) with Hg predicted to readily precipitate from the CO{sub 2} as cinnabar in a zone mostly matching the single-phase CO{sub 2} plume. The precipitation of minerals other than cinnabar, however, dominates the evolution of porosity. Main reactions include the replacement of primarily Fe-chlorite by siderite, of calcite by dolomite, and of K-feldspar by muscovite. Chalcedony is also predicted to precipitate from the dissolution of feldspars and quartz. Although the range of predicted porosity change is quite small, the amount of dissolution and precipitation predicted for these individual minerals is not negligible. These reactive transport simulations assume that Hg gas behaves ideally. To examine effects of non-ideality on these simulations, approximate calculations of the fugacity coefficient of Hg in CO{sub 2} were made. Results suggest that Hg condensation could be significantly overestimated when assuming ideal gas behavior, making our simulation results conservative with respect to impacts on injectivity. The effect of pressure on Henrys constant for Hg is estimated to yield Hg solubilities about 10% lower than when this effect is not considered, a change that is considered too small to affect the conclusions of this report. Although all results in this study are based on relatively mature data and modeling approaches, in the absence of experimental data and more detailed site-specific information, it is not possible to fully validate the results and conclusions.

Spycher, N.; Oldenburg, C.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Phase relations of the Li{sub 2}O-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}O-WO{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} systems and promising nonlinear optical compounds in K{sub 2}O-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The subsolidus phase equilibria of the Li{sub 2}O-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, K{sub 2}O-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}O-WO{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} systems have been investigated mainly by means of the powder X-ray diffraction method. Two ternary compounds, KTaB{sub 2}O{sub 6} and K{sub 3}Ta{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 12} were confirmed in the system K{sub 2}O-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Crystal structure of compound KTaB{sub 2}O{sub 6} has been refined from X-ray powder diffraction data using the Rietveld method. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic, space group Pmn2{sub 1} (No. 31), with lattice parameters a = 7.3253(4) A, b = 3.8402(2) A, c = 9.3040(5) A, z = 2 and D{sub calc} = 4.283 g/cm{sup 3}. The powder second harmonic generation (SHG) coefficients of KTaB{sub 2}O{sub 6} and K{sub 3}Ta{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 12} were five times and two times as large as that of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (KDP), respectively.

Cai Gemei; Wang, W.Y.; Li, M. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 603, Beijing 100080 (China); Lou, Y.F. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 603, Beijing 100080 (China); Center of Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, School of Sciences, Beihang University, Beijing 100083 (China); Sun, Y.P. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 603, Beijing 100080 (China); Chen, X.L. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 603, Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: chenx29@aphy.iphy.ac.cn

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

93

Multiferroic properties of Pb{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5} ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research highlights: {yields} Simultaneous occurrence of ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity in Pb{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5} ceramics. {yields} The off-centers of shifted Pb{sup 2+} ions as well as the FeO{sub 6} octahedra in the 'Pb{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5}' lead to a ferroelectric polarization. {yields} Pb{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5} ceramic demonstrates ferromagnetic order state due to the spin arrangement in the double chains of FeO{sub 5} tetrahedral pyramids. -- Abstract: Pb{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5} (PFO) powders in monoclinic structure have been synthesized using lead acetate in glycerin and ferric acetylacetonate as the precursor. The powders were pressed into pellets, which were sintered into ceramics at 800 {sup o}C for 1 h. The morphology and structure have been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Polarization was observed in Pb{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5} ceramics at room temperature, exhibiting a clear ferroelectric hysteresis loop. The remanent polarization of Pb{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5} ceramic is estimated to be Pr {approx} 0.22 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}. The origin of the polarization may be attributed to the off-centers of shifted Pb{sup 2+} ions as well as the FeO{sub 6} octahedra in the perovskite-based structure of Pb{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Magnetic hysteresis loop was also observed at room temperature. The Pb{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5} ceramic shows coexistence of ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism. It provides a new field of research for complex oxides with multiferroic properties.

Wang, Min [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); Tan, Guolong, E-mail: gltan@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

Synthesis, spectroscopy, and structural characterization of six-coordinate bis(aryldiazenido)rhenium and bis(diarylhydrazido)rhenium complexes. X-ray structures of (Et{sub 4}N)[Re(NNPh){sub 2}(O{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}){sub 2}], (Et{sub 4}N)[Re(NNPh{sub 2}){sub 2}(O{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}){sub 2}], and Na[Re(NNPh){sub 2}(O{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}){sub 2}]{center_dot}CH{sub 3}CN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reactions of the cis-dioxorhenium(VII)-catecholate complex [(CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}){sub 4}N][ReO{sub 2}(O{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}){sub 2}] (1) with either monosubstituted organohydrazines (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}NHNH{sub 2}; 4-BrC{sub 6}H{sub 4}NHNH{sub 2}) or 1,1 disubstituted organohydrazines (Ph{sub 2-}NNH{sub 2}) yield the cis-bis(diazenido) core complexes [(CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}){sub 4}N][Re(NNR){sub 2}(O{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}){sub 2}] (5, R = C{sub 6}H{sub 5}; 6, R = 4-BrC{sub 6}H{sub 4}) and the cis-bis(hydrazido) core species [(CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}){sub 4}N][Re(NNPh{sub 2}){sub 2}(O{sub 2}C36H{sub 4}){sub 2}(O{sub 2}C36H{sub 4}){sub 2}] (7). Elution of 5 in a 3:1 mixture of toluene/methanol on a column of silica gel resulted in cation exchange to give Na[Re(NNPh){sub 2}-(O{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}){sub 2}]{center_dot}CH{sub 3}CN (8) as a one-dimensional polymer ([Na(CH{sub 3}CN)]{sup +}[Re(NNPh){sub 2}(O{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}){sub 2}]{sup {minus}}){sub 2}. Crystal data for C{sub 32}H{sub 38}N{sub 5}O{sub 4}Re (5): P2{sub 1}/c,a = 14.458(3) {angstrom}, b = 10.436(2) {angstrom}, c = 21.767(4) {angstrom}, {beta} = 107.04(3){degrees}, V = 3140(2) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 4, D {sub calc} = 1.572 g cm{sup {minus}3}; structure solution and refinement based on 3256 reflections with I{sub o} {ge} 3{sigma}(I{sub o}) converged at R = 0.053. Crystal data for C{sub 44}H{sub 48}N{sub 5}O{sub 4}Re (7): P1, a = 11.660(2) {angstrom}, b = 11.864(2) {angstrom}, c = 15.400(2) {angstrom}, {alpha} = 107.12(3){degrees}, {beta} = 94.99(3){degrees}, {gamma} = 97.61(3){degrees}, V = 2000(1) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 2, D{sub calc} = 1.490 g cm{sup {minus}3}; 3702 reflections, R = 0.0534. Crystal data for C{sub 26}H{sub 18}N{sub 5}NaO{sub 4}Re (8): P2/n, a = 5.785(1) {angstrom}, b = 9.670(2) {angstrom}, c = 23.142(5) {angstrom}. {beta} = 90.91(30)degrees, V = 1294.4(7) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 2, D{sub calc} = 1.737 g cm{sup {minus}3}; 1517 reflections, R = 0.049.

Kettler, P.B.; Chang, Yuan-Da; Zubieta, J. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

1994-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

95

Volatile Energy Costs and the Floundering Deregulation of Electricity: A  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Volatile Energy Costs and the Floundering Deregulation of Electricity: A Volatile Energy Costs and the Floundering Deregulation of Electricity: A Fresh Look at Integrating Supply-Side and Demand-Side Resources Speaker(s): Bill Kelly Robert Redlinger Date: January 19, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3148 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Julie Osborn The restructuring of the California electricity industry has not proceeded as intended. A generation capacity shortage, combined with spiraling natural gas costs and a flawed electricity market structure, have led to unprecedented wholesale electricity prices, power outages, and a political and financial crisis for the State. This crisis will not be solved through increasing electricity supply alone. Energy industry observers agree that 1.) energy efficiency, 2.) distributed on-site generation, and 3.) price

96

Comments on Americium Volatilization during Fuel Fabrication for Fast Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The physical processes relevant to the fabrication of metallic and ceramic nuclear fuels are analyzed, with attention to recycling of fuels containing U, Pu, and minor volatile actinides for the use in fast reactors. This analysis is relevant to the development of a process model that can be used for the numerical simulation and prediction of the spatial distribution of composition in the fuel, an important factor in fuel performance.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Ohriner, Evan Keith [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Volatility of Power Grids under Real-Time Pricing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The paper proposes a framework for modeling and analysis of the dynamics of supply, demand, and clearing prices in power system with real-time retail pricing and information asymmetry. Real-time retail pricing is characterized by passing on the real-time wholesale electricity prices to the end consumers, and is shown to create a closed-loop feedback system between the physical layer and the market layer of the power system. In the absence of a carefully designed control law, such direct feedback between the two layers could increase volatility and lower the system's robustness to uncertainty in demand and generation. A new notion of generalized price-elasticity is introduced, and it is shown that price volatility can be characterized in terms of the system's maximal relative price elasticity, defined as the maximal ratio of the generalized price-elasticity of consumers to that of the producers. As this ratio increases, the system becomes more volatile, and eventually, unstable. As new demand response technolo...

Roozbehani, Mardavij; Mitter, Sanjoy K

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Volatile organic compound losses from sewage sludge-amended soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) applied to soil in sludge have been assumed to disappear quickly and completely. The VOC behavior in sludge-amended soils has been studied previously only in laboratory systems where the sludged soil has been spiked with compounds of interest. Behavior in these systems may not necessarily represent compound behavior in field soils to which contaminated sludge is added. A series of laboratory microcosm experiments were designed therefore to investigate the behavior of toluene, ethyl benzene, o-, m-, and p-xylene applied to soil in contaminated sludge, and factors influencing loss processes. The VOC loss from sludge-amended soil was well described by a simple one step pseudo-first-order model but in certain soils was better described by a two step first-order model. Volatilization was the predominant loss process. Rates of loss depended on sludge application rate, method of sludge application, soil properties, and on compound characteristics. Experiments indicated that spiking sludge-amended soils gave a reasonable indication of VOC loss rates from systems amended with contaminated sludge at least over a period of 23 d. The majority of VOCs applied to soils in sludge volatilizes quickly to the atmosphere over a few to 10s of days with a small fraction lost more slowly. Potential for VOC crop uptake, livestock ingestion, and contamination of ground water is low under routine, managed applications of sewage sludge to agricultural land.

Wilson, S.C.; Jones, K.C.

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Addition of NH{sub 3} to Al{sub 3}O{sub 3}{sup -}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent computational studies on the addition of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) to the Al{sub 3}O{sub 3}{sup -} cluster anion [A. Guevara-Garcia, A. Martinez, and J. V. Ortiz, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 214309 (2005)] have motivated experimental and additional computational studies, reported here. Al{sub 3}O{sub 3}{sup -} is observed to react with a single NH{sub 3} molecule to form the Al{sub 3}O{sub 3}NH{sub 3}{sup -} ion in mass spectrometric studies. This is in contrast to similarly performed studies with water, in which the Al{sub 3}O{sub 5}H{sub 4}{sup -} product was highly favored. However, the anion PE spectrum of the ammoniated species is very similar to that of Al{sub 3}O{sub 4}H{sub 2}{sup -}. The adiabatic electron affinity of Al{sub 3}O{sub 3}NH{sub 3} is determined to be 2.35(5) eV. Based on comparison between the spectra and calculated electron affinities, it appears that NH{sub 3} adds dissociatively to Al{sub 3}O{sub 3}{sup -}, suggesting that the time for the Al{sub 3}O{sub 3}{sup -}{center_dot}NH{sub 3} complex to either overcome or tunnel through the barrier to proton transfer (which is higher for NH{sub 3} than for water) is short relative to the time for collisional cooling in the experiment.

Wyrwas, Richard B.; Jarrold, Caroline Chick; Das, Ujjal; Raghavachari, Krishnan [Indiana University, Department of Chemistry, Bloomington, Indiana 47405-7102 (United States)

2006-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

100

The polygallides: Yb{sub 3}Ga{sub 7}Ge{sub 3} and YbGa{sub 4}Ge{sub2}.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Yb{sub 3}Ga{sub 7}Ge{sub 3} and YbGa{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} were obtained from reactions of Yb and Ge in excess liquid gallium. The crystal structure of Yb{sub 3}Ga{sub 7}Ge{sub 3} was refined using X-ray and neutron diffraction data on selected single crystals. Yb{sub 3}Ga{sub 7}Ge{sub 3} crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c with lattice constants a = 12.2261(20) {angstrom}, b = 10.7447(20) {angstrom}, c = 8.4754(17) {angstrom} and {beta} = 110.288(30){sup o} (neutron diffraction data). The crystal structure of Yb{sub 3}Ga{sub 7}Ge{sub 3} is an intergrowth of planar layers of YbGa{sub x}Ge{sub y} and puckered layers of (Ge)n. YbGa{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} crystallizes in a modified PuGa{sub 6} structure type in the tetragonal polar space group I4cm with lattice constants a = b = 5.9874(6) {angstrom} and c = 15.1178(19) {angstrom}. The structure of YbGa{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} is an intergrowth of puckered Ga layers and puckered Ga{sub x}Ge{sub y} layers with Yb atoms residing within the channels formed by the connection of the two layers. Physical properties, resistivity ({rho}), magnetic susceptibility ({chi}) and specific heat (C) were measured for Yb{sub 3}Ga{sub 7}Ge{sub 3}. No magnetic ordering was observed. It was found that at low temperatures, {rho} varied as T{sup 2} and C{alpha}T, indicating Fermi-liquid regime in Yb{sub 3}Ga{sub 7}Ge{sub 3} at low temperatures.

Peter, S. C.; Malliakas, C. D.; Nakotte, H.; Kothapilli, K.; Rayaprol, S.; Schultz, A. J.; Kanatzidis, M. G. (Materials Science Division); ( XSD); (Northwestern Univ.); (Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Adv. Sci. Res.); (New Mexico State Univ.); (Los Alamos Nat. Lab.); (UGC-DAE Consortium for Sci. Res.)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "volatile sub stances" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on Commercial Thermal Desorption Tubes and the Effect of Ozone on Sampling Title Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on Commercial Thermal Desorption Tubes and the Effect of Ozone on Sampling Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6257E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Maddalena, Randy L., Amanda Parra, Marion L. Russell, and Wen-Yee Lee Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Keywords indoor air quality, Passive Sampling, Uptake Rates, vocs Abstract Diffusive or passive sampling methods using commercially filled axial-sampling thermal desorption tubes are widely used for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air. The passive sampling method provides a robust, cost effective way to measure air quality with time-averaged concentrations spanning up to a week or more. Sampling rates for VOCs can be calculated using tube geometry and Fick's Law for ideal diffusion behavior or measured experimentally. There is evidence that uptake rates deviate from ideal and may not be constant over time. Therefore, experimentally measured sampling rates are preferred. In this project, a calibration chamber with a continuous stirred tank reactor design and constant VOC source was combined with active sampling to generate a controlled dynamic calibration environment for passive samplers. The chamber air was augmented with a continuous source of 45 VOCs ranging from pentane to diethyl phthalate representing a variety of chemical classes and physiochemical properties. Both passive and active samples were collected on commercially filled Tenax TA thermal desorption tubes over an 11-day period and used to calculate passive sampling rates. A second experiment was designed to determine the impact of ozone on passive sampling by using the calibration chamber to passively load five terpenes on a set of Tenax tubes and then exposing the tubes to different ozone environments with and without ozone scrubbers attached to the tube inlet. During the sampling rate experiment, the measured diffusive uptake was constant for up to seven days for most of the VOCs tested but deviated from linearity for some of the more volatile compounds between seven and eleven days. In the ozone experiment, both exposed and unexposed tubes showed a similar decline in terpene mass over time indicating back diffusion when uncapped tubes were transferred to a clean environment but there was no indication of significant loss by ozone reaction.

102

Development and Characterization of a Thermodenuder for Aerosol Volatility Measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This SBIR Phase I project addressed the critical need for improved characterization of carbonaceous aerosol species in the atmosphere. The proposed work focused on the development of a thermodenuder (TD) system capable of systematically measuring volatility profiles of primary and secondary organic aerosol species and providing insight into the effects of absorbing and nonabsorbing organic coatings on particle absorption properties. This work provided the fundamental framework for the generation of essential information needed for improved predictions of ambient aerosol loadings and radiative properties by atmospheric chemistry models. As part of this work, Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) continued to develop and test, with the final objective of commercialization, an improved thermodenuder system that can be used in series with any aerosol instrument or suite of instruments (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometers-AMS, scanning mobility particle sizers-SMPS, photoacoustic absorption spectrometers-PAS, etc.) to obtain aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties as a function of particle volatility. In particular, we provided the proof of concept for the direct coupling of our improved TD design with a full microphysical model to obtain volatility profiles for different organic aerosol components and to allow for meaningful comparisons between different TD-derived aerosol measurements. In a TD, particles are passed through a heated zone and a denuding (activated charcoal) zone to remove semi-volatile material. Changes in particle size, number concentration, optical absorption, and chemical composition are subsequently detected with aerosol instrumentation. The aerosol volatility profiles provided by the TD will strengthen organic aerosol emission inventories, provide further insight into secondary aerosol formation mechanisms, and provide an important measure of particle absorption (including brown carbon contributions and identification, and absorption enhancements due to coatings on soot particles). The successfully completed Phase I project included construction of a prototype design for the TD with detailed physical modeling, testing with laboratory and ambient aerosol particles, and the initiation of a detailed microphysical model of the aerosol particles passing through the TD to extract vapor pressure distributions. The objective of the microphysical model is to derive vapor pressure distributions (i.e. vapor pressure ranges, including single chemical compounds, mixtures of known compounds, and complex real-world aerosols, such as SOA, and soot particles with absorbing and nonabsorbing coatings) from TD measurements of changes in particle size, mass, and chemical composition for known TD temperatures and flow rates (i.e. residence times). The proposed Phase II project was designed to optimize several TD systems for different instrument applications and to combine the hardware and modeling into a robust package for commercial sales.

Dr. Timothy Onasch

2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

103

Preparation of U.sub.3 O.sub.8  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for the preparation of U.sub.3 O.sub.8 nuclear fuel material by direct precipitation of uranyl formate monohydrate from uranyl nitrate solution. The uranyl formate monohydrate precipitate is removed, dried and calcined to produce U.sub.3 O.sub.8 having a controlled particle size distribution.

Johnson, David R. (Aiken, SC)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Plasma etching of HfO{sub 2} at elevated temperatures in chlorine-based chemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasma etching of HfO{sub 2} at an elevated temperature is investigated in chlorine-based plasmas. Thermodynamic studies are performed in order to determine the most appropriate plasma chemistry. The theoretical calculations show that chlorocarbon gas chemistries (such as CCl{sub 4} or Cl{sub 2}-CO) can result in the chemical etching of HfO{sub 2} in the 425-625 K temperature range by forming volatile effluents such as HfCl{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. The etching of HfO{sub 2} is first studied on blanket wafers in a high density Cl{sub 2}-CO plasma under low ion energy bombardment conditions (no bias power). Etch rates are presented and discussed with respect to the plasma parameters. The evolution of the etch rate as function of temperature follows an Arrhenius law indicating that the etching comes from chemical reactions. The etch rate of HfO{sub 2} is about 110 A /min at a temperature of 525 K with a selectivity towards SiO{sub 2} of 15. x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses (XPS) reveal that neither carbon nor chlorine is detected on the HfO{sub 2} surface, whereas a chlorine-rich carbon layer is formed on top of the SiO{sub 2} surface leading to the selectivity between HfO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}. A drift of the HfO{sub 2} etch process is observed according to the chamber walls conditioning due to chlorine-rich carbon coatings formed on the chamber walls in a Cl{sub 2}-CO plasma. To get a very reproducible HfO{sub 2} etch process, the best conditioning strategy consists in cleaning the chamber walls with an O{sub 2} plasma between each wafer. The etching of HfO{sub 2} is also performed on patterned wafers using a conventional polysilicon gate. The first result show a slight HfO{sub 2} foot at the bottom of the gate and the presence of hafnium oxide-based residues in the active areas.

Helot, M.; Chevolleau, T.; Vallier, L.; Joubert, O.; Blanquet, E.; Pisch, A.; Mangiagalli, P.; Lill, T. [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France); Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microelectronique, CNRS, 17 rue des martyrs (CEA-LETI), 38054 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); LTPCM/INPG-CNRS-UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, 38402 Saint-Martin-d'Heres (France); Applied Materials, 974 E. Arques Ave. M/S 81334, Sunnyvale, California 94086 (United States)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Quantum spin excitations through the metal-to-insulator crossover in YBa<sub>2sub>Cu>3sub>O>6+ysub>  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use inelastic neutron scattering to study the temperature dependence of the spin excitations of a detwinned superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.45} (T{sub c} = 48 K). In contrast to earlier work on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.5} (T{sub c} = 58 K), where the prominent features in the magnetic spectra consist of a sharp collective magnetic excitation termed 'resonance' and a large ({h_bar} {omega} {approx} 15 meV) superconducting spin gap, we find that the spin excitations in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.45} are gapless and have a much broader resonance. Our detailed mapping of magnetic scattering along the a*/b*-axis directions at different energies reveals that spin excitations are unisotropic and consistent with the 'hourglasslike' dispersion along the a*-axis direction near the resonance, but they are isotropic at lower energies. Since a fundamental change in the low-temperature normal state of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+y} when superconductivity is suppressed takes place at y {approx} 0.5 with a metal-to-insulator crossover (MIC), where the ground state transforms from a metallic to an insulating like phase, our results suggest a clear connection between the large change in spin excitations and the MIC. The resonance therefore is a fundamental feature of metallic ground state superconductors and a consequence of high-T{sub c} superconductivity.

Li, Shiliang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Yamani, Zahra [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, National Research Council, Chalk River Laboratorie; Kang, Hye Jung [National Institute of Standards and Technol/University of Maryland, College Park; Segawa, Kouji [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan; Ando, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan; Yao, Xin [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai; Mook Jr, Herbert A [ORNL; Dai, Pengcheng [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Study on the Volatility of Cesium in Dry Ashing Pretreatment and Dissolution of Ash by Microwave Digestion System - 13331  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based on the regulation of the activity concentration of Cs-137, Co-58, Co-60, Fe-55, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, and Tc-99, and the total alpha from the radioactive waste acceptance criteria, the measurement of the activity concentration of these nuclides in low and intermediate levels of radioactive waste such as in paper, cotton, vinyl and plastic samples was investigated. A dry ashing method was applied to obtain a concentration effect of the samples. Owing to the temperature dependence of the volatility for cesium, the temperature of 300 to 650 deg. C was examined. It was found that 450 deg. C is the optimum dry ashing temperature. After dry ashing, the produced ash was dissolved with HNO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system. The ash sample, for the most part, was completely dissolved with 10 mL of HNO{sub 3}, 4 mL of HCl, and 0.25 mL of HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system using a nova high temperature rotor at 250 deg. C for 90 min until reaching 0.2 g. To confirm the reliability of cesium loss after the performance of the dry ashing procedure, a cesium standard solution for AAS and a Cs-137 standard solution for gamma spectrometry were added to a paper towel or a planchet of stainless steel, respectively. Cesium was measured by AAS, ICP-MS, and gamma spectrometry. The volatility of cesium did not occur until 450 deg. C ashing. (authors)

Choi, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Chang Heon; Ahn, Hong-Joo; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyuseok [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Pressure dependence of the C sub 2 H sub 4 yield from the reaction C sub 2 H sub 5 + O sub 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The yield of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} formed during the reaction of C{sub 2}H{sub 5} with O{sub 2} has been determined at 298 K for pressures from 1.0 to 6,000 Torr. Ethyl radicals were formed by UV irradiation of mixtures of Cl{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, O{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} in either a Pyrex (1.0-1,500 Torr) or a stainless steel (760-6,000 Torr) reactor. The ethylene yield decreased with increasing pressure from 12% of the C{sub 2}H{sub 5} consumed by O{sub 2} at 1 Torr to 0.02% at 6,000 Torr, following a P{sup {minus}0.8{plus minus}0.1} pressure dependence in air.

Kaiser, E.W.; Lorkovic, I.M.; Wallington, T.J. (Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (USA))

1990-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

108

[Ta{sub 6}Cl{sub 12}(PrCN){sub 6}][(Ta{sub 6}Cl{sub 12})Cl{sub 6}]{center{underscore}dot}2PrCn, a compound with homonuclear mixed-charge cluster units [Ta{sub 6}Cl{sub 12}]{sup 2+} and [Ta{sub 6}Cl{sub 12}]{sup 4+}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In transition metal cluster chemistry, compounds consisting of both a cluster cation and a cluster anion are not very common. The first members of this type of compound of the composition [M{sub 6}X{sub 12}(EtOH){sub 6}][(Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 8})Cl{sub 4}X{sub 2}]{center{underscore}dot}mEtOH{center{underscore}dot}nEt{sub 2}O (M = Nb, Ta; X = Cl, Br) have been recently prepared. Crystal structure determinations for [Nb{sub 6}Cl{sub 12}(EtOH){sub 6}][(Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 8})Cl{sub 6}]{center{underscore}dot}3EtOH{center{underscore}dot}3Et{sub 2}O and [Ta{sub 6}Cl{sub 12}(EtOH){sub 6}][(Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 8})Cl{sub 6}]{center{underscore}dot}6EtOH revealed the presence of two different hexanuclear cluster cores; namely, the [M{sub 6}X{sub 12}(EtOH){sub 6}]{sup 2+} cluster cations and the [(Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 8})Cl{sub 4}X{sub 2}]{sup 2{minus}} cluster anions. In fact, these compounds consist of two different heteronuclear cluster units with different charges: [M{sub 6}X{sub 12}]{sup 2+} in the cation and [Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 8}]{sup 4+} in the anion. The preparation of cation-anion pairs with homonuclear mixed-charge cluster units is also possible. In the present study, the synthesis and crystal structure of the cluster pair [Ta{sub 6}Cl{sub 12}(PrCN){sub 6}][(Ta{sub 6}Cl{sub 12})Cl{sub 6}]{center{underscore}dot}2PrCN is reported. The compound is built of two octahedral homonuclear mixed-charge cluster units: [Ta{sub 6}Cl{sub 12}]{sup 2+} in the [Ta{sub 6}Cl{sub 12}(PrCN){sub 6}]{sup 2+} cluster cation and [Ta{sub 6}Cl{sub 12}]{sup 4+} in the [(Ta{sub 6}Cl{sub 12})Cl{sub 6}]{sup 2{minus}} cluster anion.

Brnicevic, N.; Sirac, S.; Basic, I.; Zhang, Z.; McCarley, R.E.; Guzei, I.A.

1999-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

109

Superconducting properties of the Ba/sub 1-//sub x/Y/sub x/CuO/sub 3-//sub y/ system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Superconductivity of the pseudobinary Ba/sub 1-//sub x/Y/sub x/CuO/sub 3-//sub y/ oxide system has been studied. A zero-resistance state has been achieved at 92.5 K for Ba/sub 0.6/Y/sub 0.4/CuO/sub 3-//sub y/. The critical curent density estimated from the magnetization curve is >10/sup 2/ A/cm/sup 2/ at 77 K in a magnetic field less than 0.1 T.

Togano, K.; Kumakura, H.; Fukutomi, K.; Tachikawa, K.

1987-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

110

Storage Sub-committee  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Storage Sub-committee Storage Sub-committee 2012 Work Plan Confidential 1 2012 Storage Subcommittee Work Plan * Report to Congress. (legislative requirement) - Review existing and projected research and funding - Review existing DOE, Arpa-e projects and the OE 5 year plan - Identify gaps and recommend additional topics - Outline distributed (review as group) * Develop and analysis of the need for large scale storage deployment (outline distributed again) * Develop analysis on regulatory issues especially valuation and cost recovery Confidential 2 Large Scale Storage * Problem Statement * Situation Today * Benefits Analysis * Policy Issues * Technology Gaps * Recommendations * Renewables Variability - Reserves and capacity requirements - Financial impacts - IRC Response to FERC NOI and update

111

1 Emerging versus developed volatility indexes. The comparison of VIW20 and VIX index.1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling of financial markets volatility is one of the most significant issues of contemporary finance, especially while analyzing high-frequency data. Accurate quantification and forecast of volatility are of immense importance in risk management (VaR models, stress testing and worst case scenario), models of capital market and options valuation techniques. What we show in this paper is the methodology for calculating volatility index for Polish capital market (VIW20 index anticipating expected volatility of WIG20 index). The methods presented are based on VIX index (VIX White Paper, 2003) and enriched with necessary modifications corresponding with the character of Polish options market. Quoted on CBOE, VIX index is currently known as the best measure of capital investment risk perfectly illustrating the level of fear and emotions of market participants. The conception of volatility index is based on combination of realized volatility and implied volatility which, using methodology of Derman et al. (1999) and reconstructing volatility surface, reflects both volatility smile as well as its term structure. The research is carried out using high-frequency data (i.e. tick data) for index options on WIG20 index for the period November 2003- May 2007, in other words, starting with the introduction of options by Warsaw Stock

Robert ?lepaczuk; Grzegorz Zakrzewski

112

Effects of Ethanol and Volatility Parameters on Exhaust Emissions of Light-Duty Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

26-28, 2005 THE EFFECTS OF ETHANOL AND VOLATILITY PARAMETERSare changed to include ethanol. While past studies of theincluding many with ethanol, there are some contradictory

Durbin, T; Miller, J W; Huai, T; Cocker III, D R; Younglove, Y

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Vehicular emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a tunnel study in Hong Kong  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemistry and Physics Vehicular emission of volatile organicY. , and Huang, Y. S. : Emission factors and characteristicslight-duty vehicle emissions, Environ. Sci. Technol. , 30,

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Improvement of SOFC Electrodes through Catalyst Infiltration & Control of Cr Volatilization from FeCr Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation discusses the improvement of SOFC electrodes through catalyst infiltration and control of Cr volatilization from FeCr components.

Visco, S.J.; Jacobson, C.; Kurokawa, H.; Sholklapper, T.; Lu, C.; De Jonghe, L.

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

115

Essays on the volatility and spillover effects of oil and food price shocks.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis comprises five self contained but related essays on the volatility and spillover effects of oil and food price shocks, making contributions to the (more)

Alom, Fardous

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Stochastic volatility models with persistent latent factors: theory and its applications to asset prices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consider the nonlinear nonstationary state-space model given by yt = radicalbig f(xt,?) ut, xt+1 = ?xt +vt+1,(2.1) where I make the following assumptions: Assumption 1: The volatility function is given by (2.2) f(xt,?) = + ?1+exp(??(x t ??)) , where ? = (.... Assumption 2: (xt) is a scalar latent volatility factor and |?| ? 1, I describe the volatility factor, (xt) explicitly in the transition equation because I am interested in the linkage between it and macro economic fundamentals. I assume that this volatility...

Lee, Hyoung Il

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

117

E-Print Network 3.0 - airborne volatile organic Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

predicting volatile organic concentration levels immediately downwind of wastewater treatment facilities... aeration which is used to increase the purification capacity also...

118

E-Print Network 3.0 - acidos grasos volatiles Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

signal that triggers the release of plant volatiles; one or more elicitors from the oral secretion allow Source: Par, Paul W. - Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas...

119

Oil consumption, pollutant emission, oil proce volatility and economic activities in selected Asian Developing Economies.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??It is now well established in the literature that oil consumption, oil price shocks, and oil price volatility may impact the economic activities negatively. Studies (more)

Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Ammonia volatilization from N fertilizers surface applied on bermudagrass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- vestigate the feasibility of CaC1 as a urea hydrolysis depressant. Laboratory In a simple nonaerated experiment in air-tight jars, CaCl ad- 2 ditive with urea depressed urea hydrolysis as measured by reduction in NH3 volatilization N loss from 48 to 3...% as a result of inhibiting bio- logical activity. This depression likely resulted from retarded micro- bial activity because CaC12 salt induced high osmotic pressure. In an aerated experiment which circulated air over treated soil, more similar...

Panossian, Jack B.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "volatile sub stances" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Effect of Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in a Call Center Title Effect of Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in a Call Center Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2003 Authors Hodgson, Alfred T., David Faulkner, Douglas P. Sullivan, Dennis L. DiBartolomeo, Marion L. Russell, and William J. Fisk Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 37 Start Page Chapter Pagination 5517-5528 Abstract A study of the relationship between outside air ventilation rate and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated indoors was conducted in a call center office building. The building, with two floors and a floor area of 4,600 m2, was located in the San Francisco Bay Area, CA. Ventilation rates were manipulated with the building's four air handling units (AHUs). VOC concentrations in the AHU returns were measured on seven days during a 13-week period. VOC emission factors were determined for individual zones on days when they were operating at near steady-state conditions. The emission factor data were subjected to principal component (PC) analysis to identify groups of co-varying compounds. Potential sources of the PC vectors were ascribed based on information from the literature supporting the associations. Two vectors with high loadings of compounds including formaldehyde, 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3- pentanediol monoisobutyrate, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (d5 siloxane), and isoprene likely identified occupant-related sources. One vector likely represented emissions from building materials. Another vector represented emissions of solvents from cleaning products. The relationships between indoor minus outdoor VOC concentrations and ventilation rate were qualitatively examined for eight VOCs. Of these, acetaldehyde and hexanal, which were likely associated with material sources, and d5 siloxane exhibited general trends of higher concentrations at lower ventilation rates. For other compounds, the operation of the building and variations in pollutant generation and removal rates apparently combined to obscure the inverse relationship between VOC concentrations and ventilation. This result emphasizes the importance of utilizing source control measures, in addition to adequate ventilation, to limit concentrations of VOCs of concern in office buildings

122

Evidence for SF sub 4 and SF sub 2 formation in SF sub 6 corona discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct detection of positive ions produced in positive point-to-plane SF{sub 6} corona discharges indicate the formation of SF{sub x}{sup +}, x = 1-5. Estimates of SF{sub 3}{sup +}, SF{sub 2}{sup +} and SF{sup +} from electron impact dissociative ionization cross section data of SF{sub 6}indicate that the experimental values are higher by factors of 10, 59, and 46 respectively. This can be explained on the basis of steady state concentrations of SF{sub 4}, and the ions SF{sub 2}{sup +} and SF{sup +} are derived from SF{sub 2}. Further, more direct evidence is given by the observation of cluster ions SF{sub x}{sup +}(SF{sub 4}) and SF{sub x}{sup +}(SF{sub 2}), x = 2,3. The formation of SF{sub 4} and SF{sub 2} will be discussed in the context of chemical kinetics models and plasma studies which also indicate formation of these species in SF{sub 6} discharges and its relevance to stable by-product formation. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Sauers, I.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Phase stability, structures and properties of the (Bi{sub 2}){sub m} (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}){sub n} natural superlattices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The phase stability of the (Bi{sub 2}){sub m} (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}){sub n} natural superlattices has been investigated through the low temperature solid state synthesis of a number of new binary Bi{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} compositions. Powder X-ray diffraction revealed that an infinitely adaptive series forms for 0.44{<=}x{<=}0.70, while an unusual 2-phase region with continuously changing compositions is observed for 0.41{<=}x{<=}0.43. For x>0.70, mixtures of elemental Bi and an almost constant composition (Bi{sub 2}){sub m} (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}){sub n} phase are observed. Rietveld analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data collected on Bi{sub 2}Te (m=2, n=1) revealed substantial interchange of Bi and Te between Bi{sub 2} and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} blocks, demonstrating that the block compositions are variable. All investigated phase pure compositions are degenerate semiconductors with low residual resistivity ratios and moderate positive magnetoresistances (R/R{sub 0}=1.05 in 9 T). The maximum Seebeck coefficient is +80 {mu}V K{sup -1} for x=0.63, leading to an estimated thermoelectric figure of merit, zT=0.2 at 250 K. - Graphical abstract: An infinite number of possible (Bi{sub 2}){sub m} (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}){sub n} structures exist for Bi{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} compositions between x=0.44 and x=0.70. Compositions near x=2/3 are promising p-type thermoelectrics. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase Stability of the (Bi{sub 2}){sub m}{center_dot}(Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}){sub n} Natural Superlattices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric Properties in the Bi{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} Phase Diagram. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal Structure of Bi{sub 2}Te from Synchrotron X-ray Powder Diffraction.

Bos, J.-W.G., E-mail: j.w.g.bos@hw.ac.uk [Institute of Chemical Sciences and Centre for Advanced Energy Storage and Recovery, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Chemical Sciences and Centre for Advanced Energy Storage and Recovery, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Faucheux, F.; Downie, R.A. [Institute of Chemical Sciences and Centre for Advanced Energy Storage and Recovery, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Chemical Sciences and Centre for Advanced Energy Storage and Recovery, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Marcinkova, A. [School of Chemistry and Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JJ (United Kingdom)] [School of Chemistry and Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JJ (United Kingdom)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

Mechanisms for plasma etching of HfO{sub 2} gate stacks with Si selectivity and photoresist trimming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To minimize leakage currents resulting from the thinning of the insulator in the gate stack of field effect transistors, high-dielectric constant (high-k) metal oxides, and HfO{sub 2} in particular, are being implemented as a replacement for SiO{sub 2}. To speed the rate of processing, it is desirable to etch the gate stack (e.g., metal gate, antireflection layers, and dielectric) in a single process while having selectivity to the underlying Si. Plasma etching using Ar/BCl{sub 3}/Cl{sub 2} mixtures effectively etches HfO{sub 2} while having good selectivity to Si. In this article, results from integrated reactor and feature scale modeling of gate-stack etching in Ar/BCl{sub 3}/Cl{sub 2} plasmas, preceded by photoresist trimming in Ar/O{sub 2} plasmas, are discussed. It was found that BCl{sub n} species react with HfO{sub 2}, which under ion impact, form volatile etch products such as B{sub m}OCl{sub n} and HfCl{sub n}. Selectivity to Si is achieved by creating Si-B bonding as a precursor to the deposition of a BCl{sub n} polymer which slows the etch rate relative to HfO{sub 2}. The low ion energies required to achieve this selectivity then challenge one to obtain highly anisotropic profiles in the metal gate portion of the stack. Validation was performed with data from literature. The effect of bias voltage and key reactant probabilities on etch rate, selectivity, and profile are discussed.

Shoeb, Juline; Kushner, Mark J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

Electronic and thermoelectric analysis of phases in the In<sub>2sub>O>3sub>(ZnO)k> system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high-temperature electrical conductivity and thermopower of several compounds in the In<sub>2sub>O>3sub>(ZnO)k> system (k = 3, 5, 7, and 9) were measured, and the band structures of the k = 1, 2, and 3 structures were predicted based on first-principles calculations. These phases exhibit highly dispersed conduction bands consistent with transparent conducting oxide behavior. Jonker plots (Seebeck coefficient vs. natural logarithm of conductivity) were used to obtain the product of the density of states and mobility for these phases, which were related to the maximum achievable power factor (thermopower squared times conductivity) for each phase by Ioffe analysis (maximum power factor vs. Jonker plot intercept). With the exception of the k = 9 phase, all other phases were found to have maximum predicted power factors comparable to other thermoelectric oxides if suitably doped.

Hopper, E. Mitchell; Zhu, Qimin; Song, Jung-Hwan; Peng, Haowei; Freeman, Arthur J.; Mason, Thomas O.

2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

126

New Soil Volatile Organic Compound Samplers U S  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Soil Volatile Organic Soil Volatile Organic Compound Samplers U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f E n e r g y * O f f i c e o f F o s s i l E n e r g y N a t i o n a l E n e r g y T e c h n o l o g y L a b o r a t o r y Successes AdvAnced ReseARch To support coal and power systems development, NETL's Advanced Research Program conducts a range of pre-competitive research focused on breakthroughs in materials and processes, coal utilization science, sensors and controls, computational energy science, and bioprocessing-opening new avenues to gains in power plant efficiency, reliability, and environmental quality. NETL also sponsors cooperative educational initiatives in University Coal Research, Historically Black Colleges and Universities, and Other Minority Institutions. Accomplishments P Process improvement P Cost reduction P Greater efficiency

127

Neutron and X-ray diffraction studies on the high temperature phase of Mn{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2}, the new isostructural compound NaMn{sub 4}(VO{sub 4}){sub 3} and their mixed crystals Na{sub x}Mn{sub 4.5-x/2}(VO{sub 4}){sub 3} (0{<=}x{<=}1)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a detailed structure analysis (combined Rietveld analysis of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data as well as quantum mechanical calculations) of the high temperature phase of Mn{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} (space group I4 Macron 2d). Special attention is directed to the analysis of the local coordination around Mn{sup 2+} ions or vacancies within a stella quadrangula configuration of anions. Furthermore, the new compound NaMn{sub 4}(VO{sub 4}){sub 3} is described as well as a range of mixed crystals between NaMn{sub 4}(VO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Mn{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} (described by the formula Na{sub x}Mn{sub 4.5-x/2}(VO{sub 4}){sub 3}, 0{<=}x{<=}1) which were synthesized by a solid state route. All compounds were shown to be isostructural to the high temperature phase Mn{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of the new compound NaMn{sub 4}(VO{sub 4}){sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present neutron and X-ray diffraction studies on high temperature-Mn{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural details of partly filled stellae quadrangulae positions are discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refined structural parameters and theoretical calculations are compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the mixed crystal system Mn{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2}-NaMn{sub 4}(VO{sub 4}){sub 3}.

