Sample records for voc volatile organic

  1. ACTION CONCENTRATION FOR MIXTURES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC) & METHANE & HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste containers may contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane, hydrogen and possibly propane. These constituents may occur individually or in mixtures. Determining if a waste container contains a flammable concentration of flammable gases and vapors (from VOCs) is important to the safety of the handling, repackaging and shipping activities. This report provides the basis for determining the flammability of mixtures of flammable gases and vapors. The concentration of a mixture that is at the lowest flammability limit for that mixture is called the action concentration. The action concentration can be determined using total VOC concentrations or actual concentration of each individual VOC. The concentrations of hydrogen and methane are included with the total VOC or individual VOC concentration to determine the action concentration. Concentrations below this point are not flammable. Waste containers with gas/vapor concentrations at or above the action concentration are considered flammable.

  2. Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system that captures and analyzes volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from skin surfaces may offer a viable alternative method to the polygraph instrument currently in use for detecting deception in U.S. government settings. Like the involuntary autonomic central nervous system response data gathered during polygraph testing, VOC emissions from the skin may provide data that can be used to detect stress caused by deception. Detecting VOCs, then, may present a noninvasive, non-intrusive method for observing, recording, and quantifying evidence of stress or emotional change.

  3. NMED COMMENTS ITEM 3 REVISE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) TARGET...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was not clear if the referenced document is applicable to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) activities. c) Clarify what is meant by the term "original VOC Monitoring...

  4. Technology projects for characterization--monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Junk, G.A.; Haas, W.J. Jr.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One hundred thirty technology project titles related to the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at an arid site are listed alphabetically by first contact person in a master compilation that includes phone numbers, addresses, keywords, and short descriptions. Separate tables are presented for 62 field-demonstrated, 36 laboratory-demonstrated, and 35 developing technology projects. The technology projects in each of these three categories are also prioritized in separate summary tables. Additional tables are presented for a number of other categorizations of the technology projects: In Situ; Fiberoptic; Mass Spectrometer; Optical Spectroscopy; Raman or SERS; Ion Mobility or Acoustic; Associated; and Commercial. Four lists of contact person names are provided so details concerning the projects that deal with sampling, and VOCs in gases, waters, and soils (sediments) can be obtained. Finally, seven wide-ranging conclusions based on observations and experiences during this work are presented.

  5. TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING PROPANE AS A CALIBRATION AGENT FOR TOTAL FLAMMABLE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2006-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the technical justification for choosing and using propane as a calibration standard for estimating total flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an air matrix. A propane-in-nitrogen standard was selected based on a number of criteria: (1) has an analytical response similar to the VOCs of interest, (2) can be made with known accuracy and traceability, (3) is available with good purity, (4) has a matrix similar to the sample matrix, (5) is stable during storage and use, (6) is relatively non-hazardous, and (7) is a recognized standard for similar analytical applications. The Waste Retrieval Project (WRP) desires a fast, reliable, and inexpensive method for screening the flammable VOC content in the vapor-phase headspace of waste containers. Table 1 lists the flammable VOCs of interest to the WRP. The current method used to determine the VOC content of a container is to sample the container's headspace and submit the sample for gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The driver for the VOC measurement requirement is safety: potentially flammable atmospheres in the waste containers must be allowed to diffuse prior to processing the container. The proposed flammable VOC screening method is to inject an aliquot of the headspace sample into an argon-doped pulsed-discharge helium ionization detector (Ar-PDHID) contained within a gas chromatograph. No actual chromatography is performed; the sample is transferred directly from a sample loop to the detector through a short, inert transfer line. The peak area resulting from the injected sample is proportional to the flammable VOC content of the sample. However, because the Ar-PDHID has different response factors for different flammable VOCs, a fundamental assumption must be made that the agent used to calibrate the detector is representative of the flammable VOCs of interest that may be in the headspace samples. At worst, we desire that calibration with the selected calibrating agent overestimate the value of the VOCs in a sample. By overestimating the VOC content of a sample, we want to minimize false negatives. A false negative is defined as incorrectly estimating the VOC content of the sample to be below programmatic action limits when, in fact, the sample,exceeds the action limits. The disadvantage of overestimating the flammable VOC content of a sample is that additional cost may be incurred because additional sampling and GC-MS analysis may be required to confirm results over programmatic action limits. Therefore, choosing an appropriate calibration standard for the Ar-PDHID is critical to avoid false negatives and to minimize additional analytical costs.

  6. Influence of Atmospheric Pressure and Water Table Fluctuations on Gas Phase Flow and Transport of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Unsaturated Zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    You, Kehua

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the gas phase flow and transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in unsaturated zones is indispensable to develop effective environmental remediation strategies, to create precautions for fresh water protection, and to provide...

  7. Vehicular emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a tunnel study in Hong Kong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemistry and Physics Vehicular emission of volatile organicY. , and Huang, Y. S. : Emission factors and characteristicslight-duty vehicle emissions, Environ. Sci. Technol. , 30,

  8. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

  9. Vehicular emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a tunnel study in Hong Kong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethene toluene n-butane propane i-pentane i-butane propeneethene, toluene, n-butane, propane and i-pentane. These fiveVOCs emitted. The high propane and n-butane emissions were

  10. Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in A/M Area Crouch Branch (Cretaceous) Aquifer characterization samples: 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B.B.; Haselow, J.S.; Keenan, M.A.; Van Pelt, R.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Rossabi, J.; Simmons, J.L.

    1993-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples were collected during the A/M Area Crouch Branch (Cretaceous) Aquifer Characterization (Phase I) Program. The samples were analyzed for chlorinated VOCs by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and MicroSeeps Ltd. All samples were sealed in the field immediately upon retrieval of the core and subsampling. A total of 113 samples locations were selected for analysis. The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of SRTC analyzed all locations in duplicate (226 samples). MicroSeeps Ltd was selected as the quality assurance (QA) check laboratory. MicroSeeps Ltd analyzed 40 locations with 4 duplicates (44 samples). The samples were collected from seven boreholes in A/M Area in the interval from 200 feet deep to the total depth of the boring (360 feet deep nominal); samples were collected every 10 feet within this interval. The sampling zone corresponds approximately to the Crouch Branch Aquifer in A/M Area. The overall A/M Area Crouch Branch Aquifer characterization objectives, a brief description of A/M Area geology and hydrology, and the sample locations, field notes, driller lithologic logs, and required procedural documentation are presented in WSRC (1993).

  11. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY); Bomstad, Theresa M. (Laramie, WY); Sorini-Wong, Susan S. (Laramie, WY)

    2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  12. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY); Bomstad, Theresa M. (Waxahachie, TX); Sorini-Wong, Susan S. (Laramie, WY); Wong, Gregory K. (Laramie, WY)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  13. TMVOC, simulator for multiple volatile organic chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten; Battistelli, Alfredo

    2003-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    TMVOC is a numerical simulator for three-phase non-isothermal flow of water, soil gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. It is an extension of the TOUGH2 general-purpose simulation program developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. TMVOC is designed for applications to contamination problems that involve hydrocarbon fuel or organic solvent spills in saturated and unsaturated zones. It can model contaminant behavior under ''natural'' environmental conditions, as well as for engineered systems, such as soil vapor extraction, groundwater pumping, or steam-assisted source remediation. TMVOC is upwards compatible with T2VOC (Falta et al., 1995) and can be initialized from T2VOC-style initial conditions. The main enhancements in TMVOC relative to T2VOC are as follows: a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals can be modeled; any and all combinations of the three phases water-oil-gas are treated; several non-condensible gases may be present; diffusion is treated in all phases in a manner that is fully coupled with phase partitioning. This paper gives a brief summary of the methodology used in TMVOC as well as highlighting some implementation issues. Simulation of a NAPL spill and subsequent remediation is discussed for a 2-D vertical section of a saturated-unsaturated flow problem.

  14. Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds Using Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry during the MILAGRO 2006 Campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortner, E. C.

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured by proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) on a rooftop in the urban mixed residential and industrial area North Northeast of downtown Mexico City as part of ...

  15. Literature review of stabilization/solidification of volatile organic compounds and the implications for Hanford grouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spence, R.D.; Osborne, S.C.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature review was conducted on the stabilization/solidification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Based on this literature, it is likely that the limestone-containing grout will not permanently immobilize VOCs and that no presently available additives can guarantee permanent immobilization. The Westinghouse hanford company grout may be fairly effective at retarding aqueous leaching of VOCs, and commercial additives can improve this performance. Significant VOC losses do occur during stabilization/solidification, and the high temperatures of the Westinghouse Hanford Company waste and grout should exacerbate this problem. In fact, these high temperatures raise doubts about the presence of VOCs in the double-shell tanks supernates.

  16. Apparatus for sensing volatile organic chemicals in fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, Robert C.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Kottenstette, Richard; Patel, Sanjay V.

    2005-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical-sensing apparatus is formed from the combination of a chemical preconcentrator which sorbs and concentrates particular volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and one or more chemiresistors that sense the VOCs after the preconcentrator has been triggered to release them in concentrated form. Use of the preconcentrator and chemiresistor(s) in combination allows the VOCs to be detected at lower concentration than would be possible using the chemiresistor(s) alone and further allows measurements to be made in a variety of fluids, including liquids (e.g. groundwater). Additionally, the apparatus provides a new mode of operation for sensing VOCs based on the measurement of decay time constants, and a method for background correction to improve measurement precision.

  17. FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing work toward the development of new screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of halogens. In prior work, the devices were tested for response to carbon tetrachloride, heptane, toluene, and water vapors. In the current work, sensor response was evaluated with sixteen halogenated VOCs relative to carbon tetrachloride. The results show that the response of the various chlorinated VOCs is within an order of magnitude of the response to carbon tetrachloride for each of the sensors. Thus, for field screening a single response factor can be used. Both types of leak detectors are being further modified to provide an on-board LCD signal readout, which is related to VOC concentration. The units will be fully portable and will operate with 115-V line or battery power. Signal background, noise level, and response data on the Bacharach heated diode detector and the TIF corona discharge detector show that when the response curves are plotted against the log of concentration, the plot is linear to the upper limit for the particular unit, with some curvature at lower levels. When response is plotted directly against concentration, the response is linear at the low end and is curved at the high end. The dynamic ranges for carbon tetrachloride of the two devices from the lower detection limit (S/N=2) to signal saturation are 4-850 vapor parts per million (vppm) for the corona discharge unit and 0.01-70 vppm for the heated diode unit. Additional circuit modifications are being made to lower the detection limit and increase the dynamic response range of the corona discharge unit. The results indicate that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work toward the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

  18. Fiber optic micromirror sensor for volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, M.A.; Ricco, A.J.; Buss, R. (Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (US))

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the growing concern over environmental pollution, there is a need for sensors to locate and measure the distribution of a wide range of pollutants. In this paper the authors report a fiber optic sensor, based on a thin film micromirror, which responds to a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This generic class of sensor will be useful for monitoring applications where the pollutant has already been identified.

  19. Airborne and ground based measurements of volatile organic compounds using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry in Texas and Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortner, Edward Charles

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) are reported from recent airborne and surface based field campaigns. The Southeast Texas Tetroon Study (SETTS) was a project within...

  20. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C. J. : Effect of petrochemical industrial emis- sions ofVOC) concentrations around a petrochemical com- plex and aatmospheres and around the petrochemical industry in the

  1. Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The Toxic-Release Inventory'' of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M's work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

  2. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl tertiary- butyl ether (MTBE) and its effect on plasmaand three VOCs (propyne, furan, MTBE) remained below their 3Ethanol Acetone MEK MAC MVK MTBE Furan CH 3 OH C 2 H 5 OH C

  3. Real-time monitoring of volatile organic compounds using chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowry, Curtis Dale (Albuquerque, NM); Thornberg, Steven Michael (Peralta, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for on-line quantitative monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) includes pressure reduction means for carrying a gaseous sample from a first location to a measuring input location maintained at a low pressure, the system utilizing active feedback to keep both the vapor flow and pressure to a chemical ionization mode mass spectrometer constant. A multiple input manifold for VOC and gas distribution permits a combination of calibration gases or samples to be applied to the spectrometer.

  4. VOCs, Pesticides, Nitrate, and Their Mixtures in Groundwater Used for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    areas. For each sample, as many as 60 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 83 pesticides, and nitrate were of food and water, and dermal contact). Everyone has hundreds of measurable contami- nants in their bodies, especially volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are not known. Defining human exposure to mixtures

  5. Installation and Operation of Sorbathene Solvent Vapor Recovery Units to Recover and Recycle Volatile Organic Compounds at Operating Sites within the Dow Chemical Company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, T. L.; Larrinaga, L.

    the SORBATHENE vacuum swing adsorption as an economical alternative for the recovery of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) from storage, loading, and process vents streams. This paper discusses the application of the technology on nineteen units to collect...

  6. Preliminary evaluation of selected in situ remediation technologies for Volatile Organic Compound contamination at Arid sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenhard, R.J.; Gerber, M.A.; Amonette, J.E.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To support the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Site (VOC-Arid) Integrated Demonstration (ID) in its technical, logistical, institutional, and economical testing of emerging environmental management and restoration technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory(a) is evaluating several in situ remediation technologies for possible inclusion in the demonstration. The evaluations are made with respect to the initial focus of the VOC-Arid ID: the carbon tetrachloride contamination at the Hanford Site, where it was disposed to the vadose zone along with other volatile and nonvolatile organic wastes. heavy metals, acids. and radionuclides. The purposes of this report are (1) to identify candidate in situ technologies for inclusion in the program, (2) to evaluate the candidate technologies based on their potential applicability to VOC contamination at arid sites and geologic conditions representative of the ID host site (i.e., Hanford Site), and (3) to prioritize those technologies for future US Department of Energy (DOE) support.

  7. Modeling VOC sorption of building materials and its impact on indoor air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jinsong, 1975-

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by building materials can have significant effect on the indoor VOC concentration levels and indoor air quality in buildings. The objective of this study was to investigate ...

  8. Characteristics of the volatile organic compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, G.V.; Lenhard, R.J.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Evans, J.C.; Roberson, K.R.; Spane, F.A.; Amonette, J.E.; Rockhold, M.L.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration Program (VOC-Arid ID) is targeted at demonstration and testing of technologies for the evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants at arid DOE sites. The initial demonstration site is an area of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) contamination located near the center of the Hanford Site. The movement of CCl{sub 4} and other volatile organic contaminants in the subsurface is very complex. The problem at the Hanford Site is further complicated by the concurrent discharge of other waste constituents including acids, lard oil, organic phosphates, and transuranic radionuclides. In addition, the subsurface environment is very complex, with large spatial variabilities in hydraulic properties. A thorough understanding of the problem is essential to the selection of appropriate containment, retrieval, and/or in situ remedial technologies. The effectiveness of remedial technologies depends on knowing where the contaminants are, how they are held up in a given physical and chemical subsurface environment; and knowing the physical, chemical, and microbiological changes that are induced by the various remedial technologies.

  9. Detection of Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy. Detection of Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy....

  10. 5, 90979126, 2005 VOC emissions from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 9097­9126, 2005 VOC emissions from vegetation pyrolysis J. P. Greenberg et al. Title Page Discussions Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation J. P. Greenberg, H is licensed under a Creative Commons License. 9097 #12;ACPD 5, 9097­9126, 2005 VOC emissions from vegetation

  11. Energy Saving System to Remove Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210EnergyEnergy SaverSavingP

  12. Environmental Impact on Applied Technology- Global Warming CFCs & VOCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J. S.

    Hardly a day goes by that the threats to our environment are not brought to our attention. Whether you are following oil spills, groundwater contamination, global warming, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or volatile organic compounds (VOCs), you must...

  13. Distribution of volatile organic compounds in soil vapor in the vicinity of a defense fuel supply point, Hanahan, South Carolina. Water resources investigations report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, J.F.; Aelion, C.M.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The report describes the results of a reconnaissance study to identify areas of potential contamination of the water table aquifer by volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) beneath a Defense Fuel Supply Point and adjacent properties near Hanahan, S.C. Six areas in and around the DFSP facility were investigated with soil-vapor techniques. The northern boundary area has been studied extensively and was, therefore, not included in the investigation.

  14. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH reactivity in the downwind plume. The model results generally showed good agreement with experimental results for the total VOC OH reactivity downwind and gave insight into the distributions of VOC chemical classes downwind. A box model with detailed gas phase chemistry (NCAR Master Mechanism), initialized with concentrations observed at one of the ground sites in the MCMA, was used to examine the expected evolution of specific VOCs over a 1-2 day period. The models clearly supported the experimental evidence for NMHC oxidation leading to the formation of OVOCs downwind, which then become the primary fuel for ozone production far away from the MCMA.

  15. aqueous volatile organic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mirna 1997-01-01 39 Impacts of herbaceous bioenergy crops on atmospheric volatile organic composition and potential consequences Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites...

  16. ambient volatile organic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sensitivity, allowing 38 Impacts of herbaceous bioenergy crops on atmospheric volatile organic composition and potential consequences Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites...

  17. Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust Evaluation of how sampling details affect the measurement of volatile organic compounds in diesel exhaust deer08strzelec.pdf More Documents...

  18. Origins of volatile organic compounds emerging from tank 241-C-106 during sluicing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAUFFER, L.A.

    1999-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Unexpectedly high concentrations of inorganic gases and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were released from the ventilation stack of tank 241-C-106 during sluicing operations on November 18, 1998. Workers experienced serious discomfort. They reported an obnoxious acrid odor and the 450 ppm VOC in ventilation stack 296-C-006 exceeded the level approved in the air discharge permit. Consequently, the operation was terminated. Subsequent analyses of samples collected opportunistically from the stack indicated many organic compounds including heptenes, heptanones, and normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH) and their remnants were present. Subsequently, a process test designed to avoid unnecessary worker exposure and enable collection of analytical samples from the stack, the breathing area, and the receiver tank was conducted on December 16, 1998. The samples obtained during that operation, in which the maximum VOC content of the stack was approximately 35 ppm, have been analyzed by teams at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Special Analytic Services (SAS). This report examines the results of these investigations. Future revisions of the report will examine the analytical results obtained for samples collected during sluicing operations in March. This report contains the available evidence about the source term for these emissions. Chapter 2 covers characterization work, including historical information about the layers of waste in the tank, the location of organic compounds in these layers, the total organic carbon (TOC) content and the speciation of organic compounds. Chapter 3 covers the data for the samples from the ventilation stack, which has the highest concentrations of organic compounds. Chapter 4 contains an interpretation of the information connecting the composition of the organic emissions with the composition of the original source term. Chapter 5 summarizes the characterization work, the sample data, and the interpretation of the results.

