Sample records for volatile limits matter

  1. A study of the volatile matter of coal as a function of the heating rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanes, E.; Wilhite, D.; Riley, J.M. Jr. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the volatile matter yields as a function of the heating rate was conducted. A suite of 21 coal and coke samples varying in rank from anthracitic to lignitic and heating rates from 10{degrees}C/min to about 450{degrees}C/min were used in the study. Heating rates up to 60{degrees}C per minute, which are typically used in ASTM Test Method 5142 (instrumental Proximate Analysis), were achieved in a macro thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) system. Heating rates of 50-200{degrees}C/min were obtained in a micro TGA system. All measurements were made in a nitrogen atmosphere. The results of the study illustrate the dependence of the volatile matter yield on the heating rate. For most coals and cokes the optimum heating rate for determining volatile matter values that agree with those obtained by ASTM Method D 3175 appears to be in the 100-150{degrees}C range.

  2. CEC-500-2010-FS-017 Volatility of Ultrafine Particulate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gas Vehicles TRANSPORTATION ENERGY RESEARCH PIER Transportation Research www. Limited research has been done to characterize compressed natural gas mass emissions and practically-volatile and semi-volatile fractions of ultrafine particulate matter emissions from compressed natural gas vehicles

  3. Dark matter limits froma 15 kg windowless bubble chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szydagis, Matthew Mark; /Chicago U.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The COUPP collaboration has successfully used bubble chambers, a technology previously applied only to high-energy physics experiments, as direct dark matter detectors. It has produced the world's most stringent spin-dependent WIMP limits, and increasingly competitive spin-independent limits. These limits were achieved by capitalizing on an intrinsic rejection of the gamma background that all other direct detection experiments must address through high-density shielding and empirically-determined data cuts. The history of COUPP, including its earliest prototypes and latest results, is briefly discussed in this thesis. The feasibility of a new, windowless bubble chamber concept simpler and more inexpensive in design is discussed here as well. The dark matter limits achieved with a 15 kg windowless chamber, larger than any previous COUPP chamber (2 kg, 4 kg), are presented. Evidence of the greater radiopurity of synthetic quartz compared to natural is presented using the data from this 15 kg device, the first chamber to be made from synthetic quartz. The effective reconstruction of the three-dimensional positions of bubbles in a highly distorted optical field, with ninety-degree bottom lighting similar to cloud chamber lighting, is demonstrated. Another innovation described in this thesis is the use of the sound produced by bubbles recorded by an array of piezoelectric sensors as the primary means of bubble detection. In other COUPP chambers, cameras have been used as the primary trigger. Previous work on bubble acoustic signature differentiation using piezos is built upon in order to further demonstrate the ability to discriminate between alpha- and neutron-induced events.

  4. Baryonic Dark Matter: Limits from HST and ISO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerard Gilmore; IoA Cambridge; UK

    1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent HST and ISO observations provide very severe limits on any compact baryonic contributions to galactic (dark) halos. When combined with Milky Way Galaxy microlensing results, almost the entire plausible range of massive compact baryonic objects is excluded by direct observation. Deep direct imaging at 7mu and 15mu with ISOCAM on the ISO spacecraft directly excludes hydrogen-burning stars of any mass above the hydrogen-burning limit, and of any chemical abundance, from being the predominant explanation of the dark halos of external spiral galaxies. In the Milky Way Galaxy, HST has provided luminosity functions to the hydrogen-burning limit in several globular clusters. The resulting mass functions do not provide any support for dominance by very low-mass stars. This is consistent with field surveys for sub-stellar mass brown dwarfs, which show such objects to be relatively rare. These results are complemented by very deep HST luminosity functions in the Large Magellanic Cloud, providing strong support for the (near)-universality of the stellar mass function. Very recent HST results are available for the nearby dSph galaxy UMi. This galaxy, the most dark-matter dominated object known on kpc scales, has a normal stellar mass function at low masses. The prospects are bright for dark elementary particles.

  5. Gravitational Lensing Limits on Cold Dark Matter and Its Variants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher S. Kochanek

    1994-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard $\\Omega_0=1$ cold dark matter (CDM) needs $0.27 < \\sigma_8 < 0.63$ ($2\\sigma$) to fit the observed number of large separation lenses, and the constraint is nearly independent of $H_0=100h^{-1}\\kms$ Mpc$^{-1}$. This range is strongly inconsistent with the COBE estimate of $\\sigma_8=(2.8\\pm0.2)h$. Tilting the primordial spectrum $\\propto k^n$ from $n=1$ to $0.3 \\ltorder n \\ltorder 0.7$, using an effective Hubble constant of $0.15 \\ltorder \\Gamma=h \\ltorder 0.30$, or reducing the matter density to $0.15 \\ltorder \\Omega_0 h \\ltorder 0.3$ either with no cosmological constant ($\\lambda_0=0$) or in a flat universe with a cosmological constant ($\\Omega_0+\\lambda_0=1$) can bring the lensing estimate of $\\sigma_8$ into agreement with the COBE estimates. The models and values for $\\sigma_8$ consistent with both lensing and COBE match the estimates from the local number density of clusters and correlation functions. The conclusions are insensitive to systematic errors except for the assumption that cluster core radii are singular. If clusters with $\\rho\\propto(r^2+s^2)^{-1}$ have core radii exceeding $s = 15h^{-1}\\sigma_3^2$ kpc for a cluster with velocity dispersion $\\sigma=10^3\\sigma_3 \\kms$ then the estimates are invalid. There is, however, a fine tuning problem in making the cluster core radii large enough to invalidate the estimates of $\\sigma_8$ while producing several lenses that do not have central or ``odd images.'' The estimated completeness of the current samples of lenses larger than $5\\parcs0$ is 20\\%, because neither quasar surveys nor lens surveys are optimized to this class of lenses.

  6. General relativity limit of the scalar-tensor theories for traceless matter field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bhadra

    2002-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    $\\omega(\\phi) \\to \\infty$ limit of scalar tensor theories are studied for traceless matter source. It is shown that the limit $\\omega(\\phi) \\to \\infty$ does not reduce a scalar tensor theory to general relativity. An exact radiation solution of scalar tensor cosmology under Nordtvedt conditions is obtained for flat Friedmann universe.

  7. Nuclear spin structure in dark matter search: The finite momentum transfer limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Bednyakov; F. Simkovic

    2006-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Spin-dependent elastic scattering of weakly interacting massive dark matter particles (WIMP) off nuclei is reviewed. All available, within different nuclear models, structure functions S(q) for finite momentum transfer (q>0) are presented. These functions describe the recoil energy dependence of the differential event rate due to the spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon interactions. This paper, together with the previous paper ``Nuclear spin structure in dark matter search: The zero momentum transfer limit'', completes our review of the nuclear spin structure calculations involved in the problem of direct dark matter search.

  8. Limits in late time conversion of cold dark matter into dark radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boriero, D.; Holanda, P. C. de; Motta, M., E-mail: danielb@ifi.unicamp.br, E-mail: holanda@ifi.unicamp.br, E-mail: mmota@ifi.unicamp.br [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin – UNICAMP, 13083-859, Campinas SP (Brazil)

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structure formation creates high temperature and density regions in the Universe that allow the conversion of matter into more stable states, with a corresponding emission of relativistic matter and radiation. An example of such a mechanism is the supernova event, that releases relativistic neutrinos corresponding to 99% of the binding energy of remnant neutron star. We take this phenomena as a starting point for an assumption that similar processes could occur in the dark sector, where structure formation would generate a late time conversion of cold dark matter into a relativistic form of dark matter. We performed a phenomenological study about the limits of this conversion, where we assumed a transition profile that is a generalized version of the neutrino production in supernovae events. With this assumption, we obtained an interesting modification for the constraint over the cold dark matter density. We show that when comparing with the standard ?CDM cosmology, there is no preference for conversion, although the best fit is within 1? from the standard model best fit. The methodology and the results obtained qualify this conversion hypothesis, from the large scale structure point of view, as a viable and interesting model to be tested in the future with small scale data, and mitigate discrepancies between observations at this scale and the pure cold dark matter model.

  9. Limits on supersymmetric dark matter from EGRET observations of the Galactic center region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooper, Dan [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin, 53706 (United States); Dingus, Brenda L. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin, 53706 (United States); Los Alamos National Lab, Mississippi H803 P-23, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In most supersymmetic models, neutralino dark matter particles are predicted to accumulate in the Galactic center and annihilate generating, among other products, gamma rays. The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope has made observations in this region, and is sensitive to gamma rays from 30 MeV to {approx}30 GeV. We have used an improved point source analysis including an energy dependent point spread function and an unbinned maximum likelihood technique, which has allowed us to lower the limits on gamma ray flux from the Galactic center by more than 1 order of magnitude. We find that the present Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope data can limit many supersymmetric models if the density of the Galactic dark matter halo is cuspy or spiked toward the Galactic center. We also discuss the ability of the Gamma ray Large Area Space Telescope to test these models.

  10. Limits on Supersymmetric Dark Matter From EGRET Observations of the Galactic Center Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dan Hooper; Brenda Dingus

    2002-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In most supersymmetic models, neutralino dark matter particles are predicted to accumulate in the Galactic center and annihilate generating, among other products, gamma rays. The EGRET experiment has made observations in this region, and is sensitive to gamma rays from 30 MeV to $\\sim$30 GeV. We have used an improved point source analysis including an energy dependent point spread function and an unbinned maximum likelihood technique, which has allowed us to significantly lower the limits on gamma ray flux from the Galactic center. We find that the present EGRET data can limit many supersymmetric models if the density of the Galactic dark matter halo is cuspy or spiked toward the Galactic center. We also discuss the ability of GLAST to test these models.

  11. Limits on Supersymmetric Dark Matter From EGRET Observations of the Galactic Center Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hooper, D; Hooper, Dan; Dingus, Brenda

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In most supersymmetic models, neutralino dark matter particles are predicted to accumulate in the Galactic center and annihilate generating, among other products, gamma rays. The EGRET experiment has made observations in this region, and is sensitive to gamma rays from 30 MeV to $\\sim$30 GeV. We have used an improved point source analysis including an energy dependent point spread function and an unbinned maximum likelihood technique, which has allowed us to significantly lower the limits on gamma ray flux from the Galactic center. We find that the present EGRET data can limit many supersymmetric models if the density of the Galactic dark matter halo is cuspy or spiked toward the Galactic center. We also discuss the ability of GLAST to test these models.

  12. Cold dilute neutron matter on the lattice II: Results in the unitary limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean Lee; Thomas Schaefer

    2005-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the second of two papers which investigate cold dilute neutron matter on the lattice using pionless effective field theory. In the unitary limit, where the effective range is zero and scattering length is infinite, simple scaling relations relate thermodynamic functions at different temperatures. When the second virial coefficient is properly tuned, we find that the lattice results obey these scaling relations. We compute the energy per particle, pressure, spin susceptibility, dineutron correlation function, and an upper bound for the superfluid critical temperature.

  13. WIMP Dark Matter Limit-Direct Detection Data and Sensitivity Plots from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search II and the University of California at Santa Barbara

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Expectations for non-baryonic dark matter are founded principally in Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations, which indicate that the missing mass of the universe is not likely to be baryonic. The supersymmetric standard model (SUSY) offers a promising framework for expectations of particle species which could satisfy the observed properties of dark matter. WIMPs are the most likely SUSY candidate for a dark matter particle. The High Energy Physics Group at University of California, Santa Barbara, is part of the CDMSII Collaboration and have provided the Interactive Plotter for WIMP Dark Matter Limit-Direct Detection Data on their website. They invite other collaborations working on dark matter research to submit datasets and, as a result, have more than 150 data sets now available for use with the plotting tool. The published source of the data is provided with each data set.

  14. Improved Limits on Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter using Full-Sky Fermi-GBM Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Kenny C Y; Gaskins, Jennifer M; Smith, Miles; Preece, Robert

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sterile neutrino of ~keV mass is a well motivated dark matter candidate. Its decay generates a X-ray line which offers a unique target for X-ray telescopes. For the first time, we use the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope to search for sterile neutrino decay lines; our analysis covers the energy range 10-25 keV (sterile neutrino mass 20-50 keV), which is inaccessible to X-ray and gamma-ray satellites such as Chandra, Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and INTEGRAL. The extremely wide field of view of the GBM enables a large fraction of the Milky Way dark matter halo to be probed. After implementing careful data cuts, we obtain ~53 days of full sky observational data. We search for sterile neutrino decay lines in the energy spectrum, and find no significant signal. From this, we obtain upper limits on the sterile neutrino mixing angle as a function of mass. In the sterile neutrino mass range 25-40 keV, we improve upon previous upper limits by approximately an order of magnitude. Bett...

  15. Improved Spin Dependent Limits from the PICASSO Dark Matter Search Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnabe-Heider, M; Clark, K; Marco, M D; Doane, P; Feighery, W; Genest, M H; Gornea, R; Guenette, R; Kanagalingam, S; Krauss, C; Leroy, C; Lessard, L; Levine, I; Martin, J P; Mathusi, C; Noble, A; Noulty, R; Wichoski, U; Zacek, V

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The PICASSO experiment reports an improved limit for the existence of cold dark matter WIMPs interacting via spin-dependent interactions with nuclei. The experiment is installed in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory at a depth of 2070 m. With superheated C4F10 droplets as the active material, and an exposure of 1.98+-0.19 kgd, no evidence for a WIMP signal was found. For a WIMP mass of 29 GeV/c2, limits on the spin-dependent cross section on protons of sigma_p = 1.31 pb and on neutrons of sigma_n = 21.5 pb have been obtained at 90% C.L. In both cases, some new parameter space in the region of WIMP masses below 20 GeV/c2 has now been ruled out. The results of these measurements are also presented in terms of limits on the effective WIMP-proton and neutron coupling strengths a_p and a_n.

  16. Improved Spin Dependent Limits from the PICASSO Dark Matter Search Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The PICASSO Collaboration; M. Barnabe-Heider; E. Behnke; K. Clark; M. Di Marco; P. Doane; W. Feighery; M. -H. Genest; R. Gornea; R. Guenette; S. Kanagalingam; C. B. Krauss; C. Leroy; L. Lessard; I. Levine; J. -P. Martin; C. Muthusi; A. J. Noble; R. Noulty; U. Wichoski; V. Zacek

    2005-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The PICASSO experiment reports an improved limit for the existence of cold dark matter WIMPs interacting via spin-dependent interactions with nuclei. The experiment is installed in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory at a depth of 2070 m. With superheated C4F10 droplets as the active material, and an exposure of 1.98+-0.19 kgd, no evidence for a WIMP signal was found. For a WIMP mass of 29 GeV/c2, limits on the spin-dependent cross section on protons of sigma_p = 1.31 pb and on neutrons of sigma_n = 21.5 pb have been obtained at 90% C.L. In both cases, some new parameter space in the region of WIMP masses below 20 GeV/c2 has now been ruled out. The results of these measurements are also presented in terms of limits on the effective WIMP-proton and neutron coupling strengths a_p and a_n.

  17. Exclusion limits on the WIMP-nucleon cross-section from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CDMS Collaboration

    2002-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) employs low-temperature Ge and Si detectors to search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) via their elastic-scattering interactions with nuclei while discriminating against interactions of background particles. For recoil energies above 10 keV, events due to background photons are rejected with >99.9% efficiency, and surface events are rejected with >95% efficiency. The estimate of the background due to neutrons is based primarily on the observation of multiple-scatter events that should all be neutrons. Data selection is determined primarily by examining calibration data and vetoed events. Resulting efficiencies should be accurate to about 10%. Results of CDMS data from 1998 and 1999 with a relaxed fiducial-volume cut (resulting in 15.8 kg-days exposure on Ge) are consistent with an earlier analysis with a more restrictive fiducial-volume cut. Twenty-three WIMP candidate events are observed, but these events are consistent with a background from neutrons in all ways tested. Resulting limits on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic-scattering cross-section exclude unexplored parameter space for WIMPs with masses between 10-70 GeV c^{-2}. These limits border, but do not exclude, parameter space allowed by supersymmetry models and accelerator constraints. Results are compatible with some regions reported as allowed at 3-sigma by the annual-modulation measurement of the DAMA collaboration. However, under the assumptions of standard WIMP interactions and a standard halo, the results are incompatible with the DAMA most likely value at >99.9% CL, and are incompatible with the model-independent annual-modulation signal of DAMA at 99.99% CL in the asymptotic limit.

  18. Improving the Angular Resolution of EGRET and New Limits on Supersymmetric Dark Matter Near the Galactic Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dan Hooper; Brenda Dingus

    2002-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the EGRET data and an improved point source analysis, including an energy dependent point spread function and an unbinned maximum likelihood technique, we have been able to place considerably lower limits on the gamma ray flux from the galactic center region. We also test this method on known sources, the Crab and Vela pulsars. In both cases, we find that our method improves the angular precision of EGRET data over the 3EG catalog. This new limit on gamma rays from the galactic center can be used to test models of annihilating supersymmetric dark matter and galactic halo profiles. We find that the present EGRET data can limit many supersymmetric models if the density of the galactic dark matter halo is cuspy or spiked toward the galactic center. We also discuss the ability of GLAST to test these models.

  19. Improving the Angular Resolution of EGRET and New Limits on Supersymmetric Dark Matter Near the Galactic Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hooper, D; Hooper, Dan; Dingus, Brenda

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the EGRET data and an improved point source analysis, including an energy dependent point spread function and an unbinned maximum likelihood technique, we have been able to place considerably lower limits on the gamma ray flux from the galactic center region. We also test this method on known sources, the Crab and Vela pulsars. In both cases, we find that our method improves the angular precision of EGRET data over the 3EG catalog. This new limit on gamma rays from the galactic center can be used to test models of annihilating supersymmetric dark matter and galactic halo profiles. We find that the present EGRET data can limit many supersymmetric models if the density of the galactic dark matter halo is cuspy or spiked toward the galactic center. We also discuss the ability of GLAST to test these models.

  20. volatility. atthemoney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyuu, Yuh-Dauh

    volatility is lowest for at­the­money options. -- It becomes higher the further the option is in­ or out­of­the­money (concluded) . Suppose a year has 260 trading days. . A quick and dirty way is to replace # with a # # 365 260

  1. The Mass-Function of Low Mass Halo Stars: Limits on Baryonic Halo Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David S. Graff; Katherine Freese

    1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive mass functions (MF) for halo red dwarfs (the faintest hydrogen burning stars) and then extrapolate to place limits on the total mass of halo brown dwarfs (stars not quite massive enough to burn hydrogen). The mass functions are obtained from the luminosity function of a sample of 114 local halo stars in the USNO parallax survey (Dahn \\etal 1995). We use stellar models of Alexander \\etal (1996) and make varying assumptions about metallicity and about possible unresolved binaries in the sample. We find that the MF for halo red dwarfs cannot rise more quickly than $1/m^2$ as one approaches the hydrogen burning limit. Using recent results from star formation theory, we extrapolate the MF into the brown-dwarf regime. We see that likely extrapolations imply that the total mass of brown dwarfs in the halo is less than $\\sim 3\\%$ of the local mass density of the halo ($\\sim 0.3\\%$ for the more realistic models we consider). Our limits apply to brown dwarfs in the halo that come from the same stellar population as the red dwarfs.

  2. Modular Invariant Soft Breaking, WMAP, Dark Matter and Sparticle Mass Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chattopadhyay, Utpal; Chattopadhyay, Utpal; Nath, Pran

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis of soft breaking under the constraint of modular invariance is given. The role of dilaton and moduli dependent front factors in achieving a modular invariant $V_{soft}$ is emphasized. Further, it is shown that in string models $\\tan\\beta$ is no longer a free parameter but is determined in terms of $\\alpha_{string}$ and the other soft parameters by the constraints of modular invariance and radiative electroweak symmetry breaking. The above framework is then used to analyze the neutralino relic density consistent with the WMAP data at self dual points in the Kahler and complex structure moduli. One finds that the combined set of constraints arising from modular invariant soft breaking, radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and WMAP lead to upper limits on sparticle masses for $\\mu>0$. These limits are investigated for a class of models and found to lie within reach of the Tevatron and of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Further, an analysis of the neutralino-proton cross section shows that dark ma...

  3. Improved limits on sterile neutrino dark matter from full-sky observations by the Fermi-GBM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Gaskins, Jennifer M; Smith, Miles; Preece, Robert

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the first time, we use the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board the Fermi satellite to search for sterile neutrino decay lines in the energy range 10-25 keV corresponding to sterile neutrino mass range 20-50 keV. This energy range has been out of reach of traditional X-ray satellites such as Chandra, Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and gamma-ray satellites such as INTEGRAL. Furthermore, the extremely wide field of view of the GBM opens a large fraction of the Milky Way dark matter halo to be probed. We start with 1601 days worth of GBM data, implement stringent data cuts, and perform two simple line search analyses on the reduced data: in the first, the line flux is limited without background modeling, and in the second, the background is modeled as a power-law. We find no significant excess lines in both our searches. We set new limits on sterile neutrino mixing angles, improving on previous limits by approximately an order of magnitude. Better understanding of detector and astrophysical backgrounds, as well as de...

  4. First limits on WIMP nuclear recoil signals in ZEPLIN-II: a two phase xenon detector for dark matter detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. J. Alner; H. M. Araujo; A. Bewick; C. Bungau; B. Camanzi; M. J. Carson; R. J. Cashmore; H. Chagani; V. Chepel; D. Cline; D. Davidge; J. C. Davies; E. Daw; J. Dawson; T. Durkin; B. Edwards; T. Gamble; J. Gao; C. Ghag; A. S. Howard; W. G. Jones; M. Joshi; E. V. Korolkova; V. A. Kudryavtsev; T. Lawson; V. N. Lebedenko; J. D. Lewin; P. Lightfoot; A. Lindote; I. Liubarsky; M. I. Lopes; R. Luscher; P. Majewski; K Mavrokoridis; J. E. McMillan; B. Morgan; D. Muna; A. St. J. Murphy; F. Neves; G. G. Nicklin; W. Ooi; S. M. Paling; J. Pinto da Cunha; S. J. S. Plank; R. M. Preece; J. J. Quenby; M. Robinson; F. Sergiampietri; C. Silva; V. N. Solovov; N. J. T. Smith; P. F. Smith; N. J. C. Spooner; T. J. Sumner; C. Thorne; D. R. Tovey; E. Tziaferi; R. J. Walker; H. Wang; J. White; F. L. H. Wolfs

    2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented from the first underground data run of ZEPLIN-II, a 31 kg two phase xenon detector developed to observe nuclear recoils from hypothetical weakly interacting massive dark matter particles. Discrimination between nuclear recoils and background electron recoils is afforded by recording both the scintillation and ionisation signals generated within the liquid xenon, with the ratio of these signals being different for the two classes of event. This ratio is calibrated for different incident species using an AmBe neutron source and Co-60 gamma-ray sources. From our first 31 live days of running ZEPLIN-II, the total exposure following the application of fiducial and stability cuts was 225 kgxdays. A background population of radon progeny events was observed in this run, arising from radon emission in the gas purification getters, due to radon daughter ion decays on the surfaces of the walls of the chamber. An acceptance window, defined by the neutron calibration data, of 50% nuclear recoil acceptance between 5 keVee and 20 keVee, had an observed count of 29 events, with a summed expectation of 28.6+/-4.3 gamma-ray and radon progeny induced background events. These figures provide a 90% c.l. upper limit to the number of nuclear recoils of 10.4 events in this acceptance window, which converts to a WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross-section with a minimum of 6.6x10^-7 pb following the inclusion of an energy dependent, calibrated, efficiency. A second run is currently underway in which the radon progeny will be eliminated, thereby removing the background population, with a projected sensitivity of 2x10^-7 pb for similar exposures as the first run.

  5. Propagation In Matter Of Currents Of Relativistic Electrons Beyond The Alfven Limit, Produced In Ultra-High-Intensity Short-Pulse Laser-Matter Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batani, D.; Manclossi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'G.Occhialini', Universita di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); INFM, Universita di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, UMR ENSTA-CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Baton, S.D.; Amiranoff, F.; Koenig, M.; Gremillet, L.; Popescu, H. [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-X-Paris VI, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Santos, J.J. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, UMR ENSTA-CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-X-Paris VI, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Martinolli, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'G.Occhialini', Universita di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); INFM, Universita di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-X-Paris VI, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Antonicci, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'G.Occhialini', Universita di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); INFM, Universita di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Rousseaux, C.; Rabec Le Gloahec, M. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Hall, T. [University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex, CO4 3SQ (United Kingdom); Malka, V. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, UMR ENSTA-CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Cowan, T.E.; Stephens, R. [Inertial Fusion Technology Division, Fusion Group, General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Key, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA (United States); King, J.; Freeman, R. [Department of Applied Sciences, University of California Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the results of several experiments performed at the LULI laboratory (Palaiseau, France) concerning the propagation of large relativistic currents in matter from ultra-high-intensity laser pulse interaction with target. We present our results according to the type of diagnostics used in the experiments: 1) K{alpha} emission and K{alpha} imaging, 2) study of target rear side emission in the visible region, 3) time resolved optical shadowgraphy.

  6. Low surface brightness galaxies rotation curves in the low energy limit of $R^n$ gravity : no need for dark matter?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Capozziello; V. F. Cardone; A. - Troisi

    2006-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the possibility that the observed flatness of the rotation curves of spiral galaxies is not an evidence for the existence of dark matter haloes, but rather a signal of the breakdown of General Relativity. To this aim, we consider power - law fourth order theories of gravity obtained by replacing the scalar curvature $R$ with $f(R) = f_0 R^n$ in the gravity Lagrangian. We show that, in the low energy limit, the gravitational potential generated by a pointlike source may be written as $\\Phi(r) \\propto r^{-1} \\left [ 1 + (r/r_c)^{\\beta} \\right ]$ with $\\beta$ a function of the slope $n$ of the gravity Lagrangian and $r_c$ a scalelength depending on the gravitating system properties. In order to apply the model to realistic systems, we compute the modified potential and the rotation curve for spherically symmetric and for thin disk mass distributions. It turns out that the potential is still asymptotically decreasing, but the corrected rotation curve, although not flat, is higher than the Newtonian one thus offering the possibility to fit rotation curves without dark matter. To test the viability of the model, we consider a sample of 15 low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies with combined HI and H$\\alpha$ measurements of the rotation curve extending in the putative dark matter dominated region. We find a very good agreement between the theoretical rotation curve and the data using only stellar disk and interstellar gas.

  7. Volatiles in protoplanetary disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Bergin, Edwin A; Brittain, Sean; Marty, Bernard; Mousis, Olvier; Oberg, Karin L

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatiles are compounds with low sublimation temperatures, and they make up most of the condensible mass in typical planet-forming environments. They consist of relatively small, often hydrogenated, molecules based on the abundant elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Volatiles are central to the process of planet formation, forming the backbone of a rich chemistry that sets the initial conditions for the formation of planetary atmospheres, and act as a solid mass reservoir catalyzing the formation of planets and planetesimals. This growth has been driven by rapid advances in observations and models of protoplanetary disks, and by a deepening understanding of the cosmochemistry of the solar system. Indeed, it is only in the past few years that representative samples of molecules have been discovered in great abundance throughout protoplanetary disks - enough to begin building a complete budget for the most abundant elements after hydrogen and helium. The spatial distributions of key volatiles are being mapped...

  8. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

  9. Consideration of gravitational time delay and limitation of equivalence principle of inert and gravitational masses erases the problem of dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikhail A. Samokhvalov

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work is based on the equation of relativistic dynamics, the law of mass conservation of material body moving in gravitational field and the influence of gravitation on time passage discovered by Einstein. The formulae describing changes of inert and gravitational masses of material body were found. A new formula for the power of gravitational interaction of material bodies was derived. Newtons formula was shown to be the approximation of the new formula. It was determined that the equivalence principle of inert and gravitational masses is not universal. This principle is true with definite accuracy within the Solar system, when the sum of kinetic and potential energies of a material body is equal to zero. Limitation of the equivalence principle of inert and gravitational masses for galactic star systems erases the problem of dark matter.

  10. Exclusion limits on the WIMP-nucleon cross section from the first run of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search in the Soudan Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armel-Funkhouser, M.S.; /UC, Berkeley; Attisha, M.J.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Bailey, C.N.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Baudis, L.; /Florida U.; Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab; Brink, P.L.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Bunker, R.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Cabrera, B.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Caldwell, D.O.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Chang, C.L.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Crisler, M.B.; /Fermilab; Cushman, P.; /Minnesota U.; Daal, M.; /UC, Berkeley; Dixon, R.; /Fermilab; Dragowsky, M.R.; Driscoll, D.D.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Duong, L.; /Minnesota U.; Ferril, R.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Filippini, J.; /UC, Berkeley; Gaitskell, R.J.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; /Case Western Reserve U. /Fermilab /Case Western Reserve

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS-II) employs low-temperature Ge and Si detectors to seek Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) via their elastic scattering interactions with nuclei. Simultaneous measurements of both ionization and phonon energy provide discrimination against interactions of background particles. For recoil energies above 10 keV, events due to background photons are rejected with > 99.99% efficiency. Electromagnetic events very near the detector surface can mimic nuclear recoils because of reduced charge collection, but these surface events are rejected with > 96% efficiency by using additional information from the phonon pulse shape. Efficient use of active and passive shielding, combined with the 2090 m.w.e. overburden at the experimental site in the Soudan mine, makes the background from neutrons negligible for this first exposure. All cuts are determined in a blind manner from in situ calibrations with external radioactive sources without any prior knowledge of the event distribution in the signal region. Resulting efficiencies are known to {approx}10%. A single event with a recoil of 64 keV passes all of the cuts and is consistent with the expected misidentification rate of surface-electron recoils. Under the assumptions for a standard dark matter halo, these data exclude previously unexplored parameter space for both spin-independent and spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering. The resulting limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic-scattering cross-section has a minimum of 4 x 10{sup -43} cm{sup 2} at a WIMP mass of 60 GeV c{sup -2}. The minimum of the limit for the spin-dependent WIMP-neutron elastic-scattering cross-section is 2 x 10{sup -37} cm{sup 2} at a WIMP mass of 50 GeV c{sup -2}.

  11. Realized Stock Volatility 2.1 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niebur, Ernst

    Chapter 2 Realized Stock Volatility 2.1 Introduction Financial market volatility is indispensable for asset and derivative pricing, asset allocation, and risk management. As volatility is not a directly is to calculate the daily volatility from the sample variance of intraday returns, the `realized' volatility

  12. Low surface brightness galaxies rotation curves in the low energy limit of $R^n$ gravity no need for dark matter?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capozziello, S; Troisi, A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the possibility that the observed flatness of the rotation curves of spiral galaxies is not an evidence for the existence of dark matter haloes, but rather a signal of the breakdown of General Relativity. To this aim, we consider power - law fourth order theories of gravity obtained by replacing the scalar curvature $R$ with $f(R) = f_0 R^n$ in the gravity Lagrangian. We show that, in the low energy limit, the gravitational potential generated by a pointlike source may be written as $\\Phi(r) \\propto r^{-1} \\left [ 1 + (r/r_c)^{\\beta} \\right ]$ with $\\beta$ a function of the slope $n$ of the gravity Lagrangian and $r_c$ a scalelength depending on the gravitating system properties. In order to apply the model to realistic systems, we compute the modified potential and the rotation curve for spherically symmetric and for thin disk mass distributions. It turns out that the potential is still asymptotically decreasing, but the corrected rotation curve, although not flat, is higher than the Newtonian...

  13. CALIBRATION OF VOLATILITY SURFACES Stphane CRPEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Printems, Jacques

    CALIBRATION OF VOLATILITY SURFACES Stéphane CR�PEY Université d'�vry & ARTABEL SA GT MATHFI Calibration, 5 June 2003 Figure 1: Volatility Smile #12;GT MATHFI Calibration 5 June 2003 1 Basics CR�PEY Page 1 #12;GT MATHFI Calibration 5 June 2003 Smile of implied volatility Stochastic volatility d

  14. Limits on a muon flux from Kaluza-Klein dark matter annihilations in the Sun from the IceCube 22-string detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbasi, R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    matter annihilations in the Sun from the IceCube 22-stringmatter annihilations in the Sun from the IceCube 22-stringmatter annihilations in the Sun has been performed with the

  15. Volatility in natural gas and oil markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using daily futures price data, I examine the behavior of natural gas and crude oil price volatility since 1990. I test whether there has been a significant trend in volatility, whether there was a short-term increase in ...

  16. Limits on Low-Mass WIMP Dark Matter with an Ultra-Low-Energy Germanium Detector at 220 eV Threshold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin-Ted Lin; H. T. Wong; for the TEXONO Collaboration

    2008-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy threshold of (220$\\pm$10) eV was achieved at an efficiency of 50% with a four-channel ultra-low-energy germanium detector each with an active mass of 5 g\\cite{wimppaper}. This provides a unique probe to WIMP dark matter with mass below 10 GeV. With low background data taken at the Kuo-Sheng Laboratory, constraints on WIMPs in the galactic halo were derived. Both spin-independent WIMP-nucleon and spin-dependent WIMP-neutron bounds improve over previous results for WIMP mass between 3$-$6 GeV. These results, together with those on spin-dependent couplings, will be presented. Sensitivities for full-scale experiments were projected. This detector technique makes the unexplored sub-keV energy window accessible for new neutrino and dark matter experiments.

  17. NoVaS Transformations: Flexible Inference for Volatility Forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politis, Dimitris N; Thomakos, Dimitrios D

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NoVaS Transformations: Flexible Inference for VolatilityNoVaS Transformations: Flexible Inference for Volatility

  18. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular...

  19. Detecting Contagion with Correlation: Volatility and Timing Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dungey, Mardi; Yalama, Abdullah

    , UK, Italy, Germany and Switzerland follow Austria with variances of under 1% in pre-crisis period to in some cases over 5% in the post-crisis period. Similar patterns are mirrored in the 4pm where the Austrian variance rises from nearly 0.99... .E. and Pritsker, M., 2002, A Rational Expectations Model of Financial Contagion, Journal of Finance, 57, 2, 768-99. [8] Martens, M. and Poon, S-H., 2001, Returns Synchronization and Daily Correlation Dynamics Between International Stock Markets, Journal of Banking...

  20. Moment Methods for Exotic Volatility Derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albanese, Claudio

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The latest generation of volatility derivatives goes beyond variance and volatility swaps and probes our ability to price realized variance and sojourn times along bridges for the underlying stock price process. In this paper, we give an operator algebraic treatment of this problem based on Dyson expansions and moment methods and discuss applications to exotic volatility derivatives. The methods are quite flexible and allow for a specification of the underlying process which is semi-parametric or even non-parametric, including state-dependent local volatility, jumps, stochastic volatility and regime switching. We find that volatility derivatives are particularly well suited to be treated with moment methods, whereby one extrapolates the distribution of the relevant path functionals on the basis of a few moments. We consider a number of exotics such as variance knockouts, conditional corridor variance swaps, gamma swaps and variance swaptions and give valuation formulas in detail.

  1. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY); Bomstad, Theresa M. (Laramie, WY); Sorini-Wong, Susan S. (Laramie, WY)

    2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  2. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY); Bomstad, Theresa M. (Waxahachie, TX); Sorini-Wong, Susan S. (Laramie, WY); Wong, Gregory K. (Laramie, WY)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  3. Dark matter and cosmology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ``cold`` and ``hot`` non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ``seeds`` that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  4. Dark matter and cosmology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between cold'' and hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  5. Detection of Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy. Detection of Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy....

  6. New, improved equation solves for volatile oil, condensate reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, M.P. (Petroleum Recovery Research Inst., Austin, TX (United States))

    1994-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A new generalized material-balance equation (GMBE) can be applied to the full range of reservoir fluids, including volatile oil and gas condensate. The GMBE replaces the nearly 60-year-old conventional material-balance equation (CMBE). Material balance methods are routinely used by petroleum engineers to estimate reserves. The so-called straight-line methods are the most common. Two of the most popular are: P/z-plot for estimating gas reserves in a dry-gas reservoir; and Havlena and Odeh method for estimating original oil-in-place (N) and original gas-in-place (G) in a black-oil reservoir. A major shortcoming of these and other straight-line methods is that none apply to the full range of reservoir fluids and very few, if any, deal satisfactorily with volatile oil and rich gas condensate. Also, the limits of the methods are not well defined. As drilling goes deeper and more volatile oil and gas-condensate reservoirs are discovered, there is a growing need for a general straight-line method to estimate N and G. For the GMBE, no restrictions are placed on the initial fluid compositions.

  7. Securing non-volatile memory regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faraboschi, Paolo; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy; Muralimanohar, Naveen

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods, apparatus and articles of manufacture to secure non-volatile memory regions are disclosed. An example method disclosed herein comprises associating a first key pair and a second key pair different than the first key pair with a process, using the first key pair to secure a first region of a non-volatile memory for the process, and using the second key pair to secure a second region of the non-volatile memory for the same process, the second region being different than the first region.

  8. On the pricing and hedging of volatility derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howison, Sam

    On the pricing and hedging of volatility derivatives SAM HOWISON Mathematical Institute, University a stochastic volatility model as our starting point; we also provide formulae for the case that the volatility follows a jump- diffusion process of the type described in [18]. The fact that stochastic volatility

  9. The profitability of trading volatility using realvalued and symbolic models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tino, Peter

    implied volatility models . 1 Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF

  10. Reactive flash volatilization of fluid fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Dreyer, Bradon J.; Salge, James R.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods for the production of synthesis gas. More particularly, various embodiments of the invention relate to systems and methods for volatilizing fluid fuel to produce synthesis gas by using a metal catalyst on a solid support matrix.