Clemens, Oliver [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie und Radiochemie, Am Markt, Zeile 5, 66125 Saarbruecken (Germany)] [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie und Radiochemie, Am Markt, Zeile 5, 66125 Saarbruecken (Germany); Haberkorn, Robert [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Anorganische Festkoerperchemie, Am Markt, Zeile 3, 66125 Saarbruecken (Germany)] [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Anorganische Festkoerperchemie, Am Markt, Zeile 3, 66125 Saarbruecken (Germany); Springborg, Michael [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Campus B2 2, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany)] [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Campus B2 2, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Beck, Horst Philipp, E-mail: hp.beck@mx.uni-saarland.de [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie und Radiochemie, Am Markt, Zeile 5, 66125 Saarbruecken (Germany)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

Volatility-- a statistical comparison between the secondary and primary home markets : the lower Cape's volatility and average return compared to three Boston area primary markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis attempts to analyze the long-standing perception that the secondary home market, homes built in and around vacation areas, is more volatile than the primary home market. For the first time, this study measures ...

Knight, Craig, 1971-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

[Ni(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{sub 3}[U(OH,H{sub 2}O)(UO{sub 2}){sub 8}O{sub 12}(OH){sub 3}], crystal structure and comparison with uranium minerals with U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-type sheets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The new U(VI) compound, [Ni(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{sub 3}[U(OH,H{sub 2}O)(UO{sub 2}){sub 8}O{sub 12}(OH){sub 3}], was synthesized by mild hydrothermal reaction of uranyl and nickel nitrates. The crystal-structure was solved in the P-1 space group, a=8.627(2), b=10.566(2), c=12.091(4) A and alpha=110.59(1), beta=102.96(2), gamma=105.50(1){sup o}, R=0.0539 and wR=0.0464 from 3441 unique observed reflections and 151 parameters. The structure of the title compound is built from sheets of uranium polyhedra closely related to that in beta-U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Within the sheets [(UO{sub 2})(OH)O{sub 4}] pentagonal bipyramids share equatorial edges to form chains, which are cross-linked by [(UO{sub 2})O{sub 4}] and [UO{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O)(OH)] square bipyramids and through hydroxyl groups shared between [(UO{sub 2})(OH)O{sub 4}] pentagonal bipyramids. The sheets are pillared by sharing the apical oxygen atoms of the [(UO{sub 2})(OH)O{sub 4}] pentagonal bipyramids with the oxygen atoms of [NiO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}] octahedral units. That builds a three-dimensional framework with water molecules pointing towards the channels. On heating [Ni(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{sub 3}[U(OH,H{sub 2}O)(UO{sub 2}){sub 8}O{sub 12}(OH){sub 3}] decomposes into NiU{sub 3}O{sub 10}. - Graphical abstract: The framework of [Ni(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{sub 3}[U(OH,H{sub 2}O)(UO{sub 2}){sub 8}O{sub 12}(OH){sub 3}] built from uranium polyhedra sheets pillared by Ni-centered octahedra.

Rivenet, Murielle, E-mail: Murielle.rivenet@ensc-lille.f [Unite de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, Equipe Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, USTL, ENSC-B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex (France); Vigier, Nicolas; Roussel, Pascal; Abraham, Francis [Unite de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, Equipe Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, USTL, ENSC-B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex (France)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Differential volatile emissions and salicylic acid levels from tobacco  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pv. tabaci (Pstb), with tobacco plants resulted in a different volatile blend, consisting of MeORIGINAL ARTICLE Differential volatile emissions and salicylic acid levels from tobacco plants / Published online: 24 April 2003 ? Springer-Verlag 2003 Abstract Pathogen-induced plant responses include

Raina, Ramesh

131

Intra-daily variations in volatility and transaction costs in the Credit Default Swap market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Intra-daily variations in volatility and transaction costs in the Credit Default Swap market Andras : Credit Default Swap, Intra-daily patterns, Stochastic transaction costs, Volatility, Interdealer market on the Microstructure of Financial Markets in Hong Kong, the 2008 Credit conference in Venice, the Third Annual Risk

Del Moral , Pierre

132

A Gaussian Approximation Scheme for Computation of Option Prices in Stochastic Volatility Models 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

perform well on simulated joint price and options data that follow the log-linear stocastic volatility of Mathematics University of Alabama Tuscaloosa AL, 35487-0350. February 2007 1Research supported by National process that follows the log-linear stochastic volatil- ity model. There are three stochastic integrals

Ji, Chuanshu

133

Opportunities for reducing volatile organic compound emissions in manufacturing office furniture partitions: a feasibility analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A feasibility analysis is reported of reduction opportunities for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in manufacturing office furniture partitions. The pollution prevention (P2) methodology as defined by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment ... Keywords: emissions, manufacturing, office furniture, pollution prevention, volatile organic compound

Frank S. Luisser; Marc A. Rosen

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Hydrothermal synthesis of [C{sub 6}H{sub 16}N{sub 2}][In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})]: A new one-dimensional indium selenide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new organically templated indium selenide, [C{sub 6}H{sub 16}N{sub 2}][In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})], has been prepared hydrothermally from the reaction of indium, selenium and trans-1,4-diaminocyclohexane in water at 170 deg. C. This material was characterised by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, FT-IR and elemental analysis. The compound crystallises in the monoclinic space group C2/c (a=12.0221(16) A, b=11.2498(15) A, c=12.8470(17) A, {beta}=110.514(6){sup o}). The crystal structure of [C{sub 6}H{sub 16}N{sub 2}][In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})] contains anionic chains of stoichiometry [In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})]{sup 2-}, which are aligned parallel to the [1 0 1] direction, and separated by diprotonated trans-1,4-diaminocyclohexane cations. The [In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})]{sup 2-} chains, which consist of alternating four-membered [In{sub 2}Se{sub 2}] and five-membered [In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}] rings, contain perselenide (Se{sub 2}){sup 2-} units. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicates that [C{sub 6}H{sub 16}N{sub 2}][In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})] has a band gap of 2.23(1) eV. - Graphical abstract: [C{sub 6}H{sub 16}N{sub 2}][In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})], prepared under hydrothermal conditions, contains one-dimensional chains of stoichiometry [In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})]{sup 2-}, in which four-membered [In{sub 2}Se{sub 2}] and five-membered [In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}] rings alternate. Highlights: > New one-dimensional indium selenide prepared under hydrothermal conditions. > The [In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(Se{sub 2})]{sup 2-} chains are a new structural motif for Group 13 chalcogenides. > Unusual presence of (Se{sub 2}){sup 2-} moieties. > Optical band gap of 2.23(1) eV.

Ewing, Sarah J.; Powell, Anthony V. [Heriot-Watt University, Department of Chemistry, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Vaqueiro, Paz, E-mail: chepv@hw.ac.uk [Heriot-Watt University, Department of Chemistry, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

135

System for loading executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for loading an executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises a surface control unit comprising executable code. An integrated downhole network comprises data transmission elements in communication with the surface control unit and the volatile memory. The executable code, stored in the surface control unit, is not permanently stored in the downhole tool string component. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the downhole tool string component comprises boot memory. In another embodiment, the executable code is an operating system executable code. Preferably, the volatile memory comprises random access memory (RAM). A method for loading executable code to volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises sending the code from the surface control unit to a processor in the downhole tool string component over the network. A central processing unit writes the executable code in the volatile memory.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Bartholomew, David B. (Springville, UT); Johnson, Monte L. (Orem, UT)

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

136

Using futures prices to filter short-term volatility and recover a latent, long-term price series for oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil prices are very volatile. But much of this volatility seems to reflect short-term,transitory factors that may have little or no influence on the price in the long run. Many major investment decisions should be guided ...

Herce, Miguel Angel

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Characterization of ternary compounds in the BaO:Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}:TiO{sub 2} system: Ba{sub 6}Fe{sub 45}Ti{sub 17}O{sub 106} and BaFe{sub 11}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 23}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single crystals of Ba{sub 6}Fe{sub 45}Ti{sub 17}O{sub 106} and BaFe{sub 11}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 23} were obtained as major and minor coproducts, respectively, by slow-cooling an off-stoichiometric BaO:Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}:TiO{sub 2} melt. The former compound exhibits variable stoichiometry, Ba{sub 6}Fe{sub 48{minus}x}Ti{sub 14+x}O{sub 106}, with the Fe:Ti ratio dependent upon the partial pressure of oxygen. The value of x corresponds to the equivalents of reduction that occur to maintain electroneutrality as the Ti-content increases. When prepared in air, this phase occurs at x = 3 with the stoichiometry Ba{sub 6}Fe{sub 45}Ti{sub 17}O{sub 106}, while in 100% oxygen the x-value approaches zero with the resulting stoichiometry Ba{sub 6}Fe{sub 48}Ti{sub 14}O{sub 106} (all Fe{sup 3+} and Ti{sup 4+}). The structures of Ba{sub 6}Fe{sub 45}Ti{sub 17}O{sub 106} and BaFe{sub 11}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 23} were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. Ba{sub 6}Fe{sub 45}Ti{sub 17}O{sub 106} was prepared in polycrystalline form, and further structural details, including accurate Fe/Ti occupancy factors, were determined by a combined refinement using neutron and synchrotron powder diffraction data. (Ba{sub 6}Fe{sub 45}Ti{sub 17}O{sub 106}: Space group C2/m (No 12); a = 19.390(1) {angstrom}, b = 20.260(1) {angstrom}, c = 10.076(1) {angstrom}, {beta} = 105.27(1){degree}; V = 3818.5(3) {angstrom}{sup 3}; Z = 2; {rho}{sub calc} = 5.08 g/cm{sup 3}. Ba{sub 6}Fe{sub 11}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 23}: Space group C2/c (No 15); a = 19.56(1) {angstrom}, b = 8.6614(7) {angstrom}, c = 10.120(1) {angstrom}, {beta} = 105.62(1){degree}; V = 1651.1(3) {angstrom}{sup 3}; Z = 4; {rho}{sub calc} = 5.08 g/cm{sup 3}.) The magnetic behavior of Ba{sub 6}Fe{sub 45}Ti{sub 17}O{sub 106} above room temperature up to 1073 K was found to obey the Curie-Weiss law, which indicated a small effective magnetic moment (34 {mu}{sub B} per mole Ba{sub 6}Fe{sub 45}Ti{sub 17}O{sub 106}) and a large negative temperature intercept ({minus}806 K). Electrical resistivity measurements between room temperature and 120 K revealed nonmetallic behavior with an activation energy on the order of 0.17 eV. At 347 MHz under ambient conditions, Ba{sub 6}Fe{sub 45}Ti{sub 17}O{sub 106} exhibited a relative permittivity of 24 and a dielectric loss tangent of 0.10.

Vanderah, T.A.; Wong-Ng, W.; Toby, B.H.; Shull, R.D.; Roth, R.S. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Materials Science and Engineering Lab.] [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Materials Science and Engineering Lab.; Browning, V.M. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Geyer, R.G. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)] [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Synthesis and characterization of hybrid materials based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid and Dawson-type tungstophosphate K{sub 7}[H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}].18H{sub 2}O and K{sub 6}[P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}].13H{sub 2}O  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we synthesized hybrid materials using well-Dawson polyoxometalates (POMs), K{sub 7}[H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}].18H{sub 2}O or K{sub 6}[P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}].13H{sub 2}O and a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF{sub 4}]). K, W, P and CHN elemental analysis showed that one mole of [H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}]{sup 7-} reacts with 6 moles of BMIM{sup +} and one mole of [P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}]{sup 6-} reacts with 4 moles of BMIM{sup +} to form, respectively, K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. X-ray diffraction illustrated amorphous structure of the hybrid materials. FT-IR spectra showed the presence of both 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation and the Dawson anion. TG analysis displayed a relative thermal stability of the hybrid materials compared to the parents Dawson POMs. Cyclic voltammetry showed that the reduction peak potentials of the Dawson anion in the hybrid materials shift towards negative values and the shift is more pronounced for K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} compared to K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. This was attributed to a decrease in the acidity of the Dawson POM anion in the hybrid material. -- Graphical abstract: Powder XRD patterns of (a) PW{sub 18}, (b) K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}, (c) P{sub 2}W{sub 18}, and (d) K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate([BMIM][BF{sub 4}]) reacts with K{sub 7}[H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}].18H{sub 2}O to form K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}. {yields} [BMIM][BF{sub 4}] reacts with K{sub 6}[P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}].13H{sub 2}O to form K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. {yields} K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62} displayed amorphous structures. {yields} K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62} illustrated low water content. {yields} K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62} showed improved thermal stability.

Ammam, Malika, E-mail: m78ammam@yahoo.f [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (MTM), K.U Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Fransaer, Jan [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (MTM), K.U Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

139

Lattice Vibrations in La(Ce)Fe<sub>4sub>Sb>12sub> and CoSb<sub>3sub>: Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present results of time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering phonon density of states measurements on (La,Ce){sub 0.9}Fe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} and CoSb{sub 3} as well as of a detailed comparison with lattice dynamical models in the literature. The MARI experimental setup is replicated by a theory for scattering from a polycrystalline material. The model considered for the filled materials is a local density approximation (LDA) based short-range force constant model and those considered for CoSb{sub 3} are the LDA-based model with the La-related parameters removed and a semiempirical model. We show that the presence of La significantly affects the shape of the spectrum. We also conclude that upon filling the Sb intrasquare force constants are weakened and that the transition-metal Sb bonds are almost unchanged.

Feldman, J. L. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.; Dai, Pengcheng [ORNL; Enck, Thomas P [ORNL; Sales, Brian C [ORNL; Mandrus, David [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Solvothermal synthesis and characterisation of new one-dimensional indium and gallium sulphides: [C{sub 1}N{sub 4}H{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}[InS{sub 2}] and [C{sub 1}N{sub 4}H{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}[GaS{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two new main group metal sulphides, [C{sub 1}N{sub 4}H{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}[InS{sub 2}] (1) and [C{sub 1}N{sub 4}H{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}[GaS{sub 2}] (2) have been prepared solvothermally in the presence of 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine and their crystal structures determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds are isostructural and crystallise in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/n (Z=4), with a=6.5628(5), b=11.2008(9), c=12.6611(9) A and {beta}=94.410(4){sup o} (wR=0.035) for compound (1) and a=6.1094(5), b=11.2469(9), c=12.7064(10) A and {beta}=94.313(4){sup o} (wR=0.021) for compound (2). The structure of [C{sub 1}N{sub 4}H{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}[MS{sub 2}] (M=In,Ga) consists of one-dimensional [MS{sub 2}]{sup -} chains which run parallel to the crystallographic a axis and are separated by diprotonated amine molecules. These materials represent the first example of solvothermally prepared one-dimensional gallium and indium sulphides. -- Graphical abstract: [C{sub 1}N{sub 4}H{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}[InS{sub 2}] and [C{sub 1}N{sub 4}H{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}[GaS{sub 2}], prepared under solvothermal conditions, consist of one-dimensional [MS{sub 2}]{sup -} chains separated by diprotonated 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine molecules.

Vaqueiro, Paz [Department of Chemistry, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: chepv@hw.ac.uk

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "volatile sub stances" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Final Report - Glass Formulation Testing to Increase Sulfate Volatilization from Melter, VSL-04R4970-1, Rev. 0, dated 2/24/05  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal objectives of the DM100 and DM10 tests were to determine the impact of four different organics and one inorganic feed additive on sulfate volatilization and to determine the sulfur partitioning between the glass and the off-gas system. The tests provided information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data including sulfur incorporation and partitioning. A series of DM10 and DM100 melter tests were conducted using a LAW Envelope A feed. The testing was divided into three parts. The first part involved a series of DM10 melter tests with four different organic feed additives: sugar, polyethylene glycol (PEG), starch, and urea. The second part involved two confirmatory 50-hour melter tests on the DM100 using the best combination of reductants and conditions based on the DM10 results. The third part was performed on the DM100 with feeds containing vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) as an inorganic additive to increase sulfur partitioning to the off-gas. Although vanadium oxide is not a reductant, previous testing has shown that vanadium shows promise for partitioning sulfur to the melter exhaust, presumably through its known catalytic effect on the SO{sub 2}/SO{sub 3} reaction. Crucible-scale tests were conducted prior to the melter tests to confirm that the glasses and feeds would be processable in the melter and that the glasses would meet the waste form (ILAW) performance requirements. Thus, the major objectives of these tests were to: ? Perform screening tests on the DM10 followed by tests on the DM100-WV system using a LAW -Envelope A feed with four organic additives to assess their impact on sulfur volatilization. ? Perform tests on the DM100-WV system using a LAW -Envelope A feed containing vanadium oxide to assess its impact on sulfur volatilization. ? Determine feed processability and product quality with the above additives. ? Collect melter emissions data to determine the effect of additives on sulfur partitioning and melter emissions. ? Collect and analyze discharged glass to determine sulfur retention in the glass. ? Prepare and characterize feeds and glasses with the additives to confirm that the feeds and the glass melts are suitable for processing in the DM100 melter. ? Prepare and characterize glasses with the additives to confirm that the glasses meet the waste form (ILAW) performance requirements.

Kruger, Albert A.; Matlack, K. A.; Pegg, I. L.; Gong, W.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

142

Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA Temporary Housing Units Title Formaldehyde and Other Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions in Four FEMA Temporary Housing Units Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Maddalena, Randy L., Marion L. Russell, Douglas P. Sullivan, and Michael G. Apte Journal Environmental Science and Technology Volume 43 Start Page Chapter Pagination 5626-5632 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THUVOC and aldehyde emission factors (µg h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehydeconcentrations ranged from 378 µg m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 µg m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 µg m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 µg m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography - mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (µg h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and materialspecific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds, formaldehyde was theonly one with toxicological significance at the observed concentrations. Whole THU formaldehyde emissions ranged from 173 to 266 µg m-2 h-1 in the morning and 257 to 347 µg m-2 h-1 in the afternoon. Median formaldehyde emissions in previously studied site-built and manufactured homes were 31 and 45 µg m-2 h-1, respectively. Only one of the composite wood materials that was tested appeared to exceed the HUD formaldehyde emission standard (430 µg/m2 h-1 for particleboard and 130 µg/m2 h-1 for plywood). The high loading factor (materialsurface area divided by THU volume) of composite wood products in the THUs and the low fresh air exchange relative to the material surface area may be responsible for the excessive concentrations observed for some of the VOCs and formaldehyde

143

In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

Varvel, Mark Darrell

2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

144

Detection of volatile organic compounds using surface enhanced Raman scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors present the detection of volatile organic compounds directly in their vapor phase by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on lithographically-defined two-dimensional rectangular array of nanopillars. The type of nanopillars is known as the tapered pillars. For the tapered pillars, SERS enhancement arises from the nanofocusing effect due to the sharp tip on top. SERS experiments were carried out on these substrates using various concentrations of toluene vapor. The results show that SERS signal from a toluene vapor concentration of ppm level can be achieved, and the toluene vapor can be detected within minutes of exposing the SERS substrate to the vapor. A simple adsorption model is developed which gives results matching the experimental data. The results also show promising potential for the use of these substrates in environmental monitoring of gases and vapors.

Chang, A S; Maiti, A; Ileri, N; Bora, M; Larson, C C; Britten, J A; Bond, T C

2012-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

145

The extended chain compounds Ln {sub 12}(C{sub 2}){sub 3}I{sub 17} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Gd, Dy): Synthesis, structure and physical properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The title compounds are obtained in high yield from stoichiometric mixtures of Ln, LnI{sub 3} and graphite, heated at 900-950 deg. C in welded Ta containers. The crystal structures of new Pr and Nd phases determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction are related to those of other Ln {sub 12}(C{sub 2}){sub 3}I{sub 17}-type compounds (C 2/c, a=19.610(1) and 19.574(4) A, b=12.406(2) and 12.393(3) A, c=19.062(5) and 19.003(5) A, {beta}=90.45(3){sup o} and 90.41(3){sup o}, for Pr{sub 12}(C{sub 2}){sub 3}I{sub 17} and Nd{sub 12}(C{sub 2}){sub 3}I{sub 17}, respectively). All compounds contain infinite zigzag chains of C{sub 2}-centered metal atom octahedra condensed by edge-sharing into the [tcc] {sub {infinity}} sequence (c=cis, t=trans) and surrounded by edge-bridging iodine atoms as well as by apical iodine atoms that bridge between chains. The polycrystalline Gd{sub 12}(C{sub 2}){sub 3}I{sub 17} sample exhibits semiconducting thermal behavior which is consistent with an ionic formulation (Ln {sup 3+}){sub 12}(C{sub 2} {sup 6-}){sub 3}(I{sup -}){sub 17}(e{sup -}) under the assumption that one extra electron is localized in metal-metal bonding. The magnetization measurements on Nd{sub 12}(C{sub 2}){sub 3}I{sub 17}, Gd{sub 12}(C{sub 2}){sub 3}I{sub 17} and Dy{sub 12}(C{sub 2}){sub 3}I{sub 17} indicate the coexistence of competing magnetic interactions leading to spin freezing at T {sub f}=5 K for the Gd phase. The Nd and Dy compounds order antiferromagnetically at T {sub N}=25 and 29 K, respectively. For Dy{sub 12}(C{sub 2}){sub 3}I{sub 17}, a metamagnetic transition is observed at a critical magnetic field H{approx}25 kOe. - Graphical abstract: Zigzag chains of edge-sharing metal atom octahedra in Ln {sub 12}(C{sub 2}){sub 3}I{sub 17}.

Ryazanov, Mikhail [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Mattausch, Hansjuergen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Simon, Arndt [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)], E-mail: A.Simon@fkf.mpg.de

2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

Synthesis, structure and properties of new chain cuprates, Na{sub 3}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Na{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Na{sub 3}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Na{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10} were prepared via the azide/nitrate route from stoichiometric mixtures of the precursors CuO, NaN{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 3}. Single crystals have been grown by subsequent annealing of the as prepared powders at 500 deg. C for 2000h in silver crucibles, which were sealed in glass ampoules under dried Ar. According to the X-ray analysis of the crystal structures (Na{sub 3}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 4}: P2{sub 1}/n, Z=4, a=5.7046(2), b=11.0591(4), c=8.0261(3)A, {beta}=108.389(1){sup o}, 2516 independent reflections, R{sub 1}(all)=0.0813, wR{sub 2} (all)=0.1223; Na{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10}: Cm, Z=2, a=8.228(1), b=13.929(2), c=5.707(1)A, {beta}=111.718(2){sup o}, 2949 independent reflections, R{sub 1}(all)=0.0349, wR{sub 2} (all)=0.0850), the main feature of both crystal structures are CuO{sub 2} chains built up from planar, edge-sharing CuO{sub 4} squares. From the analysis of the Cu-O bond lengths, the valence states of either +2 or +3 can be unambiguously assigned to each copper atom. In Na{sub 3}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 4} these ions alternate in the chains, in Na{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10} the periodically repeated part consists of five atoms according to Cu{sup II}-Cu{sup II}-Cu{sup III}-Cu{sup II}-Cu{sup III}. The magnetic susceptibilities show the dominance of antiferromagnetic interactions. At high temperatures the compounds exhibit Curie-Weiss behaviour (Na{sub 3}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 4}: {mu}=1.7{mu}{sub B}, {theta}=-160K, Na{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10}: {mu}=1.8{mu}{sub B}, {theta}=-58K, magnetic moments per divalent copper ion). Antiferromagmetic ordering is observed to occur in these compounds below 13K (Na{sub 3}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and 24K (Na{sub 8}Cu{sub 5}O{sub 10})

Sofin, Mikhail [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Peters, Eva-Maria [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Jansen, Martin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: jansen@fkf.mpg.de

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

147

Measurement of chemical emissions under the influence of low-NO{sub x} combustion modifications. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Effect of low-NO{sub x} firing. There was no clear-cut effect on the emission of trace metals or acid gases. The data give marginal evidence for a decreased emission of Cr(VI), which would be a favorable change but is not certain by any means. The effect on aldehydes and ketones cannot be stated because of the loss of samples for baseline conditions; no credible data on these compounds were obtained for baseline conditions. The change in volatile organics appeared to be a reduction in emissions, whereas that for semi-volatiles seemed to be an increase. Inasmuch as low-NO{sub x} firing is sometimes accompanied by large increases in the amount of unburned carbon in the ash, the result for semi-volatiles is more in line with expectation. Effect of the hot-side ESP. As indicated above, the hot-side ESP lowered trace-element emissions to the range roughly from 1 to 5% of the levels found in the inlet gas stream. Not surprisingly, the hot-side ESP had no measurable influence on the emissions of SO{sub x}, HF, and HCl. Quite surprisingly, on the other hand, the ESP seemed to suppress the emission of certain organic substances. Suppression of the emission of formaldehyde is particularly difficult to explain. Presumably, the apparent disappearance of organics in the vapor state may be due in part to chemical changes at the high temperature of the ESP or in the corona regions, where ozone and other high-energy reactants are present. Perhaps chemical destruction was aided in the instance of semi-volatile compounds by relatively long residence times at high temperature while the compounds were adsorbed on ash particles in the hoppers. Effect of the cold-side ESP. Limited data with the cold-side ESP in operation made it difficult to detect any but the most emphatic effect of that ESP. No dramatic effect was seen.

Dismukes, E.B.

1993-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

148

Resonance in the Electron-doped High-T<sub>c> Superconductor Pr<sub>0.88sub>LaCe>0.12sub>CuO>4-?sub>  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In conventional superconductors, the interaction that pairs the electrons to form the superconducting state is mediated by lattice vibrations (phonons). In high-transition-temperature (high-T{sub c}) copper oxides, it is generally believed that magnetic excitations might play a fundamental role in the superconducting mechanism because superconductivity occurs when mobile 'electrons' or 'holes' are doped into the antiferromagnetic parent compounds. Indeed, a sharp magnetic excitation termed 'resonance' has been observed by neutron scattering in a number of hole-doped materials. The resonance is intimately related to superconductivity, and its interaction with charged quasi-particles observed by photoemission, optical conductivity, and tunnelling suggests that it might play a part similar to that of phonons in conventional superconductors. The relevance of the resonance to high-T{sub c} superconductivity, however, has been in doubt because so far it has been found only in hole-doped materials. Here we report the discovery of the resonance in electron-doped superconducting Pr{sub 0.88}LaCe{sub 0.12}CuO{sub 4-{delta}} (T{sub c} = 24 K). We find that the resonance energy (E{sub r}) is proportional to T{sub c} via E{sub r} {approx} 5.8k{sub B}T{sub c} for all high-T{sub c} superconductors irrespective of electron- or hole-doping. Our results demonstrate that the resonance is a fundamental property of the superconducting copper oxides and therefore must be essential in the mechanism of superconductivity.

Wilson, Stephen D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dai, Pengcheng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Li, Shiliang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chi, Songxue [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, H. J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Lynn, J. W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Theoretical studies of the structures and electronic properties of U(NH{sub 2}){sub 3} and Np(NH{sub 2}){sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electronic structure of the model compounds U(NH{sub 2}){sub 3} and Np(NH{sub 2}){sub 3} is investigated with the aid of ab initio electronic structure techniques. The electronic ground states and equilibrium geometries of these complexes are determined using multi-configuration SCF techniques. Comparisons are made to their counterparts U(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} and Np(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}.

Hay, P.J.; Martin, R.L.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Ethanol as Internal Standard for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Spirit Drinks by Gas Chromatography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The new methodical approach of using ethanol as internal standard in gas chromatographic analysis of volatile compounds in spirit drinks in daily practice of testing laboratories is proposed. This method provides determination of volatile compounds concentrations in spirit drinks directly expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) of absolute alcohol according to official methods without measuring of alcohol strength of analyzed sample. The experimental demonstration of this method for determination of volatile compounds in spirit drinks by gas chromatography is described. Its validation was carried out by comparison with experimental results obtained by internal standard method and external standard method.

Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Kulevich, Nikita V; Makoed, Nicolai M; Mazanik, Arkadzi L; Sytova, Svetlana N

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Far-infrared transmission study of single-crystal Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 Ca sub 1 Cu sub 2 O sub x superconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the infrared transmission of free-standing single crystals of the high-temperature superconductor Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 1}Cu{sub 2}O{sub {ital x}}, at temperatures between 25 and 300 K and at frequencies covering the range of 1.5{ital k}{sub {ital B}T{ital c}}{l angle}{h bar}{omega}{lt}12{ital k}{sub {ital B}T{ital c}}. The normal-state Drude relaxation rate follows a linear temperature dependence {h bar}/{tau}=3{ital k}{sub {ital B}T}. In the superconducting state there is no indication of a transmission peak, which characterizes a superconducting gap in the optical conductivity. We suggest that a strong pair-breaking interaction is responsible for this null result.

Forro, L.; Carr, G.L.; Williams, G.P.; Mandrus, D.; Mihaly, L. (Department of Physics, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY (USA) Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (USA) National Synchroton Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (USA))

1990-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

152

Effect of Milk Protein Concentrate on Lipid Oxidation and Formation of Fishy Volatiles in Herring Mince ( Clupea harengus) during Frozen Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sensory evaluation was also conducted to assess the intensity of fishy odor, and the volatiles were analyzed using static headspace gas chromatographymass spectrometry (SHGC-MS). ... Volatile analysis using SHGC-MS showed that 4% MPC was able to reduce headspace volatiles associated with fishy odor. ... Herring mince; SHGC-MS; lipid oxidation; fishy volatiles; fatty acids ...

H. J. F. Joaquin; S. Tolasa; A. C. M. Oliveira; C. M. Lee; K. H. Lee

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Trapping of volatiles in amorphous water ice. R. M. E. Mastrapa , R. H. Brown  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

were re- leased into the sample chamber at the same pressure as the water, measurements will be taken with a solar system composition gas with the proper ratios of water to volatile. References: [1] Bar-Nun, A., G

Cohen, Barbara Anne

154

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous volatile organic Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

51 SEDIMENT-TO-AIR MASS TRANSFER OF SEMI-VOLATILE CONTAMINANTS DUE TO SEDIMENT RESUSPENSION IN WATER Summary: @lsuvm.sncc.lsu.edu ABSTRACT Experiments were conducted to...

155

Sensitivity of Investor Reaction to Market Direction and Volatility: The Case of Dividend Change Announcements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study examines whether investor reactions are sensitive to the recent direction and/or volatility of underlying market movements. We find dividend change announcements elicit a greater change in stock price when the ...

Koch, Paul D.; Docking, Diane Scott

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Options introduction and volatility in the EU ETS1 Julien Chevallier 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), the European Climate Exchange (ECX) has introduced option the introduction of options has increased or decreased volatility in the European Union Emissions Trading Sc

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

157

Volatile liquid hydrocarbon characterization of underwater hydrocarbon vents and formation waters from offshore production operations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Volatile liquid hydrocarbon characterization of underwater hydrocarbon vents and formation waters from offshore production operations ... The environmental implications of offshore oil and gas activities ... The environmental implications of offshore oil and gas activities ...

Theodor C. Sauer

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

The Volatility and the Thermal Storage Performance of Binary Polyalcohol Systems Used in the Wall  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, the volatility of binary systems, consisting of neopentylglycol(NPG), pentaerythritol(PE) and trihytdroxy methyl-aminomethane(TAM) with different components, was studied experimentally. In the solid -solid phase change process...

Yan, Q.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Electrospun Polyurethane Fibers for Absorption of Volatile Organic Compounds from Air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrospun polyurethane fibers for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from air with rapid VOC absorption and desorption have been developed. Polyurethanes based on 4,4-methylenebis(phenylisocyanate) (MDI) and ...

Scholten, Elke

160

Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds Using Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry during the MILAGRO 2006 Campaign  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) on a rooftop in the urban mixed residential and industrial area North Northeast of downtown Mexico City as part of ...

Fortner, E. C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "volatile sub stances" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Chain hotels versus independent hotels : an analysis of branding, room revenue & volatility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis analyzes the historical performance of chain-affiliated hotels and independent (non-affiliated) hotels with an emphasis on the volatility of room revenues. The thesis attempts to prove or disprove the hypothesis ...

Langlois, Tyler J. (Tyler Joseph), 1974-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Comparison of Two ARMA-GARCH Approaches for Forecasting the Mean and Volatility of Wind Speed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, we develop two ARMA-GARCH models for predicting the mean and volatility of wind speed. The first model employs the standalone ARMA-GARCH model for modeling the mean wind speed and the variance simu...

Ergin Erdem; Jing Shi; Ying She

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Volatile organic compound monitoring by photo acoustic radiometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two methods for sampling and analyzing volatile organics in subsurface pore gas were developed for use at the Hazardous Waste Disposal Site at Los Alamos National Laboratory. One is Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (TDGCMS), the other is Photoacoustic Radiometry (PAR). Presented here are two years worth of experience and lessons learned as both techniques matured. The sampling technique is equally as important as the analysis method. PAR is a nondispersive infrared technique utilizing band pass filters in the region from 1 to 15 {mu}m. A commercial instrument, the Model 1302 Multigas Analyzer, made by Bruel and Kjaer, was adapted for field use. To use the PAR there must be some a priori knowledge of the constellation of analytes to be measured. The TDGCMS method is sensitive to 50 analytes. Hence TDGCMS is used in an initial survey of the site to determine what compounds are present and at what concentration. Once the major constituents of the soil-gas vapor plume are known the PAR can be configured to monitor for the five analytes of most interest. The PAR can analyse a sample in minutes, while in the field. The PAR is also quite precise in controlled situations.

Sollid, J.E.; Trujillo, V.L.; Limback, S.P.; Woloshun, K.A.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Architectural Techniques For Managing Non-volatile Caches  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As chip power dissipation becomes a critical challenge in scaling processor performance, computer architects are forced to fundamentally rethink the design of modern processors and hence, the chip-design industry is now at a major inflection point in its hardware roadmap. The high leakage power and low density of SRAM poses serious obstacles in its use for designing large on-chip caches and for this reason, researchers are exploring non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, such as spin torque transfer RAM, phase change RAM and resistive RAM. However, since NVMs are not strictly superior to SRAM, effective architectural techniques are required for making them a universal memory solution. This book discusses techniques for designing processor caches using NVM devices. It presents algorithms and architectures for improving their energy efficiency, performance and lifetime. It also provides both qualitative and quantitative evaluation to help the reader gain insights and motivate them to explore further. This book will be highly useful for beginners as well as veterans in computer architecture, chip designers, product managers and technical marketing professionals.

Mittal, Sparsh [ORNL] ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Dielectric strength of gas mixtures comprising SF/sub 6/, CO, c-C/sub 4/-F/sub 8/ and SF/sub 6/, N/sub 2/, c-C/sub 4/F/sub 8/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a previous paper breakdown strengths of c-C/sub 4/F/sub 8//SF/sub 6//CO gas mixtures in various proportions were reported for a 30mm rod-sphere gap under ac and impulse voltages. A mixture of 1% c-C/sub 4/F/sub 8/ + 59% SF/sub 6/ + 40% CO exhibited higher dielectric strength than pure SF/sub 6/ in the pressure range between 350 and 400 kPa. The present paper compares CO and N/sub 2/ as a buffer in gas mixtures and extends the studies to a nearly uniform field gap and a highly non-uniform field gap. Additional experiments confirmed that the use of CO as a buffer in gas mixtures is superior to N/sub 2/ and that some c-C/sub 4/-F/sub 8//SF/sub 6//CO gas mixtures have higher dielectric strength and are cheaper than pure SF/sub 6/.

Qiu, Y.; Kuffel, E.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Identification and evaluation of volatile compounds associated with vacuum and modified atmosphere packaged fresh red meats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with Lacrobacillus planrarum or Leuconostoc mesenteroides and stored for 28 days at 3'C included acetone, toluene, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, a hydrocarbon and CHCls. The profile of volatiles in packaged sterile loin tissue stored for 28 days was very similar.... , 1979, 1983; Vanderzant et al. , 1986). ~Although many studies have reported these off-odors, very little published information exists relative to the nature of the volatile aroma compounds which result from microbial or enzymatic activity during...

Jackson, Timothy Court

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Influence of Prefermentative Treatments to the Major Volatile Compounds of Assyrtiko Wines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Quantification of the major volatile compounds was realized developing a rapid analytical method based on fractionation of a 50 mL wine aliquot using C18-reversed phase adsorbent. ... The method allows satisfactory determination of more than 15 volatile compounds of wine. ... The method was applied to wines produced by Assyrtiko grapes (AOC Santorini), for two consecutive years, to compare the effect of skin contact prior to fermentation and the must clarification process. ...

Despina Kechagia; Yannis Paraskevopoulos; Eleni Symeou; Maria Galiotou-Panayotou; Yorgos Kotseridis

2008-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

168

The performance of a volatile oil reservoir overlain by a gas cap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE PERFORMANCE OF A VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR OVERLAIN BY A GAS CAP A Thesis By J. RALPH ELLIS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1960 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING THE PERFORMANCE OF A VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR OVERLAIN BY A GAS CAP A Thesis By J. RALPH ELLIS, JR. Approved as to style and content by: hairxnan of Coxnxnittee) (Head...

Ellis, Joseph Ralph, Jr

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

169

Sorption and permeation of low molecular weight volatile compounds in polypropylene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SORPTION AND PERMEATION OP LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IN POLYPROPYLENE A Thesis by ANTONIO RAMIRO SANTIAGO VIDAL JUNIOR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering SORPTION AND PERMEATION OF LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IN POLYPROPYLENE A Thesis by ANTONIO RAMIRO SANTIAGO VIDAL JUNIOR Approved...

Vidal, Antonio Ramiro Santiago

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

170

YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 whiskers grown from the gas phase  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} whiskers were grown by the {ital in} {ital situ} technique using radio frequency magnetron sputtering in Ar--O{sub 2} atmosphere at a substrate temperature of 720 {degree}C on (100) single crystal MgO substrate. High sputtering gas pressures were found to promote the formation of whiskers. Whiskers were found to start their growth from certain platelet crystals. The growth conditions for these whiskers are described and their structure is examined by analytical transmission electron microscope. These results seem to exclude the vapor--liquid--solid growth and propose direct condensation from the vapor.

Jaervinen, R.J.O.; Podkletnov, E.E.; Maentylae, T.A. (Tampere University of Technology, Insitute of Materials Science, P. O. Box 527, SF-33101 Tampere (Finland)); Laurilla, J.T.; Lepistoe, T.K. (Tampere University of Technology, Center for Electron Microscopy, P. O. Box 527, SF-33101 Tampere (Finland))

1991-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

171

Nanocrystalline K{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}: Eu for proton beam dosimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates the Thermoluminescent response of nanocrystalline K{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}: Eu, prepared by Co-precipitation technique to 150 MeV proton beam. The particle size was calculated to be 45 nm by the broadening of the XRD peaks using Scherrer's formula. Samples in the form of pellets were irradiated by 150 MeV proton beam with dose range of 0.1 Gy to 325 Gy. Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of the irradiated samples were recorded and studied. It has been found that the phosphor shows a characteristic single peak at around 420 K. The TL response is linear in the range upto 200 Gy and then saturates for higher doses. The wider linear TL response of nanocrystalline K{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}: Eu and low fading makes it a superior candidate as a dosimeter to be used for detecting the doses of protons beams for its various applications in the field of space, therapy and research.

Bahl, Shaila; Lochab, S. P.; Pandey, A.; Aleynikov, V. E.; Molokanov, A.; Kumar, Pratik [Medical Physics Unit, IRCH, AIIMS, New Delhi-110029 (India); Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi - 110067 (India); Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara College, New Delhi-110021 (India); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna - 141980 (Russian Federation); Medical Physics Unit, IRCH, AIIMS, New Delhi-110029 (India)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

172

SO.sub.2 sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is a process for detecting low concentration levels of sulfur oxides (SO.sub.2) in a flowing gas stream (typically a combustion exhaust gas stream) and a catalytic SO.sub.2 sensor system which may be used in that process.

Dalla Betta, Ralph A. (Mountain View, CA); Sheridan, David R. (Menlo Park, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Regenerative thermal oxidizers for VOC and NO{sub x} -- efficiency and cost  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Regenerative fume incinerators or thermal oxidizers have a combustion chamber at about 1,600 F. Heat recovery is provided by switching regenerator beds filled with ceramic. Volatile organic compounds, VOC`s, are about 99% removed along with a thermal efficiency of 90 to 95%. Improvements are discussed which reduce fuel costs, reduce investment cost and give better VOC removal. A method of preventing NO{sub x} formation is presented as well as a possible method for removing NO{sub x} from incoming feed gas. Regenerative fume incinerators or regenerative thermal oxidizers have 3 possible improvements. (1) Add the required fuel to the incoming gas to nearly eliminate NO{sub x} generation while improving thermal efficiency. (2) Remove NO{sub x} from the incoming gas by a new modification of the Exxon Thermal DeNO{sub x} process. (3) Use a new 4-way valve for 1 or 2-bed regenerators to cut investment and improve destruction efficiency.