  19. Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds. Phase 1, Conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The ``Toxic-Release Inventory`` of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M`s work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

  20. Distribution, Magnitudes, Reactivities, Ratios and Diurnal Patterns of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Valley of Mexico During the MCMA 2002 & 2003 Field Campaigns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velasco, E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Westberg, Halvor; Allwine, Eugene J.; Sosa, G.; Arriaga-Colina, J. L.; Jobson, B. T.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Prazeller, Peter; Knighton, Walter B.; Rogers, T.; Grutter, M.; Herndon, S.; Kolb, C. E.; Zavala, Mary A.; de Foy, B.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Molina, Luisa; Molina, Mario J.

    2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide array of volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements was conducted in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA-2002 and 2003 field campaigns. Study sites included locations in the urban core, in a heavily industrial area and at boundary sites in rural landscapes. In addition, a novel mobile-laboratory-based conditional sampling method was used to collect samples dominated by fresh on-road vehicle exhaust to identify those VOCs whose ambient concentrations were primarily due to vehicle emissions. Four distinct analytical techniques were used: whole air canister samples with Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID), on-line chemical ionization using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), continuous real-time detection of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS), and long path measurements using UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (DOAS). The simultaneous use of these techniques provided a wide range of individual VOC measurements with different spatial and temporal scales. The VOC data were analyzed to understand concentration and spatial distributions, diurnal patterns, origin and reactivity in the atmosphere of Mexico City. The VOC burden (in ppbC) was dominated by alkanes (60%), followed by aromatics (15%) and olefins (5%). The remaining 20% was a mix of alkynes, halogenated hydrocarbons, oxygenated species (esters, ethers, etc.) and other unidentified VOCs. However, in terms of ozone production, olefins were the most relevant hydrocarbons. Elevated levels of toxic hydrocarbons, such as 1, 3-butadiene, benzene, toluene and xylenes, were also observed. Results from these various analytical techniques showed that vehicle exhaust is the main source of VOCs in Mexico City and that diurnal patterns depend on vehicular traffic in addition to meteorological processes. Finally, examination of the VOC data in terms of lumped modeling VOC classes and its comparison to the VOC lumped emissions reported in other photochemical air quality modeling studies suggests that some alkanes are underestimated in the emissions inventory, while some olefins and aromatics are overestimated.

  1. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: Measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bon, D.M.; Springston, S.; M.Ulbrich, I.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D.; Fall, R.; Jimenez, J. L., Herndon, S. C.; Huey, L. G.; Knighton, W. B.; Ortega, J.; Vargas, O.

    2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS) deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG) emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of {approx}2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF) is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

  2. Comparison of predicted and derived measures of volatile organic compounds inside four relocatable classrooms due to identified interior finish sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Shendell, Derek G.; Fisk, William J.; Apte, Michael G.

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Indoor exposures to toxic and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of general concern. Recently, VOCs in portable or relocatable classrooms (RCs) have received particular attention. However, very little was known about indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and the sources, composition, and indoor concentrations of VOCs in RCs. This project task focused on developing and demonstrating a process for selecting interior finish materials for RCs that have relatively low impacts with respect to their emissions of toxic and odorous VOCs. This task was part of a larger project to demonstrate the potential for simultaneous improvements in IEQ and energy efficiency in four new RCs equipped both with a continuously ventilating advanced heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system (HVAC) and a standard HVAC system. These HVACs were operated on alternate weeks. One RC per pair was constructed with standard interior finish materials, and the other included alternate interior materials identified in our prior laboratory study to have low VOC emissions. The RCs were sited in side-by-side pairs at two elementary schools in distinct northern California climate zones. Classroom VOC emission rates (mg hr{sup -1}) and concentrations were predicted based on VOC emission factors ({micro}g m{sup -2} hr{sup -1}) measured for individual materials in the laboratory, the quantities of installed materials and design ventilation rates. Predicted emission rates were compared to values derived from classroom measurements of VOC concentrations and ventilation rates made at pre-occupancy, eight weeks, and 27 weeks. Predicted concentrations were compared to measured integrated VOC indoor minus outdoor concentrations during school hours in the fall cooling season with the advanced HVAC operated. These measured concentrations also were compared between standard and material-modified RCs. Our combined laboratory and field process proved effective by correctly predicting that IEQ impacts of material VOC emissions would be minor when RCs were ventilated at or above code-minimum requirements. Assuming code-minimum ventilation rates are maintained, the benefits attributable to the use of alternate interior finish materials in RC's constructed by the manufacturer associated with this study are small, implying that it is not imperative to use such alternative finishing materials. However, it is essential to avoid materials that can degrade IEQ, and the results of this study demonstrate that laboratory-based material testing combined with modeling and field validation can help to achieve that aim.

  3. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.] [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp. (United States)] [Benchmark Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  4. Position for determining gas phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  5. Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herndon, S. C.

    A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the ...

  6. Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, Anna C.; Russell, Marion; Lee, Wen-Yee; Apte, Michael; Maddalena, Randy

    2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biolfiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed significantly to formaldehyde emissions. The VOC emission stream (excluding formaldehyde) was composed of up to 18 different chemicals and the total VOC emissions ranged in magnitude from 7 mu g/m2/h (old wood with old polish) to>500 mu g/m2/h (painted drywall). The formaldehyde emissions from drywall and old wood with either new or old polish were ~;;15 mu g/m2/h while the new wood material emitted>100 mu g/m2/h. However, when the projected surface area of each material in the building was considered, the new wood, old wood and painted drywall material all contributed substantially to the indoor formaldehyde loading while the coatings contributed primarily to the VOCs.

  7. Detection of Volatile Organics Using a Surface Acoustic Wave Array System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDERSON, LAWRENCE F.; BARTHOLOMEW, JOHN W.; CERNOSEK, RICHARD W.; COLBURN, CHRISTOPHER W.; CROOKS, R.M.; MARTINEZ, R.F.; OSBOURN, GORDON C.; RICCO, A.J.; STATON, ALAN W.; YELTON, WILLIAM G.

    1999-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical sensing system based on arrays of surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay lines has been developed for identification and quantification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The individual SAW chemical sensors consist of interdigital transducers patterned on the surface of an ST-cut quartz substrate to launch and detect the acoustic waves and a thin film coating in the SAW propagation path to perturb the acoustic wave velocity and attenuation during analyte sorption. A diverse set of material coatings gives the sensor arrays a degree of chemical sensitivity and selectivity. Materials examined for sensor application include the alkanethiol-based self-assembled monolayer, plasma-processed films, custom-synthesized conventional polymers, dendrimeric polymers, molecular recognition materials, electroplated metal thin films, and porous metal oxides. All of these materials target a specific chemical fi.mctionality and the enhancement of accessible film surface area. Since no one coating provides absolute analyte specificity, the array responses are further analyzed using a visual-empirical region-of-influence (VERI) pattern recognition algorithm. The chemical sensing system consists of a seven-element SAW array with accompanying drive and control electronics, sensor signal acquisition electronics, environmental vapor sampling hardware, and a notebook computer. Based on data gathered for individual sensor responses, greater than 93%-accurate identification can be achieved for any single analyte from a group of 17 VOCs and water.

  8. Evaluation of emplacement sensors for detecting radiation and volatile organic compounds and for long-term monitoring access tubes for the BWCS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lord, D.L.; Averill, R.H.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document evaluates sensors for detecting contaminants in the excavated waste generated by the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS). The Barrier Placement Machine (BPM) removes spoils from under a landfill or plume and places it on a conveyor belt on the left and right sides of the BPM. The spoils will travel down the conveyor belts past assay monitors and be deposited on top of the site being worked. The belts are 5 ft wide and transport approximately 15 ft3 /minute of spoils. This corresponds to a 10 ft per hour BPM advance rate. With a 2 in. spoils height the belt speed would be 3.6 in. per second. The spoils being removed are expected to be {open_quotes}clean{close_quotes} (no radiation or volatile organics above background levels). To ensure that the equipment is not digging through a contaminated area, assay equipment will monitor the spoils for mg radiation and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The radiation monitors will check for gross radiation indication. Upon detection of radiation levels above a predetermined setpoint, further evaluation will be performed to determine the isotopes present and their quantity. This will require hand held monitors and a remote monitoring station. Simultaneously, VOC monitors will monitor for predetermined volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds. A Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) monitor is recommended for this operation. Specific site requirements and regulations will determine setpoints and operation scenarios. If VOCs are detected, the data will be collected and recorded. A flat panel display will be mounted in the BPM operator`s cab showing the radio nuclide and VOC monitoring data. As the BPM advances, a 3-in. diameter PVC tube will be placed on the bottom of the barrier slot in front of the 12 to 16-in. containment barrier being emplaced.

  9. VOCs in Arid soils: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Volatile Organic Compounds In Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) focuses on technologies to clean up volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soil and groundwater at arid sites. The initial host site is the 200 West Area at DOE`s Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. The primary VOC contaminant is carbon tetrachloride, in association with heavy metals and radionuclides. An estimated 580--920 metric tons of carbon tetrachloride were disposed of between 1955 and 1973, resulting in extensive soil and groundwater contamination. The VOC-Arid ID schedule has been divided into three phases of implementation. The phased approach provides for: rapid transfer of technologies to the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) programs once demonstrated; logical progression in the complexity of demonstrations based on improved understanding of the VOC problem; and leveraging of the host site EM-40 activities to reduce the overall cost of the demonstrations. During FY92 and FY93, the primary technology demonstrations within the ID were leveraged with an ongoing expedited response action at the Hanford 200 West Area, which is directed at vapor extraction of VOCs from the vadose (unsaturated) zone. Demonstration efforts are underway in the areas of subsurface characterization including: drilling and access improvements, off-gas and borehole monitoring of vadose zone VOC concentrations to aid in soil vapor extraction performance evaluation, and treatment of VOC-contaminated off-gas. These current demonstration efforts constitute Phase 1 of the ID and, because of the ongoing vadose zone ERA, can result in immediate transfer of successful technologies to EM-40.

  10. Cancer risks from soil emissions of volatile organic compounds at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dibley, V. R., LLNL

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission isolation flux chamber (EIFC) methodology was applied to Superfund investigations at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 to determine if on-site workers were exposed to VOCs volatilizing from the subsurface and what, if any, health risks could be attributed to the inhalation of the VOCs volatilizing from the subsurface. During July and August of 1996, twenty, eighteen, and twenty six VOC soil vapor flux samples were collected in the Building 830, 832, and 854 areas, respectively using EIFCS. The VOC concentrations in the vapor samples were used to calculate soil flux rates which were used as input into an air dispersion model to calculate ambient air exposure-point concentrations. The exposure-point concentrations were compared to EPA Region IX Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs). Buildings 830 and 832 exposure-point concentrations were less then the PRGs therefore no cancer risks were calculated. The cancer risks for Building 854 ranged from 1.6 x 10{sup -7} to 2.1 x 10{sup -6}. The resultant inhalation cancer risks were all within the acceptable range, implying that on-site workers were not exposed to VOC vapors volatilizing from the subsurface soil that could have significant cancer risks. Therefore remediation in these areas would not be necessary.

  11. Volatile Organic Compounds in Untreated Ambient Groundwater of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volatile Organic Compounds in Untreated Ambient Groundwater of the United States, 1985-1995 P A U L, ambient groundwater of the conterminous United States was conducted based on samples collected from 2948-chloropropane, which had a reporting level of 1.0 µg/L. Because ambient groundwater was targeted, areas of known

  12. ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS ? FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar, Olivia; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THU VOC and aldehyde emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 378 mu g m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 mu g m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 mu g m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 mu g m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and material specific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds, formaldehyde was the only one with toxicological significance at the observed concentrations. Whole THU formaldehyde emissions ranged from 173 to 266 mu g m-2 h 1 in the morning and 257 to 347 mu g m-2 h-1 in the afternoon. Median formaldehyde emissions in previously studied site-built and manufactured homes were 31 and 45 mu g m-2 h-1, respectively. Only one of the composite wood materials that was tested appeared to exceed the HUD formaldehyde emission standard (430 mu g/m2 h-1 for particleboard and 130 mu g/m2 h-1 for plywood). The high loading factor (material surface area divided by THU volume) of composite wood products in the THUs and the low fresh air exchange relative to the material surface area may be responsible for the excessive concentrations observed for some of the VOCs and formaldehyde.

  13. Understanding complex Earth systems: volatile metabolites as microbial ecosystem proxies and student conceptual model development of coastal eutrophication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeal, Karen Sue

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    research strands which contribute to the scientific and pedagogical understanding of complex Earth systems. In the first strand, a method that characterizes volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as ecological proxies of soil microbial ecosystems was validated...

  14. A Novel New Approach to VOC and HAP Emission Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinness, M.

    - adsorbent scrubber solution. Water wash paint booth scrubbers can effectively capture PM-IO and PM-2.S particulates as well as VOHAPs. Water wash scrubbers by their very nature represent a reduced fire hazard compared to dry filter booth systems. NFPA...A Novel New Approach to VOC and HAP Emission Control Mike McGinness VP-R&D EcoShield Environmental Systems, Inc. Houston, Texas ABSTRACT HAP (Hazardous Air Pollutant) and VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) thermal emission control devices (ECD...

  15. Development of new VOC exposure metrics and their relationship to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' symptoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ten Brinke, JoAnn [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are suspected to contribute significantly to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' (SBS), a complex of subchronic symptoms that occurs during and in general decreases away from occupancy of the building in question. A new approach takes into account individual VOC potencies, as well as the highly correlated nature of the complex VOC mixtures found indoors. The new VOC metrics are statistically significant predictors of symptom outcomes from the California Healthy Buildings Study data. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis that a summary measure of the VOC mixture, other risk factors, and covariates for each worker will lead to better prediction of symptom outcome. VOC metrics based on animal irritancy measures and principal component analysis had the most influence in the prediction of eye, dermal, and nasal symptoms. After adjustment, a water-based paints and solvents source was found to be associated with dermal and eye irritation. The more typical VOC exposure metrics used in prior analyses were not useful in symptom prediction in the adjusted model (total VOC (TVOC), or sum of individually identified VOCs ({Sigma}VOC{sub i})). Also not useful were three other VOC metrics that took into account potency, but did not adjust for the highly correlated nature of the data set, or the presence of VOCs that were not measured. High TVOC values (2--7 mg m{sup {minus}3}) due to the presence of liquid-process photocopiers observed in several study spaces significantly influenced symptoms. Analyses without the high TVOC values reduced, but did not eliminate the ability of the VOC exposure metric based on irritancy and principal component analysis to explain symptom outcome.

  16. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

  17. Southern California Edison's (SCE) Research Program for Industrial Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, R. D.; Cascone, R.; Reese, J.

    emission sources, SCE has identified and evaluated a number of alternative solutions and is currently implementing four demonstrations for promising technologies. The SCE program focuses on three major strategies: (1) reformulation, (2) application... is primarily a three-pronged approach, consisting of problem identification, alternatives evaluation, and technology demonstrations. For problem identification, the main thrust was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the California state and the South...

  18. Vehicular emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a tunnel study in Hong Kong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. Haszpra, L. and Szilagyi, I. : Non-methane hydrocarbonet al. , 1990; Haszpra and Szilagyi, 1994; Gertler et al. ,

  19. NMED COMMENTS ITEM 3 REVISE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) TARGET ANALYTE LIST

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gif Directorate1, Issue 23 NETL NEVIS- NIF|7, 2015 NMED3 NMED

  20. Quantifying VOC emissions for the strategic petroleum reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Lord, David L.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A very important aspect of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program is regulatory compliance. One of the regulatory compliance issues deals with limiting the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted into the atmosphere from brine wastes when they are discharged to brine holding ponds. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set limits on the amount of VOCs that can be discharged to the atmosphere. Several attempts have been made to quantify the VOC emissions associated with the brine ponds going back to the late 1970's. There are potential issues associated with each of these quantification efforts. Two efforts were made to quantify VOC emissions by analyzing VOC content of brine samples obtained from wells. Efforts to measure air concentrations were mentioned in historical reports but no data have been located to confirm these assertions. A modeling effort was also performed to quantify the VOC emissions. More recently in 2011- 2013, additional brine sampling has been performed to update the VOC emissions estimate. An analysis of the statistical confidence in these results is presented here. Arguably, there are uncertainties associated with each of these efforts. The analysis herein indicates that the upper confidence limit in VOC emissions based on recent brine sampling is very close to the 0.42 ton/MMB limit used historically on the project. Refining this estimate would require considerable investment in additional sampling, analysis, and monitoring. An analysis of the VOC emissions at each site suggests that additional discharges could be made and stay within current regulatory limits.

  1. Evaluation of three analytical techniques used to determine high levels of volatile organic compounds in type IV sludge from Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Tsai, Y. [and others

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for volatile organic compound (VOC) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E{reg_sign}) and Oil Dri{reg_sign} to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a simulated Type IV RFP sludge (nonradioactive) was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East. This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. On the basis of historical information, a typical Type IV sludge is expected to contain approximately 1-10 percent of three target VOCs. The objective of this work is to evaluate three proposed methods for the determination of high levels of these three VOCs in Type IV sludge. The three methods are (1) static headspace gas analysis, (2) methanol extraction, and (3) ethylene glycol extraction. All three methods employ gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). They were evaluated regarding general method performance criteria, ease of operation, and amounts of secondary mixed waste generated.

  2. Detection of volatile organic compounds using surface enhanced Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, A S; Maiti, A; Ileri, N; Bora, M; Larson, C C; Britten, J A; Bond, T C

    2012-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors present the detection of volatile organic compounds directly in their vapor phase by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on lithographically-defined two-dimensional rectangular array of nanopillars. The type of nanopillars is known as the tapered pillars. For the tapered pillars, SERS enhancement arises from the nanofocusing effect due to the sharp tip on top. SERS experiments were carried out on these substrates using various concentrations of toluene vapor. The results show that SERS signal from a toluene vapor concentration of ppm level can be achieved, and the toluene vapor can be detected within minutes of exposing the SERS substrate to the vapor. A simple adsorption model is developed which gives results matching the experimental data. The results also show promising potential for the use of these substrates in environmental monitoring of gases and vapors.