  11. Metal volatilization and separation during incineration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, T.C.; Chu, H.W.; Hopper, J.R. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has reported that metals can account for almost all of the identified risks from a thermal treatment process. Fundamental research leading to better understanding of their behavior and improved control of their emissions is greatly needed. This paper reports studies on metal volatilization and separation during incineration. Metal volatilization studies were carried out in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, the dynamic volatilization characteristics of various metals during the combustion of metal-containing wood pellets were investigated in a high-temperature electric furnace. In addition to uncontrolled volatilization, the potential of employing chemical additives to bind metals and prevent them from volatilizing during combustion was also investigated. The second experiment involved the investigation of metal volatilization characteristics during the thermal treatment of metal-contaminated clay in a fluidized bed unit. The metal species tested in both experiments were compounds of lead and cadmium. Metal capture/separation studies were also carried out in two separate experiments. The first involved the use of sorbents in the combustion chamber to capture metals during the fluidized bed incineration of metal-containing wood pellets. The second experiments, however, employed sorbents to absorb metal vapors in a fluidized-bed waste-heat boiler. The objective of both the experiments is to characterize the metal absorption efficiency associated with the processes.

  12. FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing work toward the development of new screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of halogens. In prior work, the devices were tested for response to carbon tetrachloride, heptane, toluene, and water vapors. In the current work, sensor response was evaluated with sixteen halogenated VOCs relative to carbon tetrachloride. The results show that the response of the various chlorinated VOCs is within an order of magnitude of the response to carbon tetrachloride for each of the sensors. Thus, for field screening a single response factor can be used. Both types of leak detectors are being further modified to provide an on-board LCD signal readout, which is related to VOC concentration. The units will be fully portable and will operate with 115-V line or battery power. Signal background, noise level, and response data on the Bacharach heated diode detector and the TIF corona discharge detector show that when the response curves are plotted against the log of concentration, the plot is linear to the upper limit for the particular unit, with some curvature at lower levels. When response is plotted directly against concentration, the response is linear at the low end and is curved at the high end. The dynamic ranges for carbon tetrachloride of the two devices from the lower detection limit (S/N=2) to signal saturation are 4-850 vapor parts per million (vppm) for the corona discharge unit and 0.01-70 vppm for the heated diode unit. Additional circuit modifications are being made to lower the detection limit and increase the dynamic response range of the corona discharge unit. The results indicate that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work toward the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

  13. Axion Dark Matter Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Stern

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Nearly all astrophysical and cosmological data point convincingly to a large component of cold dark matter in the Universe. The axion particle, first theorized as a solution to the strong charge-parity problem of quantum chromodynamics, has been established as a prominent CDM candidate. Cosmic observation and particle physics experiments have bracketed the unknown mass of the axion between approximately a $\\mu$eV and a meV. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiement (ADMX) has successfully completed searches between 1.9 and 3.7 $\\mu$eV down to the KSVZ photon-coupling limit. ADMX and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiement High-Frequency (ADMX-HF) will search for axions at weaker coupling and/or higher frequencies within the next few years. Status of the experiments, current research and development, and projected mass-coupling exclusion limits are presented.

  14. Axion dark matter searches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, Ian P. [Department of Physics, Univerisity of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-8440 (United States); Collaboration: ADMX Collaboration; ADMX-HF Collaboration

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Nearly all astrophysical and cosmological data point convincingly to a large component of cold dark matter in the Universe. The axion particle, first theorized as a solution to the strong charge-parity problem of quantum chromodynamics, has been established as a prominent CDM candidate. Cosmic observation and particle physics experiments have bracketed the unknown mass of the axion between approximately a ?eV and a meV. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiement (ADMX) has successfully completed searches between 1.9 and 3.7 ?eV down to the KSVZ photon-coupling limit. ADMX and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiement High-Frequency (ADMX-HF) will search for axions at weaker coupling and/or higher frequencies within the next few years. Status of the experiments, current research and development, and projected mass-coupling exclusion limits are presented.

  15. Flow of Volatile-Free and Volatile-Rich Basaltic Magmas through Elastic-Walled Dikes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    averaged in "one-dimensional" flow tube. #12;Questions: · Can we obtain a simple 1D symmetric model) · Anisotropy 1 in horizontal and vertical rock stress #12;Elastic flow equations · Continuity equation t(m bFlow of Volatile-Free and Volatile-Rich Basaltic Magmas through Elastic-Walled Dikes O. Bokhove

  16. Dark Matters

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Joseph Silk

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark.  Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious, but pervasive dark matter which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe.  I will describe the complex interplay between galaxy formation and dark matter detectability and review recent attempts to measure particle dark matter by direct and indirect means.

  17. Non-volatile memory for checkpoint storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Cipolla, Thomas M.; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Ohmacht, Martin; Takken, Todd E.

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A system, method and computer program product for supporting system initiated checkpoints in high performance parallel computing systems and storing of checkpoint data to a non-volatile memory storage device. The system and method generates selective control signals to perform checkpointing of system related data in presence of messaging activity associated with a user application running at the node. The checkpointing is initiated by the system such that checkpoint data of a plurality of network nodes may be obtained even in the presence of user applications running on highly parallel computers that include ongoing user messaging activity. In one embodiment, the non-volatile memory is a pluggable flash memory card.

  18. Volatile Loss and Classification of Kuiper Belt Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, R E; Young, L A; Volkov, A N; Schmidt, C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations indicate that some of the largest Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) have retained volatiles in the gas phase, which implies the presence of an atmosphere that can affect their reflectance spectra and thermal balance. Volatile escape rates driven by solar heating of the surface were estimated by Schaller and Brown (2007) (SB) and Levi and Podolak (2009)(LP) using Jeans escape from the surface and a hydrodynamic model respectively. Based on recent molecular kinetic simulations these rates can be hugely in error (e.g., a factor of $\\sim 10^{16}$ for the SB estimate for Pluto). In this paper we estimate the loss of primordial N$_2$ for several large KBOs guided by recent molecular kinetic simulations of escape due to solar heating of the surface and due to UV/EUV heating of the upper atmosphere. For the latter we extrapolate simulations of escape from Pluto (Erwin et al. 2013) using the energy limited escape model recently validated for the KBOs of interest by molecular kinetic simulations (Johnson et al. 2...

  19. Forecasting Volatility in Stock Market Using GARCH Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Xiaorong

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Forecasting volatility has held the attention of academics and practitioners all over the world. The objective for this master's thesis is to predict the volatility in stock market by using generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity(GARCH...

  20. Thermodynamics of clusterized matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ad. R. Raduta; F. Gulminelli

    2009-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermodynamics of clusterized matter is studied in the framework of statistical models with non-interacting cluster degrees of freedom. At variance with the analytical Fisher model, exact Metropolis simulation results indicate that the transition from homogeneous to clusterized matter lies along the $\\rho=\\rho_0$ axis at all temperatures and the limiting point of the phase diagram is not a critical point even if the surface energy vanishes at this point. Sensitivity of the inferred phase diagram to the employed statistical framework in the case of finite systems is discussed by considering the grand-canonical and constant-pressure canonical ensembles. A Wigner-Seitz formalism in which the fragment charge is neutralized by an uniform electron distribution allows to build the phase diagram of neutron star matter.

  1. X-ray elemental online analyzer measures volatiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, A.; Pilz, K.; Reich, K. [Indutech Instruments GmbH, Simmersfeld (Germany)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of an online XRF analyser for determining the volatiles content of coal is outlined. 3 figs.

  2. Proboscis extension reflex platform for volatiles and semi-volatiles detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wingo, Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM); McCabe, Kirsten J. (Los Alamos, NM); Haarmann, Timothy K. (Jemez Pueblo, NM)

    2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides an apparatus for the detection of volatile and semi-volatile chemicals using the olfactory abilities of honey bees that are trained to respond to the presence of a specific chemical in a sample of gas with the proboscis extension reflex (PER). In particular, the geometry and arrangement of the parts of the apparatus are such that the amount of surface area in contact with the sample of gas prior to its introduction to the bees is minimized to improve the detection of particular volatile and semi-volatile that have a tendency to "stick" to contacting surfaces, especially certain chemicals associated with explosives and narcotics. According to another aspect of the present invention, a pre-concentrating means is incorporated with the device to effectively increase the concentration of "sticky" chemicals presented to the insects.

  3. Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herndon, S. C.

    A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the ...

  4. Dark matter particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Berezinsky

    1996-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The baryonic and cold dark matter are reviewed in the context of cosmological models. The theoretical search for the particle candidates is limited by supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. Generically in such models there are just two candidates associated with each other: generalized neutralino, which components are usual neutralino and axino, and axion which is a partner of axino in supermultiplet. The status of these particles as DM candidates is described.

  5. Cosmology, Thermodynamics and Matter Creation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. A. S. Lima; M. O. Calvao; I. Waga

    2007-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Several approaches to the matter creation problem in the context of cosmological models are summarily reviewed. A covariant formulation of the general relativistic imperfect simple fluid endowed with a process of matter creation is presented. By considering the standard big bang model, it is shown how the recent results of Prigogine et alii \\cite{1} can be recovered and, at the same time their limits of validity are explicited.

  6. Ammonia volatilization and nitrogen transformations in high pH soils used for beef manure disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Robert Edgar

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The total nitrogen losses in the limed treatments were believed to be caused by the high solubility of organic matter in high pH solutions followed by chemical volatilization of nitrogen as ammonia. Most of this ammonia was believed to have remained... as par t of the soil air and was lost when the soil samples were taken from the columns. Denitrification was believed to be responsible for losses in the unlimed treatments. Comparison of final organic and total inorganic nitrogen concen- trationss...

  7. Sample and Implied Volatility in GARCH Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kokoszka, Piotr

    Sample and Implied Volatility in GARCH Models Lajos Horva´th University of Utah Piotr Kokoszka Utah of various GARCH-type models is a function hðq� of the parameter vector q which is estimated by bq. For most distributions of the differences ^2 � hðq� and ^2 � hðbq� for broad classes of GARCH-type models. Even though

  8. Superconducting Detectors for Super Light Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yonit Hochberg; Yue Zhao; Kathryn M. Zurek

    2015-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and study a new class of of superconducting detectors which are sensitive to O(meV) electron recoils from dark matter-electron scattering. Such devices could detect dark matter as light as the warm dark matter limit, mX > keV. We compute the rate of dark matter scattering off free electrons in a (superconducting) metal, including the relevant Pauli blocking factors. We demonstrate that classes of dark matter consistent with all astrophysical and terrestrial constraints could be detected by such detectors with a moderate size exposure.

  9. Superconducting Detectors for Super Light Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Yonit; Zurek, Kathryn M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and study a new class of of superconducting detectors which are sensitive to O(meV) electron recoils from dark matter-electron scattering. Such devices could detect dark matter as light as the warm dark matter limit, mX > keV. We compute the rate of dark matter scattering off free electrons in a (superconducting) metal, including the relevant Pauli blocking factors. We demonstrate that classes of dark matter consistent with all astrophysical and terrestrial constraints could be detected by such detectors with a moderate size exposure.

  10. Pseudo-Goldstone modes in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, T.D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Broniowski, W. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors analyze the chiral limit in dense isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that the pseudo-Goldstone modes in this system are qualitatively different from the case of isospin-symmetric matter.

  11. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguirre, Anthony

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate can be very light, $10^{-22}\\,{\\rm eV} \\lesssim m \\lesssim 10^2\\,{\\rm eV}$; the lower limit arises from constraints on small-scale structure formation, while the upper bound ensures that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of deco...

  12. Matter Field, Dark Matter and Dark Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masayasu Tsuge

    2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A model concerning particle theory and cosmology is proposed. Matter field, dark matter and dark energy are created by an energy flow from space to primordial matter fields at the phase transition in the early universe.

  13. aqueous volatile organic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mirna 1997-01-01 39 Impacts of herbaceous bioenergy crops on atmospheric volatile organic composition and potential consequences Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites...

  14. ambient volatile organic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sensitivity, allowing 38 Impacts of herbaceous bioenergy crops on atmospheric volatile organic composition and potential consequences Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites...

  15. Princeton and PPPL launch center to study volatile space weather...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton and PPPL launch center to study volatile space weather and violent solar storms By John Greenwald December 12, 2013 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook...

  16. Volatiles as a link between planetary interiors and the environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Benjamin A. (Benjamin Alexander)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatiles derived from planetary interiors influence magma evolution and environmental processes. Over appropriate timescales, Earth's mantle, crust, ocean, and atmosphere constitute coupled systems. The apparently synchronous ...

  17. Growth History Of Kilauea Inferred From Volatile Concentrations...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inferred From Volatile Concentrations In Submarine-Collected Basalts Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Growth History Of Kilauea...

  18. Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust Evaluation of how sampling details affect the measurement of volatile organic compounds in diesel exhaust deer08strzelec.pdf More Documents...

  19. Ammonia volatilization from N fertilizers surface applied on bermudagrass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panossian, Jack B.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The biological activity was measured by trapping the CO in NaOH (0. 422 N). The NH3 which was volatilized from the urea was trapped in boric acid according to Bremner (1965). Volatilized NH and evolved CO were measured daily by titrating the boric acid and 13... was passed over the soil surface, then bubbled into boric acid to trap volatilized NH (Bremner, 1965). Humidified air was used to prevent rapid soil drying which would retard NH volatilization (Ernst and Massey, 1960). The apparatus is diagrammed in Fig. 1...

  20. TMVOC, simulator for multiple volatile organic chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten; Battistelli, Alfredo

    2003-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    TMVOC is a numerical simulator for three-phase non-isothermal flow of water, soil gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. It is an extension of the TOUGH2 general-purpose simulation program developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. TMVOC is designed for applications to contamination problems that involve hydrocarbon fuel or organic solvent spills in saturated and unsaturated zones. It can model contaminant behavior under ''natural'' environmental conditions, as well as for engineered systems, such as soil vapor extraction, groundwater pumping, or steam-assisted source remediation. TMVOC is upwards compatible with T2VOC (Falta et al., 1995) and can be initialized from T2VOC-style initial conditions. The main enhancements in TMVOC relative to T2VOC are as follows: a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals can be modeled; any and all combinations of the three phases water-oil-gas are treated; several non-condensible gases may be present; diffusion is treated in all phases in a manner that is fully coupled with phase partitioning. This paper gives a brief summary of the methodology used in TMVOC as well as highlighting some implementation issues. Simulation of a NAPL spill and subsequent remediation is discussed for a 2-D vertical section of a saturated-unsaturated flow problem.

  1. Numerical Convergence Properties of Option Pricing PDEs with Uncertain Volatility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forsyth, Peter A.

    is then simply the cost of this hedge. The principal source of risk is the price of the underlying assetNumerical Convergence Properties of Option Pricing PDEs with Uncertain Volatility D. M. Pooley , P, 2001 Abstract The pricing equations derived from uncertain volatility models in finance are often cast

  2. IMPLICIT SOLUTION OF UNCERTAIN VOLATILITY/TRANSACTION COST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forsyth, Peter A.

    IMPLICIT SOLUTION OF UNCERTAIN VOLATILITY/TRANSACTION COST OPTION PRICING MODELS WITH DISCRETELY OBSERVED BARRIERS P.A. FORSYTH \\Lambda AND K.R. VETZAL y Abstract. Option pricing models with uncertain volatility/transaction costs give rise to a nonlinear PDE. Previous work has focussed on explicit methods

  3. Role of Volatilization in Changing TBA and MTBE Concentrations at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Role of Volatilization in Changing TBA and MTBE Concentrations at MTBE-Contaminated Sites J U A N tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) added to gasoline. Frequent observations of high TBA, and especially rising TBA/MTBE of MTBE to TBA. Typically overlooked is the role of volatilization in the attenuation of these chemicals

  4. Cursed Resources? Political Conditions and Oil Market Volatility*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    that there is a pronounced negative relationship between a country's political openness and the short-run volatility in oil shifts in oil demand or supply affect prices (see, for example, Hamilton (2009a) for a recent assessmentCursed Resources? Political Conditions and Oil Market Volatility* Gilbert E. Metcalf Tufts

  5. PSERC 98-22 "Market Power and Price Volatility in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PSERC 98-22 "Market Power and Price Volatility in Restructured Markets for Electricity" Tim Mount/IEEE Service Center/445 Hoes Lane/P.O. Box 1331/Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331, USA. Telephone: + Intl. 908-562-3966. #12;MARKET POWER AND PRICE VOLATILITY IN RESTRUCTURED MARKETS FOR ELECTRICITY Tim Mount School

  6. Scaling and memory in volatility return intervals in financial markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    markets, we study the return intervals between the daily volatilities of the price changes that are above.federal- reserve.gov releases H10 hist. We choose to study daily data records because there are intraday trendsScaling and memory in volatility return intervals in financial markets Kazuko Yamasaki* , Lev

  7. Organizational Adaptation in Volatile Environments Kathleen M. Carley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    Organizational Adaptation in Volatile Environments Kathleen M. Carley Dept. of Social and Decision. Citation: Kathleen M. Carley, 2000, "Organizational Adaptation in Volatile Environments" Ch. 11 in C. L. Hulin & D. R. Ilgen (Eds.) Computational Modeling in Organizational Behavior: The Third Scientific

  8. Essays on Resource Allocation and Management, Price Volatility and Applied Nonparametrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nigatu, Getchew Sisay

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    85 3.4.4 Comparing GARCH and MRS VolatilityMRS and GARCH Conditional Standard Deviation for (a) CCXF. (2002). Improving GARCH Volatility Forecasts with Regime-

  9. Matter Wave Radiation Leading to Matter Teleportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong-Yi Huang

    2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of matter wave radiation is put forward, and its equation is established for the first time. The formalism solution shows that the probability density is a function of displacement and time. A free particle and a two-level system are reinvestigated considering the effect of matter wave radiation. Three feasible experimental designs, especially a modified Stern-Gerlach setup, are proposed to verify the existence of matter wave radiation. Matter wave radiation effect in relativity has been formulated in only a raw formulae, which offers another explanation of Lamb shift. A possible mechanics of matter teleportation is predicted due to the effect of matter wave radiation.

  10. Temperature-driven decoupling of key phases of organic matter degradation in marine sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Nathaniel B.

    organic matter is further hydrolyzed and fermented to LMW-DOC, such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs) (2 (9­12). The organic carbon consumed by sulfate- reducing bacteria is often VFAs, such as acetic acid is recycled or buried. A diverse consor- tium of microorganisms that hydrolyze, ferment, and terminally

  11. Baryonic matter and beyond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenji Fukushima

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We summarize recent developments in identifying the ground state of dense baryonic matter and beyond. The topics include deconfinement from baryonic matter to quark matter, a diquark mixture, topological effect coupled with chirality and density, and inhomogeneous chiral condensates.

  12. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  13. Dark Matter Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dark Matter Theory Dark Matter Theory Understanding discoveries at the Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic Frontiers Get Expertise Rajan Gupta (505) 667-7664 Email Bruce Carlsten (505)...

  14. Financial distortions and the distribution of global volatility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eden, Maya Rachel

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I study the interactions between various aspects of the financial system and macroeconomic volatility in a globally integrated environment. In Chapter 1, I illustrate that an efficient allocation of liquidity ...

  15. Bootstrap Prediction for Returns and Volatilities in GARCH Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortega, Esther Ruiz

    Bootstrap Prediction for Returns and Volatilities in GARCH Models Lorenzo Pascuala , Juan Romob of GARCH processes is proposed. Financial market participants have shown an increasing interest Autoregressive Conditionally Heteroscedastic (GARCH) models, originally introduced by Bollerslev (1986), provide

  16. Forecasting Returns and Volatilities in GARCH Processes Using the Bootstrap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romo, Juan

    Forecasting Returns and Volatilities in GARCH Processes Using the Bootstrap Lorenzo Pascual, Juan generated by GARCH processes. The main advantage over other bootstrap methods previously proposed for GARCH by having conditional heteroscedasticity. Generalized Autoregressive Conditionally Heteroscedastic (GARCH

  17. acidos grasos volatiles: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (more) Ntainjua Ndifor, Edwin. 2007-01-01 32 Impact of Multiple Volatilities in Bioenergy Investments CiteSeer Summary: The paper investigates the effect of the output and...

  18. The impact of fuel price volatility on transportation mode choice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Eun Hie

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, the price of oil has driven large fluctuations in the price of diesel fuel, which is an important cost component in freight logistics. This thesis explores the impact of fuel price volatility on supply ...

  19. Temporal Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount St Helens, Usa, 1980-1994 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Temporal...

  20. Double Diffusion in Enclosure Bounded by Massive and Volatilizing Walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, D.; Tang, G.; Zhao, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Maximize Comfort: Temperature, Humidity and IAQ Vol.I-6-5 Double Diffusion in Enclosure Bounded by Massive and Volatilizing Walls Di Liu Guangfa Tang Fuyun Zhao Doctoral Professor.... INTRODUCTION It has become evident that building products are major contributors to the pollution of the indoor air environment with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) [1]. The indoor airflow and temperature distributions also have influence on the emission...

  1. Impact of Storage Time on the Needed Capture Efficiency for Volatile Radionuclides - 13369

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jubin, R.T.; Ilas, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37849 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37849 (United States); Soelberg, N.R. [Idaho National Laboratory (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory (United States); Strachan, D.M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the processing of used nuclear fuel (UNF), volatile radionuclides will be discharged from the facility stack if no recovery processes are in place to limit their release. The volatile radionuclides of concern are {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I. There are three key regulations that address the release of these radionuclides to the environment- 40 CFR 61, 40 CFR 190, and 10 CFR 20. These regulations apply to the total radionuclide release and establish dose limits for the maximum exposed individual (MEI) in the public both in terms of whole body dose and dose to specific organs such as the thyroid. Each radionuclide released to the environment contributes to the total dose to some degree. In this paper we attempt to evaluate the efficiency requirements for the capture processes to limit the doses to the MEI to regulatory levels. Since the total amount of each volatile radionuclide present in the UNF changes with the age of the fuel, the respective capture requirements also change with time. Specifically, we are interested in the impact of the decreasing contribution of {sup 3}H and {sup 85}Kr, which have relatively short half-lives, 12.32 y and 10.76 y, respectively, with the increasing age of the fuel (i.e., time between when the UNF is removed from the reactor and the time it is processed) on the capture requirements. In this paper we examine the capture requirements for these four radionuclides for three fuel types (pressurized water reactor [PWR] with uranium oxide fuel [UOX], PWR with mixed oxide fuel [MOX], and an advanced high temperature gas-cooled reactor [AHTGR]), several burnup values, and time out of reactor extending to 200 y. We calculate doses to the MEI with the EPA code CAP-88 and look at two dose contribution cases. In the first case, we assume that the total allowable dose is attributed to only the four volatile radionuclides. This establishes the lowest capture efficiency value possible. Since this is unrealistic, because it assumes zero dose contribution from all other radionuclides, we also examine a second case, where only 10% of the allowable dose is assigned to the four volatile radionuclides. We calculate the required decontamination factors (DFs) for both of these cases for the three fuel types, multiple fuel burnups, and fuel ages and determine whether or not the dose to the whole body or to the thyroid that drives the capture requirements would require additional effluent controls for the shorter half-life volatile radionuclides based on dose considerations. This analysis indicates that the principal isotopes of concern are generally {sup 3}H and {sup 129}I, the latter requiring the highest DFs. The maximum DF value for {sup 129}I is 8000 for the evaluated cases and assumptions used. ?60 for fresh fuels. The DF for {sup 14}C could be as high as 30 for certain fuels. These values are based on just meeting the regulatory limits, and additional engineering margins (perhaps 3x to 10x or higher) should be applied to provide a safety factor for compliance. However, by assuming less conservative dose allocations, taller stacks, different radionuclide speciation, fuel aging, and other reprocessing facility design and location parameters, the DF requirements could be significantly reduced. (authors)

  2. Oxidation of volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. Final technical report, September 1980-February 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malte, P.C.; Thornton, M.M.; Kamber, P.D.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to measure, through the use of laboratory combustors, those conditions which promote complete combustion of wood volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. The conditions of interest are combustion temperature, residence time, stoichiometry, and air mixing. The project objectives are met through two laboratory approaches: (1) model compound studies: in order to measure the overall rates of oxidative pyrolysis of biomass volatiles, and to determine the types of intermediate organic species which are likely to form as part of this process, model compounds have been reacted in a specialized jet-stirred reactor, which has been developed as part of this research. (2) high-intensity wood combustion: in order to study the clean combustion of wood, that is, to investigate the conceptual design features required for clean burning, and to ascertain the levels and types of pollutant and condensible species which are most difficult to oxidize, a high-intensity, research wood combustor has been developed and examined for the different phases of the wood burning cycle. Although the objectives of the project have been met, it has not been possible, because of support limitations, to thoroughly explore several interesting aspects which have arisen because of this research. For example, a third laboratory system in which wood pyrolysis gas is injected directly into the a well characterized reactor, so that the kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reaction of the actual biomass volatiles can be studied, could not be thoroughly developed. Refinements in the high-intensity wood combustor, which would bring its design features closer to practicality for the industry, could not be considered. 32 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.

  3. Design of programmable matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knaian, Ara N. (Ara Nerses), 1977-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Programmable matter is a proposed digital material having computation, sensing, actuation, and display as continuous properties active over its whole extent. Programmable matter would have many exciting applications, like ...

  4. Asymmetric dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Jason [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the theoretical framework underlying models of asymmetric dark matter, describe astrophysical constraints which arise from observations of neutron stars, and discuss the prospects for detecting asymmetric dark matter.

  5. Exothermic dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, Peter W.

    We propose a novel mechanism for dark matter to explain the observed annual modulation signal at DAMA/LIBRA which avoids existing constraints from every other dark matter direct detection experiment including CRESST, CDMS, ...

  6. Finding the Lower Stellar Mass Limit Observationally Justin Cantrell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiita, Paul J.

    saying: "1. Objects with true masses below the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium masses above the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium are "brown dwarfs", no matter how below the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium are not "planets", but are "sub

  7. Hot-dark matter, cold dark matter and accelerating universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbas Farmany; Amin Farmany; Mohammad Mahmoodi

    2006-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Friedman equation is solved for a universe contains hotdark matter and cold dark matter. In this scenario, hot-dark matter drives an accelerating universe no cold dark matter.

  8. in Condensed Matter Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Torre, Leon

    Master in Condensed Matter Physics ­ Master académique #12;2 #12;3 Students at the University. Condensed matter physics is about explaining and predicting the relationship between the atomic, and broad education in the field of condensed matter physics · introduce you to current research topics

  9. Process Limits on Euclid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Process Limits Process Limits Limit Hard Soft core file size (blocks) 0 unlimited data seg size (kbytes) unlimited unlimited scheduling priority 0 0 file size (blocks) unlimited...

  10. Freeway Short-Term Traffic Flow Forecasting by Considering Traffic Volatility Dynamics and Missing Data Situations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yanru

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    , assuming constant variance when perform forecasting. This method does not consider the volatility nature of traffic flow data. This paper demonstrated that the variance part of traffic flow data is not constant, and dependency exists. A volatility model...

  11. Quantifying the value that wind power provides as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Pricing by Regulated Natural Gas Utilities, Docket No.A HEDGE AGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES Mark Bolinger,A HEDGE AGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES Mark Bolinger,

  12. Of Matters Condensed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shulman, Michael

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The American Physical Society (APS) March Meeting of condensed matter physics has grown to nearly 10,000 participants, comprises 23 individual APS groups, and even warrants its own hashtag (#apsmarch). Here we analyze the text and data from March Meeting abstracts of the past nine years and discuss trends in condensed matter physics over this time period. We find that in comparison to atomic, molecular, and optical physics, condensed matter changes rapidly, and that condensed matter appears to be moving increasingly toward subject matter that is traditionally in materials science and engineering.

  13. Incompressibility of strange matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monika Sinha; Manjari Bagchi; Jishnu Dey; Mira Dey; Subharthi Ray; Siddhartha Bhowmick

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strange stars calculated from a realistic equation of state (EOS), that incorporate chiral symmetry restoration as well as deconfinement at high density show compact objects in the mass radius curve. We compare our calculations of incompressibility for this EOS with that of nuclear matter. One of the nuclear matter EOS has a continuous transition to ud-matter at about five times normal density. Another nuclear matter EOS incorporates density dependent coupling constants. From a look at the consequent velocity of sound, it is found that the transition to ud-matter seems necessary.

  14. Adsorbed Polymer and NOM Limits Adhesion and Toxicity of Nano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Adsorbed Polymer and NOM Limits Adhesion and Toxicity of Nano Scale Zerovalent Iron to E. coli Z H. Here we assess the effect that adsorbed synthetic polymers and natural organic matter

  15. Big Questions: Dark Matter

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Carl Sagan's oft-quoted statement that there are "billions and billions" of stars in the cosmos gives an idea of just how much "stuff" is in the universe. However scientists now think that in addition to the type of matter with which we are familiar, there is another kind of matter out there. This new kind of matter is called "dark matter" and there seems to be five times as much as ordinary matter. Dark matter interacts only with gravity, thus light simply zips right by it. Scientists are searching through their data, trying to prove that the dark matter idea is real. Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us why we think this seemingly-crazy idea might not be so crazy after all.

  16. Quantifying the value that energy efficiency and renewable energy provide as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Bachrach, Devra; Golove, William

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Pricing by Regulated Natural Gas Utilities, Docket No.a Hedge Against Volatile Natural Gas Prices Mark Bolinger,wake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility during

  17. Ammonia volatilization from surface application of ammonium sulfate to carbonate systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feagley, Sam Edward

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from surface application of' ammonium fertilizers to calcareous soils 7 Ammonia Volatilization from Limed, Acid Soil Comparison of ammonia vole, tilization from different ammonium fertilizers Other factors affecting ammonia volatilization 10...-Newman-Keul's multiple range analysis of ammonia volatilization from a limed, acid soil supporting Coastal bermudagrass as affected by calcium carbonate . 58 Student-Newman-Keul's multiple range analysis of ammonia volatilization i'rom a limed. , acid soil supporting...

  18. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongyu [Beijing Building Materials Academy of Science Research/State Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Reuse for Building Material, Beijing 100041 (China); College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Schuchardt, Frank [Johann Heinrich von Thuenen-Institute, Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Li, Guoxue, E-mail: ligx@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ? The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ? Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ? Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup ?1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  19. Neuropeptide alterations in the tree shrew hypothalamus during volatile anesthesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neuropeptide alterations in the tree shrew hypothalamus during volatile anesthesia Laetitia perception and brain cognitive state. Prolonged general anesthesia has an impact on many of these processes anesthesia administered accompanying a neurosurgical procedure. Using a predicted-peptide database and hybrid

  20. Volatility Persistence in Crude Oil Markets Amlie CHARLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , reflecting rising demand for crude oil, particularly from developing nations. Oil prices have been veryVolatility Persistence in Crude Oil Markets Amélie CHARLES Audencia Nantes, School of Management oil markets ­ Brent, West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

  1. Enhanced phytoremediation of volatile environmental pollutants with transgenic trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of plants for the treatment of environmental pollutants (1, 2). Plants act as solar-powered pumpEnhanced phytoremediation of volatile environmental pollutants with transgenic trees Sharon L. Doty 98195-2100; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

  2. Predicting Market-Volatility from Federal Reserve Board Meeting Minutes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Geoffrey J.

    been applied to predict intra-day stock market returns, e.g. by (Pui Cheong Fung et al., 2003Predicting Market-Volatility from Federal Reserve Board Meeting Minutes NLP for Finance Reza Bosagh Zadeh, Andreas Zollmann 1 Introduction Predicting markets has always had a certain appeal to researchers

  3. Modeling Energy Market Volatility Using REMI October 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    ;Disclaimer #12;Some Background on Energy Market Volatility (EMV) · EMV is defined here to include price techniques #12;Some Specifics · Energy Prices in real (and nominal) terms are highly variable ­ Including oil Sources: WTI prices from EIA, Short Term Energy Outlook, Table 2 and GDP deflator from Bureau of Economic

  4. Volatile Organic Compounds in Untreated Ambient Groundwater of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volatile Organic Compounds in Untreated Ambient Groundwater of the United States, 1985-1995 P A U L, ambient groundwater of the conterminous United States was conducted based on samples collected from 2948-chloropropane, which had a reporting level of 1.0 µg/L. Because ambient groundwater was targeted, areas of known

  5. Ammonia volatilization from soils with surface rice straw residue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barghassa, Peyam

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rice residue and related factors on NH3 volatilization from an acid Beaumont clay (pH 5.4) and an alkaline Lake Charles clay (pH 7.4). The treatments in the greenhouse and lab consisted of all possible combinations of the following variables: surface...

  6. ELSEVIER Physica A 245 (1997) 441445 Volatility distribution in the S&P500 stock index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cizeau a, Yanhui Liu a, Martin Meyer a, C.-K. Peng b,a, H. Eugene Stanley a,. aCenter Jbr Polymer Studies Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA Received 15 August 1997 Abstract We study the volatility; Volatility; S&P500; Multiplicative processes The volatility is a measure of the mean fluctuation of a market

  7. Chemical oxidation of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, D.D.; Siegrist, R.L.; Cline, S.R.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsurface contamination with fuel hydrocarbons or chlorinated hydrocarbons is prevalent throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and in many sites managed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund program. The most commonly reported chlorinated hydrocarbons (occurring > 50% of DOE contaminated sites) were trichloroethylene (TCE), 1, 1, 1,-trichloroethane (TCA), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) with concentrations in the range of 0.2 {mu}g/kg to 12,000 mg/kg. The fuel hydrocarbons most frequently reported as being present at DOE sites include aromatic compounds and polyaromatic compounds such as phenanthrene, pyrene, and naphthalene. The primary sources of these semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are coal waste from coal fired electric power plants used at many of these facilities in the past and gasoline spills and leaks. Dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) can migrate within the subsurface for long periods of time along a variety of pathways including fractures, macropores, and micropores. Diffusion of contaminants in the non-aqueous, aqueous, and vapor phase can occur from the fractures and macropores into the matrix of fine-textured media. As a result of these contamination processes, removal of contaminants from the subsurface and the delivery of treatment agents into and throughout contaminated regions are often hindered, making rapid and extensive remediation difficult.

  8. The CRESST Dark Matter Search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Majorovits; G. Angloher; C. Bucci; P. Christ; C. Cozzini; F. von Feilitzsch; D. Hauff; S. Henry; Th. Jagemann; J. Jochum; H. Kraus; V. Mikhailik; J. Ninkovic; F. Petricca; W. Potzel; F. Proebst; Y. Ramachers; M. Razeti; W. Rau; W. Seidel; M. Stark; L. Stodolsky; A. J. B. Tolhurst; D. Wahl; W. Westphal; H. Wulandari

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present first competitive results on WIMP dark matter using the phonon-light-detection technique. A particularly strong limit for WIMPs with coherent scattering results from selecting a region of the phonon-light plane corresponding to tungsten recoils. The observed count rate in the neutron band is compatible with the rate expected from neutron background. CRESST is presently being upgraded with a 66 channel SQUID readout system, a neutron shield and a muon veto system. This results in a significant improvement in sensitivity.

  9. Axion hot dark matter bounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Raffelt; S. Hannestad; A. Mirizzi; Y. Y. Y. Wong

    2008-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive cosmological limits on two-component hot dark matter consisting of neutrinos and axions. We restrict the large-scale structure data to the safely linear regime, excluding the Lyman-alpha forest. We derive Bayesian credible regions in the two-parameter space consisting of m_a and sum(m_nu). Marginalizing over sum(m_nu) provides m_aaxions the same data and methods give sum(m_nu)< 0.63 eV (95% CL).

  10. An Ultimate Target for Dark Matter Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kfir Blum; Yanou Cui; Marc Kamionkowski

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The combination of S-matrix unitarity and the dynamics of thermal freeze-out for massive relic particles (denoted here simply by WIMPs) implies a lower limit on the density of such particles, that provide a (potentially sub-dominant) contribution to dark matter. This then translates to lower limits to the signal rates for a variety of techniques for direct and indirect detection of dark matter. For illustration, we focus on models where annihilation is s-wave dominated. We derive lower limits to the flux of gamma-rays from WIMP annihilation at the Galactic center; direct detection of WIMPs; energetic neutrinos from WIMP annihilation in the Sun; and the effects of WIMPs on the angular power spectrum and frequency spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The results suggest that a variety of dark-matter-search techniques may provide interesting avenues to seek new physics, even if WIMPs do not constitute all the dark matter. While the limits are quantitatively some distance from the reach of current measurements, they may be interesting for long-range planning exercises.

  11. Status of Matter-Gravity Couplings in the SME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tasson, Jay D

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Constraints on Lorentz violation in matter-gravity couplings are summarized along with existing proposals to obtain sensitivities that exceed current limits by up to 11 orders of magnitude.

  12. Status of Matter-Gravity Couplings in the SME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jay D. Tasson

    2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Constraints on Lorentz violation in matter-gravity couplings are summarized along with existing proposals to obtain sensitivities that exceed current limits by up to 11 orders of magnitude.

  13. ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Association of White Matter Hyperintensity Volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Association of White Matter Hyperintensity Volume With Decreased Cognitive was restricted to the study of older in- dividuals, limiting our understanding of the full impact of WMH

  14. Modeling of Particulate Matter Emissions from Agricultural Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bairy, Jnana 1988-

    2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    State Air Pollution Regulation Agencies (SAPRAs) issue and enforce permits that limit particulate matter emissions from all sources including layer and broiler facilities, cattle feedyards, dairies, cotton gins, and grain elevators...

  15. ACTION CONCENTRATION FOR MIXTURES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC) & METHANE & HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste containers may contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane, hydrogen and possibly propane. These constituents may occur individually or in mixtures. Determining if a waste container contains a flammable concentration of flammable gases and vapors (from VOCs) is important to the safety of the handling, repackaging and shipping activities. This report provides the basis for determining the flammability of mixtures of flammable gases and vapors. The concentration of a mixture that is at the lowest flammability limit for that mixture is called the action concentration. The action concentration can be determined using total VOC concentrations or actual concentration of each individual VOC. The concentrations of hydrogen and methane are included with the total VOC or individual VOC concentration to determine the action concentration. Concentrations below this point are not flammable. Waste containers with gas/vapor concentrations at or above the action concentration are considered flammable.