Houston, R. [Houston Consulting, Hendersonville, NC (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

174

Distinct Pairing Symmetries in Nd<sub>1.85sub>Ce>0.15sub>CuO>4-?sub> and La<sub>1.89sub>Sr>0.11sub>CuO>4sub> Single Crystals: Evidence from Comparative Tunneling Measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We used point-contact tunneling spectroscopy to study the superconducting pairing symmetry of electron-doped Nd{sub 1.85}Ce{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4-y} (NCCO) and hole-doped La{sub 1.89}Sr{sub 0.11}CuO{sub 4} (LSCO). Nearly identical spectra without zero bias conductance peak (ZBCP) were obtained on the (110) and (100) oriented surfaces (the so-called nodal and anti-nodal directions) of NCCO. In contrast, LSCO showed a remarkable ZBCP in the nodal direction as expected from a d-wave superconductor. Detailed analysis reveals an s-wave component in the pairing symmetry of the NCCO sample with {Delta}?k{sub B}T{sub c}=1.66, a value remarkably close to that of a weakly coupled Bardeen-Cooper-Schriffer (BCS) superconductor. We argue that this s-wave component is formed at the Fermi surface pockets centered at ({+-}{pi},0) and (0,{+-}{pi}) although a d-wave component may also exist.

Shan, L. [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Huang, Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Gao, H. [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Wang, Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Li, Shiliang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dai, Pengcheng [ORNL; Zhou, F. [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Xiong, J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Ti, W. X. [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Wen, H. H. [Chinese Academy of Sciences

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Atmospheric chemistry of HFC-227ca: Spectrokinetic investigation of the CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}CF{sub 2}O{sub 2} radical, its reactions with NO and NO{sub 2}, and the atmospheric fate of the CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}CF{sub 2}O radical  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A pulse radiolysis technique was used to study the UV absorption spectrum of CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}CF{sub 2}O{sub 2} radicals, at 230 nm {sigma} = (3.2{+-}0.4) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} molecule{sup -1}. Rate constants for reactions of CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}CF{sub 2}O{sub 2} radicals with NO and NO{sub 2} were determined. The rate constant for reaction of F atoms with CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}CF{sub 2}H was determined by using an absolute rate technique. The atmospheric fate of CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}CF{sub 2}O radicals is decomposition via C-C bond scission to give CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2} radicals and CF{sub 2}O. In one bar of SF{sub 6} at 296 K, CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}CF{sub 2}O radicals decompose with a rate > 1.5 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1}. In their turn CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2} radicals are converted into CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}O radicals which also decompose via C-C bond scission. The results are discussed with respect to the atmospheric chemistry of HFC-227ca. 30 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Geissing, A.M.B.; Feilberg, A.; Mogelberg, T.E.; Sehested, J.; Bilde, M. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)] [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Wallington, T.J. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)] [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States); Nielsen, O.J. [Ford Motor Co., Aachen (Germany)] [Ford Motor Co., Aachen (Germany)

1996-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

176

Synthesis and characterization of oxyanion (phosphate, sulphate) doped Ba{sub 2}Sc{sub 2-y}Ga{sub y}O{sub 5}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we examine the effect of partial substitution of Ga for Sc in the oxyanion (phosphate, sulphate) containing perovskites, Ba{sub 2}Sc{sub 2-x}P{sub x}O{sub 5+x} and Ba{sub 2}Sc{sub 2-x}S{sub x}O{sub 5+3x/2} with the samples analysed through a combination of X-ray diffraction, TGA, Raman spectroscopy and conductivity measurements. The results demonstrate that in both cases, Ga can be incorporated in place of Sc up to 40%. In order to accommodate the increasing Ga content, a reduction in the oxyanion content is required. Thus for the highest Ga content sample achieved, only 10% oxyanion incorporation was achieved giving endmember compositions of Ba{sub 2}ScGa{sub 0.8}P{sub 0.2}O{sub 5.2} and Ba{sub 2}ScGa{sub 0.8}S{sub 0.2}O{sub 5.3} for phosphate and sulphate doping respectively. While the Ga doping was shown to significantly improve the stability of the systems towards CO{sub 2} containing atmospheres, conductivity measurements showed a reduction in the conductivity with increasing Ga content. - Graphical abstract: Phosphate and sulphate doped Ba{sub 2}Sc{sub 2-x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 5} perovskites have been successfully prepared, with the highest conductivities observed for samples with the lowest Ga content. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The successful synthesis of phosphate and sulphate doped Ba{sub 2}Sc{sub 2-x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 5} perovskites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The demonstration of significant oxide ion and proton conduction in these perovskites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The demonstration of improved CO{sub 2} stability with increasing Ga content.

Smith, A.D.; Shin, J.F. [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)] [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Slater, P.R., E-mail: p.r.slater@bham.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

177

The crystal structure and magnetic properties of Ba{sub 2?x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have synthesized the Ba{sub 2?x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} samples (x?=?0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) by the solid-state reaction method and investigated their crystalline and magnetic properties by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Mssbauer spectrometer, vibrating sample magnetometer, and network analyzer. XRD patterns show that all samples are rhombohedral with space group R-3m. The lattice constants a{sub 0} and c{sub 0} decrease with Sr substitution due to smaller ion radius of Sr{sup 2+} (1.27?) than that of Ba{sup 2+} (1.43?). The Mssbauer spectroscopy measurements show that the relative area ratios of Fe ion were maintained constant regardless of the Sr concentration. However, average magnetic hyperfine field slightly increased with the Sr concentration. This observation agrees with the fact that the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) linearly increases due to the increasing super-exchange interaction, originated from the difference in the ionic radius between Ba{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+}. To investigate its properties at high frequency range, all samples were sintered at 1100?C, and complex permeability and permittivity were measured by network analyzer between 100?MHz and 4?GHz. For x below 0.3, the initial permeability at 100?MHz increases, at higher values of x, its value decreases. Our study shows that magnetic properties of Sr{sup 2+} substitution for Ba{sup 2+} in Y-type hexaferrite as well as low magnetic loss less than 0.1 in 1?GHz band, indicating the potential application of Ba{sub 2?x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} samples for RF and antenna devices in ultra high frequency band.

Cho, Kwang Lae; Rhee, Chan Hyuk; Kim, Chul Sung, E-mail: cskim@kookmin.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

178

Magnetic Excitation Spectrum of the Square Lattice S=1/2 Heisenberg Antiferromagnet K<sub>2sub>V>3sub>O>8sub>  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have explored the magnetic excitation spectrum of the S=1/2 square lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet, K{sub 2}V{sub 3}O{sub 8}, using both triple-axis and time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering. The long-wavelength spin waves are consistent with the previously determined Hamiltonian for this material. A small energy gap of 72{+-}9 {micro}eV is observed at the antiferromagnetic zone center and the near-neighbor exchange constant is determined to be 1.08{+-}0.03 meV. A finite ferromagnetic interplanar coupling is observed along the crystallographic c axis with a magnitude of J{sub c}=-0.0036{+-}0.0006 meV. However, upon approaching the zone boundary, the observed excitation spectrum deviates significantly from the expectation of linear spin wave theory resulting in split modes at the ({pi}/2,{pi}/2) zone boundary point. The effects of magnon-phonon interaction, orbital degrees of freedom, multimagnon scattering, and dilution/site randomness are considered in the context of the mode splitting. Unfortunately, no fully satisfactory explanation of this phenomenon is found and further theoretical and experimental work is needed.

Lumsden, Mark D [ORNL; Nagler, Stephen E [ORNL; Sales, Brian C [ORNL; Tennant, D. A. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; McMorrow, D. F. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Lee, S.-H. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Park, S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Method for preparation of textured YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x superconductor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relate to textured YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (Y-123) superconductors and a process of preparing them by directional recrystallization of compacts fabricated from quenched YBCO powders at temperatures about 100.degree. C. below the peritectic temperature to provide a superconductor where more than 75% of the YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x phase is obtained without any Y.sub.2 BaCuO.sub.5 .

Selvamanickam, Venkat (Guilderland, NY); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Enhanced ferromagnetic order in Sr{sub 4}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 3}(GeO{sub 4}){sub 3} featuring canted [MnO{sub 4}]{sub ?} spin chains of mixed-valent Mn(III)/Mn(IV). Aliovalent substitution of the Sr{sub 4?x}Ln{sub x}Mn{sup III}{sub 2+x}Mn{sup IV}{sub 1?x}O{sub 3}(GeO{sub 4}){sub 3} solid-solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crystals of Sr{sub 4?x}Ln{sub x}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 3}(GeO{sub 4}){sub 3} (x=0; x?0.15 for Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm. Eu, Gd, Dy; x?0.3 for Ln=Gd) were isolated upon using high-temperature, solid-state methods in molten-salt media. These compounds are isostructural with the previously reported Na{sub 3}LnMn{sub 3}O{sub 3}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 3} (Ln=La, Sm, Gd) series that contains the same [MnO{sub 4}]{sub ?} spin chains. The synthesis of the Sr{sub 4}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 3}(GeO{sub 4}){sub 3} (x=0) phase was carried out by a double aliovalent substitution with respect to the Sr{sup 2+} and Ge{sup 4+} ions that replace Na{sup +}/Ln{sup 3+} and As{sup 5+} in Na{sub 3}LnMn{sub 3}O{sub 3}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 3}, respectively. The title series contains mixed-valent Mn(III)/Mn(IV) and shows a limited range of solid solution, both of which were not observed in the previously reported Na{sub 3}LnMn{sub 3}O{sub 3}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 3} series. To form the Sr{sub 4?x}Ln{sub x}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 3}(GeO{sub 4}){sub 3} solid solution, one of the Sr{sup 2+} sites, i.e., the original Ln-site in Na{sub 3}LnMn{sub 3}O{sub 3}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 3}, is partially substituted by Ln{sup 3+} in a statistical disorder of Sr{sub 1?x}/Ln{sub x}. Initial magnetic investigations of selected derivatives reveal higher ferromagnetic ordering temperatures than those reported for the Na{sub 3}LnMn{sub 3}O{sub 3}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 3} series, presumably attributed to a lesser degree of canting as a result of introducing non-JahnTeller Mn{sup 4+} ions. Also intriguing is the observation of multiple anomalies at low temperatures which appear to be of electronic origins. - Graphical abstract: Sr{sub 4?x}Ln{sub x}Mn(III){sub 2+x}Mn(IV){sub 1?x}O{sub 3}(GeO{sub 4}){sub 3}. Display Omitted - Highlights: Double aliovalent substitution: Sr{sub 4}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 3}(GeO{sub 4}){sub 3} with respect to Na{sub 3}LnMn{sub 3}O{sub 3}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 3}. Solid solution with respect to statistical disorder of Sr{sub 1?x}Ln{sub x} in one of the two Sr sites. Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} magnetic ions are spatially arranged in a triangular kagom fashion. Enhanced ferromagnetic ordering attributed to doping non-JahnTeller Mn{sup 4+}.

West, J. Palmer; Sulejmanovic, Dino [Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Becht, Gregory [E. I. du Pont, Wilmington, DE 19880-0500 (United States); He, Jian; Hitchcock, Dale [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Yan, Yonggao [Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Hwu, Shiou-Jyh, E-mail: shwu@clemson.edu [Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "volatile sub stances" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Search for B?<sub>s> ? ?+ ?- and B?<sub>d> ? mu+mu- decays in p anti-p collisions with CDF. II.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on a search for B?<sub>s> ? ?+ ?- and B?<sub>d> ? mu+mu- decays in p anti-p collisions at ?s = 1.96 TeV using 364.4 pb -1 of data collected by the CDF II dectector at Fermilab Tevatron Collider. After applying all selection requirements, we observe no candidates inside the B?<sub>s> or B?<sub>d> mass windows. The resulting upper limits on the branching fractions are ?(B?<sub>s> ? ?+?-) < 1.5 x 10-7 and ?(B?<sub>d> ? ?+?-) < 3.9 x 10-8 at 90 % confidence level. (auth)

Abulencia, A.; Acosta, D.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M. G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Aoki, M.; Apollinari, G.; Arguin, J. -F.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Ashmanskas, W.; Attal, A.; Azfar, F.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Determination of Migration Parameters for Volatile Organic Compounds in Polyethylene Terephthalate and Nylon 6 by Dynamic Permeation Cell Method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Determination of Migration Parameters for Volatile Organic Compounds in Polyethylene Terephthalate, such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and polypropylene (PP); however

Heller, Barbara

183

Oxidation and Volatilization from Tungsten Brush High Heat Flux Armor During High Temperature Steam Exposure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tungsten brush accommodates thermal stresses and high heat flux in fusion reactor components such as plasma facing surfaces or armor. However, inherently higher surface areas are introduced with the brush design. We have tested a specific design of tungsten brush in steam between 500 and 1100C. Hydrogen generation and tungsten volatilization rates were determined to address fusion safety issues. The brush prepared from 3.2-mm diameter welding rods had a packing density of 85 percent. We found that both hydrogen generation and tungsten volatilization from brush, fixtured to represent a unit within a larger component, were less than projections based upon the total integrated surface area (TSA). Steam access and the escape of hydrogen and volatile oxide from void spaces within the brush are restricted compared to specimens with more direct diffusion pathways to the test environment. Hydrogen generation rates from restrained specimens based on normal surface area (NSA) remain about five times higher than rates based on total surface areas from specimens with direct steam access. Volatilization rates from restrained specimens based upon normal surface area (NSA) were only 50 percent higher than our historic cumulative maximum flux plot (CMFP) for tungsten. This study has shown that hydrogen generation and tungsten volatilization from brush do not scale according to predictions with previously determined rates, but in fact, with higher packing density could approach those from flat surfaces.

Smolik, Galen Richard; Pawelko, Robert James; Anderl, Robert Andrew; Petti, David Andrew

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Volatile Organic Compound Investigation Results, 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unexpectedly high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were discovered while drilling in the unconfined aquifer beneath the Hanford Sites 300 Area during 2006. The discovery involved an interval of relatively finer-grained sediment within the unconfined aquifer, an interval that is not sampled by routine groundwater monitoring. Although VOC contamination in the unconfined aquifer has been identified and monitored, the concentrations of newly discovered contamination are much higher than encountered previously, with some new results significantly higher than the drinking water standards. The primary contaminant is trichloroethene, with lesser amounts of tetrachloroethene. Both chemicals were used extensively as degreasing agents during the fuels fabrication process. A biological degradation product of these chemicals, 1,2-dichloroethene, was also detected. To further define the nature and extent of this contamination, additional characterization drilling was undertaken during 2007. Four locations were drilled to supplement the information obtained at four locations drilled during the earlier investigation in 2006. The results of the combined drilling indicate that the newly discovered contamination is limited to a relatively finer-grained interval of Ringold Formation sediment within the unconfined aquifer. The extent of this contamination appears to be the area immediately east and south of the former South Process Pond. Samples collected from the finer-grained sediment at locations along the shoreline confirm the presence of the contamination near the groundwater/river interface. Contamination was not detected in river water that flows over the area where the river channel potentially incises the finer-grained interval of aquifer sediment. The source for this contamination is not readily apparent. A search of historical documents and the Hanford Waste Information Data System did not provide definitive clues as to waste disposal operations and/or spills that might have resulted in groundwater contamination in this sediment, although several relatively small accidental releases of VOCs have occurred in the past in the northern portion of the 300 Area. It is likely that large quantities of degreasing solutions were disposed to the North and South Process Ponds during the 1950s and 1960s, and that evidence for them in the upper portion of the unconfined aquifer has been removed because of groundwater movement through the much more transmissive sediment. Also, investigations to date have revealed no evidence to suggest that a dense, non-aqueous phase liquid remains undetected in the subsurface. Potential pathways for contamination to migrate from this finer-grained sediment include groundwater movement through the interval to offshore locations in the Columbia River channel, dispersion out of the finer-grained interval into the overlying transmissive sediment (again, with transport to the riverbed), and potential future withdrawal via water supply wells.

Peterson, Robert E.; Williams, Bruce A.; Smith, Ronald M.

2008-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

185

New phases in the system LiMnVO{sub 4}-Mn{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The synthesis of orthorhombic Mn{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} via a simple solid state route as well as the description of a new tetragonal high temperature phase are reported in this paper. Additionally, the system LiMnVO{sub 4}-Mn{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} (=Mn{sub 1.5}VO{sub 4}), described by the formula Li{sub x}Mn{sub 1.5-x/2}VO{sub 4}, is investigated in detail, showing that substitution of one Mn{sup 2+} in Mn{sub 1.5}VO{sub 4} by two Li{sup +} ions favors the formation of the tetragonal high temperature phase for x{<=}0.22. This substitution is facilitated by the statistical half occupancy of the 4b site by Mn{sup 2+} in tetragonal Mn{sub 1.5}VO{sub 4}, whereas additional crystallographic sites would have to be occupied in the orthorhombic phase. The inverse substitution of Li by Mn in orthorhombic LiMnVO{sub 4} is also shown to be possible in the range 0.72{<=}x{<=}1. For 0.22{<=}x{<=}0.72, there is a large miscibility gap with a two phase mixture of the tetragonal Mn{sub 1.5}VO{sub 4} type and orthorhombic LiMnVO{sub 4} type phases. - Graphical Abstract: The unusual coordination of Mn in the form of a stella quadrangula with the surrounding vanadate groups. Highlights: > First synthesis of orthorhombic Mn{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} via a simple solid state route. > The crystal chemistry of the phases involved is rather complicated and it depends on the amount of Li that is incorporated. > System LiMnVO{sub 4}-Mn{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} (=Mn{sub 1.5}VO{sub 4}), described by the formula Li{sub x}Mn{sub 1.5-x/2}VO{sub 4}, is investigated in detail.

Clemens, Oliver [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie und Radiochemie, Am Markt, Zeile 5, 66125 Saarbruecken (Germany); Haberkorn, Robert [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Anorganische Festkoerperchemie, Am Markt, Zeile 3, 66125 Saarbruecken (Germany); Beck, Horst Philipp, E-mail: hp.beck@mx.uni-saarland.de [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie und Radiochemie, Am Markt, Zeile 5, 66125 Saarbruecken (Germany)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

Synthesis, structure and properties of Li{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}B{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Li{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}B{sub 2} has been synthesized at 1000 deg. C from a stoichiometric mix of rhodium and boron and an excess of lithium. Li{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}B{sub 2} crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbam (no. 55, Z=2) with room temperature lattice constants a=5.7712(1) A, b=9.4377(2) A, c=2.8301(1) A and cell volume 154.149(6) A{sup 3}. The structure was solved from single crystal X-ray diffraction yielding the final R indices (all data) R1=2.8% and wR2=4.7%. The structure is a distortion of the CeCo{sub 3}B{sub 2} structure type, containing a network of Rh{sub 6}B trigonal prisms and short Li-Li contacts of 2.28(2) A. Li{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}B{sub 2} is a diamagnetic metal with a room temperature resistivity of 19 {mu}{omega} cm, as determined by magnetic susceptibility and single crystal transport measurements. The measured diamagnetism and electronic structure calculations show that Li{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}B{sub 2} contains rhodium in a d {sup 10} configuration. - Graphical abstract: Li{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}B{sub 2}, a diamagnetic metal, has been synthesized from a lithium flux. It adopts a distortion of the CeCo{sub 3}B{sub 2} structure type and is closely related to the 3 K superconductor, LaRh{sub 3}B{sub 2}. Pairs of lithium ions (white) fill the channels formed by rhodium-boron trigonal prisms (gray)

Bailey, Mark S. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: mbailey@anl.gov; Lobkovsky, Emil B. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hinks, David G. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Claus, Helmut [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Hor, Yew San [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Schlueter, John A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Mitchell, John F. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: mitchell@anl.gov

2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Magnetic measurements and neutron diffraction study of the layered hybrid compounds Mn(C{sub 8}H{sub 4}O{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(C{sub 8}H{sub 4}O{sub 4})  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mn(C{sub 8}H{sub 4}O{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(C{sub 8}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}) layered organic-inorganic compounds based on manganese(II) and terephthalate molecules (C{sub 8}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}{sup 2-}) have been studied by DC and AC magnetic measurements and powder neutron diffraction. The dihydrated compound behaves as a 3D antiferromagnet below 6.5 K. The temperature dependence of its {chi}T product is typical of a 2D Heisenberg system and allows determining the in-plane exchange constant J Almost-Equal-To -7.4 K through the carboxylate bridges. The magnetic structure confirms the in-plane nearest neighbor antiferromagnetic interactions and the 3D ordering. The hydroxide based compound also orders as a 3D antiferromagnet with a higher Neel temperature (38.5 K). Its magnetic structure is described from two antiferromagnetically coupled ferromagnetic sublattices, in relation with the two independent metallic sites. The isothermal magnetization data at 2 K are consistent with the antiferromagnetic ground-state of these compounds. However, in both cases, a slope change points to field-induced modification of the magnetic structure. - Graphical abstract: The macroscopic magnetic properties and magnetic structures of two metal-organic frameworks based on manganese (II) and terephthalate molecules are presented. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic study of Mn(C{sub 8}H{sub 4}O{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(C{sub 8}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two compounds with common features (interlayer linker/distance, S=5/2 spin). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic measurements quantitatively analyzed to deduce exchange constants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic structures determined from neutron powder diffraction experiments.

Sibille, Romain, E-mail: romain.sibille@ijl.nancy-universite.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198-Nancy Universite, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Mesbah, Adel; Mazet, Thomas; Malaman, Bernard [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198-Nancy Universite, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Capelli, Silvia [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Francois, Michel [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198-Nancy Universite, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6} - two new Ae-Zn-Sn polar intermetallic compounds (Ae: alkaline earth metal)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6}, two closely related new polar intermetallic compounds, were obtained by high temperature reactions of the elements. Their crystal structures were determined with single crystal XRD methods, and their electronic structures were analyzed by means of DFT calculations. The Zn-Sn structure part of SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} comprises (anti-)PbO-like {l_brace}ZnSn{sub 4/4}{r_brace} and {l_brace}SnZn{sub 4/4}{r_brace} layers. Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6} shows similar {l_brace}ZnSn{sub 4/4}{r_brace} layers and {l_brace}Sn{sub 4}Zn{r_brace} slabs constructed of a covalently bonded Sn scaffold capped by Zn atoms. For both phases, the two types of layers are alternatingly stacked and interconnected via Zn-Sn bonds. SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} adopts the SrPd{sub 2}Bi{sub 2} structure type, and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6} is isotypic to the R{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Ge{sub 6} compounds (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd). Band structure calculations indicate that both SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6} are metallic. Analyses of the chemical bonding with the electron localization function (ELF) show lone pair like basins at Sn atoms and Zn-Sn bonding interactions between the layers for both title phases, and covalent Sn-Sn bonding within the {l_brace}Sn{sub 4}Zn{r_brace} layers of Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6}. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structures of the new Ae-Zn-Sn polar intermetallic phases SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New polar intermetallic phases SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Obtained by high temperature reactions of the elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single crystal XRD structure determination and DFT electronic structure calculations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Closely related crystal and electronic structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metallic conductivity coexisting with lone pairs and covalent bonding features.

Stegmaier, Saskia [Department Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, 85747 Garching (Germany); Faessler, Thomas F., E-mail: Thomas.Faessler@lrz.tum.de [Department Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, 85747 Garching (Germany)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Process development for the selective hydrogenolysis of CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2} (CFC-12) into CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} (HFC-32)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A palladium on activated carbon catalyst is a suitable catalyst for the selective hydrogenolysis Of CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2} into CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}. Its stability is good: no deactivation occurred after 800 hours of operation. Even after addition of possible recycle components methane and CHClF{sub 2}, only minor deactivation was observed during 1600 hours of total operation. The catalyst performance and stability strongly depend on the hydrogen to CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2} feed ratio. A ratio of 6 leads to higher conversion, higher selectivity to CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} and higher stability. At low H{sub 2} to CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2} ratios the mechanism of deactivation is presumably coke deposition. However, the ratio cannot be raised too high because then sintering of the palladium particles causes deactivation. Addition of methane to the feed leads to additional deactivation, and, therefore, methane is only allowed in a recycle stream when high hydrogen to CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2} feed ratios are applied. Addition of CHClF{sub 2} to the feed does not lead to a higher CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} yield. The reaction pathway to CHClF{sub 2} and CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} is different from the route to methane. The selectivity to methane depends on the adsorption mode Of CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2} and is independent of both the CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2} and the hydrogen concentration. The ratio between CHClF{sub 2} and CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} is mainly determined by the CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2} concentration. A CFC-destruction process, which can destruct about 90% of the CFCs in use, based on this catalyst is both technically and economically feasible. The main features of this process are a liquid cooled, multi-tube fixed bed reactor, excess hydrogen, 100% CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2} conversion and a hydrogen recycle, in which methane is allowed.

Wiersma, A.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

New Approach to Assess Volatile Contamination in Vadose Zone Provides Path  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Approach to Assess Volatile Contamination in Vadose Zone Approach to Assess Volatile Contamination in Vadose Zone Provides Path Forward for Site Closure New Approach to Assess Volatile Contamination in Vadose Zone Provides Path Forward for Site Closure April 24, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Conceptual site model for evaluating soil vapor extraction system performance to determine if the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another approach. Conceptual site model for evaluating soil vapor extraction system performance to determine if the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another approach. RICHLAND, Wash. and LOS ALAMOS, N.M. - Through the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI), scientists and engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation

191

Volatility of HCl and the thermodynamics of brines during brine dryout  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory measurements of liquid-vapor partitioning (volatility) of chlorides from brines to steam can be used to indicate the potential for corrosion problems in geothermal systems. Measurements of volatilities of solutes in chloride brines have established a possible mechanism for the production of high-chloride steam from slightly acidic high temperature brines. Questions concerning the fate of NaCl in the steam production process have been addressed through extensive measurements of its volatility from brines ranging in concentration from dilute solutions to halite saturation. Recent measurements of chloride partitioning to steam over brines in contact with Geysers rock samples are consistent with our concept of the process for production of high-chloride steam.

Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, D.A.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Price volatility forecasting using artificial neural networks in emerging electricity markets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the adaptive short-term electricity price forecasting, it may be premature to rely solely on the hourly price forecast. The volatility of electricity price should also be analysed to provide additional insight on price forecasting. This paper proposes a price volatility module to analyse electricity price spikes and study the probability distribution of electricity price. Two methods are used to study the probability distribution of electricity price: the analytical method and the ANN method. Furthermore, ANN method is used to study the impact of line limits, line outages, generator outages, load pattern and bidding strategy on short term price forecasting, in addition to sensitivity analysis to determine the extent to which these factors impact price forecasting. Data used in this study are spot electricity prices from California market in the period which includes the crisis months where extreme volatility was observed.

Ahmad F. Al-Ajlouni; Hatim Y. Yamin; Ali Eyadeh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Synthesis and characterization of Mg{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnesium borate of the form Mg{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5} has been prepared and its structural and thermal properties were studied using X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. An investigation of the electrical and optical properties of Mg{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5} system has been carried out. The electrical resistivity of the sample was measured in the temperature range of 170-400 K. The data analysis revealed an extrinsic nature of the conductivity with two impurity levels located at 0.13 and 0.71 eV in the temperature ranges of 170-230 K and 240-400 K, respectively. The optical transmission and reflection was recorded at 300 K in the incident photon energy range of 3.0-6.0 eV. The absorption coefficient data analysis revealed an indirect optical energy band gap of 4.73 eV. In addition, two impurity levels located at 3.43, and 4.49 eV were observed in the absorption spectra.

Qasrawi, A.F. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Atilim University, 06836 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: atef_qasrawi@atilim.edu.tr; Kayed, T.S. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Atilim University, 06836 Ankara (Turkey); Mergen, A. [Eti Maden isletmeleri Genel Mued., Marketing and Sales Department, Cihan Sok, No: 2, Ankara (Turkey); Guerue, M. [Gazi University, Faculty of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey)

2005-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

194

Inorganic-organic hybrid structure: Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of a cobalt phosphite-oxalate, [C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12}][Co{sub 4}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A hydrothermal reaction of a mixture of cobalt (II) oxalate, phosphorous acid, piperazine and water at 150{sup o}C for 96h followed by heating at 180{sup o}C for 24h gave rise to a new inorganic-organic hybrid solid, [C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12}][Co{sub 4}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}], I. The structure consists of edge-shared CoO{sub 6} octahedra forming a [Co{sub 2}O{sub 10}] dimers that are connected by HPO{sub 3} and C{sub 2}O{sub 4} units forming a three-dimensional structure with one-dimensional channels. The amine molecules are positioned within these channels. The oxalate units have a dual role of connecting within the plane of the layer as well as out of the plane. Magnetic susceptibility measurement shows the compound orders antiferromagnetically at low temperature (T{sub N}=22K). Crystal data: I, monoclinic, space group=P2{sub 1}/c (No. 14). a=7.614(15), b=7.514(14), c=17.750(3)A, {beta}=97.351(3){sup o}, V=1007.30(3)A{sup 3}, Z=2, {rho}{sub calc}=2.466g/cm{sup 3}, {mu}{sub (MoK{alpha}}{sub )}=3.496mm{sup -1}, R{sub 1}=0.0310 and wR{sub 2}=0.0807 data [I>2{sigma}(I)].

Mandal, Sukhendu [Framework Solids Laboratory, Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Natarajan, Srinivasan [Framework Solids Laboratory, Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)]. E-mail: snatarajan@sscu.iisc.ernet.in

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

195

Reactions of He/sup +/, Ne/sup +/, and Ar/sup +/ with CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, SiH/sub 4/, and Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rate coefficients and product-ion distributions for the reactions of He/sup +/ and Ar/sup +/ with silane and disilane have been measured in a drift tube, typically for collision energies of 0.01--1 eV. The total charge-exchange rate coefficients are found to be roughly independent of E/N, or collision energy, and are about equal to the Langevin values for the reactions of He/sup +/ with SiH/sub 4/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 6/ and Ar/sup +/ with CH/sub 4/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 6/. The He/sup +/ rate coefficients on CH/sub 4/ and Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/, and the Ne/sup +/ rate coefficients on SiH/sub 4/ and Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ are 50% to 80% of the Langevin values, while the Ar/sup +/ rate coefficients on SiH/sub 4/ and Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ are much smaller. Product ions tend to be hydrogen poor with very infrequent breaking of the C--C or Si--Si bonds. Furthermore, hydrogen stripping is more severe for the silanes than the alkanes. These product-ion distributions bear no resemblance to the product-ion distributions of either photoionization or electron collisional ionization.

Chatham, H.; Hils, D.; Robertson, R.; Gallagher, A.C.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Heterobimetallic complexes of gold and mercury. Syntheses and characterizations of Hg sup II (CH sub 2 P(S)Ph sub 2 ) sub 2 (Au sup I Cl) sub 2 and Hg sup II Au sup I (CH sub 2 P(S)Ph sub 2 ) sub 2 Au sup III Cl sub 4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The trinuclear compound Hg{sup II}(CH{sub 2}P(S)Ph{sub 2}){sub 2}(Au{sup I}Cl){sub 2} (2) was synthesized by the reaction of Hg{sup II}(CH{sub 2}P(S)Ph{sub 2}){sub 2} (1) with 2 equiv of Au(THT)Cl (THT = tetrahydrothiophene) in a CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} solution. Oxidation of 2 by 1 equiv of C{sub 6}H{sub 5}ICl{sub 2} yielded the mixed-valence trinuclear compound Hg{sup II}Au{sup I}(CH{sub 2}P(S)Ph{sub 2}){sub 2}Au{sup III}Cl{sub 4} (3). The crystal structures of 2 and 3 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. 2 and 3 have one-dimensional chain structures in the solid. Crystal data: 2, C{sub 26}H{sub 24}HgAu{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}S{sub 2}P{sub 2}{center dot}{sup 1}/{sub 2}C{sub 5}H{sub 12}, space group P{bar 1}, a = 11.930 (4) {angstrom}, b = 13.452 (4) {angstrom}, c = 10.516 (4) {angstrom}, {alpha} = 108.44 (2){degree}, {beta} = 90.61 (3){degree}, {gamma} = 81.06 (2){degree}, V = 1580.1 (8) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 2, R = 0.0432 and R{sub w} = 0.0489 for refinement of 154 least-squares parameters with 2,744 reflections (F{sub {degree}}{sup 2} {ge} 3{sigma}(F{sub {degree}}{sup 2})); 3, C{sub 26}H{sub 24}HgAu{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}S{sub 2}P{sub 2}{center dot}CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, space group P{bar 1}, a = 10.199 (6) {angstrom}, b = 12.340 (3) {angstrom}, c = 15.064 (4) {angstrom}, {alpha} = 74.17 (2){degree}, {beta} = 82.76 (3){degree}, V = 1,799 (1) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 2, R = 0.0505 and R{sub w} = 0.0501 for refinement of 178 least-squares parameters with 1,680 reflections (F{sub 0}{sup 2} {ge} 3{sigma}(F{sub 0}{sup 2})).

Wang, Suning; Fackler, J.P. Jr. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Size-Dependent Mixing Characteristics of Volatile and Nonvolatile Components in Diesel Exhaust Aerosols  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Size-Dependent Mixing Characteristics of Volatile and Nonvolatile Components in Diesel Exhaust Aerosols ... Diesel exhaust particles that were size-selected in the first DMA were passed through the heater, and the change in particle size due to loss of volatile components was determined by the second DMA. ... Diesel exhaust particles are attracting significant attention with regards to their potential health effects (7?9) since they can be formed in high concentrations as ultrafine particles and can contain high levels of organic compounds and soot. ...

Hiromu Sakurai; Kihong Park; Peter H. McMurry; Darrick D. Zarling; David B. Kittelson; Paul J. Ziemann

2003-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

198

K{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 5.5} and K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9}: The first osmium perovskites containing alkali cations at the 'A' site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

K{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 5.5} and K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} were obtained from solid-state reactions of potassium superoxide, sodium peroxide and osmium metal at elevated oxygen pressures. K{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 5.5} crystallizes as an oxygen-deficient cubic double perovskite in space group Fm3{sup Macron }m with a=8.4184(5) A and contains isolated OsO{sub 6} octahedra. K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} crystallizes hexagonally in P6{sub 3}/mmc with a=5.9998(4) A and c=14.3053(14) A. K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} consists of face sharing Os{sub 2}O{sub 9} pairs of octahedra. According to magnetic measurements K{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 5.5} is diamagnetic, whereas K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} displays strong antiferromagnetic coupling (T{sub N}=140 K), indicating enhanced magnetic interactions within the octahedral pair. - Graphical abstract: High oxidation states of Os, obtained by high oxygen pressure synthesis, are accommodated in double and triple perovskite matrices. K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} displays enhanced magnetic interactions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New osmates containing highly oxidized Os were obtained by high O{sub 2} pressure synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High oxidation states of Os are accommodated in double and triple perovskite matrices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both compounds represent the first Os perovskites with an alkali metal at the A site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} displays enhanced magnetic interactions within the octahedral pair.

Mogare, Kailash M.; Klein, Wilhelm [Stuttgart, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Jansen, Martin, E-mail: M.Jansen@fkf.mpg.de [Stuttgart, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

199

Low energy N{sub 2} ion bombardment for removal of (HfO{sub 2}){sub x}(SiON){sub 1-x} in dilute HF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ion assisted wet removal of (HfO{sub 2}){sub x}(SiON){sub 1-x} high dielectric constant (k) materials and its effect on electrical properties were investigated. Crystallization temperature of (HfO{sub 2}){sub x}(SiON){sub 1-x} increased as the percentage of SiON increased. The crystallized (HfO{sub 2}){sub 0.6}(SiON){sub 0.4} was damaged and turned to an amorphous film via incorporation of N species into the film by N{sub 2} plasma treatment. In addition, the structure of (HfO{sub 2}){sub 0.6}(SiON){sub 0.4} was disintegrated into HfO{sub 2}, SiO(N), and ON after N{sub 2} plasma treatment. N{sub 2} plasmas using low bias power were applied for wet removal of high-k films and the mechanism of the ion assisted wet removal process was explored. When high bias power was applied, the surface of source and drain regions was nitrided via the reaction between N and Si substrates. Feasibility of the low bias power assisted wet removal process was demonstrated for short channel high-k metal oxide semiconductor device fabrication by the smaller shift of threshold voltage, compared to the high bias power assisted wet removal process as well as the wet-etching-only process.

Hwang, Wan Sik; Cho, Byung-Jin; Chan, Daniel S. H.; Yoo, Won Jong [Silicon Nano Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, E4A 02-04, Engineering Drive 3, 117576 Singapore (Singapore); SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

200

Low-temperature synthesis of Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} with cubic garnet-type structure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One-step synthesis and its optimization of cubic garnet Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} at 750 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Instability above 800 Degree-Sign C of the Al-free cubic Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Li{sup +}-ion conductivity without adventitious Al{sup 3+}. -- Abstract: In this paper, we report the direct synthesis of Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} with the cubic garnet-type structure at low temperature with a lattice constant of 13.0035 Angstrom-Sign . The synthesis condition is optimized to be at 750 Degree-Sign C for 8 h with 30 wt% excess lithium salt. No intermediate grinding was involved in this straightforward route. Without the adventitious of Al{sup 3+}, the cubic Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} is unstable above 800 Degree-Sign C and has an ionic conductivity of the order of 10{sup -6} S cm{sup -1}.

Xie, Hui [Texas Materials Institute, ETC 9.184, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)] [Texas Materials Institute, ETC 9.184, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Li, Yutao [Texas Materials Institute, ETC 9.184, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States) [Texas Materials Institute, ETC 9.184, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Goodenough, John B., E-mail: jgoodenough@mail.utexas.edu [Texas Materials Institute, ETC 9.184, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "volatile sub stances" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Market-oriented ethanol and corn-trade policies can reduce climate-induced US corn price volatility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Agriculture is closely affected by climate. Over the past decade, biofuels have emerged as another important factor shaping the agricultural sector. We ask whether the presence of the US ethanol sector can play a role in moderating increases in US corn price variability, projected to occur in response to near-term global warming. Our findings suggest that the answer to this question depends heavily on the underlying forces shaping the ethanol industry. If mandate-driven, there is little doubt that the presence of the corn-ethanol sector will exacerbate price volatility. However, if market-driven, then the emergence of the corn-ethanol sector can be a double-edged sword for corn price volatility, possibly cushioning the impact of increased climate driven supply volatility, but also inheriting volatility from the newly integrated energy markets via crude oil price fluctuations. We find that empirically the former effect dominates, reducing price volatility by 27%. In contrast, mandates on ethanol production increase future price volatility by 54% in under future climate after 2020. We also consider the potential for liberalized international corn trade to cushion corn price volatility in the US. Our results suggest that allowing corn to move freely internationally serves to reduce the impact of near-term climate change on US corn price volatility by 8%.

Monika Verma; Thomas Hertel; Noah Diffenbaugh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

NEAC Policy Sub-Committee  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Policy Sub Policy Sub NEAC Policy Sub - - Committee Committee Outlook for energy and the role of Outlook for energy and the role of nuclear power nuclear power June 23, 2008 June 23, 2008 The Premise The Premise * * More than 50 years since the launch of the More than 50 years since the launch of the Atoms for Peace initiative, the implications Atoms for Peace initiative, the implications -- -- in energy, environmental, and national in energy, environmental, and national security terms security terms -- -- of our nuclear policies of our nuclear policies are greater than ever. are greater than ever. The Mission The Mission * * The next president will face fateful choices on The next president will face fateful choices on energy. energy. * * These choices will have profound energy, These choices will have profound energy,

203

X-ray diffraction study of (TlInSe{sub 2}){sub 1-x}(TlGaTe{sub 2}){sub x} crystal system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The crystallographic and dynamic characteristics of TlInSe{sub 2} and TlGaTe{sub 2} crystals have been studied by X-ray diffraction in the temperature range of 85-320 K. The temperature dependences of the unit-cell parameters a of TlInSe{sub 2} and TlGaTe{sub 2} crystals, as well as their coefficients of thermal expansion along the [100] direction, are determined. The concentration dependences of the unit-cell parameters a and c for (TlInSe{sub 2}){sub 1-x}(TlGaTe{sub 2}){sub x} crystals are measured. Anomalies are found in the temperature dependences of the unit-cell parameters a and, correspondingly, the coefficient of thermal expansion, indicating the existence of phase transitions in TlInSe{sub 2} and TlGaTe{sub 2} crystals.

Sheleg, A. U., E-mail: sheleg@ifttp.bas-net.by; Zub, E. M.; Yachkovskii, A. Ya. [National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, State Scientific and Production Association, Scientific and Practical Materials Research Center (Belarus); Mustafaeva, S. N.; Kerimova, E. M. [Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Hysteretic electrical transport in BaTiO{sub 3}/Ba{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3}/Ge heterostructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present electrical transport measurements of heterostructures comprised of BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} epitaxially grown on Ge. Sr alloying imparts compressive strain to the BaTiO{sub 3}, which enables the thermal expansion mismatch between BaTiO{sub 3} and Ge to be overcome to achieve c-axis oriented growth. The conduction bands of BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} are nearly aligned with the conduction band of Ge, which facilitates electron transport. Electrical transport measurements through the dielectric stack exhibit rectifying behavior and hysteresis, where the latter is consistent with ferroelectric switching.