  3. Determination of VOC emissions from French wood products Christophe YRIEIX *, Franois MAUPETIT **, Olivier RAMALHO **

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    wood manufacturers to determine IAQ performances of their products and to confront them with other quality (IAQ). Indeed, building products are significant sources of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs. This is particularly important for French wood manufacturers to determine IAQ performances of their products

  4. Evaluation of Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) forIndoor Air Applications: Conversion of Volatile Organic Compounds at LowPart-per-Billion Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient removal of indoor generated airborne particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in office buildings and other large buildings may allow for a reduction in outdoor air supply rates with concomitant energy savings while still maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in these buildings. Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaners have the potential to achieve the necessary reductions in indoor VOC concentrations at relatively low cost. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted with a scaled, prototype UVPCO device designed for use in a duct system. The experimental UVPCO contained two 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths coated with titanium dioxide and 3% by weight tungsten oxide. The monoliths were irradiated with 12 UVC lamps arranged in four banks. The UVPCO was challenged with four mixtures of VOCs typical of mixtures encountered in indoor air. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A cleaning product mixture contained three cleaning products with high market shares. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. A fourth mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady-state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} environmental chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate air samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor section. Concentrations of the mixtures were manipulated, with concentrations of individual VOCs mostly maintained below 10 ppb. Device flow rates were varied between 165 and 580 m{sup 3}/h. Production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid as reaction products was investigated. Conversion efficiency data were generated for 48 individual VOCs or groups of closely related compounds. Alcohols and glycol ethers were the most reactive chemical classes with conversion efficiencies often near or above 70% at the low flow rate and near 40% at the high flow rate. Ketones and terpene hydrocarbons were somewhat less reactive. The relative VOC conversion rates are generally favorable for treatment of indoor air since many contemporary products used in buildings employ oxygenated solvents. A commercial UVPCO device likely would be installed in the supply air stream of a building and operated to treat both outdoor and recirculated air. Assuming a recirculation rate comparable to three times the normal outdoor air supply rate, simple mass-balance modeling suggests that a device with similar characteristics to the study unit has sufficient conversion efficiencies for most VOCs to compensate for a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply without substantially impacting indoor VOC concentrations. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, formic acid, and acetic acid were produced in these experiments as reaction byproducts. No other significant byproducts were observed. A coupled steady-state mass balance model is presented and applied to VOC data from a study of a single office building. For the operating assumptions described above, the model estimated a three-fold increase in indoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations. The outcome of this limited assessment suggests that evaluation of the potential effects of the operation of a UVPCO device on indoor concentrations of these contaminants is warranted. Other suggested studies include determining VOC conversion efficiencies in actual buildings and evaluating changes in VOC conversion efficiency as monoliths age with long-term operation.

  5. Mass yields of secondary organic aerosols from the oxidation of alpha-pinene and real plant emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroll, Jesse

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a significant source of global secondary organic aerosol (SOA); however, quantifying their aerosol forming potential remains a challenge. This study presents smog chamber ...

  6. Chemical oxidation of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, D.D.; Siegrist, R.L.; Cline, S.R.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsurface contamination with fuel hydrocarbons or chlorinated hydrocarbons is prevalent throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and in many sites managed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund program. The most commonly reported chlorinated hydrocarbons (occurring > 50% of DOE contaminated sites) were trichloroethylene (TCE), 1, 1, 1,-trichloroethane (TCA), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) with concentrations in the range of 0.2 {mu}g/kg to 12,000 mg/kg. The fuel hydrocarbons most frequently reported as being present at DOE sites include aromatic compounds and polyaromatic compounds such as phenanthrene, pyrene, and naphthalene. The primary sources of these semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are coal waste from coal fired electric power plants used at many of these facilities in the past and gasoline spills and leaks. Dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) can migrate within the subsurface for long periods of time along a variety of pathways including fractures, macropores, and micropores. Diffusion of contaminants in the non-aqueous, aqueous, and vapor phase can occur from the fractures and macropores into the matrix of fine-textured media. As a result of these contamination processes, removal of contaminants from the subsurface and the delivery of treatment agents into and throughout contaminated regions are often hindered, making rapid and extensive remediation difficult.

  7. Modeling kinetic partitioning of secondary organic aerosol and size distribution dynamics: representing effects of volatility, phase state, and particle-phase reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Easter, Richard C.; Shilling, John E.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Evidence is mounting that the majority of the climatically active aerosols are produced through the growth of smaller particles via secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from gas-to-particle conversion of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The timescale of SOA partitioning and the associated size distribution dynamics are expected to depend on the gas-phase oxidation of the precursor VOCs and their products, volatility of these organic solutes, composition and phase state of the pre-existing particles, and diffusivity and reactivity of the solute within the particle phase. This paper describes a new framework for modeling kinetic gas-particle partitioning of SOA, with an analytical treatment for the diffusion-reaction process within the particle phase. The formulation is amenable for eventual use in regional and global climate models, although it currently awaits implementation of the actual particle-phase reactions that are important for SOA formation. In the present work, the model is applied to investigate the competitive growth dynamics of the Aitken and accumulation mode particles while the Kelvin effect and coagulation are neglected for simplicity. The timescale of SOA partitioning and evolution of number and composition size distributions are evaluated for a range of solute volatilities (C*), particle-phase bulk diffusivities (Db), and particle-phase reactivity, as exemplified by a pseudo-first-order rate constant (kc). Results show that irreversible condensation of non-volatile organic vapors (equivalent to ) produces significant narrowing of the size distribution. At the other extreme, non-reactive partitioning of semi-volatile organic vapors is volume-controlled in which the final (equilibrium) size distribution simply shifts to the right on the diameter axis while its shape remains unchanged. However, appreciable narrowing of the size distribution may occur when the pre-existing particles are highly viscous semi-solids such that small particles reach quasi-equilibrium much faster than the large ones. In the case of reactive partitioning (finite ), the size distribution experiences permanent narrowing, which is especially pronounced for Db < 10-13 cm2 s-1 and kc > 0.01 s-1. As a result, both number and composition size distributions are needed to effectively constrain and evaluate the next generation of SOA models that treat phase state thermodynamics, particle-phase diffusion and particle-phase chemical reactions.

  8. Volatile organic chemical emissions from carpets. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Wooley, J.D.; Daisey, J.M.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this research, was to measure the emission rates of selected individual VOC, including low molecular-weight aldehydes, released by samples of four new carpets that are typical of the major types of carpets used in residences, schools and offices. The carpet samples were collected directly from the manufacturers` mills and packaged to preserve their chemical integrity. The measurements of the concentrations and emission rates of these compounds were made under simulated indoor conditions in a 20-M{sup 3} environmental chamber designed specifically for investigations of VOC. The measurements were conducted over a period of one week following the installation of the carpet samples in the chamber. Duplicate experiments were conducted for one carpet. In addition, the concentrations and emission rates of VOC resulting from the installation of a new carpet in a residence were measured over a period of seven weeks. The stabilities of the week-long ventilation rates and temperatures were one percent relative standard deviation. The four carpets emitted a variety of VOC, 40 of which were positively identified. Eight of these were considered to be dominant. They were (in order of chromatographic retention time) formaldehyde, vinyl acetate, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane), 1,2-propanediol (propylene glycol), styrene, 2-ethyl-l-hexanol, 4-phenylcyclohexene (4-PCH), and 2,6 di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT). With the exception of formaldehyde, only limited data are available on the toxicity and irritancy of these compounds at low concentrations. Therefore, it is difficult to determine at this time the potential magnitude of the health and comfort effects that may occur among the population from exposures to emissions from new carpets. The concentrations and emission rates of most compounds decreased rapidly over the first 12 h of the experiments.

  9. Installation and certification of continuous VOC emissions monitoring systems for a steel mill sinter plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, K.L.; Macak, J.J. III; Cioffi, J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The counties of Lake, Porter, and LaPorte in Northwest Indiana are classified as severe non-attainment for the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). In response to the non-attainment problem, the Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) promulgated a number of regulations over the last several years. One of these rules requires steel mills with sinter plants to control and continuously monitor volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the facilities. One of the accepted compliance methods is to install and certify Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) to monitor VOC emissions and volumetric flow rate in order to generate a VOC emission number in units of pounds per hour. Compliance with the regulation also requires that the sinter plants accurately monitor sinter production in order to determine compliance during the winter months, when the limits are based on pounds of VOC emissions per ton of sinter produced.

  10. Environmental chamber studies of atmospheric reactivities of volatile organic compounds: Effects of varying chamber and light source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, W.; Luo, D.; Malkina, I.; Pierce, J. [California Univ., Riverside, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photochemical oxidant models are essential tools for assessing effects of emissions changes on ground-level ozone formation. Such models are needed for predicting the ozone impacts of increased alternative fuel use. The gas-phase photochemical mechanism is an important component of these models because ozone is not emitted directly, but is formed from the gas-phase photochemical reactions of the emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) in air. The chemistry of ground level ozone formation is complex; hundreds of types of VOCs being emitted into the atmosphere, and most of their atmospheric reactions are not completely understood. Because of this, no chemical model can be relied upon to give even approximately accurate predictions unless it has been evaluated by comparing its predictions with experimental data. Therefore an experimental and modeling study was conducted to assess how chemical mechanism evaluations using environmental chamber data are affected by the light source and other chamber characteristics. Xenon arc lights appear to give the best artificial representation of sunlight currently available, and experiments were conducted in a new Teflon chamber constructed using such a light source. Experiments were also conducted in an outdoor Teflon Chamber using new procedures to improve the light characterization, and in Teflon chambers using blacklights. These results, and results of previous runs other chambers, were compared with model predictions using an updated detailed chemical mechanism. The magnitude of the chamber radical source assumed when modeling the previous runs were found to be too high; this has implications in previous mechanism evaluations. Temperature dependencies of chamber effects can explain temperature dependencies in chamber experiments when Ta-300{degree}K, but not at temperatures below that.

  11. Recent VOC Control Test Data for a Reactive VOC Converter- Scrubber System for Non-Thermal Control of VOCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinness, M.

    by their very nature represent a reduced fire hazard compared to dry filter booth systems. NFPA (National Fire Protection Agency) fire safety codes require the use of fire suppression automatic sprinklers on dry filter booths but not on water wash booths...Recent VOC Control Test Data for a Reactive VOC Converter Scrubber System for Non-Thermal Control of VOCs Mike McGinness VP-R&D EcoShield Environmental Systems, Inc. Houston, Texas ABSTRACT HAP (Hazardous Air Pollutant) and VOC (Volatile...

  12. Double Diffusion in Enclosure Bounded by Massive and Volatilizing Walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, D.; Tang, G.; Zhao, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Maximize Comfort: Temperature, Humidity and IAQ Vol.I-6-5 Double Diffusion in Enclosure Bounded by Massive and Volatilizing Walls Di Liu Guangfa Tang Fuyun Zhao Doctoral Professor.... INTRODUCTION It has become evident that building products are major contributors to the pollution of the indoor air environment with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) [1]. The indoor airflow and temperature distributions also have influence on the emission...

  13. CAN SORBENT-BASED GAS PHASE AIR CLEANING FOR VOCS SUBSTITUTE FOR VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William; Fisk, William J.

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews current knowledge about the suitability of sorbent-based air cleaning for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air in commercial buildings, as needed to enable reductions in ventilation rates and associated energy savings. The principles of sorbent air cleaning are introduced, criteria are suggested for sorbent systems that can counteract indoor VOC concentration increases from reduced ventilation, major findings from research on sorbent performance for this application are summarized, and related priority research needs are identified. Major conclusions include: sorbent systems can remove a broad range of VOCs with moderate to high efficiency, sorbent technologies perform effectively when challenged with VOCs at the low concentrations present indoors, and there is a large uncertainty about the lifetime and associated costs of sorbent air cleaning systems when used in commercial buildings for indoor VOC control. Suggested priority research includes: experiments to determine sorbent system VOC removal efficiencies and lifetimes considering the broad range and low concentration of VOCs indoors; evaluations of in-situ regeneration of sorbents; and an updated analysis of the cost of sorbent air cleaning relative to the cost of ventilation.

  14. Sorbent-Based Gas Phase Air Cleaning for VOCs in CommercialBuildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a review of current knowledge about the suitability of sorbent-based air cleaning for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air in commercial buildings as needed to enable reductions in ventilation rates and associated energy savings. The fundamental principles of sorbent air cleaning are introduced, criteria are suggested for sorbent systems that can counteract indoor VOC concentration increases from reduced ventilation, major findings from research on sorbent performance for this application are summarized, novel sorbent technologies are described, and related priority research needs are identified. Major conclusions include: sorbent systems can remove a broad range of VOCs with moderate to high efficiency, sorbent technologies perform effectively when challenged with VOCs at the low concentrations present indoors, and there is a large uncertainty about the lifetime and associated costs of sorbent air cleaning systems when used in commercial buildings for indoor VOC control. Suggested priority research includes: experiments to determine sorbent system VOC removal efficiencies and lifetimes considering the broad range and low concentration of VOCs indoors; evaluations of in-situ regeneration of sorbents; and an updated analysis of the cost of sorbent air cleaning relative to the cost of ventilation.

  15. Refined conceptual model for the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Integrated Demonstration and 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, G.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rohay, V.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a refined geohydrologic and geochemical conceptual model of the host site (Hanford Reservation) for the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) and 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) Expedited Response Action (ERA), based on the results from fiscal year 1992 site characterization activities. The ERA was initiated in December 1990 to minimize or stabilize CCl{sub 4} migration within the unsaturated (vadose) zone in the vicinity of three CCl{sub 4} disposal sites in the 200 West Area (216-Z-1A tile field, 216-Z-9 trench, and 216-Z-18 crib). Implementation of this ERA was based on concerns that CCl{sub 4} residing in the soils was continuing to spread to the groundwater and, if left unchecked, would significantly increase the area of groundwater contamination. A soil-vapor-extraction system began operating at the site in February 1992.

  16. A Tree's Response to Herbivory: Quantification of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    A Tree's Response to Herbivory: Quantification of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions an abundant source of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). These emissions are known to vary in quantity and composition due to both biogenic and anthropogenic stressors. In this study, BVOC emissions from bristlecone

  17. LOW TEMPERATURE VOC COMBUSTION OVER MANGANESE, COBALT AND ZINC ALPO4 MOLECULAR SIEVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosemarie Szostak

    2003-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to prepare microporous aluminophosphates containing magnesium, manganese, cobalt and zinc (MeAPOs) and to evaluate their performance as oxidation catalysts for the removal of low levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from gas streams. The tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) To develop reliable synthesis methods for metal aluminophosphates containing manganese, cobalt and zinc in their framework; (2) To characterize these materials for crystallinity, phase purity, the location and nature of the incorporated metal in the framework; and (3) To evaluate the materials for their catalytic activities in the oxidation of volatile organic environmental pollutants.

  18. ARTIFACT FORMATION IN HIGH VOLUME SAMPLING OF VOC's AND SOLID ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    when sampling polluted air. Purified air containing 180 ppbv ozone seems to destroy PAH according Atmospheriques, Boite 7059, UNIVERSITE PARIS 7, 2, place Jussieu, 75251 PARIS Cedex 05 ABSTRACT Pollutants from well äs solid (SOC's) organic compounds. High volume samplers are commonly used m air quality

  19. Thermal engine driven heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drake, Richard L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for separating volatile organic compounds from a stream of process gas. An internal combustion engine drives a plurality of refrigeration systems, an electrical generator and an air compressor. The exhaust of the internal combustion engine drives an inert gas subsystem and a heater for the gas. A water jacket captures waste heat from the internal combustion engine and drives a second heater for the gas and possibly an additional refrigeration system for the supply of chilled water. The refrigeration systems mechanically driven by the internal combustion engine effect the precipitation of volatile organic compounds from the stream of gas.

  20. Potential VOC Deflagrations in a Vented TRU Drum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukesh, GUPTA

    2005-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the analysis is to examine the potential for lid ejection from a vented transuranic (TRU) waste drum due to pressure buildup caused by the deflagration of hydrogen and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) inside the drum. In this analysis, the AICC pressure for a stoichiometric mixture of VOCs is calculated and then compared against the experimental peak pressure of stoichiometric combustion of propane and hexane in a combustion chamber. The experimental peak pressures of propane and hexane are about 12 percent lower than the calculated AICC pressure. Additional losses in the drum are calculated due to venting of the gases, drum bulging, waste compaction, and heat losses from the presence of waste in the drum. After accounting for these losses, the final pressures are compared to the minimum observed pressure that ejects the lid from a TRU drum. The ejection pressure of 105 psig is derived from data that was recorded for a series of tests where hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited inside sealed TRU drums. Since the calculated pressures are below the minimum lid ejection pressure, none of the VOCs and the hydrogen (up to 4 percent) mixtures present in the TRU waste drum is expected to cause lid ejection if ignited. The analysis of potential VOC deflagrations in a vented TRU drum can be applied across the DOE-Complex since TRU waste is stored in drums throughout the complex.

  1. NICS report links VOCs to respiratory problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirschner, E.

    1992-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Children who live near the chemical plants of Kanawha Valley, WV, suffer more acute and chronic respiratory aliments than those farther away, says a Harvard University School of Public Health report. In the $1-million, five-year study commissioned by the National Institute for Chemical Studies (NICS:Charleston, WV) and funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, proximity to chemical plants that emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was linked to higher incidence of asthma, acute eye irritation, shortness of breath, and chronic cough. The researchers say they adjusted for most other factors, such as parental smoking and petroleum. {open_quotes}The research hypothesis was whether children in the valley had more symptoms,{close_quotes} says NICS president Paul Hill. {open_quotes}Yes, there is a difference.{close_quotes} The study showed that some ailments were up to 28% more prevalent in children in the valley than in other Kanawha County children.