  16. Abundance ratios of volatile vs. refractory elements in planet-harbouring stars: hints of pollution?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Ecuvillon; G. Israelian; N. C. Santos; M. Mayor; G. Gilli

    2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the [X/H] trends as function of the elemental condensation temperature Tc in 88 planet host stars and in a volume-limited comparison sample of 33 dwarfs without detected planetary companions. We gathered homogeneous abundance results for many volatile and refractory elements spanning a wide range of Tc, from a few dozens to several hundreds kelvin. We investigate possible anomalous trends of planet hosts with respect to comparison sample stars in order to detect evidence of possible pollution events. No significant differences are found in the behaviour of stars with and without planets. This result is in agreement with a ``primordial'' origin of the metal excess in planet host stars. However, a subgroup of 5 planet host and 1 comparison sample stars stands out for having particularly high [X/H] vs. Tc slopes.

  17. Limits to the lunar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, T.H. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. (USA)); Shemansky, D.E. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of sodium and potassium on the Moon implies that other more abundant species should be present. Volatile molecules like H{sub 2}O are significantly more abundant than sodium in any of the proposed external atmospheric sources. Source mechanisms which derive atoms from the surface should favor abundant elements in the regolith. It is therefore puzzling that the Apollo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment set limits on the density of oxygen of N{sub O} < 5 {times} 10{sup 2} cm{sup {minus}3}, and that the Apollo Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment data imply N{sub O} < 50 cm{sup {minus}3} above the subsolar point. These limits are surprisingly small relative to the measured value for sodium. A simple consideration of sources and sinks predicts significantly greater densities of oxygen. It is possible but doubtful that the Apollo measurements occur ed during an epoch in which source rates were small. A preferential loss process for oxygen on the darkside of the Moon is considered in which ionization by electron capture in surface collisions leads to escape through acceleration in the local electric field. Cold trapping in permanently shadowed regions as a net sink is considered and discounted, but the episodic nature of cometary insertion may allow formation of ice layers which act as a stablized source of OH. On the basis of an assumed meteoroid impact source, the authors predict a possible emission brightness of {approximately} 50 R in the OH(A {minus} X)(0,0) band above the lunar bright limb. A very uncertain small comet source of H{sub 2}O could raise this value by more than two orders of magnitude.

  18. Matter: Space without Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yousef Ghazi-Tabatabai

    2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    While Quantum Gravity remains elusive and Quantum Field Theory retains the interpretational difficulties of Quantum Mechanics, we have introduced an alternate approach to the unification of particles, fields, space and time, suggesting that the concept of matter as space without time provides a framework which unifies matter with spacetime and in which we anticipate the development of complete theories (ideally a single unified theory) describing observed 'particles, charges, fields and forces' solely with the geometry of our matter-space-time universe.

  19. Energy Matters Mailbag

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This edition of the mailbag tackles follow-up questions from our Energy Matters discussion on breaking our reliance on foreign oil.

  20. Maximally incompressible neutron star matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timothy S. Olson

    2000-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Relativistic kinetic theory, based on the Grad method of moments as developed by Israel and Stewart, is used to model viscous and thermal dissipation in neutron star matter and determine an upper limit on the maximum mass of neutron stars. In the context of kinetic theory, the equation of state must satisfy a set of constraints in order for the equilibrium states of the fluid to be thermodynamically stable and for perturbations from equilibrium to propagate causally via hyperbolic equations. Application of these constraints to neutron star matter restricts the stiffness of the most incompressible equation of state compatible with causality to be softer than the maximally incompressible equation of state that results from requiring the adiabatic sound speed to not exceed the speed of light. Using three equations of state based on experimental nucleon-nucleon scattering data and properties of light nuclei up to twice normal nuclear energy density, and the kinetic theory maximally incompressible equation of state at higher density, an upper limit on the maximum mass of neutron stars averaging 2.64 solar masses is derived.

  1. Direct Dark Matter Search with the CRESST-II Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The quest for the particle nature of dark matter is one of the big open questions of modern physics. The CRESST-II experiment, located at the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, is optimised for the detection of the elastic scattering of dark matter particles with ordinary matter. We present the result obtained with an improved detector setup with increased radiopurity and enhanced background rejection. The limit obtained in the so-called low mass region between one and three GeV/c2 is at the present among the best limits obtained for direct dark matter experiments. In addition we give an outlook of the future potential for direct dark matter detection using further improved CRESST CaWO4 cryogenic detectors.

  2. Dynamical dark matter. I. Theoretical overview

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Thomas, Brooks

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we propose a new framework for dark-matter physics. Rather than focus on one or more stable dark-matter particles, we instead consider a multicomponent framework in which the dark matter of the universe comprises a vast ensemble of interacting fields with a variety of different masses, mixings, and abundances. Moreover, rather than impose stability for each field individually, we ensure the phenomenological viability of such a scenario by requiring that those states with larger masses and standard-model decay widths have correspondingly smaller relic abundances, and vice versa. In other words, dark-matter stability is not an absolute requirement in such a framework, but is balanced against abundance. This leads to a highly dynamical scenario in which cosmological quantities such as ?CDM experience nontrivial time-dependences beyond those associated with the expansion of the universe. Although it may seem difficult to arrange an ensemble of states which have the required decay widths and relic abundances, we present one particular example in which this balancing act occurs naturally: an infinite tower of Kaluza-Klein (KK) states living in the bulk of large extra spacetime dimensions. Remarkably, this remains true even if the stability of the KK tower itself is entirely unprotected. Thus theories with large extra dimensions—and by extension, certain limits of string theory—naturally give rise to dynamical dark matter. Such scenarios also generically give rise to a rich set of collider and astrophysical phenomena which transcend those usually associated with dark matter.

  3. The tomato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 genes contribute to the formation of the flavor volatiles b-ionone,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klee, Harry J.

    volatiles b-ionone, pseudoionone, and geranylacetone Andrew J. Simkin1 , Steven H. Schwartz2 , Michele

  4. Perturbation Expansion for Option Pricing with Stochastic Volatility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Jizba; Hagen Kleinert; Patrick Haener

    2007-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We fit the volatility fluctuations of the S&P 500 index well by a Chi distribution, and the distribution of log-returns by a corresponding superposition of Gaussian distributions. The Fourier transform of this is, remarkably, of the Tsallis type. An option pricing formula is derived from the same superposition of Black-Scholes expressions. An explicit analytic formula is deduced from a perturbation expansion around a Black-Scholes formula with the mean volatility. The expansion has two parts. The first takes into account the non-Gaussian character of the stock-fluctuations and is organized by powers of the excess kurtosis, the second is contract based, and is organized by the moments of moneyness of the option. With this expansion we show that for the Dow Jones Euro Stoxx 50 option data, a Delta-hedging strategy is close to being optimal.

  5. Method for refreshing a non-volatile memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riekels, James E. (New Hope, MN); Schlesinger, Samuel (Aventura, FL)

    2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-volatile memory and a method of refreshing a memory are described. The method includes allowing an external system to control refreshing operations within the memory. The memory may generate a refresh request signal and transmit the refresh request signal to the external system. When the external system finds an available time to process the refresh request, the external system acknowledges the refresh request and transmits a refresh acknowledge signal to the memory. The memory may also comprise a page register for reading and rewriting a data state back to the memory. The page register may comprise latches in lieu of supplemental non-volatile storage elements, thereby conserving real estate within the memory.

  6. Summary Report for the Development of Materials for Volatile Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Chun, Jaehun; Henager, Charles H.; Matyas, Josef; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The materials development summarized here is in support of the Waste Forms campaign, Volatile Radionuclide task. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal and immobilization of iodine and krypton, specifically 129I and 85Kr. During FY 2010, aerogel materials were investigated for removal and immobilization of 129I. Two aerogel formulations were investigated, one based on silica aerogels and the second on chalcogenides. For 85Kr, metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated.

  7. Fiber optic micromirror sensor for volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, M.A.; Ricco, A.J.; Buss, R. (Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (US))

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the growing concern over environmental pollution, there is a need for sensors to locate and measure the distribution of a wide range of pollutants. In this paper the authors report a fiber optic sensor, based on a thin film micromirror, which responds to a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This generic class of sensor will be useful for monitoring applications where the pollutant has already been identified.

  8. Dipolar Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanchet, Luc

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because the two types of dark matter interact through the vector field, a ghostly degree of fre...

  9. Characteristics of the volatile organic compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, G.V.; Lenhard, R.J.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Evans, J.C.; Roberson, K.R.; Spane, F.A.; Amonette, J.E.; Rockhold, M.L.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Program (VOC-Arid ID) is targeted at demonstration and testing of technologies for the evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants at arid DOE sites. The initial demonstration site is an area of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) contamination located near the center of the Hanford Site. The movement of CCl{sub 4} and other volatile organic contaminants in the subsurface is very complex. The problem at the Hanford Site is further complicated by the concurrent discharge of other waste constituents including acids, lard oil, organic phosphates, and transuranic radionuclides. In addition, the subsurface environment is very complex, with large spatial variabilities in hydraulic properties. A thorough understanding of the problem is essential to the selection of appropriate containment, retrieval, and/or in situ remedial technologies. The effectiveness of remedial technologies depends on knowing where the contaminants are, how they are held up in a given physical and chemical subsurface environment; and knowing the physical, chemical, and microbiological changes that are induced by the various remedial technologies.

  10. Development and Characterization of a Thermodenuder for Aerosol Volatility Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Timothy Onasch

    2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This SBIR Phase I project addressed the critical need for improved characterization of carbonaceous aerosol species in the atmosphere. The proposed work focused on the development of a thermodenuder (TD) system capable of systematically measuring volatility profiles of primary and secondary organic aerosol species and providing insight into the effects of absorbing and nonabsorbing organic coatings on particle absorption properties. This work provided the fundamental framework for the generation of essential information needed for improved predictions of ambient aerosol loadings and radiative properties by atmospheric chemistry models. As part of this work, Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) continued to develop and test, with the final objective of commercialization, an improved thermodenuder system that can be used in series with any aerosol instrument or suite of instruments (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometers-AMS, scanning mobility particle sizers-SMPS, photoacoustic absorption spectrometers-PAS, etc.) to obtain aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties as a function of particle volatility. In particular, we provided the proof of concept for the direct coupling of our improved TD design with a full microphysical model to obtain volatility profiles for different organic aerosol components and to allow for meaningful comparisons between different TD-derived aerosol measurements. In a TD, particles are passed through a heated zone and a denuding (activated charcoal) zone to remove semi-volatile material. Changes in particle size, number concentration, optical absorption, and chemical composition are subsequently detected with aerosol instrumentation. The aerosol volatility profiles provided by the TD will strengthen organic aerosol emission inventories, provide further insight into secondary aerosol formation mechanisms, and provide an important measure of particle absorption (including brown carbon contributions and identification, and absorption enhancements due to coatings on soot particles). The successfully completed Phase I project included construction of a prototype design for the TD with detailed physical modeling, testing with laboratory and ambient aerosol particles, and the initiation of a detailed microphysical model of the aerosol particles passing through the TD to extract vapor pressure distributions. The objective of the microphysical model is to derive vapor pressure distributions (i.e. vapor pressure ranges, including single chemical compounds, mixtures of known compounds, and complex ‘real-world’ aerosols, such as SOA, and soot particles with absorbing and nonabsorbing coatings) from TD measurements of changes in particle size, mass, and chemical composition for known TD temperatures and flow rates (i.e. residence times). The proposed Phase II project was designed to optimize several TD systems for different instrument applications and to combine the hardware and modeling into a robust package for commercial sales.

  11. Ice particle size matters | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ice particle size matters Ice particle size matters Released: May 04, 2014 Fine-tuning cloud models for improved climate predictions The Science Arctic clouds are widespread and...

  12. Photon and graviton mass limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieto, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goldhaber Scharff, Alfred [SUNY

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We review past and current studies of possible long-distance, low-frequency deviations from Maxwell electrodynamics and Einstein gravity. Both have passed through three phases: (1) Testing the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) Seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) Considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving gauge or general-coordinate invariance. For electrodynamics there continues to be no sign of any deviation. Since our previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength (associated with weakening of electromagnetic fields in vacuum over large distance scale) has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit. Rapid current progress in astronomical observations makes it likely that there will be further advances. These ultimately could yield a bound exceeding galactic dimensions, as has long been contemplated. Meanwhile, for gravity there have been strong arguments about even the concept of a graviton rest mass. At the same time there are striking observations, commonly labeled 'dark matter' and 'dark energy' that some argue imply modified gravity. This makes the questions for gravity much more interesting. For dark matter, which involves increased attraction at large distances, any explanation by modified gravity would be qualitatively different from graviton mass. Because dark energy is associated with reduced attraction at large distances, it might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect.

  13. Axion hot dark matter bounds after Planck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archidiacono, Maria; Hannestad, Steen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Mirizzi, Alessandro [II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Raffelt, Georg [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Wong, Yvonne Y.Y., E-mail: archi@phys.au.dk, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@desy.de, E-mail: raffelt@mpp.mpg.de, E-mail: yvonne.y.wong@unsw.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use cosmological observations in the post-Planck era to derive limits on thermally produced cosmological axions. In the early universe such axions contribute to the radiation density and later to the hot dark matter fraction. We find an upper limit m{sub a} < 0.67 eV at 95% C.L. after marginalising over the unknown neutrino masses, using CMB temperature and polarisation data from Planck and WMAP respectively, the halo matter power spectrum extracted from SDSS-DR7, and the local Hubble expansion rate H{sub 0} released by the Carnegie Hubble Program based on a recalibration of the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project sample. Leaving out the local H{sub 0} measurement relaxes the limit somewhat to 0.86 eV, while Planck+WMAP alone constrain the axion mass to 1.01 eV, the first time an upper limit on m{sub a} has been obtained from CMB data alone. Our axion limit is therefore not very sensitive to the tension between the Planck-inferred H{sub 0} and the locally measured value. This is in contrast with the upper limit on the neutrino mass sum, which we find here to range from ? m{sub ?} < 0.27 eV at 95% C.L. combining all of the aforementioned observations, to 0.84 eV from CMB data alone.

  14. Hot and dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Eramo, Francesco

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, we build new Effective Field Theory tools to describe the propagation of energetic partons in hot and dense media, and we propose two new reactions for dark matter in the early universe. In the first part, ...

  15. Programmable matter by folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, R. J.

    Programmable matter is a material whose properties can be programmed to achieve specific shapes or stiffnesses upon command. This concept requires constituent elements to interact and rearrange intelligently in order to ...

  16. The Heart of Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohini M. Godbole

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article I trace the development of the human understanding of the "Heart of Matter" from early concepts of "elements" (or alternatively "Panchmahabhootas") to the current status of "quarks" and "leptons" as the fundamental constituents of matter, interacting together via exchange of the various force carrier particles called "gauge bosons" such as the photon, W/Z-boson etc. I would like to show how our understanding of the fundamental constituents of matter has gone hand in hand with our understanding of the fundamental forces in nature. I will also outline how the knowledge of particle physics at the "micro" scale of less than a Fermi(one millionth of a nanometer), enables us to offer explanations of Cosmological observations at the "macro" scale. Consequently these observations, may in turn, help us address some very fundamental questions of the Physics at the "Heart of the Matter".

  17. Matter & Energy Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    See also: Matter & Energy Electronics· Detectors· Technology· Construction· Sports Science Electronic Tongue Tastes Wine Variety, Vintage (Aug. 12, 2008) -- You don't need a wine expert to Advance

  18. Gaseous dark matter detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martoff, C. J.

    Dark matter (DM) detectors with directional sensitivity have the potential of yielding an unambiguous positive observation of WIMPs as well as discriminating between galactic DM halo models. In this paper, we introduce the ...

  19. High density matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Stone

    2013-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been the subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has lead to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. However, there remains great uncertainty in these models, which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfil basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics. In this review the latest developments in construction of the Equation of State (EoS) of high-density matter at zero and finite temperature assuming different composition of the matter are surveyed. Critical comparison of model EoS with available observational data on neutron stars, including gravitational masses, radii and cooling patterns is presented. The effect of changing rotational frequency on the composition of neutron stars during their lifetime is demonstrated. Compatibility of EoS of high-density, low temperature compact objects and low density, high temperature matter created in heavy-ion collisions is discussed.

  20. Vehicular emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a tunnel study in Hong Kong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemistry and Physics Vehicular emission of volatile organicY. , and Huang, Y. S. : Emission factors and characteristicslight-duty vehicle emissions, Environ. Sci. Technol. , 30,

  1. Improvement of SOFC Electrodes through Catalyst Infiltration & Control of Cr Volatilization from FeCr Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visco, S.J.; Jacobson, C.; Kurokawa, H.; Sholklapper, T.; Lu, C.; De Jonghe, L.

    2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the improvement of SOFC electrodes through catalyst infiltration and control of Cr volatilization from FeCr components.

  2. Field measurements of ammonia volatilization from surface applications of nitrogen fertilizers to a calcareous soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hargrove, W. L

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to measure volatilized NH3 in the labora- tory. A) Vacuum pump, B) Boric acid trap to collect volatilized NH ~ C) NH3 volatilization chamber, D) Trkp to re- move NH3 from incoming air . . . . . . . . . . . 21 A schematic of the apparatus used to make... direct measurements of NH losses in the field. A) Vacuum pum), B) Boric acid trap, C) NH volatilization chamber, consisting of metal cylinder and plexi- glass top The cumulative NH losses over time for four rates of' a)plication of urea...

  3. Commodity Price Volatility and the Sources of Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cavalcanti, Tiago V. de V.; Mohaddes, Kamiar; Raissi, Mehdi

    2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    -2000, show that higher levels of exchange rate volatility can stunt growth, especially in countries with thin capital markets. Bleaney and Greenaway (2001) estimate a panel data model for a sample of 14 sub-Saharan African countries over 1980-1995 and show... countries, we set t0 to this year.5 Furthermore, we assume a depreciation rate, #14;, of six percent and compute the subsequent values of the capital stock as: Kit = (1#0; #14;)Kit#0;1 + Iit: (6) 3.3 Human Capital Stock To calculate the level of human...

  4. Direct and indirect detection of dissipative dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JiJi Fan; Andrey Katz; Jessie Shelton

    2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the constraints from direct detection and solar capture on dark matter scenarios with a subdominant dissipative component. This dissipative dark matter component in general has both a symmetric and asymmetric relic abundance. Dissipative dynamics allow this subdominant dark matter component to cool, resulting in its partial or total collapse into a smaller volume inside the halo (e.g., a dark disk) as well as a reduced thermal velocity dispersion compared to that of normal cold dark matter. We first show that these features considerably relax the limits from direct detection experiments on the couplings between standard model (SM) particles and dissipative dark matter. On the other hand, indirect detection of the annihilation of the symmetric dissipative dark matter component inside the Sun sets stringent and robust constraints on the properties of the dissipative dark matter. In particular, IceCube observations force dissipative dark matter particles with mass above 50 GeV to either have a small coupling to the SM or a low local density in the solar system, or to have a nearly asymmetric relic abundance. Possible helioseismology signals associated with purely asymmetric dissipative dark matter are discussed, with no present constraints.

  5. Pontecorvo neutrino-antineutrino oscillations: theory and experimental limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Esposito; N. Tancredi

    1997-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study Pontecorvo neutrino-antineutrino oscillations both in vacuum and in matter within a field theoretic approach, showing that this phenomenon can occur only if neutrinos have a Dirac-Majorana mass term. We find that matter effects suppress these oscillations and cannot explain the solar neutrino problem. On the contrary, a vacuum neutrino-antineutrino oscillations solution to this problem exists. We analyze this solution and available data from laboratory experiments giving stringent limits on $\

  6. Stealth Dark Matter: Dark scalar baryons through the Higgs portal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appelquist, Thomas; Buchoff, Michael I; Fleming, George T; Jin, Xiao-Yong; Kiskis, Joe; Kribs, Graham D; Neil, Ethan T; Osborn, James C; Rebbi, Claudio; Rinaldi, Enrico; Schaich, David; Schroeder, Chris; Syritsyn, Sergey; Vranas, Pavlos; Weinberg, Evan; Witzel, Oliver

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new model of "Stealth Dark Matter": a composite baryonic scalar of an $SU(N_D)$ strongly-coupled theory with even $N_D \\geq 4$. All mass scales are technically natural, and dark matter stability is automatic without imposing an additional discrete or global symmetry. Constituent fermions transform in vector-like representations of the electroweak group that permit both electroweak-breaking and electroweak-preserving mass terms. This gives a tunable coupling of stealth dark matter to the Higgs boson independent of the dark matter mass itself. We specialize to $SU(4)$, and investigate the constraints on the model from dark meson decay, electroweak precision measurements, basic collider limits, and spin-independent direct detection scattering through Higgs exchange. We exploit our earlier lattice simulations that determined the composite spectrum as well as the effective Higgs coupling of stealth dark matter in order to place bounds from direct detection, excluding constituent fermions with dominant...

  7. Phase transition from hadronic matter to quark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Wang; A. W. Thomas; A. G. Williams

    2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the phase transition from nuclear matter to quark matter within the SU(3) quark mean field model and NJL model. The SU(3) quark mean field model is used to give the equation of state for nuclear matter, while the equation of state for color superconducting quark matter is calculated within the NJL model. It is found that at low temperature, the phase transition from nuclear to color superconducting quark matter will take place when the density is of order 2.5$\\rho_0$ - 5$\\rho_0$. At zero density, the quark phase will appear when the temperature is larger than about 148 MeV. The phase transition from nuclear matter to quark matter is always first order, whereas the transition between color superconducting quark matter and normal quark matter is second order.

  8. Volatility-- a statistical comparison between the secondary and primary home markets : the lower Cape's volatility and average return compared to three Boston area primary markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knight, Craig, 1971-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis attempts to analyze the long-standing perception that the secondary home market, homes built in and around vacation areas, is more volatile than the primary home market. For the first time, this study measures ...

  9. Cross-Section of Option Returns and Volatility Goizueta Business School

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    compute the stock's IV by taking the average of the ATM call and put implied-volatilities. This also-section of stock option returns by constructing decile portfolios of straddles and delta-hedged calls and puts based on sorting stocks on the differ- ence between historical realized volatility and at

  10. A comparison of option prices under different pricing measures in a stochastic volatility model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howison, Sam

    A comparison of option prices under different pricing measures in a stochastic volatility model with correlation Vicky Henderson Princeton University David Hobson § University of Bath Sam Howison ¶ University option prices in an incomplete stochastic volatility model with correlation. In a general setting, we

  11. Buying in a volatile market: variable or fixed price? Professor of Purchasing Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellekoop, Michel

    , in markets like money, stock or oil markets; sometimes they are rather lengthy, in markets like the steelBuying in a volatile market: variable or fixed price? Jan Telgen Professor of Purchasing Management Many commodities are bought in a volatile market, where the purchasing price changes constantly

  12. Volatility Forecasts in Financial Time Series with HMM-GARCH Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Volatility Forecasts in Financial Time Series with HMM-GARCH Models Xiong-Fei Zhuang and Lai {xfzhuang,lwchan}@cse.cuhk.edu.hk Abstract. Nowadays many researchers use GARCH models to generate of the two parameters G1 and A1[1], in GARCH models is usually too high. Since volatility forecasts in GARCH

  13. Output Growth and Its Volatility: The Gold Standard through the Great Moderation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    of real GDP growth and some form of a generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH GARCH or exponential GARCH (EGARCH) process, capturing the movement in volatility. The neglect persistence in the conditional volatility or integrated GARCH (IGARCH). That is, typically all persistence

  14. Scaling and memory of intraday volatility return intervals in stock markets Fengzhong Wang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    Scaling and memory of intraday volatility return intervals in stock markets Fengzhong Wang,1 Kazuko interval between price volatilities that are above a certain threshold q for 31 intraday data sets Yamasaki,1,2 Shlomo Havlin,1,3 and H. Eugene Stanley1 1 Center for Polymer Studies and Department

  15. Volatile fractionation in the early solar system and chondrule matrix complementarity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Volatile fractionation in the early solar system and chondrule matrix complementarity Philip A and Astromaterials Research Centre, Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD. Although volatile depletion was the most fundamental chemical process affecting the inner solar nebula

  16. Using futures prices to filter short-term volatility and recover a latent, long-term price series for oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herce, Miguel Angel

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil prices are very volatile. But much of this volatility seems to reflect short-term,transitory factors that may have little or no influence on the price in the long run. Many major investment decisions should be guided ...

  17. System for loading executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Bartholomew, David B. (Springville, UT); Johnson, Monte L. (Orem, UT)

    2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for loading an executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises a surface control unit comprising executable code. An integrated downhole network comprises data transmission elements in communication with the surface control unit and the volatile memory. The executable code, stored in the surface control unit, is not permanently stored in the downhole tool string component. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the downhole tool string component comprises boot memory. In another embodiment, the executable code is an operating system executable code. Preferably, the volatile memory comprises random access memory (RAM). A method for loading executable code to volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises sending the code from the surface control unit to a processor in the downhole tool string component over the network. A central processing unit writes the executable code in the volatile memory.

  18. Apply early! Limited enrollment.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    volcano. Experience the culture and history of Hawaii, and the impact of human activitiesApply early! Limited enrollment. Environmental Science in the Hawaiian Islands Observe, research

  19. Dark matter axions `96

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikivie, P.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses why axions have been postulated to exist, what cosmology implies about their presence as cold dark matter in the galactic halo, how axions might be detected in cavities wherein strong magnetic fields stimulate their conversion into photons, and relations between axions` energy spectra and galactic halos` properties.

  20. Matter & Energy Solar Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    See Also: Matter & Energy Solar Energy· Electronics· Materials Science· Earth & Climate Energy at the University of Illinois, the future of solar energy just got brighter. Although silicon is the industry Electronics Over 1.2 Million Electronics Parts, Components and Equipment. www.AlliedElec.com solar energy

  1. Matter & Energy Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    .com/products/seahawk/ Maryland Solar Panels-- Solar Installations from BGE HOME $0 Down For Big Energy Savings! www.bgehome.com/SolarLike 6 0 | More APA MLA See Also: Matter & Energy Petroleum Engineering Fossil Fuels Earth believe may be contributing to global warming. The UK government has just announced it is investing £1

  2. Gluon condensation and deconfinement critical density in nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Baldo; P. Castorina; D. Zappala'

    2004-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An upper limit to the critical density for the transition to the deconfined phase, at zero temperature, has been evaluated by analyzing the behavior of the gluon condensate in nuclear matter. Due to the non linear baryon density effects, the upper limit to the critical density, \\rho_c turns out about nine times the saturation density, rho_0 for the value of the gluon condensate in vacuum =0.012 GeV^4. For neutron matter \\rho_c \\simeq 8.5 \\rho_0. The dependence of the critical density on the value of the gluon condensate in vacuum is studied.

  3. Volatility return intervals analysis of the Japanese market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Woo-Sung; Havlin, Shlomo; Kaizoji, Taisei; Moon, Hie-Tae; Stanley, H Eugene

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate scaling and memory effects in return intervals between price volatilities above a certain threshold $q$ for the Japanese stock market using daily and intraday data sets. We find that the distribution of return intervals can be approximated by a scaling function that depends only on the ratio between the return interval $\\tau$ and its mean $$. We also find memory effects such that a large (or small) return interval follows a large (or small) interval by investigating the conditional distribution and mean return interval. The results are similar to previous studies of other markets and indicate that similar statistical features appear in different financial markets. We also compare our results between the period before and after the big crash at the end of 1989. We find that scaling and memory effects of the return intervals show similar features although the statistical properties of the returns are different.

  4. In-Situ Contained And Of Volatile Soil Contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varvel, Mark Darrell (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

  5. In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varvel, Mark Darrell

    2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

  6. Apparatus for sensing volatile organic chemicals in fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, Robert C.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Kottenstette, Richard; Patel, Sanjay V.

    2005-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical-sensing apparatus is formed from the combination of a chemical preconcentrator which sorbs and concentrates particular volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and one or more chemiresistors that sense the VOCs after the preconcentrator has been triggered to release them in concentrated form. Use of the preconcentrator and chemiresistor(s) in combination allows the VOCs to be detected at lower concentration than would be possible using the chemiresistor(s) alone and further allows measurements to be made in a variety of fluids, including liquids (e.g. groundwater). Additionally, the apparatus provides a new mode of operation for sensing VOCs based on the measurement of decay time constants, and a method for background correction to improve measurement precision.

  7. Detection of volatile organic compounds using surface enhanced Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, A S; Maiti, A; Ileri, N; Bora, M; Larson, C C; Britten, J A; Bond, T C

    2012-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors present the detection of volatile organic compounds directly in their vapor phase by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on lithographically-defined two-dimensional rectangular array of nanopillars. The type of nanopillars is known as the tapered pillars. For the tapered pillars, SERS enhancement arises from the nanofocusing effect due to the sharp tip on top. SERS experiments were carried out on these substrates using various concentrations of toluene vapor. The results show that SERS signal from a toluene vapor concentration of ppm level can be achieved, and the toluene vapor can be detected within minutes of exposing the SERS substrate to the vapor. A simple adsorption model is developed which gives results matching the experimental data. The results also show promising potential for the use of these substrates in environmental monitoring of gases and vapors.

  8. Energy Matters in Washington State Page 1 Energy Matters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Energy Matters in Washington State ­ Page 1 Energy Matters in Washington State June 2008 Updated November 2009 Updated and Revised October 2013 Grand Coulee Dam #12;Energy Matters in Washington State ­ Page 2 Copyright © 2013 Washington State University Energy Program. 905 Plum Street SE, P.O. Box 43169

  9. Experimental studies and thermodynamic modelling of volatilities of uranium, plutonium, and americium from their oxides and from their oxides interacted with ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krikorian, O.H.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Adamson, M.G.; Fontes, A.S. Jr.; Fleming, D.L.

    1993-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to identify the types and amounts of volatile gaseous species of U, Pu, and Am that are produced in the combustion chamber offgases of mixed waste oxidation processors. Primary emphasis is on the Rocky Flats Plant Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Transpiration experiments have been carried out on U{sub 3}O{sub 8}(s), U{sub 3}O{sub 8} interacted with various ash materials, PuO{sub 2}(s), PuO{sub 2} interacted with ash materials, and a 3%PuO{sub 2}/0.06%AmO{sub 2}/ash material, all in the presence of steam and oxygen, and at temperatures in the vicinity of 1,300 K. UO{sub 3}(g) and UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) have been identified as the uranium volatile species and thermodynamic data established for them. Pu and Am are found to have very low volatilities, and carryover of Pu and Am as fine dust particulates is found to dominate over vapor transport. The authors are able to set upper limits on Pu and Am volatilities. Very little lowering of U volatility is found for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} interacted with typical ashes. However, ashes high in Na{sub 2}O (6.4 wt %) or in CaO (25 wt %) showed about an order of magnitude reduction in U volatility. Thermodynamic modeling studies were carried out that show that for aluminosilicate ash materials, it is the presence of group I and group II oxides that reduces the activity of the actinide oxides. K{sub 2}O is the most effective followed by Na{sub 2}O and CaO for common ash constituents. A more major effect in actinide activity lowering could be achieved by adding excess group I or group II oxides to exceed their interaction with the ash and lead to direct formation of alkali or alkaline earth uranates, plutonates, and americates.

  10. Bayesian analysis of GARCH and stochastic volatility: modeling leverage, jumps and heavy-tails for financial time series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolpert, Robert L

    Bayesian analysis of GARCH and stochastic volatility: modeling leverage, jumps and heavy for two broad major classes of varying volatility model, GARCH and stochastic volatility (SV) models-t errors yields the best performance among the competing models on the return data. Key words: GARCH, Heavy

  11. Estimation of Volatility The values of the parameters r, t, St, T, and K used to price a call op-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Privault, Nicolas

    is the price of light sweet crude oil futures traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), basedChapter 7 Estimation of Volatility The values of the parameters r, t, St, T, and K used to price the historical, implied, and local volatility models, and refer to [26] for stochastic volatility models. 7

  12. A Big Data Approach to Analyzing Market Volatility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Kesheng; Bethel, E. Wes; Gu, Ming; Leinweber, David; Ruebel, Oliver

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the microstructure of the financial market requires the processing of a vast amount of data related to individual trades, and sometimes even multiple levels of quotes. Analyzing such a large volume of data requires tremendous computing power that is not easily available to financial academics and regulators. Fortunately, public funded High Performance Computing (HPC) power is widely available at the National Laboratories in the US. In this paper we demonstrate that the HPC resource and the techniques for data-intensive sciences can be used to greatly accelerate the computation of an early warning indicator called Volume-synchronized Probability of Informed trading (VPIN). The test data used in this study contains five and a half year?s worth of trading data for about 100 most liquid futures contracts, includes about 3 billion trades, and takes 140GB as text files. By using (1) a more efficient file format for storing the trading records, (2) more effective data structures and algorithms, and (3) parallelizing the computations, we are able to explore 16,000 different ways of computing VPIN in less than 20 hours on a 32-core IBM DataPlex machine. Our test demonstrates that a modest computer is sufficient to monitor a vast number of trading activities in real-time ? an ability that could be valuable to regulators. Our test results also confirm that VPIN is a strong predictor of liquidity-induced volatility. With appropriate parameter choices, the false positive rates are about 7percent averaged over all the futures contracts in the test data set. More specifically, when VPIN values rise above a threshold (CDF > 0.99), the volatility in the subsequent time windows is higher than the average in 93percent of the cases.

  13. Analysis of volatile contaminants in US Navy fleet soda lime. Technical report, August 1992-May 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lillo, R.S.; Ruby, R.; Gummin, D.D.; Porter, W.R.; Caldwell, J.M.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contamination was suspected of U.S. Navy Fleet soda lime (High Performance Sodasorb(R)) when an ammonia-like odor was reported during its use in August 1992. This material contained indicator dye and was used for carbon dioxide absorption during diving. This incident had a major impact on the U.S Navy diving program when the Navy temporarily banned use of Sodasorb(R) and authorized Sofnolime(R) as an interim replacement. The Naval Medical Research Institute was immediately assigned to investigate. Testing involved sampling from the headspace (gas space) inside closed buckets and from an apparatus simulating conditions during operational diving. Volatile organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry; ammonia and amines were measured by infrared spectroscopy. Significant amounts of ammonia (up to 30 ppm), ethyl and diethyl amines (up to several ppm), and various aliphatic hydrocarbons (up to 60 ppm) were detected during testing of both Sodasorb(R) and Sofnolime(R). Contaminants were slowly removed by gas flow and did not return. The source(s) of the ammonia and amines are unknown, although they may result from the breakdown of the indicator dye. Hydrocarbon contamination appeared to result from the materials of which the bucket is constructed. Based on these findings, the U.S. Navy is expected to phase in non-indicating soda lime that will be required to meet defined contaminant limits.

  14. Self assembly in soft matter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chremos, Alexandros

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The term “soft matter” applies to a variety of physical systems, such as liquids, colloids, polymers, foams, gels, and granular materials. The most fascinating aspect of soft matter lies in the fact that they are not ...

  15. Self Assembly in Soft Matter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chremos, Alexandros

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The term “soft matter” applies to a variety of physical systems, such as liquids, colloids, polymers, foams, gels, and granular materials. The most fascinating aspect of soft matter lies in the fact that they are not ...

  16. The Search for Dark Matter

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Orrell, John

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 25 years ago, PNNL scientists began the first underground measurements searching for dark matter using specialized radiation detector technology. Dark matter is yet to be discovered says Physicist John L. Orrell.

  17. The Search for Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orrell, John

    2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 25 years ago, PNNL scientists began the first underground measurements searching for dark matter using specialized radiation detector technology. Dark matter is yet to be discovered says Physicist John L. Orrell.

  18. The phase diagram of nuclear and quark matter at high baryon density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenji Fukushima; Chihiro Sasaki

    2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We review theoretical approaches to explore the phase diagram of nuclear and quark matter at high baryon density. We first look over the basic properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and address how to describe various states of QCD matter. In our discussions on nuclear matter we cover the relativistic mean-field model, the chiral perturbation theory, and the approximation based on the large-Nc limit where Nc is the number of colors. We then explain the liquid-gas phase transition and the inhomogeneous meson condensation in nuclear matter with emphasis put on the relevance to quark matter. We commence the next part focused on quark matter with the bootstrap model and the Hagedorn temperature. Then we turn to properties associated with chiral symmetry and exposit theoretical descriptions of the chiral phase transition. There emerge some quark-matter counterparts of phenomena seen in nuclear matter such as the liquid-gas phase transition and the inhomogeneous structure of the chiral condensate. The third regime that is being recognized recently is what is called quarkyonic matter, which has both aspects of nuclear and quark matter. We closely elucidate the basic idea of quarkyonic matter in the large-Nc limit and its physics implications. Finally, we discuss some experimental indications for the QCD phase diagram and close the review with outlooks.

  19. Matter Bounce Loop Quantum Cosmology from $F(R)$ Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. D. Odintsov; V. K. Oikonomou

    2014-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the reconstruction method, we investigate which $F(R)$ theories, with or without the presence of matter fluids, can produce the matter bounce scenario of holonomy corrected Loop Quantum Cosmology. We focus our study in two limits of the cosmic time, the large cosmic time limit and the small cosmic time limit. For the former, we found that, in the presence of non-interacting and non-relativistic matter, the $F(R)$ gravity that reproduces the late time limit of the matter bounce solution is actually the Einstein-Hilbert gravity plus a power law term. In the early time limit, since it corresponds to large spacetime curvatures, assuming that the Jordan frame is described by a general metric that when it is conformally transformed to the Einstein frame, produces an accelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric, we found explicitly the scalar field dependence on time. After demonstrating that the solution in the Einstein frame is indeed accelerating, we calculate the spectral index derived from the Einstein frame scalar-tensor counterpart theory of the $F(R)$ theory and compare it with the Planck experiment data. In order to implement the resulting picture, we embed the $F(R)$ gravity explicitly in a Loop Quantum Cosmology framework by introducing holonomy corrections to the $F(R)$ gravity. In this way, the resulting inflation picture corresponding to the $F(R)$ gravity can be corrected in order it coincides to some extent with the current experimental data.

  20. Normal matter storage of antiprotons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, L.J.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs.