Ngai, J. H.; Kumah, D. P.; Walker, F. J. [Department of Applied Physics and Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, 15 Prospect Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8284 (United States); Ahn, C. H. [Department of Applied Physics and Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, Yale University, 15 Prospect Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8284 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, 10 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8267 (United States)

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

205

The impact of acetate metabolism on yeast fermentative performance and wine quality: reduction of volatile acidity of grape musts and wines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Acetic acid is the main component of the volatile acidity of grape musts and wines. It can be formed as a by ... bacteria, which can metabolize residual sugars to increase volatile acidity. Acetic acid has a nega...

Alice Vilela-Moura; Dorit Schuller

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

New hypodiphosphates of the alkali metals: Synthesis, crystal structure and vibrational spectra of the hypodiphosphates(IV) M{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] (M=Rb and Cs)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The new hypodiphosphates(IV) Rb{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] (1) and Cs{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] (2) were synthesized by soft chemistry reactions from aqueous solutions of hypophosphoric acid and the corresponding heavy alkali-metal carbonates. Their crystal structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds crystallize isotypic in the triclinic space group P-1 with one formula unit in the unit cell. The structures are built up by discrete (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} and (H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}) units in staggered conformation for the P{sub 2}O{sub 6} skeleton and the corresponding alkali-metal cations. In the (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} ion the hydrogen atoms are in a 'trans-trans' conformation. O{center_dot}H-O hydrogen bonds between the (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} and (H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}) groups consolidate the structures into a three-dimensional network. The FT-Raman and {sup 31}P and {sup 1}H and MAS NMR spectra of the title compounds have been recorded and interpreted, especially with respect to their assignment to the (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} and (H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}) groups. Thermogravimetric data of 2 have been interpreted in terms of a thermal decomposition model. - Graphical Abstract: The layered compounds Rb{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] and Cs{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] have been synthesized and investigated. Both crystallize isotypic. The structures are built up by discrete (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} and (H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}) units and the corresponding alkali-metal cations. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis and single-crystal structure of new alkali hypodiphosphates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structures are characterized by [(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})]{sup 2-} units and M{sup +} cations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} and (H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}) units are linked by short hydrogen bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both compounds are characterized by {sup 31}P MAS-NMR spectra.

Wu, Peng [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie der TU Clausthal, Paul-Ernst-Strasse 4, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)] [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie der TU Clausthal, Paul-Ernst-Strasse 4, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Wiegand, Thomas; Eckert, Hellmut [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie and Graduate School of Chemistry, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstr. 28/30, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)] [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie and Graduate School of Chemistry, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstr. 28/30, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Gjikaj, Mimoza, E-mail: mimoza.gjikaj@tu-clausthal.de [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie der TU Clausthal, Paul-Ernst-Strasse 4, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)] [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie der TU Clausthal, Paul-Ernst-Strasse 4, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

Isothermal calorimetry investigation of Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2-y}Al{sub z}O{sub 4} spinel.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The heat generation of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Li{sub 1.156}Mn{sub 1.844}O{sub 4}, and Li{sub 1.06}Mn{sub 1.89}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 4} spinel cathode materials in a half-cell system was investigated by isothermal micro-calorimetry (IMC). The heat variations of the Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cell during charging were attributed to the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase transition and order/disorder changes. This heat variation was largely suppressed when the stoichiometric spinel was doped with excess lithium or lithium and aluminum. The calculated entropy change (dE/dT) from the IMC confirmed that the order/disorder change of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which occurs in the middle of the charge, was largely suppressed with lithium or lithium and aluminum doping. The dE/dT values obtained did not agree between the charge and the discharge at room temperature (25 C), which was attributed to cell self-discharge. This discrepancy was not observed at low temperature (10 C). Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) results showed that the fully charged spinel with lithium doping has better thermal stability.

Lu, W.; Belharouak, I.; Park, S. H.; Sun, Y. K; Amine, K.; Chemical Engineering; Hanyang Univ.

2007-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

208

Phase change behaviors of Zn-doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zn-doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} phase-change materials have been investigated for phase change memory applications. Zn{sub 15.16}(Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}){sub 84.84} phase change film exhibits a higher crystallization temperature ({approx}258 Degree-Sign C), wider band gap ({approx}0.78 eV), better data retention of 10 years at 167.5 Degree-Sign C, higher crystalline resistance, and faster crystallization speed compared with the conventional Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}. The proper Zn atom added into Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} serves as a center for suppression of the face-centered-cubic (fcc) phase to hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phase transition, and fcc phase has high thermal stability partially due to the bond recombination among Zn, Sb, and Te atoms.

Wang Guoxiang; Nie Qiuhua [Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China); Faculty of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Shen Xiang; Fu Jing; Xu Tiefeng; Dai Shixun [Faculty of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Wang, R. P. [Laser Physics Centre, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Wu Liangcai [Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

209

Boron Volatilization and Its Isotope Fractionation during Evaporation of Boron Solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evaporation experiments were undertaken to determine the volatility of parts-per-million concentrations of boron in water and dilute HCl in the presence and absence of equimolar mannitol and/or cesium. Multiple 10 mL aliquots prepared identically were ...

Y. K. Xiao; R. D. Vocke, Jr.; G. H. Swihart; Y. Xiao

1997-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

Separation and Volatility of Locational Marginal Prices in Restructured Wholesale Power Markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Test Bed I. INTRODUCTION THE wholesale power market design proposed by the U.S. Federal Energy1 Separation and Volatility of Locational Marginal Prices in Restructured Wholesale Power Markets (LMPs) in an ISO-managed restructured wholesale power market operating over an AC transmission grid

Tesfatsion, Leigh

211

Plant Odor Analysis of Potato: Response of Guatemalan Moth to Above- and Belowground Potato Volatiles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plant Odor Analysis of Potato: Response of Guatemalan Moth to Above- and Belowground Potato Volatiles ... Potatoes were planted in fertilized and limed peat soil (NPK 180:90:195 g/m3; Hydro Agri AB, Landskrona, Sweden) in 5-L plastic pots. ...

Miriam Frida Karlsson; Gran Birgersson; Alba Marina Cotes Prado; Felipe Bosa; Marie Bengtsson; Peter Witzgall

2009-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

212

Auto-correlated behavior of WTI crude oil volatilities: A multiscale perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate the long-range auto-correlated behavior of WTI crude oil volatility series employing multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Our findings show that the for small time scales, the auto-correlations of volatilities were multifractal while for large time scales, the auto-correlations were nearly monofractal. Based on multiscale analysis, we also investigate the dynamics of auto-correlations for different intervals of time scales and find that several shocks could make significant effects on the auto-correlated behaviors for small time scales. Analyzing the dynamics of multifractality degrees of auto-correlations for small time scales, we find that the stronger auto-correlations were always related to the lower degrees of multifractality. At last, we have discussions on the determination factors of price behavior, the predictive implications of scaling behavior in volatilities for oil markets and the reasons why long-range auto-correlations of volatility were always strong for both small time scales and large time scales. Our results are very important theoretically and practically.

Yudong Wang; Yu Wei; Chongfeng Wu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

A Tree's Response to Herbivory: Quantification of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Tree's Response to Herbivory: Quantification of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions an abundant source of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). These emissions are known to vary in quantity and composition due to both biogenic and anthropogenic stressors. In this study, BVOC emissions from bristlecone

Collins, Gary S.

214

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature13032 A large source of low-volatility secondary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of atmospheric aerosol1,2 , which is known to affect the Earth's radi- ation balance by scattering solar radiation and by acting as cloud condensation nuclei3 . The quantitative assessment of such climate abundant, essentially non- volatile organicvapours4­6 , but the sourcesand compositionsofsuch

Cai, Long

215

UV-C??Irradiated Arabidopsis and Tobacco Emit Volatiles That Trigger Genomic Instability in Neighboring Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...impaired in both the production and the perception...is primed by the production of the mobile metabolite...through volatile organic compounds has been...depend on how many cell division cycles have...ankyrin repeats. Cell 88 : 57-63. Caputo...L. (2006). Solar ultraviolet-B radiation...

Youli Yao; Cristian H. Danna; Franz J. Zemp; Viktor Titov; Ozan Nazim Ciftci; Roman Przybylski; Frederick M. Ausubel; Igor Kovalchuk

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

216

Fluid saturation and volatile partitioning between melts and hydrous fluids in crustal magmatic systems: The contribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems, experimental results on the solubility and partitioning of H2O, CO2, S, Cl, F and a few other ......................................................................... 2 Keywords: magmatic volatiles, solubility, water, carbon dioxide, sulfur, halogens 2 1 systems: The contribution of experimental measurements and solubility models Don R. Baker1 and Marina

Boyer, Edmond

217

Metabolism of 210Po in rats: volatile 210Po in excreta  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited...as it emits high-energy alpha particles...stayed and in his own home. Release of volatile...Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited...rat, their daily consumption of food and water...efficiency was 98.6 % (average of five replicates......

Chunsheng Li; Baki Sadi; Heather Wyatt; Michelle Bugden; Nicholas Priest; Diana Wilkinson; Gary H. Kramer

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Lunar apatite with terrestrial volatile abundances Jeremy W. Boyce1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is a high-Al basalt rich in K, rare-earth elements and P (KREEP), consisting dominantly of augite is texturally associated with anhedral apatite having variable Cl and rare-earth-element con- tents is thought to be depleted relative to the Earth in volatile elements such as H, Cl and the alkalis1

Perfect, Ed

219

A Critical Review on Studies of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Sorption by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Critical Review on Studies of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Sorption by Building Materials (RP the pros and cons of existing sorption models, as well as experimental methods. In addition, it summarizes existing sorption data in order to understand the phenomenon of VOC sorption on building materials better

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

220

Selective Trapping of Volatile Fission Products with an Off-Gas Treatment System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A head-end processing step, termed DEOX for its emphasis on decladding via oxidation, is being developed for the treatment of spent oxide fuel by pyroprocessing techniques. The head-end step employs high temperatures to oxidize UO2 to U3O8 resulting in the separation of fuel from cladding and the removal of volatile fission products. Development of the head-end step is being performed in collaboration with the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) through an International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Following the initial experimentation for the removal of volatile fission products, an off-gas treatment system was designed in conjunction with KAERI to collect specific fission gases. The primary volatile species targeted for trapping were iodine, technetium, and cesium. Each species is intended to be collected in distinct zones of the off-gas system and within those zones, on individual filters. Separation of the volatile off-gases is achieved thermally as well as chemically given the composition of the filter media. A description of the filter media and a basis for its selection will be given along with the collection mechanisms and design considerations. In addition, results from testing with the off-gas treatment system will be presented.

B.R. Westphal; J.J. Park; J.M. Shin; G.I. Park; K.J. Bateman; D.L. Wahlquist

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "volatile sub stances" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Memory in Returns and Volatilities of Futures' Contracts BONNIE K. RAY*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Memory in Returns and Volatilities of Futures' Contracts NUNO CRATO BONNIE K. RAY* Various authors claim to have found evidence of stochastic long memory behavior in futures' contract returns using estimate of the long- memory parameter. Results based on these new methods provide no evidence for persis

Crato, Nuno

222

Accurate dispensing of volatile reagents on demand for chemical reactions in EWOD chips{  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accurate dispensing of volatile reagents on demand for chemical reactions in EWOD chips{ Huijiang the use of a filler liquid (e.g., oil). These properties pose challenges for delivering controlled volumes are introduced to the chip, independent of time delays between dispensing operations. On-demand dispensing

223

Hydrothermal synthesis and the crystal structure of borate cancrinite (Na,Ca){sub 2}[Na{sub 6}(AlSiO{sub 4}){sub 6}](BO{sub 3}) . 2H{sub 2}O  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transparent prismatic single crystals of borate cancrinite (Na,Ca){sub 2}[Na{sub 6}(AlSiO{sub 4}){sub 6}](BO{sub 3}) . 2H{sub 2}O are prepared through hydrothermal crystallization. The parameters of the hexagonal unit cell and intensities of 10806 reflections are measured on an Enraf-Nonius CAD4 automated diffractometer. The compound crystallizes in the hexagonal crystal system with the unit cell parameters a = 12.745(4) A, c = 5.180(2) A, V = 728.6(4) A{sup 3}, and space group P6{sub 3}. The structure is determined by direct methods and refined using the full-matrix least-squares procedure in the anisotropic approximation for the non-hydrogen atoms. The refinement of the structure is performed to the final discrepancy factor R{sub 1} = 0.027 for 2889 unique reflections with I > 2 {sigma} (I). In the structure of the borate cancrinite, the AlO{sub 4} and SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra form a zeolite-like framework in which twelve-membered hexagonal channels are occupied by sodium atoms and BO{sub 3} groups, whereas six-membered channels are filled with sodium and calcium atoms and water molecules. The mean interatomic distances are found to be as follows: (Si-O){sub mean} = 1.614 A and (Al-O){sub mean} = 1.741 A in the AlO{sub 4} and SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra, (Na-O){sub mean} = 2.542 A in the seven-vertex sodium polyhedra, and [(Na,Ca)-O]{sub mean} = 2.589 A in the ditrigonal bipyramids.

Shirinova, A. F. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan)], E-mail: afashf@rambler.ru; Khrustalev, V. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds (Russian Federation); Samedov, H. R. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Chemical Problems (Azerbaijan); Chiragov, M. I. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

Magnetic Excitations and Their Energy Change Available to Superconducting Condensation in Optimally Doped YBa<sub>2sub>Cu>3sub>O>6.95sub>  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the magnetic excitations in high-temperature (high-T{sub c}) copper-oxide superconductors is important because they may mediate the electron pairing for superconductivity. By determining the wavevector (Q) and energy ({h_bar}{omega}) dependence of the magnetic excitations, it is possible to calculate the change in the exchange energy available to the superconducting condensation energy. For the high-T{sub c} superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}, the most prominent feature in the magnetic excitations is the resonance. Suggestions that the resonance contributes a major part of the superconducting condensation have not gained acceptance because the resonance is only a small portion of the total magnetic scattering. Here, we report an extensive mapping of magnetic excitations for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.95} (T{sub c} {approx} 93 K). Absolute intensity measurements of the full spectra allow us to estimate the change in the magnetic exchange energy between the normal and superconducting states, which is about 15 times larger than the superconducting condensation energy - more than enough to provide the driving force for high-T{sub c} superconductivity in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.95}.

Woo, H. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dai, Pengcheng [ORNL; Hayden, S M. [University of Bristol, UK; Mook Jr, Herbert A [ORNL; Scalapino, D. J. [University of California, Santa Barbara; Perring, T. G. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Dogan, F. [University of Washington, Seattle

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Ferromagnetic clusters and superconducting order in La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} heterostructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The existence of magnetic and superconducting order in a [(La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}){sub 100{sub A}}/(YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}){sub 100A}]{sub 10} superlattice has been studied by polarized neutron reflectometry, SQUID magnetometry, and resistivity measurements. The magnetization line shapes observed by SQUID magnetometry under zero-field-cooled and field-cooled conditions imply an inhomogeneously disordered magnetic state of the manganite blocks. This is substantiated by resistivity measurements and polarized neutron reflectometry. Resistivity measurements under field-cooled conditions reveal strong perturbations, which imply that the ferromagnetic La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} blocks contain strong magnetic disorder with perturbations coupled to the magnetic order via charge hopping between domains. Polarized neutron reflectometry under zero-field-cooled conditions, below the superconducting transition, reveal a noncollinear ferromagnetic structure, coherent across half the superlattice blocks. Across the superconducting transition, the noncollinear components are perturbed by the superconducting order and attempt to align with the dominant ferromagnetic order. Additionally, the magnetic correlation length increases from half the superlattice structure to a magnetic structure correlated across the complete superlattice. At temperatures above the superconducting transition, the noncollinear magnetic components and the magnetic correlation length relax to the structure observed below the superconducting transition.

Deen, P. P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, Boite Postale 156, F-38042 Grenoble (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, Boite Postale 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Yokaichiya, F. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); De Santis, A.; Bobba, F.; Cucolo, A. M. [CNR/INFM Supermat Laboratory and Physics Department, University of Salerno, Via S. Allende, Baronissi 84081 (Italy); Wildes, A. R. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, Boite Postale 156, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

CO{sub 2} SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. There were three main objectives for this reporting period, which related to obtaining accurate parameters for reservoir model description and modeling reservoir performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. The first objective was to collect and desorb gas from 10 sidewall core coal samples from an Anadarko Petroleum Corporation well (APCL2 well) at approximately 6,200-ft depth in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group in east-central Texas. The second objective was to measure sorptive capacities of these Wilcox coal samples for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}. The final objective was to contract a service company to perform pressure transient testing in Wilcox coal beds in a shut-in well, to determine permeability of deep Wilcox coal. Bulk density of the APCL2 well sidewall core samples averaged 1.332 g/cc. The 10 sidewall core samples were placed in 4 sidewall core canisters and desorbed. Total gas content of the coal (including lost gas and projected residual gas) averaged 395 scf/ton on an as-received basis. The average lost gas estimations were approximately 45% of the bulk sample total gas. Projected residual gas was 5% of in-situ gas content. Six gas samples desorbed from the sidewall cores were analyzed to determine gas composition. Average gas composition was approximately 94.3% methane, 3.0% ethane, and 0.7% propane, with traces of heavier hydrocarbon gases. Carbon dioxide averaged 1.7%. Coal from the 4 canisters was mixed to form one composite sample that was used for pure CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} isotherm analyses. The composite sample was 4.53% moisture, 37.48% volatile matter, 9.86% ash, and 48.12% fixed carbon. Mean vitrinite reflectance was 0.54%. Coal rank was high-volatile C to B bituminous. Comparison of the desorbed gas content (395 scf/ton, as received) at reservoir pressure (2,697 psi) with the sorption isotherm indicates that Lower Calvert Bluff coal at this well site is oversaturated, but lost gas may have been overestimated. This high gas content suggests that little or no depressurization would be required to initiate methane production. Sorption isotherms results indicate that the sorptive capacity of CO{sub 2} is about 2.5 times that of CH{sub 4} at 1,000 psia. This ratio is similar to that of higher rank bituminous coals from other basins (e.g., Carroll, and Pashin, 2003), and it is very low in comparison to results of other low-rank coals and to the values that we used in our preliminary reservoir modeling. If this value from the APCL2 well is representative, Wilcox coals in this area will sequester less CO{sub 2} on a per ton basis than we had earlier inferred. However, because measured methane contents are higher, enhanced coalbed methane production potential is greater than we earlier inferred. Pressure transient testing for determining coal fracture permeability will be conducted soon by Pinnacle Technologies. The data from these analyses will be used to finalize our coal model for the reservoir simulation phase of the project.

Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Uncatalysed and catalysed soot combustion under NO{sub x} + O{sub 2}: Real diesel versus model soots  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the uncatalysed and catalysed combustion of two commercial carbon blacks and three diesel soot samples were analysed and related to the physico-chemical properties of these carbon materials. Model soot samples are less reactive than real soot samples, which can be attributed, mainly, to a lower proportion in heteroatoms and a higher graphitic order for the case of one of the carbon blacks. Among the diesel soot samples tested, the most relevant differences are the volatile matter/fixed carbon contents, which are directly related to the engine operating conditions (idle or loaded) and to the use of an oxidation catalyst or not in the exhaust. The soot collected after an oxidation catalyst (A-soot) is more reactive than the counterpart virgin soot obtained under the same engine operating modes but before the oxidation catalyst. The reactivity of the different soot samples follows the same trend under uncatalysed and catalysed combustion, the combustion profiles being always shifted towards lower temperatures for the catalysed reactions. The differences between the soot samples become less relevant in the presence of a catalyst. The ceria-zirconia catalysts tested are very effective not only to oxidise soot but also to combust the soluble organic fraction emitted at low temperatures. The most reactive soot (A-soot) exhibits a T{sub 50%} parameter of 450 C when using the most active catalyst. (author)

Atribak, I.; Bueno-Lopez, A.; Garcia-Garcia, A. [MCMA Group, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Alicante, Ap.99-E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

Micro-Raman spectroscopic study of nanolaminated Ti{sub 5}Al{sub 2}C{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Micro-Raman spectroscopic study and lattice dynamics calculations were conducted to study a recently identified layered ternary carbide, Ti{sub 5}Al{sub 2}C{sub 3}. The experimental Raman shifts were remarkably consistent with the calculated values. Polarized Raman spectrum was collected in the polycrystalline sample, which confirmed the theoretical symmetry assignment of the Raman modes. In addition, the atomic vibrations of the peaks at 192?cm{sup ?1}, 311?cm{sup ?1}, and 660?cm{sup ?1} were identified to be the combination of the counterparts in Ti{sub 2}AlC and Ti{sub 3}AlC{sub 2}.

Zhang, H.; Li, Z. J. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, X. H. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xiang, H. M.; Zhou, Y. C, E-mail: yczhou714@gmail.com [Science and Technology of Advanced Functional Composite Laboratory, ARIMPT, No.1 South Dahongmen Road, Beijing 100076 (China)

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

229

Correlation Between Grain and Grain-Boundary Critical Current Densities in ex situ Coated Conductors with Variable YBa<sub>2sub>Cu>3sub>O>7- ?sub> Layer Thickness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dependence of the percolative critical current density at low magnetic fields on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) layer thickness is studied by comparing grain, J{sub c}{sup G}, and grain-boundary, J{sub c}{sup GB}, critical current densities for a series of ex situ processed YBCO films on a RABiTS template. Both critical current densities decrease as a function of thickness and the values of J{sub c}{sup G} and J{sub c}{sup GB} show a clear correlation which suggests the existence of an interaction between Abrikosov-Josephson vortices on the grain boundaries and Abrikosov vortices in the bulk of the grains. This opens the possibility to improve J{sub c}{sup GB} by optimizing the pinning capabilities of the grains.

Palau, A. [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Puig, T. [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Obradors, X. [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Feenstra, Roeland [ORNL; Gapud, Albert Agcaoili [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of BaTi(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Ba{sub 3}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 6}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} crystals in glasses with high TiO{sub 2} contents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ternary BaO-TiO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses containing a large amount of TiO{sub 2} (20-40mol%) are prepared, and their optical basicities ({lambda}), the formation, structural features and second-order optical nonlinearities of BaTi(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Ba{sub 3}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 6}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} crystals are examined to develop new nonlinear optical materials. It is found that the glasses with high TiO{sub 2} contents of 30-40mol% show large optical basicities of {lambda}=0.81-0.87, suggesting the high polarizabity of TiO{sub n} polyhedra (n=4-6) in the glasses. BaTi(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Ba{sub 3}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 6}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} crystals are found to be formed as main crystalline phases in the glasses. It is found that BaTi(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} crystals tend to orient at the surface of crystallized glasses. The new XRD pattern for the Ba{sub 3}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 6}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} phase is proposed through Rietvelt analysis. The second harmonic intensities of crystallized glasses were found to be 0.8 times as large as {alpha}-quartz powders, i.e., I{sup 2{omega}}(sample)/I{sup 2{omega}}({alpha}-quartz)=0.8, for the sample with BaTi(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} crystals and to be I{sup 2{omega}}(sample)/I{sup 2{omega}}({alpha}-quartz)=68 for the sample with Ba{sub 3}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 6}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} crystals. The Raman scattering spectra for these two crystalline phases are measured for the first time and their structural features are discussed.

Kosaka, Shinji [Department of Chemistry, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Benino, Yasuhiko [Department of Chemistry, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Fujiwara, Takumi [Department of Chemistry, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Dimitrov, Vesselin [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl, Ohridki Blvd., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Komatsu, Takayuki [Department of Chemistry, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)]. E-mail: komatsu@chem.nagaokaut.ac.jp

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

Oxidation and volatilization of a niobium alloy. Fusion Safety Program/Activation Products Task  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the findings from a preliminary investigation into oxidation and volatilization characteristics of a niobium alloy. Niobium is a candidate alloy for use in plasma facing components (PFCS) in experimental fusion reactors like the Intemational Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). An experimental alloy was tailored to simulate small changes in chemistry which could result from transmutations from irradiation. The alloy was exposed in air and steam between 800{degree}C and 1200{degree}C. Volatilized products and hydrogen were collected and measured. Post-test examinations were also performed on the samples to determine the amount of material loss during the exposures. The obtained measurements of volatilization flux (g/m{sup 2}-s), hydrogen generation rates (liters/m{sup 2}-s), and recession rates (mm/s) are data which can be used for safety analyses and material performance to predict consequences which may result from an accident involving the ingress of air or steam into the plasma chamber of fusion reactor. In our volatility tests, only molybdenum and niobium were found at release levels above the detection limit. Although molybdenum is present at only 0.12 wt%, the quantities of this element volatilized in air are nearly comparable to the quantities of niobium released. The niobium release in steam is only three to four times higher than that of molybdenum in steam. The hydrogen production of the niobium alloy is compared with other PFC materials that we have tested, specifically, beryllium, graphite, and a tunesten alloy. At high temperatures, the hydrogen production rate of the niobium alloy is among the lowest of these materials, significantly lower than beryllium. To understand what this means in an accident situation, modeling is necessary to predict temperatures, and therefore total hydrogen production. The INEL is currently doing this modeling.

Smolik, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Second harmonic generation from Ge doped SiO{sub 2} (Ge{sub x}(SiO{sub 2}){sub 1?x}) thin films grown by sputtering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Second-order nonlinear optical properties of sputter-deposited Ge-doped SiO{sub 2} thin films were investigated. It was shown that the second-order nonlinearity of SiO{sub 2}, which vanishes in the electric-dipole approximation due to the centrosymmetric structure, can be significantly enhanced by Ge doping. The observed maximum value of d{sub 33} was 8.2 pm/V, which is 4 times larger than d{sub 22} of ?-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystal. Strong correlation was observed between the d{sub eff} values and the electron spin resonance signals arising from GeP{sub b} centers, suggesting that GeP{sub b} centers are the most probable origin of the large second-order nonlinearity.

Kawamura, Ibuki; Imakita, Kenji; Fujii, Minoru; Hayashi, Shinji [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

233

Composition dependence of the photophysical and photocatalytic properties of (AgNbO{sub 3}){sub 1-x}(NaNbO{sub 3}){sub x} solid solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of orthorhombic photocatalysts (AgNbO{sub 3}){sub 1-x}(NaNbO{sub 3}){sub x} solid solutions have been synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. The composition dependence of the photophysical and photocatalytic properties of synthesized solid solutions has been investigated systematically. With an increase in the content of NaNbO{sub 3}, we found that (1) the lattice parameters decreased; (2) the Nb-O bond length in NbO{sub 6} octahedron reduced; (3) the band gap increased; and (4) the mean particle size decreased while the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area increased. Photocatalytic activities of the (AgNbO{sub 3}){sub 1-x}(NaNbO{sub 3}){sub x} (0{<=}x{<=}0.5) samples were evaluated from gaseous 2-propanol (IPA) decomposition into acetone and CO{sub 2} under visible-light irradiation emitted from blue-light-emitting diodes (BLEDs; light intensity: 0.01 mW cm{sup -2}). Among all the samples, the (AgNbO{sub 3}){sub 0.6}(NaNbO{sub 3}){sub 0.4} sample showed the highest photocatalytic activity. - Graphical abstract: A series of orthorhombic photocatalysts (AgNbO{sub 3}){sub 1-x}(NaNbO{sub 3}){sub x} solid solutions have been synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. The composition dependence of the photophysical and photocatalytic properties of synthesized solid solutions has been investigated systematically. The solid solutions show higher visible-light photocatalytic activities for gaseous IPA decomposition in comparison with AgNbO{sub 3}, although the light intensity is 0.01 mW cm{sup -2}. Rate of acetone evolution under visible-light irradiation as a function of NaNbO{sub 3} content in (AgNbO{sub 3}){sub 1-x}(NaNbO{sub 3}){sub x}. The inset is the spectrum of BLEDs. The light intensity is 0.01 mW cm{sup -2}.

Li Guoqiang [Photocatalytic Materials Center (PCMC), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ecomaterials and Renewable Energy Research Center (ERERC), Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Kako, Tetsuya; Wang Defa [Photocatalytic Materials Center (PCMC), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Zou Zhigang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ecomaterials and Renewable Energy Research Center (ERERC), Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ye Jinhua [Photocatalytic Materials Center (PCMC), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)], E-mail: Jinhua.YE@nims.go.jp

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

234

Effect of nanowires SiO{sub 2} on superconducting properties of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7?d} bulks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of SiO{sub 2} nanowires on the superconducting properties of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7?d} (YBCO) compound were studied. Samples were synthesized in air using a standard solid state reaction technique by adding nanowires SiO{sub 2} up to 1wt.%. Phase analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), microstructure investigation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), critical current density dependence on applied magnetic field J{sub c}(H) and electrical resistivity as a function of temperature ?(T) were carried out to evaluate the relative performance of samples. We find that T{sub co} does not change much (90.8-90.2 K) with the low concentration of SiO{sub 2} (? 0.1 wt.%) and J{sub c}(H) is enhanced.

Salem, M. K. Ben; Hannachi, E.; Slimani, Y.; Hamrita, A.; Azzouz, F. Ben; Salem, M. Ben [L3M Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, University of Carthage. 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia); Bessais, L. [CNRS-ICMPE-UMR 7182 University Paris 12 (France)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

235

Symmetrical interfacial reconstruction and magnetism in La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}/La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} heterostructures.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have analyzed the interface structure and composition of La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}/La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} trilayers by combined polarized neutron reflectometry, aberration-corrected microscopy, and atomic column resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy and x-ray absorption with polarization analysis. We find the same stacking sequence at both top and bottom cuprate interfaces. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments show that both cuprate interfaces are magnetic with a magnetic moment induced in Cu atoms as expected from symmetric Mn-O-Cu superexchange paths. These results supply a solid footing for the applicability of recent theories explaining the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity in this system in terms of the induced Cu spin polarization at both interfaces.

Visani, C.; Tornos, J.; Nemes, N. M.; Rocci, M.; Leon, C.; Santamaria, J.; te Velthuis, S. G. E.; Liu, Y.; Hoffmann, A.; Freeland, J. W.; Garcia-Hernandez, M.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Kirby, B. J.; Varela, M.; Pennycock, S. J. (Materials Science Division); ( XSD); (Univ. Complutense de Madrid); (Inst. de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid); (LANL); (ORNL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Crystal structure of the new compound Pb{sub 3+x}Sb{sub 3-x}S{sub 7-x}Cl{sub 1+x}(x{approx}0.45): The homologous series Pb{sub (2+2N)}(Sb,Pb){sub (2+2N)}S{sub (2+2N)}(S,Cl){sub (4+2N)}Cl{sub N} and its polychalcogenide derivatives (N=1-3)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The new chloro-sulfosalt Pb{sub 3+x}Sb{sub 3-x}S{sub 7-x}Cl{sub 1+x} (x{approx}0.45) has been synthesized at 500 deg. C from a mixture of PbS, PbCl{sub 2} and Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (space group Pbam), with a=15.194(3) A, b=23.035(5) A, c=4.0591(8) A, V=1420.6 A{sup 3}, Z=4. The crystal structure has been solved by X-ray single-crystal study, with a final R=0.0497. Deviation from stoichiometric Pb{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}S{sub 7}Cl (x coefficient) follows the substitution rule Sb{sup 3+}+S{sup 2-}{yields}Pb{sup 2+}+Cl{sup -}. Sb and Pb sub-positions within mixed (Sb,Pb) sites are discussed; Pb excess precludes any superstructure along c. A unique pure Cl position is bound only to Pb atoms with a distorted square coordination. The title compound is a rod-type structure derived from the SnS archetype, homeotypic with Pb{sub 6}Sb{sub 6}S{sub 14}(S{sub 3}), where the (S{sub 3}){sup 2-} trimer is replaced by two Cl{sup -}; this substitution is quite isovolumic. Other similar structures are: three polychalcogenides Sr{sub 6}Sb{sub 6}S{sub 14}(S{sub 3}), Pb{sub 6}Sb{sub 6}Se{sub 14}(Se{sub 3}) and Eu{sub 6}Sb{sub 6}S{sub 14}(S{sub 3}); KLa{sub 1.28}Bi{sub 3.72}S{sub 8} and its Ln isotypes; dadsonite, Pb{sub 23}Sb{sub 25}S{sub 60}Cl. Pb{sub 3+x}Sb{sub 3-x}S{sub 7-x}Cl{sub 1+x} is the N=2 member of the homologous series Pb{sub (2+2N)}(Sb,Pb){sub (2+2N)}S{sub (2+2N)}(S,Cl){sub (4+2N)}Cl{sub N}; the N=1 member corresponds to the previously known {approx}Pb{sub 4.3}Sb{sub 3.7}S{sub 8.7}Cl{sub 2.3} compound. Other polychalcogenide derivatives of this homologous series are K{sub 2}Pr{sub 2-x}Sb{sub 4+x}Se{sub 8}(Se{sub 4}) and its Ln isotypes (N=1), as well as SrBiSe{sub 3} (N=3). Such a comparative modular analysis allowed to propose a structural model for the previous synthetic 'Phase Y', {approx}Pb{sub 10}Sb{sub 10}S{sub 23}Cl{sub 4}, corresponding to the combined N=(1+2) homolog. - Graphical abstract: The title compound, Pb{sub 3+x}Sb{sub 3-x}S{sub 7-x}Cl{sub 1+x}, is derived from the homeotypic persulfide Pb{sub 6}Sb{sub 6}S{sub 14}(S{sub 3}) by substituting two chlorine atoms for the S{sub 3} trimer. This change is quite isovolumic.

Doussier, Charlotte [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Moelo, Yves [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: yves.moelo@cnrs-imn.fr; Meerschaut, Alain; Leone, Philippe; Guillot-Deudon, Catherine [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

Optical constants and crystal chemical parameters of Sc{sub 2}W{sub 3}O{sub 12}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single crystal growth of Sc{sub 2}W{sub 3}O{sub 12}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical constants of Sc{sub 2}W{sub 3}O{sub 12} redetermined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Difference between obs. and calc. polarizabilities attributed to crystal structure. -- Abstract: The refractive indices of Sc{sub 2}W{sub 3}O{sub 12}, measured at wavelengths of 435.8-643.8 nm, were used to calculate n{sub a} = 1.7331, n{sub b} = 1.7510, n{sub c} = 1.7586 at {lambda} = 589.3 nm and n{sub {infinity}} values at {lambda} = {infinity} from a one-term Sellmeier equation. Mean refractive indices, Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket n{sub D} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , and mean dispersion values, Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket A Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , are, respectively, 1.7475 and 110 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16} m{sup 2}. Total electronic polarizabilities, {alpha}{sub obs}, were calculated from n{sub {infinity}} and the Lorenz-Lorentz equation. The unusually large difference between the observed polarizability of 28.415 Angstrom-Sign {sup 3} and the calculated total polarizability {alpha}{sub T} of 26.74 Angstrom-Sign {sup 3} ({Delta} = +6.3%) is attributed to (1) a large M-O-W angle, and (2) a high degree of W 5d-O 2p and Sc nd-O 2p hybridization, where n signifies unspecified Sc d orbitals.

Shannon, Robert D., E-mail: bob@theshannons.net [Geological Sciences/CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Medenbach, Olaf [Institut fuer Mineralogie, Fakultaet fuer Geowissenschaften, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)] [Institut fuer Mineralogie, Fakultaet fuer Geowissenschaften, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Subramanian, M.A. [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-4003 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-4003 (United States); Fischer, Reinhard X. [Universitaet Bremen, FB 5 Geowissenschaften, Klagenfurter Strasse, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)] [Universitaet Bremen, FB 5 Geowissenschaften, Klagenfurter Strasse, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

238

Hydrothermal synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of a new three-dimensional iron arsenate [C{sub 6}N{sub 4}H{sub 21}][Fe{sup III}{sub 3}(HAsO{sub 4}){sub 6}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A hydrothermal reaction of a mixture of iron oxalate, arsenic pentoxide, hydrofluoric acid and triethylenetetramine (TETA) at 150deg. C for 48h gives rise to a new iron arsenate [C{sub 6}N{sub 4}H{sub 21}][Fe{sub 3}(HAsO{sub 4}){sub 6}], I. The structure consists of a network of FeO{sub 6} and AsO{sub 4} building units connected through their vertices giving rise to a new secondary building unit, SBU-5. The SBU-5 units are through their corners forming a three-dimensional structure possessing one-dimensional channels bound by 8-T atoms (T=Fe, As). The formation of SBU-5 units is noteworthy. Variable temperature magnetic studies indicate antiferromagnetic interactions between the Fe centers with T{sub N} of 21.9K. Crystal data: M=1156.36, monoclinic, space group=C2/c (no. 15), a=18.422(3)A, b=8.8527(13)A, c=16.169(2)A, {beta}=111.592(2){sup o}, V=2451.9(6)A{sup 3}, Z=8, {rho}{sub calc}=3.037gcm{sup -3}, {mu}(Mo K{alpha})=9.903mm{sup -1}, R{sub 1}=0.0358, wR{sub 2}=0.0763, S=1.140 for 234 parameters.

Rao, Vandavasi Koteswara [Framework Solids Laboratory, Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Natarajan, Srinivasan [Framework Solids Laboratory, Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)]. E-mail: snatarajan@sscu.iisc.ernet.in

2006-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

239

Three-dimensional topological insulators Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2}Se - a microwave spectroscopy study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present results of investigations of three-dimensional topological insulators from a family of bismuth compounds performed in electron spin resonance spectrometer. Next to the standard spin resonance spectra in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} originating from bulk conduction electrons (g{sub Verbar;} = 27.5 0.1 and g{sub ?} = 19.5 0.1), we observed also cyclotron resonance due to topological surface states in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and non-resonant signal related to weak anti-localization in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2}Se. The analysis of the cyclotron resonance signal yields low Fermi velocity equal to 3250 m/s in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The phase coherence length determined from weak anti-localization signal equals to 550 nm at low temperatures in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2}Se. Relation of the signals to bulk, topological surface or two-dimensional quantum well states is discussed and where possible indicated.

Wolos, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw, Poland and Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Drabinska, A.; Szyszko, S.; Kaminska, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Strzelecka, S. G.; Hruban, A.; Materna, A.; Piersa, M. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

240

Rational design of gold catalysts with enhanced thermal stability: post modification of Au/TiO<sub>2sub> by amorphous SiO<sub>2sub> matrix  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Au/TiO{sub 2} is highly active for CO oxidation, but it often suffers from sintering in high-temperature environments. In this work, we report on a novel design of gold catalysts, in which pre-formed Au/TiO{sub 2} catalysts were post decorated by amorphous SiO{sub 2} to suppress the agglomeration of gold particles. Even after being aged in O{sub 2}-He at 700 C, the SiO{sub 2}-decorated Au/TiO{sub 2} was still active for CO oxidation at ambient temperature.

Zhu, Haoguo [ORNL; Ma, Zhen [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "volatile sub stances" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Transport properties of discontinuous Co{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multilayers, prepared by ion beam sputtering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ion beam sputtered Co{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}(t)/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(30 {angstrom}) multilayers were obtained. The Co{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} layers become discontinuous for nominal thicknesses T {le} 18{angstrom}. Tunnel magnetoresistance was measured in CIP and CPP geometries, reaching up to 6.5% at room temperature and 11% at 15 K, for as-deposited films in CIP geometry. The temperature dependence of MR was found quite different for the two geometries: fairly strong in the CIP case and almost absent in the CPP geometry. A model is proposed to explain these large differences in behavior.

Kakazei, G.N.; Freitas, P.P.; Cardoso, S.; Lopes, A.M.L.; Pereira de Azevedo, M.M.; Pogorelov, Y.G.; Sousa, J.B.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Spillover sites on a 19% Ni/Al sub 2 O sub 3 catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two distinct methanation sites are clearly identified on a 19% Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst by temperature-programmed reaction (TPR) employing isotope labeling. The two sites, which are present after reduction at 975 K, are due to CO adsorption on Ni crystallites and CO and H spillover onto the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} support. The concentration of sites on the support is 250 {mu}mol/G Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5 {times} 10{sup 13} molecules/cm{sup 2}), which is the same value measured for a 5.1% Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst and for a 1.0% Ru/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Temperature-programmed desorption suggest that the CO and H on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are in the form of a H-CO complex. The formation of this complex is an activated process, which is related to the activated adsorption of H{sub 2}. The H{sub 2} that adsorbs between 300 and 385 K is responsible for this spillover process onto the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Isotope labeling and TPR were used to verify that a H-CO complex does not form on Ni/SiO{sub 2} catalysts. Carbon monoxide adsorption on Ni/SiO{sub 2} was not activated and only one methanation site was seen.