  2. Field Test to Demonstrate Real-Time In-Situ Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Cliff

    1 Field Test to Demonstrate Real-Time In-Situ Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds Hazmat Spill Center, Nevada Test Site September 19-25, 2001 Clifford K. Ho Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque-filled 55- gallon drum at the Hazmat Spill Center at the Nevada Test Site. Background and Objectives Tens

  3. Analysis of the atmospheric distribution, sources, and sinks of oxygenated volatile organic chemicals based on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    chemicals based on measurements over the Pacific during TRACE-P H. B. Singh,1 L. J. Salas,1 R. B. Chatfield measurements of a large number of oxygenated volatile organic chemicals (OVOC) were carried out in the Pacific of OVOC is comparable to that of methane and far exceeds that of NMHC. A comparison of these data

  4. Volatile organic acids and microbial processes in the Yegua formation, east-central Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Ethan L.

    and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA b Institute for Energy and the EnvironmentVolatile organic acids and microbial processes in the Yegua formation, east-central Texas Joyanto production of VOAs by microorganisms in mudstones, and net consumption of VOAs by SO4 reducing bacteria (SRB

  5. Low-Level Detections of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    compounds; Groundwater management; Drinking water. Introduction Approximately one-half of the U and Hitt 2006 , or more complex process-based analyses utilizing groundwater models Eberts et al. 2005Low-Level Detections of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater: Use in Vulnerability

  6. MEMBRANE INTRODUCTION MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE ON-LINE ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    organic compounds (VOCs) have been detected in urban waters across the United States, including gasoline was partially supported by the NSF-Chemistry CARREER award # CHE-0.34131. #12;v VITA November 4, 1974.S. Pharmaceutical Chemistry, National School of Biological Sciences (Mexico). 2002 ­ 2005

  7. VOCs in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (ID) was initiated in 1989. Objectives for the ID were to test the integrated demonstration concept, demonstrate and evaluate innovative technologies/systems for the remediation of VOC contamination in soils and groundwater, and to transfer technologies and systems to internal and external customers for use in fullscale remediation programs. The demonstration brought together technologies from DOE laboratories, other government agencies, and industry for demonstration at a single test bed. The Savannah River Site was chosen as the location for this ID as the result of having soil and groundwater contaminated with VOCS. The primary contaminants, trichlorethylene and tetrachloroethylene, originated from an underground process sewer line servicing a metal fabrication facility at the M-Area. Some of the major technical accomplishments for the ID include the successful demonstration of the following: In situ air stripping coupled with horizontal wells to remediate sites through air injection and vacuum extraction; Crosshole geophysical tomography for mapping moisture content and lithologic properties of the contaminated media; In situ radio frequency and ohmic heating to increase mobility, of the contaminants, thereby speeding recovery and the remedial process; High-energy corona destruction of VOCs in the off-gas of vapor recovery wells; Application of a Brayton cycle heat pump to regenerate carbon adsorption media used to trap VOCs from the offgas of recovery wells; In situ permeable flow sensors and the colloidal borescope to determine groundwater flow; Chemical sensors to rapidly quantify chlorinated solvent contamination in the subsurface; In situ bioremediation through methane/nutrient injection to enhance degradation of contaminants by methanotrophic bateria.

  8. Comparisons of diffusive and advective fluxes of gas phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in unsaturated zones under natural conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Hongbin

    ) in unsaturated zones under natural conditions Kehua You a , Hongbin Zhan a,b, a Department of Geology

  9. Monitoring of volatile organic pollutants in groundwater by passive diffusive bags (PDBs) Catherine Berho, Anne Togola, Benjamin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    on classical water samples. These results highlighted that PDBs allow the measurement of the BTEX and volatileMonitoring of volatile organic pollutants in groundwater by passive diffusive bags (PDBs) Catherine used for groundwater monitoring such as low-flow peristaltic pumps can sample water slowly from wells

  10. Method of estimating maximum VOC concentration in void volume of vented waste drums using limited sampling data: Application in transuranic waste drums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles as well as limited waste drum sampling data. The model consists of a series of material balance equations describing steady-state VOC transport from each distinct void volume in the drum. The primary model input is the measured drum headspace VOC concentration. Model parameters are determined or estimated based on available process knowledge. The model effectiveness in estimating VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement was examined for vented waste drums containing different waste types and configurations. This paper summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions in vented transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste.

  11. Prediction of short-term and long-term VOC emissions from SBR bitumen-backed carpet under different temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, S.; Chen, Q. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Building Technology Program; Bluyssen, P.M. [TNO Building and Construction Research, Delft (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents two models for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from carpet. One is a numerical model using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique for short-term predictions, the other an analytical model for long-term predictions. The numerical model can (1) deal with carpets that are not new, (2) calculate the time-dependent VOC distributions in a test chamber or room, and (3) consider the temperature effect on VOC emissions. Based on small-scale chamber data, both models were used to examine the VOC emissions under different temperatures from polypropene styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) bitumen-backed carpet. The short-term predictions show that the VOC emissions under different temperatures can be modeled solely by changing the carpet diffusion coefficients. A formulation of the Arrhenius relation was used to correlate the dependence of carpet diffusion coefficient with temperature. The long-term predictions show that it would take several years to bake out the VOCs, and temperature would have a major impact on the bake-out time.

  12. The development of a sensitive method to study volatile organic compounds in gaseous emissions of lung cancer cell lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroly, Anupam

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSITIVE METHOD TO STUDY VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN GASEOUS EMISSIONS OF LUNG CANCER CELL LINES A Thesis by ANUPAM MAROLY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2005 Major Subject: Biomedical Engineering THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSITIVE METHOD TO STUDY VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN GASEOUS EMISSIONS OF LUNG CANCER CELL...

  13. A non-planar organic molecule with non-volatile electrical bistability for nano-scale data storage{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    A non-planar organic molecule with non-volatile electrical bistability for nano-scale data storage-planar organic molecule with electron donor and acceptor capabilities was synthesized for nano-scale data storage the demand of expansive storage capacity in the future. Recently, organic materials have received much

  14. Removal of hydrophobic Volatile Organic Compounds1 in an integrated process coupling Absorption and2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is an interesting method, owing to the low pressure drop generated and68 the low maintenance needed, contrarily to membrane processes that require high working pressures to69 treat low gas flow rates (Fig. 1). An emerging of the process, hydrophobic VOC27 absorption in a gas-liquid contactor, and biodegradation in the TPPB. VOC

  15. Field evaluation of ground water sampling devices for volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muska, C F; Colven, W P; Jones, V D; Scogin, J T; Looney, B B; Price, V Jr

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies conducted under laboratory conditions demonstrated that the type of device used to sample ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds can significantly influence and analytical results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, under field conditions, both commercial and developmental ground water sampling devices as part of an ongoing ground water contamination investigation and remediation program at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Ground water samples were collected using six types of sampling devices in monitoring wells of different depths and concentrations of volatile organic contaminants (primarily trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene). The study matrix was designed to statistically compare the reuslts of each sampling device under the test conditions. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation criteria were used to determine the relative performance of each device. Two categories of sampling devices were evaluated in this field study, positive displacement pumps and grab samplers. The positive displacement pumps consisted of a centrifugal (mechanical) pump and a bladder pump. The grab samples tested were a syringe sampler, a dual-check valve bailer, a surface bomb sampler, and a pressurized bailer. Preliminary studies were conducted to establish the analytical and sampling variability associated with each device. All six devices were then used to collect ground water samples in water table (unconfined), semi-confined aquifer, and confined aquifer monitoring wells. Results were evaluated against a set of criteria that included intrasampling device variability (precision), volatile organic concentration (accuracy), sampling and analytical logistics, and cost. The study showed that, by using careful and reproducible procedures, overall sampling variability is low regardless of sampling device.

  16. CONTRIBUTION OF SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC MATERIAL TO AMBIENT PM2.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delbert J. Eatough; William K. Modey; Rebecca Sizemore; Michael Simpson

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both annual 24-h average and seasonal diurnal samples collected at NETL during the research program have been analyzed. The fine particulate components determined include PM{sub 2.5} mass, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, elemental and organic carbonaceous material and trace elements. The analysis of the nitrate and organic material includes both the identification of nonvolatile material retained by the particle collection filter and semi-volatile material lost from the particles during sample collection. The results obtained in these analyses indicate that both the semivolatile and nonvolatile organic material in the fine particles sampled at the NETL site originate from mobile emissions in the local area. However, the majority of the nonvolatile material is associated with primary emissions and the majority of the semi-volatile material is secondary, being formed from photochemical processes in the atmosphere. In contrast, the fine particulate sulfate does not originate from the local area but is transported into the study region, mostly from sources in the Ohio River Valley. These observations have been supported by both detailed meteorological and apportionment analysis of the data.

  17. VOC and HAP recovery using ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael R. Milota : Kaichang Li

    2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    During the manufacture of wood composites, paper, and to a lesser extent, lumber, large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as terpenes, formaldehyde, and methanol are emitted to air. Some of these compounds are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The air pollutants produced in the forest products industry are difficult to manage because the concentrations are very low. Presently, regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs and RCOs) are commonly used for the destruction of VOCs and HAPs. RTOs consume large amounts of natural gas to heat air and moisture. The combustion of natural gas generates increased CO2 and NOx, which have negative implications for global warming and air quality. The aforementioned problems are addressed by an absorption system containing a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as an absorbent. RTILs are salts, but are in liquid states at room temperature. RTILs, an emerging technology, are receiving much attention as replacements for organic solvents in industrial processes with significant cost and environmental benefits. Some of these processes include organic synthesis, extraction, and metal deposition. RTILs would be excellent absorbents for exhausts from wood products facilities because of their unique properties: no measurable vapor pressure, high solubility of wide range of organic compounds, thermal stability to 200°C (almost 400°F), and immisciblity with water. Room temperature ionic liquids were tested as possible absorbents. Four were imidizolium-based and were eight phosphonium-based. The imidizolium-based ionic liquids proved to be unstable at the conditions tested and in the presence of water. The phosphonium-based ionic liquids were stable. Most were good absorbents; however, cleaning the contaminates from the ionic liquids was problematic. This was overcome with a higher temperature (120°C) than originally proposed and a very low pressure (1 kPa. Absorption trials were conducted with tetradecy(trihexyl)phosphonium dicyanamide as the RTIL. It was determined that it has good absorption properties for methanol and ?-pinene, is thermally stable, and is relatively easy to synthesize. It has a density of 0.89 g/mL at 20°C and a molecular weight of 549.9 g/mol. Trials were conducted with a small absorption system and a larger absorption system. Methanol, formaldehyde, and other HAPs were absorbed well, nearly 100%. Acetaldehyde was difficult to capture. Total VOC capture, while satisfactory on methanol and ?-pinene in a lab system, was less than expected in the field, 60-80%. The inability to capture the broad spectrum of total organics is likely due to difficulties in cleaning them from the ionic liquid rather than the ability of the ionic liquid to absorb. It’s likely that a commercial system could be constructed to remove 90 to 100% of the gas contaminates. Selecting the correct ionic liquid would be key to this. Absorption may not be the main selection criterion, but rather how easily the ionic liquid can be cleaned is very important. The ionic liquid absorption system might work very well in a system with a limited spectrum of pollutants, such as a paint spray line, where there are not very high molecular weight, non volatile, compounds in the exhaust.

  18. Arid sites stakeholder participation in evaluating innovative technologies: VOC-Arid Site Integrated Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T.S.; McCabe, G.H.; Brockbank, B.R. [and others

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developing and deploying innovative environmental cleanup technologies is an important goal for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), which faces challenging remediation problems at contaminated sites throughout the United States. Achieving meaningful, constructive stakeholder involvement in cleanup programs, with the aim of ultimate acceptance of remediation decisions, is critical to meeting those challenges. DOE`s Office of Technology Development sponsors research and demonstration of new technologies, including, in the past, the Volatile Organic Compounds Arid Site Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID), hosted at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The purpose of the VOC-Arid ID has been to develop and demonstrate new technologies for remediating carbon tetrachloride and other VOC contamination in soils and ground water. In October 1994 the VOC-Arid ID became a part of the Contaminant Plume Containment and Remediation Focus Area (Plume Focus Area). The VOC Arid ID`s purpose of involving stakeholders in evaluating innovative technologies will now be carried on in the Plume Focus Area in cooperation with Site Technology Coordination Groups and Site Specific Advisory Boards. DOE`s goal is to demonstrate promising technologies once and deploy those that are successful across the DOE complex. Achieving that goal requires that the technologies be acceptable to the groups and individuals with a stake in DOE facility cleanup. Such stakeholders include groups and individuals with an interest in cleanup, including regulatory agencies, Native American tribes, environmental and civic interest groups, public officials, environmental technology users, and private citizens. This report documents the results of the stakeholder involvement program, which is an integral part of the VOC-Arid ID.

  19. COMPOSITING WATER SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Thomas J. Lopes1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in conjunction with chemical analysis by a conventional laboratory, field-portable equipment, or a mobile, 1998). However, automatic VOC samplers are expensive, sometimes have uncertain reliability, and may

  20. Natural attenuation assessment of multiple VOCs in a deep vadose zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PETERSON,DAVID M.; SINGLETARY,MICHAEL A.; STUDER,JAMES E.; MILLER,DAVID R.

    2000-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The fate of six volatile organic compounds (VOC) in a 150-meter deep vadose zone was examined in support of a RCRA Corrective Measures Study of the Chemical Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The study focused on the modeling of potential future transport of the VOCs to exposure media upon the completion of two separate voluntary corrective measures--soil vapor extraction and landfill excavation--designed to significantly reduce contaminant levels in subsurface soils. modeling was performed with R-UNSAT, a finite-difference simulator that was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. R-UNSAT facilitated a relatively unique and comprehensive assessment of vapor transport because it (1) simulated the simultaneous movement of all six VOCs, taking into account each constituent's diffusion coefficient as affected by its mole fraction within a mixture of chemicals, and (2) permitted simultaneous assessment of risk to human health via volatilization (air) and drinking water (groundwater) pathways. Modeling results suggested that monitored natural attenuation would represent a viable remedial alternative at the landfill after both voluntary corrective measures were completed.

  1. Analysis and evaluation of VOC removal technologies demonstrated at Savannah River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesnut, D.A.; Wagoner, J.; Nitao, J.J.; Boyd, S.; Shaffer, R.J.; Kansa, E.J.; Buscheck, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Falta, R.W. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatile Organic Compounds, or VOCs, are ubiquitous subsurface contaminants at industrial as well as DOE sites. At the Savannah River Plant, the principles VOCs contaminating the subsurface below A-Area and M-Area are Trichloroethylene (C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3}, or TCE) and Tetrachloroethylene (C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}, or PCE). These compounds were used extensively as degreasing solvents from 1952 until 1979, and the waste solvent which did not evaporate (on the order of 2{times}10{sup 6} pounds) was discharged to a process sewer line leading to the M-Area Seepage Basin (Figure I.2). These compounds infiltrated into the soil and underlying sediments from leaks in the sewer line and elsewhere thereby contaminating the vadose zone between the surface and the water table as well as the aquifer.

  2. Dual cure low-VOC coating process. Final technical report, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinzer, K.E.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    US EPA is implementing increasingly stringent environmental regulations on the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which amount to about 7 {times} 10{sup 9} lb/year, largely from paints and other coating systems in industry. Objective of this project is to develop Dual Cure Photocatalyst coating technology for aerospace topcoats (urethane/acrylate), aerospace primers (epoxy/acrylate), and solventless tape backings. Some problems (moisture etc.) were encountered in the primer area. Cost, economic, and energy analyses were conducted. The dual cure technology has already been commercialized in 3M`s flexible diamond resin products. Tabs.

  3. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  4. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  5. Subtask 1.15-Passive Diffusion Sample Bags Made from Expanded Polytetrafluorethylene (ePTFE) to Measure VOC Concentrations in Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barry W. Botnen

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With laboratory testing of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes complete, collected data support that volatile organic compound (VOC) molecules will readily diffuse across ePTFE membranes. Membrane samples, supplied by BHA Technologies (GE Osmonics), were tested to determine diffusion rates for VOCs in groundwater. Tests were conducted using membranes with two different pore sizes, with and without thermally laminated spun bond backing, and multiple concentrations of contaminated groundwater. Results suggest that typical residence times associated with traditional samplers constructed of polyethylene (2 weeks) can be reduced by 1 week using ePTFE membranes (reducing project costs) and that VOCs will diffuse more readily at lower temperatures (2.2-3.3 C) across ePTFE materials.

  6. In situ treatment of VOCs by recirculation technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Webb, O.F.; Ally, M.R.; Sanford, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Kearl, P.M.; Zutman, J.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (US)

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project described herein was conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify processes and technologies developed in Germany that appeared to have near-term potential for enhancing the cleanup of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminated soil and groundwater at DOE sites. Members of the ORNL research team identified and evaluated selected German technologies developed at or in association with the University of Karlsruhe (UoK) for in situ treatment of VOC contaminated soils and groundwater. Project activities included contacts with researchers within three departments of the UoK (i.e., Applied Geology, Hydromechanics, and Soil and Foundation Engineering) during fall 1991 and subsequent visits to UoK and private industry collaborators during February 1992. Subsequent analyses consisted of engineering computations, groundwater flow modeling, and treatment process modeling. As a result of these project efforts, two processes were identified as having near-term potential for DOE: (1) the vacuum vaporizer well/groundwater recirculation well and (2) the porous pipe/horizontal well. This document was prepared to summarize the methods and results of the assessment activities completed during the initial year of the project. The project is still ongoing, so not all facets of the effort are completely described in this document. Recommendations for laboratory and field experiments are provided.

  7. Photochemical aging of volatile organic compounds in the Los Angeles basin: Weekday-weekend effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    in ozone, caused by lower NOx emissions due to reduced diesel truck traffic in the weekends, has been previously observed in Los Angeles and other cities. Measurements in the Caldecott tunnel show that emission nonattainment area. [3] In the LA basin the main emission sources for the ozone precursors VOCs and NOx (NO + NO

  8. Technology status report: Off-gas treatment technologies for chlorinated volatile organic compound air emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossabi, J.; Haselow, J.S.

    1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to review technologies for treatment of air streams that contain chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCS) and to describe a Department of Energy Office of Technology Development program that is planned to demonstrate innovative technologies for the abatement of CVOC emissions. This report describes the first phase of testing of off-gas treatment technologies. At least one more phase of testing is planned. Guidance for the preparation of this document was provided by a predecisional draft outline issued by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development. The report is intended to evaluate the technical and regulatory aspects, public acceptance, and estimated costs of technologies selected for development and testing. These technologies are compared to currently practiced or baseline methods for treatment of CVOC-laden airstreams. A brief overview is provided rather than detailed cost and data comparisons because many of these technologies have not yet been field tested. A description of other promising technologies for the treatment of CVOC emissions is also included. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) were used for industrial cleaning and solvent applications for several decades. These chemicals can be classified as CVOCS. As a result of past standard disposal practices, these types of compounds are persistent groundwater and soil contaminants throughout the United States and the Department of Energy Complex.

  9. Technology status report: Off-gas treatment technologies for chlorinated volatile organic compound air emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossabi, J.; Haselow, J.S.

    1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to review technologies for treatment of air streams that contain chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCS) and to describe a Department of Energy Office of Technology Development program that is planned to demonstrate innovative technologies for the abatement of CVOC emissions. This report describes the first phase of testing of off-gas treatment technologies. At least one more phase of testing is planned. Guidance for the preparation of this document was provided by a predecisional draft outline issued by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development. The report is intended to evaluate the technical and regulatory aspects, public acceptance, and estimated costs of technologies selected for development and testing. These technologies are compared to currently practiced or baseline methods for treatment of CVOC-laden airstreams. A brief overview is provided rather than detailed cost and data comparisons because many of these technologies have not yet been field tested. A description of other promising technologies for the treatment of CVOC emissions is also included. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) were used for industrial cleaning and solvent applications for several decades. These chemicals can be classified as CVOCS. As a result of past standard disposal practices, these types of compounds are persistent groundwater and soil contaminants throughout the United States and the Department of Energy Complex.