  1. dark matter dark energy inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Wayne

    theory dark matter dark energy inflation The National Science Foundation The Kavli Foundation NSF Site Review November 28-29, 2005 #12;dark matter dark energy inflation NSF Site Visit ­ November 28 Gravitation initial conditions beyond single-field slow roll #12;dark matter dark energy inflation NSF Site

  2. Dark Energy and Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keith A. Olive

    2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief overview of our current understanding of abundance and properties of dark energy and dark matter is presented. A more focused discussion of supersymmetric dark matter follows. Included is a frequentist approach to the supersymmetric parameter space and consequences for the direct detection of dark matter.

  3. Symmetry energy coefficients for asymmetric nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fábio L. Braghin

    2003-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Symmetry energy coefficients of asymmetric nuclear matter are investigated as the inverse of nuclear matter polarizabilities with two different approaches. Firstly a general calculation shows they may depend on the neutron-proton asymmetry itself. The choice of particular prescriptions for the density fluctuations lead to certain isospin (n-p asymmetry) dependences of the polarizabilities. Secondly, with Skyrme type interactions, the static limit of the dynamical polarizability is investigated corresponding to the inverse symmetry energy coefficient which assumes different values at different asymmetries (and densities and temperatures). The symmetry energy coefficient (in the isovector channel) is found to increase as n-p asymmetries increase. The spin symmetry energy coefficient is also briefly investigated.

  4. Optical limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, Duncan W. (Santa Fe, NM); Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); Koskelo, Aaron C. (Los Alamos, NM); Heeger, Alan J. (Santa Barbara, CA); Robinson, Jeanne M. (Los Alamos, NM); Smilowitz, Laura B. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM); Cha, Myoungsik (Goleta, CA); Sariciftci, N. Serdar (Santa Barbara, CA); Hummelen, Jan C. (Groningen, NL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.

  5. Kinetic limits of dynamical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jens Marklof

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the pioneering work of Maxwell and Boltzmann in the 1860s and 1870s, a major challenge in mathematical physics has been the derivation of macroscopic evolution equations from the fundamental microscopic laws of classical or quantum mechanics. Macroscopic transport equations lie at the heart of many important physical theories, including fluid dynamics, condensed matter theory and nuclear physics. The rigorous derivation of macroscopic transport equations is thus not only a conceptual exercise that establishes their consistency with the fundamental laws of physics: the possibility of finding deviations and corrections to classical evolution equations makes this subject both intellectually exciting and relevant in practical applications. The plan of these lectures is to develop a renormalisation technique that will allow us to derive transport equations for the kinetic limits of two classes of simple dynamical systems, the Lorentz gas and kicked Hamiltonians (or linked twist maps). The technique uses the ergodic theory of flows on homogeneous spaces (homogeneous flows for short), and is based on joint work with Andreas Str\\"ombergsson.

  6. Particulate matter dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cionco, Rodolfo G; Caligaris, Marta G

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A substantial fraction of the particulate matter released into the atmosphere by industrial or natural processes corresponds to particles whose aerodynamic diameters are greater than 50 mm. It has been shown that, for these particles, the classical description of Gaussian plume diffusion processes, is inadequate to describe the transport and deposition. In this paper we present new results concerning the dispersion of coarse particulate matter. The simulations are done with our own code that uses the Bulirsch Stoer numerical integrator to calculate threedimensional trajectories of particles released into the environment under very general conditions. Turbulent processes are simulated by the Langevin equation and weather conditions are modeled after stable (Monin-Obukhov length L> 0) and unstable conditions (L <0). We present several case studies based on Monte Carlo simulations and discusses the effect of weather on the final deposition of these particles.

  7. Constraining Decaying Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ran Huo

    2011-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We revisited the decaying dark matter (DDM) model, in which one collisionless particle decays early into two collisionless particles, that are potentially dark matter particles today. The effect of DDM will be manifested in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and structure formation. With a systematic modification of CMB calculation tool \\texttt{camb}, we can numerically calculated this effect, and compare it to observations. Further Markov Chain Monte Carlo \\texttt{cosmomc} runnings update the constraints in that model: the free streaming length $\\lambda_{FS}\\lesssim0.5$Mpc for nonrelativistic decay, and $((M_{DDM}/keV) Y)^2 (T_d/yr)\\lesssim5\\times10^{-5}$ for relativistic decay.

  8. Ethanol as Internal Standard for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Spirit Drinks by Gas Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Kulevich, Nikita V; Makoed, Nicolai M; Mazanik, Arkadzi L; Sytova, Svetlana N

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The new methodical approach of using ethanol as internal standard in gas chromatographic analysis of volatile compounds in spirit drinks in daily practice of testing laboratories is proposed. This method provides determination of volatile compounds concentrations in spirit drinks directly expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) of absolute alcohol according to official methods without measuring of alcohol strength of analyzed sample. The experimental demonstration of this method for determination of volatile compounds in spirit drinks by gas chromatography is described. Its validation was carried out by comparison with experimental results obtained by internal standard method and external standard method.

  9. Synchronization of Limit Sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Changpin Li; Weihua Deng

    2005-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter, we derive a sufficient condition of synchronizing limit sets (attractors and repellers) by using the linear feedback control technique proposed here. There examples are included. The numerical simulations and computer graphics show that our method work well.

  10. Luminous Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian Feldstein; Peter W. Graham; Surjeet Rajendran

    2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a dark matter model in which the signal in direct detection experiments arises from electromagnetic, not nuclear, energy deposition. This can provide a novel explanation for DAMA while avoiding many direct detection constraints. The dark matter state is taken nearly degenerate with another state. These states are naturally connected by a dipole moment operator, which can give both the dominant scattering and decay modes between the two states. The signal at DAMA then arises from dark matter scattering in the Earth into the excited state and decaying back to the ground state through emission of a single photon in the detector. This model has unique signatures in direct detection experiments. The density and chemical composition of the detector is irrelevant, only the total volume affects the event rate. In addition, the spectrum is a monoenergetic line, which can fit the DAMA signal well. This model is readily testable at experiments such as CDMS and XENON100 if they analyze their low-energy, electronic recoil events.

  11. Dark matter axions revisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visinelli, Luca; Gondolo, Paolo [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E 201, Salt Lake City, Utah 84102 (United States)

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study for what specific values of the theoretical parameters the axion can form the totality of cold dark matter. We examine the allowed axion parameter region in the light of recent data collected by the WMAP5 mission plus baryon acoustic oscillations and supernovae, and assume an inflationary scenario and standard cosmology. We also upgrade the treatment of anharmonicities in the axion potential, which we find important in certain cases. If the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is restored after inflation, we recover the usual relation between axion mass and density, so that an axion mass m{sub a}=(85{+-}3) {mu}eV makes the axion 100% of the cold dark matter. If the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is broken during inflation, the axion can instead be 100% of the cold dark matter for m{sub a}<15 meV provided a specific value of the initial misalignment angle {theta}{sub i} is chosen in correspondence to a given value of its mass m{sub a}. Large values of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scale correspond to small, perhaps uncomfortably small, values of the initial misalignment angle {theta}{sub i}.

  12. Hidden vector dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Hambye

    2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that dark matter could be made of massive gauge bosons whose stability doesn't require to impose by hand any discrete or global symmetry. Stability of gauge bosons can be guaranteed by the custodial symmetry associated to the gauge symmetry and particle content of the model. The particle content we consider to this end is based on a hidden sector made of a vector multiplet associated to a non-abelian gauge group and of a scalar multiplet charged under this gauge group. The hidden sector interacts with the Standard Model particles through the Higgs portal quartic scalar interaction in such a way that the gauge bosons behave as thermal WIMPS. This can lead easily to the observed dark matter relic density in agreement with the other various constraints, and can be tested experimentally in a large fraction of the parameter space. In this model the dark matter direct detection rate and the annihilation cross section can decouple if the Higgs portal interaction is weak.

  13. Quantum Limits of Thermometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas M. Stace

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The precision of typical thermometers consisting of $N$ particles is shot noise limited, improving as $\\sim1/\\sqrt{N}$. For high precision thermometry and thermometric standards this presents an important theoretical noise floor. Here it is demonstrated that thermometry may be mapped onto the problem of phase estimation, and using techniques from optimal phase estimation, it follows that the scaling of the precision of a thermometer may in principle be improved to $\\sim1/N$, representing a Heisenberg limit to thermometry.

  14. Unruh effect for neutrinos interacting with accelerated matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dvornikov, Maxim

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the evolution of neutrinos in a background matter moving with a linear acceleration. The Dirac equation for a massive neutrino electroweakly interacting with background fermions is obtained in a comoving frame where matter is at rest. We solve this Dirac equation for ultrarelativistic neutrinos. The neutrino quantum states in matter moving with a linear acceleration are obtained. We demonstrate that the neutrino electroweak interaction with an accelerated matter leads to the vacuum instability which results in the neutrino-antineutrino pairs creation. We rederive the temperature of the Unruh radiation and find the correction to the Unruh effect due to the specific neutrino interaction with background fermions. As a possible application of the obtained results we discuss the neutrino pairs creation in a core collapsing supernova. The astrophysical upper limit on the neutrino masses is obtained.

  15. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Estimating the Volatility of Wholesale Electricity Spot Prices in the US

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marathe, Achla

    permission. Estimating the Volatility of Wholesale Electricity Spot Prices in the US Lester Hadsell; Achla

  16. Disorder resistivity of solid neutron-star matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. B. Jones

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lower limits are found for the disorder resistivity of solid neutron-star matter in the neutron-drip region which is amorphous and heterogeneous in nuclear charge. This temperature-independent resistivity, large compared with that produced by phonon scattering, has direct consequences for theories of neutron-star magnetic field generation and evolution.

  17. Axisymmmetric empty space: light propagation, orbits and dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergio Giardino

    2014-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents a axisymmetric solution of the Einstein equations for empty space. The geometry is studied by determining its Petrov classification and Killing vectors. Light propagation, orbital motion and asymptotic and Newtonian limits are also studied. Additionally, cosmological applications of the geometry as an alternative model for the inflationary universe and as a substitute for dark matter and quintessence are also outlined.

  18. Cold + Hot Dark Matter After Super-Kamiokande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joel R. Primack; Michael A. K. Gross

    1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent atmospheric neutrino data from Super-Kamiokande provide strong evidence of neutrino oscillations and therefore of non-zero neutrino mass. These data imply a lower limit on the hot dark matter (i.e., light neutrino) contribution to the cosmological density $\\Omega_\

  19. A Comprehensive Search for Dark Matter Annihilation in Dwarf Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Geringer-Sameth; Savvas M. Koushiappas; Matthew G. Walker

    2015-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new formalism designed to discover dark matter annihilation occurring in the Milky Way's dwarf galaxies. The statistical framework extracts all available information in the data by simultaneously combining observations of all the dwarf galaxies and incorporating the impact of particle physics properties, the distribution of dark matter in the dwarfs, and the detector response. The method performs maximally powerful frequentist searches and produces confidence limits on particle physics parameters. Probability distributions of test statistics under various hypotheses are constructed exactly, without relying on large sample approximations. The derived limits have proper coverage by construction and claims of detection are not biased by imperfect background modeling. We implement this formalism using data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to search for an annihilation signal in the complete sample of Milky Way dwarfs whose dark matter distributions can be reliably determined. We find that the observed data is consistent with background for each of the dwarf galaxies individually as well as in a joint analysis. The strongest constraints are at small dark matter particle masses. Taking the median of the systematic uncertainty in dwarf density profiles, the cross section upper limits are below the pure s-wave weak scale relic abundance value (2.2 x 10^-26 cm^3/s) for dark matter masses below 26 GeV (for annihilation into b quarks), 29 GeV (tau leptons), 35 GeV (up, down, strange, and charm quarks and gluons), 6 GeV (electrons/positrons), and 114 GeV (two-photon final state). For dark matter particle masses less than 1 TeV, these represent the strongest limits obtained to date using dwarf galaxies.

  20. Volatility of hotel market fundamentals and the determinants of variations between markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cason, Brian (Brian Paul)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    How can volatility as well as other dynamics and characteristics in hotel market fundamentals affecting risk be better understood? This paper explores that fundamental question along with other more specific questions that ...

  1. HOW TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN CLOUDY MINI-NEPTUNES AND WATER/VOLATILE-DOMINATED SUPER-EARTHS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benneke, Björn

    One of the most profound questions about the newly discovered class of low-density super-Earths is whether these exoplanets are predominately H2-dominated mini-Neptunes or volatile-rich worlds with gas envelopes dominated ...

  2. The Effect of Growth Volatility on Income Inequality Ho-Chuan (River) Huang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    positively affects growth. Barro (2000) uncovers a nonlinear inequality-growth nexus, with inequality growth in low-income ones. Rather than examining the volatility-growth or the inequality-growth linkages

  3. Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds Using Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry during the MILAGRO 2006 Campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortner, E. C.

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured by proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) on a rooftop in the urban mixed residential and industrial area North Northeast of downtown Mexico City as part of ...

  4. A statistical analysis of the natural gas futures market : the interplay of sentiment, volatility and prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fazzio, Thomas J. (Thomas Joseph)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper attempts to understand the price dynamics of the North American natural gas market through a statistical survey that includes an analysis of the variables influencing the price and volatility of this energy ...

  5. Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The Toxic-Release Inventory'' of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M's work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

  6. The performance of a volatile oil reservoir overlain by a gas cap 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Joseph Ralph, Jr

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE PERFORMANCE OF A VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR OVERLAIN BY A GAS CAP A Thesis By J. RALPH ELLIS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1960 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING THE PERFORMANCE OF A VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR OVERLAIN BY A GAS CAP A Thesis By J. RALPH ELLIS, JR. Approved as to style and content by: hairxnan of Coxnxnittee) (Head...

  7. The performance of a volatile oil reservoir overlain by a gas cap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Joseph Ralph, Jr

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE PERFORMANCE OF A VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR OVERLAIN BY A GAS CAP A Thesis By J. RALPH ELLIS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1960 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING THE PERFORMANCE OF A VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR OVERLAIN BY A GAS CAP A Thesis By J. RALPH ELLIS, JR. Approved as to style and content by: hairxnan of Coxnxnittee) (Head...

  8. Identification and evaluation of volatile compounds associated with vacuum and modified atmosphere packaged fresh red meats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Timothy Court

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH VACUUM AND MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGED FRESH RED MEATS A Thesis by TIMOTHY COURT JACKSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1989 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH VACUUM AND MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGED FRESH RED MEATS A...

  9. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Energy Price Volatility and Forecast Uncertainty

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is often noted that energy prices are quite volatile, reflecting market participants' adjustments to new information from physical energy markets and/or markets in energy-related financial derivatives. Price volatility is an indication of the level of uncertainty, or risk, in the market. This paper describes how markets price risk and how the marketclearing process for risk transfer can be used to generate "price bands" around observed futures prices for crude oil, natural gas, and other commodities.

  10. Optical limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

    1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.

  11. Superconnections and Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roepstorff, G

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a previous paper, the superconnection formalism was used to naturally fit the Higgs field into a U(n) gauge theory where we aimed at the reconstruction of the standard model. The approach provides an alternative to non-commutative geometry. This work is now continued by including matter field (leptons). The essentially new ingredient is the right-handed neutrino field and a new kind of interaction that goes with it. All interactions follow from one Dirac operator associated to a superconnection.

  12. Superconnections and Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Roepstorff

    2000-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In a previous paper (hep-th/9801040), the superconnection formalism was used to fit the Higgs field into a U(n) gauge theory with particular emphasis on the n=2 case, aiming at the reconstruction of certain parts of the Standard Model. The approach provides an alternative to the one bases on non-commutative geometry. This work is continued by including matter fields (leptons only). We extend the Standard Model by including the right-handed neutrino field. The possibility of a finite neutrino mass is thus accounted for.

  13. Thermodynamics of electroweak matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Gynther

    2006-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a slightly modified version of the introductory part of a PhD thesis, also containing the articles hep-ph/0303019, hep-ph/0510375 and hep-ph/0512177. We provide a short history of the research of electroweak thermodynamics and a brief introduction to the theory as well as to the necessary theoretical tools needed to work at finite temperatures. We then review computations regarding the pressure of electroweak matter at high temperatures (the full expression of the perturbative expansion of the pressure is given in the appendix) and the electroweak phase diagram at finite chemical potentials. Finally, we compare electroweak and QCD thermodynamics.

  14. Discrete dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, M.; Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.; Valle, J. W. F. [AHEP Group, Institut de Fisica Corpuscular--C.S.I.C./Universitat de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new motivation for the stability of dark matter (DM). We suggest that the same non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetry which accounts for the observed pattern of neutrino oscillations, spontaneously breaks to a Z{sub 2} subgroup which renders DM stable. The simplest scheme leads to a scalar doublet DM potentially detectable in nuclear recoil experiments, inverse neutrino mass hierarchy, hence a neutrinoless double beta decay rate accessible to upcoming searches, while {theta}{sub 13}=0 gives no CP violation in neutrino oscillations.

  15. Particulate Matter Aerosols

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear Astrophysics OneOutreach EffortsSearchParticulate Matter

  16. Dark Matter Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration wouldDECOMPOSITION OFSupplemental TechnologySummaryDariuszDark Matter Theory

  17. Test of the equivalence principle for ordinary matter falling toward dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, G.; Adelberger, E.G.; Heckel, B.R.; Su, Y. (Department of Physics FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States))

    1993-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We tested the equivalence principle (EP) for Be, Cu, and Al falling toward the galactic center, and found [Delta][ital a](Be,Cu)=[minus](0.1 [plus minus]5.8)[times]10[sup [minus]12] cm/[ital s][sup 2] and [Delta][ital a](Be,Al)=(3.6[plus minus]6.9)[times]10[sup [minus]12] cm/[ital s][sup 2]. As dark matter is thought to account for (25--30)% of our galacticentric acceleration, the EP parameters for Be/Cu, or Be/Al, falling toward dark matter, are [eta](Be,Cu)=(0.0[plus minus]1.2)[times]10[sup [minus]3] and [eta](Be,Al)=(0.7[plus minus]1.4)[times]10[sup [minus]3] (1[sigma] errors). This limits any EP-violating component of our acceleration toward dark matter and provides laboratory evidence that gravitation is the only significant long-range interaction between dark and ordinary matter.

  18. The PICASSO Direct Dark Matter Search Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aubin, F.; Barnabe-Heider, M.; Doane, P.; Genest, M.-H.; Gornea, R.; Guenette, R.; Lessard, L.; Martin, J.-P.; Wichoski, U.; Zacek, V. [Departement de physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Behnke, E.; Levine, I. [Department of physics and astronomy, Indiana University South Bend, South Bend, Indiana, 46634 (United States); Clark, K.; Di Marco, M.; Krauss, C. B.; Noble, A. J. [Department of physics, Queens University, Kingston, K7L 3NG (Canada); Feighery, W.; Muthusi, C. [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University South Bend, South Bend, Indiana, 46634 (United States); Kanagalingam, S.; Noulty, R. [Bubble Technology Industries, Chalk River K0J 1J0 (Canada)] (and others)

    2006-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The PICASSO experiment is searching for cold dark matter through the direct detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), in particular neutralinos ({chi}) via their spin-dependent interactions with nuclei. The experiment is installed in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Laboratory at a depth of 2070 m (6000 mwe). PICASSO makes use of the superheated droplet technique with C4F10 as the active material, and searches for {chi} interactions on 19F. The results of these measurements are presented in terms of limits on the spin-dependent {chi}-proton and {chi}-neutron cross sections. Limits on the effective {chi}-proton and {chi}-neutron coupling strengths ap and an are also reported. The results exclude new regions of the spin-dependent {chi}-nucleon interaction parameter space. The next phase of PICASSO is briefly discussed.

  19. Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M Colonna

    2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights on the recent research activity, carried out by the Italian Community involved in the "Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics" field, will be presented.

  20. XENON dark matter searches: Results and the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Andrew [Physics Department, Purdue University - 525 Northwestern Ave., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Collaboration: XENON Collaboration

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    XENON100 is a dark matter search experiment looking for elastic WIMP scattering using a 62 kg liquid target. WIMP search data from XENON100 published in 2012 has set the world's strongest limits on WIMP-nucleus spinindependent, elastic scattering. It has also set the strongest limits on WIMP-nucleus spin-dependent scattering considering neutron scattering only, and competitive limits considering proton scattering only. The successor experiment to XENON100, XENON1T, is currently under construction, with commissioning scheduled to begin in 2014. XENON1T's design goal is a 100 fold increase in sensitivity for elastic WIMP searches over XENON100.

  1. Stealth Dark Matter: Dark scalar baryons through the Higgs portal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Appelquist; Richard C. Brower; Michael I. Buchoff; George T. Fleming; Xiao-Yong Jin; Joe Kiskis; Graham D. Kribs; Ethan T. Neil; James C. Osborn; Claudio Rebbi; Enrico Rinaldi; David Schaich; Chris Schroeder; Sergey Syritsyn; Pavlos Vranas; Evan Weinberg; Oliver Witzel

    2015-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new model of "Stealth Dark Matter": a composite baryonic scalar of an $SU(N_D)$ strongly-coupled theory with even $N_D \\geq 4$. All mass scales are technically natural, and dark matter stability is automatic without imposing an additional discrete or global symmetry. Constituent fermions transform in vector-like representations of the electroweak group that permit both electroweak-breaking and electroweak-preserving mass terms. This gives a tunable coupling of stealth dark matter to the Higgs boson independent of the dark matter mass itself. We specialize to $SU(4)$, and investigate the constraints on the model from dark meson decay, electroweak precision measurements, basic collider limits, and spin-independent direct detection scattering through Higgs exchange. We exploit our earlier lattice simulations that determined the composite spectrum as well as the effective Higgs coupling of stealth dark matter in order to place bounds from direct detection, excluding constituent fermions with dominantly electroweak-breaking masses. A lower bound on the dark baryon mass $m_B \\gtrsim 300$ GeV is obtained from the indirect requirement that the lightest dark meson not be observable at LEP II. We briefly survey some intriguing properties of stealth dark matter that are worthy of future study, including: collider studies of dark meson production and decay; indirect detection signals from annihilation; relic abundance estimates for both symmetric and asymmetric mechanisms; and direct detection through electromagnetic polarizability, a detailed study of which will appear in a companion paper.

  2. Searching for Dark Matter Annihilation in the Smith High-Velocity Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Drlica-Wagner; German A. Gomez-Vargas; John W. Hewitt; Tim Linden; Luigi Tibaldo

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent observations suggest that some high-velocity clouds may be confined by massive dark matter halos. In particular, the proximity and proposed dark matter content of the Smith Cloud make it a tempting target for the indirect detection of dark matter annihilation. We argue that the Smith Cloud may be a better target than some Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies and use gamma-ray observations from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to search for a dark matter annihilation signal. No significant gamma-ray excess is found coincident with the Smith Cloud, and we set strong limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section assuming a spatially-extended dark matter profile consistent with dynamical modeling of the Smith Cloud. Notably, these limits exclude the canonical thermal relic cross section ($\\sim 3\\times10^{-26}{\\rm cm}^{3}{\\rm s}^{-1}$) for dark matter masses $\\lesssim 30$ GeV annihilating via the $b \\bar b$ or $\\tau^{+}\\tau^{-}$ channels for certain assumptions of the dark matter density profile; however, uncertainties in the dark matter content of the Smith Cloud may significantly weaken these constraints.

  3. Charmonium mass in nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, S. H.; Ko, Che Ming.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mass shift of charmonium states in nuclear matter is studied in the perturbative QCD approach. The leading-order effect due to the change of gluon condensate in nuclear matter is evaluated using the leading-order QCD formula, while the higher...

  4. Astronomical Evidence for Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golwala, Sunil

    weapon in "Quake 4" is the Dark Matter Gun. In Futurama they use dark matter fuel, where "one pound is 10 and neutrons, can compute relative ratio. Using nuclear reaction rates, can compute relative abundances oscillations). Peak is from maximal compression of photon-baryon fluid. Peak sensitive to curvature

  5. Energy Matters in Washington State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Energy Matters in Washington State Energy Matters in Washington State www.energy.wsu.edu/library/ November 2009 #12;905 Plum Street SE, Building 3 P.O. Box 43169 Olympia, Washington 98504-3169 Energy University Extension Energy Program. 905 Plum Street SE, Building 3, P.O. Box 43169, Olympia, Washington

  6. Testing the Dark Matter Interpretation of the DAMA/LIBRA Result with Super-Kamiokande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonathan L. Feng; Jason Kumar; John Learned; Louis E. Strigari

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the prospects for testing the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA/LIBRA signal with the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The DAMA/LIBRA signal favors dark matter with low mass and high scattering cross section. We show that these characteristics imply that the scattering cross section that enters the DAMA/LIBRA event rate determines the annihilation rate probed by Super-Kamiokande. Current limits from Super-Kamiokande through-going events do not test the DAMA/LIBRA favored region. We show, however, that upcoming analyses including fully-contained events with sensitivity to dark matter masses from 5 to 10 GeV may corroborate the DAMA/LIBRA signal. We conclude by considering three specific dark matter candidates, neutralinos, WIMPless dark matter, and mirror dark matter, which illustrate the various model-dependent assumptions entering our analysis.

  7. Quantum vacuum and dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dragan Slavkov Hajdukovic

    2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, the gravitational polarization of the quantum vacuum was proposed as alternative to the dark matter paradigm. In the present paper we consider four benchmark measurements: the universality of the central surface density of galaxy dark matter haloes, the cored dark matter haloes in dwarf spheroidal galaxies, the non-existence of dark disks in spiral galaxies and distribution of dark matter after collision of clusters of galaxies (the Bullet cluster is a famous example). Only some of these phenomena (but not all of them) can (in principle) be explained by the dark matter and the theories of modified gravity. However, we argue that the framework of the gravitational polarization of the quantum vacuum allows the understanding of the totality of these phenomena.

  8. Flavor evolution of supernova neutrinos in turbulent matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lund, Tina; Kneller, James P. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, 2401 Stinson Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutrino signal from the next galactic supernova carries with it an enormous amount of information on the explosion mechanism of a core-collapse supernova, as well as on the stellar progenitor and on the neutrinos themselves. In order to extract this information we need to know how the neutrino flavor evolves over time due to the interplay of neutrino self-interactions and matter effects. Additional turbulence in the supernova matter may impart its own signatures on the neutrino spectrum, and could partly obscure the imprints of collective and matter effects. We investigate the neutrino flavor evolution due to neutrino self-interactions, matter effects due to the shock wave propagation, and turbulence in three progenitors with masses of 8.8 M?, 10.8 M? and 18.0 M?. In the lightest progenitor we find that the impact of moderate turbulence of the order 10% is limited and occurs only briefly early on. This makes the signatures of collective and matter interactions relatively straightforward to interpret. Similarly, with moderate turbulence the two heavier progenitors exhibit only minor changes in the neutrino spectrum, and collective and matter signatures persists. However, when the turbulence is increased to 30% and 50% the high density matter resonance features in the neutrino spectrum get obscured, while new features arise in the low density resonance channel and in the non-resonant channels. We conclude that with moderate amounts of turbulence spectral features of collective and matter interactions survive in all three progenitors. For the larger amounts of turbulence in the 10.8 M? and 18.0 M? progenitor new features arise, as others disappear.

  9. Fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  10. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  11. Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain...

  12. Developments in Chiral effective Field Theory for Nuclear Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. A. Oller

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We review on a chiral power counting scheme for in-medium chiral perturbation theory with nucleons and pions as degrees of freedom \\cite{ref}. It allows for a systematic expansion taking into account local as well as pion-mediated inter-nucleon interactions. Based on this power counting, one can identify classes of non-perturbative diagrams that require a resummation. We then calculate the nuclear matter energy density for the symmetric and purely neutron matter cases up-to-and-including next-to-leading order (NLO), in good agreement with sophisticated many-body calculations. Next, the neutron matter equation of state is applied to calculate the upper limit for neutron stars, with an upper bound around 2.3 solar masses, large enough to accommodate the most massive neutron star observed until now. We also apply our equation state to constraint $G_N$ in exceptionally large gravitational fields.

  13. Directional Dark Matter Detection Beyond the Neutrino Bound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philipp Grothaus; Malcolm Fairbairn; Jocelyn Monroe

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent scattering of solar, atmospheric and diffuse supernovae neutrinos creates an irreducible background for direct dark matter experiments with sensitivities to WIMP-nucleon spin-independent scattering cross-sections of 10^(-46)-10^(-48) cm^2, depending on the WIMP mass. Even if one could eliminate all other backgrounds, this "neutrino floor" will limit future experiments with projected sensitivities to cross-sections as small as 10^(-48) cm^2. Direction-sensitive detectors have the potential to study dark matter beyond the neutrino bound by fitting event distributions in multiple dimensions: recoil kinetic energy, recoil track angle with respect to the sun, and event time. This work quantitatively explores the impact of direction-sensitivity on the neutrino bound in dark matter direct detection.

  14. A Model of Asymmetric Hadronic Dark Matter and Leptogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wei-Min

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper suggests a model to account for the common origins of the asymmetric dark matter (ADM) and matter-antimatter asymmetry. The ADM nature is a stable hadronic particle consisting of a heavy color scalar and a light $u$ quark, which is formed after the QCD phase transition. At the early stage the ADM are in thermal equilibrium through collisions with the nucleons, moreover, they can emit the $\\gamma$ photons with $0.32$ MeV energy. However they are decoupling and become the dark matter at the temperature about $130$ MeV. The mass upper limit of the ADM is predicted as $M_{D}<1207$ GeV. It is feasible and promising to test the model in future experiments.

  15. A Radio for Hidden-Photon Dark Matter Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saptarshi Chaudhuri; Peter W. Graham; Kent Irwin; Jeremy Mardon; Surjeet Rajendran; Yue Zhao

    2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a resonant electromagnetic detector to search for hidden-photon dark matter over an extensive range of masses. Hidden-photon dark matter can be described as a weakly coupled "hidden electric field," oscillating at a frequency fixed by the mass, and able to penetrate any shielding. At low frequencies (compared to the inverse size of the shielding), we find that observable effect of the hidden photon inside any shielding is a real, oscillating magnetic field. We outline experimental setups designed to search for hidden-photon dark matter, using a tunable, resonant LC circuit designed to couple to this magnetic field. Our "straw man" setups take into consideration resonator design, readout architecture and noise estimates. At high frequencies,there is an upper limit to the useful size of a single resonator set by $1/\

  16. The Energy of Charged Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Philip Solovej

    2004-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this talk I will discuss some of the techniques that have been developed over the past 35 years to estimate the energy of charged matter. These techniques have been used to solve stability of (fermionic) matter in different contexts, and to control the instability of charged bosonic matter. The final goal will be to indicate how these techniques with certain improvements can be used to prove Dyson's 1967 conjecture for the energy of a charged Bose gas--the sharp $N^{7/5}$ law.

  17. The Unification and Cogeneration of Dark Matter and Baryonic Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. Barr

    2011-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In grand unified theories with gauge groups larger than SU(5), the multiplets that contain the known quarks and leptons also contain fermions that are singlets under the Standard Model gauge group. Some of these could be the dark matter of the universe. Grand unified theories can also have accidental U(1) global symmetries (analogous to B-L in minimal SU(5)) that can stabilize dark matter. These ideas are illustrated in an SU(6) model.

  18. The Unification and Cogeneration of Dark Matter and Baryonic Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barr, S M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In grand unified theories with gauge groups larger than SU(5), the multiplets that contain the known quarks and leptons also contain fermions that are singlets under the Standard Model gauge group. Some of these could be the dark matter of the universe. Grand unified theories can also have accidental U(1) global symmetries (analogous to B-L in minimal SU(5)) that can stabilize dark matter. These ideas are illustrated in an SU(6) model.

  19. The Limits of Quintessence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, R.R.; Linder, Eric V.

    2005-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present evidence that the simplest particle-physics scalar-field models of dynamical dark energy can be separated into distinct behaviors based on the acceleration or deceleration of the field as it evolves down its potential towards a zero minimum. We show that these models occupy narrow regions in the phase-plane of w and w', the dark energy equation-of-state and its time-derivative in units of the Hubble time. Restricting an energy scale of the dark energy microphysics limits how closely a scalar field can resemble a cosmological constant. These results, indicating a desired measurement resolution of order \\sigma(w')\\approx (1+w), define firm targets for observational tests of the physics of dark energy.

  20. Method for removing volatile components from a ceramic article, and related processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klug, Frederic Joseph (Schenectady, NY); DeCarr, Sylvia Marie (Waterford, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing substantially all of the volatile component in a green, volatile-containing ceramic article is disclosed. The method comprises freezing the ceramic article; and then subjecting the frozen article to a vacuum for a sufficient time to freeze-dry the article. Frequently, the article is heated while being freeze-dried. Use of this method efficiently reduces the propensity for any warpage of the article. The article is often formed from a ceramic slurry in a gel-casting process. A method for fabricating a ceramic core used in investment casting is also described.

  1. The effect of chemical dispersants on the solution of volatile liquid hydrocarbons from spilled crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Thomas Joseph

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Oceanography THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Approved as to style and content by...

  2. Method For Removing Volatile Components From A Gel-Cast Ceramic Article

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klug, Frederic Joseph (Schenectady, NY); DeCarr, Sylvia Marie (Schenectady, NY)

    2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing substantially all of the volatile component in a green, volatile-containing ceramic article is disclosed. The method comprises freezing the ceramic article; and then subjecting the frozen article to a vacuum for a sufficient time to freeze-dry the article. Frequently, the article is heated while being freeze-dried. Use of this method efficiently reduces the propensity for any warpage of the article. The article is often formed from a ceramic slurry in a gel-casting process. A method for fabricating a ceramic core used in investment casting is also described.

  3. The effect of chemical dispersants on the solution of volatile liquid hydrocarbons from spilled crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Thomas Joseph

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Oceanography THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Approved as to style and content by...

  4. Gas-chromatographic identification of volatile products from thermal processing of Bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zenkevich, I.G.; Ventura, K. [Advanced Chemical Engineering Institute, Pardubice (Czechoslovakia)

    1992-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The variety of bitumen industrial brands is evident in the significant variation of composition and ratio of volatile thermal processing products, which makes their detailed characterization difficult. For that reason, in the authors` opinion a simple and easily reproducible method for gas chromatographic analysis and identification of these substances should be of greater interest than gathering more such results. In this report the authors discuss the selection of an optimal combination of group and individual gas chromatographic methods for identification of volatile thermal processing products in the presence of air, using the example of AP bitumen, the main brand used in Czechoslavakia for production of asphalt. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  5. An unexpected journey: experimental insights into magma and volatile transport beneath Erebus volcano, Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iacovino, Kayla

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    fugacity of the volatile component and the concentration of that volatile dissolved in the melt. Because of the poor fit of our CO2 data to a power law regression, the pure-CO2 experiments of Lesne et al. (2011b) were used to create these isobars... /mantle boundary. Seismic and gravitational investigations on and around Ross Island suggest that this boundary is ?20 km deep (Cooper et al., 1994; Finotello et al., 2011; Newhall & Dzurisin, 1989). The evolution of the Erebus cone itself is inferred to have taken...

  6. Thermal engine driven heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drake, Richard L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for separating volatile organic compounds from a stream of process gas. An internal combustion engine drives a plurality of refrigeration systems, an electrical generator and an air compressor. The exhaust of the internal combustion engine drives an inert gas subsystem and a heater for the gas. A water jacket captures waste heat from the internal combustion engine and drives a second heater for the gas and possibly an additional refrigeration system for the supply of chilled water. The refrigeration systems mechanically driven by the internal combustion engine effect the precipitation of volatile organic compounds from the stream of gas.

  7. Physical Protection of Classified Matter

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1988-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The order establishes policy and objectives for physical protection of classified matter. This directive does not cancel another directive. Chg 1, 7-30-93. Canceled by 5632.1C.

  8. Reply to: "Recycled" volatiles in mantle derived diamonds--Evidence from nitrogen and noble gas isotopic data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cartigny, Pierre

    and Honda [R.K. Mohapatra, and M. Honda, "Recycled" volatiles in mantle derived diamonds--evidence from (2005) 559­572.]. We present here reasons why the alternative view of Mohapatra and Honda [R.K. Mohapatra and M. Honda, "Recycled" volatiles in mantle derived diamonds--evidence from nitrogen and noble

  9. Monitoring of volatile organic pollutants in groundwater by passive diffusive bags (PDBs) Catherine Berho, Anne Togola, Benjamin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    on classical water samples. These results highlighted that PDBs allow the measurement of the BTEX and volatileMonitoring of volatile organic pollutants in groundwater by passive diffusive bags (PDBs) Catherine used for groundwater monitoring such as low-flow peristaltic pumps can sample water slowly from wells

  10. NOTE SUR LES EFFETS DE L'INFUSION PERMANENTE D'UN MLANGE D'ACIDES GRAS VOLATILS DANS LE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NOTE SUR LES EFFETS DE L'INFUSION PERMANENTE D'UN MÉLANGE D'ACIDES GRAS VOLATILS DANS LE RUMEN DU problèmes techniques : infusion permanente et prolongée, dans le rumen, de quantités d'acides gras volatils début de l'infusion, les veaux étaient âgés d'environ 4 mois et pesaient respectivement 95 et 80 kg

  11. ?CDM cosmology from matter only

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herman Telkamp

    2015-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    I discuss a matter-only interpretation of {\\Lambda}CDM cosmology, based on conservation of energy and assuming a Machian definition of inertia. {\\Lambda}CDM cosmology can be linked to a Newtonian cosmic potential, subject to a propagating gravitational horizon. In a matter-only universe where total energy is conserved, Machian inertia related to the evolving potential may cause both deceleration and acceleration of recession.

  12. Shear viscosity of nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun Xu

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this talk I report my recent study on the shear viscosity of neutron-rich nuclear matter from a relaxation time approach. An isospin- and momentum-dependent interaction is used in the study. Effects of density, temperature, and isospin asymmetry of nuclear matter on its shear viscosity have been discussed. Similar to the symmetry energy, the symmetry shear viscosity is defined and its density and temperature dependence are studied.