Sen, B.; Falconer, J.L. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA))

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

2D-network of inorganic-organic hybrid material built on Keggin type polyoxometallate and amino acid: [L-C{sub 2}H{sub 6}NO{sub 2}]{sub 3}[(PO{sub 4})Mo{sub 12}O{sub 36}].5H{sub 2}O  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new inorganic-organic hybrid material based on polyoxometallate, [L-C{sub 2}H{sub 6}NO{sub 2}]{sub 3}[(PO{sub 4})Mo{sub 12}O{sub 36}].5H{sub 2}O, has been successfully synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis, elemental analysis, infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance and differential thermal analysis techniques. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group, P2{sub 1}/c{sub ,} with a = 12.4938 (8) A, b = 19.9326 (12) A, c = 17.9270 (11) A, {beta} = 102.129 (1){sup o}, V = 4364.8 (5) A{sup 3}, Z = 4 and R{sub 1}(wR{sub 2}) = 0.0513, 0.0877. The most remarkable structural feature of this hybrid can be described as two-dimensional inorganic infinite plane-like (2D/{infinity} [(PO{sub 4})Mo{sub 12}O{sub 36}]{sup 3-}) which forming via weak Van der Waals interactions along the z axis. The characteristic band of the Keggin anion [(PO{sub 4})Mo{sub 12}O{sub 36}]{sup 3-} appears at 210 nm in the UV spectrum. Thermal analysis indicates that the Keggin anion skeleton begins to decompose at 520 deg. C.

Alizadeh, M.H. [Department of Chemistry, School of Sciences, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad 91779-1436 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mhalizadehg@yahoo.com; Mirzaei, M. [Department of Chemistry, School of Sciences, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad 91779-1436 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razavi, H. [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057 (United States)

2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

244

Crystal structures of the new diphosphates, K{sub 2}NiP{sub 2}O{sub 7} and K{sub 6}Sr{sub 2}Ni{sub 5}(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 5}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crystalline K{sub 2}NiP{sub 2}O{sub 7} (I): monoclinic, P{sub 2}{sub 1}, a = 9.230(2), b = 17.540(8), c = 8.319(9){angstrom}, {beta} = 91.44(2){degrees}, Z = 8, d{sub calc} = 3.067 g cm{sup -3}, {lambda}MoK{sub {alpha}} = 0.71069{angstrom}, R/R{sub w} = 6.5/9.4%, is characterized by the existence of face sharing NiO{sub 6} octahedra with Ni-Ni separation of 2.827{angstrom} (Ni-O; 1.93(2) - 2.17(2){angstrom}). K{sup +} is seen in sites of seven, six, and fivefold coordination (K-O, averages; 2.83(2), 2.81(2), and 2.77(2){angstrom}, respectively). P{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 4-} groups are observed in semieclipsed conformation. K{sub 6}Sr{sub 2}Ni{sub 5}(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 5} (II) crystallizes in monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/c; a = 11.038(7), b = 9.533(13), c = 7.438(2){angstrom}, {beta} = 100.13(4){degrees}, D{sub calc} = 3.309 g cm{sup -3}, Z = 2, R/R{sub w} = 6.4/8.1%. Nickel atoms are distributed on planes parallel to the crystallographic (100) plane at x = 0 and x = 0.5. On the planes, x = 0, Ni{sup 2+} ions form successive linked trimers of edge sharing NiO{sub 6} octahedra (Ni-Ni, 3.018(1), 3.008(1){angstrom}; Ni-O, av 2.07(2){angstrom}). The intermediate planes (x=0.5) contain isolated and six coordinate Ni{sup 2+} ions (Ni-O av. 2.09(2){angstrom}). Seven-coordinate potassium ions (K-O, av. 2.74(2){angstrom}) are located on intermediate planes at x = 0.25 and 0.75. P{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 4-} groups are found in eclipsed conformation. Strontium atoms are located between nickel and potassium planes and are surrounded by seven oxygen atoms (Sr-O, av. 2.586(2){angstrom}).

ElMaadi, A.; Boukhari, A.; Holt, E.M. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Atmospheric chemistry of CF{sub 3}CFHCF{sub 3} (HFC-227ea): Spectrokinetic investigation of the CF{sub 3}CFO{sub 2}{sup .}CF{sub 3} radical, its reactions with NO and NO{sub 2}, and fate of the CF{sub 3}CFO{sup .}CF{sub 3} radical  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of the CF{sub 3}CFO{sub 2}{sup .}CF{sub 3} radical, the kinetics of its self-reaction and reactions with NO and NO{sub 2} have been studied in the gas phase at 296 K using a pulse radiolysis technique. A long-path-length Fourier transform infrared technique was used to study the fate of the CF{sub 3}CFO{sup .}CF{sub 3} radical. Absorption cross sections for the CF{sub 3}CFO{sub 2}{sup .}CF{sub 3} radical were quantified over the wavelength range 220-270 nm. The rate constant for the CF{sub 3}CFO{sub 2}{sup .}CF{sub 3} self-reaction was determined, as well as those of the reaction of CF{sub 3}CFO{sub 2}{sup .}CF{sub 3} radicals with NO and NO{sub 2}. The atmospheric fate of CF{sub 3}CFO{sup .}CF{sub 3} radicals is decomposition via C-C bond scission to give CF{sub 3} radicals and CF{sub 3}C(O)F. In 1000 mbar of SF{sub 6} at 296 K decomposition of CF{sub 3}CFO{sup .}CF{sub 3} radicals proceeds at a rate greater than 1 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1}. The results are discussed in the context of the atmospheric chemistry of HFC-227ea. 31 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Mogelberg, T.E.; Sehested, J.; Bilde, M. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)] [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Wallington, T.J. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)] [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States); Nielsen, O.J. [Ford Forschungscenter Aachen (Germany)] [Ford Forschungscenter Aachen (Germany)

1996-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

246

Synthesis, Growth, and Properties of TlGa{sub 1-x}Yb{sub x}S{sub 2} Crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The synthesis of TlGa{sub 1-x}Yb{sub x}S{sub 2} single crystals with the partial substitution of ytterbium for gallium is described. Variations in the electric conductivity of grown crystals irradiated with X-rays of various intensities are measured.

Kerimova, E.M.; Mustafaeva, S.N.; Asadov, Yu.G.; Kerimov, R.N. [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences, pr. Dzhavida 33, Baku, 370143 (Azerbaijan)

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Pinning in twin boundaries of YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7-. delta. single crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present direct observation of Lorentz force induced flux motion and pinning by twin boundaries in single crystal YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7 {minus}{delta}}. From AC magnetoresistance measurements, we derive the effective pinning potential attributed to twin boundaries. 7 refs., 3 figs.

Kwok, W.K.; Welp, U.; Vandervoort, K.G.; Crabtree, G.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Liu, J.Z. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Brooks, J.; Hettinger, J.; Hannahs, S.T. (Boston Univ., MA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Fleshler, S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Product Volatilization as a Probe of the Physics and Chemistry of Latent Image Formation in Chemically Amplified Resists,  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Product Volatilization as a Probe of the Physics and Chemistry of Latent Image Formation in Chemically Amplified Resists, ... The products pass through an all-glass line that uses a high-flow gas stream to extract a small fraction of the product gases through a capillary for analysis. ... Because the rates of each of the sequential steps leading to thickness lossdeprotection, volatilization, and densificationcan be no slower than the overall observed rate of densification, the data in Table 3 provide a lower limit for the rates of volatilization and film densification at 100 C. ...

W. D. Hinsberg; F. A. Houle; G. M. Poliskie; D. Pearson; M. I. Sanchez; H. Ito

2002-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

Topology and glass structure evolution in (BaO){sub x}((B{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 32}(SiO{sub 2}){sub 68}){sub 100?x} ternaryEvidence of rigid, intermediate, and flexible phases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examine variations in the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}(x)), molar volume (V{sub m}(x)), and Raman scattering of titled glasses as a function of modifier (BaO) content in the 25% < x < 48% range. Three distinct regimes of behavior are observed; at low x, 24% < x < 29% range, the modifier largely polymerizes the backbone, T{sub g}(x) increase, features that we identify with the stressed-rigid elastic phase. At high x, 32% < x < 48% range, the modifier depolymerizes the network by creating non-bridging oxygen (NBO) atoms; in this regime T{sub g}(x) decreases, and networks are viewed to be in the flexible elastic phase. In the narrow intermediate x regime, 29% < x < 32% range, T{sub g}(x) shows a broad global maximum almost independent of x, and Raman mode scattering strengths and mode frequencies become relatively x-independent, V{sub m}(x) show a global minimum, features that we associate with the isostatically rigid elastic phase, also called the intermediate phase. In this phase, medium range structures adapt as revealed by the count of Lagrangian bonding constraints and Raman mode scattering strengths.

Holbrook, C. [AFRL/RYDP, 2241 Avionics Circle, B620, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7707 (United States)] [AFRL/RYDP, 2241 Avionics Circle, B620, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7707 (United States); Chakraborty, Shibalik; Ravindren, S.; Boolchand, P. [Department of Electrical and Computing Systems, College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0030 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computing Systems, College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0030 (United States); Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Stutz, C. E. [AFRL/RXAN, 3005 Hobson Way, B651, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7707 (United States)] [AFRL/RXAN, 3005 Hobson Way, B651, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7707 (United States)

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

250

Improvement in oil recovery using cosolvents with CO{sub 2} gas floods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of investigations to improve oil recovery using cosolvents in CO{sub 2} gas floods. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the application and selection of cosolvents as additives to gas displacement processes. A cosolvent used as a miscible additive changed the properties of the supercritical gas phase. Addition of a cosolvent resulted in increased viscosity and density of the gas mixture, and enhanced extraction of oil compounds into the CO{sub 2} rich phase. Gas phase properties were measured in an equilibrium cell with a capillary viscometer and a high pressure densitometer. A number of requirements must be considered in the application of a cosolvent. Cosolvent miscibility with CO{sub 2}, brine solubility, cosolvent volatility and relative quantity of the cosolvent partitioning into the oil phase were factors that must be considered for the successful application of cosolvents. Coreflood experiments were conducted with selected cosolvents to measure oil recovery efficiency. The results indicate lower molecular weight additives, such as propane, are the most effective cosolvents to increase oil recovery.

Raible, C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Improvement in oil recovery using cosolvents with CO sub 2 gas floods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of investigations to improve oil recovery using cosolvents in CO{sub 2} gas floods. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the application and selection of cosolvents as additives to gas displacement processes. A cosolvent used as a miscible additive changed the properties of the supercritical gas phase. Addition of a cosolvent resulted in increased viscosity and density of the gas mixture, and enhanced extraction of oil compounds into the CO{sub 2} rich phase. Gas phase properties were measured in an equilibrium cell with a capillary viscometer and a high pressure densitometer. A number of requirements must be considered in the application of a cosolvent. Cosolvent miscibility with CO{sub 2}, brine solubility, cosolvent volatility and relative quantity of the cosolvent partitioning into the oil phase were factors that must be considered for the successful application of cosolvents. Coreflood experiments were conducted with selected cosolvents to measure oil recovery efficiency. The results indicate lower molecular weight additives, such as propane, are the most effective cosolvents to increase oil recovery.

Raible, C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Solar reduction of CO.sub.2  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The red shift of the absorption spectrum of CO.sub.2 with increasing temperature permits the use of sunlight to photolyze CO.sub.2 to CO. The process of the present invention includes: preheating CO.sub.2 to near 1800 K; exposing the preheated CO.sub.2 to sunlight, whereby CO, O.sub.2 and O are produced; and cooling the hot product mix by rapid admixture with room temperature CO.sub.2. The excess thermal energy may be used to produce electricity and to heat additional CO.sub.2 for subsequent process steps. The product CO may be used to generate H.sub.2 by the shift reaction or to synthesize methanol.

Jensen, Reed J. (121 La Vista Dr., Los Alamos, NM 87544); Lyman, John L. (Los Alamos, NM); King, Joe D. (Los Alamos, NM); Guettler, Robert D. (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Quantum Critical Scaling and the Origin of Non-fermi-liquid Behavior in Sc<sub>1-xsub>UxPd>3sub>  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We used inelastic neutron scattering to study magnetic excitations of Sc{sub 1-x}U{sub x}Pd{sub 3} for U concentrations (x=0.25, 0.35) near the spin glass quantum critical point (QCP). The excitations are spatially incoherent, broad in energy (E=variant Planck's over 2{pi}{omega}), and follow {omega}/T scaling at all wave vectors investigated. Since similar {omega}/T scaling has been observed for UCu{sub 5-x}Pd{sub x} and CeCu{sub 6-x}Au{sub x} near the antiferromagnetic QCP, we argue that the observed non-Fermi-liquid behavior in these f-electron materials arises from the critical phenomena near a T=0 K phase transition, irrespective of the nature of the transition.

Wilson, Stephen D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dai, Pengcheng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Adroja, D. T. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Lee, S.-H. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Chung, J.-H. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Lynn, J. W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Butch, N. P. [University of California, San Diego; Maple, M. B. [University of California, San Diego

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Silicate layer formation at Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si(001) interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We studied Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si(001) interfaces by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy and by ab initio calculations. We show that the interface formed during molecular-beam epitaxy under the oxygen partial pressure above 1x10{sup -8} mbar consists of a mixed Si-Pr oxide, such as (Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3})(SiO){sub x}(SiO{sub 2}){sub y}. Neither an interfacial SiO{sub 2} nor an interfacial silicide is formed. The silicate formation is driven by a low energy of O in a PrOSi bond and by the strain in the subsurface SiO{sub x} layer. We expect that this natural interfacial Pr silicate will facilitate the integration of the high-k dielectric Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} into future complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technologies.

Schmeisser, D.; Muessig, H.-J.; Dabrowski, J. [Angewandte Physik-Sensorik, BTU Cottbus, Postfach 10 13 44, D-03013 Cottbus (Germany); IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, D-15236 Frankfurt (Germany)

2004-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

255

Band offsets in HfO{sub 2}/InGaZnO{sub 4} heterojunctions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The valence band discontinuity ({Delta}E{sub V}) of sputter deposited HfO{sub 2}/InZnGaO{sub 4} (IGZO) heterostructures was obtained from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The HfO{sub 2} exhibited a bandgap of 6.07 eV from absorption measurements. A value of {Delta}E{sub V} = 0.48 {+-} 0.025 eV was obtained by using the Ga 2p{sub 3/2}, Zn 2p{sub 3/2}, and In 3d{sub 5/2} energy levels as references. This implies a conduction band offset {Delta}E{sub C} of 2.39 eV in HfO{sub 2}/InGaZnO{sub 4} heterostructures and a nested interface band alignment.

Cho, Hyun [Department of Nanomechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Gyeongnam 627-706 (Korea, Republic of); Douglas, E. A.; Gila, B. P.; Craciun, V.; Lambers, E. S.; Pearton, S. J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Ren Fan [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

2012-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

256

Electrical and thermoelectric properties of 90% Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-5% Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-5% Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} single crystals doped with SbI{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} alloys with Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} contents up to 10 mol%, e.g., the 90% Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-5% Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-5% Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} alloy, are among the best n-type thermoelectric materials for Peltier coolers used near room temperature. In this work, the electrical and thermoelectric properties of Sbl{sub 3}doped 90% Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-5% Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-5% Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} alloys were characterized at temperatures ranging from 80K to 600K. The temperature dependencies of the Hall coefficient, carrier mobility, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity were measured, and the scattering parameter and bandgap energy were determined.

Hyun, D.B.; Hwang, J.S.; Shim, J.D.; Kolomoets, N.V. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Metals] [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Metals; Oh, T.S. [Hong Ik Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science] [Hong Ik Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science

1998-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

257

Investigation on transition behavior and electrical properties of (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 1-x}Li{sub x}Nb{sub 0.84}Ta{sub 0.1}Sb{sub 0.06}O{sub 3} around polymorphic phase transition region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

(K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 1-x}Li{sub x}Nb{sub 0.84}Ta{sub 0.1}Sb{sub 0.06}O{sub 3} (KNLNTS) lead free ceramics with different Li concentration were fabricated by conventional solid-state reaction method. By increasing Li ions in KNLNTS, the grains grow up and the crystal structure changes from orthorhombic to tetragonal. When 0.03 ? x ? 0.05, the ceramics structure lays in PPT region. Polarization versus electric field (P-E) hysteresis loops at room temperature show good ferroelectric properties and the remnant polarization decreases by increasing Li content while coercive electric keeps almost unchanged. In PPT region, taking x = 0.04 as an example, the sample shows excellent dielectric properties: the dielectric constant is 1159 and loss tangent is 0.04, while the piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} is 245 pC/N and kp is 0.44 at room temperature, it is promising for (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 1-x}Li{sub x}Nb{sub 0.84}Ta{sub 0.1}Sb{sub 0.06}O{sub 3} with 4 at. % Li to substitute PZT.

Zhu, Chen; Wang, Wenchao; Shi, Honglin; Wang, Fangyu; Cao, Yongge [Department of Physics, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, P R China (China) [Department of Physics, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, P R China (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Huang, Jiquan; Wang, Chong [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Tang, Fei; Yuan, Xuanyi, E-mail: yuanxuanyi@ruc.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, P R China (China)] [Department of Physics, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, P R China (China); Liu, Yang [School of Chemistry and Environment Engineering, Shaoguan University, Shaoguan 512005 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Environment Engineering, Shaoguan University, Shaoguan 512005 (China)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

258

Effective passivation of In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As by HfO{sub 2} surpassing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via in-situ atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High {kappa} gate dielectrics of HfO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were deposited on molecular beam epitaxy-grown In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As pristine surface using in-situ atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) without any surface treatment or passivation layer. The ALD-HfO{sub 2}/p-In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As interface showed notable reduction in the interfacial density of states (D{sub it}), deduced from quasi-static capacitance-voltage and conductance-voltage (G-V) at room temperature and 100 Degree-Sign C. More significantly, the midgap peak commonly observed in the D{sub it}(E) of ALD-oxides/In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As is now greatly diminished. The midgap D{sub it} value decreases from {>=}15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} for ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to {approx}2-4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} for ALD-HfO{sub 2}. Further, thermal stability at 850 Degree-Sign C was achieved in the HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As, whereas C-V characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As degraded after the high temperature annealing. From in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectra, the AsO{sub x}, which is not the oxidized state from the native oxide, but is an induced state from adsorption of trimethylaluminum and H{sub 2}O, was found at the ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As interface, while that was not detected at the ALD-HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As interface.

Chang, Y. H.; Chiang, T. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, C. A.; Liu, Y. T.; Lin, H. Y.; Huang, M. L.; Kwo, J. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, T. D.; Hong, M. [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Pi, T. W. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

259

Structural and conductivity studies of CsKSO{sub 4}Te(OH){sub 6} and Rb{sub 1.25}K{sub 0.75}SO{sub 4}Te(OH){sub 6} materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The crystal structures of the title compounds were solved using the single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique. At room temperature CsKSO{sub 4}Te(OH){sub 6} was found to crystallize in the monoclinic system with Pn space group and lattice parameters: a=12.5463(6)A; b=6.5765(2)A; c=12.6916(7)A; {beta}=106.53(2){sup o}; V=1003.914(4)A{sup 3}; Z=4 and D{sub calc.}=3.29g/cm{sup 3}. The structural refinement has led to a reliability factor of R{sub 1}=0.0284 (wR{sub 2}=0.064) for 7577 independent reflections. Rb{sub 1.25}K{sub 0.75}SO{sub 4}Te(OH){sub 6} material possesses a monoclinic structure with space group P2{sub 1}/a and cell parameters: a=11.3411(6)A; b=6.5819(2)A; c=13.5730(8)A; {beta}=106.860(10){sup o}; V=969.62(10)A{sup 3}; Z=4 and D=3.16(3)g/cm{sup 3}. The residuals are R{sub 1}=0.0297 and wR{sub 2}=0.0776 for 3336 independent reflections. The main interest of these structures is the presence of two different and independent anionic groups (TeO{sub 6}{sup 6-} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) in the same crystal. Complex impedance measurements (Z*=Z{sup '}-iZ{sup '}') have been undertaken in the frequency and temperature ranges 20-10{sup 6}Hz and 400-600K, respectively. The dielectric relaxation is studied in the complex modulus formalism M*.

Chabchoub, N. [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquee, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)]. E-mail: nizar_chabchoub@yahoo.fr; Darriet, J. [Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux, ICMCB-CNRS, 33608 Pessac cedex (France); Khemakhem, H. [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquee, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Pseudogap and Incommensurate Magnetic Fluctuations in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.6}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unpolarized inelastic neutron scattering is used to study the temperature and wave vector dependence of the dynamical magnetic susceptibility, {xi}`` (q,{omega}), of a well characterized single crystal YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.6} (T{sub c} = 62.7 K). We find that a pseudogap opens in the spin fluctuation spectrum at temperatures well above T{sub c}. We speculate that the appearance of the low frequency incommensurate fluctuations is associated with the opening of the pseudogap. To within the error of the measurements, a gap in the spin fluctuation spectrum is found in the superconducting state.

Dai, P., Mook, H.A., [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)], Dogan, F. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1997-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "volatile sub stances" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

COMPOSITE ARCHITECTURES FOR SUB-600 DEGREE CELSIUS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COMPOSITE ARCHITECTURES FOR SUB-600 DEGREE CELSIUS FUEL CELLS Prepared For: California Energy (EISG) PROGRAM FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS REPORT (FAR) COMPOSITE ARCHITECTURES FOR SUB-600o C FUEL CELLS EISG 1 Composite Architectures For Sub-600 O C Fuel Cells EISG Grant # 99-35 Awardee: University

262

Controllable synthesis, magnetic and biocompatible properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Iron oxide nanocrystals (NCs) with a series of well-controlled morphologies (octahedron, rod, wire, cube and plate) and compositions (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal process. The morphological and compositional control of various iron oxide NCs was based on the regulations of precursor thermolysis kinetics and surfactants. The obtained samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, SQUID and cytotoxicity test. These as-prepared iron oxide NCs showed excellent magnetic properties and good biocompatibility, paving the way for their high-efficiency bio-separation and bio-detection applications. - Graphical Abstract: Schematic illustration for the formation of iron oxide NCs (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with different controlled morphologies and compositions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Iron oxide NCs with a series of well-controlled morphologies (octahedron, rod, wire, cube, and plate) and compositions (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism of the morphological and compositional control process is directly related to precursor thermolysis kinetics and surfactants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These iron oxide NCs exhibited excellent magnetic response and good biocompatibility, which should have great applications in the cell separation and biodetection.

Zhou, Xi, E-mail: xizhou@xmu.edu.cn [Research Center of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Biomaterials, College of Materials, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)] [Research Center of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Biomaterials, College of Materials, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Shi, Yanfeng; Ren, Lei [Research Center of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Biomaterials, College of Materials, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)] [Research Center of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Biomaterials, College of Materials, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Bao, Shixiong [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)] [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Han, Yu; Wu, Shichao; Zhang, Honggang; Zhong, Lubin [Research Center of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Biomaterials, College of Materials, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)] [Research Center of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Biomaterials, College of Materials, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Zhang, Qiqing, E-mail: zhangqiq@xmu.edu.cn [Research Center of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Biomaterials, College of Materials, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)] [Research Center of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Biomaterials, College of Materials, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Infrared spectra and tunneling dynamics of the N{sub 2}D{sub 2}O and OCD{sub 2}O complexes in the v{sub 2} bend region of D{sub 2}O  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rovibrational spectra of the N{sub 2}D{sub 2}O and OCD{sub 2}O complexes in the v{sub 2} bend region of D{sub 2}O have been measured in a supersonic slit jet expansion using a rapid-scan tunable diode laser spectrometer. Both a-type and b-type transitions were observed for these two complexes. All transitions are doubled, due to the heavy water tunneling within the complexes. Assuming the tunneling splittings are the same in K{sub a} = 0 and K{sub a} = 1, the band origins, all three rotational and several distortion constants of each tunneling state were determined for N{sub 2}D{sub 2}O in the ground and excited vibrational states, and for OCD{sub 2}O in the excited vibrational state, respectively. The averaged band origin of OCD{sub 2}O is blueshifted by 2.241 cm{sup ?1} from that of the v{sub 2} band of the D{sub 2}O monomer, compared with 1.247 cm{sup ?1} for N{sub 2}D{sub 2}O. The tunneling splitting of N{sub 2}D{sub 2}O in the ground state is 0.16359(28) cm{sup ?1}, which is about five times that of OCD{sub 2}O. The tunneling splittings decrease by about 26% for N{sub 2}D{sub 2}O and 23% for OCD{sub 2}O, respectively, upon excitation of the D{sub 2}O bending vibration, indicating an increase of the tunneling barrier in the excited vibrational state. The tunneling splittings are found to have a strong dependence on intramolecular vibrational excitation as well as a weak dependence on quantum number K{sub a}.

Zhu, Yu; Zheng, Rui; Li, Song; Yang, Yu; Duan, Chuanxi, E-mail: cxduan@phy.ccnu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China)] [College of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China)

2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

264

Ca{sub 3-x}La{sub x}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9+{delta}} (x=0, 0.3): New cobaltite materials as cathodes for proton conducting solid oxide fuel cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Misfit-type Ca{sub 3-x}La{sub x}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9+{delta}} (x=0, 0.3) oxides were synthesised to be evaluated as possible cathode materials for proton conducting fuel cells (PCFCs) based on BaCe{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BCY10) dense ceramic electrolyte. The electrical conductivity value of Ca{sub 2.7}La{sub 0.3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9+{delta}} ({sigma}{approx}53 S cm{sup -1} at 600 deg. C) is in the range of usually required value for a cathode application (about 50-100 S cm{sup -1}). In order to test the performance of each compound as cathode material, impedance measurements were carried out on Ca{sub 3-x}La{sub x}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9+{delta}}/BaCe{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}}/Ca{sub 3-x}La{sub x}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9+{delta}} symmetrical half cells over the temperature range 400-800 deg. C under wet air. A promising electrocatalytic activity has been observed with both compounds Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9+{delta}} and Ca{sub 2.7}La{sub 0.3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9+{delta}}. Factually, the area specific resistance obtained was about 2.2 {Omega} cm{sup 2} at 600 deg. C. - Graphical abstract: Arrehnius plots of the ASR for Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9+{delta}} and Ca{sub 2.7}La{sub 0.3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9+{delta}}.

Ben Yahia, Hamdi [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87, Avenue A. Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac Cedex (France); Mauvy, Fabrice, E-mail: mauvy@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.f [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87, Avenue A. Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac Cedex (France); Grenier, Jean Claude [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87, Avenue A. Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac Cedex (France)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

265

Luminescence properties of a blue-emitting phosphor: (Sr{sub 1?x}Eu{sub x})Si{sub 9}Al{sub 19}ON{sub 31} (0  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Blue-emitting Sr{sub 1?x}Eu{sub x}Si{sub 9}Al{sub 19}ON{sub 31} phosphors were synthesized at 1800 C for 2 h under 1 MPa N{sub 2} by using the gas-pressure sintering method (GPS). The microstructure, photoluminescence (PL) properties of the prepared phosphors were investigated. Under the 290 nm excitation, broad PL emission bands with peak positions at 448490 nm were detected. The concentration quenching was not observed owing to the large distance betweenEu{sup 2+} ions that made the nonradiative energy transfer between neighboring Eu{sup 2+} ions difficult. The blue phosphor generally showed a small thermal quenching at low Eu{sup 2+} concentrations. The absorption and external quantum efficiency of the synthesized Sr{sub 0.5}Eu{sub 0.5}Si{sub 9}Al{sub 19}ON{sub 31} were 85% and 62% upon the 365 nm excitation, respectively. The interesting PL results indicate that Sr{sub 1?x}Eu{sub x}Si{sub 9}Al{sub 19}ON{sub 31} has great potentials as a blue phosphor for white LEDs applications. - Graphical abstract: Sr{sub 0.7}Eu{sub 0.3}Si{sub 9}Al{sub 19}ON{sub 31} gives blue-emitting at 471 nm. Excitation spectrum is composed of five bands in the range of 250450 nm, which are matching well with emission wavelength of UV LEDs. Display Omitted - Highlights: Blue-emitting Sr{sub 1?x}Eu{sub x}Si{sub 9}Al{sub 19}ON{sub 31} phosphors were synthesized by gas-pressure sintering method. The concentration quenching was not observed in this phosphor. This blue phosphor generally showed a small thermal quenching at low Eu{sup 2+} concentrations. The absorption and external quantum efficiency of the synthesized Sr{sub 0.5}Eu{sub 0.5}Si{sub 9}Al{sub 19}ON{sub 31} were 85% and 62% upon the 365 nm excitation.

Liu, Lihong [Structural and Functional Integration of Ceramics Group, The Division of Functional Materials and Nanodevices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Xie, Rong-Jun, E-mail: XIE.Rong-Jun@nims.go.jp [Sialon Group, Sialon Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Hirosaki, Naoto; Dierre, Benjamin [Sialon Group, Sialon Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Takashi [Advanced Electronic Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

266

CFD modeling of entrained-flow coal gasifiers with improved physical and chemical sub-models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optimization of an advanced coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle system requires an accurate numerical prediction of gasifier performance. While the turbulent multiphase reacting flow inside entrained-flow gasifiers has been modeled through computational fluid dynamic (CFD), the accuracy of sub-models requires further improvement. Built upon a previously developed CFD model for entrained-flow gasification, the advanced physical and chemical sub-models presented here include a moisture vaporization model with consideration of high mass transfer rate, a coal devolatilization model with more species to represent coal volatiles and heating rate effect on volatile yield, and careful selection of global gas phase reaction kinetics. The enhanced CFD model is applied to simulate two typical oxygen-blown entrained-flow configurations including a single-stage down-fired gasifier and a two-stage up-fired gasifier. The CFD results are reasonable in terms of predicted carbon conversion, syngas exit temperature, and syngas exit composition. The predicted profiles of velocity, temperature, and species mole fractions inside the entrained-flow gasifier models show trends similar to those observed in a diffusion-type flame. The predicted distributions of mole fractions of major species inside both gasifiers can be explained by the heterogeneous combustion and gasification reactions and the homogeneous gas phase reactions. It was also found that the syngas compositions at the CFD model exits are not in chemical equilibrium, indicating the kinetics for both heterogeneous and gas phase homogeneous reactions are important. Overall, the results achieved here indicate that the gasifier models reported in this paper are reliable and accurate enough to be incorporated into process/CFD co-simulations of IGCC power plants for systemwide design and optimization.

Ma, J.; Zitney, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Magnetic ordering in the ammoniated fulleride (ND{sub 3})K{sub 3}C{sub 60}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intercalation of C{sub 60} with alkali metals leads to superconducting compositions A{sub 3}C{sub 60} (A = alkali metal) with critical temperatures as high as 33 K, surpassed only by the high-{Tc} superconducting cuprates. It is well established that {Tc} increases monotonically with increasing interfullerene separation, d, as the density of states at the Fermi level, N({epsilon}{sub F}) increases. Of paramount importance is the search for new materials with larger lattice parameters in order to establish whether {Tc} can be driven to higher values or the anticipated band narrowing will lead to electron localization and a transition to a Mott insulator. Ammoniation has proven an excellent method to achieve large expansions of the fulleride unit cells, as neutral NH{sub 3} molecules coordinate to the alkali ions, leading to large effective radii for the (NH{sub 3}){sub x}A{sup +} species.

Prassides, K.; Margadonna, S.; Arcon, D.; Lappas, A.; Shimoda, Hideo; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

1999-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

268

Initial phases in sputter deposited HfO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanolaminate films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanolaminate films of crystalline HfO{sub 2} and amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were grown by reactive sputter deposition on unheated fused SiO{sub 2} and the surface oxide of <111> Si. X-ray diffraction showed the amount of monoclinic (m) HfO{sub 2} decreased with decreasing HfO{sub 2} layer thickness, consistent with a finite crystal size effect. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of individual crystallites detected tetragonal (t) and orthorhombic (o) HfO{sub 2} as the initial phases formed. Whereas the t{yields}m transition is accomplished by a shear mechanism, we demonstrate the important role of polysynthetic twinning for the o{yields}m transition.

Hoppe, E. E.; Aita, C. R.; Gajdardziska-Josifovska, M. [Advanced Coatings Experimental Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 784, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States); Department of Physics and Laboratory for Surface Studies, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States)

2007-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

269

Phase coexistence in the mixed crystal Rb[sub 1-x](NH[sub 4])[sub x]H[sub 2]AsO[sub 4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of the coexistence phenomenon in mixed crystals of rubidium ammonium dihydrogen arsenate has been done. Coexistence in this study refers to the simultaneous presence of ferroelectric and proton glass phases as temperature is lowered below the ferroelectric phase transition temperature T[sub c]. Such coexistence is found to exist in these mixed crystals only for small ammonium concentrations. The results show that coexistence exists for lower ammonium concentration than previously suggested. A study was also done on crystals with larger ammonium concentrations that show pure proton glass behavior and the results compared with the coexistence phenomenon. Dielectric, spontaneous polarization and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments on mixed crystals with small ammonium concentrations show that at low temperatures there exists intimate coexistence of ferroelectric clusters with proton glass clusters below the glass transition temperature T[sub g]. In the proton glass phase, it is observed that a spread of relaxation times due to the creation and annihilation of HAsO[sub 4] and H[sub 3]AsO[sub 4] pairs as they diffuse through the crystal. Spin lattice relaxation times for the acid deuterons in a 10% ammoniated sample show a broad T[sub 1] minimum near the glass transition temperature which is characteristic of proton glasses. Field-cooling experiments were also done on the pure proton glass. The results are consistent with dielectric measurements, but the remanent polarization was found to be extremely small. This polarization was found to depend on the rate of heating and cooling the sample while performing the experiment.

Pinto, N.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

The impact of crude-oil price volatility on agricultural employment in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study focuses on the impact of fluctuations in the price of crude oil on agricultural employment in the United States. After reviewing previous assessments of the issue, the existence of an empirical relationship between agricultural employment and crude oil price volatility is established using Granger causality. Subsequently, the nature of the relationship is estimated with the results suggesting that at least three full years are required before the measurable impacts of a percentage change in the real price of crude oil on the change in agricultural employment are exhausted. Finally, the structural stability of the functional relationship between the change in agricultural employment and the volatility of the price of crude oil, the percentage changes in expected net farm income, realized technological innovation, and the wage rate is examined.

Uri, N.D. [Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

271

Effect of sampling technique on the measurement of gasoline volatility. Technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is proposing the adoption of regulations that would reduce the amount of hydrocarbons released to the atmosphere due to evaporation of gasoline. One regulatory alternative under consideration is to put an upper limit on volatility. Volatility is typically quantified by measurement of Reid vapor pressure. The purpose of the report was to identify and quantify any differences in vapor pressure caused by the technique used to obtain the sample. The objective of the effort is identify and document a fast, inexpensive, and reliable method to obtain enforcement-quality samples at service station-type facilities. The report examines the effect of four sampling techniques and two methods of analysis on three types of fuels.

Scarbro, C.A.; White, J.T.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

FFATA sub reporting data model_draft_100715.xls | Department...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

FFATA sub reporting data modeldraft100715.xls FFATA sub reporting data modeldraft100715.xls FFATA sub reporting data modeldraft100715.xls More Documents & Publications...

273

Site occupancy and cation binding states in reduced polycrystalline Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1?x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Site occupancy and cation binding states in the proposed thermoelectric n-type oxide Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1?x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (SBN100x) were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Sr 3d XPS spectra from unreduced polycrystalline SBN100x with various compositions contained two distinct spin-orbit doublets corresponding to Sr occupying either A1 or A2 positions in the SBN lattice; the higher binding energy state was associated with Sr ions at A2 sites, presumably due to their increased coordination over Sr at A1 sites. To gain insight into optimizing the thermoelectric properties of reduced SBN, sintered SBN50 specimens were reduced in Ar/H{sub 2} or N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} ambient. A decrease in the average Nb valence was observed in Nb 3d photoemission through the growth of low-binding energy components after reduction in either environment; evidence of surface NbN formation was apparent with longer reducing times in N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}. Both the single-component Ba 3d emission and the A2 component of the Sr 3d spectra show shifting to lower binding energy as the reduction time is increased, supporting the hypothesis of preferential oxygen vacancy formation adjacent to A2 sites. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the formation of NbO{sub 2} in both reducing environments; in the case of extended reduction in N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}, NbO{sub 2} is gradually converted to NbN phases. Given the known properties of metallic NbN and semiconducting NbO{sub 2}, the findings obtained here may be used to maximize the thermoelectric performance of SBN via the fabrication of composite structures containing both NbO{sub 2} and NbN.

Dandeneau, Christopher S., E-mail: dandec@u.washington.edu; Yang, YiHsun; Ohuchi, Fumio S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Krueger, Benjamin W.; Olmstead, Marjorie A. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Bordia, Rajendra K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States)

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

274

Refinement of the crystal structure of the high-temperature phase G{sub 0} in (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}WO{sub 2}F{sub 4} (powder, X-ray, and neutron scattering)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}WO{sub 2}F{sub 4} compound undergoes a series of phase transitions: G{sub 0} {yields} 201, K {yields} G{sub 1} {yields} 160, and K {yields} G{sub 2}, with a significant change in entropy ({Delta}S{sub 1} {approx} Rln10 at the G{sub 0} {yields} G{sub 1} transition), which indicates significant orientational disordering in the G{sub 0} phase and the order-disorder type of the phase transition. X-ray diffraction is used to identify the crystal structure of the G{sub 0} phase as rhombohedral (sp. gr. Cmcm, Z = 4), determine the lattice parameters and the positions of all atoms (except hydrogen), and show that [WO{sub 2}F{sub 4}]{sup 2-} ions can form a superposition of dynamic and static orientational disorders in the anionic sublattice. A determination of the orientational position of [NH{sub 4}]{sup +} ions calls for the combined method of elastic and inelastic neutron scattering. Inelastic neutron scattering is used to determine the state of hindered rotation for ammonium ions in the G{sub 0} phase. Powder neutron diffraction shows that the orientational disorder of NH{sub 4} ions can adequately be described within the free-rotation approximation.

Novak, D. M., E-mail: dmn@nf.jinr.ru; Smirnov, L. S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Frank Neutron Physics Laboratory (Russian Federation)] [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Frank Neutron Physics Laboratory (Russian Federation); Kolesnikov, A. I. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Neutron Scattering Sciences Division (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Neutron Scattering Sciences Division (United States); Voronin, V. I.; Berger, I. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Laptash, N. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch (Russian Federation); Vasil'ev, A. D.; Flerov, I. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

275

DOI: 10.1002/ejic.200600960 Synthesis and Sublimation Kinetics of a Highly Volatile Asymmetric Iron(II)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FULL PAPER DOI: 10.1002/ejic.200600960 Synthesis and Sublimation Kinetics of a Highly Volatile: Asymmetric iron(II) amidinate / Bridging ligands / Metathesis / Sublimation kinetics / Thermochemistry properties have been the subject of intense investigations in chemistry, electronics, optics, energy

276

Photochemical Modeling of Emissions Trading of Highly Reactive Volatile Organic Compounds in Houston, Texas. 2. Incorporation of Chlorine Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As part of the State Implementation Plan for attaining the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone, the Texas Commission of Environmental Quality has created a Highly Reactive Volatile Organic Compounds (HRVOC) Emissions Cap and Trade Program for ...

Linlin Wang; Tammy Thompson; Elena C. McDonald-Buller; David T. Allen

2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

277

Volatiles from potato plants infected with potato leafroll virus attract and arrest the virus vector, Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

7 March 2002 research-article Volatiles from potato plants infected with potato leafroll virus attract and arrest the virus vector...previously reported preferential colonization of potatoes infected by potato leafroll virus (genus Polerovirus...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

PII S0016-7037(01)00802-X Volatilization kinetics of silicon carbide in reducing gases: An experimental study with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PII S0016-7037(01)00802-X Volatilization kinetics of silicon carbide in reducing gases occurring hexagonal sili- con carbide ( -SiC), and -SiC, the cubic form, are occasion- ally reported

Grossman, Lawrence

279

The Impact of Tax Shocks and Oil Price Volatility on Risk - A Study of North Sea Oilfield Projects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine the impact of market volatility and increased fiscal take on risk in strategic natural resource projects. An increase in 2006 UK oilfield taxation is used as a natural experiment for assessing the impact of a ...

Kretzschmar, Gavin Lee; Moles, Peter

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Evaluation of the colossal electroresistance (CER) effect and its application in the non-volatile Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flash memory, the current leading technology for non-volatile memory (NVM), is projected by many to run obsolete in the face of future miniaturization trend in the semiconductor devices due to some of its technical ...

Wicaksono, Aulia Tegar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "volatile sub stances" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Source Signature of Volatile Organic Compounds from Oil and Natural Gas Operations in Northeastern Colorado  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Source Signature of Volatile Organic Compounds from Oil and Natural Gas Operations in Northeastern Colorado ... Only 4% of all samples at BAO had high ROH+VOCO&NG and were from the western sector where the nearest wells are located indicating that they were not the dominant O&NG source at BAO. ... parameters were measured concurrently at a site on the western perimeter of Boulder, Colorado, during Feb., 1991. ...

J. B. Gilman; B. M. Lerner; W. C. Kuster; J. A. de Gouw

2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

282

Ammonia volatilization from surface application of ammonium sulfate to carbonate systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

correspond- 3 ed to the simultaneous loss of H 0 and NH . Jewitt (1942) showed that as H 0 loss increased due to evaporation the amount of NH volatilized increased on four alkaline Sudan soils when (NHL?) 2SOL? was surface appli- ed. He proposed...?OH, (IKt) CO , or NH~HCO depending upon the factors mentioned above. This suggests a rather complicated reaction mechanism. Duplessis and Kroontje (1964) also supported Jewitt's (1942) mechanism. In their experiment, (NHL?) SOL? wes surface applied...