  10. Chemiresistor microsensors for in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Michael Loren; Hughes, Robert Clark; Kooser, Ara S.; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.; Davis, Chad Edward

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a summary of the three-year LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project aimed at developing microchemical sensors for continuous, in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds. A chemiresistor sensor array was integrated with a unique, waterproof housing that allows the sensors to be operated in a variety of media including air, soil, and water. Numerous tests were performed to evaluate and improve the sensitivity, stability, and discriminatory capabilities of the chemiresistors. Field tests were conducted in California, Nevada, and New Mexico to further test and develop the sensors in actual environments within integrated monitoring systems. The field tests addressed issues regarding data acquisition, telemetry, power requirements, data processing, and other engineering requirements. Significant advances were made in the areas of polymer optimization, packaging, data analysis, discrimination, design, and information dissemination (e.g., real-time web posting of data; see www.sandia.gov/sensor). This project has stimulated significant interest among commercial and academic institutions. A CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) was initiated in FY03 to investigate manufacturing methods, and a Work for Others contract was established between Sandia and Edwards Air Force Base for FY02-FY04. Funding was also obtained from DOE as part of their Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative program from FY01 to FY03, and a DOE EMSP contract was awarded jointly to Sandia and INEEL for FY04-FY06. Contracts were also established for collaborative research with Brigham Young University to further evaluate, understand, and improve the performance of the chemiresistor sensors.

  11. A Pilot Study of the Effectiveness of Indoor Plants for Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air in a Seven-Story Office Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, Michael G.; Apte, Joshua S.

    2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paharpur Business Centre and Software Technology Incubator Park (PBC) is a 7 story, 50,400 ft{sup 2} office building located near Nehru Place in New Delhi India. The occupancy of the building at full normal operations is about 500 people. The building management philosophy embodies innovation in energy efficiency while providing full service and a comfortable, safe, healthy environment to the occupants. Provision of excellent Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is an expressed goal of the facility, and the management has gone to great lengths to achieve it. This is particularly challenging in New Delhi, where ambient urban pollution levels rank among the worst on the planet. The approach to provide good IAQ in the building includes a range of technical elements: air washing and filtration of ventilation intake air from rooftop air handler, the use of an enclosed rooftop greenhouse with a high density of potted plants as a bio-filtration system, dedicated secondary HVAC/air handling units on each floor with re-circulating high efficiency filtration and UVC treatment of the heat exchanger coils, additional potted plants for bio-filtration on each floor, and a final exhaust via the restrooms located at each floor. The conditioned building exhaust air is passed through an energy recovery wheel and chemisorbent cartridge, transferring some heat to the incoming air to increase the HVAC energy efficiency. The management uses 'green' cleaning products exclusively in the building. Flooring is a combination of stone, tile and 'zero VOC' carpeting. Wood trim and finish appears to be primarily of solid sawn materials, with very little evidence of composite wood products. Furniture is likewise in large proportion constructed from solid wood materials. The overall impression is that of a very clean and well-kept facility. Surfaces are polished to a high sheen, probably with wax products. There was an odor of urinal cake in the restrooms. Smoking is not allowed in the building. The plants used in the rooftop greenhouse and on the floors were made up of a number of species selected for the following functions: daytime metabolic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) absorption, nighttime metabolic CO{sub 2} absorption, and volatile organic compound (VOC) and inorganic gas absorption/removal for air cleaning. The building contains a reported 910 indoor plants. Daytime metabolic species reported by the PBC include Areca Palm, Oxycardium, Rubber Plant, and Ficus alii totaling 188 plants (21%). The single nighttime metabolic species is the Sansevieria with a total of 28 plants (3%). The 'air cleaning' plant species reported by the PBC include the Money Plant, Aglaonema, Dracaena Warneckii, Bamboo Palm, and Raphis Palm with a total of 694 plants (76%). The plants in the greenhouse (Areca Palm, Rubber Plant, Ficus alii, Bamboo Palm, and Raphis Palm) numbering 161 (18%) of those in the building are grown hydroponically, with the room air blown by fan across the plant root zones. The plants on the building floors are grown in pots and are located on floors 1-6. We conducted a one-day monitoring session in the PBC on January 1, 2010. The date of the study was based on availability of the measurement equipment that the researchers had shipped from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab in the U.S.A. The study date was not optimal because a large proportion of the regular building occupants were not present being New Year's Day. An estimated 40 people were present in the building all day during January 1. This being said, the building systems were in normal operations, including the air handlers and other HVAC components. The study was focused primarily on measurements in the Greenhouse and 3rd and 5th floor environments as well as rooftop outdoors. Measurements included a set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes, with a more limited set of observations of indoor and outdoor particulate and carbon dioxide concentrations. Continuous measurements of Temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) were made selected indoor and outdoor locations.

  12. A theoretical study of discrete air phase migration contaminated with a volatile organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drazenovic, Mirna

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    saturated porous media, while the second part presents volatile contaminant transport in bubbly air flow. The first part of the study is developed in order to determine bubble rise velocity in four flow regimes i.e., steady state, quasi-steady state...

  13. Infrared Spectroscopy of Wild 2 Particle Hypervelocity Tracks in Stardust Aerogel: Evidence for the presence of Volatile Organics in Comet Dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajt, S; Sandford, S A; Flynn, G J; Matrajt, G; Snead, C J; Westphal, A J; Bradley, J P

    2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared spectroscopy maps of some tracks, made by cometary dust from 81P/Wild 2 impacting Stardust aerogel, reveal an interesting distribution of volatile organic material. Out of six examined tracks three show presence of volatile organic components possibly injected into the aerogel during particle impacts. When particle tracks contained excess volatile organic material, they were found to be -CH{sub 2}-rich. Off-normal particle tracks could indicate impacts by lower velocity particles that could have bounced off the Whipple shield, therefore carry off some contamination from it. However, this theory is not supported by data that show excess organic-rich material in normal and off-normal particle tracks. It is clear that the population of cometary particles impacting the Stardust aerogel collectors also include grains that contained little or none of this volatile organic component. This observation is consistent with the highly heterogeneous nature of the collected grains, as seen by a multitude of other analytical techniques. We propose that at least some of the volatile organic material might be of cometary origin based on supporting data shown in this paper. However, we also acknowledge the presence of carbon (primarily as -CH{sub 3}) in the original aerogel, which complicates interpretation of these results.

  14. Recent VOC Control Test Data for a Reactive VOC Converter- Scrubber System for Non-Thermal Control of VOCs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinness, M.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of real estate. Non-thermal VOHAP (Volatile Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant) emission control devices require additional maintenance. They also require the replacement of costly consumables such as activated carbon or they use large amounts of energy...

  15. Adsorption -capacity data for 283 organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Bu, L.; Nijhawan, S. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorption on activated carbon is a widely used method for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from gases and other exhaust streams. This article presents a compilation of adsorption-capacity data as a function of the VOC concentration in the gas. The results are useful in engineering and environmental studies, and in the design of carbon-based adsorption systems to remove unwanted organic pollutants from gases. For vapor control, carbon-based systems typically combine a carbon-adsorption unit with a secondary control method to reclaim or destroy the vapors desorbed during carbon-bed regeneration. To remove organics dissolved in wastewater, air stripping is typically used to transfer the organics to a vapor stream. Carbon adsorption is then used to separate the organics from the stripper exhaust. Collected vapors can be recovered for reuse or destroyed, depending on their value.

  16. Use of sonication for in-well softening of semivolatile organic compounds. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, R.W.; Manning, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US); Hoffman, M.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (US); Gorelick, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (US)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'This project investigates the in-situ degradation of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using in-well sonication, in-well vapor stripping, and bioremediation. Pretreating groundwaters with sonication techniques in-situ would form VOCs that can be effectively removed by in-well vapor stripping and bioremediation. The mechanistic studies focus on the coupling of megasonics and ultrasonics to soften (i.e., partially degrade) the SVOCs; oxidative reaction mechanism studies; surface corrosion studies (on the reactor walls/well); enhancement due to addition of oxidants, quantification of the hydroxyl radical formation; identification/quantification of degradation products; volatility/degradability of the treated waters; development of a computer simulation model to describe combined in-well sonication/in-well vapor stripping/bioremediation; systems analysis/economic analysis; large laboratory-scale experiment verification; and field demonstration of the integrated technology. Benefits of this approach include: (1) Remediation is performed in-situ; (2) The treatment systems complement each other; their combination can drastically reduce or remove SVOCs and VOCs; (3) Ability to convert hard-to-degrade organics into more volatile organic compounds; (4) Ability to remove residual VOCs and softened SVOCs through the combined action of in-well vapor stripping and biodegradation; (5) Does not require handling or disposing of water at the ground surface; and (6) Cost-effective and improved efficiency, resulting in shortened clean-up times to remediate a site.'

  17. Estimated monthly emissions of sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and volatile organic compounds for the 48 contiguous states, 1985-1986: Volume 2, Sectoral emissions by month for states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Knudson, D.A.; Saricks, C.L.; Miller, D.J.

    1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A listing by source of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds emitted in 48 states of the US is provided. (CBS)

  18. Composites for removing metals and volatile organic compounds and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Sabre J. (Oakland, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Functionalized hydrophobic aerogel/solid support structure composites have been developed to remove metals and organic compounds from aqueous and vapor media. The targeted metals and organics are removed by passing the aqueous or vapor phase through the composite which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The composites adsorb the metals and the organics leaving a purified aqueous or vapor stream. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific functionalization of the aerogels tailored towards specific metals and/or organics. After adsorption, the composites can be disposed of or the targeted metals and/or organics can be reclaimed or removed and the composites recycled.

  19. Carbon tetrachloride contamination, 200 West Area, Hanford Site: Arid Site Integrated Demonstration for remediation of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, G.V. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Rohay, V.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arid State Integrated Demonstration is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program targeted at the acquisition, development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic and associated contaminants in soils and ground waters. Several DOE laboratories, universities, and industry will participate in the program. Candidate technologies will be demonstrated in the areas of site characterization; performance prediction, monitoring, and evaluations; contaminant extraction and ex situ treatment; in situ remediations; and site closure and monitoring. The performance of these demonstrated technologies will be compared to baseline technologies and documented to promote the transfer of new technologies to industry for use at DOE facilities. The initial host site is the Hanford Site's 200 West Area. The location of the demonstration contains primarily carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), chloroform, and a variety of associated mixed waste contaminants. Chemical processes used to recover and purify plutonium at Hanford's plutonium finishing plant (Z Plant) resulted in the production of actinide-bearing waste liquid. Both aqueous and organic liquid wastes were generated, and were routinely discharged to subsurface disposal facilities. The primary radionuclide in the waste streams was plutonium, and the primary organic was CCl{sub 4}. This paper contains brief descriptions of the principal CCl{sub 4} waste disposal facilities in Hanford's 200 West Area, associated hydrogeology, existing information on the extent of soil and ground-water contamination, and a conceptual outline of suspected subsurface CCl{sub 4} distributions.

  20. Carbon tetrachloride contamination, 200 West Area, Hanford Site: Arid Site Integrated Demonstration for remediation of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, G.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rohay, V.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arid State Integrated Demonstration is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program targeted at the acquisition, development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic and associated contaminants in soils and ground waters. Several DOE laboratories, universities, and industry will participate in the program. Candidate technologies will be demonstrated in the areas of site characterization; performance prediction, monitoring, and evaluations; contaminant extraction and ex situ treatment; in situ remediations; and site closure and monitoring. The performance of these demonstrated technologies will be compared to baseline technologies and documented to promote the transfer of new technologies to industry for use at DOE facilities. The initial host site is the Hanford Site`s 200 West Area. The location of the demonstration contains primarily carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), chloroform, and a variety of associated mixed waste contaminants. Chemical processes used to recover and purify plutonium at Hanford`s plutonium finishing plant (Z Plant) resulted in the production of actinide-bearing waste liquid. Both aqueous and organic liquid wastes were generated, and were routinely discharged to subsurface disposal facilities. The primary radionuclide in the waste streams was plutonium, and the primary organic was CCl{sub 4}. This paper contains brief descriptions of the principal CCl{sub 4} waste disposal facilities in Hanford`s 200 West Area, associated hydrogeology, existing information on the extent of soil and ground-water contamination, and a conceptual outline of suspected subsurface CCl{sub 4} distributions.

  1. Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: Comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiriac, R., E-mail: rodica.chiriac@univ-lyon1.fr [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5615, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); De Araujos Morais, J. [Universite Federal de Paraiba, Campus I Departamento de Engenharia Civil e Ambiental, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Carre, J. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, Institut de Recherche sur la Catalyse et l'Environnement, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Bayard, R. [Universite de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, Laboratoire de Genie Civil et d'Ingenierie environnementale (LGCIE), F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Chovelon, J.M. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, Institut de Recherche sur la Catalyse et l'Environnement, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Gourdon, R. [Universite de Lyon, INSA de Lyon, Laboratoire de Genie Civil et d'Ingenierie environnementale (LGCIE), F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: > Follow-up of the emission of VOCs in a municipal waste pilot-scale cell during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. > Study from the very start of waste storage leading to a better understanding of the decomposition/degradation of waste. > Comparison of the results obtained on the pilot-scale cell with those from 3 biogases coming from the same landfill site. > A methodology of characterization for the progression of the stabilization/maturation of waste is finally proposed. - Abstract: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon atoms per molecule of alkane with the progression of the stabilisation/maturation process were also observed. Previous studies have concentrated almost on the analysis of biogases from landfills. Our research aimed at gaining a more complete understanding of the decomposition/degradation of municipal solid waste by measuring the VOCs emitted from the very start of the landfill process i.e. during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases.

  2. Volatile organic acids and microbial processes in the Yegua formation, east-central Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Routh, J.; Grossman, E. L.; Ulrich, G. A.; Suflita, J. M.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?171. Carothers, W.W., Kharaka, Y.K., 1978. Aliphatic acid anions in oil-field waters?implications for origin of natural gas. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. 62, 2441?2453. Cedarstrom, D.J., 1946. Genesis of groundwaters in the coastal plain of Virginia. Econ. Geol.... Petrol. Geol., 37, pp. 127?149. Takijima, Y., 1964. Studies on organic acids in paddy field soils with reference to their inhibitory eC128ects on the growth of rice plants Part 1. Growth inhibitory action of organic acids and adsorption and decomposition...

  3. Link between isoprene and secondary organic aerosol (SOA): Pyruvic acid oxidation yields low volatility organic acids in clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seitzinger, Sybil

    Link between isoprene and secondary organic aerosol (SOA): Pyruvic acid oxidation yields low, a water-soluble product of isoprene, oxidizes further in the aqueous phase to pyruvic acid. Discrepancies in the literature regarding the aqueous-phase oxidation of pyruvic acid create large uncertainties in the in- cloud

  4. Flux Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds from an Urban Tower Platform in Houston, Texas: Trends and Tracers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hale, Martin C

    2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    , and xylenes (BTEX) from winter 2009 compared to spring 2013. Median concentrations over the four-year period fell between 20 to 34 percent, comparable to long-term VOC reduction trends observed in other major metropolitan areas. Emissions of these species fell...

  5. Low-Temperature, Vacuum-Aided Thermal Desorption Studies on a Simulated Organic Sludge Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. K. Farnsworth; D. R. Peterman; Gary L. Anderson; T. G. Garn

    2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes an initial set of small scale lab tests conducted on surrogate waste materials to investigate mass release behavior of volatile organics (VOC’s) from a solidified liquid organic sludge matrix under vacuumaided, low-temperature thermal desorption conditions. Low temperature thermal desorption is being considered as a potential processing technology alternative to incineration, to remove gas generation limitations affecting the transportation of transuranic (TRU) contaminated organic sludge wastes to a designated off-site repository (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). The lab-scale tests provide initial exploratory level information on temperature profiles and rates of volatile organic desorption for a range of initial VOC/oil liquid mixture concentrations in a calcium silicate matrix, under low temperature heating and vacuum boundary conditions that are representative of potentially desirable “in-drum desorption” conditions. The results of these tests indicate that reduced operating pressures have a potential for significantly enhancing the rate of thermal desorption experienced from a liquid organic/oil solidified “sludge” waste. Furthermore, the results indicate that in-drum thermal desorption can be performed on organic sludge wastes, at reduced pressures, while maintaining an operating temperature sufficiently low to prevent destruction of the waste drum packaging materials (confinement) surrounding the waste. The results also indicate that VOC release behavior/rates in the vacuum thermal desorption process cannot be represented by a simple liquid-liquid mass-diffusion model, since overall mass release rates observed are generally two orders of magnitude greater than predicted by simple liquid-liquid mass diffusion. This is partially attributed to the effects of the transient temperature profiles within the sludge during heat up; however, the primary cause is thought to be micro boiling of the volatile organics within the simulated sludge. Micro boiling of VOC’s would be expected to occur in localized volumes within the organic sludge where temperatures exceed the volatile organic saturation temperature sufficiently to form vapor bubbles. Further model based evaluations reflecting the transient temperatures, local boiling, and subsequent vapor in liquid/sludge transport conditions are needed, with supporting controlled testing of the vacuum-aided thermal desorption process at small and full-scale conditions in order to fully develop this process.

  6. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from stationary combustion sources: Numerical modeling capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seebold, J.G. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Kee, R.J.; Lutz, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pitz, W.J.; Westbrook, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Senkan, S. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A collaborative research program initiated to study the emissions of a wide variety of chemical species from stationary combustion systems. These product species have been included in the Clean Air act legislation and their emissions must be rigidly controlled, but there is a need for much better understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms that produce and consume them. We are using numerical modeling study the chemical reactions and fluid mechanical factors that occur in industrial processes: we are examining systems including premixed and diffusion flames, stirred reactors and plug flow reactors in these modeling studies to establish the major factors leading to emissions of these chemicals. In addition, we are applying advanced laser diagnostic techniques to validate the model predictions and to study the possibilities of developing sophisticated sensors to detect emissions of undesirable species in real time. This paper will discuss the organization of this collaborative effort and its results to date.

  7. A novel Whole Air Sample Profiler (WASP) for the quantification of volatile organic compounds in the boundary layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mak, J. E.; Su, L.; Guenther, Alex B.; Karl, Thomas G.

    2013-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission and fate of reactive VOCs is of inherent interest to those studying chemical biosphere-atmosphere interactions. In-canopy VOC observations are obtainable using tower-based samplers, but the lack of suitable sampling systems for the full boundary 5 layer has limited the data characterizing the vertical structure of such gases above the canopy height and still in the boundary layer. This is the important region where many reactive VOCs are oxidized or otherwise removed. Here we describe an airborne sampling system designed to collect a vertical profile of air into a 3/800 OD tube 150m in length. The inlet ram air pressure is used to flow sampled air through the 10 tube, which results in a varying flow rate based on aircraft speed and altitude. Since aircraft velocity decreases during ascent, it is necessary to account for the variable flow rate into the tube. This is accomplished using a reference gas that is pulsed into the air stream so that the precise altitude of the collected air can be reconstructed post-collection. The pulsed injections are also used to determine any significant effect 15 from diffusion/mixing within the sampling tube, either during collection or subsequent extraction for gas analysis. This system has been successfully deployed, and we show some measured vertical profiles of isoprene and its oxidation products methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone from a mixed canopy near Columbia, Missouri.