  13. Dark Matter Triggers of Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter W. Graham; Surjeet Rajendran; Jaime Varela

    2015-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The transit of primordial black holes through a white dwarf causes localized heating around the trajectory of the black hole through dynamical friction. For sufficiently massive black holes, this heat can initiate runaway thermonuclear fusion causing the white dwarf to explode as a supernova. The shape of the observed distribution of white dwarfs with masses up to $1.25 M_{\\odot}$ rules out primordial black holes with masses $\\sim 10^{19}$ gm - $10^{20}$ gm as a dominant constituent of the local dark matter density. Black holes with masses as large as $10^{24}$ gm will be excluded if recent observations by the NuStar collaboration of a population of white dwarfs near the galactic center are confirmed. Black holes in the mass range $10^{20}$ gm - $10^{22}$ gm are also constrained by the observed supernova rate, though these bounds are subject to astrophysical uncertainties. These bounds can be further strengthened through measurements of white dwarf binaries in gravitational wave observatories. The mechanism proposed in this paper can constrain a variety of other dark matter scenarios such as Q balls, annihilation/collision of large composite states of dark matter and models of dark matter where the accretion of dark matter leads to the formation of compact cores within the star. White dwarfs, with their astronomical lifetimes and sizes, can thus act as large space-time volume detectors enabling a unique probe of the properties of dark matter, especially of dark matter candidates that have low number density. This mechanism also raises the intriguing possibility that a class of supernova may be triggered through rare events induced by dark matter rather than the conventional mechanism of accreting white dwarfs that explode upon reaching the Chandrasekhar mass.

  14. The Sensitivity of HAWC to High-Mass Dark Matter Annihilations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. U. Abeysekara; R. Alfaro; C. Alvarez; J. D. Alvarez; R. Arceo; J. C. Arteaga-Velazquez; H. A. Ayala Solares; A. S. Barber; B. M. Baughman; N. Bautista-Elivar; J. Becerra Gonzalez; E. Belmont; S. Y. BenZvi; D. Berley; M. Bonilla Rosales; J. Braun; R. A. Caballero-Lopez; K. S. Caballero-Mora; A. Carraminana; M. Castillo; U. Cotti; J. Cotzomi; E. de la Fuente; C. De Leon; T. DeYoung; R. Diaz Hernandez; L. Diaz-Cruz; J. C. Diaz-Velez; B. L. Dingus; M. A. DuVernois; R. W. Ellsworth; S. F. E.; D. W. Fiorino; N. Fraija; A. Galindo; F. Garfias; M. M. Gonzalez; J. A. Goodman; V. Grabski; M. Gussert; Z. Hampel-Arias; J. P. Harding; C. M. Hui; P. Huentemeyer; A. Imran; A. Iriarte; P. Karn; D. Kieda; G. J. Kunde; A. Lara; R. J. Lauer; W. H. Lee; D. Lennarz; H. Leon Vargas; E. C. Linares; J. T. Linnemann; M. Longo; R. Luna-Garcia; A. Marinelli; H. Martinez; O. Martinez; J. Martinez-Castro; J. A. J. Matthews; J. McEnery; E. Mendoza Torres; P. Miranda-Romagnoli; E. Moreno; M. Mostafa; L. Nellen; M. Newbold; R. Noriega-Papaqui; T. Oceguera-Becerra; B. Patricelli; R. Pelayo; E. G. Perez-Perez; J. Pretz; C. Riviere; D. Rosa-Gonzalez; J. Ryan; H. Salazar; F. Salesa; A. Sandoval; M. Schneider; S. Silich; G. Sinnis; A. J. Smith; K. Sparks Woodle; R. W. Springer; I. Taboada; P. A. Toale; K. Tollefson; I. Torres; T. N. Ukwatta; L. Villasenor; T. Weisgarber; S. Westerhoff; I. G. Wisher; J. Wood; G. B. Yodh; P. W. Younk; D. Zaborov; A. Zepeda; H. Zhou; K. N. Abazajian

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a wide field-of-view detector sensitive to gamma rays of 100 GeV to a few hundred TeV. Located in central Mexico at 19 degrees North latitude and 4100 m above sea level, HAWC will observe gamma rays and cosmic rays with an array of water Cherenkov detectors. The full HAWC array is scheduled to be operational in Spring 2015. In this paper, we study the HAWC sensitivity to the gamma-ray signatures of high-mass (multi- TeV) dark matter annihilation. The HAWC observatory will be sensitive to diverse searches for dark matter annihilation, including annihilation from extended dark matter sources, the diffuse gamma-ray emission from dark matter annihilation, and gamma-ray emission from non-luminous dark matter subhalos. Here we consider the HAWC sensitivity to a subset of these sources, including dwarf galaxies, the M31 galaxy, the Virgo cluster, and the Galactic center. We simulate the HAWC response to gamma rays from these sources in several well-motivated dark matter annihilation channels. If no gamma-ray excess is observed, we show the limits HAWC can place on the dark matter cross-section from these sources. In particular, in the case of dark matter annihilation into gauge bosons, HAWC will be able to detect a narrow range of dark matter masses to cross-sections below thermal. HAWC should also be sensitive to non-thermal cross-sections for masses up to nearly 1000 TeV. The constraints placed by HAWC on the dark matter cross-section from known sources should be competitive with current limits in the mass range where HAWC has similar sensitivity. HAWC can additionally explore higher dark matter masses than are currently constrained.

  15. Gamma-ray probes of dark matter substructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Sheldon [Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP), The Ohio State University, 191 W. Woodruff Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The substructure content of dark matter halos is interesting because it can be affected by complex galaxy physics and dark matter particle physics. However, observing the small scale structure of dark matter is a challenge. The subhalo abundance (mass function, minimum mass) and morphology (density profile, subhalo shape, subsubstructure) contain information about complex astrophysics (halo formation processes) and new exotic fundamental physics (dark matter interactions). Indirect detection of dark matter annihilation radiation (DMAR) in gamma rays may be the most direct method for observing small scale structure. I outline the ways in which gamma rays may probe halo substructure. If substructure is bountiful, it may be responsible for the eventual discovery of DMAR, for instance in galaxy clusters or the diffuse gamma-ray background. Otherwise, the observation of DMAR in places without much substructure, such as the Galactic center, would lead to strict limits on the properties of small scale structure. Properties of the gamma-ray angular power spectrum will also provide information or constraints on Milky Way halo substructure.

  16. Two field matter bounce cosmology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Yi-Fu; McDonough, Evan; Duplessis, Francis; Brandenberger, Robert H., E-mail: yifucai@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: evanmc@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: francis.duplessis@mail.mcgill.ca, E-mail: rhb@hep.physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We re-examine the non-singular Matter Bounce scenario first developed in [20], which starts with a matter-dominated period of contraction and transitions into an Ekpyrotic phase of contraction. We consider both matter fields, the first of which plays the role of regular matter, and the second of which is responsible for the non-singular bounce. Since the dominant matter field is massive, the induced curvature fluctuations are initially not scale-invariant, whereas the fluctuations of the second scalar field (which are initially entropy fluctuations) are scale-invariant. We study the transfer of the initial entropy perturbations into curvature fluctuations in the matter-dominated phase of contraction and show that the latter become nearly scale invariant on large scales but are blue tilted on small scales. We study the evolution of both curvature and entropy fluctuations through the bounce, and show that both have a scale-invariant spectrum which is blue-tilted on small scales. However, we find that the entropy fluctuations have an amplitude that is much smaller than that of the curvature perturbations, due to gravitational amplification of curvature perturbations during the bounce phase.

  17. Quark Matter, Massive Stars and Strange Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Weber; Ch. Schaab; M. K. Weigel; N. K. Glendenning

    1996-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper gives an overview of the properties of all possible equilibrium sequences of compact strange-matter stars with nuclear crusts, which range from strange stars to strange dwarfs. In contrast to their non-strange counterparts, --neutron stars and white dwarfs--, their properties are determined by two (rather than one) parameters, the central star density and the density at the base of the nuclear crust. This leads to stellar strange-matter configurations whose properties are much more complex than those of the conventional sequence. As an example, two generically different categories of stable strange dwarfs are found, which could be the observed white dwarfs. Furthermore we find very low-mass strange stellar objects, with masses as small as those of Jupiter or even lighter planets. Such objects, if abundant enough in our Galaxy, should be seen by the presently performed gravitational microlensing searches. Further aspects studied in this paper concern the limiting rotational periods and the cooling behavior of neutron stars and their strange counterparts.

  18. Searching for dark matter with helium atom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imre Ferenc Barna

    2006-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    With the help of the boost operator we can model the interaction between a weakly interacting particle(WIMP) of dark matter(DAMA) and an atomic nuclei. Via this "kick" we calculate the total electronic excitation cross section of the helium atom. The bound spectrum of He is calculated through a diagonalization process with a configuration interaction (CI) wavefunction built up from Slater orbitals. All together 19 singly- and doubly-excited atomic sates were taken with total angular momenta of L=0,1 and 2. Our calculation may give a rude estimation about the magnitude of the total excitation cross section which could be measured in later scintillator experiments. The upper limit of the excitation cross section is $9.7\\cdot 10^{-8}$ barn.

  19. From massive gravity to dark matter density II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Scharf

    2009-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    As previously observed the massless limit of massive gravity leads to a modification of general relativity. Here we study spherically symmetric solutions of the modified field equations which contain normal matter together with a dark energy density. If the dark density profile is assumed to be known, the whole problem is reduced to a linear first order differential equation which can be solved by quadratures.

  20. Matter-antimatter asymmetry and dark matter from torsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poplawski, Nikodem J. [Department of Physics, Indiana University, Swain Hall West, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a simple scenario which explains the observed matter-antimatter imbalance and the origin of dark matter in the Universe. We use the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity which naturally extends general relativity to include the intrinsic spin of matter. Spacetime torsion produced by spin generates, in the classical Dirac equation, the Hehl-Datta term which is cubic in spinor fields. We show that under a charge-conjugation transformation this term changes sign relative to the mass term. A classical Dirac spinor and its charge conjugate therefore satisfy different field equations. Fermions in the presence of torsion have higher energy levels than antifermions, which leads to their decay asymmetry. Such a difference is significant only at extremely high densities that existed in the very early Universe. We propose that this difference caused a mechanism, according to which heavy fermions existing in such a Universe and carrying the baryon number decayed mostly to normal matter, whereas their antiparticles decayed mostly to hidden antimatter which forms dark matter. The conserved total baryon number of the Universe remained zero.

  1. COMMENTARY:Limits to adaptation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society s responses to climate change.

  2. Separation and Volatility of Locational Marginal Prices in Restructured Wholesale Power Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    1 Separation and Volatility of Locational Marginal Prices in Restructured Wholesale Power Markets (LMPs) in an ISO-managed restructured wholesale power market operating over an AC transmission grid-determining) generation companies induce correlations among neighboring LMPs. Index Terms--Restructured wholesale power

  3. Accurate dispensing of volatile reagents on demand for chemical reactions in EWOD chips{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accurate dispensing of volatile reagents on demand for chemical reactions in EWOD chips{ Huijiang the use of a filler liquid (e.g., oil). These properties pose challenges for delivering controlled volumes are introduced to the chip, independent of time delays between dispensing operations. On-demand dispensing

  4. Field Test to Demonstrate Real-Time In-Situ Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Cliff

    1 Field Test to Demonstrate Real-Time In-Situ Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds Hazmat Spill Center, Nevada Test Site September 19-25, 2001 Clifford K. Ho Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque-filled 55- gallon drum at the Hazmat Spill Center at the Nevada Test Site. Background and Objectives Tens

  5. A theoretical study of discrete air phase migration contaminated with a volatile organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drazenovic, Mirna

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    saturated porous media, while the second part presents volatile contaminant transport in bubbly air flow. The first part of the study is developed in order to determine bubble rise velocity in four flow regimes i.e., steady state, quasi-steady state...

  6. Experimental evidence for interaction of water vapor and platinum crucibles at high temperatures : Implications for volatiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cartigny, Pierre

    The extraction of water from igneous rocks and minerals is classically achieved by induction heating or foils, to extract water from rocks or minerals should be avoided. The interaction high- lighted : Implications for volatiles from igneous rocks and minerals Matthieu Clog , Pierre Cartigny, Cyril Aubaud

  7. An empirical behavioral model of liquidity and volatility Szabolcs Mike and J. Doyne Farmer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    develop a behavioral model for liquidity and volatility based on empirical reg- ularities in trading order interesting regularities in the way trading orders are placed and cancelled. The resulting simple model of absolute returns |r| are well described by a power law of the form P(|r| > R) R-r , with a value of r

  8. Investor-Voters and Electoral Volatility in Sub-Saharan Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asingo, Patrick Odhiambo

    2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    is harmful if it permanently blocks some groups in the society from accessing power (Giliomee and Simkins, 1999). One can also argue that in the new and emerging democracies, low volatility can raise doubt about the quality of the elections. Understanding...

  9. Experimental studies of actinide volatilities with application to mixed waste oxidation processors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krikorian, O.H.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Condit, R.H.; Adamson, M.G.; Fontes, A.S. Jr.; Fleming, D.L.

    1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The transpiration technique is used to measure volatilities of U from U{sub 3}O{sub 8}(s), Pu from PuO{sub 2}(s) and Pu and Am from PuO{sub 2}/2%AmO{sub 2}(s) in the presence of steam and oxygen at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1300{degree}C.

  10. Analysis of the atmospheric distribution, sources, and sinks of oxygenated volatile organic chemicals based on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    chemicals based on measurements over the Pacific during TRACE-P H. B. Singh,1 L. J. Salas,1 R. B. Chatfield measurements of a large number of oxygenated volatile organic chemicals (OVOC) were carried out in the Pacific of OVOC is comparable to that of methane and far exceeds that of NMHC. A comparison of these data

  11. Effects on milk yield and composition of infusions of volatile fatty acids and caseinate into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects on milk yield and composition of infusions of volatile fatty acids and caseinate isoenergetic infusions of either a low (17 mol/day of 64% acetic, 21% propionic and 15% butyric acids) or high that with infusions, energy and nitrogen needs were met and consisted of 60% maize silage, 10% hay, 21.5% energy

  12. Options introduction and volatility in the EU ETS1 Julien Chevallier 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of derivatives instruments on the underlying crude oil market and derived products. Thus, detecting whether identify a potential destabilizing effect of the introduction of options on the underlying market (EU ETS either decrease (due to more market depth) or increase (due to more speculation) volatility

  13. Volatile organic acids and microbial processes in the Yegua formation, east-central Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Ethan L.

    and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA b Institute for Energy and the EnvironmentVolatile organic acids and microbial processes in the Yegua formation, east-central Texas Joyanto production of VOAs by microorganisms in mudstones, and net consumption of VOAs by SO4 reducing bacteria (SRB

  14. A Tree's Response to Herbivory: Quantification of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    A Tree's Response to Herbivory: Quantification of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions an abundant source of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). These emissions are known to vary in quantity and composition due to both biogenic and anthropogenic stressors. In this study, BVOC emissions from bristlecone

  15. Volatile impurities in the ceramic form for the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cozzi, A.D.

    2000-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal for the impurity tests performed at SRS was to determine the maximum level of volatile impurities that can be accommodated into the ceramic form without significantly affecting product properties. The properties investigated in this study are the apparent porosity and the phase assemblage.

  16. Agriculture and Trade Opportunities for Tanzania: Past Volatility and Future Climate Changerode_672 429..447

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    Agriculture and Trade Opportunities for Tanzania: Past Volatility and Future Climate Changerode_672 global heterogeneity in climate-induced agricultural variability,Tanzania has the potential to substan could thus export grain to countries as climate change increases the likelihood of severe precipitation

  17. Low-Level Detections of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    compounds; Groundwater management; Drinking water. Introduction Approximately one-half of the U and Hitt 2006 , or more complex process-based analyses utilizing groundwater models Eberts et al. 2005Low-Level Detections of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater: Use in Vulnerability

  18. Effets d'infusions d'un mlange complet d'acides gras volatils en cours de repas sur la prise alimentaire de vaches taries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effets d'infusions d'un mélange complet d'acides gras volatils en cours de repas sur la prise-Gilles, 35590 L'Hermitage, France Summary ― Infusions of 3 or 6 mol of a volatile fatty acid mixture dépressifs des infusions d'acides gras volatils (AGV) dans le rumen sur l'ingestion d'aliments ont été

  19. On the minimum dark matter mass testable by neutrinos from the Sun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busoni, Giorgio; Simone, Andrea De; Huang, Wei-Chih, E-mail: giorgio.busoni@sissa.it, E-mail: andrea.desimone@sissa.it, E-mail: wei-chih.huang@sissa.it [SISSA and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss a limitation on extracting bounds on the scattering cross section of dark matter with nucleons, using neutrinos from the Sun. If the dark matter particle is sufficiently light (less than about 4 GeV), the effect of evaporation is not negligible and the capture process goes in equilibrium with the evaporation. In this regime, the flux of solar neutrinos of dark matter origin becomes independent of the scattering cross section and therefore no constraint can be placed on it. We find the minimum values of dark matter masses for which the scattering cross section on nucleons can be probed using neutrinos from the Sun. We also provide simple and accurate fitting functions for all the relevant processes of GeV-scale dark matter in the Sun.

  20. Density of dark matter in Solar system and perihelion precession of planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. B. Khriplovich

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct relation is pointed out between the secular perihelion precession of a planet and the density of dark matter at its orbit. It is valid under the only assumption that the density is spherically-symmetric, with the center coinciding with the Sun. This relation, combined with the observational data on perihelion precession of planets, results in upper limits on local values of the dark matter density in the Solar system.

  1. Dark Matter Directionality Revisited with a High Pressure Xenon Gas Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopolang Mohlabeng; Kyoungchul Kong; Jin Li; Adam Para; Jonghee Yoo

    2015-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An observation of the anisotropy of dark matter interactions in a direction-sensitive detector would provide decisive evidence for the discovery of galactic dark matter. Directional information would also provide a crucial input to understanding its distribution in the local Universe. Most of the existing directional dark matter detectors utilize particle tracking methods in a low-pressure gas time projection chamber. These low pressure detectors require excessively large volumes in order to be competitive in the search for physics beyond the current limit. In order to avoid these volume limitations, we consider a novel proposal, which exploits a columnar recombination effect in a high-pressure gas time projection chamber. The ratio of scintillation to ionization signals observed in the detector carries the angular information of the particle interactions. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of a future directional detector focused on the proposed high-pressure Xenon gas time projection chamber. We study the prospect of detecting an anisotropy in the dark matter velocity distribution. We find that tens of events are needed to exclude an isotropic distribution of dark matter interactions at 95% confidence level in the most optimistic case with head-to-tail information. However, one needs at least 10-20 times more events without head-to-tail information for light dark matter below 50 GeV or one between 200 GeV and 400 GeV. For an intermediate mass range, we find it challenging to observe anisotropy of dark matter distribution.

  2. Dynamical dark matter. II. An explicit model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Thomas, Brooks

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a recent paper [K. R. Dienes and B. Thomas, Phys. Rev. D 85, 083523 (2012).], we introduced “dynamical dark matter,” a new framework for dark-matter physics, and outlined its underlying theoretical principles and phenomenological possibilities. Unlike most traditional approaches to the dark-matter problem which hypothesize the existence of one or more stable dark-matter particles, our dynamical dark-matter framework is characterized by the fact that the requirement of stability is replaced by a delicate balancing between cosmological abundances and lifetimes across a vast ensemble of individual dark-matter components. This setup therefore collectively produces a time-varying cosmological dark-matter abundance, and the different dark-matter components can interact and decay throughout the current epoch. While the goal of our previous paper was to introduce the broad theoretical aspects of this framework, the purpose of the current paper is to provide an explicit model of dynamical dark matter and demonstrate that this model satisfies all collider, astrophysical, and cosmological constraints. The results of this paper therefore constitute an “existence proof” of the phenomenological viability of our overall dynamical dark-matter framework, and demonstrate that dynamical dark matter is indeed a viable alternative to the traditional paradigm of dark-matter physics. Dynamical dark matter must therefore be considered alongside other approaches to the dark-matter problem, particularly in scenarios involving large extra dimensions or string theory in which there exist large numbers of particles which are neutral under standard-model symmetries.

  3. Gamma-ray boxes from axion-mediated dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Gehler, Sergio López; Pato, Miguel [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lee, Hyun Min; Park, Wan-Il, E-mail: ibarra@tum.de, E-mail: hyun.min.lee@cern.ch, E-mail: sergio.lopez@ph.tum.de, E-mail: wipark@kias.re.kr, E-mail: miguel.pato@tum.de [School of Physics, KIAS, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the gamma-ray output of axion-mediated dark matter and derive the corresponding constraints set by recent data. In such scenarios the dark matter candidate is a Dirac fermion that pair-annihilates into axions and/or scalars. Provided that the axion decays (at least partly) into photons, these models naturally give rise to a box-shaped gamma-ray spectrum that may present two distinct phenomenological behaviours: a narrow box, resembling a line at half the dark matter mass, or a wide box, spanning an extensive energy range up to the dark matter mass. Remarkably, we find that in both cases a sizable gamma-ray flux is predicted for a thermal relic without fine-tuning the model parameters nor invoking boost factors. This large output is in line with recent Fermi-LAT observations towards the galactic centre region and is on the verge of being excluded. We then make use of the Fermi-LAT and H.E.S.S. data to derive robust, model-independent upper limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section for the narrow and wide box scenarios. H.E.S.S. constraints, in particular, turn out to match the ones from Fermi-LAT at hundreds of GeV and extend to multi-TeV masses. Future ?erenkov telescopes will likely probe gamma-ray boxes from thermal dark matter relics in the whole multi-TeV range, a region hardly accessible to direct detection, collider searches and other indirect detection strategies.

  4. Phi Meson in Dense Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Che Ming; Levai, P.; Qiu, X. J.; Li, C. T.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHYSICAL REVIEW C VOLUME 45, NUMBER 3 MARCH 1992 Phi meson in dense matter C. M. Ko, P. Levai, * and X. J. Qiu Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A &M University, College Station, Texas 77843 C. T. Li Physics Department, National... Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 10764, China {Received 3 September 1991) The effect of the kaon loop correction to the property of a phi meson in dense matter is studied in the vector dominance model. Using the density-dependent kaon effective mass...

  5. The phase diagram of nuclear and quark matter at high baryon density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We review theoretical approaches to explore the phase diagram of nuclear and quark matter at high baryon density. We first look over the basic properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and address how to describe various states of QCD matter. In our discussions on nuclear matter we cover the relativistic mean-field model, the chiral perturbation theory, and the approximation based on the large-Nc limit where Nc is the number of colors. We then explain the liquid-gas phase transition and the inhomogeneous meson condensation in nuclear matter with emphasis put on the relevance to quark matter. We commence the next part focused on quark matter with the bootstrap model and the Hagedorn temperature. Then we turn to properties associated with chiral symmetry and exposit theoretical descriptions of the chiral phase transition. There emerge some quark-matter counterparts of phenomena seen in nuclear matter such as the liquid-gas phase transition and the inhomogeneous structure of the chiral condensate. The third reg...

  6. The Transition to Experiencing: I. Limited Learning and Limited Experiencing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    The Transition to Experiencing: I. Limited Learning and Limited Experiencing Simona Ginsburg route for the transition from sensory processing to unlimited experiencing, or basic consciousness. We the transition. We believe that the raw mate- rial from which feelings were molded by natural selection

  7. Limit theory for overfit models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calhoun, Grayson Ford

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2 Asymptotic Theory and Main Results . . . . . . . . .Chapter 2 Limit theory for comparing over?t models out-of-

  8. Neutrino oscillations and dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Zuber

    1996-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The significance of light massive neutrinos as hot dark matter is outlined. The power of neutrino oscillation experiments with respect to detect such neutrinos in the eV-region is discussed. Present hints for neutrino oscillations in solar, atmospheric and LSND data are reviewed as well as future experiments and their potential.

  9. Laser Cooling of Matter INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Robin

    - velopment of techniques that have allowed the ion motion to be cooled into the ground state of the confiningLaser Cooling of Matter INTRODUCTION Laser cooling of neutral atoms in the past decades has been a breakthrough in the understanding of their dy- namics and led to the seminal proposals of laser cooling

  10. Magnets & Magnet Condensed Matter Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    18 No. 1 CONDENSED MATTER SCIENCE Technique development, graphene, magnetism & magnetic materials Pressure 9 Metal to Insulator Transition on the N=0 Landau Level in Graphene 10 Evidence for Fractional Quantum Hall States in Suspended Bilayer and Trilayer Graphene 11 Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

  11. Solar Neutrino Matter Effects Redux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. B. Balantekin; A. Malkus

    2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Following recent low-threshold analysis of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and asymmetry measurements of the BOREXINO Collaboration of the solar neutrino flux, we revisit the analysis of the matter effects in the Sun. We show that solar neutrino data constrains the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ poorly and that subdominant Standard Model effects can mimic the effects of the physics beyond the Standard Model.

  12. States of Matter Deepak Dhar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

    - logical classification of different animal species) or some mixture of these (e.g. books in a library answer in this case is that states of matter is a classification scheme, like filing cabinets classification schemes could be alphabetical (e.g. in a dictionary), or based on some common properties ( zoo

  13. Apparatus for particulate matter analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

  14. Dark Matter Constraints from a Cosmic Index of Refraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, Susan; Latimer, David C.

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dark-matter candidates of particle physics invariably possess electromagnetic interactions, if only via quantum fluctuations. Taken en masse, dark matter can thus engender an index of refraction which deviates from its vacuum value. Its presence is signaled through frequency-dependent effects: the real part yields dispersive effects in propagation, and the imaginary part yields such in attenuation. We discuss theoretical constraints on the expansion of the index of refraction with frequency, the physical interpretation of the terms, and the particular observations needed to isolate its coefficients. This, with the advent of new opportunities to view gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distance scales, gives us a new probe of dark matter. As a first application we use the time delay determined from radio afterglow observations of gamma-ray bursts to limit the charge-to-mass ratio of dark matter to |{var_epsilon}|/M < 1.8 x 10{sup -5} eV{sup -1} at 95% CL.

  15. Scalar dark matter models with significant internal bremsstrahlung

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giacchino, Federica; Tytgat, Michel H.G. [Service de Physique Théorique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Boulevard du Triomphe, CP225, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Lopez-Honorez, Laura, E-mail: federica.giacchino@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: llopezho@vub.ac.be, E-mail: mtytgat@ulb.ac.be [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been interest recently on particle physics models that may give rise to sharp gamma ray spectral features from dark matter annihilation. Because dark matter is supposed to be electrically neutral, it is challenging to build weakly interacting massive particle models that may accommodate both a large cross section into gamma rays at, say, the Galactic center, and the right dark matter abundance. In this work, we consider the gamma ray signatures of a class of scalar dark matter models that interact with Standard Model dominantly through heavy vector-like fermions (the vector-like portal). We focus on a real scalar singlet S annihilating into lepton-antilepton pairs. Because this two-body final-state annihilation channel is d-wave suppressed in the chiral limit, ?{sub ff-bar}v?v{sup 4}, we show that virtual internal bremsstrahlung emission of a gamma ray gives a large correction, both today and at the time of freeze-out. For the sake of comparison, we confront this scenario to the familiar case of a Majorana singlet annihilating into light lepton-antilepton pairs, and show that the virtual internal bremsstrahlung signal may be enhanced by a factor of (up to) two orders of magnitude. We discuss the scope and possible generalizations of the model.

  16. Dark Matter Constraints from a Cosmic Index of Refraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Gardner; D. C. Latimer

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The dark-matter candidates of particle physics invariably possess electromagnetic interactions, if only via quantum fluctuations. Taken en masse, dark matter can thus engender an index of refraction which deviates from its vacuum value. Its presence is signaled through frequency-dependent effects in the propagation and attenuation of light. We discuss theoretical constraints on the expansion of the index of refraction with frequency, the physical interpretation of the terms, and the particular observations needed to isolate its coefficients. This, with the advent of new opportunities to view gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distance scales, gives us a new probe of dark matter and a new possibility for its direct detection. As a first application we use the time delay determined from radio afterglow observations of distant gamma-ray bursts to realize a direct limit on the electric-charge-to-mass ratio of dark matter of |varepsilon|/M < 1 x 10^{-5} eV^{-1} at 95% CL.

  17. Lovelock solutions in the presence of matter sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bardoux, Yannis [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 8627, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay, Cedex (France); Charmousis, Christos [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 8627, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay, Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique (LMPT) CNRS UMR 6083, Universite Francois Rabelais - Tours (France); Kolyvaris, Theodoros [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus GR 157 73, Athens (Greece)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For a large class of space and time-dependent warped geometries we find the general solution of the six-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet equations in the presence of p-form matter fields. This is done under two conditions on the matter sector which we show impose the integrability of the full system. Solutions are classified and known black hole limits are found. It is shown that Lovelock gravity restricts drastically the possible horizon geometries and allowed matter sources. In fact, we show that if we allow only for solutions of asymptotically flat falloff behavior, then the only permissible black hole is that of Boulware-Deser with electromagnetic charge. The situation of six-dimensional Lovelock gravity is therefore almost identical to four-dimensional General Relativity. The gravitational horizon constraints lead us to find static solutions involving 3-form matter fields in anti de Sitter space which are also new to General Relativity along with other cosmological and black string type of solutions.

  18. Energy Matters: Our Energy Independence | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Matters: Our Energy Independence Energy Matters: Our Energy Independence Addthis Description In this installment of the livechat series "Energy Matters," Dr. Arun Majumdar takes...

  19. Why Geology Matters: Decoding the Past, Anticipating the Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Byron P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Review: Why Geology Matters: Decoding the Past, AnticipatingUSA Macdougall, Doug. Why Geology Matters: Decoding theE-book available. Why Geology Matters pursues two goals: to

  20. Volatile organic chemical emissions from carpets. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Wooley, J.D.; Daisey, J.M.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this research, was to measure the emission rates of selected individual VOC, including low molecular-weight aldehydes, released by samples of four new carpets that are typical of the major types of carpets used in residences, schools and offices. The carpet samples were collected directly from the manufacturers` mills and packaged to preserve their chemical integrity. The measurements of the concentrations and emission rates of these compounds were made under simulated indoor conditions in a 20-M{sup 3} environmental chamber designed specifically for investigations of VOC. The measurements were conducted over a period of one week following the installation of the carpet samples in the chamber. Duplicate experiments were conducted for one carpet. In addition, the concentrations and emission rates of VOC resulting from the installation of a new carpet in a residence were measured over a period of seven weeks. The stabilities of the week-long ventilation rates and temperatures were one percent relative standard deviation. The four carpets emitted a variety of VOC, 40 of which were positively identified. Eight of these were considered to be dominant. They were (in order of chromatographic retention time) formaldehyde, vinyl acetate, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane), 1,2-propanediol (propylene glycol), styrene, 2-ethyl-l-hexanol, 4-phenylcyclohexene (4-PCH), and 2,6 di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT). With the exception of formaldehyde, only limited data are available on the toxicity and irritancy of these compounds at low concentrations. Therefore, it is difficult to determine at this time the potential magnitude of the health and comfort effects that may occur among the population from exposures to emissions from new carpets. The concentrations and emission rates of most compounds decreased rapidly over the first 12 h of the experiments.

  1. Declining Volatility, a General Property of Disparate Systems: From Fossils, to Stocks, to the Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Bruce S

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There may be structural principles pertaining to the general behavior of systems that lead to similarities in a variety of different contexts. Classic examples include the descriptive power of fractals, the importance of surface area to volume constraints, the universality of entropy in systems, and mathematical rules of growth and form. Documenting such overarching principles may represent a rejoinder to the Neodarwinian synthesis that emphasizes adaptation and competition. Instead, these principles could indicate the importance of constraint and structure on form and evolution. Here we document a potential example of a phenomenon suggesting congruent behavior of very different systems. We focus on the notion that universally there has been a tendency for more volatile entities to disappear from systems such that the net volatility in these systems tends to decline. We specifically focus on origination and extinction rates in the marine animal fossil record, the performance of stocks in the stock market, and...

  2. Preliminary evaluation of selected in situ remediation technologies for Volatile Organic Compound contamination at Arid sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenhard, R.J.; Gerber, M.A.; Amonette, J.E.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To support the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Site (VOC-Arid) Integrated Demonstration (ID) in its technical, logistical, institutional, and economical testing of emerging environmental management and restoration technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory(a) is evaluating several in situ remediation technologies for possible inclusion in the demonstration. The evaluations are made with respect to the initial focus of the VOC-Arid ID: the carbon tetrachloride contamination at the Hanford Site, where it was disposed to the vadose zone along with other volatile and nonvolatile organic wastes. heavy metals, acids. and radionuclides. The purposes of this report are (1) to identify candidate in situ technologies for inclusion in the program, (2) to evaluate the candidate technologies based on their potential applicability to VOC contamination at arid sites and geologic conditions representative of the ID host site (i.e., Hanford Site), and (3) to prioritize those technologies for future US Department of Energy (DOE) support.

  3. Exotic Matter and Space-Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terazawa, Hidezumi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exotic forms of matter such as carbon nanofoams, hexalambdas and strange stars, pentaquarks, color-balls, etc. and their relations to current problems in cosmo-particle physics such as dark matter and energy are discussed in some details.

  4. Dark matter axions and caustic rings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikivie, P.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains discussions on the following topics: the strong CP problem; dark matter axions; the cavity detector of galactic halo axions; and caustic rings in the density distribution of cold dark matter halos.

  5. Dark Matter Directionality Revisited with a High Pressure Xenon Gas Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopolang Mohlabeng; Kyoungchul Kong; Jin Li; Adam Para; Jonghee Yoo

    2015-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An observation of the anisotropy of dark matter interactions in a direction-sensitive detector would provide decisive evidence for the discovery of galactic dark matter. Directional information would also provide a crucial input to understanding its distribution in the local Universe. Most of the existing directional dark matter detectors utilize particle tracking methods in a low-pressure gas time projection chamber. These low pressure detectors require excessively large volumes in order to be competitive in the search for physics beyond the current limit. In order to avoid these volume limitations, we consider a novel proposal, which exploits a columnar recombination effect in a high-pressure gas time projection chamber. The ratio of scintillation to ionization signals observed in the detector carries the angular information of the particle interactions. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of a future directional detector focused on the proposed high-pressure Xenon gas time projection chamber. We study the prospect of detecting an anisotropy in the dark matter velocity distribution. We find that tens of events are needed to exclude an isotropic distribution of dark matter interactions at 95% confidence level in the most optimistic case with head-to-tail information. However, one needs at least 10-20 times more events without head-to-tail information for light dark matter below 50 GeV. For an intermediate mass range, we find it challenging to observe an anisotropy of the dark matter distribution. Our results also show that the directional information significantly improves precision measurements of dark matter mass and the elastic scattering cross section for a heavy dark matter.

  6. Understanding complex Earth systems: volatile metabolites as microbial ecosystem proxies and student conceptual model development of coastal eutrophication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeal, Karen Sue

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    research strands which contribute to the scientific and pedagogical understanding of complex Earth systems. In the first strand, a method that characterizes volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as ecological proxies of soil microbial ecosystems was validated...

  7. Volatile Profile Differences and the Associated Sirex noctilio Activity in Two Host Tree Species in the Northeastern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    induced higher volatile emission rates in the Scots pine chemotypes than in white pine, although. Truck Rd., Buzzards Bay, MA 02542, USA Present Address: K. Böröczky Department of Entomology, North

  8. Evaluation of the colossal electroresistance (CER) effect and its application in the non-volatile Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wicaksono, Aulia Tegar

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flash memory, the current leading technology for non-volatile memory (NVM), is projected by many to run obsolete in the face of future miniaturization trend in the semiconductor devices due to some of its technical ...

  9. Airborne and ground based measurements of volatile organic compounds using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry in Texas and Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortner, Edward Charles

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) are reported from recent airborne and surface based field campaigns. The Southeast Texas Tetroon Study (SETTS) was a project within...

  10. The Impact of Tax Shocks and Oil Price Volatility on Risk - A Study of North Sea Oilfield Projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kretzschmar, Gavin Lee; Moles, Peter

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the impact of market volatility and increased fiscal take on risk in strategic natural resource projects. An increase in 2006 UK oilfield taxation is used as a natural experiment for assessing the impact of a ...

  11. Vertical composition gradient effects on original hydrocarbon in place volumes and liquid recovery for volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo Arias, Juan Manuel

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Around the world, volatile oil and retrograde gas reservoirs are considered as complex thermodynamic systems and even more when they exhibit vertical composition variations. Those systems must be characterized by an equation of state (EOS...

  12. FUEL CASK IMPACT LIMITER VULNERABILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leduc, D; Jeffery England, J; Roy Rothermel, R

    2009-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Cylindrical fuel casks often have impact limiters surrounding just the ends of the cask shaft in a typical 'dumbbell' arrangement. The primary purpose of these impact limiters is to absorb energy to reduce loads on the cask structure during impacts associated with a severe accident. Impact limiters are also credited in many packages with protecting closure seals and maintaining lower peak temperatures during fire events. For this credit to be taken in safety analyses, the impact limiter attachment system must be shown to retain the impact limiter following Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) impacts. Large casks are often certified by analysis only because of the costs associated with testing. Therefore, some cask impact limiter attachment systems have not been tested in real impacts. A recent structural analysis of the T-3 Spent Fuel Containment Cask found problems with the design of the impact limiter attachment system. Assumptions in the original Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) concerning the loading in the attachment bolts were found to be inaccurate in certain drop orientations. This paper documents the lessons learned and their applicability to impact limiter attachment system designs.

  13. Performance Limits for Cherenkov Instruments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Hofmann

    2006-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of Cherenkov instruments for the detection of very high energy gamma rays is ultimately limited by the fluctuations in the development of air showers. With particular emphasis on the angular resolution, the ultimate performance limits are investigated on the basis of simulations.