Feagley, Sam Edward

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Performance specifications for technology development: Application for characterization of volatile organic compounds in the environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains information about technology development for the monitoring and remediation of environmental pollution caused by the release of volatile organic compounds. Topics discussed include: performance specification processes, gas chromatography, mass spectrometer, fiber-optic chemical sensors, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, piezoelectric sensors and electrochemical sensors. These methods are analyzed for their cost efficiency, accuracy, and the ability to meet the needs of the customer.

Carpenter, S.E.; Doskey, P.V.; Erickson, M.D.; Lindahl, P.C.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

ABSORPTION DES ACIDES GRAS VOLATILS DANS L'OMASUM DE LA VACHE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSORPTION DES ACIDES GRAS VOLATILS DANS L'OMASUM DE LA VACHE C. DARDILLAT Station de rôle du feuillet et ses capacités d'absorption sont très mal connus car il est difficile d'accé- der à cet organe sans perturber son fonctionnement. Nous avons fixé par effet ventouse une chambre d'absorption

Boyer, Edmond

285

Nanocrystalline Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles: Effects of N{sub 2} annealing on microstructure and near-infrared shielding characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to further improve the near-infrared shielding properties of cesium tungsten bronze (Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3}) for solar filter applications, Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles were prepared by solvothermal reaction method and the effects of nitrogen annealing on the microstructure and near-infrared shielding properties of Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} were investigated. The obtained Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectrophotometer. The results indicate that nanosheet-like Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles with hexagonal structure began to transform into nanorods after annealed at temperature higher than 600 C. The near-infrared shielding properties of Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles could be further improved by N{sub 2} annealing at 500700 C. Particularly, the 500 C-annealed Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} samples in the N{sub 2} atmosphere showed best near-infrared shielding properties. It was suggested that the excellent near-infrared shielding ability of the 500 C-annealed Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} samples is correlated with its minimum O/W atomic ratio and most oxygen vacancies. Highlights: N{sub 2} annealing could further improve the near-infrared (NIR) shielding of Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3}. Effects of N{sub 2} annealing on microstructure and NIR shielding of Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} were studied. The 500 C-N{sub 2}-annealed Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} exhibited minimum O/W ratio and most oxygen vacancies. The 500 C-N{sub 2}-annealed Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles exhibited best NIR shielding properties.

Liu, Jing-Xiao, E-mail: drliu-shi@dlpu.edu.cn [School of Textile and Material Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Material, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577,Japan (Japan); Shi, Fei; Dong, Xiao-Li; Xu, Qiang [School of Textile and Material Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Material, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577,Japan (Japan)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

Estimation of ammonia volatilization from surface-applied urea as indicated by bermudagrass N-use efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ESTIMATION OF AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION FROM SURFACE-APPLIED UREA AS INDICATED BY BERMUDAGRASS N-USE EFFICIENCY A Thesis by JOHN MATTHEW DRWAL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Soil Science ESTIMATION OF AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION FROM SURFACE-APPLIED UREA AS INDICATED BY BERMUDAGRASS N-USE EFFICIENCY A Thesis by JOHN MATTHEW DRWAL Approved as to style and content by...

Drwal, John Matthew

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

287

NOTE SUR LES EFFETS DE L'INFUSION PERMANENTE D'UN MLANGE D'ACIDES GRAS VOLATILS DANS LE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NOTE SUR LES EFFETS DE L'INFUSION PERMANENTE D'UN M?LANGE D'ACIDES GRAS VOLATILS DANS LE RUMEN DU problèmes techniques : infusion permanente et prolongée, dans le rumen, de quantités d'acides gras volatils début de l'infusion, les veaux étaient âgés d'environ 4 mois et pesaient respectivement 95 et 80 kg

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

288

Cancer risks from soil emissions of volatile organic compounds at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The emission isolation flux chamber (EIFC) methodology was applied to Superfund investigations at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 to determine if on-site workers were exposed to VOCs volatilizing from the subsurface and what, if any, health risks could be attributed to the inhalation of the VOCs volatilizing from the subsurface. During July and August of 1996, twenty, eighteen, and twenty six VOC soil vapor flux samples were collected in the Building 830, 832, and 854 areas, respectively using EIFCS. The VOC concentrations in the vapor samples were used to calculate soil flux rates which were used as input into an air dispersion model to calculate ambient air exposure-point concentrations. The exposure-point concentrations were compared to EPA Region IX Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs). Buildings 830 and 832 exposure-point concentrations were less then the PRGs therefore no cancer risks were calculated. The cancer risks for Building 854 ranged from 1.6 x 10{sup -7} to 2.1 x 10{sup -6}. The resultant inhalation cancer risks were all within the acceptable range, implying that on-site workers were not exposed to VOC vapors volatilizing from the subsurface soil that could have significant cancer risks. Therefore remediation in these areas would not be necessary.

Dibley, V. R., LLNL

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Growth and crystal structure of binary molybdate CsFe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CsFe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} single crystals have been grown by solution-melt crystallization with a charge-to-solvent ratio of 1: 3 (with Cs{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 10} used as a solvent). The crystal structure of this compound has been refined by X-ray diffraction (X8 APEX automatic diffractometer, MoK{sub {alpha}} radiation, 356 F(hkl), R = 0.0178). The trigonal unit cell has the following parameters: a = b = 5.6051(2) A, c = 8.0118(4) A, V = 217.985(15) A{sup 3}, Z = 1, {rho}{sub calc} = 3.875 g/cm{sup 3}, and sp. gr. P3-barm1. The structure is composed of alternating layers of FeO{sub 6} octahedra (with MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra attached by sharing vertices) and CsO{sub 12} icosahedra.

Bazarov, B. G., E-mail: jbaz@binm.bscnet.ru; Namsaraeva, T. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Klevtsova, R. F., E-mail: klev@che.nsk.su; Anshits, A. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Vereshchagina, T. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Glinskaya, L. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Fedorov, K. N.; Bazarova, Zh. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

Mercury oxidation over the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}(WO{sub 3})/TiO{sub 2} commercial SCR catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mercury oxidation by hydrochloric acid over the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}(WO{sub 3})/TiO{sub 2} commercial SCR catalyst was investigated. Both fresh and aged catalysts with honeycomb structure, which were exposed to a coal combustion flue gas in a coal-fired boiler for over 71 000 h. were examined. The aged catalysts were characterized by X-ray and SEM-EDX analysis to examine the presence of ash deposition on the surface. The mercury oxidation rate was enhanced by increasing HCl concentrations and inhibited strongly by the presence of NH{sub 3}. This behavior could be explained by a kinetic model assuming that HCl competes for the catalyst active sites against NH{sub 3}. As the catalyst operation time increased, the mercury oxidation rate was observed to decrease considerably in the presence of NH{sub 3} while NO reduction rate was apparently nearly unchanged. By examining aged catalysts, deposits stemming from fly ash and SO{sub 2}/SO{sub 3} were observed to accumulate continuously on the catalyst surface. The ash deposited on the surface may partially block the active catalyst sites and decrease their number. The decrease of the number of active sites on the catalyst surface caused NH{sub 3} to remain unreacted in the honeycomb catalyst. The decrease of the Hg{sup 0} oxidation rate was caused by the inhibition effect of NH{sub 3} remaining in the catalyst.

Kamata, H.; Ueno, S.; Naito, T.; Yukimura, A [IHI Corp, Kanagawa (Japan)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

291

Alkali/TX sub 2 catalysts for CO/H sub 2 conversion to C sub 1 -C sub 4 alcohols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to investigate and develop novel catalysts for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas into C{sub 1}--C{sub 4} alcohols by a highly selective process. Therefore, the variations of catalyst activity and selectivity for the synthesis of alcohols from H{sub 2}/CO {le}1 synthesis gas for a series of A/TX{sub 2} compounds, where A is a surface alkali dopant, T is a transition metal, and X is a S, Se, or Te, will be determined. The alkali component A, which is essential for C-O and C-C bond forming reactions leading to alcohols, will be highly dispersed on the TX{sub 2} surfaces by using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and chemical complexation/anchoring (CCA) methods. Catalysts that have been prepared during this quarter include RuS{sub 2}, NbS{sub 2}, K/MoS{sub 2}, and K/Crown either/MoS{sub 2}. Catalysts tested include KOH/MoS{sub 2} and K/Crown ether/MoS{sub 2}. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Brimer, A.; Richards, M.; Kieke, M.; Bastian, R.D.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Charge control of antiferromagnetism at PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3}/La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interfacial spin state of the multiferroic heterostructure PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3}/La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} and its dependence on ferroelectric polarization is investigated with magnetic second-harmonic generation at 78?K. The spin alignment of Mn ions in the first unit cell layer at the heterointerface can be tuned from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic exchange coupled, while the bulk magnetization remains unchanged. Multiple domains of both phases coexist as the ferroelectric polarization is switched. The results will help promote the development of new interface-based functionalities and device concepts.

Ma, X.; Zhai, H.; Fang, F.; Lpke, G., E-mail: gxluep@wm.edu [Department of Applied Science, College of William and Mary, 251 Jamestown Road, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187 (United States); Kumar, A. [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931-3343 (United States); CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Dussan, S.; Katiyar, R. S. [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931-3343 (United States); Zhao, H. B. [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Scott, J. F. [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931-3343 (United States); Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom)

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

293

Oxygen reduction at a stabilized zirconia interface with Y[sub 1-x]Ca[sub x]MnO[sub 3] or La[sub 1-x]Sr[sub x]MnO[sub 3] cathode materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Impedance spectroscopy, combined with an unbonded interface cell, has been used to assess oxygen reduction behavior at interfaces between an yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte and perovskite or platinum cathode materials. Intrinsic oxygen reduction specific activities of Y[sub 1-x]Ca[sub x]MnO[sub 3] (x = 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7) and La[sub 1-x]Sr[sub x]MnO[sub 3] (x = 0.1 and 0.3) were determined as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure, independent of the interface morphology. The overall cathodic interfacial polarization consists of two or more fundamental processes. In the temperature range of 900--1000C and in air, the operating conditions for a solid oxide fuel cell, charge transfer and oxygen dissociation processes were approximately equivalent relative to the overall oxygen reduction kinetics.

Youngblood, G.E.; Pederson, L.R.; Bates, J.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Rupaal, A.S. (Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA (United States))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Oxygen reduction at a stabilized zirconia interface with Y{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} or La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} cathode materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Impedance spectroscopy, combined with an unbonded interface cell, has been used to assess oxygen reduction behavior at interfaces between an yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte and perovskite or platinum cathode materials. Intrinsic oxygen reduction specific activities of Y{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (x = 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7) and La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (x = 0.1 and 0.3) were determined as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure, independent of the interface morphology. The overall cathodic interfacial polarization consists of two or more fundamental processes. In the temperature range of 900--1000C and in air, the operating conditions for a solid oxide fuel cell, charge transfer and oxygen dissociation processes were approximately equivalent relative to the overall oxygen reduction kinetics.

Youngblood, G.E.; Pederson, L.R.; Bates, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rupaal, A.S. [Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA (United States)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Composition of saturn's atmosphere at northern temperate latitudes from Voyager iris spectra: NH/sub 3/, PH/sub 3/, C/sub 2/H/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, CH/sub 3/D, CH/sub 4/, and the saturnian D/H isotopic ratio  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The abundances of minor atmospheric constituents at northern Saturnian latitudes have been inferred from infrared emission spectra recorded by Voyager. The NH/sub 3/, PH/sub 3/, C/sub 2/H/sub 2/, and C/sub 2/H/sub 6/ vertical distributions have been determined from spectra selected in a cloud-free region centered approximately at the latitude of the Voyager 2 radio-occultation point (36.5 N). The NH/sub 3/ mixing ratio in the upper troposphere is found to be compatible with the saturated partial pressure. The inferred PH/sub 3//H/sub 2/ ratio of 1.4 +- 0.8 x 10/sup -6/ is higher than the value derived from the solar P/H ratio, and the PH/sub 3/ vertical profile may extend somewhat into the stratosphere, up to a few millibars. The stratospheric C/sub 2/H/sub 2//H/sub 2/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 6//H/sub 2/ ratios are, respectively, 2.1 +- 1.4 x 10/sup -7/ and 3.0 x 1.1 x 10/sup -6/; the latter decreases sharply below the 20-50 mbar level. A larger selection of spectra yields CH/sub 3/D/H/sub 2/ = 3.9 +- 2.5 x 10/sup -7/ and CH/sub 4//H/sub 2/ = 4.5/sup +2.4//sub -1.9/ x 10/sup -3/. This result implies an enrichment of Saturn's upper atmosphere is carbon by at least a factor of 3 over the solar abundance. The D/H value resulting from our CH/sub 3/D/CH/sub 4/ ratio is 1.6/sup +1.3//sub -1.2/ x 10/sup -5/, significantly lower than previous determinations obtained from HD lines; it is also less than half of the IRIS-inferred Jovian value. Finally, the interpretation of two NH/sub 3/ lines in the 5 ..mu..m window suggests a NH/sub 3/H/sub 2/ ratio at the 2 bar level below the solar value.

Courtin, R.; Gautier, D.; Marten, A.; Bezard, B.; Hanel, R.

1984-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Crystal structure refinement for Cs/sub 3/NpO/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diffractometry has been used with monochromatic Mo K/sub /alpha// radiation, /Theta//2/Theta/ method, full-matrix least-squares refinement in the anisotropic approximation, spherical single crystal 0.21 mm in diameter, and R factor on all 1570 reflections 0.028 in a refinement of the crystal structure for Cs/sub 3/NpO/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/. The compound is monoclinic: a = 1.5435 (6), b = 1.2796 (5), c = 0.7306 (3) nm, /gamma/ = 117.23 (5)/degree/, space group B2/b. Bond lengths: Np-20 0.1828 (5), Np-Cl/sub 1/ 0.2759 (3), Np-Cl/sub 2/ 0.2758(3). The Np-O bond characteristics have been compared for NpO/sub 2//sup 2+/ and NpO/sub 2//sup +/. It is concluded that there is marked reduction in the interaction between the equatorial and axial bonds in NpO/sup +//sub 2/ by comparison with NpO/sub 2//sup 2+/.

Lychev, A.A.; Mashirov, L.G; Smolin, Yu.I.; Shepelev, Yu.F.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Effects of K doping on structural and superconducting properties of Bi{sub 1.5}Pb{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 1.8}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+?} compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two kinds of potassium doped Bi(Pb)2212 samples are used to investigate the effect of doping the Bi(Pb)2212 ((Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}) phase by potassium (K): In the first one K is substituted on the Sr site; In the second one K is added. Using the solid state method reaction samples of Bi{sub 1.5}Pb{sub 0.5}(Sr{sub 1.8?x}K{sub x})CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+d} and Bi{sub 1.5}Pb{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 1.8}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+d}K{sub x} (0 ? x? 0.05) have been prepared from powders of carbonates and primary oxides having purity over 99%. The samples have been characterized by X ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and resistivity versus temperature measurements. Results show how the kind and the rate of doping by potassium affects the structural and transport properties of Bi(Pb)2212 phase.

Belala, K; Mosbah, M. F. [Material Sciences and Applications Research Unit, Physics Department, Constantine 1 University, B.P. 325 Route d'Ain El Bey, 25017 Constantine (Algeria)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

298

Fabrication and crystal line patterning of Li{sub 1.3}Al{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 1.7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} ion conductive glass by Ni atom heat processing method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Li{sub 1.3}Al{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 1.7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} conductive crystal lines composed of closely compacted fine particles were patterned on the surface of 13.9Li{sub 2}O-8.9Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-37.6TiO{sub 2}-38.6P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-1NiO (mol %) precursor glass by a continuous wave Yb fiber laser irradiation ({lambda}=1078 nm) using the nickel atom heat processing method. Homogeneous and smooth crystal lines with a uniform width of 30 {mu}m were obtained with a laser power of 1.3 W. The Li{sup +} ion conductivity of the laser patterned glass was about two orders of magnitude higher than that of the glass matrix due to the formation of Li{sub 1.3}Al{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 1.7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} conductive crystalline phase by Yb fiber laser irradiation.

Pang, Maolin; Suzuki, Ryota; Saito, Makoto; Machida, Ken-ichi; Hanzawa, Hiromasa; Nojiri, Yoshihiro; Tanase, Shigeo [Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka Univeristy, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Research Institute for Ubiquitous Energy Devices, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Kansai Center, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)

2008-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

299

Corrosion resistance of artificial passivation films of Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3]-Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3]-NiO formed by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of thin Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3]-Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3]-NiO films were formed on Pt by an MOCVD technique using Fe(III), Cr(III), and Ni(II) acetylacetonate. The corrosion resistance of the films was examined in H[sub 2]SO[sub 4] and HCl by measuring the film thickness using ellipsometry and the chemical analysis of test solutions with ICPS. The dissolution rate of Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3]-Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3] composite films decreases exponentially with an increase in the cationic mass fraction of Cr[sup 3+] ions, X[sub Cr], of the films, and at the values of X[sub Cr] larger than 0.7 it becomes two orders of magnitude lower than that of Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] films. The same type of changes in the dissolution rate with X[sub Cr] was observed for the NiO-Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3] composite films. Therefore, the addition of Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3] to Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] and NiO films effectively improves the corrosion resistance. The addition of NiO to Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3]-Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3] composite films containing an adequate amount of Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3] does not bring an effective improvement in corrosion resistance. Therefore, the corrosion resistance of Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3]-Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3]-NiO composite films is determined primarily by the Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3] content of the films.

Sugimoto, Katsuhisa; Seto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Shigeaki; Hara, Nobuyoshi (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Metallurgy)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Hydrothermal synthesis and crystal structure of a new inorganic/organic hybrid of scandium sulfate: (H{sub 2}en)Sc{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}.(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.72}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first organically templated layered structure of scandium sulfate, (H{sub 2}en)Sc{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}.(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.72}, (en=ethylenediamine) was synthesized by a hydrothermal method and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. In the title compound, scandium ions are bridged by sulfate groups with a ratio of 1:2 into a 4{sub 3}{sup 6} layer structure. These layers are parallel packed and separated from each other by ethylenediammonium dications and water molecules. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/c, with cell parameters a=8.5966(13)A, b=5.1068(8)A, c=18.847(3)A, {beta}=91.210(3){sup o}, V=827.2(2)A{sup 3} and Z=2. Refinement gave R{sub 1}[I>2{sigma}(I)]=0.0354 and wR{sub 2}[I>2{sigma}(I)]=0.0878. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that this material is thermally stable to above 400 deg. C.

Lu Jianjiang [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: j.lu@anl.gov; Schlueter, John A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Geiser, Urs [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "volatile sub stances" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Crystal Chemistry and /sup 237/Np Mossbauer resonance phase study of A/sub 2/(AnO/sub 2/)/sub 2/V/sub 2/O/sub 8/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neptunium carnotite K/sub 2/(NpO/sub 2/)/sub 2/V/sub 2/O/sub 8/ and its Rb and T1 analogues have been synthesized using direct reaction between neptunyl nitrate and K, Rb or T1 metavanadate. The X-ray diffraction spectra of A/sub 2/(NpO/sub 2/)/sub 2/V/sub 2/O/sub 8/ are indexed in the monoclinic system by analogy to the uranium carnotite-like material. The Np phases are thermally much less stable than are the U phases. The /sup 237/Np Mossbauer spectra indicate strong quadrupolar interactions and isomer shift values among the most positive of the hexavalent neptunium compounds.

Tabuteau, A.; Jove, J.; Payes, M.; Thevenin, T.; Xang, H.X.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} single crystals: Physical properties and mechanical behavior  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The materials processing, physical properties and mechanical behavior of an ultra-high temperature structural silicide, Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, have been studied. High purity single crystals of Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} have been synthesized by both optical floating zone and Czochralski methods. The thermal and elastic properties of the MO{sub 5}Si{sub 3} single crystals were experimentally measured. Results show that Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} has significant thermal expansion anisotropy along the a and c directions with {alpha}{sub c}/{alpha}{sub a} = 2.2. Single crystal elastic moduli of Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} indicate that it has less elastic anisotropy and lower shear moduli than transition metal disilicides. Tensile stresses of up to 1.8 GPa can develop at grain boundaries after cooling from the melting point due to the thermal expansion mismatch in Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, causing grain boundary cracking during processing of polycrystals. Room temperature Vickers indentation tests on (100) and (001) planes have been performed with different indenter diagonal orientations. The orientation dependence of hardness and fracture toughness of Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} single crystals have been obtained. The corresponding deformation and fracture modes have been revealed by microscopy studies. A comparison of Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} with other high temperature structural silicides, e.g., C11{sub b} and C40 transition metal disilicides, is discussed.

Chu, F.; Thoma, D.J.; McClellan, K.J.; Peralta, P.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Method for synthesizing fine-grained phosphor powders of the type (RE.sub.1- Ln.sub.x)(P.sub.1-y V.sub.y)O.sub.4  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for generating well-crystallized photo- and cathodoluminescent oxide phosphor powders. The method of this invention uses hydrothermal synthesis and annealing to produce nearly monosized (RE.sub.1-x Ln.sub.x)(P.sub.1-y V.sub.y)O.sub.4 (Ln.dbd.Ce.fwdarw.Lu) phosphor grains with crystallite sizes from 0.04 to 5 .mu.m. Such phosphors find application in cathode-ray tube, flat-panel, and projection displays.

Phillips, Mark L. F. (83 Lagarto Rd., Tijeras, NM 87059)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Flux pinning and flux creep in neutron irradiated (Y,Gd)Ba sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Powder samples of Y{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} were irradiated with mixed spectrum ({approximately}50% E<0.5eV, 50% E>0.5eV) neutrons with most interactions expected to occur at the Gd site. As a function of fluence the samples showed increased ({approximately}X3-X8) magnetically measured critical current densities J{sub c} at low fluences, falling off at the highest values. An analysis of magnetic relaxation data, which allows for a nonlinear pinning potential U vs J relationship, revealed substantial increases in U at constant J, indicating that the irradiation introduced more effective pinning centers than those originally present. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Willis, J.O. (Los Alamos Scientific Lab., NM (United States) Superconductivity Research Lab., Tokyo (Japan)); Sickafus, K.E.; Peterson, D.E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Concentration profiles across twin boundaries in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+{delta}}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Twin boundaries in polycrystalline YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+{delta}} have been studied by atom-probe field-ion microscopy. Oxygen depletion at a twin boundary in a {delta}=0.6 material was observed. The width of the depleted region was 6{endash}7 nm. It agrees well with the width of oxygen depletion calculated from the oxygen-depleted twin boundary model by Jou and Washburn. However, a twin boundary in a {delta}=0.9 material did not show any oxygen depletion. This study provides direct evidence of oxygen depletion at twin boundaries in polycrystalline YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+{delta}} ceramics. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Hu, Q.; Stiller, K.; Olsson, E.; Andren, H. [Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Goeteborg, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)] [Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Goeteborg, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Berastegui, P.; Johansson, L. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Goeteborg, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Goeteborg, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Magnetic properties of Co{sub 2?x}TM{sub x}C and Co{sub 3?x}TM{sub x}C nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using synthetic chemical approaches, it is now possible to synthesize transition metal carbides nanoparticles with morphology, where the transition metal layers are embedded with intervening layers of carbon atoms. A composite material consisting of Co{sub 2}C and Co{sub 3}C nanoparticles has been found to exhibit unusually large coercivity and energy product. Here, we demonstrate that the magnetic moments and the anisotropy can be further enhanced by using a combination of Co and other transition metals (TM). Our studies are based on mixed nanoparticles Co{sub 2?x}TM{sub x}C and Co{sub 3?x}TM{sub x}C, in which selected Co sites are replaced with 3d transition elements Cr, Mn, and Fe. The studies indicate that the replacement of Co by Fe results in an increase of both the magnetic moment and the magnetic anisotropy. In particular, CoFe{sub 2}C is shown to have an average spin moment of 2.56??{sub B} and a magnetic anisotropy of 0.353?meV/formula unit compared to 1.67??{sub B} and 0.206?meV/formula unit for the Co{sub 3}C. Detailed examination of the electronic structure shows that the limited hybridization of carbon p-states with transition metal d-states drives the larger anisotropy.

Qian, Meichun; Khanna, Shiv N., E-mail: snkhanna@vcu.edu [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States)

2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

307

Optical transitions in MnGa{sub 2}Se{sub 4}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dependence of the absorption coefficient on incident photon energy in a MnGa{sub 2}Se{sub 4} single crystal has been investigated in the temperature range 110-295 K. Using group-theory analysis of the electron state symmetry and comparison of the symmetry of the energy spectrum of MnGa{sub 2}Se{sub 4} and its isoelectronic analogs, a conclusion about the character of optical transitions has been drawn. It is shown that the features observed at 2.31 and 2.45 eV are related to the intracenter transitions {sup 6}A{sub 1}{sup 1} {yields} {sup 4}T{sub 2}({sup 4}G) and {sup 6}A{sub 1}{sup 2} {yields} {sup 4}T{sub 2}({sup 4}G). The {sup 6}A{sub 1} state is split by the crystal field.

Tagiev, B. G.; Kerimova, T. G., E-mail: ktaira@physics.ab.az; Tagiev, O. B.; Asadullayeva, S. G.; Mamedova, I. A. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

Advanced combustor design concepts to control NO{sub x} and air toxics. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Utah, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Reaction Engineering International (REI) and ABB/Combustion Engineering have joined together in this research proposal to develop fundamental understanding regarding the impact of fuel and combustion changes on ignition stability and flame characteristics because these critically affect: NO{sub x} emissions, carbon burnout, and emissions of air toxics; existing laboratory and bench scale facilities are being used to generate critical missing data which will be used to improve the NO{sub x} and carbon burnout submodels in comprehensive combustion simulation tools currently being used by industrial boiler manufacturers. To ensure effective and timely transfer of This technology, a major manufacturer (ABB) and a combustion model supplier (REI) have been included as part of the team from the early conception of the proposal. ABB/Combustion Engineering is providing needed fundamental data on the extent of volatile evolution from commercial coals as well as background information on current design needs in industrial practice. MIT is responsible for the development of an improved char nitrogen oxidation model which will ultimately be incorporated into an enhanced NO{sup x} submodel. Reaction Engineering International is providing the lead engineering staff for the experimental studies and an overall industrial focus for the work based on their use of the combustion simulation tools for a wide variety of industries. The University of Utah is conducting bench scale experimentation to (1) investigate alternative methods for enhancing flame stability to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and (2) characterize air toxic emissions under ultralow NO{sub x} conditions. Accomplishments for this quarter are presented to the solid sampling system and char nitrogen modeling.

Pershing, D.W.; Lighty, J.; Veranth, J. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Coll. of Engineering; Sarofim, A.; Goel, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1995-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

309

Vibrational spectroscopy of the ammoniated ammonium ions NH sub 4 sup + (NH sub 3 ) sub n (n = 1-10)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gas-phase vibration-internal rotation spectra of mass-selected ammoniated ammonium ions, NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub n} (for n = 1-10), have been observed from 2600 to 4000 cm{sup {minus}1}. The spectra show vibrational features that have been assigned to modes involving both the ion core species, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and the first shell NH{sub 3} solvent molecules. Nearly free internal rotation of the solvent molecules about their local C{sub 3} axes in the first solvation shell has been observed in the smaller clusters (n = 1-6). For the larger clusters studied (n = 7-10) the spectra converge, with little difference between clusters differing by one solvent molecule. For these clusters, the spectrum in the 3200-3500 cm{sup {minus}1} region is quite similar to that of liquid ammonia, and the entire region of 2600-3500 cm{sup {minus}1} also bears considerable resemblance to the spectra of ammonium salts dissolved in liquid ammonia under some chemical conditions. This indicates the onset of a liquidlike environment for the ion core and first shell solvent molecules in clusters as small as NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub 8}.

Price, J.M.; Crofton, M.W.; Lee, Y.T. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

1991-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

310

Electron interactions and Dirac fermions in graphene-Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} superlattices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphene based superlattices have been attracted worldwide interest due to the combined properties of the graphene Dirac cone feature and all kinds of advanced functional materials. In this work, we proposed a novel series of graphene-Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} superlattices based on the density functional theory calculations. We demonstrated the stability in terms of energy and lattice dynamics for such kind of artificial materials. The analysis of the electronic structures unravels the gap opening nature at Dirac cone of the insert graphene layer. The Dirac fermions in the graphene layers are strongly affected by the electron spin orbital coupling in the Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} layers. The present results show the possible application in phase-change data storage of such kind of superlattice materials, where the Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} layers exhibit as the phase-change data storage media and the graphene layer works as the electrode, probe, and heat conductor.

Sa, Baisheng [College of Materials, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Sun, Zhimei, E-mail: zmsun@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Center for Integrated Computational Materials Engineering, International Research Institute for Multidisciplinary Science, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

311

Atmospheric chemistry of HFC-134a. Kinetic and mechanistic study of the CF[sub 3]CFHO[sub 2] + HO[sub 2] reaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rate constant measurements for the title reaction and for F + CF[sub 3]CFH[sub 2] are reported over the 210-363 K temperature range. Reacting mixtures of CF[sub 3]CFHO[sub 2] and HO[sub 2] radicals are created by the flash photolysis of F[sub 2] in the presence of HFC-134a (CF[sub 3]CFH[sub 2]), H[sub 2], and O[sub 2] and are probed by time-resolved UV absorption spectroscopy. The deconvolution of spectra taken at various delay times provides concentration versus time profiles for the respective radical species. A comparison of the initial CF[sub 3]CFHO[sub 2] and HO[sub 2] concentrations yields a relative rate determination of k[sub 1] = (9.8[sub [minus]5][sup +9]) x 10[sup [minus]11]e[sup (1130[+-]190)/T] cm[sup 3] s[sup [minus]1] for the F + CF[sub 3]CFH[sub 2] rate constant. A simultaneous fit of the radical decay curves to a mechanism containing the known HO[sub 2] self-reaction kinetics, the previously determined CF[sub 3]CFHO[sub 2] self-reaction mechanism, and a cross reaction between these species yields a rate constant of k[sub 7] = (1.8[sub [minus]1.0][sup +2.4]) x 10[sup [minus]13]e[sup (910[+-]220)/T] cm[sup 3] s[sup [minus]1] for the HO[sub 2] + CF[sub 3]CFHO[sub 2] reaction. A product study at 296 K by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveals that less than 5% of the product appears as CF[sub 3]C(O)F. By inference >95% of the reaction gives the hydroperoxide CF[sub 3]CFHOOH. 34 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Maricq, M.M.; Szente, J.J.; Hurley, M.D.; Wallington, T.J. (Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States))

1994-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

312

Synthesis, single-crystal structure, and optical absorption of Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The compound Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15} has been synthesized by the solid-state reaction at 1273 K of Th, Rb{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, Se, and Ge, and its structure has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. Red crystals of Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15} crystallize at 100(2) K with four formula units in a new structure type in the monoclinic space group C{sub 2h}{sup 5}?P2{sub 1}/c. The structure is three-dimensional and comprises Rb and Th atoms coordinated by Se atoms to form nine-, eight-, and seven-coordinate polyhedra. Infinite channels that contain Rb atoms are present. Crystals of Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15} are red in color; an indirect band gap of 1.83 eV was derived from single-crystal optical measurements. - Graphical abstract: Structure of Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15} viewed down the b-axis. Display Omitted - Highlights: The new compound Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15} was synthesized at 1273 K from the elements in the presence of Ge. The structures of the two known Rb/Th/Se compounds, RbTh{sub 2}Se{sub 6} and Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15}, differ markedly. Optical measurements establish the band gap of Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15} to be indirect with a value of 1.83 eV.

Koscielski, Lukasz A.; Pozzi, Eric A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.; Ibers, James A., E-mail: ibers@chem.northwestern.edu

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

313

BaZn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} and the solid solution series BaZn{sub 2?x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (0  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For sealing of solid oxide fuel cells, glasses from which crystalline phases with high coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) can be crystallized are required. In this paper, a new solid solution series BaZn{sub 2?x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (0sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}). Sintered specimens were characterized by dilatometry. The introduction of Co{sup 2+} does not lead to a change in the space group. All compounds show a transition of a low to a high temperature modification. The attributed temperature increases from 300 C for BaZn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} to 850 C for BaCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The volume expansion which runs parallel to the phase transition decreases with increasing cobalt concentration. The phase BaZn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} shows the largest CTE and a steep volume effect during phase transition. For the compound BaZn{sub 0.25}Co{sub 1.75}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} the CTE is minimum (8.610{sup ?6} K{sup ?1} (50900 C)) and increases again until for the compound BaCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} a CTE of 16.610{sup ?6} K{sup ?1} (50900 C) is reached. In the cobalt rich composition range, the CTEs are in the right range for high temperature fuel cells and can be adjusted by the composition. - Graphical abstract: The composition of the solid solution BaZn{sub 2?x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} strongly affects the thermal expansion. Display Omitted - Highlights: We examined the thermal expansion of solid solutions BaZn{sub 2?x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (0sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} exhibits the highest thermal expansion due to a phase transition. Substitution of small amounts of Zn{sup 2+} against Co{sup 2+} lead to decreasing thermal expansion. The thermal expansions re-increased with further increasing Co{sup 2+} concentrations. Seals based on these solid solutions should be suitable for solid oxide fuel cells.

Kerstan, Marita; Thieme, Christian; Grosch, Matthias; Mller, Matthias; Rssel, Christian, E-mail: ccr@rz.uni-jena.de

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

314

DO QUIESCENT AND ACTIVE GALAXIES HAVE DIFFERENT M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} RELATIONS?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To investigate the validity of the assumption that quiescent galaxies and active galaxies follow the same black hole mass (M{sub BH})-stellar velocity dispersion ({sigma}{sub *}) relation, as required for the calibration of M{sub BH} estimators for broad line active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we determine and compare the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relations, respectively, for quiescent and active galaxies. For the quiescent galaxy sample, composed of 72 dynamical M{sub BH} measurements, we update {sigma}{sub *} for 28 galaxies using homogeneous H-band measurements that are corrected for galaxy rotation. For active galaxies, we collect 25 reverberation-mapped AGNs and improve {sigma}{sub *} measurement for two objects. Combining the two samples, we determine the virial factor f, first by scaling the active galaxy sample to the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation of quiescent galaxies, and second by simultaneously fitting the quiescent and active galaxy samples, as f=5.1{sub -1.1}{sup +1.5} and f=5.9{sub -1.5}{sup +2.1}, respectively. The M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation of active galaxies appears to be shallower than that of quiescent galaxies. However, the discrepancy is caused by a difference in the accessible M{sub BH} distribution at given {sigma}{sub *}, primarily due to the difficulty of measuring reliable stellar velocity dispersion for the host galaxies of luminous AGNs. Accounting for the selection effects, we find that active and quiescent galaxies are consistent with following intrinsically the same M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation.

Woo, Jong-Hak; Park, Daeseong; Kang, Wol-Rang [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Schulze, Andreas [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Kim, Sang Chul [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Riechers, Dominik A., E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, 220 Space Science Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

315

Reaction dynamics and photochemistry of divalent systems. [Reaction of Ba with NO sub 2 , H sub 2 O, methanol, ClO sub 2 , O sub 3; photodissociation of NO sub 3 radical and OClO  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are presented of molecular beam studies of bimolecular and unimolecular reactions of Ba. Chapter 1 discusses the reaction Ba + NO{sub 2}. Formation of the dominant BaO({sup 1}{Sigma}) + NO products resulted primarily from decay of long-lived Ba{sup +}NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} collision complexes. Secondary mechanisms led to formation of forward scattered, internally excited BaO, and BaNO + O. D{sub o}(Ba-NO) = 65{plus minus}20 kcal/mol. Reactions of ground state and electronically excited Ba with water and alcohols are examined in Chapter 2. Reaction of Ba({sup 1}S) + H{sup 2}O led to BaO + H{sub 2}, whereas excited state Ba({sup 1}D) + H{sub 2}O reacted to form BaOH + H. Collisions between Ba and CH{sub 3}OH led to BaOCH{sub 3} + H. Radical channels involve H-atom migration and are promoted by excitation of the incident Ba atom. In Chapter 3, reactions of Ba({sup 1}S) with ClO{sub 2}2 and O{sub 3} are discussed. Again, direct and complex mechanisms were observed. Formation of BaCl + O{sub 2} from decomposition of Ba{sup +}ClO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} accounted for 10% of total reaction crass section. Although Ba + O{sub 3} {yields} BaO + 0{sub 2} occurs primarily by direct reaction mechanisms, the secondary channel Ba + 0{sub 3} {yields} BaO{sub 2} + 0 involved decay of long lived Ba{sup +}O{sub 3}{sup {minus}} intermediates. D{sub o}(Ba{minus}O{sub 2}) = 120 {plus minus}20 kcal/mol. Photodissociation dynamics of NO{sub 3} is explored in chapter 4. Visible excitation leads to formation of NO + 0{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} + O. Wavelength dependence of branching ratios is investigated. D{sub o}(O-NO{sub 2}) = 48.55 kcal/mole ;and calculate {Delta}H{sub f}(NO{sub 3}) = 17.75 kcal/mole (298K). Chapter 5 discusses the photodissociation of OClO in a molecular beam. Although ClO({sup 2}II) + O({sup 3}P) is dominant, Cl({sup 2}P) + O{sub 2} also forms, with a max yield of 3.9{plus minus}0.8% near 404nm.

Davis, H.F.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Excited state absorption of V/sup 2 +/ and Cr/sup 3 +/ ions in crystal hosts. [V/sup 2 +/ in KMgF/sub 3/; Cr/sup 3 +/ in Na/sub 3/Ga/sub 2/Li/sub 3/F/sub 12/ and BeAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have measured the excited state absorption spectra of KMgF/sub 3/:V/sup 2 +/, Na/sub 3/Ga/sub 2/Li/sub 3/F/sub 12/:Cr/sup 3 +/, and BeAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/:Cr/sup 3 +/. The /sup 4/T/sub 2/ ..-->.. /sup 4/T/sub 1/a, /sup 4/T/sub 1/b transitions were observed for the first two systems, while the /sup 2/E, /sup 2/T/sub 1/ ..-->.. /sup 2/T/sub 2/ transitions were seen for BeAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/:Cr/sup 3 +/. All excited state absorptions, except the /sup 4/T/sub 2/ ..-->.. /sup 4/T/sub 1/a transition, can be understood on the basis of simple crystal field theory. The /sup 4/T/sub 2/ ..-->.. /sup 4/T/sub 1/a transition is found to be profoundly modified by the Jahn-Teller effect, such that it is broader and at higher energy than otherwise expected. This excited state absorption is observed to overlap the emission spectrum of KMgF/sub 3/:V/sup 2 +/, and thereby substantially reduce the effective stimulated emission cross-section.

Payne, S.A.; Chase, L.L.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Stance and swing phase costs in human walking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Germany: Springer. Maquet, P. , and R. Furlong 1991 Mechanics of the human...Berlin, Germany: Springer. Marsh, R. L. , D. J. Ellerby, J. A...00009-3 ) Rubenson, J. , and R. L. Marsh 2009 Mechanical efficiency of limb...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Band gap engineering of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} by alloying with Tl{sub 2}O{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient modulation of the bandgap of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} will open up a route to improved electronic properties. We demonstrate using ab initio calculations that Tl incorporation into In{sub 2}O{sub 3} reduces the band gap and confirm that narrowing of the gap is observed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy on ceramic surfaces. Incorporation of Tl does not break the symmetry of the allowed optical transitions, meaning that the doped thin films should retain optical transparency in the visible region, in combination with a lowering of the conduction band effective mass. We propose that Tl-doping may be an efficient way to increase the dopability and carrier mobility of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

Scanlon, David O., E-mail: d.scanlon@ucl.ac.uk [Kathleen Lonsdale Materials Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Regoutz, Anna; Egdell, Russell G. [Department of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom)] [Department of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Morgan, David J. [Cardiff Catalysis Institute (CCI), School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom)] [Cardiff Catalysis Institute (CCI), School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Watson, Graeme W. [School of Chemistry and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)] [School of Chemistry and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

319

Integrated dry NO sub x /SO sub 2 emissions control system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project's goal is to demonstrate the removal up to 70% of the NO{sub x} and 70% of the SO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired utility boilers. It will establish an alternative emissions control technology integrating a combination of several processes, while minimizing capital expenditures and limiting waste production to dry solids that are handled with convention ash removal equipment. These processes include low-NO{sub x} burners and urea injection for NO{sub x} control, sodium- or calcium-based sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} control, and flue gas humidification to enhance the reactivity of the SO{sub 2} control compound.

Not Available

1991-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

320

Structure and properties of bimetallic Ru-Fe/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors studied the influence of the composition of Ru-Fe-/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-catalysts on adsorption and interaction of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Moessbauer investigations were conducted. According to x-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) bimetallic Ru-Fe/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts contain ruthenium mainly in the form of Ru/sup 0/ (E/sub b/ = 280.8 eV). Adsorption of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and CO + H/sub 2/ mixture was studied by microcalorimetric and thermal-desorption methods.