  8. 4, 66916718, 2004 VOC emissions of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 6691­6718, 2004 VOC emissions of Scots pine V. Tarvainen et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Temperature and light dependence of the VOC emissions of Scots pine V. Tarvainen 1 , H. Hakola 1.tarvainen@fmi.fi) 6691 #12;ACPD 4, 6691­6718, 2004 VOC emissions of Scots pine V. Tarvainen et al. Title Page Abstract

  9. Prediction of risk-based screening levels for infiltration of volatile subsurface contaminants into buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hers, I.; Zapf-Gilje, R.; Petrovic, S. [Golder Associates Ltd., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada); Macfarlane, M.; McLenehan, R. [British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) approach is increasingly being used for the management of contaminated sites. Fundamental to this approach is the prediction of risk-based screening levels (RBSL) for operable exposure pathways. Screening level models currently used indicate that RBSLs for the indoor inhalation pathway can be significantly lower than other pathways typically considered. This paper presents the results of a screening level spreadsheet model used to predict human health risks resulting from infiltration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings. The model was developed to derive RBSLs for soil and groundwater for possible future incorporation into the regulation of contaminated sites in British Columbia. Key features of the semi-analytical VOC infiltration model are steady-state diffusive mass transfer through soil coupled with advective and diffusive mass transfer through a cracked building floor slab or wall, source mass depletion of soil contaminants present using a mass balance approach, and the capability to incorporate multi-component chemical partitioning for soils containing non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). The critical factors affecting VOC infiltration and resulting health risks are presented.

  10. Organics in soils and groundwater at non-arid sites (A-1) integrated demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, J.L.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most common environmental problems in the United States is soils and groundwater contaminated with volatile chemical solvents classified as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), which were used as degreasers and cleaning agents. Leakage of solvents (trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene) from an underground process sewer line has contaminated soils and underlying groundwaters at SRS. This site was chosen for DOE-OTD`s integrated demonstration program to demonstrate innovative technologies for cleanup of soils and groundwater contaminated with VOCs. The Savannah River Site was especially well suited as the test bed for this integrated demonstration project due to the presence of a pre-existing line source of soil and groundwater-based contamination, on-going environmental remediation efforts at the site, and full cooperation from the concerned environmental regulatory agencies. The Integrated Demonstration (ID) at the Savannah River Site has demonstrated systems of technologies and evaluated them with respect to performance, safety and cost effectiveness.

  11. Barometric pumping with a twist: VOC containment and remediation without boreholes. Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The majority of the planned remediation sites within the DOE complex are contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In many instances the contamination has not reached the water table, does not pose an immediate threat, and is not considered a high priority problem. These sites will ultimately require remediation of some type, either by active vapor extraction, bioremediation, or excavation and ex-situ soil treatment. The cost of remediating these sites can range from $50 K to more than $150 K, depending on site characteristics, contaminants, and remediation method. Additionally, for many remediated sites, residual contamination exists which could not practically be removed by the applied remediation technology. These circumstances result in modest sites with contamination of limited risk, but by regulation they must still be controlled. A remediation solution being developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) for the Department of Energy serves as an in-situ containment and extraction methodology for sites where most or all of the contamination resides in the vadose zone soil. The approach capitalizes on the advective soil gas movement resulting from barometric pressure oscillations.

  12. volatility. atthemoney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyuu, Yuh-Dauh

    volatility is lowest for at­the­money options. -- It becomes higher the further the option is in­ or out­of­the­money (concluded) . Suppose a year has 260 trading days. . A quick and dirty way is to replace # with a # # 365 260

  13. VOC Destruction by Catalytic Combustion Microturbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom Barton

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This project concerned the application of a catalytic combustion system that has been married to a micro-turbine device. The catalytic combustion system decomposes the VOC's and transmits these gases to the gas turbine. The turbine has been altered to operate on very low-level BTU fuels equivalent to 1.5% methane in air. The performance of the micro-turbine for VOC elimination has some flexibility with respect to operating conditions, and the system is adaptable to multiple industrial applications. The VOC source that was been chosen for examination was the emissions from coal upgrading operations. The overall goal of the project was to examine the effectiveness of a catalytic combustion based system for elimination of VOCs while simultaneously producing electrical power for local consumption. Project specific objectives included assessment of the feasibility for using a Flex-Microturbine that generates power from natural gas while it consumes VOCs generated from site operations; development of an engineering plan for installation of the Flex-Microturbine system; operation of the micro-turbine through various changes in site and operation conditions; measurement of the VOC destruction quantitatively; and determination of the required improvements for further studies. The micro-turbine with the catalytic bed worked effectively to produce power on levels of fuel much lower than the original turbine design. The ability of the device to add or subtract supplemental fuel to augment the amount of VOC's in the inlet air flow made the device an effective replacement for a traditional flare. Concerns about particulates in the inlet flow and the presence of high sulfur concentrations with the VOC mixtures was identified as a drawback with the current catalytic design. A new microturbine design was developed based on this research that incorporates a thermal oxidizer in place of the catalytic bed for applications where particulates or contamination would limit the lifetime of the catalytic bed.

  14. Development of an IMS Type System for Volatile Organic Compunds Detection: Simulation and Comparision of the Ion Distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Guillermo P; Boggio, Norberto G; Vorobioff, Juan; Ortiz, Juan J; Gómez, Sergio; Aucar, Gustavo A; Lamagna, Alberto; Boselli, Alfredo

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is a well-known, sensitive and rapid technique to detect dangerous organic compounds. We propose a system in which a crown type discharge generates a ionic flow that is swept towards an array of collectors by a transverse electric field. The ions are separated as they enter the cell according to their mobility. Thus, the distribution of the charge deposited at the detector assembly constitutes a {\\em fingerprint} for each organic compound. Simulations of our cell and experiments were performed for small amounts of acetone, ethanol and toluene. The dependence on the cell parameters of the current and charge versus time of flight was analyzed. Our simulation reproduces only qualitatively the experimental results. However, a PCA statistical analysis of the results obtained by simulation of the proposed design shows that the fingerprint is useful for a clear identification of such compounds.

  15. Regeneration of carboxylic acid-laden basic sorbents by leaching with a volatile base in an organic solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with an organic solution of alkylamine thus forming an alkylamine/carboxylic acid complex which is decomposed with improved efficiency to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. Carbon dioxide addition can be used to improve the adsorption or the carboxylic acids by the solid phase sorbent.

  16. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel combustion, especially coal and residential oil, andthe oil sands (r 2 combustion tracersand combustion sources on ethene and other alkenes at the oil

  17. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil sands comprise 30% of the world’s oil reserves andthe crude oil reserves in Canada’s oil sands deposits are30% of total world oil reserves (Alboudwarej et al. , 2006)

  18. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    West, C. : Highlighting heavy oil, Oilfield Rev. , 34–53,and enhancement of Mo-heavy oil interaction, Fuel, 83,sticky extra-heavy crude oil that is “unconventional”,

  19. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    propene, acetone, benzene, propane and ?-pinene (Table 1).cyanide Acetonitrile Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-= Ethane Ethane Ethane Ethane Propane Propane Propane ARCTAS

  20. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K. : Atmospheric chemistry of gasoline-related emissions:chemistry. Methyl tert-butyl ether is a solvent and gasoline

  1. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Fehsenfeld, F. C. : Emission sources and ocean uptake ofand No- vakov, T. : Emissions of trace gases and particlesGroot, W. J. : Future emissions from Canadian boreal forest

  2. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    over Alberta oil sands mining operations Soc. , 81(7), 1537–over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C 2 –over Alberta oil sands mining operations Burstyn, I. ,

  3. VOC treatment provided after 20-year legal battle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, F.N. Jr. (Killam Associates, Inc., Randolph, NJ (United States))

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article examines the treatment of a Superfund site, the Runyon Watershed just outside of Perth Amboy, New Jersey, for volatile organic compounds. The beginning of treatment was the result of a 20-year legal battle begun in 1971 and resolved after the city's consulting engineering firm designed and implemented a specialized approach to identify and develop key critical issues.

  4. Brayton Cycle Heat Pump for VOC Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kovach, J. L.

    The first full size continuous operation Brayton Cycle Heat Pump (1)(2)(3) application for VOC recovery occurred in 1988. The mixed solvent recovery system was designed and supplied by NUCON for the 3M facility in Weatherford, OK (4). This first...

  5. Volatile Organic Emissions from Carpets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodgson, A.T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    irritation by airborne allyl acetate, allyl alcohol, andcompounds. For example, allyl acetate (2-propenyl acetate),acetate, was found to be highly irritating as were other allyl

  6. ARM - Measurement - Volatile organic compounds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARM DatagovMeasurementsVisibility ARM

  7. Mobilization and Transport of Organic Compounds from Reservoir Rock and Caprock in Geological Carbon Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Shewell, Jesse L.

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is an excellent solvent for organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX), phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Monitoring results from geological carbon sequestration (GCS) field tests has shown that organic compounds are mobilized following CO2 injection. Such results have raised concerns regarding the potential for groundwater contamination by toxic organic compounds mobilized during GCS. Knowledge of the mobilization mechanism of organic compounds and their transport and fate in the subsurface is essential for assessing risks associated with GCS. Extraction tests using scCO2 and methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) were conducted to study the mobilization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including BTEX), the PAH naphthalene, and n-alkanes (n-C20 – n-C30) by scCO2 from representative reservoir rock and caprock obtained from depleted oil reservoirs and coal from an enhanced coal-bed methane recovery site. More VOCs and naphthalene were extractable by scCO2 compared to the CH2Cl2 extractions, while scCO2 extractable alkane concentrations were much lower than concentrations extractable by CH2Cl2. In addition, dry scCO2 was found to extract more VOCs than water saturated scCO2, but water saturated scCO2 mobilized more naphthalene than dry scCO2. In sand column experiments, moisture content was found to have an important influence on the transport of the organic compounds. In dry sand columns the majority of the compounds were retained in the column except benzene and toluene. In wet sand columns the mobility of the BTEX was much higher than that of naphthalene. Based upon results determined for the reservoir rock, caprock, and coal samples studied here, the risk to aquifers from contamination by organic compounds appears to be relatively low; however, further work is necessary to fully evaluate risks from depleted oil reservoirs.

  8. Groundwater Transport of Organic Compounds in Old Salvage Yard, Oak Ridge, TN - 12089

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak [Civil Engineering and Construction Department, Bradley University, Peoria, IL 61625 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio; Roelant, David [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary [Pro2Serve Professional Project Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1950's and early 1960's during production of nuclear weapons at the US Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge TN, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well as heavy metals, nitrates, and radionuclides were released to the environment. Field investigations revealed that much of this contamination is still present in soil, bedrock, and groundwater. Operational buildings and old disposal facilities at the site have been identified as major sources of contamination. The Old Salvage Yard (OSY) on the western side of the site has long been characterized as the major source of VOC contamination in soil and groundwater. In order to analyze the fate and transport of VOC contamination- including tetrachloroethene (PCE), 1,2- dichloroethene (1,2-DCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) - in groundwater and soil at the vicinity of OSY, an integrated surface and subsurface flow and transport model has been developed for the Y-12 NSC using the hydrodynamic and transport numerical package, MIKE-SHE. Hydrogeological characteristics of the site such as hydraulic conductivity, and transport parameters such as partitioning coefficients were varied in an effort to delineate subsurface flow and transport pathways, potential downstream impacts on Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, and the potential risk to industrial workers involved in related Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) activities. The simulation results were compared with the analytical modeling results previously performed by McLane Environmental Inc. using SESOIL-AT123D. Specific simulations have been performed to investigate the effect of possible remedial action (removing the contaminated surface soil layers) on the fate and transport of VOCs. The results of the MIKE-SHE reported here can be considered as an upper limit for the predicted concentrations. Based on MIKE-SHE results, PCE, 1,2 DCE, cis-1,2-DCE, and VC are sources in soil with potential to equal or exceed industrial groundwater hazard and risk levels at the vicinity of OSY. VOC contaminants in soil and groundwater will decay below industrial groundwater risk and hazard levels within approximately 20 years. Excavation of surface soil layers at the site will considerably reduce the concentration of VOCs in groundwater and the possibility of migration of VOCs to surface waters. (authors)

  9. Microsoft Word - DOE EA 1606 FONSI_Dec2011.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    aircraft, portable generators, and portable pumps. Emissions will include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and...

  10. Laboratory Studies of Processing of Carbonaceous Aerosols by Atmospheric Oxidants/Hygroscopicity and CCN Activity of Secondary & Processed Primary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziemann, P.J.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Petters, M.D.

    2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmosphere is composed of a complex mixture of gases and suspended microscopic aerosol particles. The ability of these particles to take up water (hygroscopicity) and to act as nuclei for cloud droplet formation significantly impacts aerosol light scattering and absorption, and cloud formation, thereby influencing air quality, visibility, and climate in important ways. A substantial, yet poorly characterized component of the atmospheric aerosol is organic matter. Its major sources are direct emissions from combustion processes, which are referred to as primary organic aerosol (POA), or in situ processes in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are oxidized in the atmosphere to low volatility reaction products that subsequent condense to form particles that are referred to as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). POA and VOCs are emitted to the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural (biogenic) sources. The overall goal of this experimental research project was to conduct laboratory studies under simulated atmospheric conditions to investigate the effects of the chemical composition of organic aerosol particles on their hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity, in order to develop quantitative relationships that could be used to more accurately incorporate aerosol-cloud interactions into regional and global atmospheric models. More specifically, the project aimed to determine the products, mechanisms, and rates of chemical reactions involved in the processing of organic aerosol particles by atmospheric oxidants and to investigate the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles (as represented by molecule sizes and the specific functional groups that are present) and the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of oxidized POA and SOA formed from the oxidation of the major classes of anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs that are emitted to the atmosphere, as well as model hydrocarbons. The general approach for this project was to carry out reactions of representative anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs and organic particles with ozone (O3), and hydroxyl (OH), nitrate (NO3), and chlorine (Cl) radicals, which are the major atmospheric oxidants, under simulated atmospheric conditions in large-volume environmental chambers. A combination of on-line and off-line analytical techniques were used to monitor the chemical and physical properties of the particles including their hygroscopicity and CCN activity. The results of the studies were used to (1) improve scientific understanding of the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles and their hygroscopicity and CCN activity, (2) develop an improved molecular level theoretical framework for describing these relationships, and (3) establish a large database that is being used to develop parameterizations relating organic aerosol chemical properties and SOA sources to particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity for use in regional and global atmospheric air quality and climate models.

  11. HYDROGEN AND VOC RETENTION IN WASTE BOXES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PACE ME; MARUSICH RM

    2008-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Waste Management Project Master Documented Safety Analysis (MDSA) (HNF-14741, 2003) identifies derived safety controls to prevent or mitigate the risks of a single-container deflagration during operations requiring moving, venting or opening transuranic (TRU)-waste containers. The issue is whether these safety controls are necessary for operations involving TRU-waste boxes that are being retrieved from burial at the Hanford Site. This paper investigates the potential for a deflagration hazard within these boxes and whether safety controls identified for drum deflagration hazards should be applied to operations involving these boxes. The study evaluates the accumulation of hydrogen and VOCs within the waste box and the transport of these gases and vapors out of the waste box. To perform the analysis, there were numerous and major assumptions made regarding the generation rate and the transport pathway dimensions and their number. Since there is little actual data with regards to these assumptions, analyses of three potential configurations were performed to obtain some indication of the bounds of the issue (the concentration of hydrogen or flammable VOCs within a waste box). A brief description of each of the three cases along with the results of the analysis is summarized.

  12. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen VOCs, PAHs, soot, tar, CO 17.6.2001 6-1 Chapter 6 VOCs, PAHs,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Zevenhoven & Kilpinen VOCs, PAHs, soot, tar, CO 17.6.2001 6-1 Chapter 6 VOCs, PAHs, soot, tar, CO 6 or global environment. These effects can be very diverse: water and soil acidification, human health and phenol, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) like naphtalene and anthracene (see Table 6.7), pyridines

  13. HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 VOCsVOCs,, PAHsPAHs, soot, tar, CO, soot, tar, CO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    of tar (from biomass gasificationbiomass gasification)) ·· COCO see: www.hut.fi/~see: www-level ozone in Europeand ground-level ozone in Europe VOC emissions (VOC emissions (inclincl. methane). methane) in Europe, 1994 (tonnes)in Europe, 1994 (tonnes) Ground-level ozone in Europe,Ground-level ozone

  14. Evaluation of a gas chromatograph with a novel surface acoustic wave detector (SAW GC) for screening of volatile organic compounds in Hanford waste tank samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1998-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel instrument, a gas chromatograph with a Surface Acoustic Wave Detector (SAW GC), was evaluated for the screening of organic compounds in Hanford tank headspace vapors. Calibration data were developed for the most common organic compounds, and the accuracy and precision were measured with a certified standard. The instrument was tested with headspace samples collected from seven Hanford waste tanks.

  15. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations, VOCS, environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory sick building syndrome symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, M.G.; Erdmann, C.A.

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the 100 office-building Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study dataset, we performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the associations between indoor minus outdoor CO{sub 2} (dCO{sub 2}) concentrations and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (Lresp) Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. Using principal components analysis we identified a number of possible sources of 73 measured volatile organic compounds in the office buildings, and assessed the impact of these VOCs on the probability of presenting the SBS symptoms. Additionally we included analysis adjusting for the risks for predisposition of having SBS symptoms associated with the allergic, asthmatic, and environmentally sensitive subpopulations within the office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependant associations (p<0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100-ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average significantly reduce the prevalence of several SBS symptoms, up to 80%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. VOC sources were observed to play an role in direct association with mucous membrane and lower respiratory irritation, and possibly to be indirectly involved in indoor chemical reactions with ozone that produce irritating compounds associated with SBS symptoms. O-xylene, possibly emitted from furniture coatings was associated with shortness of breath (OR at the maximum concentration = 8, p < 0.05). The environmental sensitivities of a large subset of the office building population add to the overall risk of SBS symptoms (ORs ranging from 2 to above 11) within the buildings.

  16. Evaluation of the volatility basis-set approach for the simulation of organic aerosol formation in the Mexico City metropolitan area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsimpidi, A. P.