  14. Congressional Request Limiting the Magnitude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as goals? Target: limit U.S. GHG emissions (e.g., national emission budget, or percent reduction) What is a reasonable share of U.S. emission reductions relative to the global targets? What is the implied emissions on atmospheric GHG concentrations? Target: limit atmospheric GHG concentrations (e.g., 450, 550 ppm CO2,eq) How

  15. A new volatility term in the theory of options with transaction costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Morozovsky

    2000-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The introduction of transaction costs into the theory of option pricing could lead not only to the change of return for options, but also to the change of the volatility. On the base of assumption of the portfolio analysis, a new equation for option pricing with transaction costs is derived. A new solution for the option price is obtained for the time close to expiration date.

  16. Real-time monitoring of volatile organic compounds using chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowry, Curtis Dale (Albuquerque, NM); Thornberg, Steven Michael (Peralta, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for on-line quantitative monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) includes pressure reduction means for carrying a gaseous sample from a first location to a measuring input location maintained at a low pressure, the system utilizing active feedback to keep both the vapor flow and pressure to a chemical ionization mode mass spectrometer constant. A multiple input manifold for VOC and gas distribution permits a combination of calibration gases or samples to be applied to the spectrometer.

  17. The role of microorganisms in the production of volatile sulfhydryl compounds in cheddar cheese slurries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce-Trevino, Raul

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the role of lac- tic cultures on the production of volatile sulfhydryl com- pounds in the slurries. Hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, carbonyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfide were found in the headspace of slurries prepared from curd manufactured... by the culture procedure. Addition of an antibiotic mixture to slurries prepared from curd manufactured by the culture me- thod inhibited bacteria growth and the production of hydro- gen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide. A mixture of antibiotics was added...

  18. The role of non-volatile memory from an application perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kettering, Brett M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nunez, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Current, emerging, and future NVM (non-volatile memory) technologies give us hope that we will be able to architect HPC (high performance computing) systems that initially use them in a memory and storage hierarchy, and eventually use them as the memory and storage for the system, complete with ownership and protections as a HDD-based (hard-disk-drive-based) file system provides today.

  19. Electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectral analysis of a volatile uranyl derivative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reutter, D.J.; Hardy, D.R.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quadrupole mass spectral analysis of the volatile uranium ligand complex bis (1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionato) dioxouranium-di-n-butyl sulfoxide is described utilizing electron impact (EI) and methane chemical ionization (CI) ion sources. All major ions are tentatively identified and the potential usefulness of this complex for determining uranium isotope /sup 235/U//sup 238/U abundance is demonstrated.

  20. CONSTRAINTS ON DARK MATTER ANNIHILATION IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES FROM DIFFUSE RADIO EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storm, Emma; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Profumo, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Rudnick, Lawrence [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Annihilation of dark matter can result in the production of stable Standard Model particles including electrons and positrons that, in the presence of magnetic fields, lose energy via synchrotron radiation, observable as radio emission. Galaxy clusters are excellent targets to search for or to constrain the rate of dark matter annihilation, as they are both massive and dark matter dominated. In this study, we place limits on dark matter annihilation in a sample of nearby clusters using upper limits on the diffuse radio emission, low levels of observed diffuse emission, or detections of radio mini-halos. We find that the strongest limits on the annihilation cross section are better than limits derived from the non-detection of clusters in the gamma-ray band by a factor of {approx}3 or more when the same annihilation channel and substructure model, but different best-case clusters, are compared. The limits on the cross section depend on the assumed amount of substructure, varying by as much as two orders of magnitude for increasingly optimistic substructure models as compared to a smooth Navarro-Frenk-White profile. In our most optimistic case, using the results of the Phoenix Project, we find that the derived limits reach below the thermal relic cross section of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -26} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} for dark matter masses as large as 400 GeV, for the b b-bar annihilation channel. We discuss uncertainties due to the limited available data on the magnetic field structure of individual clusters. We also report the discovery of diffuse radio emission from the central 30-40 kpc regions of the groups M49 and NGC 4636.

  1. Statistical mechanics of hot dense matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    More, R.

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research on properties of hot dense matter produced with high intensity laser radiation is described in a brief informal review.

  2. Operations & Maintenance Best Practices Guide: Front Matter

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Guide describes the front matter of the Operations and Maintenance Best Practices: a Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency.

  3. Nuclear matter to strange matter transition in holographic QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Youngman Kim; Yunseok Seo; Sang-Jin Sin

    2009-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a simple holographic QCD model to study nuclear matter to strange matter transition. The interaction of dense medium and hadrons is taken care of by imposing the force balancing condition for stable D4/D6/D6 configuration. By considering the intermediate and light flavor branes interacting with baryon vertex homogeneously distributed along R^3 space and requesting the energy minimization, we find that there is a well defined transition density as a function of current quark mass. We also find that as density goes up very high, intermediate (or heavy) and light quarks populate equally as expected from the Pauli principle. In this sense, the effect of the Pauli principle is realized as dynamics of D-branes.

  4. The development of a sensitive method to study volatile organic compounds in gaseous emissions of lung cancer cell lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroly, Anupam

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSITIVE METHOD TO STUDY VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN GASEOUS EMISSIONS OF LUNG CANCER CELL LINES A Thesis by ANUPAM MAROLY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2005 Major Subject: Biomedical Engineering THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSITIVE METHOD TO STUDY VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN GASEOUS EMISSIONS OF LUNG CANCER CELL...

  5. Cancer risks from soil emissions of volatile organic compounds at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dibley, V. R., LLNL

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission isolation flux chamber (EIFC) methodology was applied to Superfund investigations at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 to determine if on-site workers were exposed to VOCs volatilizing from the subsurface and what, if any, health risks could be attributed to the inhalation of the VOCs volatilizing from the subsurface. During July and August of 1996, twenty, eighteen, and twenty six VOC soil vapor flux samples were collected in the Building 830, 832, and 854 areas, respectively using EIFCS. The VOC concentrations in the vapor samples were used to calculate soil flux rates which were used as input into an air dispersion model to calculate ambient air exposure-point concentrations. The exposure-point concentrations were compared to EPA Region IX Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs). Buildings 830 and 832 exposure-point concentrations were less then the PRGs therefore no cancer risks were calculated. The cancer risks for Building 854 ranged from 1.6 x 10{sup -7} to 2.1 x 10{sup -6}. The resultant inhalation cancer risks were all within the acceptable range, implying that on-site workers were not exposed to VOC vapors volatilizing from the subsurface soil that could have significant cancer risks. Therefore remediation in these areas would not be necessary.

  6. A study of volatile compounds in the breath of children with type 1 diabetes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevens, S; Wei, C; Greenwood, R; Hamilton-Shield, J; Costello, B de Lacy; Ratcliffe, N; Probert, C

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot study of exhaled volatile compounds and their correlation with blood glucose levels in eight children with type 1 diabetes is reported. Five paired blood and breath samples were obtained from each child over a 6 hour period. The blood glucose concentration ranged from 41.4 to 435.6 mg/dL. Breath samples were collected in Tedlar bags and immediately evacuated through thermal desorption tubes packed with Carbopack B and C. The VOCs were later recovered by thermal desorption and analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The study identified 74 volatile compounds present in at least 10% of the patient samples. Of these 74 volatiles 36 were found in all patient samples tested. Further analysis of the 36 compounds found that none showed significant overall correlation with blood glucose levels. Isoprene showed a weak negative correlation with blood glucose levels. Acetone was found to have no correlation with blood glucose levels for the patients studied. Some patients showed significant individu...

  7. Volatilization and mixing in glasses of some Apollo 14 regolith breccias

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.H.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three unique samples can be distinguished by analysis of all glass types, including devitrified glasses, in a suite of 26 Apollo 14 regolith breccias. These unique samples include the well-studied sample 14315, which has an abundance of anorthositic gabbro glasses and devitrified glasses; 14004,77, which has no glasses other than those that match the local soil; and 14076,5, which contains no glasses similar to the local soil or to LKFM. Sample 14076,5 is clearly exotic, for it contains devitrified glasses of anorthositic composition and of a silica-volatilized (HASP) trend that stems from anorthosite; these silica-volatilized glasses contain the new mineral yoshiokite. HASP glasses in this exotic sample and HASP glass spheres that stem from the Apollo 14 soil composition differ greatly from the HASP glasses at Apollo 16. The various HASP glasses can be just as useful as non-volatilized glasses in searching or major crustal or regolith lithologies. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Personal Finance Make Your Money Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Mark

    Personal Finance Make Your Money Matter Name: Registration number: Department: Year of study of your portfolio. #12;Personal Finance Make Your Money Matter2 Contents Timetable Page 3 Introduction 16 #12;Personal Finance Make Your Money Matter3 Timetable Friday 6.00 pm Introduction

  9. Isospin asymmetric nuclear matter and properties of axisymmetric neutron stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partha Roy Chowdhury; Abhijit Bhattacharyya; D. N. Basu

    2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Pure hadronic compact stars, above a limiting value ($\\approx$1.6 M$_\\odot$) of their gravitational masses, to which predictions of most of other equations of state (EoSs) are restricted, can be reached from the equation of state (EoS) obtained using DDM3Y effective interaction. This effective interaction is found to be quite successful in providing unified description of elastic and inelastic scattering, various radioactivities and nuclear matter properties. We present a systematic study of the properties of pure hadronic compact stars. The $\\beta$-equilibrated neutron star matter using this EoS with a thin crust is able to describe highly-massive compact stars, such as PSR B1516+02B with a mass M=1.94$^{+0.17}_{-0.19}$ M$_\\odot$ and PSR J0751+1807 with a mass M=2.1$\\pm$0.2 M$_\\odot$ to a 1$\\sigma$ confidence level.

  10. Sound waves and solitons in hot and dense nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. A. Fogaça; L. G. Ferreira Filho; F. S. Navarra

    2008-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Assuming that nuclear matter can be treated as a perfect fluid, we study the propagation of perturbations in the baryon density. The equation of state is derived from a relativistic mean field model, which is a variant of the non-linear Walecka model. The expansion of the Euler and continuity equations of relativistic hydrodynamics around equilibrium configurations leads to differential equations for the density fluctuations. We solve them numerically for linear and spherical perturbations and follow the time evolution of the initial pulses. For linear perturbations we find single soliton solutions and solutions with one or more solitons followed by radiation. Depending on the equation of state a strong damping may occur. Spherical perturbations are strongly damped and almost do not propagate. We study these equations also for matter at finite temperature. Finally we consider the limiting case of shock wave formation.

  11. Dark matter transport properties and rapidly rotating neutron stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. J. Horowitz

    2012-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron stars are attractive places to look for dark matter because their high densities allow repeated interactions. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) may scatter efficiently in the core or in the crust of a neutron star. In this paper we focus on WIMP contributions to transport properties, such as shear viscosity or thermal conductivity, because these can be greatly enhanced by long mean free paths. We speculate that WIMPs increase the shear viscosity of neutron star matter and help stabilize r-mode oscillations. These are collective oscillations where the restoring force is the Coriolis force. At present r-modes are thought to be unstable in many observed rapidly rotating stars. If WIMPs stabilize the r-modes, this would allow neutron stars to spin rapidly. This likely requires WIMP-nucleon cross sections near present experimental limits and an appropriate density of WIMPs in neutron stars.

  12. TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING PROPANE AS A CALIBRATION AGENT FOR TOTAL FLAMMABLE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2006-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the technical justification for choosing and using propane as a calibration standard for estimating total flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an air matrix. A propane-in-nitrogen standard was selected based on a number of criteria: (1) has an analytical response similar to the VOCs of interest, (2) can be made with known accuracy and traceability, (3) is available with good purity, (4) has a matrix similar to the sample matrix, (5) is stable during storage and use, (6) is relatively non-hazardous, and (7) is a recognized standard for similar analytical applications. The Waste Retrieval Project (WRP) desires a fast, reliable, and inexpensive method for screening the flammable VOC content in the vapor-phase headspace of waste containers. Table 1 lists the flammable VOCs of interest to the WRP. The current method used to determine the VOC content of a container is to sample the container's headspace and submit the sample for gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The driver for the VOC measurement requirement is safety: potentially flammable atmospheres in the waste containers must be allowed to diffuse prior to processing the container. The proposed flammable VOC screening method is to inject an aliquot of the headspace sample into an argon-doped pulsed-discharge helium ionization detector (Ar-PDHID) contained within a gas chromatograph. No actual chromatography is performed; the sample is transferred directly from a sample loop to the detector through a short, inert transfer line. The peak area resulting from the injected sample is proportional to the flammable VOC content of the sample. However, because the Ar-PDHID has different response factors for different flammable VOCs, a fundamental assumption must be made that the agent used to calibrate the detector is representative of the flammable VOCs of interest that may be in the headspace samples. At worst, we desire that calibration with the selected calibrating agent overestimate the value of the VOCs in a sample. By overestimating the VOC content of a sample, we want to minimize false negatives. A false negative is defined as incorrectly estimating the VOC content of the sample to be below programmatic action limits when, in fact, the sample,exceeds the action limits. The disadvantage of overestimating the flammable VOC content of a sample is that additional cost may be incurred because additional sampling and GC-MS analysis may be required to confirm results over programmatic action limits. Therefore, choosing an appropriate calibration standard for the Ar-PDHID is critical to avoid false negatives and to minimize additional analytical costs.

  13. Phase transition towards strange matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Gulminelli; Ad. R. Raduta; M. Oertel

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The phase diagram of a system constituted of neutrons and $\\Lambda$-hyperons in thermal equilibrium is evaluated in the mean-field approximation. It is shown that this simple system exhibits a complex phase diagram with first and second order phase transitions. Due to the generic presence of attractive and repulsive couplings, the existence of phase transitions involving strangeness appears independent of the specific interaction model. In addition we will show under which conditions a phase transition towards strange matter at high density exists, which is expected to persist even within a complete treatment including all the different strange and non- strange baryon states. The impact of this transition on the composition of matter in the inner core of neutron stars is discussed.

  14. On Math, Matter and Mind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piet Hut; Mark Alford; Max Tegmark

    2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the nature of reality in the ontological context of Penrose's math-matter-mind triangle. The triangle suggests the circularity of the widespread view that math arises from the mind, the mind arises out of matter, and that matter can be explained in terms of math. Non-physicists should be wary of any claim that modern physics leads us to any particular resolution of this circularity, since even the sample of three theoretical physicists writing this paper hold three divergent views. Some physicists believe that current physics has already found the basic framework for a complete description of reality, and only has to fill in the details. Others suspect that no single framework, from physics or other sources, will ever capture reality. Yet others guess that reality might be approached arbitrarily closely by some form of future physics, but probably based on completely different frameworks. We will designate these three approaches as the fundamentalist, secular and mystic views of the world, as seen by practicing physicists. We present and contrast each of these views, which arguably form broad categories capturing most if not all interpretations of physics. We argue that this diversity in the physics community is more useful than an ontological monoculture, since it motivates physicists to tackle unsolved problems with a wide variety of approaches.

  15. Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions Characteristics Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions Characteristics...

  16. Volume 195, number 4 PHYSICS LETTERS B 17 September 1987 LIMITS ON COLD DARK MATTER CANDIDATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosner, Jonathan L.

    'weakSd"corresponds to a standard heavy Majorana neutrino). The measurement of the nuclear recoil, due to the scattering of heavy Laboratory, Rtchland, WA 99352, USA a Harvard-Smtthsoman Centerfor Astrophysws, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA e particles. In particular, a halo dominated by heavy standard Dirac neutrinos (taken as an example

  17. Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poet, Torka S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A large number of volatile chemicals have been identified in the headspaces of tanks used to store mixed chemical and radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, and there is concern that vapor releases from the tanks may be hazardous to workers. Contractually established occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) do not exist for all chemicals of interest. To address the need for worker exposure guidelines for those chemicals that lack OSHA or ACGIH OELs, a procedure for assigning Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for Hanford Site tank farm workers has been developed and applied to a selected group of 57 headspace chemicals.

  18. Strange Quark Matter and Compact Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridolin Weber

    2004-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Astrophysicists distinguish between three different types of compact stars. These are white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. The former contain matter in one of the densest forms found in the Universe which, together with the unprecedented progress in observational astronomy, make such stars superb astrophysical laboratories for a broad range of most striking physical phenomena. These range from nuclear processes on the stellar surface to processes in electron degenerate matter at subnuclear densities to boson condensates and the existence of new states of baryonic matter--like color superconducting quark matter--at supernuclear densities. More than that, according to the strange matter hypothesis strange quark matter could be more stable than nuclear matter, in which case neutron stars should be largely composed of pure quark matter possibly enveloped in thin nuclear crusts. Another remarkable implication of the hypothesis is the possible existence of a new class of white dwarfs. This article aims at giving an overview of all these striking physical possibilities, with an emphasis on the astrophysical phenomenology of strange quark matter. Possible observational signatures associated with the theoretically proposed states of matter inside compact stars are discussed as well. They will provide most valuable information about the phase diagram of superdense nuclear matter at high baryon number density but low temperature, which is not accessible to relativistic heavy ion collision experiments.

  19. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Daniel J. (Wheeling, IL); Cha, Yung S. (Darien, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.

  20. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, D.J.; Cha, Y.S.

    1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment. 6 figs.

  1. A particle dark matter footprint on the first generation of stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilidio Lopes; Joseph Silk

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Dark matter particles with properties identical to dark matter candidates that are hinted at by several international collaborations dedicated to experimental detection of dark matter (DAMA, COGENT, CRESST and CDMS-II, although not, most notably, by LUX), and which also have a dark matter asymmetry identical to the observed baryon asymmetry (Planck and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe), may produce a significant impact on the evolution of the first generation of low-metallicity stars. The lifetimes of these stars in different phases of stellar evolution are significantly extended, namely, in the pre-main sequence, main sequence, and red giant phases. In particular, intermediate-mass stars in the red giant phase experience significant changes in their luminosity and chemical composition. The annihilations of dark matter particles affect the interior of the star in such a way that the $3\\alpha-$reaction becomes less efficient in the production of carbon and oxygen. This dark matter effect contradicts the excess of carbon and other metals observed today in stars of low mass and low metallicity. Hence, we can impose an upper limit on the dark matter halo density, and therefore on the redshift, at which the first generation of low-metallicity stars formed.

  2. Constraints on decaying dark matter from Fermi observations of nearby galaxies and clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Leanna; Profumo, Stefano [Department of Astronomy and Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jeltema, Tesla E., E-mail: greentee01@gmail.com, E-mail: tesla@ucolick.org, E-mail: profumo@scipp.ucsc.edu [UCO/Lick Observatories, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the impact of Fermi gamma-ray observations (primarily non-detections) of selected nearby galaxies, including dwarf spheroidals, and of clusters of galaxies on decaying dark matter models. We show that the fact that galaxy clusters do not shine in gamma rays puts the most stringent limits available to-date on the lifetime of dark matter particles for a wide range of particle masses and decay final states. In particular, our results put strong constraints on the possibility of ascribing to decaying dark matter both the increasing positron fraction reported by PAMELA and the high-energy feature in the electron-positron spectrum measured by Fermi. Observations of nearby dwarf galaxies and of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) do not provide as strong limits as those from galaxy clusters, while still improving on previous constraints in some cases.

  3. Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, M.W.; Torn, M. S.; Abiven, S.; Dittmar, T.; Guggenberger, G.; Janssens, I.A.; Kleber, M.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Lehmann, J.; Manning, D.A.C.; Nannipieri, P.; Rasse, D.P.; Weiner, S.; Trumbore, S.E.

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Globally, soil organic matter (SOM) contains more than three times as much carbon as either the atmosphere or terrestrial vegetation. Yet it remains largely unknown why some SOM persists for millennia whereas other SOM decomposes readily—and this limits our ability to predict how soils will respond to climate change. Recent analytical and experimental advances have demonstrated that molecular structure alone does not control SOM stability: in fact, environmental and biological controls predominate. Here we propose ways to include this understanding in a new generation of experiments and soil carbon models, thereby improving predictions of the SOM response to global warming.

  4. Magnetic field in holographic superconductor with dark matter sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakonieczny, L; Wysokinski, K I

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the analytical technique the effect of the static magnetic field on the s-wave holographic superconductor with dark matter sector of U(1)-gauge field type coupled to the Maxwell field has been examined. In the probe limit, we obtained the mean value of the condensation operator. The nature of the condensate in an external magnetic field as well as the behaviour of the critical field close to the transition temperature has been revealed. The obtained upturn of the critical field curves as a function of temperature, both in four and five spacetime dimensions, is a fingerprint of the strong coupling approach.

  5. The critical behavior of hadronic matter: Comparison of lattice and bootstrap model calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turko, L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Statistical bootstrap model and the related concept of the limiting temperature begun the discussion about phase transitions in the hadronic matter. This was also the origin of the quark-gluon plazma concept. We discuss here to which extend lattice studies of QCD critical behavior at non-zero chemical potential are compatible with the statistical bootstrap model calculations.

  6. The critical behavior of hadronic matter: Comparison of lattice and bootstrap model calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Turko

    2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Statistical bootstrap model and the related concept of the limiting temperature begun the discussion about phase transitions in the hadronic matter. This was also the origin of the quark-gluon plazma concept. We discuss here to which extend lattice studies of QCD critical behavior at non-zero chemical potential are compatible with the statistical bootstrap model calculations.

  7. The Evolution of Galaxies by the Incompatibility between Dark Matter and Baryonic Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding-Yu Chung

    2011-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the evolution of galaxies is by the incompatibility between dark matter and baryonic matter. Due to the structural difference, baryonic matter and dark matter are incompatible to each other as oil droplet and water in emulsion. In the interfacial zone between dark matter and baryonic matter, this incompatibility generates the modification of Newtonian dynamics to keep dark matter and baryonic matter apart. The five periods of baryonic structure development in the order of increasing incompatibility are the free baryonic matter, the baryonic droplet, the galaxy, the cluster, and the supercluster periods. The transition to the baryonic droplet generates density perturbation in the CMB. In the galaxy period, the first-generation galaxies include elliptical, normal spiral, barred spiral, irregular, and dwarf spheroidal galaxies. In the cluster period, the second-generation galaxies include modified giant ellipticals, cD, evolved S0, dwarf elliptical, BCD, and tidal dwarf galaxies. The whole observable expanding universe behaves as one unit of emulsion with increasing incompatibility between dark matter and baryonic matter. The properties of dark matter and baryonic matter are based on cosmology derived from the two physical structures: the space structure and the object structure. Baryonic matter can be described by the periodic table of elementary particles.

  8. Page 1 of 14 UNSW Foundation Limited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    , Coca-Cola Amatil Limited and Ingeus Limited. David is Chairman of the National E-Health Transition

  9. EXTRAGALACTIC DARK MATTER AND DIRECT DETECTION EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baushev, A. N., E-mail: baushev@gmail.com [DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)

    2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent astronomical data strongly suggest that a significant part of the dark matter content of the Local Group and Virgo Supercluster is not incorporated into the galaxy halos and forms diffuse components of these galaxy clusters. A portion of the particles from these components may penetrate the Milky Way and make an extragalactic contribution to the total dark matter containment of our Galaxy. We find that the particles of the diffuse component of the Local Group are apt to contribute {approx}12% to the total dark matter density near Earth. The particles of the extragalactic dark matter stand out because of their high speed ({approx}600 km s{sup -1}), i.e., they are much faster than the galactic dark matter. In addition, their speed distribution is very narrow ({approx}20 km s{sup -1}). The particles have an isotropic velocity distribution (perhaps, in contrast to the galactic dark matter). The extragalactic dark matter should provide a significant contribution to the direct detection signal. If the detector is sensitive only to the fast particles (v > 450 km s{sup -1}), then the signal may even dominate. The density of other possible types of the extragalactic dark matter (for instance, of the diffuse component of the Virgo Supercluster) should be relatively small and comparable with the average dark matter density of the universe. However, these particles can generate anomaly high-energy collisions in direct dark matter detectors.

  10. Holographic Viscosity of Fundamental Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Mateos; Robert C. Myers; Rowan M. Thomson

    2006-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A holographic dual of a finite-temperature SU(N_c) gauge theory with a small number of flavours N_f viscosity to entropy ratio in these theories saturates the conjectured universal bound eta/s >= 1/4\\pi. The contribution of the fundamental matter eta_fund is therefore enhanced at strong 't Hooft coupling lambda; for example, eta_fund ~ lambda N_c N_f T^3 in four dimensions. Other transport coefficients are analogously enhanced. These results hold with or without a baryon number chemical potential.

  11. Field evaluation of ground water sampling devices for volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muska, C F; Colven, W P; Jones, V D; Scogin, J T; Looney, B B; Price, V Jr

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies conducted under laboratory conditions demonstrated that the type of device used to sample ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds can significantly influence and analytical results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, under field conditions, both commercial and developmental ground water sampling devices as part of an ongoing ground water contamination investigation and remediation program at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Ground water samples were collected using six types of sampling devices in monitoring wells of different depths and concentrations of volatile organic contaminants (primarily trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene). The study matrix was designed to statistically compare the reuslts of each sampling device under the test conditions. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation criteria were used to determine the relative performance of each device. Two categories of sampling devices were evaluated in this field study, positive displacement pumps and grab samplers. The positive displacement pumps consisted of a centrifugal (mechanical) pump and a bladder pump. The grab samples tested were a syringe sampler, a dual-check valve bailer, a surface bomb sampler, and a pressurized bailer. Preliminary studies were conducted to establish the analytical and sampling variability associated with each device. All six devices were then used to collect ground water samples in water table (unconfined), semi-confined aquifer, and confined aquifer monitoring wells. Results were evaluated against a set of criteria that included intrasampling device variability (precision), volatile organic concentration (accuracy), sampling and analytical logistics, and cost. The study showed that, by using careful and reproducible procedures, overall sampling variability is low regardless of sampling device.

  12. Sorption and permeation of low molecular weight volatile compounds in polypropylene 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vidal, Antonio Ramiro Santiago

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the vapor permeation through the wall of the polypropylene containers. Sorption was calculated by subtracting the estimated permeation from the total loss. The effect of type of volatile compound, composition of polymer, and thickness of the container... LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Treatment setup 12 2 Effect of wall thickness on total loss to the container 33 3 Effect of composition of polymer on total loss to the container 36 4 Effect of type of resin on total loss to the container 38 5...

  13. Literature review of stabilization/solidification of volatile organic compounds and the implications for Hanford grouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spence, R.D.; Osborne, S.C.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature review was conducted on the stabilization/solidification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Based on this literature, it is likely that the limestone-containing grout will not permanently immobilize VOCs and that no presently available additives can guarantee permanent immobilization. The Westinghouse hanford company grout may be fairly effective at retarding aqueous leaching of VOCs, and commercial additives can improve this performance. Significant VOC losses do occur during stabilization/solidification, and the high temperatures of the Westinghouse Hanford Company waste and grout should exacerbate this problem. In fact, these high temperatures raise doubts about the presence of VOCs in the double-shell tanks supernates.

  14. Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Tuan V. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate therethrough to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex.

  15. Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, T.V.

    1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate there through to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex. 23 figs.

  16. Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system that captures and analyzes volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from skin surfaces may offer a viable alternative method to the polygraph instrument currently in use for detecting deception in U.S. government settings. Like the involuntary autonomic central nervous system response data gathered during polygraph testing, VOC emissions from the skin may provide data that can be used to detect stress caused by deception. Detecting VOCs, then, may present a noninvasive, non-intrusive method for observing, recording, and quantifying evidence of stress or emotional change.

  17. Axion Dark Matter Detection using Atomic Transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Sikivie

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Dark matter axions may cause transitions between atomic states that differ in energy by an amount equal to the axion mass. Such energy differences are conveniently tuned using the Zeeman effect. It is proposed to search for dark matter axions by cooling a kilogram-sized sample to milliKelvin temperatures and count axion induced transitions using laser techniques. This appears an appropriate approach to axion dark matter detection in the $10^{-4}$ eV mass range.

  18. Noble Travails: Noble Liquid Dark Matter Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golwala, Sunil

    , or water, 0.1x flux per 10 cm Cosmic Ray Muons generate high energy neutrons 50 MeV - 3 GeV which are toughGaitskell Noble Travails: Noble Liquid Dark Matter Detectors Rick Gaitskell Particle Astrophysics://particleastro.brown.edu/ http://gaitskell.brown.edu v1 #12;LUX Dark Matter Collaboration 2007 v01_7mm Dark Matter Theory

  19. A Matter of Quantum Voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sellner, Bernhard; Kathmann, Shawn M.

    2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Voltages inside matter are relevant to crystallization, materials science, biology, catalysis, and aqueous chemistry. Electron holography is able to measure the variation of voltages in matter and modern supercomputers allow the calculation of quantum voltages with practically unlimited spatial and temporal resolution of bulk systems. Of particular interest is the Mean Inner Potential (Vo) - the spatial average of these voltages. Voltages are very sensitive to the distribution of electrons and provide metrics to understand interactions in condensed phases. In the present study, we find excellent agreement with measurements of Vo for vitrified water and salt crystals and demonstrate the impact of covalent and ionic bonding as well as intermolecular/atomic interactions. Furthermore, we predict Vo as well as the fluctuations of these voltages in aqueous NaCl electrolytes and characterize the changes in their behavior as the resolution increases below the size of atoms. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  20. Shapes of dark matter halos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James S. Bullock

    2001-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    I present an analysis of the density shapes of dark matter halos in LCDM and LWDM cosmologies. The main results are derived from a statistical sample of galaxy-mass halos drawn from a high resolution LCDM N-body simulation. Halo shapes show significant trends with mass and redshift: low-mass halos are rounder than high mass halos, and, for a fixed mass, halos are rounder at low z. Contrary to previous expectations, which were based on cluster-mass halos and non-COBE normalized simulations, LCDM galaxy-mass halos at z=0 are not strongly flattened, with short to long axis ratios of s = 0.70 +/- 0.17. I go on to study how the shapes of individual halos change when going from a LCDM simulation to a simulation with a warm dark matter power spectrum (LWDM). Four halos were compared, and, on average, the WDM halos are more spherical than their CDM counterparts (s =0.77 compared to s = 0.71). A larger sample of objects will be needed to test whether the trend is significant.

  1. Scattering resonances as viscosity limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maciej Zworski

    2015-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the method of complex scaling we show that scattering resonances of $ - \\Delta + V $, $ V \\in L^\\infty_{\\rm{c}} ( \\mathbb R^n ) $, are limits of eigenvalues of $ - \\Delta + V - i \\epsilon x^2 $ as $ \\epsilon \\to 0+ $. That justifies a method proposed in computational chemistry and reflects a general principle for resonances in other settings.

  2. PROBING DENSE NUCLEAR MATTER VIA NUCLEAR COLLISIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, H.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    University of California. LBL-12095 Probing Dense NuclearMatter Nuclear Collisions* v~a H. Stocker, M.Gyulassy and J. Boguta Nuclear Science Division Lawrence

  3. Interaction of gravitational waves with matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Cetoli; C. J. Pethick

    2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a unified formalism for describing the interaction of gravitational waves with matter that clearly separates the effects of general relativity from those due to interactions in the matter. Using it, we derive a general expression for the dispersion of gravitational waves in matter in terms of correlation functions for the matter in flat spacetime. The self energy of a gravitational wave is shown to have contributions analogous to the paramagnetic and diamagnetic contributions to the self energy of an electromagnetic wave. We apply the formalism to some simple systems - free particles, an interacting scalar field, and a fermionic superfluid.

  4. An attempt to do without dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William H. Kinney; Martina Brisudova

    2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The discrepancy between dynamical mass measures of objects such as galaxies and the observed distribution of luminous matter in the universe is typically explained by invoking an unseen ``dark matter'' component. Dark matter must necessarily be non-baryonic. We introduce a simple hypothesis to do away with the necessity for dark matter by introducing an additional non-gravitational force coupled to baryon number as a charge. We compare this hypothesis to Milgrom's Modified Newtonian Dynamics. The model ultimately fails when confronted with observation, but it fails in an interesting way.

  5. Generating Luminous and Dark Matter During Inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrie, Neil D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new mechanism for generating both luminous and dark matter during cosmic inflation. According to this mechanism, ordinary and dark matter carry common charge which is associated with an anomalous $ U(1)_{X} $ group. Anomaly terms source $ \\mathcal{CP} $ and $ U(1)_{X} $ charge violating processes during inflation, producing corresponding non-zero Chern-Simons numbers which are subsequently reprocessed into baryon and dark matter densities. The general framework developed is then applied to two possible extensions of the Standard Model with anomalous gauged $B$ and $B-L$, each with an additional dark matter candidate.

  6. Generating Luminous and Dark Matter During Inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neil D. Barrie; Archil Kobakhidze

    2015-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new mechanism for generating both luminous and dark matter during cosmic inflation. According to this mechanism, ordinary and dark matter carry common charge which is associated with an anomalous $ U(1)_{X} $ group. Anomaly terms source $ \\mathcal{CP} $ and $ U(1)_{X} $ charge violating processes during inflation, producing corresponding non-zero Chern-Simons numbers which are subsequently reprocessed into baryon and dark matter densities. The general framework developed is then applied to two possible extensions of the Standard Model with anomalous gauged $B$ and $B-L$, each with an additional dark matter candidate.

  7. ALS Reveals New State of Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    papers and extensive news coverage of their work on a new state of matter embodied by "topological insulators," materials that conduct electricity only on their surfaces. First...

  8. Dark Energy and Dark Matter Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burra G. Sidharth

    2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We revisit the problems of dark energy and dark matter and several models designed to explain them, in the light of some latest findings.

  9. Jelly Bean Universe (Dark Matter / Dark Energy)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Kurt Riesselmann

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Fermilab's Kurt Riesselmann explains how to make a jelly bean universe to help explain the mysteries of dark matter and dark energy.

  10. Dissipative dark matter explains rotation curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foot, R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dissipative dark matter, where dark matter particles interact with a massless (or very light) boson, is studied. Such dark matter can arise in simple hidden sector gauge models, including those featuring an unbroken $U(1)'$ gauge symmetry, leading to a dark photon. Previous work has shown that such models can not only explain the LSS and CMB, but potentially also dark matter phenomena on small scales, such as the inferred cored structure of dark matter halos. In this picture, dark matter halos of disk galaxies not only cool via dissipative interactions but are also heated via ordinary supernovae (facilitated by an assumed photon - dark photon kinetic mixing interaction). This interaction between the dark matter halo and ordinary baryons, a very special feature of these types of models, plays a critical role in governing the physical properties of the dark matter halo. Here, we further study the implications of this type of dissipative dark matter for disk galaxies. Building on earlier work, we develop a simpl...

  11. Quantum Condensates in Nuclear Matter: Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Ropke; D. Zablocki

    2010-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In connection with the contribution "Quantum Condensates in Nuclear Matter" some problems are given to become more familiar with the techniques of many-particle physics.

  12. Scientists Mix Matter and Anti-Matter Results to Resolve Decade...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab's Experimental Hall B was used to measure electrons during the experiment. Fans of science and science fiction have been warned that mixing matter with anti-matter can yield...

  13. Axion Stars in the Infrared Limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshua Eby; Peter Suranyi; Cenalo Vaz; L. C. R. Wijewardhana

    2015-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Following Ruffini and Bonazzola, we use a quantized boson field to describe condensates of axions forming compact objects. Without substantial modifications, the method can only be applied to axions with decay constant, $f_a$, satisfying $\\delta=(f_a\\,/\\,M_P)^2\\ll 1$, where $M_P$ is the Planck mass. Similarly, the applicability of the Ruffini-Bonazzola method to axion stars also requires that the relative binding energy of axions satisfies $\\Delta=\\sqrt{1-(E_a\\,/\\,m_a)^2}\\ll1$, where $E_a$ and $m_a$ are the energy and mass of the axion. The simultaneous expansion of the equations of motion in $\\delta$ and $\\Delta$ leads to a simplified set of equations, depending only on the parameter, $\\lambda=\\sqrt{\\delta}\\,/\\,\\Delta$ in leading order of the expansions. Keeping leading order in $\\Delta$ is equivalent to the infrared limit, in which only relevant and marginal terms contribute to the equations of motion. The number of axions in the star is uniquely determined by $\\lambda$. Numerical solutions are found in a wide range of $\\lambda$. At small $\\lambda$ the mass and radius of the axion star rise linearly with $\\lambda$. While at larger $\\lambda$ the radius of the star continues to rise, the mass of the star, $M$, attains a maximum at $\\lambda_{\\rm max}\\simeq 0.58$. All stars are unstable for $\\lambda>\\lambda_{\\rm max}$ . We discuss the relationship of our results to current observational constraints on dark matter and the phenomenology of Fast Radio Bursts.

  14. What Does The PAMELA Antiproton Spectrum Tell Us About Dark Matter?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dan Hooper; Tim Linden; Philipp Mertsch

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of the cosmic ray antiproton spectrum can be used to search for contributions from annihilating dark matter and to constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section. Depending on the assumptions made regarding cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy, such constraints can be quite stringent. We revisit this topic, utilizing a set of propagation models fit to the cosmic ray boron, carbon, oxygen and beryllium data. We derive upper limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section and find that when the cosmic ray propagation parameters are treated as nuisance parameters (as we argue is appropriate), the resulting limits are significantly less stringent than have been previously reported. We also note (as have several previous groups) that simple GALPROP-like diffusion-reacceleration models predict a spectrum of cosmic ray antiprotons that is in good agreement with PAMELA's observations above ~5 GeV, but that significantly underpredict the flux at lower energies. Although the complexity of modeling cosmic ray propagation at GeV-scale energies makes it difficult to determine the origin of this discrepancy, we consider the possibility that the excess antiprotons are the result of annihilating dark matter. Suggestively, we find that this excess is best fit for a dark matter mass of approximately 35 GeV and annihilation cross section of approximately 1e-26 cm^3/s (to b-bbar), in good agreement with the mass and cross section previously shown to be required to generate the gamma-ray excess observed from the Galactic Center.