Zakumbaeva, G.D.; Shapovalova, L.B.; Omarov, Zh.T.; Kuanyshev, A.Sh.; Yaskevich, V.I.

1988-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "volatile sub stances" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Physical properties of BeAl{sub 6}O{sub 10} single crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single crystals of BeAl{sub 6}O{sub 10}, beryllium hexaaluminate, were grown by the Czochralski method. The optical, acousto-optical, elastic, and a number of thermo-mechanical properties of bulk crystals of BeAl{sub 6}O{sub 10} were investigated in comparison with crystal of BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, chrysoberyl. It has been demonstrated that this material is the promising host for active media of tunable solid state lasers. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Pestryakov, E.V.; Petrov, V.V.; Zubrinov, I.I.; Semenov, V.I.; Trunov, V.I.; Kirpichnikov, A.V. [Department of Quantum Electronics, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)] [Department of Quantum Electronics, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia); Alimpiev, A.I. [Design and Technological Institute of Monocrystals, Novosibirsk 630058 (Russia)] [Design and Technological Institute of Monocrystals, Novosibirsk 630058 (Russia)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Morphology control of open-framework zinc phosphate Zn{sub 4}(H{sub 3}O)(NH{sub 4}){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4} via microwave-assisted technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Open-framework zinc phosphates were synthesized by microwave-assisted technique, and it was shown that the morphology of as-prepared materials could be easily tailored by changing synthesis temperature, reaction time and pH value. During the synthesis, when the reaction temperature increases from 130 C to 220 C, the products transformed from hexagonal prisms to polyhedron along with the disappearance of the hexagonal prisms vertical plane. Simultaneously, both the reaction time and pH value could promote the nucleation and growth of crystal particles. More interestingly, the target products with different morphologies could be obtained by varying the usage of NaOH or NH{sub 3}H{sub 2}O at 130 C during the microwave synthesis process. - Graphical abstract: Zinc phosphates with variable morphologies can be obtained by simply tuning the microwave-heating temperatures. Display Omitted - Highlights: Synthesis of open-framework Zn{sub 4} (H{sub 3}O) (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4} compounds employing microwave technique. Dependence of morphology on the reaction conditions. Morphology transformation from hexagonal prisms to polyhedron was observed.

Ding, Ling [School of Textile and Material Science, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Song, Yu, E-mail: songyu@dlpu.edu.cn [School of Textile and Material Science, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Yang, Wei; Xue, Run-Miao [School of Textile and Material Science, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Zhai, Shang-Ru [Faculty of Light Industry and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); An, Qing-Da, E-mail: anqingda@dlpu.edu.cn [Faculty of Light Industry and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

Simultaneous presence of (Si{sub 3}O{sub 10}){sup 8?} and (Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sup 6?} groups in new synthetic mixed sorosilicates: BaY{sub 4}(Si{sub 2}O{sub 7})(Si{sub 3}O{sub 10}) and isotypic compounds, studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and DFT calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three new, isotypic silicate compounds, BaY{sub 4}(Si{sub 2}O{sub 7})(Si{sub 3}O{sub 10}), SrYb{sub 4}(Si{sub 2}O{sub 7})(Si{sub 3}O{sub 10}) and SrSc{sub 4}(Si{sub 2}O{sub 7})(Si{sub 3}O{sub 10}), were synthesized using high-temperature flux growth techniques, and their crystal structures were solved from single-crystal X-ray intensity data: monoclinic, P2{sub 1}/m, with a=5.532(1)/5.469(1)/5.278(1), b=19.734(4)/19.447(4)/19.221(4), c=6.868(1)/6.785(1)/6.562(1) , ?=106.53(3)/106.20(3)/106.50(3), V=718.8(2)/693.0(2)/638.3(2) {sup 3}, R(F)=0.0225/0.0204/0.0270, respectively. The topology of the novel structure type contains isolated horseshoe-shaped Si{sub 3}O{sub 10} groups (SiSiSi=93.1595.98), Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} groups (SiO{sub bridge}Si=180, symmetry-restricted) and edge-sharing M(1)O{sub 6} and M(2)O{sub 6} octahedra. Single-crystal Raman spectra of the title compounds were measured and compared with Raman spectroscopic data of chemically and topologically related disilicates and trisilicates, including BaY{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 10}) and SrY{sub 2}(Si{sub 3}O{sub 10}). The band assignments are supported by additional theoretical calculation of Raman vibrations by DFT methods. - Graphical abstract: View of BaY{sub 4}(Si{sub 2}O{sub 7})(Si{sub 3}O{sub 10}) along [100], showing zigzag chains and the tri- and disilicate groups. The unit cell is outlined. Display Omitted - Highlights: We report a novel interesting crystal structure type for mixed sorosilicates containing Y, Yb, and Sc. Synthesis of such mixed sorosilicates is possible by a high-temperature flux-growth technique. Calculation of Raman vibrations by advanced DFT methods allows a considerably improved interpretation of measured Raman spectra.

Wierzbicka-Wieczorek, Maria, E-mail: maria.wierzbicka-wieczorek@uni-jena.de [Institut fr Geowissenschaften, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt Jena, Carl-Zeiss-Promenade 10, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Tbbens, Daniel M. [Abteilung Kristallographie, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Kolitsch, Uwe [Mineralogisch-Petrographische Abt., Naturhistorisches Museum, Burgring 7, A-1010 Wien (Austria); Institut fr Mineralogie und Kristallographie, Universitt Wien, Geozentrum, Althanstrae 14, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Tillmanns, Ekkehart [Institut fr Mineralogie und Kristallographie, Universitt Wien, Geozentrum, Althanstrae 14, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Synthesis of Bi{sub 1.8}Pb{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} superconductor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Two-powder processes for the synthesis of superconducting (Bi, Pb)-2223/Ag-clad wires by the oxide-powder-in-the-robe are provided. The first precursor powder, of nominal stoichiometry CaCuO{sub x}, is a solution-synthesized mixture of Ca{sub 0.45}Cu{sub 0.55}O{sub 2} and CaO. Using these oxide precursor mixtures, superconducting tapes with well-aligned grains and reproducible critical current densities J{sub c} in the range of 20,000 to 26,000 A/cm{sup 2} at 75 K in self-field after annealing less than 200 hours were obtained. 2 figs.

Smith, M.G.

1996-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

325

Study on the Ge{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x}/HfO{sub 2} interface and its impacts on Ge{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x} tunneling transistor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we employ first-principle calculation to investigate the Ge{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x}/HfO{sub 2} interface, and then evaluate its impacts on Ge{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x} tunneling field-effect transistor (TFET). First-principle calculations of Ge{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x}/HfO{sub 2} interfaces in the oxygen-rich process atmosphere indicate that the interface states originate from the Ge and Sn dangling bond, rather than Hf-bond. The total density of state shows that there are more interface states in the semiconductor bandgap with increasing Sn fraction. By further incorporating the material and interface parameters from density functional theory calculation into advanced device simulation, the electrical characteristics of Ge{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x} TFET are investigated. Removing the Sn atom from the first atom layer of Ge{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x} in device processes is found to be beneficial to reduce the degradations. For the degradation mechanisms, the trap-assisted-tunneling is the dominant mechanism at the low Sn fraction, and enhanced Shockley-Read-Hall recombination induced by traps becomes the dominant mechanism with increasing Sn fraction. The results are helpful for the interface optimization of Ge{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x} TFET.

Qiu, Yingxin; Wang, Runsheng, E-mail: ruhuang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: r.wang@pku.edu.cn; Huang, Qianqian; Huang, Ru, E-mail: ruhuang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: r.wang@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Microelectronic Devices and Circuits, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

326

An analysis of lead-free (Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.915}-(Bi{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}){sub 0.05}Ba{sub 0.02}Sr{sub 0.015}TiO{sub 3} ceramic for efficient refrigeration and thermal energy harvesting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article demonstrates the colossal energy harvesting capability of a lead-free (Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.915}-(Bi{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}){sub 0.05}Ba{sub 0.02}Sr{sub 0.015}TiO{sub 3} ceramic using the Olsen cycle. The maximum harvestable energy density estimated for this system is found to be 1523?J/L (1523?kJ/m{sup 3}) where the results are presented for extreme ambient conditions of 20160?C and electric fields of 0.14 MV/m. This estimated energy density is 1.7 times higher than the maximum reported to date for the lanthanum-doped lead zirconate titanate (thin film) system. Moreover, this study introduces a generalized and effective solid state refrigeration cycle in contrast to the ferroelectric Ericson refrigeration cycle. The cycle is based on a temperature induced polarization change on application of an unipolar electric field to ferroelectric ceramics.

Vats, Gaurav; Vaish, Rahul, E-mail: rahul@iitmandi.ac.in [School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Himachal Pradesh 175 001 (India); Bowen, Chris R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Materials Research Centre, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

327

Crystal structure and chemistry of a complex indium phosphate framework material, (ethylenediammonium)In{sub 3}P{sub 3}O{sub 12}(OH){sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemistry and structure of a novel indium phosphate material (RIPS-4), (H{sub 3}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 3})In{sub 3}-P{sub 3}O{sub 12}(OH){sub 2}, are described. RIPS-4 was synthesized using ethylene diamine as a structure-directing organic agent. The X-ray crystal structure was determined from a 12 Multiplication-Sign 12 Multiplication-Sign 42 {mu}m{sup 3} crystal in space group C2/m with a=18.662(4) A, b=6.600(2) A, c=12.573(3) A and {beta}=120.92(1) Degree-Sign . The structure consists of a complex edge- and vertex-shared open framework of InO{sub 6} octahedra and PO{sub 4} tetrahedra enclosing cavities occupied by ethylenediamonium ions. One set of octahedra share opposing edges to form chains along the b-axis matching the structural unit in rutile (TiO{sub 2}). This rutile edge-shared chain has its projecting oxygen atoms shared with the vertexes of either a PO{sub 4} tetrahedron or a second type of InO{sub 6} octahedron. The O atoms are 2-connected, each to one In and one P, except for two protonated O atoms (hydroxyl groups) that connect to two and three In atoms, giving three- and four-coordinate O atoms, respectively. - Graphical abstract: The unique topology contains an unusual 4-connected oxygen atom (O{sub 1}) in a complex edge- and vertex-shared open framework of InO{sub 6} octahedra (blue) and PO{sub 4} tetrahedra (yellow) that encloses cavities occupied by ethylenediammonium ions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure has a unique open-framework topology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The framework contains an unusual 4-connected oxygen atom. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen bonds hold the ethylenediammonium ions in the cavities.

Broach, Robert W., E-mail: robert.broach@uop.com [UOP, a Honeywell Co., 50 E. Algonquin Rd., Des Plaines, IL 60017 (United States); Bedard, Robert L. [UOP, a Honeywell Co., 50 E. Algonquin Rd., Des Plaines, IL 60017 (United States)] [UOP, a Honeywell Co., 50 E. Algonquin Rd., Des Plaines, IL 60017 (United States); King, Lisa M., E-mail: lisa.king@uop.com [UOP, a Honeywell Co., 50 E. Algonquin Rd., Des Plaines, IL 60017 (United States); Pluth, Joseph J., E-mail: pluth@cars.uchicago.edu [The University of Chicago, Department of the Geophysical Sciences, Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); The University of Chicago, The Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Smith, Joseph V. [The University of Chicago, Department of the Geophysical Sciences, Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)] [The University of Chicago, Department of the Geophysical Sciences, Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Kirchner, Richard M., E-mail: richard.kirchner@manhattan.edu [Manhattan College, Chemistry Department, Bronx, NY 10471 (United States)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Magneto-transport in LaTi{sub 1?x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} oxide heterostructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the growth of ultrathin film of Mn doped LaTiO{sub 3} on TiO{sub 2} terminated SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and their electrical transport characteristics including magnetoresistance (MR). Though the replacement of Mn in LaTiO{sub 3} at the Ti site in dilute limit does not affect the metallic behaviour of films but variation in resistance is observed. Normalised resistance behaviour is explained on the basis of variation in charge carriers and increased interaction between Mn atoms in the system under investigation.

Kumar, Pramod, E-mail: pramodnpl2011@gmail.com; Dogra, Anjana, E-mail: pramodnpl2011@gmail.com; Budhani, R. C., E-mail: pramodnpl2011@gmail.com [Quantum Phenomena and Applications Division, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

329

Magnetism and magnetotransport in symmetry matched spinels: Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we show that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films grown by oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy have anomalous magnetic properties such as negative magnetoresistance and high saturation magnetic fields. The film substrate mismatch of 3% is relieved by the formation of misfit dislocations at the interface. Transmission electron microscopy results show that misfit dislocations are not the cause of antiphase domain boundary (APB). This suggests that in this system APB formation is a property of the three dimensional Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} growth.

Gilks, D.; Thompson, S. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Lari, L.; Lazarov, V. K. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); York-JEOL Nanocentre, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5BR (United Kingdom); Cai, Z.; Ziemer, K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115-5000 (United States); Cespedes, O. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Gerber, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

330

Limestone calcination with CO{sub 2} capture (II): decomposition in CO{sub 2}/steam and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} atmospheres  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Decomposition of limestone particles (0.25-0.5 mm) in a steam dilution atmosphere (20-100% steam in CO{sub 2}) was investigated by using a continuously operating fluidized bed reactor for CO{sub 2} capture. The decomposition conversion of limestone increased as the steam dilution percentage in the CO{sub 2} supply gas increased. At a bed temperature of 1193 K, the conversions were 72% without dilution (100% CO{sub 2}) and 98% with 60% steam dilution. The decomposition conversions obtained with steam dilution and N{sub 2} dilution differed significantly, and this result is explained in terms of the difference between the heat transfer to particle in steam and N{sub 2} dilution atmosphere. The reactivities of the CaO produced from limestone decomposition with steam dilution and without dilution (100% CO{sub 2}) were tested by means of hydration and carbonation reactions. In the hydration test, the time required for complete conversion (CaO{yields}Ca(OH){sub 2}) of the CaO produced by steam dilution was approximately half that required for the CaO produced without dilution. In the carbonation test, carbonation conversion (CaO{yields}CaCO{sub 3}) of the CaO produced by steam dilution was approximately 70%, whereas the conversion was approximately 40% for the CaO produced without dilution. 17 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Yin Wang; Shiying Lin; Yoshizo Suzuki [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

331

Contrasting the experimental properties of hydrogen in SnO{sub 2}, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and TiO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

IR spectroscopy has been used to investigate the properties of H and D in single crystals of the transparent conducting oxides, SnO{sub 2}, and In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. H introduces several O-H stretching lines and also the broad absorption arising from free carriers. IR spectroscopy has been used to identify the sources of n-type conductivity, its thermal stability, and the reactions of H-containing defects. The properties of OH and OD centers in TiO{sub 2}, while studied for decades, reveal new surprises and properties that are in sharp contrast to the shallow, H-related donors seen in SnO{sub 2} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Recent theory and EPR experiments find that electrons in TiO{sub 2} become self-trapped at Ti sites to form small polarons. The OD center in TiO{sub 2} shows a multiline vibrational spectrum with an unusual temperature dependence that can be explained by a small polaron model with the donor electron self-trapped at different Ti sites near the OD oscillator.

Stavola, Michael, E-mail: mjsa@Lehigh.edu; Bekisli, Figen; Yin, Weikai; Smithe, Kirby; Beall Fowler, W. [Department of Physics and the Sherman Fairchild Laboratory, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Boatner, Lynn A. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

332

Reversible formation of [P{sub 2}PtH]{sub 2} platinum(I) complexes from cis-P{sub 2}PtH{sub 2} complexes, where P{sub 2} is a chelating phosphine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several platinum cis-dihydride phosphine complexes, (diphos)PtH{sub 2} [4, diphos = iPr{sub 2}P(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}PiPr{sub 2} (dippe); 5, diphos = Cy{sub 2}P(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}PCy{sub 2} (dcype); and 6, diphos = tBu{sub 2}P(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}PtBu{sub 2} (dtbpe)], have been found to be unstable in solution, reversibly losing H{sub 2} and forming binuclear complexes of the general formula [(P-P)Pth]{sub 2}. The extent of dimerization in solution is directly related to the steric size of the phosphine ligand, larger phosphines imparting kinetic stability to the cis-dihydride monomers. The dimeric complexes possess terminal hydride ligands on the basis of their IR spectra; however, the room-temperature {sup 1}H, {sup 31}P({sup 1}H), and {sup 195}Pt({sup 1}H) NMR spectra show equivalence within the sets of H, Pt, and P nuclei, indicating that the dimers are fluxional in solution. This fluxional process can be stopped at low temperature for the (dippe) and (dcype) derivatives, 1 and 2, but not for the (dtbpe) derivative, 3. The complex 1 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} in a cell of dimensions a = 9.245(2) A, b = 16.966(2) A, c = 22.690(6) A, and Z = 4. 22 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

Schwartz, D.J.; Andersen, R.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1995-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

333

Impact of Storage Time on the Needed Capture Efficiency for Volatile Radionuclides - 13369  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the processing of used nuclear fuel (UNF), volatile radionuclides will be discharged from the facility stack if no recovery processes are in place to limit their release. The volatile radionuclides of concern are {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I. There are three key regulations that address the release of these radionuclides to the environment- 40 CFR 61, 40 CFR 190, and 10 CFR 20. These regulations apply to the total radionuclide release and establish dose limits for the maximum exposed individual (MEI) in the public both in terms of whole body dose and dose to specific organs such as the thyroid. Each radionuclide released to the environment contributes to the total dose to some degree. In this paper we attempt to evaluate the efficiency requirements for the capture processes to limit the doses to the MEI to regulatory levels. Since the total amount of each volatile radionuclide present in the UNF changes with the age of the fuel, the respective capture requirements also change with time. Specifically, we are interested in the impact of the decreasing contribution of {sup 3}H and {sup 85}Kr, which have relatively short half-lives, 12.32 y and 10.76 y, respectively, with the increasing age of the fuel (i.e., time between when the UNF is removed from the reactor and the time it is processed) on the capture requirements. In this paper we examine the capture requirements for these four radionuclides for three fuel types (pressurized water reactor [PWR] with uranium oxide fuel [UOX], PWR with mixed oxide fuel [MOX], and an advanced high temperature gas-cooled reactor [AHTGR]), several burnup values, and time out of reactor extending to 200 y. We calculate doses to the MEI with the EPA code CAP-88 and look at two dose contribution cases. In the first case, we assume that the total allowable dose is attributed to only the four volatile radionuclides. This establishes the lowest capture efficiency value possible. Since this is unrealistic, because it assumes zero dose contribution from all other radionuclides, we also examine a second case, where only 10% of the allowable dose is assigned to the four volatile radionuclides. We calculate the required decontamination factors (DFs) for both of these cases for the three fuel types, multiple fuel burnups, and fuel ages and determine whether or not the dose to the whole body or to the thyroid that drives the capture requirements would require additional effluent controls for the shorter half-life volatile radionuclides based on dose considerations. This analysis indicates that the principal isotopes of concern are generally {sup 3}H and {sup 129}I, the latter requiring the highest DFs. The maximum DF value for {sup 129}I is 8000 for the evaluated cases and assumptions used. ?60 for fresh fuels. The DF for {sup 14}C could be as high as 30 for certain fuels. These values are based on just meeting the regulatory limits, and additional engineering margins (perhaps 3x to 10x or higher) should be applied to provide a safety factor for compliance. However, by assuming less conservative dose allocations, taller stacks, different radionuclide speciation, fuel aging, and other reprocessing facility design and location parameters, the DF requirements could be significantly reduced. (authors)

Jubin, R.T.; Ilas, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37849 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37849 (United States); Soelberg, N.R. [Idaho National Laboratory (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory (United States); Strachan, D.M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Crystal structure of La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} single crystals doped with bismuth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Precision X-ray diffraction studies of La{sub 2-x}Bi{sub x}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} (x = 0.04, 0.06, and 0.18) single crystals are performed. It is found that in the compounds doped with bismuth, analogously with the structure of the metastable {beta}{sub ms} phase of pure La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} (LM), the La, Mo1, and O1 atoms deviate from the threefold axis on which they are located in the high-temperature {beta} phase. It is shown that bismuth atoms substitute for part of lanthanum atoms and occupy a position at the threefold axis in the neighborhood of the split lanthanum position. The implantation of bismuth atoms in the LM structure results in the return of a part of the molybdenum atoms to the position at the threefold axis. The occupancy of this position is equal to the occupancy of the bismuth atomic position.

Alekseeva, O. A., E-mail: olalex@ns.crys.ras.ru; Verin, I. A.; Sorokina, N. I.; Krasil'nikova, A. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Voronkova, V. I. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

335

Fate of anthropogenic cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in a wastewater treatment plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The fate of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) was evaluated in a typical secondary activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Water samples (influent, primary effluent, and final effluent) and sludge (primary sludge and waste activated sludge) samples were collected at overnight low, morning high, afternoon low, and evening high flows. Concentrations of cVMS in influents fluctuated with the influent flows, ranging from 0.166 to 1.13?gL?1, 3.4719.3?gL?1, and 0.4463.87?gL?1 for D4, D5, and D6, respectively. Mass balance analysis of cVMS showed the average mass of D4, D5, and D6 entering and exiting the plant in influent and effluent, respectively, were 109gd?1, 2050gd?1, 280gd?1, and 1.41gd?1, 27.0gd?1, 1.90gd?1. The total removal efficiency of cVMS was >96%. To elucidate their detailed removal mechanisms, Mackay's fugacity-based treatment plant model was used to simulate the fate of cVMS through the WWTP. Due to the unusual combination of high hydrophobicity and volatility of cVMS, volatilization in the aeration tank and adsorption to sludge were the two main pathways of cVMS removal from water in this WWTP based on the experimental and modeled results. The morning and evening high influent mass flows contributed almost equally at approximately 40% of the total daily cVMS mass, with D5 accounting for the majority of this daily loading.

De-Gao Wang; Monica Aggarwal; Tara Tait; Samantha Brimble; Grazina Pacepavicius; Laura Kinsman; Mike Theocharides; Shirley Anne Smyth; Mehran Alaee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Modelling and forecasting fossil fuels, CO2 and electricity prices and their volatilities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the current uncertain context that affects both the world economy and the energy sector, with the rapid increase in the prices of oil and gas and the very unstable political situation that affects some of the largest raw materials producers, there is a need for developing efficient and powerful quantitative tools that allow to model and forecast fossil fuel prices, CO2 emission allowances prices as well as electricity prices. This will improve decision making for all the agents involved in energy issues. Although there are papers focused on modelling fossil fuel prices, CO2 prices and electricity prices, the literature is scarce on attempts to consider all of them together. This paper focuses on both building a multivariate model for the aforementioned prices and comparing its results with those of univariate ones, in terms of prediction accuracy (univariate and multivariate models are compared for a large span of days, all in the first 4 months in 2011) as well as extracting common features in the volatilities of the prices of all these relevant magnitudes. The common features in volatility are extracted by means of a conditionally heteroskedastic dynamic factor model which allows to solve the curse of dimensionality problem that commonly arises when estimating multivariate GARCH models. Additionally, the common volatility factors obtained are useful for improving the forecasting intervals and have a nice economical interpretation. Besides, the results obtained and methodology proposed can be useful as a starting point for risk management or portfolio optimization under uncertainty in the current context of energy markets.

Carolina Garca-Martos; Julio Rodrguez; Mara Jess Snchez

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Oxidation of volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. Final technical report, September 1980-February 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to measure, through the use of laboratory combustors, those conditions which promote complete combustion of wood volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. The conditions of interest are combustion temperature, residence time, stoichiometry, and air mixing. The project objectives are met through two laboratory approaches: (1) model compound studies: in order to measure the overall rates of oxidative pyrolysis of biomass volatiles, and to determine the types of intermediate organic species which are likely to form as part of this process, model compounds have been reacted in a specialized jet-stirred reactor, which has been developed as part of this research. (2) high-intensity wood combustion: in order to study the clean combustion of wood, that is, to investigate the conceptual design features required for clean burning, and to ascertain the levels and types of pollutant and condensible species which are most difficult to oxidize, a high-intensity, research wood combustor has been developed and examined for the different phases of the wood burning cycle. Although the objectives of the project have been met, it has not been possible, because of support limitations, to thoroughly explore several interesting aspects which have arisen because of this research. For example, a third laboratory system in which wood pyrolysis gas is injected directly into the a well characterized reactor, so that the kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reaction of the actual biomass volatiles can be studied, could not be thoroughly developed. Refinements in the high-intensity wood combustor, which would bring its design features closer to practicality for the industry, could not be considered. 32 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.

Malte, P.C.; Thornton, M.M.; Kamber, P.D.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

A study of Shanghai fuel oil futures price volatility based on high frequency data: Long-range dependence, modeling and forecasting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In existing researches, the investigations of oil price volatility are always performed based on daily data and squared daily return is always taken as the proxy of actual volatility. However, it is widely accepted that the popular realized volatility (RV) based on high frequency data is a more robust measure of actual volatility than squared return. Due to this motivation, we investigate dynamics of daily volatility of Shanghai fuel oil futures prices employing 5-minute high frequency data. First, using a nonparametric method, we find that RV displays strong long-range dependence and recent financial crisis can cause a lower degree of long-range dependence. Second, we model daily volatility using RV models and GARCH-class models. Our results indicate that RV models for intraday data overwhelmingly outperform GARCH-class models for daily data in forecasting fuel oil price volatility, regardless the proxy of actual volatility. Finally, we investigate the major source of such volatile prices and found that trader activity has major contribution to fierce variations of fuel oil prices.

Li Liu; Jieqiu Wan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Silver vanadium diphosphate Ag{sub 2}VP{sub 2}O{sub 8}: Electrochemistry and characterization of reduced material providing mechanistic insights  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silver vanadium phosphorous oxides (Ag{sub w}V{sub x}P{sub y}O{sub z}) are notable battery cathode materials due to their high energy density and demonstrated ability to form in-situ Ag metal nanostructured electrically conductive networks within the cathode. While analogous silver vanadium diphosphate materials have been prepared, electrochemical evaluations of these diphosphate based materials have been limited. We report here the first electrochemical study of a silver vanadium diphosphate, Ag{sub 2}VP{sub 2}O{sub 8}, where the structural differences associated with phosphorous oxides versus diphosphates profoundly affect the associated electrochemistry. Reminiscent of Ag{sub 2}VO{sub 2}PO{sub 4} reduction, in-situ formation of silver metal nanoparticles was observed with reduction of Ag{sub 2}VP{sub 2}O{sub 8}. However, counter to Ag{sub 2}VO{sub 2}PO{sub 4} reduction, Ag{sub 2}VP{sub 2}O{sub 8} demonstrates a significant decrease in conductivity upon continued electrochemical reduction. Structural analysis contrasting the crystallography of the parent Ag{sub 2}VP{sub 2}O{sub 8} with that of the proposed Li{sub 2}VP{sub 2}O{sub 8} reduction product is employed to gain insight into the observed electrochemical reduction behavior, where the structural rigidity associated with the diphosphate anion may be associated with the observed particle fracturing upon deep electrochemical reduction. Further, the diphosphate anion structure may be associated with the high thermal stability of the partially reduced Ag{sub 2}VP{sub 2}O{sub 8} materials, which bodes well for enhanced safety of batteries incorporating this material. - Graphical abstract: Structure and galvanostatic intermittent titration-type test data for silver vanadium diphosphate, Ag{sub 2}VP{sub 2}O{sub 8}. Highlights: ? First electrochemical study of a silver vanadium diphosphate, Ag{sub 2}VP{sub 2}O{sub 8}. ? In-situ formation of Ag{sup 0} nanoparticles was observed upon electrochemical reduction. ? Structural analysis used to provide insight of the electrochemical behavior.

Takeuchi, Esther S., E-mail: esther.takeuchi@stonybrook.edu [Department Materials Science and Engineering, Stony Brook University (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Global and Regional Solutions Directorate, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Lee, Chia-Ying; Cheng, Po-Jen [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University at Buffalo (SUNY), Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Menard, Melissa C. [Department Materials Science and Engineering, Stony Brook University (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Marschilok, Amy C., E-mail: amy.marschilok@stonybrook.edu [Department Materials Science and Engineering, Stony Brook University (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Takeuchi, Kenneth J., E-mail: kenneth.takeuchi.1@stonybrook.edu [Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

Volatile tritiated organic acids in stack effluents and in air surrounding contaminated materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A small fraction of the tritium released into the atmosphere from tritium-handling or solid waste storage facilities was shown to be in the form of volatile organic acids. The same compounds were also found, but at a much higher proportion, in the tritium evolved at room temperature from highly contaminated materials placed under air atmospheres. This might be due to the oxidation and labeling of hydrocarbon(s) by mechanisms that are presumably of a radiolytic nature. The new forms could have an impact on operational requirements and waste management strategies within a tritium facility and a fusion reactor hall. Further data are needed to assess the related doses.

Belot, Y.; Camus, H.; Marini, T.; Raviart, S. (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (France))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "volatile sub stances" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate therethrough to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex.

Dinh, Tuan V. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate there through to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex. 23 figs.

Dinh, T.V.

1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

343

Long-Term Growth and Short-Term Volatility: The Labour Market Nexus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(1997) and (2000), Black- burn and Galindev (2003), show that when the knowledge (embodied or disembodied) accumulation externality works only through labour, volatility will be detrimental to growth. However, De Hek (1999), going back to Romers (1986... where mpt ? MtPtKt . Equation (10) also tells us that inflation pit+1 = Pt+1Pt ? 1 evolves according to: (1 + pit)(1 + gt) = at. (29) Coming to the labour market equilibrium, (17) in terms of stationary variables be- comes: Lt = (?2atbtEt?1Lta?1t ??ct...

Annicchiarico, B; Corrado, Luisa; Pelloni, A

344

Literature review of stabilization/solidification of volatile organic compounds and the implications for Hanford grouts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A literature review was conducted on the stabilization/solidification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Based on this literature, it is likely that the limestone-containing grout will not permanently immobilize VOCs and that no presently available additives can guarantee permanent immobilization. The Westinghouse hanford company grout may be fairly effective at retarding aqueous leaching of VOCs, and commercial additives can improve this performance. Significant VOC losses do occur during stabilization/solidification, and the high temperatures of the Westinghouse Hanford Company waste and grout should exacerbate this problem. In fact, these high temperatures raise doubts about the presence of VOCs in the double-shell tanks supernates.

Spence, R.D.; Osborne, S.C.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Optical absorption in epitaxial La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3} thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the dependence of optical absorption on Sr concentration in La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3} (LSFO) (x{<=}0.4) perovskite thin films. Strained epitaxial films were deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates using oxide molecular beam epitaxy. We find systematic changes in the optical absorption spectra with increasing x including a red-shift of transition energies and the increasing presence of a lower energy transition within the fundamental gap of pure LaFeO{sub 3}. These results serve as a demonstration of the complex manner in which absorption spectra can be altered in complex oxides via heterovalent A-site substitution.

Scafetta, M D.; Xie, Y. J.; Torres, M.; Spanier, J. E.; May, S. J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2013-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

346

Electronic transport transition at graphene/YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7??} junction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the fabrication of graphene/YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7??} contacts and their superconducting proximity effect. Both the temperature dependence of resistance and the current bias dependence of resistance for the contacts are investigated, respectively. The results are compared with that of pure YBCO Hall bar. It is found that the differential resistance transits from a non-zero value to zero at high bias across graphene/YBCO junction below the transition temperature of YBCO, the phenomena indicate the tunneling of Cooper pairs from YBCO to graphene. As the YBCO film deposited by pulsed laser deposition has a rough surface, the graphene layer can contact with the edge of CuO{sub 2} planes. It allows that Cooper pairs could leak into graphene along the CuO{sub 2} planes.

Sun, Q. J.; Wang, H. S. [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China) [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, H. M., E-mail: hmwang@mail.sim.ac.cn; Gao, B.; Li, Q.; Xie, X. M. [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Deng, L. W.; Hu, Z. W. [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)] [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

347

Crystal structure, magnetism and transport properties of Ce{sub 3}Ni{sub 25.75}Ru{sub 3.16}Al{sub 4.1}B{sub 10}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single crystals of Ce{sub 3}Ni{sub 25.75}Ru{sub 3.16}Al{sub 4.1}B{sub 10} were obtained from a process in which a polycrystalline sample of CeRu{sub 2}Al{sub 2}B was annealed in an excess of a NiIn flux. The initial phase, CeRu{sub 2}Al{sub 2}B, does not recrystallize, instead, crystals of a new phase, Ce{sub 3}Ni{sub 25.75}Ru{sub 3.16}Al{sub 4.1}B{sub 10}, could be isolated once the flux was removed. The title compound crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4/nmm (No. 129) with a=1139.02(8), c=801.68(6) pm (c/a=0.70) in the Nd{sub 3}Ni{sub 29}Si{sub 4}B{sub 10} structure type. Electrical resistivity measurements reveal metallic behavior with a minimum of 700 ? cm and a small residual resistivity ratio of RRR=1.4 indicating a large amount of disorder scattering. The cerium atoms are either in the 4+ or an intermediate valence state with a valence fluctuation temperature far above room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Single crystals of Ce{sub 3}Ni{sub 25.75}Ru{sub 3.16}A{sub l4.1}B{sub 10} were obtained using a process in which a polycrystalline sample of CeRu{sub 2}Al{sub 2}B was annealed in an excess of a NiIn flux. Electrical resistivity measurements reveal metallic behavior with a minimum of 700 ?? cm and a small residual resistivity ratio of RRR=1.4 indicating a large amount of disorder scattering. The cerium atoms are either in the 4+ or an intermediate valence state with a valence fluctuation temperature far above room temperature. Display Omitted - Highlights: Flux synthesis of high quality single crystals of Ce{sub 3}Ni{sub 25.75}Ru{sub 3.16}Al{sub 4.1}B{sub 10} is presented along with the crystal structure, magnetic and transport properties. The compound is isostructural to Nd{sub 3}Ni{sub 29}Si{sub 4}B{sub 10} but is first of this structure type showing mixed occupancies of d-elements. This is an intermetallic phase with Ce in either the 4+ or an intermediate valence state. The fact that this structure with mixed occupied transition metal sites exists suggests that more compounds of this type should be accessible and the physical properties tuned.

Janka, Oliver [Department of Chemistry, University of California, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Baumbach, Ryan E.; Thompson, Joe D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Bauer, Eric D., E-mail: edbauer@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Kauzlarich, Susan M., E-mail: smkauzlarich@ucdavis.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

348

Atmospheric chemistry of FO[sub 2] radicals. Reaction with Ch[sub 4], O[sub 3], NO, NO[sub 2], and CO at 295 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using pulse radiolysis combined with UV absorption spectroscopy, upper limits for the rate constants of the reaction of the FO[sub 2] radical with O[sub 3], CH[sub 4], and CO were determined to be <3.4 x 10[sup [minus]16], <4.1 x 10[sup [minus]15], and <5.1 x 10[sup [minus]16] cm[sup 3] molecule[sup [minus]1] s[sup [minus]1], respectively. The rate constants for the reactions of FO[sub 2] radicals with NO and NO[sub 2] were measured: FO[sub 2] + NO [yields] FNO + O[sub 2] (10a); FO[sub 2] + NO[sub 2] [yields] products (11). The rate constants for reactions 10 and 11 were determined to be (1.47 [+-] 0.08) x 10[sup [minus]12] and (1.05 [+-] 0.15) x 10[sup [minus]13] cm[sup 3] molecule[sup [minus]1] s[sup [minus]1], respectively. Reaction 10a was found to give FNO in a yield of 100 [+-] 14%. As a part of this work, an upper limit of the reaction of FO radicals with O[sub 3] was determined to be <1.2 x 10[sup [minus]12] cm[sup 3] molecule[sup [minus]1] s[sup [minus]1]. Results are discussed in the context of the atmospheric chemistry of the FO[sub 2] radical and hydrofluorocarbons. 23 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Sehested, J.; Sehested, K.; Nielsen, O.J. (Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)); Wallington, T.J. (Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States))

1994-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

349

Polymorphism and optical properties in [NH{sub 4}][InSe{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solvothermal synthesis and characterization of two indium selenides with stoichiometry [NH{sub 4}][InSe{sub 2}] is described. Yellow [NH{sub 4}][InSe{sub 2}] (1), which exhibits a layered structure, was initially prepared in an aqueous solution of trans-1,4-diaminocyclohexane, and subsequently using a concentrated ammonia solution. A red polymorph of one-dimensional character, [NH{sub 4}][InSe{sub 2}] (2), was obtained using 3,5-dimethylpyridine as solvent. [NH{sub 4}][InSe{sub 2}] (1) crystallizes in the non-centrosymmetric space group Cc (a=11.5147(6), b=11.3242(6), c=15.9969(9) and ?=100.354(3)). The structural motif of the layers is the In{sub 4}Se{sub 10} adamantane unit, composed of four corner-linked InSe{sub 4} tetrahedra. These units are linked by their corners, forming [InSe{sub 2}]{sup ?} layers which are stacked back to back along the c-direction, and interspaced by [NH{sub 4}]{sup +}cations. The one-dimensional polymorph, (2), crystallizes in the tetragonal space group, I4/mcm (a=8.2519(16), c=6.9059 (14) ). This structure contains infinite chains of edge-sharing InSe{sub 4} tetrahedra separated by [NH{sub 4}]{sup +} cations. - Graphical abstract: Two polymorphic forms of [NH{sub 4}][InSe{sub 2}], which are yellow and red, have been prepared and their optical properties investigated. Highlights: Two new indium selenides prepared by a solvothermal method. Depending on synthesis conditions, two polymorphic forms of [NH{sub 4}][InSe{sub 2}] prepared. Layered polymorph contains In{sub 4}Se{sub 10} adamantane clusters, linked by their corners. One-dimensional polymorph contains [InSe{sub 2}]{sup ?} chains of edge-sharing tetrahedra. Non-centrosymmetric layered polymorph shows a second harmonic generation response.

Ewing, Sarah J. [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Woodward, David I. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Powell, Anthony V. [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Vaqueiro, Paz, E-mail: P.Vaqueiro-Rodriguez@hw.ac.uk [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

350

Atmospheric chemistry of HFC-143a: Spectrokinetic investigation of the CF[sub 3]CH[sub 2]O[sub 2][center dot] radical, its reactions with NO and NO[sub 2], and the fate of CF[sub 3]CH[sub 2]O  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of CF[sub 3]CH[sub 2]O[sub 2] radicals, the kinetics of their self-reaction, and their reactions with NO and NO[sub 2] have been studied in the gas phase at 296 K using a pulse radiolysis technique. A long path-length Fourier transform infrared technique was used to study the fate of CF[sub 3]CH[sub 2]O radicals. Absorption cross sections were quantified over the wavelength range 220-300 nm. At 250 nm, [sigma](CF[sub 3]CH[sub 2]O[sub 2]) = (2.73 [+-] 0.31) [times] 10[sup [minus]18] molecule[sup [minus]1]. By monitoring the rate of NO[sub 2] formation, k[sub 4] = (1.2 [+-] 0.3) [times] 10[sup [minus]11] cm[sup 3] molecule[sup [minus]1] s[sup [minus]1] was found for the reaction of CF[sub 3]CH[sub 2]O[sub 2] radical with NO. The reaction of CF[sub 3]CH[sub 2]O[sub 2] radicals with NO gives CF[sub 3]CH[sub 2]O radicals. In the atmosphere, >99.33% of the CF[sub 3]CH[sub 2]O radicals react with O[sub 2] to give CF[sub 3]CHO. By monitoring the rate of NO[sub 2] decay, k[sub 5] = (5.8 [+-] 1.1) [times] 10[sup [minus]12] cm[sup 3] molecule[sup [minus]1] s[sup [minus]1] was found for the reaction of CF[sub 3]CH[sub 2]O[sub 2] radical with NO[sub 2]. The results are discussed with respect to the atmospheric chemistry of CF[sub 3]CH[sub 3] (HFC-143a). 34 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Nielsen, O.J.; Gamborg, E.; Sehested, J. (Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)); Wallington, T.J.; Hurley, M.D. (Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States))

1994-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

351

Structural and optical characterization of Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x-y}Sn{sub y} alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x-y}Sn{sub y} alloys were grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperature, followed by ex-situ annealing. The crystal quality of Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x-y}Sn{sub y} layers was characterized by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The compositions and lattice constants of the alloys were studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The results show that Vegard's law is a good approximation for Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x-y}Sn{sub y} alloys. Photoreflectance spectroscopy at room temperature was used to determine the direct bandgap energy of Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x-y}Sn{sub y} layers. Analyzing the relationship between composition and direct bandgap energy reveals a negative energy bowing parameter for SiSn.