    New primary and secondary organic aerosol modules have been added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (CTM), for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism based on recent smog chamber studies. The new ...

  17. APPLICATION OF STIR BAR SORPTIVE EXTRACTION TO ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE AND SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS OF POTENTIAL CONCERN IN SOLIDS AND AQUEOUS SAMPLES FROM THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FRYE JM; KUNKEL JM

    2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Stir bar sorptive extraction was applied to aqueous and solid samples for the extraction and analysis of organic compounds from the Hanford chemicals of potential concern list, as identified in the vapor data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory analyzed these compounds from vapor samples on thermal desorption tubes as part of the Hanford Site industrial hygiene vapor sampling effort.

  18. Analysis of C1, C2, and C10 through C33 particle-phase and semi-volatile organic compound emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Mingshen

    from heavy-duty diesel engines Z. Gerald Liu a,*, Devin R. Berg a , Victoria N. Vasys a , Melissa E 18 November 2009 Keywords: Organic compound emissions Particulate matter emissions Heavy-duty diesel engines Aftertreatment technology Diesel particulate filter Chemical speciation a b s t r a c t To meet

  19. Energy efficient indoor VOC air cleaning with activated carbon fiber (ACF) filters Meera A. Sidheswaran a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to reduce the energy required for heating and cooling of ventilation air by 35% to almost 50%. Ó 2011 Keywords: Activated carbon fiberVolatile organic compoundIndoor pollutantEnergy efficient ventilation a b allow reduced rates and energy consumption for outdoor air ventilation. We evaluated the use of ACF

  20. Volatiles in protoplanetary disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Bergin, Edwin A; Brittain, Sean; Marty, Bernard; Mousis, Olvier; Oberg, Karin L

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatiles are compounds with low sublimation temperatures, and they make up most of the condensible mass in typical planet-forming environments. They consist of relatively small, often hydrogenated, molecules based on the abundant elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Volatiles are central to the process of planet formation, forming the backbone of a rich chemistry that sets the initial conditions for the formation of planetary atmospheres, and act as a solid mass reservoir catalyzing the formation of planets and planetesimals. This growth has been driven by rapid advances in observations and models of protoplanetary disks, and by a deepening understanding of the cosmochemistry of the solar system. Indeed, it is only in the past few years that representative samples of molecules have been discovered in great abundance throughout protoplanetary disks - enough to begin building a complete budget for the most abundant elements after hydrogen and helium. The spatial distributions of key volatiles are being mapped...

  1. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, W.; Yan, H.; Hooda, U.; Wild, M.P.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Shmulsky, R.; Thompson, A.; Ingram, L.; Conners, T. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)] [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was initiated by an Institute of Paper Science and Technology finding that heating softwood in a low-headspace environment removed much of the VOCs without removing the water. This offered the possibility of removing VOCs from wet wood, capturing them as a product, and then drying the VOC-depleted wood conventionally with little or no VOC controls. Two means of low-headspace heating were explored: steam and radiofrequency (RF). It was found in the previous year, that while both steam and RF were able to drive out VOCs, steam was impracticably slow for lumber. Hence the effect of RF or microwave on wood was the principal focus of the work reported here. Finally, in order to understand the mechanism of VOC release, the transport of the VOCs in wood was studied, together with the seasonal effects that influence VOC concentration in trees.

  2. An In-Situ Ion Mobility Spectrometer Sensor System for Detecting Gaseous VOCs in Unsaturated Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, R. Jacob

    An In-Situ Ion Mobility Spectrometer Sensor System for Detecting Gaseous VOCs in Unsaturated Soils and will be ultimately equipped with water content, temperature, and pressure sensors. The proposed system is designed knowledge, an in-situ IMS for detection of subsurface gaseous VOCs has not been previously developed. VOCs

  3. ACCEPTED BY WATER ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH ODOR AND VOC REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACCEPTED BY WATER ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH _______ ODOR AND VOC REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT of biofilters for sequential removal of H2S and VOCs from wastewater treatment plant waste air. The biofilter of VOCs. In Europe, biological treatment in biofilters has rapidly been gaining ground as a relatively

  4. VOC Emission Control with the Brayton Cycle Pilot Plant Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enneking, J. C.

    A mobile pilot plant capable of removing VOC emissions from exhaust air streams was cooperatively funded by SCE, EPRI, 3M, and NUCON. Valuable information about the process and the recovery operation has been gained by performing tests at a number...

  5. VOC Emission Control with the Brayton Cycle Pilot Plant Operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enneking, J. C.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mobile pilot plant capable of removing VOC emissions from exhaust air streams was cooperatively funded by SCE, EPRI, 3M, and NUCON. Valuable information about the process and the recovery operation has been gained by performing tests at a number...

  6. Volatile Organic Compound Detection Using Nanostructured Copolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Lee E.

    conductivity of these copolymers increased or decreased depending upon the polymer composition and the specific,3-6 conductive poly- mers (CPs),7-12 and carbon black-polymer composites.13,14 Metal oxide materials Carbon black-polymer composites have also attracted a lot of research interest as a promising sensing

  7. Emission and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and Aerosol Phase at a Sub-Urban Site Near Mexico City in March 2006 During the MILAGRO Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Gouw, Joost A.; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; Warneke, Carsten; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, Angela K.; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Blake, D. R.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Celada, A. T.; Huey, L. G.; Junkermann, W.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Salcido, A.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Sullivan, Amy; Tanner, David J.; Vargas-Ortiz, Leroy; Weber, R. J.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2009-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonaceous aerosol were measured at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March of 2006 during the MILAGRO study (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Objectives). Diurnal variations of hydrocarbons, elemental carbon (EC) and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) were dominated by a high peak in the early morning when local emissions accumulated in a shallow boundary layer, and a minimum in the afternoon when the emissions were diluted in a significantly expanded boundary layer and, in case of the reactive gases, removed by OH. In comparison, diurnal variations of species with secondary sources such as the aldehydes, ketones, oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) stayed relatively high in the afternoon indicating strong photochemical formation. Emission ratios of many hydrocarbon species relative to CO were higher in Mexico City than in the U.S., but we found similar emission ratios for most oxygenated VOCs and organic aerosol. Secondary formation of acetone may be more efficient in Mexico City than in the U.S., due to higher emissions of alkane precursors from the use of liquefied petroleum gas. Secondary formation of organic aerosol was similar between Mexico City and the U.S. Combining the data for all measured gas and aerosol species, we describe the budget of total observed organic carbon (TOOC), and find that the enhancement ratio of TOOC relative to CO is conserved between the early morning and mid afternoon despite large compositional changes. Finally, the influence of biomass burning is investigated using the measurements of acetonitrile, which was found to correlate with levoglucosan in the particle phase. Diurnal variations of acetonitrile indicate a contribution from local burning sources. Scatter plots of acetonitrile versus CO suggest that the contribution of biomass burning to the enhancement of most gas and aerosol species was not dominant and perhaps not dissimilar from observations in the U.S.

  8. Realized Stock Volatility 2.1 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niebur, Ernst

    Chapter 2 Realized Stock Volatility 2.1 Introduction Financial market volatility is indispensable for asset and derivative pricing, asset allocation, and risk management. As volatility is not a directly is to calculate the daily volatility from the sample variance of intraday returns, the `realized' volatility

  9. Services Initiatives | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and is very low in Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) which evaporate little and cause no air pollution, whereas petroleum-based inks are high in VOCs and cause air pollution when...

  10. Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundel, Lara (Berkeley, CA); Daisey, Joan M. (Walnut Creek, CA); Stevens, Robert K. (Cary, NC)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

  11. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions - Fact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sheet, 2014 Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 The Gas Technology Institute, in collaboration with Cannon Boiler Works, Integrated CHP...

  12. NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TBD ECOS Washington, D.C. FESCNGO Anthony Zammerilli Methane and Volatile Organic Carbon (VOC) Emissions Best Practices Database... The Environmental Council of States, Shale Gas...

  13. A Case for Safer Building Materials: Lifecycle Concerns, Data Gaps, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seung-Wuk

    ;Conventional Building Materials · Wood · Stone · Cement · Metal · Glass · Straw · Ceramics #12;Synthetic;Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) · Aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons

  14. Volatility Persistence in Crude Oil Markets Amlie CHARLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , reflecting rising demand for crude oil, particularly from developing nations. Oil prices have been veryVolatility Persistence in Crude Oil Markets Amélie CHARLES Audencia Nantes, School of Management oil markets ­ Brent, West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

  15. CALIBRATION OF VOLATILITY SURFACES Stphane CRPEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Printems, Jacques

    CALIBRATION OF VOLATILITY SURFACES Stéphane CR�PEY Université d'�vry & ARTABEL SA GT MATHFI Calibration, 5 June 2003 Figure 1: Volatility Smile #12;GT MATHFI Calibration 5 June 2003 1 Basics CR�PEY Page 1 #12;GT MATHFI Calibration 5 June 2003 Smile of implied volatility Stochastic volatility d

  16. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  17. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  18. Surface acoustic wave sensing of VOCs in harsh chemical environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfeifer, K.B.; Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of VOC concentrations in harsh chemical and physical environments is a formidable task. A surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor has been designed for this purpose and its construction and testing are described in this paper. Included is a detailed description of the design elements specific to operation in 300{degree}C steam and HCl environments including temperature control, gas handling, and signal processing component descriptions. In addition, laboratory temperature stability was studied and a minimum detection limit was defined for operation in industrial environments. Finally, a description of field tests performed on steam reforming equipment at Synthetica Technologies Inc. of Richmond, CA is given including a report on destruction efficiency of CCl{sub 4} in the Synthetica moving bed evaporator. Design improvements based on the field tests are proposed.

  19. 1996 Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US and Mexican side of the border during a six week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. On nine intensive operations (IOP) days, when high ozone concentrations were forecast, five 2-hr samples were collected at five IOP sites, three on the US side and two on the Mexican side. Six special survey sites on the US side and two on the Mexican side were sampled to characterize up-wind, down-wind and other emissions. In Ciudad Juarez, rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane and butane fuels, and an industrial manufacturing site were sampled. Carbonyl samples were collected at three surface sites. Carbonyl and canister grab samples were also collected during aircraft and hot air balloon flights. Most of the hydrocarbon samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratories for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration GC-FID. The carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated C-18 Sep-Pak cartridges and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. This paper presents the spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions to examine the differences and similarities of the various locations and time periods. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations being recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Ciudad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Ciudad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons. The most abundant carbonyls were acetaldehyde and acetone.

  20. Characterizing the formation of secondary organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunden, Melissa; Black, Douglas; Brown, Nancy

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic aerosol is an important fraction of the fine particulate matter present in the atmosphere. This organic aerosol comes from a variety of sources; primary organic aerosol emitted directly from combustion process, and secondary aerosol formed in the atmosphere from condensable vapors. This secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can result from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In rural areas of the United States, organic aerosols can be a significant part of the aerosol load in the atmosphere. However, the extent to which gas-phase biogenic emissions contribute to this organic load is poorly understood. Such an understanding is crucial to properly apportion the effect of anthropogenic emissions in these rural areas that are sometimes dominated by biogenic sources. To help gain insight on the effect of biogenic emissions on particle concentrations in rural areas, we have been conducting a field measurement program at the University of California Blodgett Forest Research Facility. The field location includes has been used to acquire an extensive suite of measurements resulting in a rich data set, containing a combination of aerosol, organic, and nitrogenous species concentration and meteorological data with a long time record. The field location was established in 1997 by Allen Goldstein, a professor in the Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management at the University of California at Berkeley to study interactions between the biosphere and the atmosphere. The Goldstein group focuses on measurements of concentrations and whole ecosystem biosphere-atmosphere fluxes for volatile organic compounds (VOC's), oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC's), ozone, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy. Another important collaborator at the Blodgett field location is Ronald Cohen, a professor in the Chemistry Department at the University of California at Berkeley. At the Blodgett field location, his group his group performs measurements of the concentrations of important gas phase nitrogen compounds. Experiments have been ongoing at the Blodgett field site since the fall of 2000, and have included portions of the summer and fall of 2001, 2002, and 2003. Analysis of both the gas and particle phase data from the year 2000 show that the particle loading at the site correlates with both biogenic precursors emitted in the forest and anthropogenic precursors advected to the site from Sacramento and the Central Valley of California. Thus the particles at the site are affected by biogenic processing of anthropogenic emissions. Size distribution measurements show that the aerosol at the site has a geometric median diameter of approximately 100 nm. On many days, in the early afternoon, growth of nuclei mode particles (<20 nm) is also observed. These growth events tend to occur on days with lower average temperatures, but are observed throughout the summer. Analysis of the size resolved data for these growth events, combined with typical measured terpene emissions, show that the particle mass measured in these nuclei mode particles could come from oxidation products of biogenic emissions, and can serve as a significant route for SOA partitioning into the particle phase. During periods of each year, the effect of emissions for forest fires can be detected at the Blodgett field location. During the summer of 2002 emissions from the Biscuit fire, a large fire located in Southwest Oregon, was detected in the aerosol data. The results show that increases in particle scattering can be directly related to increased black carbon concentration and an appearance of a larger mode in the aerosol size distribution. These results show that emissions from fires can have significant impact on visibility over large distances. The results also reinforce the view that forest fires can be a significant source of black carbon in the atmosphere, which has important climate and visibility. Continuing work with the 2002 data set, particularly the combination of the aerosol and gas phase data, will continue to provide important information o

  1. Volatility in natural gas and oil markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using daily futures price data, I examine the behavior of natural gas and crude oil price volatility since 1990. I test whether there has been a significant trend in volatility, whether there was a short-term increase in ...

  2. A study of volatile compounds in the breath of children with type 1 diabetes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevens, S; Wei, C; Greenwood, R; Hamilton-Shield, J; Costello, B de Lacy; Ratcliffe, N; Probert, C

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot study of exhaled volatile compounds and their correlation with blood glucose levels in eight children with type 1 diabetes is reported. Five paired blood and breath samples were obtained from each child over a 6 hour period. The blood glucose concentration ranged from 41.4 to 435.6 mg/dL. Breath samples were collected in Tedlar bags and immediately evacuated through thermal desorption tubes packed with Carbopack B and C. The VOCs were later recovered by thermal desorption and analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The study identified 74 volatile compounds present in at least 10% of the patient samples. Of these 74 volatiles 36 were found in all patient samples tested. Further analysis of the 36 compounds found that none showed significant overall correlation with blood glucose levels. Isoprene showed a weak negative correlation with blood glucose levels. Acetone was found to have no correlation with blood glucose levels for the patients studied. Some patients showed significant individu...

  3. Modeling indoor exposures to VOCs and SVOCs as ventilation rates vary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. 2008. Analysis of ventilation data from the United StatesASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoorto VOCs and   SVOCs as ventilation rates vary   Srinandini 

  4. The Chicago VOC trading system : the consequences of market design for performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosobud, Richard F.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chicago cap-and-trade approach to regulating stationary source VOC emissions in the Chicago ozone non-attainment area is a pioneering program that could set a precedent for other urban areas troubled by high ozone ...

  5. NoVaS Transformations: Flexible Inference for Volatility Forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politis, Dimitris N; Thomakos, Dimitrios D

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NoVaS Transformations: Flexible Inference for VolatilityNoVaS Transformations: Flexible Inference for Volatility

  6. Perturbation Expansion for Option Pricing with Stochastic Volatility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Jizba; Hagen Kleinert; Patrick Haener

    2007-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We fit the volatility fluctuations of the S&P 500 index well by a Chi distribution, and the distribution of log-returns by a corresponding superposition of Gaussian distributions. The Fourier transform of this is, remarkably, of the Tsallis type. An option pricing formula is derived from the same superposition of Black-Scholes expressions. An explicit analytic formula is deduced from a perturbation expansion around a Black-Scholes formula with the mean volatility. The expansion has two parts. The first takes into account the non-Gaussian character of the stock-fluctuations and is organized by powers of the excess kurtosis, the second is contract based, and is organized by the moments of moneyness of the option. With this expansion we show that for the Dow Jones Euro Stoxx 50 option data, a Delta-hedging strategy is close to being optimal.

  7. aquatic organisms potential: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    consequences Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: Impacts of herbaceous bioenergy crops on atmospheric volatile organic composition and potential compared BVOC...

  8. Summary Report for the Development of Materials for Volatile Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Chun, Jaehun; Henager, Charles H.; Matyas, Josef; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The materials development summarized here is in support of the Waste Forms campaign, Volatile Radionuclide task. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal and immobilization of iodine and krypton, specifically 129I and 85Kr. During FY 2010, aerogel materials were investigated for removal and immobilization of 129I. Two aerogel formulations were investigated, one based on silica aerogels and the second on chalcogenides. For 85Kr, metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated.

  9. Mapping isoprene emissions over North America using formaldehyde column observations from space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    Mapping isoprene emissions over North America using formaldehyde column observations from space. [1] We present a methodology for deriving emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) using space to local VOC emissions, with a spatial smearing that increases with the VOC lifetime. Isoprene

  10. Development and Characterization of a Thermodenuder for Aerosol Volatility Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Timothy Onasch

    2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This SBIR Phase I project addressed the critical need for improved characterization of carbonaceous aerosol species in the atmosphere. The proposed work focused on the development of a thermodenuder (TD) system capable of systematically measuring volatility profiles of primary and secondary organic aerosol species and providing insight into the effects of absorbing and nonabsorbing organic coatings on particle absorption properties. This work provided the fundamental framework for the generation of essential information needed for improved predictions of ambient aerosol loadings and radiative properties by atmospheric chemistry models. As part of this work, Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) continued to develop and test, with the final objective of commercialization, an improved thermodenuder system that can be used in series with any aerosol instrument or suite of instruments (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometers-AMS, scanning mobility particle sizers-SMPS, photoacoustic absorption spectrometers-PAS, etc.) to obtain aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties as a function of particle volatility. In particular, we provided the proof of concept for the direct coupling of our improved TD design with a full microphysical model to obtain volatility profiles for different organic aerosol components and to allow for meaningful comparisons between different TD-derived aerosol measurements. In a TD, particles are passed through a heated zone and a denuding (activated charcoal) zone to remove semi-volatile material. Changes in particle size, number concentration, optical absorption, and chemical composition are subsequently detected with aerosol instrumentation. The aerosol volatility profiles provided by the TD will strengthen organic aerosol emission inventories, provide further insight into secondary aerosol formation mechanisms, and provide an important measure of particle absorption (including brown carbon contributions and identification, and absorption enhancements due to coatings on soot particles). The successfully completed Phase I project included construction of a prototype design for the TD with detailed physical modeling, testing with laboratory and ambient aerosol particles, and the initiation of a detailed microphysical model of the aerosol particles passing through the TD to extract vapor pressure distributions. The objective of the microphysical model is to derive vapor pressure distributions (i.e. vapor pressure ranges, including single chemical compounds, mixtures of known compounds, and complex ‘real-world’ aerosols, such as SOA, and soot particles with absorbing and nonabsorbing coatings) from TD measurements of changes in particle size, mass, and chemical composition for known TD temperatures and flow rates (i.e. residence times). The proposed Phase II project was designed to optimize several TD systems for different instrument applications and to combine the hardware and modeling into a robust package for commercial sales.