  15. REVISING THE HALOFIT MODEL FOR THE NONLINEAR MATTER POWER SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Ryuichi [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 3 bunkyo-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8561 (Japan); Sato, Masanori [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Nishimichi, Takahiro; Taruya, Atsushi; Oguri, Masamune [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on a suite of state-of-the-art high-resolution N-body simulations, we revisit the so-called halofit model as an accurate fitting formula for the nonlinear matter power spectrum. While the halofit model has frequently been used as a standard cosmological tool to predict the nonlinear matter power spectrum in a universe dominated by cold dark matter, its precision has been limited by the low resolution of N-body simulations used to determine the fitting parameters, suggesting the necessity of an improved fitting formula at small scales for future cosmological studies. We run high-resolution N-body simulations for 16 cosmological models around the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe best-fit cosmological parameters (one-, three-, five-, and seven-year results), including dark energy models with a constant equation of state. The simulation results are used to re-calibrate the fitting parameters of the halofit model so as to reproduce small-scale power spectra of the N-body simulations, while keeping the precision at large scales. The revised fitting formula provides an accurate prediction of the nonlinear matter power spectrum in a wide range of wavenumbers (k {<=} 30 h Mpc{sup -1}) at redshifts 0 {<=} z {<=} 10, with 5% precision for k {<=} 1 h Mpc{sup -1} at 0 {<=} z {<=} 10 and 10% for 1 {<=} k {<=} 10 h Mpc{sup -1} at 0 {<=} z {<=} 3. We discuss the impact of the improved halofit model on weak-lensing power spectra and correlation functions, and show that the improved model better reproduces ray-tracing simulation results.

  16. Future cosmological sensitivity for hot dark matter axions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archidiacono, Maria; Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the potential of a future, large-volume photometric survey to constrain the axion mass $m_a$ in the hot dark matter limit. Future surveys such as Euclid will have significantly more constraining power than current observations for hot dark matter. Nonetheless, the lowest accessible axion masses are limited by the fact that axions lighter than $\\sim 0.15$ eV decouple before the QCD epoch, assumed here to occur at a temperature $T_{\\rm QCD} \\sim 170$ MeV; this leaves an axion population of such low density that its late-time cosmological impact is negligible. For larger axion masses, $m_a \\gtrsim 0.15$ eV, where axions remain in equilibrium until after the QCD phase transition, we find that a Euclid-like survey combined with Planck CMB data can detect $m_a$ at very high significance. Our conclusions are robust against assumptions about prior knowledge of the neutrino mass. Given that the proposed IAXO solar axion search is sensitive to $m_a\\lesssim 0.2$ eV, the axion mass range probed by cosmology is n...

  17. Determining the Volatility of Ultrafine (UF) PM Emissions from CNG Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Limited research has been done to characterize compressed natural gas (CNG) mass emissions and practically

  18. Oxidation and Volatilization from Tantalum Alloy T-222 During Air Exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolik, Galen Richard; Petti, David Andrew; Sharpe, John Phillip; Schuetz, Stanley Thomas

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tantalum alloys are one of the refractory metals with renewed consideration for high temperatures in fusion reactor applications. Tantalum alloys perform well in protective environments but oxidized readily in gases containing higher oxygen levels. In addition, the radioactive isotope Ta-182 would be produced in tantalum and could be a significant contributor to dose if mobilized. Other isotopes of importance are produced from tungsten and hafnium. Mobilization of activated products during an accident with air ingress is therefore a safety issue. In this study, we measured the extent of oxidation and mobilization from tantalum alloy T-222 oxidized in flowing air between 500 and 1200°C. This alloy nominally contains 10 wt% tungsten, 2.5 wt% hafnium and 0.01 wt% carbon. We found that the mobilization of Ta and Hf was closely linked to the occurrence of oxide spalling. These elements showed no migration from the test chamber. Some W was mobilized by volatilization as evidenced by transport from the chamber. Tungsten volatilization could occur primarily during initial stages of oxidation before an oxide scale forms and impedes the process. The mobilization of Ta and W are presented in terms of the mass flux (g/m 2 -h) as a function of test temperature. These measurements along with specific designs, activation calculations, and accident scenarios provide information useful for dose calculations of future fusion devices

  19. Oxidation and Volatilization from Tantalum Alloy T-222 During Air Exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolik, G.R.; Petti, D.A.; Sharpe, J.P.; Schuetz, S.T.

    2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Tantalum alloys are one of the refractory metals with renewed consideration for high temperatures in fusion reactor applications. Tantalum alloys perform well in protective environments but oxidized readily in gases containing higher oxygen levels. In addition, the radioactive isotope Ta-182 would be produced in tantalum and could be a significant contributor to dose if mobilized. Other isotopes of importance are produced from tungsten and hafnium. Mobilization of activated products during an accident with air ingress is therefore a safety issue. In this study, we measured the extent of oxidation and mobilization from tantalum alloy T-222 oxidized in flowing air between 500 and 1200 C. This alloy nominally contains 10 wt% tungsten, 2.5 wt% hafnium and 0.01 wt% carbon. We found that the mobilization of Ta and Hf was closely linked to the occurrence of oxide spalling. These elements showed no migration from the test chamber. Some W was mobilized by volatilization as evidenced by transport from the chamber. Tungsten volatilization could occur primarily during initial stages of oxidation before an oxide scale forms and impedes the process. The mobilization of Ta and W are presented in terms of the mass flux (g/m 2 -h) as a function of test temperature. These measurements along with specific designs, activation calculations, and accident scenarios provide information useful for dose calculations of future fusion devices.

  20. An advanced hybrid reprocessing system based on UF{sub 6} volatilization and chromatographic separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Yuezhou [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200240 (China); Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Liu, Ruiqin; Wu, Yan; Zu, Jianhua; Zhao, Long [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200240 (China); Mimura, Hitoshi [Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Shi, Weiqun; Chai, Zhifang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Jinling; Ding, Youqian [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To recover U, Pu, MA (Np, Am, Cm) and some specific fission products FPs (Cs, Sr, Tc, etc.) from various spent nuclear fuels (LWR/FBR: Oxide, Metal Fuels), we are studying an advanced hybrid reprocessing system based on UF6 volatilization (Pyro) and chromatographic separation (Aqueous). Spent fuels are de-cladded by means of thermal and mechanical methods and then applied to the fluorination/volatilization process, which selectively recovers the most amount of U. Then, the remained fuel components are converted to oxides and dissolved by HNO{sub 3} solution. Compared to U, since Pu, MA and FPs are significantly less abundant in spent fuels, the scale of the aqueous separation process could become reasonably small and result in less waste. For the chromatographic separation processes, we have prepared different types of porous silica-based organic/inorganic adsorbents with fast diffusion kinetics, improved chemical stability and low pressure drop in a packed column. So they are advantageously applicable to efficient separation of the actinides and FP elements from the fuel dissolved solution. In this work, adsorption and separation behavior of representative actinides and FP elements was studied. Small scale separation tests using simulated and genuine fuel dissolved solutions were carried out to verify the feasibility of the proposed process. (authors)

  1. Scaling and memory of intraday volatility return intervals in stock market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, F; Stanley, H E; Yamasaki, K; Havlin, Shlomo; Wang, Fengzhong; Yamasaki, Kazuko

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the return interval $\\tau$ between price volatilities that are above a certain threshold $q$ for 31 intraday datasets, including the Standard & Poor's 500 index and the 30 stocks that form the Dow Jones Industrial index. For different threshold $q$, the probability density function $P_q(\\tau)$ scales with the mean interval $\\bar{\\tau}$ as $P_q(\\tau)={\\bar{\\tau}}^{-1}f(\\tau/\\bar{\\tau})$, similar to that found in daily volatilities. Since the intraday records have significantly more data points compared to the daily records, we could probe for much higher thresholds $q$ and still obtain good statistics. We find that the scaling function $f(x)$ is consistent for all 31 intraday datasets in various time resolutions, and the function is well approximated by the stretched exponential, $f(x)\\sim e^{-a x^\\gamma}$, with $\\gamma=0.38\\pm 0.05$ and $a=3.9\\pm 0.5$, which indicates the existence of correlations. We analyze the conditional probability distribution $P_q(\\tau|\\tau_0)$ for $\\tau$ following a certa...

  2. CONTRIBUTION OF SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC MATERIAL TO AMBIENT PM2.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delbert J. Eatough; William K. Modey; Rebecca Sizemore; Michael Simpson

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both annual 24-h average and seasonal diurnal samples collected at NETL during the research program have been analyzed. The fine particulate components determined include PM{sub 2.5} mass, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, elemental and organic carbonaceous material and trace elements. The analysis of the nitrate and organic material includes both the identification of nonvolatile material retained by the particle collection filter and semi-volatile material lost from the particles during sample collection. The results obtained in these analyses indicate that both the semivolatile and nonvolatile organic material in the fine particles sampled at the NETL site originate from mobile emissions in the local area. However, the majority of the nonvolatile material is associated with primary emissions and the majority of the semi-volatile material is secondary, being formed from photochemical processes in the atmosphere. In contrast, the fine particulate sulfate does not originate from the local area but is transported into the study region, mostly from sources in the Ohio River Valley. These observations have been supported by both detailed meteorological and apportionment analysis of the data.

  3. Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yueting Chen

    2001-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.

  4. Fundamental Limits to Cellular Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pieter Rein ten Wolde; Nils B. Becker; Thomas E. Ouldridge; A. Mugler

    2015-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years experiments have demonstrated that living cells can measure low chemical concentrations with high precision, and much progress has been made in understanding what sets the fundamental limit to the precision of chemical sensing. Chemical concentration measurements start with the binding of ligand molecules to receptor proteins, which is an inherently noisy process, especially at low concentrations. The signaling networks that transmit the information on the ligand concentration from the receptors into the cell have to filter this noise extrinsic to the cell as much as possible. These networks, however, are also stochastic in nature, which means that they will also add noise to the transmitted signal. In this review, we will first discuss how the diffusive transport and binding of ligand to the receptor sets the receptor correlation time, and then how downstream signaling pathways integrate the noise in the receptor state; we will discuss how the number of receptors, the receptor correlation time, and the effective integration time together set a fundamental limit on the precision of sensing. We then discuss how cells can remove the receptor noise while simultaneously suppressing the intrinsic noise in the signaling network. We describe why this mechanism of time integration requires three classes of resources---receptors and their integration time, readout molecules, energy---and how each resource class sets a fundamental sensing limit. We also briefly discuss the scheme of maximum-likelihood estimation, the role of receptor cooperativity, and how cellular copy protocols differ from canonical copy protocols typically considered in the computational literature, explaining why cellular sensing systems can never reach the Landauer limit on the optimal trade-off between accuracy and energetic cost.

  5. The PICASSO Dark Matter Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wichoski, Ubi [Department of Physics, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Collaboration: PICASSO Collaboration

    2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The PICASSO experiment searches for cold dark matter through the direct detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) via their spin-dependent interactions with fluorine at SNOLAB, Sudbury--ON, Canada since 2002. The detection principle is based on the superheated droplet technique; the detectors consist of a gel matrix with millions of liquid droplets of superheated fluorocarbon (C4F10) dispersed in it. Recently, a new setup has been built and installed in the Ladder Lab area at SNOLAB. In the present phase of the experiment the Collaboration is running 4.5-litre detector modules with approximately 85 g of active mass per module. Here, we give an overview of the experiment and discuss the progress in background mitigation, in particular background discrimination in the PICASSO detectors.

  6. Waste tank characterization sampling limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tusler, L.A.

    1994-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a result of the Plant Implementation Team Investigation into delayed reporting of the exotherm in Tank 241-T-111 waste samples. The corrective actions identified are to have immediate notification of appropriate Tank Farm Operations Shift Management if analyses with potential safety impact exceed established levels. A procedure, WHC-IP-0842 Section 12.18, ``TWRS Approved Sampling and Data Analysis by Designated Laboratories`` (WHC 1994), has been established to require all tank waste sampling (including core, auger and supernate) and tank vapor samples be performed using this document. This document establishes levels for specified analysis that require notification of the appropriate shift manager. The following categories provide numerical values for analysis that may indicate that a tank is either outside the operating specification or should be evaluated for inclusion on a Watch List. The information given is intended to translate an operating limit such as heat load, expressed in Btu/hour, to an analysis related limit, in this case cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations. By using the values provided as safety flags, the analytical laboratory personnel can notify a shift manager that a tank is in potential violation of an operating limit or that a tank should be considered for inclusion on a Watch List. The shift manager can then take appropriate interim measures until a final determination is made by engineering personnel.

  7. Lepton-flavored dark matter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kile, Jennifer; Kobach, Andrew; Soni, Amarjit

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we address two paradoxes. The first is that the measured dark-matter relic density can be satisfied with new physics at O(100 GeV–1 TeV), while the null results from direct-detection experiments place lower bounds of O(10 TeV) on a new-physics scale. The second puzzle is that the severe suppression of lepton-flavor-violating processes involving electrons, e.g. ? ? 3e, ? ? e??, etc., implies that generic new-physics contributions to lepton interactions cannot exist below O(10–100 TeV), whereas the 3.6? deviation of the muon g – 2 from the standard model can be explained by a new physics scale matter thus interacts appreciably only with particles of ? and ? flavor at tree level and has loop-suppressed couplings to quarks and electrons. Remarkably, if such a gauged flavor interaction exists at a scale O(100 GeV–1 TeV), it allows for a consistent phenomenological framework, compatible with the muon g – 2, the relic density, direct detection, indirect detection, charged-lepton decays, neutrino trident production, and results from hadron and e?e? colliders. We suggest experimental tests for these ideas at colliders and for low-energy observables. (author)

  8. Lepton-flavored dark matter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kile, Jennifer; Kobach, Andrew; Soni, Amarjit

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we address two paradoxes. The first is that the measured dark-matter relic density can be satisfied with new physics at O(100 GeV–1 TeV), while the null results from direct-detection experiments place lower bounds of O(10 TeV) on a new-physics scale. The second puzzle is that the severe suppression of lepton-flavor-violating processes involving electrons, e.g. ? ? 3e, ? ? e??, etc., implies that generic new-physics contributions to lepton interactions cannot exist below O(10–100 TeV), whereas the 3.6? deviation of the muon g – 2 from the standard model can be explained by a new physics scale more »TeV). Here, we suggest that it may not be a coincidence that both the muon g – 2 and the relic density can be satisfied by a new-physics scale ?1 TeV. We consider the possibility of a gauged lepton-flavor interaction that couples at tree level only to ?- and ?-flavored leptons and the dark sector. Dark matter thus interacts appreciably only with particles of ? and ? flavor at tree level and has loop-suppressed couplings to quarks and electrons. Remarkably, if such a gauged flavor interaction exists at a scale O(100 GeV–1 TeV), it allows for a consistent phenomenological framework, compatible with the muon g – 2, the relic density, direct detection, indirect detection, charged-lepton decays, neutrino trident production, and results from hadron and e?e? colliders. We suggest experimental tests for these ideas at colliders and for low-energy observables. (author)« less

  9. The search for dark matter using monojets and monophotons with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diehl, Edward [Physics Dept., University of Michigan, 450 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results on the search for dark matter with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The studies discussed involve searches for events with a single (mono) jet or photon plus missing transverse energy interpreted with effective field theory as well as searches for light gravitinos and lepton-jets. No evidence for dark matter production has been found and the results have been translated into exclusion limits on physics beyond the Standard Model for several different scenarios. In particular, ATLAS bounds on weakly interacting massive particles are seen to be both complementary and quite competitive to those from direct detection experiments.

  10. Parametrization of light nuclei quasiparticle energy shifts and composition of warm and dense nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Röpke

    2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Correlations and the formation of bound states (nuclei) are essential for the properties of nuclear matter in equilibrium as well as in nonequilibrium. In a quantum statistical approach, quasiparticle energies are obtained for the light elements that reflect the influence of the medium. We present analytical fits for the quasiparticle energy shifts of light nuclei that can be used in various applications. This is a prerequisite for the investigation of warm and dense matter that reproduces the nuclear statistical equilibrium and virial expansions in the low-density limit as well as relativistic mean field and Brueckner Hartree-Fock approaches near saturation density.

  11. Dark Matter and Lepton Flavour Violation in a Hybrid Neutrino Mass Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deppisch, Frank F

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a hybrid model in which the light neutrino mass matrix receives both tree-level seesaw and loop-induced contributions. An additional U(1) gauge symmetry is used to stabilize the lightest right-handed neutrino as the Dark Matter candidate. After fitting the experimental neutrino data, we analyze and correlate the phenomenological consequences of the model, namely its impact on electroweak precision measurements, the Dark Matter relic abundance, lepton flavour violating rare decays and neutrinoless double beta decay. We find that natural realizations of the model characterized by large Yukawa couplings are compatible with and close to the current experimental limits.

  12. Strong field physics in condensed matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oka, Takashi

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are deep similarities between non-linear QFT studied in high-energy and non-equilibrium physics in condensed matter. Ideas such as the Schwinger mechanism and the Volkov state are deeply related to non-linear transport and photovoltaic Hall effect in condensed matter. Here, we give a review on these relations.

  13. Strong field physics in condensed matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takashi Oka

    2011-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    There are deep similarities between non-linear QFT studied in high-energy and non-equilibrium physics in condensed matter. Ideas such as the Schwinger mechanism and the Volkov state are deeply related to non-linear transport and photovoltaic Hall effect in condensed matter. Here, we give a review on these relations.

  14. Probing nuclear matter with jet conversions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Fries, Rainer J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the flavor of leading jet partons as a valuable probe of nuclear matter. We point out that the coupling of jets to nuclear matter naturally leads to an alteration of jet chemistry even at high transverse momentum PT. In particular...

  15. Public Service "The Minor That Matters"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    degree. Employees in public service have the opportunity to: vdeliver and manage public programs vaddressMinorThatMatters" TAKEYOURCAR EER IN ANENTIRE LY NEW DIRECTION #12;Public Service...The Minor That Matters Purpose of the Minor designed to provide a solid foundation in public administration and non-profit management, including

  16. The status of neutralino dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shakya, Bibhushan [Laboratory for Elementary Particle Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The lightest neutralino in supersymmetry is the most studied dark matter candidate. This writeup reviews the status of neutralino dark matter in minimal and nonminimal supersymmetric models in light of recent null results at the XENON100 experiment and the observation of a 130 GeV gamma ray signal from the Galactic Center by the Fermi LAT.

  17. Pressure inequalities for nuclear and neutron matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean Lee

    2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We prove several inequalities using lowest-order effective field theory for nucleons which give an upper bound on the pressure of asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron matter. We prove two types of inequalities, one based on convexity and another derived from shifting an auxiliary field.

  18. Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, ND); Zhuang, Ye (Grand Forks, ND); Almlie, Jay C. (East Grand Forks, MN)

    2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

  19. Effets sur la digestion et le mtabolisme des vaches laitires d'infusions d'acides gras volatils dans le rumen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effets sur la digestion et le métabolisme des vaches laitières d'infusions d'acides gras volatils.N.R.A., Saint-Gilles, 35590, L'Hermitage, France. Summary. Effects of !uminal infusion of volatile fatty acids and duodenal infusion of caseinate on digestion and metabolism in the dairy cow. II. - General and mammary

  20. Effets sur la digestion et le mtabolisme des vaches laitires d'infusions d'acides gras volatils dans le rumen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effets sur la digestion et le métabolisme des vaches laitières d'infusions d'acides gras volatils.N.R.A. Saint-Gilles, 35590 L'Hermitage, France Summary. Effects of ruminal infusion of volatile fatty acids and duodenal infusion of casei- nate on digestion and metabolism in the dairy cow. l. - Production

  1. Vapor intrusion modeling : limitations, improvements, and value of information analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friscia, Jessica M. (Jessica Marie)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor intrusion is the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a subsurface source into the indoor air of an overlying building. Vapor intrusion models, including the Johnson and Ettinger (J&E) model, can be ...

  2. Merger Rates of Dark-Matter Haloes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eyal Neistein; Avishai Dekel

    2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive analytic merger rates for dark-matter haloes within the framework of the Extended Press-Schechter (EPS) formalism. These rates become self-consistent within EPS once we realize that the typical merger in the limit of a small time-step involves more than two progenitors, contrary to the assumption of binary mergers adopted in earlier studies. We present a general method for computing merger rates that span the range of solutions permitted by the EPS conditional mass function, and focus on a specific solution that attempts to match the merger rates in N-body simulations. The corrected EPS merger rates are more accurate than the earlier estimates of Lacey & Cole, by ~20% for major mergers and by up to a factor of ~3 for minor mergers of mass ratio 1:10^4. Based on the revised merger rates, we provide a new algorithm for constructing Monte-Carlo EPS merger trees, that could be useful in Semi-Analytic Modeling. We provide analytic expressions and plot numerical results for several quantities that are very useful in studies of galaxy formation. This includes (a) the rate of mergers of a given mass ratio per given final halo, (b) the fraction of mass added by mergers to a halo, and (c) the rate of mergers per given main progenitor. The creation and destruction rates of haloes serve for a self-consistency check. Our method for computing merger rates can be applied to conditional mass functions beyond EPS, such as those obtained by the ellipsoidal collapse model or extracted from $N$-body simulations.

  3. Measuring the dark matter equation of state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serra, Ana Laura

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nature of the dominant component of galaxies and clusters remains unknown. While the astrophysics comunity supports the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm as a clue factor in the current cosmological model, no direct CDM detections have been performed. Faber and Visser 2006 have suggested a simple method for measuring the dark matter equation of state. By combining kinematical and gravitational lensing data it is possible to test the widely adopted assumption of pressureless dark matter. According to this formalism, we have measured the dark matter equation of state for first time using improved techniques. We have found that the value of the equation of state parameter is consistent with pressureless dark matter within the errors. Nevertheless the measured value is lower than expected. This fact follows from the well known differences between the masses determinated by lensing and kinematical methods. We have tested our techniques using simulations and we have also analyzed possible sources of errors that c...

  4. Dark Matter And The Habitability of Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hooper, Dan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many models, dark matter particles can elastically scatter with nuclei in planets, causing those particles to become gravitationally bound. While the energy expected to be released through the subsequent annihilations of dark matter particles in the interior of the Earth is negligibly small (a few megawatts in the most optimistic models), larger planets that reside in regions with higher densities of slow moving dark matter could plausibly capture and annihilate dark matter at a rate high enough to maintain liquid water on their surfaces, even in the absence of additional energy from starlight or other sources. On these rare planets, it may be dark matter rather than light from a host star that makes it possible for life to emerge, evolve, and survive.

  5. Dark Matter And The Habitability of Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dan Hooper; Jason H. Steffen

    2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In many models, dark matter particles can elastically scatter with nuclei in planets, causing those particles to become gravitationally bound. While the energy expected to be released through the subsequent annihilations of dark matter particles in the interior of the Earth is negligibly small (a few megawatts in the most optimistic models), larger planets that reside in regions with higher densities of slow moving dark matter could plausibly capture and annihilate dark matter at a rate high enough to maintain liquid water on their surfaces, even in the absence of additional energy from starlight or other sources. On these rare planets, it may be dark matter rather than light from a host star that makes it possible for life to emerge, evolve, and survive.

  6. The earth matter effects in neutrino oscillation experiments from Tokai to Kamioka and Korea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaoru Hagiwara; Naotoshi Okamura; Ken-ichi Senda

    2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the earth matter effects in the Tokai-to-Kamioka-and-Korea experiment (T2KK), which is a proposed extension of the T2K (Tokai-to-Kamioka) neutrino oscillation experiment between J-PARC at Tokai and Super-Kamiokande (SK) in Kamioka, where an additional detector is placed in Korea along the same neutrino beam line.By using recent geophysical measurements, we examine the earth matter effects on the oscillation probabilities at Kamioka and Korea. The average matter density along the Tokai-to-Kamioka baseline is found to be 2.6 g/cm^3, and that for the Tokai-to-Korea baseline is 2.85, 2.98, and 3.05 g/cm^3 for the baseline length of L = 1000, 1100, and 1200 km, respectively. The uncertainty of the average density is about 6%, which is determined by the uncertainty in the correlation between the accurately measured sound velocity and the matter density. The effect of the matter density distribution along the baseline is studied by using the step function approximation and the Fourier analysis. We find that the nu_mu -> nu_e oscillation probability is dictated mainly by the average matter density, with small but non-negligible contribution from the real part of the first Fourier mode. We also find that the sensitivity of the T2KK experiment on the neutrino mass hierarchy does not improve significantly by reducing the matter density error from 6% to 3%, since the measurement is limited by statistics for the minimum scenario of T2KK with SK at Kamioka anda 100 kt detector in Korea considered in this report. The sensitivity of the T2KK experiment on the neutrino mass hierarchy improves significantly by splitting the total beam time into neutrino and anti-neutrino runs, because the matter effect term contributes to the oscillation amplitudes with the opposite sign.

  7. A new relativistic model of hybrid star with interactive quark matter and dense baryonic matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koushik Chakraborty; Farook Rahaman; Arkopriya Mallick

    2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a relativistic model of hybrid star admitting conformal symmetry considering quark matter and baryonic matter as two different fluids. We define interaction equations between the normal baryonic matter and the quark matter and study the physical situations for repulsive, attractive and zero interaction between the constituent matters. From the interaction equations we find out the value of the equation of state (EOS) parameter for normal baryonic matter which is found to be consistent with the value obtained from the Walecka model for nucleonic matter at high density. The measured value of the Bag constant is used to explore the space time geometry inside the star. The theoretical mass-radius values are compared with the available observational data of the compact objects. From the nature of the match with the observational data, we predict the nature of interaction that must be present inside the hybrid stars

  8. Position Paper on Practicable Performance Criteria for the Removal Efficiency of Volatile Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. T. Jubin; N. Soelberg; D. M. Strachan

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of fuel reprocessing, volatile radionuclides may be released from the facility stack if no processes are put in place to remove them. The radionuclides that are of concern in this document are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. The question we attempted to answer is how efficient must this removal process be for each of these radionuclides? To answer this question, we examined the three regulations that may impact the degree to which these radionuclides must be reduced before process gases can be released from the facility. These regulations are 40 CFR 61 (EPA 2010a), 40 CFR 190(EPA 2010b), and 10 CFR 20 (NRC 2012). These regulations apply to the total radionuclide release and to a particular organ - the thyroid. Because these doses can be divided amongst all the radionuclides in different ways and even within the four radionuclides in question, we provided several cases. We first looked at the inventories for these radionuclides for three fuel types (PWR UOX, PWR MOX, and AHTGR), several burn-up values, and time out of reactor extending to 200 y. We calculated doses to the maximum exposed individual (MEI) with the EPA code CAP-88 (Rosnick 1992). Finally, we looked at two dose cases. Allocating all of the allowable dose to be used by the volatile radionuclides is one case, but, perhaps, unrealistic. In lieu of this, we arbitrarily selected a value of 10% of the allowable dose to be assigned to the volatile radionuclides. We calculated the required decontamination factors (DFs) for both of these cases, including the case for the thyroid dose for which 14C and 129I were the main contributors. With respect to 129I doses, we found that the highest dose was calculated with iodine as a fine particulate. The dose scaled as the fraction of the total 129I that was particulate. Therefore, we assumed for all of our calculations that 100% of the 129I was particulate and allow the user of the results given here to scale our calculated doses to their needs.

  9. Alternatives to Schwarzschild in the weak field limit of General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Bozza; A. Postiglione

    2015-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The metric outside an isolated object made up of ordinary matter is bound to be the classical Schwarzschild vacuum solution of General Relativity. Nevertheless, some solutions are known (e.g. Morris-Thorne wormholes) that do not match Schwarzschild asymptotically. On a phenomenological point of view, gravitational lensing in metrics falling as $1/r^q$ has recently attracted great interest. In this work, we explore the conditions on the source matter for constructing static spherically symmetric metrics exhibiting an arbitrary power-law as Newtonian limit. For such space-times we also derive the expressions of gravitational redshift and force on probe masses, which, together with light deflection, can be used in astrophysical searches of non-Schwarzschild objects made up of exotic matter. Interestingly, we prove that even a minimally coupled scalar field with a power-law potential can support non-Schwarzschild metrics with arbitrary asymptotic behaviour.

  10. Alternatives to Schwarzschild in the weak field limit of General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bozza, V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The metric outside an isolated object made up of ordinary matter is bound to be the classical Schwarzschild vacuum solution of General Relativity. Nevertheless, some solutions are known (e.g. Morris-Thorne wormholes) that do not match Schwarzschild asymptotically. In this work, we explore the conditions on the source matter for constructing static spherically symmetric metrics exhibiting an arbitrary power-law as Newtonian limit. We also derive the expressions for the gravitational deflection angle, Shapiro time delay, redshift and force on probe masses for such space-times, which can be used in astrophysical searches of non-Schwarzschild objects made up of exotic matter. Interestingly, we prove that even a minimally coupled scalar field with a power-law potential can support non-Schwarzschild metrics with arbitrary asymptotic behaviour.

  11. Detecting the invisible universe with neutrinos and dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaboth, Asher C. (Asher Cunningham)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent work in astrophysics has show that most of the matter in the universe is non-luminous. This work investigates two searches for non-luminous matter: hot dark matter formed from cosmic relic neutrinos from the Big ...

  12. Gradient limits and SCRF performance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norem, J.; Pellin, M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Superconducting rf gradients are limited by a number of mechanisms, among them are field emission, multipactor, Lorentz detuning, global and local heating, quench fields, Q-Slope, assembly defects, and overall power use. We describe how each of these mechanisms interacts with the cavity fields and show how significant improvements may be possible assuming improvements in control over the cavity surface. New techniques such as Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), the use of layered composites, Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) smoothing and Dry Ice Cleaning (DIC) have been proposed as ways to control the surface.

  13. Dose Limits | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,Office of Policy,Policy ActDetroit7471 FederalDonna Friend Donna FriendLimits

  14. Ablamp Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORT Americium/Curium Vitrification4th DayANVAblamp Limited Jump

  15. Novacem Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLuOpenNorth AmericaNorthwest Rural PubNova AlincaNovacem Limited

  16. Bioethanol Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon,Belcher HomesLyons Biomass FacilityBioethanol Limited

  17. Lysanda Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLu an Group Jump to: navigation,LushuiLyme, NewLyonLysanda Limited

  18. Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Selective capture of semi-volatiles (C10-C18) GCMS speciation Engine: 4 cylinder 1.7L turbo DI Exhaust 6 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy Pre-mixed Charge...

  19. Forecasting the conditional volatility of oil spot and futures prices with structural breaks and long memory models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Forecasting the conditional volatility of oil spot and futures prices with structural breaks of oil spot and futures prices using three GARCH-type models, i.e., linear GARCH, GARCH with structural that oil price fluctuations influence economic activity and financial sector (e.g., Jones and Kaul, 1996

  20. An Analysis of Price Volatility in Different Spot Markets for Electricity in the U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Analysis of Price Volatility in Different Spot Markets for Electricity in the U.S.A. by Tim for electricity in the USA vary in fundamental ways. In particular, markets in the East, such as New England, New in the new auction markets for electricity can be described by a stochastic regime-switching model

  1. ANNALS OF GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 48, N. 4/5, August/October 2005 Key words diffusion silicate melts volatiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    ­ volatiles ­ water ­ carbon dioxide ­ sulfur ­ fluorine ­ chlorine ­ melt inclusion ­ igneous processes 1 in silicate magmas provides the frame- work necessary for the understanding of process- es such as bubble equations for water, carbon dioxide, sulfur, flu- orine, and chlorine in silicate melts similar

  2. A non-volatile-memory device on the basis of engineered anisotropies in (Ga,Mn)As

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    ARTICLES A non-volatile-memory device on the basis of engineered anisotropies in (Ga,Mn)As KATRIN by Moore's law, the semiconductor industry will need to develop novel device concepts that go beyond simple Hall effect6 , tunnelling AMR (TAMR)7­9 and Coulomb blockade AMR10 . These previous demonstrations have

  3. UniFI: Leveraging Non-Volatile Memories for a Unified Fault Tolerance and Idle Power Management Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, David A.

    dissipation but also to make power - proportional to performance by managing idle power. The twin challenges noise margins and thermal cycling [42]. Technology scaling and power management both impact systemUniFI: Leveraging Non-Volatile Memories for a Unified Fault Tolerance and Idle Power Management

  4. Effects of digestive infusions of volatile fatty acids or glucose on food intake in lactating or dry cows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of digestive infusions of volatile fatty acids or glucose on food intake in lactating lactating (30 kg of milk/d) and 3 non pregnant dry dairy cows. The effect of each energetic infusion) control solutions of VFA and glucose treatments were infused at the same vol, pH and osmolarity

  5. A non-planar organic molecule with non-volatile electrical bistability for nano-scale data storage{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    A non-planar organic molecule with non-volatile electrical bistability for nano-scale data storage-planar organic molecule with electron donor and acceptor capabilities was synthesized for nano-scale data storage the demand of expansive storage capacity in the future. Recently, organic materials have received much

  6. Phytologia (Oct. 1, 2014) 96(4)252 Comparison of volatile leaf terpenoids from Lippia dulcis (Verbenaceae) obtained by steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Robert P.

    (Verbenaceae) obtained by steam distillation and pentane liquid extraction Robert P. Adams Biology Department, Prairie View, TX 77446 ABSTRACT Comparison of pentane extraction and steam distillation of intact leaves to be due to the different effects of pentane solvent on intact leaves (vs. steam volatilization

  7. Technology projects for characterization--monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Junk, G.A.; Haas, W.J. Jr.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One hundred thirty technology project titles related to the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at an arid site are listed alphabetically by first contact person in a master compilation that includes phone numbers, addresses, keywords, and short descriptions. Separate tables are presented for 62 field-demonstrated, 36 laboratory-demonstrated, and 35 developing technology projects. The technology projects in each of these three categories are also prioritized in separate summary tables. Additional tables are presented for a number of other categorizations of the technology projects: In Situ; Fiberoptic; Mass Spectrometer; Optical Spectroscopy; Raman or SERS; Ion Mobility or Acoustic; Associated; and Commercial. Four lists of contact person names are provided so details concerning the projects that deal with sampling, and VOCs in gases, waters, and soils (sediments) can be obtained. Finally, seven wide-ranging conclusions based on observations and experiences during this work are presented.

  8. Volatile Delivery to Planets from Water-rich Planetesimals around Low Mass Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciesla, Fred J; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Daniel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most models of volatile delivery to accreting terrestrial planets assume that the carriers for water are similar in water content to the carbonaceous chondrites in our Solar System. Here we suggest that the water content of primitive bodies in many planetary systems may actually be much higher, as carbonaceous chondrites have lost some of their original water due to heating from short-lived radioisotopes that drove parent body alteration. Using N-body simulations, we explore how planetary accretion would be different if bodies beyond the water line contained a water mass fraction consistent with chemical equilibrium calculations, and more similar to comets, as opposed to the more traditional water-depleted values. We apply this model to consider planet formation around stars of different masses and identify trends in the properties of Habitable Zone planets and planetary system architecture which could be tested by ongoing exoplanet census data collection. Comparison of such data with the model predicted tren...

  9. Thermodynamic modeling of volatile hazardous metal behavior in the Vortec Vitrification System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowok, J.W.; Hurley, J.P.

    2000-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermochemical equilibrium calculations indicate that at the temperature of a propane--air flame, some volatilization of uranium, plutonium, technetium, and cesium will occur. The expected concentrations of plutonium, technetium, and cesium in the flame will be very low because of the small maximum concentration of these elements in the projected feed materials for the first 30-day test. The quantities volatilized can generally be decreased by operating the flame in a fuel-rich mode, although this will lead to greater carbon monoxide production, which may be more objectionable. The concentrations of chlorine and fluorine, at least at the maximum levels in the projected Vortec feed, are not projected to greatly influence the vaporization rates. Therefore, blending to reduce the concentrations of those elements would most likely not be effective in reducing metal vaporization. Most of the elements vaporized condense by the time the gas cools to 2000 F. These elements would condense either on surfaces near the front of the heat recuperator or on entrained particulates or homogeneously as relatively pure submicron particles. Cesium would be expected to condense at the lower temperatures near the rear of the recuperator, although the expected maximum concentration in the Vortec feed material is extremely low so it should be greatly diluted by other particulates. The elements that condense on other entrained particles will form enriched surface coatings. Particles larger than 10{micro}m or so will be collected in the scrubber. Smaller particles, especially the submicron particles formed from homogeneous nucleation, should be largely collected in the HEPA filter. Deposits formed in the heat recuperator can normally be handled via sootblowing. To reduce handling problems, we suggest that the recuperator be oriented vertically so that the deposits blown off of the heat exchanger fall directly into the molten glass. The large size of the deposits should help to reduce the rate of revaporization, allowing the volatile elements to be removed with the glass. The volatile elements that do not deposit on system surfaces will be concentrated in the smaller particles. Therefore, the HEPA ash will be greatly enriched in these elements. If the HEPA filter is itself sent to a melter, the elements may revaporize and multiply the problems related to metal vaporization significantly. Therefore, the HEPA filters should be disposed of without high-temperature processing. Also, to reduce the formation of these very small particles, it is helpful to include in the feed larger particles to act as condensation nuclei that can then be collected in the scrubber. This can be accomplished by using feed materials with a fraction consisting of particles small enough that they will not be collected in the cyclone in the melter, but large enough that they will easily be collected by the scrubber. This is one advantage that firing bituminous coal has over gas firing; it provides a source of ash particles of the right size range to serve as nucleation sites, but large enough (depending on the coal) so that they can usually be collected efficiently in the scrubber system.

  10. Volatilization and redox testing in a DC arc melter: FY-93 and FY-94

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grandy, J.D.; Sears, J.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.; McIlwain, M.E.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of these experiments was to study the dissolution, retention, volatilization, and trapping of transuranic radionuclide elements (TRUs), mixed fission and activation products, and high vapor pressure metals (HVPMS) during processing in a high temperature arc furnace. In all cases, surrogate elements (lanthanides) were used in place of radioactive ones. The experiments were conducted utilizing a small DC arc melter developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center (IRC). The small arc melter was originally developed in 1992 and has been used previously for waste form studies of iron enriched basalt (IEB) and IEB with zirconium and titanium additions (IEB4). Section 3 contains a description of the small arc melter and its operational capabilities are discussed in Chapter 4. The remainder of the document describes each testing program and then discusses results and findings.