Lin, Hai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Chen, Robert; Huo Yijie; Kamins, Theodore I.; Harris, James S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Lu Weisheng [Institute of Photonics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NW (United Kingdom)

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

352

Atmospheric chemistry of trimethoxymethane, (CH{sub 3}O){sub 3}CH: Laboratory studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A pulse radiolysis technique was used to measure the UV absorption spectra of (CH{sub 3}O){sub 2}CHOCH{sub 2}({center_dot}) [A] and (CH{sub 3}O){sub 2}CHOCH{sub 2}O{sub 2}({center_dot}) [B] radicals derived from trimethoxymethane over the range 220--320 nm. The self-reaction rate constants for these radicals were k{sub 5} = (3.5 {+-} 0.5) {times} 10{sup {minus}11} and k{sub 6 obs} = (1.3 {+-} 0.2) {times} 10{sup {minus}11} cm{sup 3}/molecule s. Rate constants for reactions of B radicals with NO and NO{sub 2} were k{sub 7} = (9.0 {+-} 1.2) {times} 10{sup {minus}12} and k{sub 8} = (1.0 {+-} 0.2) {times} 10{sup {minus}11} cm{sup 3}/molecule s, respectively. Rate constants for the reaction of OH radicals and F atoms with trimethoxymethane and the reaction of A radicals with O{sub 2} were k{sub 1} = (6.0 {+-} 0.5) {times} 10{sup {minus}12}, k{sub 3} = (3.0 {+-} 0.7) {times} 10{sup {minus}10}, and k{sub 2} = (9.2 {+-} 1.5) {times} 10{sup {minus}12} cm{sup 3}/molecule s, respectively. Relative rate techniques were used to measure k(Cl + trimethoxymethane) = (1.5 {+-} 0.2) {times} 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 3}/molecule s. OH-radical-initiated oxidation of trimethoxymethane in air gives dimethyl carbonate in a molar yield of 81 {+-} 10%. These results are discussed with respect to the atmospheric chemistry of automotive fuel additives.

Platz, J.; Sehested, J.; Nielsen, O.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Atmospheric Chemistry, Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry Dept.] [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Atmospheric Chemistry, Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry Dept.; Wallington, T.J. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)] [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

1999-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

353

Method of forming a dielectric thin film having low loss composition of Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.y Ca.sub.1-x-y TiO.sub.3 : Ba.sub.0.12-0.25 Sr.sub.0.35-0.47 Ca.sub.0.32-0.53 TiO.sub.3  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dielectric thin-film material for microwave applications, including use as a capacitor, the thin-film comprising a composition of barium strontium calcium and titanium of perovskite type (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.y Ca.sub.1-x-y)TiO.sub.3. Also provided is a method for making a dielectric thin film of that formula over a wide compositional range through a single deposition process.

Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Alameda, CA); Chang, Hauyee (Berkeley, CA); Takeuchi, Ichiro (Albany, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Low-voltage cathodoluminescent properties of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Mn phosphors coated with In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Change in the low-voltage luminescence properties of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Mn green phosphors before and after In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coating was examined by cathodoluminescence. The coating state and distribution of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-particles on phosphors were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Especially, based on FE-SEM analysis, the formation of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-particles on ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Mn phosphor was confirmed. The improvement of the cathodoluminescence efficiency and lifetime in the In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated phosphors was associated with the coating of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-particles.

Yu, Il [Department of Physics, Dong-Eui University, Busanjin-Gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: 0324yu@deu.ac.kr

2006-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

355

Magnetodielectric Effect in the S = 1/2 Quasi-Two-Dimensional Antiferromagnet K<sub>2sub>V>3sub>O>8sub>  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the optical and magneto-optical properties of K{sub 2}V{sub 3}O{sub 8}, an S = 1/2 quasi-two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet. Local spin density approximation electronic structure calculations are used to assign the observed excitations and analyze the field-dependent features. Two large magneto-optical effects, centered at {approx}1.19 and 2.5 eV, are attributed to field-induced changes in the V{sup 4+} d {yields} d on-site excitations due to modification of the local crystal field environment of the VO{sub 5} square pyramids with applied magnetic field. Taken together, the evidence for a soft lattice, the presence of vibrational fine structure on the sharp 1.19 eV magneto-optical feature, and the fact that these optical excitations are due to transitions from a nearly pure spin-polarized V d state to hybridized states involving both V and O, suggest that the magneto-dielectric effect in K{sub 2}V{sub 3}O{sub 8} is driven by strong lattice coupling.

Rai, R. C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Cao, J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Musfeldt, J. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Singh, David J [ORNL; Wei, X. [Florida State University; Jin, Rongying [ORNL; Zhou, Zhixian [ORNL; Sales, Brian C [ORNL; Mandrus, David [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Initiation in H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}: Rate constants for H{sub 2} + O{sub 2} {yields} H + HO{sub 2} at high temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reaction between H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} has been studied in a reflected shock tube apparatus between 1662--2097 K. O-atom atomic resonance absorption spectrometry (ARAS) was used to observe absolute [O]{sub t} under conditions of low [H{sub 2}]{sub 0} so that most secondary reactions were negligible. Hence, the observed [O]{sub t}, was the direct result of the rate controlling reaction between H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. Three different reactions were considered, but experimental and ab initio theoretical results both indicated that the process, H{sub 2} + O{sub 2} {yields} H + HO{sub 2}, is the only possible reaction. After rapid HO{sub 2} dissociation, O-atoms are then instantaneously produced by H + O{sub 2} {yields} O + OH. Using the ab initio result, conventional transition state theoretical calculations (CTST) with tunneling corrections give the expression: k = 1.228 x 10{sup {minus}18} T{sup 2.4328} exp({minus}26926 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}, applicable between 400 and 2,300 K. This theoretical result agrees with the present experimental determinations and those at lower temperature, derived from earlier work on the reverse reaction.

Michael, J. V.; Sutherland, J. W.; Harding, L. B.; Wagner, A. F.

1999-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

357

Secondary kinetics of methanol decomposition : theoretical rate coefficients for {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + OH, {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + {sup 3}CH{sub 2}, and {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + CH{sub 3}.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct variable reaction coordinate transition state theory (VRC-TST) rate coefficients are reported for the {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + OH, {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + {sup 3}CH{sub 2}, and {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} barrierless association reactions. The predicted rate coefficient for the {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + OH reaction ({approx} 1.2 x 10{sup -10} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} for 300-2500 K) is 4-5 times larger than previous estimates, indicating that this reaction may be an important sink for OH in many combustion systems. The predicted rate coefficients for the {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} and {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + {sup 3}CH{sub 2} reactions are found to be in good agreement with the range of available experimental measurements. Product branching in the self-reaction of methylene is discussed, and the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} + 2H and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} + H{sub 2} products are predicted in a ratio of 4:1. The effect of the present set of rate coefficients on modeling the secondary kinetics of methanol decomposition is briefly considered. Finally, the present set of rate coefficients, along with previous VRC-TST determinations of the rate coefficients for the self-reactions of CH{sub 3} and OH and for the CH{sub 3} + OH reaction, are used to test the geometric mean rule for the CH{sub 3}, {sup 3}CH{sub 2}, and OH fragments. The geometric mean rule is found to predict the cross-combination rate coefficients for the {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + OH and {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} reactions to better than 20%, with a larger (up to 50%) error for the CH{sub 3} + OH reaction.

Jasper, A. W.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B.; Chemistry

2007-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

358

Crystal structure determination of the oxynitride Sr{sub 2}TaO{sub 3}N  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The crystal structure of the strontium tantalum oxynitride Sr{sub 2}TaO{sub 3}N has been resolved by Rietveld refinement using time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data. The structure is of the K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4} type with a partially ordered anion sublattice (tetragonal, I4/mmm, a = 4.04127(3) {angstrom}, c = 12.6073(2) {angstrom}, c/a = 3.120, Z = 2). The tantalum atoms are at the center of TaO{sub 2}(O, N){sub 4} octahedra built up from two oxygen atoms at the apexes and four (N + O) atoms statistically forming the median plane. The strontium atoms have a coordination number of nine: SrO{sub 5}(O, N){sub 4}. The profile agreement factors are R{sub p} = 0.022, R{sub wp} = 0.016, R{sub exp} = 0.012, and R{sub 1} = 0.063.

Diot, N.; Marchand, R. [Univ. de Rennes 1 (France). Lab. Verres et Ceramiques] [Univ. de Rennes 1 (France). Lab. Verres et Ceramiques; Haines, J.; Leger, J.M. [CNRS, Meudon (France). Lab. de Physicochimie des Materiaux] [CNRS, Meudon (France). Lab. de Physicochimie des Materiaux; Macaudiere, P. [Centre de Recherches d`Aubervilliers (France)] [Centre de Recherches d`Aubervilliers (France); Hull, S. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Didcot (United Kingdom). ISIS Science Div.] [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Didcot (United Kingdom). ISIS Science Div.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Crystal structure determination of the oxynitride Sr[sub 2]TaO[sub 3]N  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The crystal structure of the strontium tantalum oxynitride Sr[sub 2]TaO[sub 3]N has been resolved by Rietveld refinement using time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data. The structure is of the K[sub 2]NiF[sub 4] type with a partially ordered anion sublattice (tetragonal, I4/mmm, a = 4.04127(3) [angstrom], c = 12.6073(2) [angstrom], c/a = 3.120, Z = 2). The tantalum atoms are at the center of TaO[sub 2](O, N)[sub 4] octahedra built up from two oxygen atoms at the apexes and four (N + O) atoms statistically forming the median plane. The strontium atoms have a coordination number of nine: SrO[sub 5](O, N)[sub 4]. The profile agreement factors are R[sub p] = 0.022, R[sub wp] = 0.016, R[sub exp] = 0.012, and R[sub 1] = 0.063.

Diot, N.; Marchand, R. (Univ. de Rennes 1 (France). Lab. Verres et Ceramiques); Haines, J.; Leger, J.M. (CNRS, Meudon (France). Lab. de Physicochimie des Materiaux); Macaudiere, P. (Centre de Recherches d'Aubervilliers (France)); Hull, S. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Didcot (United Kingdom). ISIS Science Div.)

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Recovery of UO{sub 2}/PuO{sub 2} in IFR electrorefining process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is comprised of a process for converting PuO{sub 2} and U0{sub 2} present in an electrorefiner to the chlorides, by contacting the PuO{sub 2} and U0{sub 2} with Li metal in the presence of an alkali metal chloride salt substantially free of rare earth and actinide chlorides for a time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the U0{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} to metals while converting Li metal to Li{sub 2}O. Li{sub 2}O is removed either by reducing with rare earth metals or by providing an oxygen electrode for transporting 0{sub 2} out of the electrorefiner and a cathode, and thereafter applying an emf to the electrorefiner electrodes sufficient to cause the Li{sub 2}O to disassociate to 0{sub 2} and Li metal but insufficient to decompose the alkali metal chloride salt. The U and Pu and excess lithium are then converted to chlorides by reaction with CdCl{sub 2}.

Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "volatile sub stances" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Recovery of UO[sub 2]/PuO[sub 2] in IFR electrorefining process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for converting PuO[sub 2] and UO[sub 2] present in an electrorefiner to the chlorides, by contacting the PuO[sub 2] and UO[sub 2] with Li metal in the presence of an alkali metal chloride salt substantially free of rare earth and actinide chlorides for a time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the UO[sub 2] and PuO[sub 2] to metals while converting Li metal to Li[sub 2]O. Li[sub 2]O is removed either by reducing with rare earth metals or by providing an oxygen electrode for transporting O[sub 2] out of the electrorefiner and a cathode, and thereafter applying an emf to the electrorefiner electrodes sufficient to cause the Li[sub 2]O to disassociate to O[sub 2] and Li metal but insufficient to decompose the alkali metal chloride salt. The U and Pu and excess lithium are then converted to chlorides by reaction with CdCl[sub 2].

Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.

1994-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

362

Wave-function engineering and absorption spectra in Si{sub 0.16}Ge{sub 0.84}/Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06}/Si{sub 0.16}Ge{sub 0.84} strained on relaxed Si{sub 0.10}Ge{sub 0.90} type I quantum well  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We theoretically investigate germanium-tin alloy as a semiconductor for the design of near infrared optical modulators in which the Ge{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x} alloy is the active region. We have calculated the electronic band parameters for heterointerfaces between strained Ge{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x} and relaxed Si{sub 1?y}Ge{sub y}. Then, a type-I strain-compensated Si{sub 0.10}Ge{sub 0.90}/Si{sub 0.16}Ge{sub 0.84}/Ge{sub 0.94}Sn{sub 0.06} quantum well heterostructure optimized in terms of compositions and thicknesses is studied by solving Schrdinger equation without and under applied bias voltage. The strong absorption coefficient (>1.5??10{sup 4}?cm{sup ?1}) and the shift of the direct transition under large Stark effect at 3?V are useful characteristics for the design of optoelectronic devices based on compressively strained IV-IV heterostructures at near infrared wavelengths.

Yahyaoui, N., E-mail: naima.yahyaoui@yahoo.fr, E-mail: moncef-said@yahoo.fr; Sfina, N.; Said, M., E-mail: naima.yahyaoui@yahoo.fr, E-mail: moncef-said@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de la Matire Condense et des Nanosciences (LMCN), Dpartement de Physique, Facult des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l'Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Lazzari, J.-L. [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Nanoscience de Marseille (CINaM), UMR CNRS 7325, Aix-Marseille Universit, Case 913, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille cedex 9 (France); Bournel, A. [Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale (IEF), UMR CNRS 8622, Universit Paris-Sud, Bt. 220, 91405 Orsay cedex (France)

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

363

Kinetics and thermochemistry of the reaction C/sub 2/D/sub 6/ + Cl /r equilibrium/ C/sub 2/D/sub 5/ + DCl. The heat of formation of the C/sub 2/D/sub 5/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 5/ radicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bimolecular rate constant for the title reaction has been measured with the very low pressure reactor technique (VLPR) at 295 K. The rate constant at room temperature (295 K) was found to be k/sub 1/ = (8.30 /plus minus/ 0.7) /times/ 10/sup /minus/12/ cm/sup 3//(molecule/center dot/s). The value of K/sub 1/, i.e., equilibrium constant at room temperature, was found to be (4.70 /plus minus/ 0.3) /times/ 10/sup 2/. From third law calculations at 295 K /delta/H/sub f//degree/(C/sub 2/D/sub 5/) = (24.30 /plus minus/ 0.4) kcal/mol and DH/degree/(C/sub 2/D/sub 5/-D) = 102.8 /plus minus/ 0.4 kcal/mol. With use of known zero-point energy differences DH/degree/(C/sub 2/H/sub 5/-H) can be calculated from this as 100.4 kcal/mol and /delta/H/sub f//degree/(C/sub 2/H/sub 5/) = 28.3 kcal/mol in excellent agreement with recent data. 22 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

Parmar, S.S.; Benson, S.W.

1989-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

364

Optimal Transportation on Sub-Riemannian Manifolds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal Transportation on Sub-Riemannian Manifolds Ludovic Rifford Universit´e de Nice - Sophia Antipolis (Joint work with A. Figalli) Ludovic Rifford Optimal Transportation on Sub-Riemannian Manifolds #12;Outline I. Statement of our optimal transportation problem II. Sketch of proof of the Mc

Rifford, Ludovic

365

Optimal Transportation on Sub-Riemannian Manifolds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal Transportation on Sub-Riemannian Manifolds Ludovic Rifford Universit´e de Nice - Sophia Antipolis (Joint work with A. Figalli) Ludovic Rifford Optimal Transportation on Sub-Riemannian Manifolds #12;Monge's Optimal Transportation Problem Let M be a separable metric space equipped with its Borel

Rifford, Ludovic

366

Synthesis of solid solution Er{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}W{sub 3}O{sub 12} and studies of their thermal expansion behavior.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The syntheses and structures of Er{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}W{sub 3}O{sub 12} were studied. It was found that pure phases could form only for 0.0 {le} x {le} 0.4 and 1.5 {le} x {le} 2.0. Compounds with 0 {le} x {le} 0.4 have the hydrated orthorhombic structure at room temperature and transform to unhydrated orthorhombic one above 135 C whereas samples with 1.5 {le} x {le} 2.0 crystallize in monoclinic structure. Thermal expansion properties of Er{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}W{sub 3}O{sub 12} were studied with high temperature X-ray powder diffraction. Samples with 0 {le} x {le} 0.4 exhibit negative thermal expansion in temperature range of 200-800 C and higher cerium content leads to more negative thermal expansion coefficient. However, compounds with 1.5 {le} x {le} 2.0 show positive thermal expansion owing to the edge-sharing polyhedra.

Wu, M. M.; Cheng, Y. Z.; Peng, J.; Xiao, X. L.; Chen, D. F.; Kiyanagi, R.; Fieramosca, J. S.; Short, S.; Jorgensen, J.; Hu, Z. B.; Graduate Univ. Chinese Academy of Sciences; China Inst. of Atomic Energy

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

367

Suppression of the metal-insulator transition by magnetic field in (Pr{sub 1?y}Y{sub y}){sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 3} (y?=?0.0625)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The (Pr{sub 1?y}Y{sub y}){sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 3} compound (y?=?0.0625, T{sub MI-SS}=40?K), at the lower limit for occurrence of the first-order metal-insulator (MI) and simultaneous spin-state (SS) transitions, has been studied using electrical resistivity and magnetization measurements in magnetic fields up to 17?T. The isothermal experiments demonstrate that the low-temperature insulating phase can be destabilized by an applied field and the metallic phase returns well below the transition temperature T{sub MI-SS}. The reverse process with decreasing field occurs with a significant hysteresis. The temperature scans taken at fixed magnetic fields reveal a parabolic-like decrease in T{sub MI-SS} with increasing field strength and a complete suppression of the MI-SS transition in fields above 9?T.

Naito, Tomoyuki, E-mail: tnaito@iwate-u.ac.jp; Fujishiro, Hiroyuki [Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Nishizaki, Terukazu; Kobayashi, Norio [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Hejtmnek, Ji?; Knek, Karel; Jirk, Zden?k [Institute of Physics, ASCR, Cukrovarnick 10, 162 00 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

368

Equilibrium surface composition of sulfuric acid films in contact with various atmospheric gases (HNO{sub 3}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 2}O, Cl{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2})  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Differentially pumped X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to study the surface composition of sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and sulfuric acid/water mixtures in equilibrium with various atmospheric species. Nitric acid uptake in sulfuric acid solutions was observed below {approx}220 K. Compared to the theoretically predicted bulk composition, a significant enrichment of nitrogen was observed at the interface. The uptake of background water in sulfuric acid below 200 K was responsible for the reversible uptake of CO{sub 2}, moderated through the formation of carbonic acid (H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). For CH{sub 2}O, Cl{sub 2}, NO, and NO{sub 2}, no observable surface species were observed over the temperature range studied ({approx}180--298 K).

Fairbrother, D.H.; Somorjai, G.A.

2000-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

369

Studies on Structural and Dielectric Properties of ABi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (A Ba, Sr and Pb) Ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bismuth Titanate based electroceramics of layered perovskite structures are technologically important materials for high temperature piezoelectric and ferroelectric applications, due to their high Curie temperature (675 deg. C), Stable piezoelectric response and excellent dielectric properties. The compounds ABi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (A = Ba, Sr and Pb) belongs to Aurivillius family (n = 4) in which BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} crystallizes in tetragonal I4/mmm space group, Sr Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} and PbBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} crystallizes in orthorhombic space group A2{sub 1}am. In the present work ABi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (A = Ba, Sr and Pb) ceramic samples are prepared through the solid state reaction by conventional mixed oxides by calcination at high temperature. Dielectric constant ({epsilon}'{sub r}) and Dielectric Loss (D) for all the compositions as a function of temperature measured from frequencies 100 Hz to 100 KHz using a HIOKI 3532-50 LCR meter. The dielectric constant increases gradually with an increase in temperature up to transition temperature (T{sub c,} K) and then decreases.

Reddy, T. Gopal; Kumar, B. Rajesh; Rao, T. Subba [Materials Research Lab, Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur-515055, A.P. (India)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Effect of doping on flux pinning of GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-y}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cylindrical single grains of GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (Gd-123) with a diameter of 25 mm were successfully fabricated by melt-texture growth (MTG) process in air to study the influence of different starting powders on flux pinning. Measurements of the magnetic critical current density (J{sub c}) showed that it was possible to fabricate large Gd-123 single grain with a high J{sub c} at high temperatures and fields by means of properly controlling the starting powders of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, BaCO{sub 3}, and CuO before the MTG process.

Zhang, L.; Xu, X.B.; Ding, S.Y.; Zheng, M.H.; Xiao, L.; Ren, H.T.; Jiao, Y.L.; Wang, X.L.; Lin, Z.W.; Zhu, J.G. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); General Research Institute for Non-ferrous Metals, Beijing 100088 (China); Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Vollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); University of Technology Sydney, New South Wales 2007 (Australia)

2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Generation risk assessment in volatile conditions with wind, hydro, and natural gas units  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper studies a generating company (GENCO)s midterm (a few months to a year) scheduling payoffs and risks in volatile operating conditions. The proposed algorithm considers the integration of intermittent wind units into a GENCOs generation assets and coordinates the GENCOs hourly wind generation schedule with that of natural gas (NG) units (with volatile gas prices) and hydro units (with water inflow forecast) for maximizing the GENCOs payoff. The proposed midterm GENCO model applies market price forecasts to the risk-constrained stochastic price-based unit commitment (PBUC) for calculating the GENCOs risk in energy and ancillary services markets. The proposed PBUC minimizes the cost of (a) NG contracts, storage, startup and shutdown, (b) startup and shutdown of cascaded hydro units, and (c) penalty for defaulting on the scheduled power delivery. Simulation results show that the diversification of generating assets including bilateral contracts (BCs) could enhance the GENCOs midterm planning by increasing the expected payoff and decreasing the financial risk.

Cem Sahin; Mohammad Shahidehpour; Ismet Erkmen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Evaluation of several methods to measure volatility of motor fuels. Technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is proposing regulations to reduce the amount of hydrocarbons released to the atmosphere due to the evaporation of automotive fuels. The new regulations may define upper volatility limits for these fuels based on seasonal climatic patterns. Volatility of gasoline fuels is typically quantified by measurement of Reid vapor pressure (RVP). Although an established procedure exists for the assessment of the parameter (ASTM S 323), there is question as to the accuracy of the procedure when evaluating fuels with water-interactive constituents, e.g., alcohols and ethers. ASTM P 176 is a procedure that has been proposed as its replacement. It addresses the problem of water and is known as the dry version of ASTM D 323. The correlation study was designed to evaluate the proposed ASTM P 176 procedure for repeatability and reproducibility. The results of the study will help establish a basis for enforcement tolerance. Also evaluated was the equivalency of results from two commercial instruments versus those obtained by the traditional gauges and bath techniques.

Haubenstricker, M.E.; Scarbro, C.A.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

An assessment of methyl mercury and volatile mercury in land-applied sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency issued regulations covering the land-application of municipal sewage sludge. These regulations established maximum pollutant concentrations and were based upon a risk assessment of human exposure. Mercury, assumed to be inorganic and non-volatile, was one pollutant evaluated. From April, 1995 through February, 1996, the authors studied the species of mercury contaminating municipal sludge applied to land, and the potential for volatilization of mercury from land-applied sludge. Methyl mercury was found at 0.1% of total mercury concentrations and was emitted from land-applied sludge to the atmosphere. Elemental mercury (Hg) was formed in land-applied sludge via the reduction of oxidized mercury and was also emitted to the atmosphere. Hg emission from land-applied sludge was significantly elevated over background soil emission. Methyl mercury is more toxic and more highly bioaccumulated than inorganic mercury, and warrants assessment considering these special criteria. Additionally, mercury emission from sludge-amended soil may lead to the contamination of other environmental media with significant concentrations of the metal. Although these pathways were not evaluated in the regulatory risk assessment, they are an important consideration for evaluating the risks from mercury in land-applied sludge. This presentation will summarize the results of a re-assessment of US EPA regulations regarding the land-application of municipal sewage sludge using data on methyl mercury toxicity and mercury transport in the atmosphere.

Carpi, A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Lindberg, S.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

374

Conditional correlations and volatility spillovers between crude oil and stock index returns  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the conditional correlations and volatility spillovers between the crude oil and financial markets, based on crude oil returns and stock index returns. Daily returns from 2 January 1998 to 4 November 2009 of the crude oil spot, forward and futures prices from the WTI and Brent markets, and the FTSE100, NYSE, Dow Jones and S&P500 stock index returns, are analysed using the CCC model of Bollerslev (1990), VARMA-GARCH model of Ling and McAleer (2003), VARMA-AGARCH model of McAleer, Hoti, and Chan (2008), and DCC model of Engle (2002). Based on the CCC model, the estimates of conditional correlations for returns across markets are very low, and some are not statistically significant, which means the conditional shocks are correlated only in the same market and not across markets. However, the DCC estimates of the conditional correlations are always significant. This result makes it clear that the assumption of constant conditional correlations is not supported empirically. Surprisingly, the empirical results from the VARMA-GARCH and VARMA-AGARCH models provide little evidence of volatility spillovers between the crude oil and financial markets. The evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive shocks of equal magnitude on the conditional variances suggests that VARMA-AGARCH is superior to VARMA-GARCH and CCC.

Chia-Lin Chang; Michael McAleer; Roengchai Tansuchat

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Oxidation and Volatilization from Tantalum Alloy T-222 During Air Exposure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tantalum alloys are one of the refractory metals with renewed consideration for high temperatures in fusion reactor applications. Tantalum alloys perform well in protective environments but oxidized readily in gases containing higher oxygen levels. In addition, the radioactive isotope Ta-182 would be produced in tantalum and could be a significant contributor to dose if mobilized. Other isotopes of importance are produced from tungsten and hafnium. Mobilization of activated products during an accident with air ingress is therefore a safety issue. In this study, we measured the extent of oxidation and mobilization from tantalum alloy T-222 oxidized in flowing air between 500 and 1200 C. This alloy nominally contains 10 wt% tungsten, 2.5 wt% hafnium and 0.01 wt% carbon. We found that the mobilization of Ta and Hf was closely linked to the occurrence of oxide spalling. These elements showed no migration from the test chamber. Some W was mobilized by volatilization as evidenced by transport from the chamber. Tungsten volatilization could occur primarily during initial stages of oxidation before an oxide scale forms and impedes the process. The mobilization of Ta and W are presented in terms of the mass flux (g/m 2 -h) as a function of test temperature. These measurements along with specific designs, activation calculations, and accident scenarios provide information useful for dose calculations of future fusion devices.

Smolik, G.R.; Petti, D.A.; Sharpe, J.P.; Schuetz, S.T.

2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

376

Oxidation and Volatilization from Tantalum Alloy T-222 During Air Exposure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tantalum alloys are one of the refractory metals with renewed consideration for high temperatures in fusion reactor applications. Tantalum alloys perform well in protective environments but oxidized readily in gases containing higher oxygen levels. In addition, the radioactive isotope Ta-182 would be produced in tantalum and could be a significant contributor to dose if mobilized. Other isotopes of importance are produced from tungsten and hafnium. Mobilization of activated products during an accident with air ingress is therefore a safety issue. In this study, we measured the extent of oxidation and mobilization from tantalum alloy T-222 oxidized in flowing air between 500 and 1200C. This alloy nominally contains 10 wt% tungsten, 2.5 wt% hafnium and 0.01 wt% carbon. We found that the mobilization of Ta and Hf was closely linked to the occurrence of oxide spalling. These elements showed no migration from the test chamber. Some W was mobilized by volatilization as evidenced by transport from the chamber. Tungsten volatilization could occur primarily during initial stages of oxidation before an oxide scale forms and impedes the process. The mobilization of Ta and W are presented in terms of the mass flux (g/m 2 -h) as a function of test temperature. These measurements along with specific designs, activation calculations, and accident scenarios provide information useful for dose calculations of future fusion devices

Smolik, Galen Richard; Petti, David Andrew; Sharpe, John Phillip; Schuetz, Stanley Thomas

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of [(dien){sub 2}Mn]Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4} with mixed-valent Ge centers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One new manganese thiogermanate, [(dien){sub 2}Mn]Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4} (dien=diethylenetriamine), was prepared under mild solvothermal conditions and structurally and spectroscopically characterized. The title compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, chiral space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} (no. 19) with a=9.113(4) , b=12.475(5) , c=17.077(7) , V=1941.5(15) {sup 3} and Z=4. Its structure features a three-dimensional (3D) network composed of a one-dimensional (1D) [Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}]{sup 2?} anionic chain and a [(dien){sub 2}Mn]{sup 2+} complex interconnected via various hydrogen bonds. The most interesting structural feature of the compound is the presence of two different oxidation states of germanium centers in the 1D [Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}]{sup 2?} chain, which is also supported by the result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. The optical property of the title compound has also been studied by UVvis spectra. - Graphical abstract: One new thiogermanate, [(dien){sub 2}Mn]Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}, contains a one-dimensional [Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}]{sup 2?} anionic chain with two different oxidation states of germanium centers. Display Omitted - Highlights: One new manganese thiogermanate [(dien){sub 2}Mn]Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4} was prepared. The compound features 1D [Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}]{sup 2?} chain composed of [Ge{sup II}S{sub 4}] and [Ge{sup IV}S{sub 4}] tetrahedra. The first example of inorganicorganic hybrid thiogermanates with mixed valent Ge centers.

Yue, Cheng-Yang; Yuan, Zhuang-Dong; Zhang, Lu-Ge; Wang, Ya-Bai; Liu, Guo-Dong; Gong, Liao-Kuo [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry in Universities of Shandong, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jining University, Qufu, Shandong 273155 (China); Lei, Xiao-Wu, E-mail: xwlei_jnu@163.com [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry in Universities of Shandong, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jining University, Qufu, Shandong 273155 (China); State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

Synthesis and characterization of rare-earth doped SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} phase in lithium borate based nanocrystallized glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Glass composites comprising of un-doped and samarium-doped SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} nanocrystallites are fabricated in the glass system 16.66SrO-16.66[(1-x)Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-xSm{sub 2}O{sub 3}]-16.66Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-50Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} (0<=x<=0.5, in mol%) via the melt quenching technique. The glassy nature of the as-quenched samples is established by differential thermal analyses. Transmission electron microscopic studies reveal the presence of about 15 nm sized spherical crystallites of the fluorite-like SrBi{sub 1.9}Sm{sub 0.1}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} phase in the samples heat treated at 530 deg. C. The formation of layered perovskite-type un-doped and samarium-doped SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} nanocrystallites with an orthorhombic structure through the intermediate fluorite phase is confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopic studies. The influence of samarium doping on the lattice parameters, lattice distortions, and the Raman peak positions of SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} perovskite phase is clarified. The dielectric constants of the perovskite SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} and SrBi{sub 1.9}Sm{sub 0.1}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} nanocrystals are relatively larger than those of the corresponding fluorite-like phase and the precursor glass. - Graphical Abstract: This figure shows the XRD patterns at room temperature for the as-quenched and heat treated samples in Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped (x=0.1) glass. Based on these results, it is concluded that the formation of samarium-doped perovskite SBN phase takes place via an intermediate fluorite-like phase in the crystallization of this glass.

Harihara Venkataraman, B. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Fujiwara, Takumi [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Komatsu, Takayuki, E-mail: komatsu@mst.nagaokaut.ac.j [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

379

Grain and Grain-Boundary Critical Currents in Coated Conductors with Non-Correlating YBa<sub>2sub>Cu>3sub>O>7sub> and Substrate Grain-Boundary Networks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The superconducting grain-boundary (GB) network of coated conductors (CCs) is usually assumed to be a replica of the substrate network. In this letter, we analyze IBAD and RABITS CCs, where such replica either do or do not exist. We have analyzed the effect of GB overgrowth on the critical currents by quantifying the average superconducting grain size and determining the intragrain and grain-boundary critical current densities, J{sub c}{sup G} and J{sub c}{sup GB}. We have employed a recently developed inductive methodology enabling the simultaneous determination of these three parameters. We show that the percolative J{sub c}{sup GB} may be reduced by 50% if the GB networks do not correlate, while J{sub c}{sup G} and the grain pinning properties appear unaffected.

Palau, A. [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Puig, T. [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Obradors, X. [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Feenstra, Roeland [ORNL; Gapud, Albert Agcaoili [ORNL; Specht, Eliot D [ORNL; Feldmann, D. M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Holesinger, T. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Electronic Inhomogeneity and Completing Phases in Electron-Doped Superconducting Pr<sub>0.88sub>LaCe>0.12sub>CuO>4-?sub>  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use neutron scattering to demonstrate that electron-doped superconducting Pr{sub 0.88}LaCe{sub 0.12}CuO{sub 4-{delta}} in the underdoped regime is electronically phase separated in the ground state, showing the coexistence of a superconducting phase with a three-dimensional antiferromagnetically ordered phase and a quasi-two-dimensional spin-density wave modulation. The Neel temperature of both antiferromagnetic phases decreases linearly with increasing superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) and vanishes when optimal superconductivity is achieved. These results indicate that the electron-doped copper oxides are close to a quantum critical point, where the delicate energetic balance between different competing states leads to microscopic heterogeneity.

Dai, Pengcheng [ORNL; Kang, H. J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mook Jr, Herbert A [ORNL; Matsuura, Masato [ORNL; Lynn, J. W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kurita, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan; Komiya, S. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan; Ando, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "volatile sub stances" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Conditions for uniform growth of GaAs/sub 1-//sub x-italic/P/sub x-italic/ superlattices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nonplanar morphology and compositional inhomogeneity are observed in GaAs/sub 1-//sub x-italic/P/sub x-italic/ superlattices when the phosphorus content is substantially different in adjacent sublayers. The main characteristic feature of the distortion is a series of ribbonlike regions running through the superlattice which etch at a faster rate and contain more phosphorus than the surrounding material and are also the source of clusters of dislocations. Morphological stability and a general decrease in dislocation density can be effected by decreasing the interlayer strain, i.e., compositional difference, between the superlattice sublayers.

Blakeslee, A.E.; Kibbler, A.; Wanlass, M.W.; Biefeld, R.M.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Simple band model for La sub 1-x Sr sub x CoO sub 3 : Evidence from electron spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Valence band photoelectron spectra and high resolution electron energy loss spectra for La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3} (x {le} 0.5) have been measured. The general appearance and variation with photon energy of the former may be interpreted in terms of the density of states arising from a simple semiempirical tight binding band structure calculation, for reasonable values of Hamiltonian matrix elements. The latter show a highly damped loss feature below 1 eV which may be assigned to a plasma oscillation whose frequency is overestimated by the same calculations, indicating a considerable enhancement of effective mass through correlation.

Kemp, J.P.; Beal, D.J.; Cox, P.A. (Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford (England))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Array-type NH.sub.3 sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An array-type sensor that senses NH.sub.3 includes non-Nernstian sensing elements constructed from metal and/or metal-oxide electrodes on an O.sub.2 ion conducting substrate. In one example sensor, one electrode may be made of platinum, another electrode may be made of manganese (III) oxide (Mn.sub.2O.sub.3), and another electrode may be made of tungsten trioxide (WO.sub.3). Some sensing elements may further include an electrode made of La.sub.0.6Sr.sub.0.4Co.sub.0.2Fe.sub0.8O.sub.3 and another electrode made of LaCr.sub.0.95.Mg.sub.0.05O.sub.3.

West, David Lawrence; Montgomery, Frederick Charles; Armstrong, Timothy R; Warmack, Robert J

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

384

High pressure synthesis and crystal structure of a ternary superconductor Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 3}Si{sub 4} containing layer structured calcium sub-network isomorphous with black phosphorus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Zintl compound CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2} is peritectically decomposed to a mixture of Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 3}Si{sub 4} and aluminum metal at temperatures above 600 Degree-Sign C under a pressure of 5 GPa. The new ternary compound Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 3}Sl{sub 4} crystalizes with the space group Cmc2{sub 1} and the lattice parameters a=5.8846(8), b=14.973(1), and c=7.7966(5) A. The structure is composed of aluminum silicide framework [Al{sub 3}Si{sub 4}] and layer structured [Ca{sub 2}] network interpenetrating with each other. The electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) shows the formation of solid solutions Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 3-x}Si{sub 4+x} (x<0.6). The layer structured [Ca{sub 2}] sub-network is isomorphous with black phosphorus. The new ternary compound shows superconductivity with a transition temperature (T{sub c}) of 6.4 K. The band structure calculation suggests that the superconductivity should occur through the conduction bands mainly composed of 3p orbitals of the aluminum silicide framework. - Graphical abstract: A new ternary superconductor Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 3}Si{sub 4} has been prepared under high pressure and high temperature conditions, which includes layer structured calcium sub-network isomorphous with black phosphorus. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A typical Zintl compound CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2} melts congruently at ambient pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Under high pressure CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2} decomposes to Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 3}Si{sub 4} and Al at {approx}600 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 3}Si{sub 4} contains Ca sub-network isomorphous with black phosphorus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 3}Si{sub 4} shows superconductivity with a transition temperature of 6.4 K.

Tanaka, Masashi; Zhang, Shuai; Tanaka, Yuki; Inumaru, Kei [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Yamanaka, Shoji, E-mail: syamana@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

ZrO sub 2 reinforced-MoSi sub 2 matrix composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ZrO{sub 2} particle-MoSi{sub 2} matrix composites were fabricated by wet processing/hot pressing, using high quality unstabilized, partially stabilized, and fully stabilized ZrO{sub 2} powders. Composite room temperature indentation fracture toughness increased with increasing volume fraction of ZrO{sub 2} reinforcement. Unstabilized ZrO{sub 2} produced the highest composite fracture toughness, 7.8 MPa m{sup {1/2}} as compared to 2.6 MPa m{sup {1/2}} for pure MoSi{sub 2}. Unstabilized ZrO{sub 2} composites exhibited matrix microcracking, and the spontaneous tetragonal-to-monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} phase transformation induced significant plastic deformation in the MoSi{sub 2} matrix. Partially stabilized ZrO{sub 2} produced a lesser extent of composite fracture toughening, possibly as a result of an inhomogeneous ZrO{sub 2} particle distribution and presence of a glassy phase. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Petrovic, J.J.; Honnell, R.E.; Mitchell, T.E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Wade, R.K. (Arizona Materials Lab., Tucson, AZ (USA)); McClellan, K.J. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

New Features in the Vortex Phase Diagram of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetic and transport measurements have been performed in high quality YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} single crystals. We demonstrate for the first time that the magnetization peak line in the phase diagram of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}}, H{sub p}(T) exhibits an impressive similarity with the equivalent line for Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. Our results show not only a similar temperature dependence but also an almost identical response to oxygen doping and a correlation to the multicritical point. At high temperatures we observe a previously unreported splitting of the magnetization peak. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Deligiannis, K.; de Groot, P.A.; Oussena, M.; Pinfold, S.; Langan, R. [Physics Department, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 IBJ (United Kingdom)] [Physics Department, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 IBJ (United Kingdom); Gagnon, R.; Taillefer, L. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (CANADA)] [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (CANADA)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Properties of chemical vapor deposited tungsten silicide films using reaction of WF/sub 6/ and Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tungsten silicide films were formed by the chemical vapor deposition method using the reaction WF/sub 6/ and Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/. The deposition rate, resistivity, composition, stress, crystal structure, and content of impurities were studied and compared with tungsten silicide films deposited by reaction of WF/sub 6/ and SiH/sub 4/. The tungsten silicide films made using Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ have a higher deposition rate and higher Si concentration than those made by using SiH/sub 4/ at the same substrate temperature. For these reasons, the tungsten silicide films made by using Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ were found to have a resistivity that is a little higher and, after annealing, a stress that is smaller than that made by SiH/sub 4/.

Shioya, Y.; Ikegami, K.; Kobayashi, I.; Maeda, M.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Magnetic order of Co{sub 0.1}Pt{sub 0.9} in proximity in CoPt{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A polarized neutron reflectometry study of the magnetization density depth profile of a Co{sub 0.1}Pt{sub 0.9}-CoPt{sub 3} bilayer film found evidence for an induced moment in the Co{sub 0.1}Pt{sup 0.9} overlayer in close proximity to the CoPt{sub 3} underlayer. If the moment of Co in these films is that of the bulk, then the {mu}{sub Pt} = 0.09(1){mu}{sub B} in the overlayer, and {mu}{sub Pt} = 0.04(1){mu}{sub B} in the underlayer. In addition, ferromagnetic order of the Co{sub 0.1}Pt{sub 0.9} overlayer was observed 8K above {Tc} for the material in the bulk.

Shapiro, A.L.; Hellman, F. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Fitzsimmons, M.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Thermophysical properties of ??Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}: A new potential model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

??Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} is an important material among plutonium based materials in nuclear industry. Pure plutonium surfaces quickly oxidizes into ??Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} and PuO{sub 2} which are in the form of layers one on another. Here we have investigated thermal properties of ??Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} by molecular dynamics simulation by using a partially ionic semi-empirical rigid ion potential. Mechanical properties, thermal expansion, and heat capacity are calculated. Results were compared with available experimental data and quantum calculation [2]. Due to the experimental limitations such as toxicity and radiation effects, studying the physical properties of such materials from molecular dynamics simulations have vital importance.

Gnay, S. D., E-mail: sdgunay@gmail.com; Akdere, .; Ta?seven, . [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpaa Campus, Esenler, 34210, Istanbul (Turkey); Akgen, B., E-mail: berna.akgenc@kirklareli.edu.tr [Krklareli University Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kavakl, 39060, Krklareli (Turkey)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z