  11. Methods for characterizing subsurface volatile contaminants using in-situ sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An inverse analysis method for characterizing diffusion of vapor from an underground source of volatile contaminant using data taken by an in-situ sensor. The method uses one-dimensional solutions to the diffusion equation in Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates for isotropic and homogenous media. If the effective vapor diffusion coefficient is known, then the distance from the source to the in-situ sensor can be estimated by comparing the shape of the predicted time-dependent vapor concentration response curve to the measured response curve. Alternatively, if the source distance is known, then the effective vapor diffusion coefficient can be estimated using the same inverse analysis method. A triangulation technique can be used with multiple sensors to locate the source in two or three dimensions. The in-situ sensor can contain one or more chemiresistor elements housed in a waterproof enclosure with a gas permeable membrane.

  12. Sandia Energy - Control of Strong Light-Matter Coupling Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control of Strong Light-Matter Coupling Using the Capacitance of Metamaterial Nanocavities Home Highlights - Energy Research Control of Strong Light-Matter Coupling Using the...

  13. Electronic Structure of Warm Dense Matter via Multicenter Green...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic Structure of Warm Dense Matter via Multicenter Green's Function Technique Research Personnel Modeling The proposed research addresses the Warm Dense Matter area...

  14. Contingency in the Direction and Mechanics of Soil Organic Matter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contingency in the Direction and Mechanics of Soil Organic Matter Responses to Increased Rainfall. Contingency in the Direction and Mechanics of Soil Organic Matter Responses to...

  15. Persistence of soil organic matter in eroding versus depositional...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Persistence of soil organic matter in eroding versus depositional landform positions. Persistence of soil organic matter in eroding versus depositional landform positions....

  16. Recent Progress on Steam Hydrogasification of Carbonaceous Matter...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Recent Progress on Steam Hydrogasification of Carbonaceous Matter to Clean Synthetic Diesel Fuel Recent Progress on Steam Hydrogasification of Carbonaceous Matter to Clean...

  17. Methodology for Formulating Diesel Surrogate Fuels with Accurate Compositional, Ignition-Quality, and Volatility Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, C. J.; Cannella, W. J.; Bruno, T. J.; Bunting, B.; Dettman, H. D.; Franz, J. A.; Huber, M. L.; Natarajan, M.; Pitz, W. J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Wright, K.

    2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, a novel approach was developed to formulate surrogate fuels having characteristics that are representative of diesel fuels produced from real-world refinery streams. Because diesel fuels typically consist of hundreds of compounds, it is difficult to conclusively determine the effects of fuel composition on combustion properties. Surrogate fuels, being simpler representations of these practical fuels, are of interest because they can provide a better understanding of fundamental fuel-composition and property effects on combustion and emissions-formation processes in internal-combustion engines. In addition, the application of surrogate fuels in numerical simulations with accurate vaporization, mixing, and combustion models could revolutionize future engine designs by enabling computational optimization for evolving real fuels. Dependable computational design would not only improve engine function, it would do so at significant cost savings relative to current optimization strategies that rely on physical testing of hardware prototypes. The approach in this study utilized the state-of-the-art techniques of {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the advanced distillation curve to characterize fuel composition and volatility, respectively. The ignition quality was quantified by the derived cetane number. Two well-characterized, ultra-low-sulfur No.2 diesel reference fuels produced from refinery streams were used as target fuels: a 2007 emissions certification fuel and a Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel fuel. A surrogate was created for each target fuel by blending eight pure compounds. The known carbon bond types within the pure compounds, as well as models for the ignition qualities and volatilities of their mixtures, were used in a multiproperty regression algorithm to determine optimal surrogate formulations. The predicted and measured surrogate-fuel properties were quantitatively compared to the measured target-fuel properties, and good agreement was found.

  18. Indirect Search for Dark Matter in M31 with the CELESTE Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavalle, J; Britto, R; Bruel, P; Bussons-Gordo, J; Dumora, D; Durand, E; Giraud, E; Jacholkowska, A; Lott, B; M"unz, F; Manseri, H; Nuss, E; Piron, Frédéric; Reposeur, T; Smith, D A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If dark matter is made of neutralinos, annihilation of such Majorana particles should produce high energy cosmic rays, especially in galaxy halo high density regions like galaxy centres. M31 (Andromeda) is our nearest neighbour spiral galaxy, and both its high mass and its low distance make it a source of interest for the indirect search for dark matter through gamma-ray detection. The ground based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope CELESTE observed M31 from 2001 to 2003, in the mostly unexplored energy range 50-500 GeV. These observations provide an upper limit on the flux above 50 GeV around $10^{-10}\\rm{cm}^{-2}\\rm{s}^{-1}$ in the frame of supersymmetric dark matter, and more generally on any gamma emission from M31.

  19. Indirect Search for Dark Matter in M31 with the CELESTE Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Lavalle; H. Manseri; A. Jacholkowska; E. Brion; R. Britto; P. Bruel; J. Bussons-Gordo; D. Dumora; E. Durand; E. Giraud; B. Lott; F. Münz; E. Nuss; F. Piron; T. Reposeur; D. A. Smith

    2006-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    If dark matter is made of neutralinos, annihilation of such Majorana particles should produce high energy cosmic rays, especially in galaxy halo high density regions like galaxy centres. M31 (Andromeda) is our nearest neighbour spiral galaxy, and both its high mass and its low distance make it a source of interest for the indirect search for dark matter through gamma-ray detection. The ground based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope CELESTE observed M31 from 2001 to 2003, in the mostly unexplored energy range 50-500 GeV. These observations provide an upper limit on the flux above 50 GeV around $10^{-10}\\rm{cm}^{-2}\\rm{s}^{-1}$ in the frame of supersymmetric dark matter, and more generally on any gamma emission from M31.

  20. Seasonal effects of volatile oils in ashe and redberry juniper on preference and digestibility by goats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riddle, Richard R.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    during the spring and fall of 1991 at the Sonora Research Station. 47 17 Analysis of variance model with mean squares for milliliters of urine (ml Urine) and percent urine dry matter (% UDM) for metabolism trials during the spring and fall of 1991... using diets of alfalfa hay, Coastal bermudagrass hay, live oak and ashe juniper. 49 TABLE LIST OF TABLES (CONTINUED) Page 18. Milliliters of urine (ml Urine) and percent urine dry matter (%UDM) of Angora goats fed four diets during the spring...

  1. Dark Matter Triggers of Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, Peter W; Varela, Jaime

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transit of primordial black holes through a white dwarf causes localized heating around the trajectory of the black hole through dynamical friction. For sufficiently massive black holes, this heat can initiate runaway thermonuclear fusion causing the white dwarf to explode as a supernova. The shape of the observed distribution of white dwarfs with masses up to $1.25 M_{\\odot}$ rules out primordial black holes with masses $\\sim 10^{19}$ gm - $10^{20}$ gm as a dominant constituent of the local dark matter density. Black holes with masses as large as $10^{24}$ gm will be excluded if recent observations by the NuStar collaboration of a population of white dwarfs near the galactic center are confirmed. Black holes in the mass range $10^{20}$ gm - $10^{22}$ gm are also constrained by the observed supernova rate, though these bounds are subject to astrophysical uncertainties. These bounds can be further strengthened through measurements of white dwarf binaries in gravitational wave observatories. The mechanism p...

  2. Baryonic pinching of galactic dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustafsson, Michael; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper [Cosmology, Particle Astrophysics and String Theory, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High resolution cosmological N-body simulations of four galaxy-scale dark matter halos are compared to corresponding N-body/hydrodynamical simulations containing dark matter, stars and gas. The simulations without baryons share features with others described in the literature in that the dark matter density slope continuously decreases towards the center, with a density {rho}{sub DM}{proportional_to}r{sup -1.3{+-}}{sup 0.2}, at about 1% of the virial radius for our Milky Way sized galaxies. The central cusps in the simulations which also contain baryons steepen significantly, to {rho}{sub DM}{proportional_to}r{sup -1.9{+-}}{sup 0.2}, with an indication of the inner logarithmic slope converging. Models of adiabatic contraction of dark matter halos due to the central buildup of stellar/gaseous galaxies are examined. The simplest and most commonly used model, by Blumenthal et al., is shown to overestimate the central dark matter density considerably. A modified model proposed by Gnedin et al. is tested and it is shown that, while it is a considerable improvement, it is not perfect. Moreover, it is found that the contraction parameters in their model not only depend on the orbital structure of the dark-matter-only halos but also on the stellar feedback prescription which is most relevant for the baryonic distribution. Implications for dark matter annihilation at the galactic center are discussed and it is found that, although our simulations show a considerable reduced dark matter halo contraction as compared to the Blumenthal et al. model, the fluxes from dark matter annihilation are still expected to be enhanced by at least a factor of a hundred, as compared to dark-matter-only halos. Finally, it is shown that, while dark-matter-only halos are typically prolate, the dark matter halos containing baryons are mildly oblate with minor-to-major axis ratios of c/a=0.73{+-}0.11, with their flattening aligned with the central baryonic disks.

  3. Isotropic cosmological singularities: other matter models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. P. Tod

    2002-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Isotropic cosmological singularities are singularities which can be removed by rescaling the metric. In some cases already studied (gr-qc/9903008, gr-qc/9903009, gr-qc/9903018) existence and uniqueness of cosmological models with data at the singularity has been established. These were cosmologies with, as source, either perfect fluids with linear equations of state or massless, collisionless particles. In this article we consider how to extend these results to a variety of other matter models. These are scalar fields, massive collisionless matter, the Yang-Mills plasma of Choquet-Bruhat, or matter satisfying the Einstein-Boltzmann equation.

  4. Nonlinear manipulation and control of matter waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. V. Goldstein; M. G. Moore; P. Meystre

    1999-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews some of our recent results in nonlinear atom optics. In addition to nonlinear wave-mixing between matter waves, we also discuss the dynamical interplay between optical and matter waves. This new paradigm, which is now within experimental reach, has the potential to impact a number of fields of physics, including the manipulation and applications of atomic coherence, and the preparation of quantum entanglement between microscopic and macroscopic systems. Possible applications include quantum information processing, matter-wave holography, and nanofabrication.

  5. Clusters in nuclear matter and Mott points

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Röpke

    2015-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Light clusters (mass number $A \\leq 4$) in nuclear matter at subsaturation densities are described using a quantum statistical approach. In addition to self-energy and Pauli-blocking, effects of continuum correlations are taken into account to calculate the quasiparticle properties and abundances of light elements. Medium-modified quasiparticle properties are important ingredients to derive a nuclear matter equation of state applicable in the entire region of warm dense matter below saturation density. The influence of the nucleon-nucleon interaction on the quasiparticle shift is discussed.

  6. Unbound particles in dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: behroozi@stanford.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate unbound dark matter particles in halos by tracing particle trajectories in a simulation run to the far future (a = 100). We find that the traditional sum of kinetic and potential energies is a very poor predictor of which dark matter particles will eventually become unbound from halos. We also study the mass fraction of unbound particles, which increases strongly towards the edges of halos, and decreases significantly at higher redshifts. We discuss implications for dark matter detection experiments, precision calibrations of the halo mass function, the use of baryon fractions to constrain dark energy, and searches for intergalactic supernovae.

  7. Constraining Dark Matter Models from a Combined Analysis of Milky Way Satellites with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /SLAC; Albert, A.; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /Ohio State U.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /SLAC; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /SLAC; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /SLAC; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Buehler, R.; /Stanford U., HEPL /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /SLAC; Burnett, T.H.; /Washington U., Seattle; Buson, S.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /ICE, Bellaterra /Stanford U., HEPL /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /SLAC /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /SLAC /Artep Inc. /Stanford U., HEPL /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /SLAC /ASDC, Frascati /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /ASDC, Frascati /ASDC, Frascati /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Stanford U., HEPL /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /NASA, Goddard /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /SLAC /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /INFN, Bari /ASDC, Frascati /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Bologna Observ. /Stanford U., HEPL /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /SLAC /DAPNIA, Saclay /Alabama U., Huntsville; /more authors..

    2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are among the most promising targets for dark matter searches in gamma rays. We present a search for dark matter consisting of weakly interacting massive particles, applying a joint likelihood analysis to 10 satellite galaxies with 24 months of data of the Fermi Large Area Telescope. No dark matter signal is detected. Including the uncertainty in the dark matter distribution, robust upper limits are placed on dark matter annihilation cross sections. The 95% confidence level upper limits range from about 10{sup -26} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} at 5 GeV to about 5 x 10{sup -23} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} at 1 TeV, depending on the dark matter annihilation final state. For the first time, using gamma rays, we are able to rule out models with the most generic cross section ({approx}3 x 10{sup -26} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} for a purely s-wave cross section), without assuming additional boost factors.

  8. A pulsed power hydrodynamics approach to exploring properties of warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinovsky, Robert Emil [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulsed Power Hydrodynamics, as an application of low-impedance, pulsed power, and high magnetic field technology developed over the last decade to study advanced hydrodynamic problems, instabilities, turbulence, and material properties, can potentially be applied to the study of the behavior and properties of warm dense matter (WDM) as well. Exploration of the properties, such as equation of state and conductivity, of warm dense matter is an emerging area of study focused on the behavior of matter at density near solid density (from 10% of solid density to a few times solid density) and modest temperatures ({approx}1-10 eV). Warm dense matter conditions can be achieved by laser or particle beam heating of very small quantities of matter on timescales short compared to the subsequent hydrodynamic expansion timescales (isochoric heating) and a vigorous community of researchers is applying these techniques using petawatt scale laser systems, but the microscopic size scale of the WDM produced in this way limits access to some physics phenomena. Pulsed power hydrodynamics techniques, either through high convergence liner compression of a large volume, modest density, low temperature plasma to densities approaching solid density or through the explosion and subsequent expansion of a conductor (wire) against a high pressure (density) gas background (isobaric expansion) techniques both offer the prospect for producing warm dense matter in macroscopic quantities. However, both techniques demand substantial energy, proper power conditioning and delivery, and an understanding of the hydrodynamic and instability processes that limit each technique. Similarly, liner compression of normal density material, perhaps using multiple reflected shocks can provide access to the challenging region above normal density -- again with the requirement of very large amounts of driving energy. In this paper we will provide an introduction to techniques that might be applied to explore this interesting new application of the energy-rich technology of pulse power and high magnetic fields.

  9. Physics of the Shannon Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merhav, Neri

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide a simple physical interpretation, in the context of the second law of thermodynamics, to the information inequality (a.k.a. the Gibbs' inequality, which is also equivalent to the log-sum inequality), asserting that the relative entropy between two probability distributions cannot be negative. Since this inequality stands at the basis of the data processing theorem (DPT), and the DPT in turn is at the heart of most, if not all, proofs of converse theorems in Shannon theory, it is observed that conceptually, the roots of fundamental limits of Information Theory can actually be attributed to the laws of physics, in particular, to the second law of thermodynamics, and at least indirectly, also to the law of energy conservation. By the same token, in the other direction: one can view the second law as stemming from information-theoretic principles.

  10. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rosen, Robert S.

    2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A cartridge primer which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML's would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers.

  11. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Rosen, R.S.

    1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A cartridge primer is described which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML`s would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers. 10 figs.

  12. Constraints, limits and extensions for nuclear energy functionals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Colo'

    2009-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present contribution, we discuss the behavior of Skyrme forces when they are employed to study both neutron stars and giant resonance states in 208Pb within the fully self-consistent Random Phase Approximation (RPA). We point out that clear correlations exist between the results for the isoscalar monopole and isovector dipole resonances (ISGMR and IVGDR), and definite quantities which characterize the equation of state (EOS) of uniform matter. We propose that the RPA results or, to some extent, the mentioned EOS parameters, are used as constraints when a force is fitted. This suggestion can be valid also when the fit of a more general energy density functional is envisaged. We use our considerations to select a limited number of Skyrme forces (10) out of a large sample of 78 interactions.

  13. Manual for Classified Matter Protection and Control

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1998-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Provides detailed requirements for the protection and control of classified matter which supplement DOE O 471.2A. Cancels DOE M 471.2-1 dated 09/26/1995.

  14. Size Matters. Eat Your Heart Out.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahon, Bradford Z.

    Size Matters. Eat Your Heart Out. Party of One? Does it seem like all students drink? While and couples therapy, group therapy, medication management, 24-hour crisis service, consultation

  15. Antigravitation, Dark Energy, Dark Matter - Alternative Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexeev, Boris V

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Collisional damping of gravitational waves in the Newtonian matter is investigated. The generalized theory of Landau damping is applied to the gravitational physical systems in the context of the plasma gravitational analogy.

  16. Superheavy sterile neutrinos as dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Yongjun

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chung, Kolb, and Riotto have proposed nonthermal mechanisms for the production of superheavy dark matter, consisting of particles with masses which may range up to the GUT scale. Shi and Fuller, on the other hand, have proposed much lighter sterile...

  17. Shocking Signals of Dark Matter Annihilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Jonathan H; Boehm, Celine; Kotera, Kumiko; Norman, Colin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine whether charged particles injected by self-annihilating Dark Matter into regions undergoing Diffuse Shock Acceleration (DSA) can be accelerated to high energies. We consider three astrophysical sites where shock acceleration is supposed to occur, namely the Galactic Centre, galaxy clusters and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). For the Milky Way, we find that the acceleration of cosmic rays injected by dark matter could lead to a bump in the cosmic ray spectrum provided that the product of the efficiency of the acceleration mechanism and the concentration of DM particles is high enough. Among the various acceleration sources that we consider (namely supernova remnants (SNRs), Fermi bubbles and AGN jets), we find that the Fermi bubbles are a potentially more efficient accelerator than SNRs. However both could in principle accelerate electrons and protons injected by dark matter to very high energies. At the extragalactic level, the acceleration of dark matter annihilation products could be responsible fo...

  18. Antigravitation, Dark Energy, Dark Matter - Alternative Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boris V. Alexeev

    2009-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Collisional damping of gravitational waves in the Newtonian matter is investigated. The generalized theory of Landau damping is applied to the gravitational physical systems in the context of the plasma gravitational analogy.

  19. Coherent neutrino scattering in dark matter detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Alexander John

    Coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus and weakly interacting massive particle-nucleus interaction signatures are expected to be quite similar. This paper discusses how a next-generation ton-scale dark matter detector could ...

  20. Can Dark Matter Decay in Dark Energy?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. H. Pereira; J. F. Jesus

    2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the interaction between Dark Energy and Dark Matter from a thermodynamical perspective. By assuming they have different temperatures, we study the possibility of occurring a decay from Dark Matter into Dark Energy, characterized by a negative parameter $Q$. We find that, if at least one of the fluids has non vanishing chemical potential, for instance $\\mu_x0$, the decay is possible, where $\\mu_x$ and $\\mu_{dm}$ are the chemical potentials of Dark Energy and Dark Matter, respectively. Using recent cosmological data, we find that, for a fairly simple interaction, the Dark Matter decay is favored with a probability of $\\sim 93%$ over the Dark Energy decay. This result comes from a likelihood analysis where only background evolution has been considered.

  1. Search for ultralight scalar dark matter with atomic spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Tilburg, Ken; Bougas, Lykourgos; Budker, Dmitry

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report new limits on ultralight scalar dark matter (DM) with dilaton-like couplings to photons that can induce oscillations in the fine-structure constant alpha. Atomic dysprosium exhibits an electronic structure with two nearly degenerate levels whose energy splitting is sensitive to changes in alpha. Spectroscopy data for two isotopes of dysprosium over a two-year span is analyzed for coherent oscillations with angular frequencies below 1 rad/s. No signal consistent with a DM coupling is identified, leading to new constraints on dilaton-like photon couplings over a wide mass range. Under the assumption that the scalar field comprises all of the DM, our limits on the coupling exceed those from equivalence-principle tests by up to 4 orders of magnitude for masses below 3 * 10^-18 eV. Excess oscillatory power, inconsistent with fine-structure variation, is detected in a control data set, and is likely due to a systematic effect. Our atomic spectroscopy limits on DM are the first of their kind, and leave sub...

  2. The Dark Matter halo of the Milky Way, AD 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nesti, Fabrizio [Gran Sasso Science Institute, viale Crispi 7, I-67100 L'Aquila (Italy); Salucci, Paolo, E-mail: nesti@aquila.infn.it, E-mail: salucci@sissa.it [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA/ISAS), Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the mass model of the Milky Way (MW), crucial for Dark Matter (DM) direct and indirect detection, using recent data and a cored dark matter (DM) halo profile, which is favoured by studies of external galaxies. The method used consists in fitting a spherically symmetric model of the Galaxy with a Burkert DM halo profile to available data: MW terminal velocities in the region inside the solar circle, circular velocity as recently estimated from maser star forming regions at intermediate radii, and velocity dispersions of stellar halo tracers for the outermost Galactic region. The latter are reproduced by integrating the Jeans equation for every modeled mass distribution, and by allowing for different velocity anisotropies for different tracer populations. For comparison we also consider a Navarro-Frenk-White profile. We find that the cored profile is the preferred one, with a shallow central density of ?{sub H} ? 4 × 10{sup 7}M{sub ?}/kpc{sup 3} and a large core radius R{sub H} ? 10 kpc, as observed in external spirals and in agreement with the mass model underlying the Universal Rotation Curve of spirals. We describe also the derived model uncertainties, which are crucially driven by the poorly constrained velocity dispersion anisotropies of halo tracers. The emerging cored DM distribution has implications for the DM annihilation angular profile, which is much less boosted in the Galactic center direction with respect to the case of the standard ?CDM, NFW profile. Using the derived uncertainties we discuss finally the limitations and prospects to discriminate between cored and cusped DM profile with a possible observed diffuse DM annihilation signal. The present mass model aims to characterize the present-day description of the distribution of matter in our Galaxy, which is needed to frame current crucial issues of Cosmology, Astrophysics and Elementary Particles.

  3. From nuclear matter to Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. K. Jha

    2009-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron stars are the most dense objects in the observable Universe and conventionally one uses nuclear theory to obtain the equation of state (EOS) of dense hadronic matter and the global properties of these stars. In this work, we review various aspects of nuclear matter within an effective Chiral model and interlink fundamental quantities both from nuclear saturation as well as vacuum properties and correlate it with the star properties.

  4. {\\Lambda}CDM cosmology from matter only

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Telkamp, Herman

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I discuss a matter-only interpretation of {\\Lambda}CDM cosmology, based on conservation of energy and assuming a Machian definition of inertia. {\\Lambda}CDM cosmology can be linked to a Newtonian cosmic potential, subject to a propagating gravitational horizon. In a matter-only universe where total energy is conserved, Machian inertia related to the evolving potential may cause both deceleration and acceleration of recession.

  5. Desorption of hexachlorobiphenyl from selected particulate matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rorschach, Reagan Cartwright

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DESORPTION OF HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL FROM SELECTED PARTICULATE MATTER A Thesis by REAGAN CARTWRIGHT RORS CHACH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Civil Engineering DESORPTION OF HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL FROM SELECTED PARTICULATE MATTER A Thesis by REAGAN C. RORSCHACH Approved as to style and content by: Robin L. Autenrieth (Chair of Committee...

  6. Magnetism and superconductivity in quark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Tatsumi; E. Nakano; K. Nawa

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic properties of quark matter and its relation to the microscopic origin of the magnetic field observed in compact stars are studied. Spontaneous spin polarization appears in high-density region due to the Fock exchange term, which may provide a scenario for the behaviors of magnetars. On the other hand, quark matter becomes unstable to form spin density wave in the moderate density region, where restoration of chiral symmetry plays an important role. Coexistence of magnetism and color superconductivity is also discussed.

  7. Cosmology with a stiff matter era

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre-Henri Chavanis

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide a simple analytical solution of the Friedmann equations for a universe made of stiff matter, dust matter, and dark energy. A stiff matter era is present in the cosmological model of Zel'dovich (1972) where the primordial universe is assumed to be made of a cold gas of baryons. It also occurs in certain cosmological models where dark matter is made of relativistic self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). When the energy density of the stiff matter is positive, the primordial universe is singular. It starts from a state with a vanishing scale factor and an infinite density. We consider the possibility that the energy density of the stiff matter is negative (anti-stiff matter). This happens, for example, when the BECs have an attractive self-interaction. In that case, the primordial universe is non-singular. It starts from a state in which the scale factor is finite and the energy density is equal to zero. For the sake of generality, we consider a cosmological constant of arbitrary sign. When the cosmological constant is positive, the universe asymptotically reaches a de Sitter phase where the scale factor increases exponentially rapidly. This can account for the accelerating expansion of the universe that we observe at present. When the cosmological constant is negative (anti-de Sitter), the evolution of the universe is cyclic. Therefore, depending on the sign of the energy density of the stiff matter and of the dark energy, we obtain singular and non-singular expanding or cyclic universes.

  8. Isospin asymmetric nuclear matter and properties of axisymmetric neutron stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, Partha Roy; Bhattacharyya, Abhijit [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Basu, D. N. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Pure hadronic compact stars that are above a limiting value (approx =1.6M{sub c}entre dot) of their gravitational masses, to which predictions of most of other equations of state are restricted, can be reached from the equation of state (EOS) obtained using the density-dependent M3Y (DDM3Y) effective interaction. This effective interaction is found to be quite successful in providing a unified description of elastic and inelastic scattering, various radioactivities, and nuclear matter properties. We present a systematic study of the properties of pure hadronic compact stars. The beta-equilibrated neutron star matter using this EOS with a thin crust is able to describe highly massive compact stars, such as PSR B1516+02B with a mass M=1.94{sub -0.19}{sup +0.17}M{sub c}entre dot and PSR J0751+1807 with a mass M=2.1+-0.2M{sub c}entre dot to a 1sigma confidence level.

  9. Decoherence of matter waves by thermal emission of radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucia Hackermueller; Klaus Hornberger; Bjoern Brezger; Anton Zeilinger; Markus Arndt

    2004-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Emergent quantum technologies have led to increasing interest in decoherence - the processes that limit the appearance of quantum effects and turn them into classical phenomena. One important cause of decoherence is the interaction of a quantum system with its environment, which 'entangles' the two and distributes the quantum coherence over so many degrees of freedom as to render it unobservable. Decoherence theory has been complemented by experiments using matter waves coupled to external photons or molecules, and by investigations using coherent photon states, trapped ions and electron interferometers. Large molecules are particularly suitable for the investigation of the quantum-classical transition because they can store much energy in numerous internal degrees of freedom; the internal energy can be converted into thermal radiation and thus induce decoherence. Here we report matter wave interferometer experiments in which C70 molecules lose their quantum behaviour by thermal emission of radiation. We find good quantitative agreement between our experimental observations and microscopic decoherence theory. Decoherence by emission of thermal radiation is a general mechanism that should be relevant to all macroscopic bodies.

  10. Commissioning Run of the CRESST-II Dark Matter Search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Angloher; M. Bauer; I. Bavykina; A. Bento; A. Brown; C. Bucci; C. Ciemniak; C. Coppi; G. Deuter; F. von Feilitzsch; D. Hauff; S. Henry; P. Huff; J. Imber; S. Ingleby; C. Isaila; J. Jochum; M. Kiefer; M. Kimmerle; H. Kraus; J. -C. Lanfranchi; R. F. Lang; B. Majorovits; M. Malek; R. McGowan; V. B. Mikhailik; E. Pantic; F. Petricca; S. Pfister; W. Potzel; F. Proebst; W. Rau; S. Roth; K. Rottler; C. Sailer; K. Schaeffner; J. Schmaler; S. Scholl; W. Seidel; L. Stodolsky; A. J. B. Tolhurst; I. Usherov; W. Westphal

    2009-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The CRESST cryogenic direct dark matter search at Gran Sasso, searching for WIMPs via nuclear recoil, has been upgraded to CRESST-II by several changes and improvements.We present the results of a commissioning run carried out in 2007. The basic element of CRESST-II is a detector module consisting of a large (~ 300 g) CaWO_4 crystal and a very sensitive smaller (~ 2 g) light detector to detect the scintillation light from the CaWO_4.Information from light-quenching factor studies allows the definition of a region of the energy-light yield plane which corresponds to tungsten recoils. A neutron test is reported which supports the principle of using the light yield to identify the recoiling nucleus. Data obtained with two detector modules for a total exposure of 48 kg-days are presented. Judging by the rate of events in the "all nuclear recoils" acceptance region the apparatus shows a factor ~ten improvement with respect to previous results, which we attribute principally to the presence of the neutron shield. In the "tungsten recoils" acceptance region three events are found, corresponding to a rate of 0.063 per kg-day. Standard assumptions on the dark matter flux, coherent or spin independent interactions,then yield a limit for WIMP-nucleon scattering of 4.8 \\times 10^{-7}pb, at M{WIMP} ~50 GeV.

  11. Natural Limits of Electroweak Model as Contraction of its Gauge Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolay A. Gromov

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The low and higher energy limits of the Electroweak Model are obtained from first principles of gauge theory. Both limits are given by the same contraction of the gauge group, but for the different consistent rescalings of the field space. Mathematical contraction parameter in both cases is interpreted as energy. The very weak neutrino-matter interactions is explained by zero tending contraction parameter, which depend on neutrino energy. The second consistent rescaling corresponds to the higher energy limit of the Electroweak Model. At the infinite energy all particles lose masses, electroweak interactions become long-range and are mediated by the neutral currents. The limit model represents the development of the early Universe from the Big Bang up to the end of the first second.

  12. Spin dynamics in relativistic light-matter interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heiko Bauke; Sven Ahrens; Christoph H. Keitel; Rainer Grobe

    2015-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Various spin effects are expected to become observable in light-matter interaction at relativistic intensities. Relativistic quantum mechanics equipped with a suitable relativistic spin operator forms the theoretical foundation for describing these effects. Various proposals for relativistic spin operators have been offered by different authors, which are presented in a unified way. As a result of the operators' mathematical properties only the Foldy-Wouthuysen operator and the Pryce operator qualify as possible proper relativistic spin operators. The ground states of highly charged hydrogen-like ions can be utilized to identify a legitimate relativistic spin operator experimentally. Subsequently, the Foldy-Wothuysen spin operator is employed to study electron-spin precession in high-intensity standing light waves with elliptical polarization. For a correct theoretical description of the predicted electron-spin precession relativistic effects due to the spin angular momentum of the electromagnetic wave has to be taken into account even in the limit of low intensities.

  13. LHC constraints on gauge boson couplings to dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crivellin, Andreas; Hibbs, Anthony

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Collider searches for energetic particles recoiling against missing transverse energy allow to place strong bounds on the interactions between dark matter (DM) and standard model particles. In this article we update and extend LHC constraints on effective dimension-7 operators involving DM and electroweak gauge bosons. A concise comparison of the sensitivity of the mono-photon, mono-W, mono-Z, mono-W/Z, invisible Higgs-boson decays in the vector boson fusion mode and the mono-jet channel is presented. Depending on the parameter choices, either the mono-photon or the mono-jet data provide the most stringent bounds at the moment. We furthermore explore the potential of improving the current 8 TeV limits at 14 TeV. Future strategies capable of disentangling the effects of the different effective operators involving electroweak gauge bosons are discussed as well.

  14. Search for stable Strange Quark Matter in lunar soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke Han; Jeffrey Ashenfelter; Alexei Chikanian; William Emmet; Evan Finch; Andreas Heinz; Jes Madsen; Richard Majka; Benjamin Monreal; Jack Sandweiss

    2009-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We report results from a search for strangelets (small chunks of Strange Quark Matter) in lunar soil using the Yale WNSL accelerator as a mass spectrometer. We have searched over a range in mass from A=42 to A=70 amu for nuclear charges 5, 6, 8, 9, and 11. No strangelets were found in the experiment. For strangelets with nuclear charge 8, a concentration in lunar soil higher than $10^{-16}$ is excluded at the 95% confidence level. The implied limit on the strangelet flux in cosmic rays is the most sensitive to date for the covered range and is relevant to both recent theoretical flux predictions and a strangelet candidate event found by the AMS-01 experiment.

  15. Light Higgses and Dark Matter Bob McElrath

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Light Higgses and Dark Matter Bob McElrath University of California, Davis Santa Cruz, February 26, 2007 #12;Light Low-Mass Dark Matter Bob McElrath University of California, Davis ICHEP, January 2, 2007 and Expectations for Light Dark Matter · Invisible Quarkonium Decays · Light Dark Matter from SUSY · Detection

  16. Testing the neutrality of matter by acoustic means in a spherical resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bressi, G.; Carugno, G.; Della Valle, F.; Galeazzi, G.; Ruoso, G.; Sartori, G. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via U. Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via A. Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell'Universita 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements to test the neutrality of matter by acoustic means are reported. The apparatus is based on a spherical capacitor filled with gaseous SF{sub 6} excited by an oscillating electric field. The apparatus has been calibrated measuring the electric polarizability. Assuming charge conservation in the {beta} decay of the neutron, the experiment gives a limit of {epsilon}{sub p-e} < or approx. 1x10{sup -21} for the electron-proton charge difference, the same limit holding for the charge of the neutron. Previous measurements are critically reviewed and found to be inaccurate.

  17. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH reactivity in the downwind plume. The model results generally showed good agreement with experimental results for the total VOC OH reactivity downwind and gave insight into the distributions of VOC chemical classes downwind. A box model with detailed gas phase chemistry (NCAR Master Mechanism), initialized with concentrations observed at one of the ground sites in the MCMA, was used to examine the expected evolution of specific VOCs over a 1-2 day period. The models clearly supported the experimental evidence for NMHC oxidation leading to the formation of OVOCs downwind, which then become the primary fuel for ozone production far away from the MCMA.

  18. Methodology for Formulating Diesel Surrogate Fuels with Accurate Compositional, Ignition-Quality, and Volatility Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Charles J.; Cannella, William J.; Bruno, Thomas J.; Bunting, Bruce G.; Dettman, Heather; Franz, James A.; Huber, Marcia L.; Natarajan, Mani; Pitz, William J.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Wright, Ken

    2012-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, a novel approach was developed to formulate surrogate fuels having characteristics that are representative of diesel fuels produced from real-world refinery streams. Because diesel fuels typically consist of hundreds of compounds, it is difficult to conclusively determine the effects of fuel composition on combustion properties. Surrogate fuels, being simpler representations of these practical fuels, are of interest because they can provide a better understanding of fundamental fuel-composition and property effects on combustion and emissions-formation processes in internal-combustion engines. In addition, the application of surrogate fuels in numerical simulations with accurate vaporization, mixing, and combustion models could revolutionize future engine designs by enabling computational optimization for evolving real fuels. Dependable computational design would not only improve engine function, it would do so at significant cost savings relative to current optimization strategies that rely on physical testing of hardware prototypes. The approach in this study utilized the stateof- the-art techniques of 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the advanced distillation curve to characterize fuel composition and volatility, respectively. The ignition quality was quantified by the derived cetane number. Two wellcharacterized, ultra-low-sulfur #2 diesel reference fuels produced from refinery streams were used as target fuels: a 2007 emissions certification fuel and a Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel fuel. A surrogate was created for each target fuel by blending eight pure compounds. The known carbon bond types within the pure compounds, as well as models for the ignition qualities and volatilities of their mixtures, were used in a multiproperty regression algorithm to determine optimal surrogate formulations. The predicted and measured surrogate-fuel properties were quantitatively compared to the measured target-fuel properties, and good agreement was found. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our friend and colleague Jim Franz. Funding for this research was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Office of Vehicle Technologies, and by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) and the companies that employ the CRC members. The study was conducted under the auspices of CRC. The authors thank U.S. DOE program manager Kevin Stork for supporting the participation of the U.S. national laboratories in this study.

  19. Transboundary Secondary Organic Aerosol in Western Japan: An Observed Limitation of the f44 Oxidation Indicator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irei, Satoshi; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Miyoshi, Takao; Arakaki, Tekemitsu; Sato, Kei; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Bandow, Hiroshi; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To obtain evidence for secondary organic aerosol formation during the long range transport of air masses over the East China Sea, we conducted field measurements in March 2012 at the Fukue atmospheric monitoring station, Nagasaki, in western Japan. The relative abundance of m/z 44 in fine organic aerosol mass spectra (f44) was measured by an Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitor. The stable carbon isotope ratio (d13C) of low volatile water soluble organic carbon (LV-WSOC) in the daily filter samples of total suspended particulate matter was also analyzed using an elemental analyzer coupled with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Additionally, in situ measurements of NOx and NOy were performed using NOx and NOy analyzers. The measurements showed that, unlike the systematic trends observed in a previous field study, a scatter plot for d13C of LV-WSOC versus f44 indicated a random variation. Comparison of f44 with the photochemical age estimated by the NOx to NOy ratio revealed that the f44 values distri...

  20. Search for pseudoscalar cold dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Bibber, K.; Stoeffl, W.; LLNL Collaborators

    1992-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    AH dynamical evidence points to the conclusion that the predominant form of matter in the universe is in a non-luminous form. Furthermore, large scale deviations from uniform Hubble flow, and the recent COBE reports of inhomogeneities in the cosmic microwave background strongly suggest that we live in an exactly closed universe. If this is true, then ordinary baryonic matter could only be a minority component (10% at most) of the missing mass, and that what constitutes the majority of the dark matter must involve new physics. The axion is one of very few well motivated candidates which may comprise the dark matter. Additionally it is a `cold` dark-matter candidate which is preferred by the COBE data. We propose to construct and operate an experiment to search for axions which may constitute the dark matter of our own galaxy. As proposed by Sikivie, dark-matter axions may be detected by their stimulated conversion into monochromatic microwave photons in a tunable high-Q cavity inside a strong magnetic field. Our ability to mount an experiment quickly and take data within one year is due to a confluence of three factors. The first is the availability of a compact high field superconducting magnet and a local industrial partner, Wang NMR, who can make a very thermally efficient and economical cryostat for it. The second is an ongoing joint venture with the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences to do R&D on metalized precision-formed ceramic microwave cavities for the axion search, and INR has commited to providing all the microwave cavity arrays for this experiment, should this proposal be approved. The third is a commitment of very substantial startup capital monies from MIT for all of the state-of-the-art ultra-low noise microwave electronics, to one of our outstanding young collaborators who is joining their faculty.