  11. Moment Methods for Exotic Volatility Derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albanese, Claudio

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The latest generation of volatility derivatives goes beyond variance and volatility swaps and probes our ability to price realized variance and sojourn times along bridges for the underlying stock price process. In this paper, we give an operator algebraic treatment of this problem based on Dyson expansions and moment methods and discuss applications to exotic volatility derivatives. The methods are quite flexible and allow for a specification of the underlying process which is semi-parametric or even non-parametric, including state-dependent local volatility, jumps, stochastic volatility and regime switching. We find that volatility derivatives are particularly well suited to be treated with moment methods, whereby one extrapolates the distribution of the relevant path functionals on the basis of a few moments. We consider a number of exotics such as variance knockouts, conditional corridor variance swaps, gamma swaps and variance swaptions and give valuation formulas in detail.

  12. Oxidized organic functional groups in aerosol particles from forest emissions measured at mid-mountain and high- elevation mountain sites in Whistler, BC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FTIR) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques for organicPTR-MS SOA SP2 STXM-NEXAFS VOC XRF Aerosol Mass SpectrometerPTR-MS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), single particle soot

  13. Method for lowering the VOCS emitted during drying of wood products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Sujit (1832 Jacksons Creek Point, Marietta, GA 30068); Boerner, James Robert (154 Junedale Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45218); Su, Wei (2262 Orleans Ave., Marietta, GA 30062)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for removal of VOCs from wood products prior to drying the wood products. The method of the invention includes the steps of providing a chamber having an opening for receiving wood and loading the chamber with green wood. The wood is loaded to an extent sufficient to provide a limited headspace in the chamber. The chamber is then closed and the wood is heated in the chamber for a time and at a temperature sufficient to saturate the headspace with moisture and to substantially transfer VOCs from the wood product to the moisture in the headspace.

  14. Ambient air measurements related to traffic : volution of VOCs over three years

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    hours. The major VOC are : benzène and toluène, MTBE, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, phénol, naphtalene, but will not be discussed hère. Aromatic hydrocarbons and MTBE are sampled b

  15. Photoconductive Decay Lifetime and Suns-Voc Diagnostics of Efficient Heterojunction Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, M. R.; Iwaniczko, E.; Xu, Y.; Roybal L.; Bauer, R.; Yan, H.-C.; Wang, Q.; Meier, D. L.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report results of minority carrier lifetime measurements for double-sided p-type Si heterojunction devices and compare Suns-Voc results to Light I-V measurements on 1 cm2 solar cell devices measured on an AM1.5 calibrated XT-10 solar simulator.

  16. Securing non-volatile memory regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faraboschi, Paolo; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy; Muralimanohar, Naveen

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods, apparatus and articles of manufacture to secure non-volatile memory regions are disclosed. An example method disclosed herein comprises associating a first key pair and a second key pair different than the first key pair with a process, using the first key pair to secure a first region of a non-volatile memory for the process, and using the second key pair to secure a second region of the non-volatile memory for the same process, the second region being different than the first region.

  17. On the pricing and hedging of volatility derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howison, Sam

    On the pricing and hedging of volatility derivatives SAM HOWISON Mathematical Institute, University a stochastic volatility model as our starting point; we also provide formulae for the case that the volatility follows a jump- diffusion process of the type described in [18]. The fact that stochastic volatility

  18. The profitability of trading volatility using realvalued and symbolic models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tino, Peter

    implied volatility models . 1 Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF

  19. Reactive flash volatilization of fluid fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Dreyer, Bradon J.; Salge, James R.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods for the production of synthesis gas. More particularly, various embodiments of the invention relate to systems and methods for volatilizing fluid fuel to produce synthesis gas by using a metal catalyst on a solid support matrix.

  20. Metal volatilization and separation during incineration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, T.C.; Chu, H.W.; Hopper, J.R. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has reported that metals can account for almost all of the identified risks from a thermal treatment process. Fundamental research leading to better understanding of their behavior and improved control of their emissions is greatly needed. This paper reports studies on metal volatilization and separation during incineration. Metal volatilization studies were carried out in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, the dynamic volatilization characteristics of various metals during the combustion of metal-containing wood pellets were investigated in a high-temperature electric furnace. In addition to uncontrolled volatilization, the potential of employing chemical additives to bind metals and prevent them from volatilizing during combustion was also investigated. The second experiment involved the investigation of metal volatilization characteristics during the thermal treatment of metal-contaminated clay in a fluidized bed unit. The metal species tested in both experiments were compounds of lead and cadmium. Metal capture/separation studies were also carried out in two separate experiments. The first involved the use of sorbents in the combustion chamber to capture metals during the fluidized bed incineration of metal-containing wood pellets. The second experiments, however, employed sorbents to absorb metal vapors in a fluidized-bed waste-heat boiler. The objective of both the experiments is to characterize the metal absorption efficiency associated with the processes.

  1. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Dairy Cows and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    , acetone + propanal, dimethylsulfide, and m/z 109 (likely 4-methyl-phenol). The compounds with highest. Agricultural pro- cesses, notably animal operations, are no longer exempt from emission controls as a result with a pro

  2. Three-Dimensional Simulation of Volatile Organic Compound Mass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulations using data from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, where carbon tetrachloride is present in a low permeability zone about 30 m above the...

  3. Glossary of Volatile Organic Compounds Ethylbenzene Carbon tetrachloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Ethylbenzene Ethylbenzene is a colorless, flammable liquid found in natural products such as coal tar into the environment from burning oil, gas, and coal, and from discharges of ethylbenzene from factories. Ethylbenzene-made activities and natural processes. Benzene is widely used in the United States and ranks in the top 20

  4. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular...

  5. Class 2 Permit Modification Request Revise Volatile Organic Compound...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is provided in Figure N-1" Attachment N, Section N-4a(3) Replaced "Treated stainless steel" with "The" Deleted "is" Replaced "from the desired sample point to the sample...

  6. 1. PRECONCENTRATION, THERMAL DESORPTION & ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    : peltier, liq. N?.. Heated transfer line 2) Desorption & transfer by fastheatlng Cooled & heated trap jas trap. The trap is then quickly heated, under a low flow of hélium, to desorb and inject thé compounds. This highly concentrated plug of sample is transferred via a heated transfer line, to a capillary

  7. Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1 Termoelectrica U.SPRESSHeavy-duty Engine using

  8. Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave the WhiteNational| DepartmentCommunities

  9. Hydrophobic VOC absorption in two-phase partitioning bioreactors; influence of silicone oil volume fraction on absorber diameter.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Hydrophobic VOC absorption in two-phase partitioning bioreactors; influence of silicone oil of a mixture of an aqueous phase and a NAPL, before being introduced into a two-phase partitioning bioreactor

  10. Reliable fieldable VOC analysis with an automated microprocessor controlled two stage sample processor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overton, E.B.; Stewart, M.; Carney, K.R.; D`Harmasena, H. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Inst. for Environmental Studies

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    High quality field analysis of VOCs from a variety of sample types has many environmental applications. In order to achieve desired data quality from field analysis, the entire analytical sequence, from collection of samples through instrumental analysis and data interpretation, must be controlled and have documented precision. To this end, the authors have developed a Sample Processing Device for use with fieldable VOC analyses. The unit is microprocessor controlled, small, rugged, and uses less than 25 watts of power at 12 VDC. It is ideally suited for use with microchip GC analyzers but will work with a variety of other field analytical devices. In addition to processing a variety of sample types, the unit allows control of water interference in the analytical sequence. Since the functions of the sample processing device are microprocessor controlled, the sample analysis procedures have the precision and reliability of automated, methods driven analytical techniques.

  11. Flow of Volatile-Free and Volatile-Rich Basaltic Magmas through Elastic-Walled Dikes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    averaged in "one-dimensional" flow tube. #12;Questions: · Can we obtain a simple 1D symmetric model) · Anisotropy 1 in horizontal and vertical rock stress #12;Elastic flow equations · Continuity equation t(m bFlow of Volatile-Free and Volatile-Rich Basaltic Magmas through Elastic-Walled Dikes O. Bokhove

  12. Non-volatile memory for checkpoint storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Cipolla, Thomas M.; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Ohmacht, Martin; Takken, Todd E.

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A system, method and computer program product for supporting system initiated checkpoints in high performance parallel computing systems and storing of checkpoint data to a non-volatile memory storage device. The system and method generates selective control signals to perform checkpointing of system related data in presence of messaging activity associated with a user application running at the node. The checkpointing is initiated by the system such that checkpoint data of a plurality of network nodes may be obtained even in the presence of user applications running on highly parallel computers that include ongoing user messaging activity. In one embodiment, the non-volatile memory is a pluggable flash memory card.

  13. Forecasting Volatility in Stock Market Using GARCH Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Xiaorong

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Forecasting volatility has held the attention of academics and practitioners all over the world. The objective for this master's thesis is to predict the volatility in stock market by using generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity(GARCH...

  14. CEC-500-2010-FS-017 Volatility of Ultrafine Particulate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gas Vehicles TRANSPORTATION ENERGY RESEARCH PIER Transportation Research www. Limited research has been done to characterize compressed natural gas mass emissions and practically-volatile and semi-volatile fractions of ultrafine particulate matter emissions from compressed natural gas vehicles

  15. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Construction and Operation...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    U.S. Department of Agriculture USEC United States Enrichment Corporation USFWS U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service USGS U.S. Geological Survey VOC volatile organic compound WM PEIS...

  16. PROPOSED INSTALLATION AND OPERATION OF A

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    U.S. Department of Agriculture USEPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency USFWS U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service VOC Volatile Organic Compound VPP Voluntary Protection Program...

  17. Vapor intrusion modeling : limitations, improvements, and value of information analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friscia, Jessica M. (Jessica Marie)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor intrusion is the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a subsurface source into the indoor air of an overlying building. Vapor intrusion models, including the Johnson and Ettinger (J&E) model, can be ...

  18. A cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative ozone control strategies : flexible nitrogen oxide (NOx) abatement from power plants in the eastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Lin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ozone formation is a complex, non-linear process that depends on the atmospheric concentrations of its precursors, nitrogen oxide (NOx) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), as well as on temperature and the available ...

  19. Evaluation of the pathways of tropospheric nitrophenol formation from benzene and phenol using a multiphase model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heal, Mathew R; Harrison, Mark A J; Cape, Neil

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phenols are a major class of volatile organic compounds (VOC) whose reaction within, and partitioning between, the gas and liquid phases affects their lifetime within the atmosphere, the local oxidising capacity, and the ...

  20. Laboratory simulation of subsurface airflow beneath a building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corsello, Joseph William

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor intrusion is the vapor-phase migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings due to subsurface soil or groundwater contamination. Oxygen replenishment rates beneath a building are significant for ...

  1. Study of building material emissions and indoor air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Xudong, 1966-

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building materials and furnishings emit a wide variety of indoor pollutants, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). At present, no accurate models are available to characterize material emissions and sorption under ...

  2. Alternate Fuels: Is Your Waste Stream a Fuel Source? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coerper, P.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Before the year 2000, more than one quarter of U.S. businesses will be firing Alternate Fuels in their boiler systems. And, the trend toward using Process Gases, Flammable Liquids, and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's), to supplement fossil fuels...

  3. CX-011446: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Modeling to Quantify Emissions of Methane and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from Shale Gas Operations CX(s) Applied: B3.1 Date: 11132013 Location(s): Pennsylvania...

  4. PDID: Pulsed-Discharge Ionization Detector A new detector for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-1387C Sandia's Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Biomarker Detection Technology 0.25" grid Photons emitted from a...

  5. Life-cycle assessment of computational logic produced from 1995 through 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Sarah; A. Horvath; Dornfeld, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in each fab model include a central acid scrubber, anammonia scrubber, a volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidizer99% ef?ciency in the fab scrubber and though liquid HCl is

  6. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseini, Seyedehsan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Base VOC Volatile Organic Compound XRF X-ray Fluorescence ?mFluorescence spectrometry (XRF) (Na through Pb), inorganicby X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The USFS samples were analyzed

  7. Nez Perce Tribe Formaldehyde Study 2011 Kayla Warden and Etta Axtell-Northwest Indian College

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    volatile organic compounds (VOC) were measured using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR Acknowledgements: This research was funded by EPA/FaST DOE and NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU). I

  8. X-ray elemental online analyzer measures volatiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, A.; Pilz, K.; Reich, K. [Indutech Instruments GmbH, Simmersfeld (Germany)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of an online XRF analyser for determining the volatiles content of coal is outlined. 3 figs.

  9. Proboscis extension reflex platform for volatiles and semi-volatiles detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wingo, Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM); McCabe, Kirsten J. (Los Alamos, NM); Haarmann, Timothy K. (Jemez Pueblo, NM)

    2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides an apparatus for the detection of volatile and semi-volatile chemicals using the olfactory abilities of honey bees that are trained to respond to the presence of a specific chemical in a sample of gas with the proboscis extension reflex (PER). In particular, the geometry and arrangement of the parts of the apparatus are such that the amount of surface area in contact with the sample of gas prior to its introduction to the bees is minimized to improve the detection of particular volatile and semi-volatile that have a tendency to "stick" to contacting surfaces, especially certain chemicals associated with explosives and narcotics. According to another aspect of the present invention, a pre-concentrating means is incorporated with the device to effectively increase the concentration of "sticky" chemicals presented to the insects.

  10. Brookhaven National Laboratory - OU I/IV VOC | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613PortsmouthBartlesville Energy ResearchAchievingHydraulic Institute StandardsHFBRI/IV VOC

  11. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report number 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooda, U.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ingram, L.; Conners, T. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is based on the finding that brief microwave or RF-treatment of wood under low-headspace conditions leads to the release of VOCs. On occasion the authors have found that prolonged irradiation increases turpentine yield much more than anticipated from a simple mass balance; i.e., more pinene appeared to be released than was present in the wood in the first place. If taken at face value, this suggests that brief low-headspace irradiation removes VOCs, while prolonged exposure creates it. While seemingly improbable, this could follow if dielectric heating exposed regions of wood that were otherwise inaccessible to the solvent used for extraction (unlikely), or if the irradiation induced depolymerization of terpene dimers or higher polymers. In this report the authors attempt to identify the conditions that lead to this apparent enhancement of terpene yield, by constructing relationships between yield and irradiation parameters. The tentative conclusions are that this enhancement only occurs with relatively wet heartwood, and only under prolonged irradiation. An additional conclusion is that continuing analyses of twelve trees in the MSU forest confirm that the absence of a significant seasonal influence on turpentine content. An apparatus for permeability testing has been constructed, and work is underway.

  12. Sample and Implied Volatility in GARCH Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kokoszka, Piotr

    Sample and Implied Volatility in GARCH Models Lajos Horva´th University of Utah Piotr Kokoszka Utah of various GARCH-type models is a function hðq� of the parameter vector q which is estimated by bq. For most distributions of the differences ^2 � hðq� and ^2 � hðbq� for broad classes of GARCH-type models. Even though

  13. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 58715891, 2014 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/5871/2014/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Jeffrey

    inventories by measurements of ambient volatile organic compounds in Beijing, China M. Wang1, M. Shao1, W inventories to eval- uate the spatial distribution, species-specific emissions, and source structure of VOCs, whereas current emission inventories suggested that VOC emissions were concentrated in downtown areas. Com

  14. WearAir: Expressive T-shirts for Air Quality Sensing Sunyoung Kim and Eric Paulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mankoff, Jennifer

    are less proactively concerned with air quality. AIR POLLUTANT: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Different types of air pollutants contribute to air quality in different locations: Ozone, CO, NOx and VOCs are major contributors to outdoor air pollution; and particulate matters, VOCs, carbon monoxide and lead are common air

  15. Chemical Engineering Journal 87 (2002) 101110 Co-treatment of H2S and toluene in a biotrickling filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical Engineering Journal 87 (2002) 101­110 Co-treatment of H2S and toluene in a biotrickling-gases contain H2S and a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Since co-treatment of odors and VOCs in biotrickling filters is a relatively unexplored area, the simultaneous biotreatment of H2S and toluene (as

  16. Ammonia volatilization and nitrogen transformations in high pH soils used for beef manure disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Robert Edgar

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The total nitrogen losses in the limed treatments were believed to be caused by the high solubility of organic matter in high pH solutions followed by chemical volatilization of nitrogen as ammonia. Most of this ammonia was believed to have remained... as par t of the soil air and was lost when the soil samples were taken from the columns. Denitrification was believed to be responsible for losses in the unlimed treatments. Comparison of final organic and total inorganic nitrogen concen- trationss...

  17. Source Contributions to VOC's to Ozone Formation in Southeast Texas Using a Source-oriented Air Quality Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Anupama

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Houston-Galveston-Brazoria area is in severe non-attainment status for ozone compliance. Source-oriented mechanistic modeling was used to determine the major sources of VOCs that contributes to ozone formation during the Texas Air Quality Study (Tex...

  18. WAT ENVIRON RESEARCH (in press, final version may have small changes) ODOR AND VOC TREATMENT BY BIOTRICKLING FILTERS: PILOT SCALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the reactor was continuously monitored over a period of 10 months. At an average empty bed gas residence time odorous waste gases. The waste gas from the Headworks at HTP (100,000 cfm) contains 10-50 ppm H2S generate VOCs, which are subsequently emitted into the atmosphere (Witherspoon et al., 1995). Other

  19. Source Contributions to VOC's to Ozone Formation in Southeast Texas Using a Source-oriented Air Quality Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Anupama

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Houston-Galveston-Brazoria area is in severe non-attainment status for ozone compliance. Source-oriented mechanistic modeling was used to determine the major sources of VOCs that contributes to ozone formation during the Texas Air Quality Study (Tex...

  20. Red Balloon, Green Balloon, Sensors in the Sky Stacey Kuznetsov1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    color based on input from attached air quality sensors (exhaust, diesel, or volatile organic compounds). The balloons change color in response to one of exhaust gas, diesel, or VOC's (volatile organic compounds]. Diesel exhaust consists of fine particulate matter emitted by engines and industrial processes [44

  1. Princeton and PPPL launch center to study volatile space weather...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton and PPPL launch center to study volatile space weather and violent solar storms By John Greenwald December 12, 2013 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook...

  2. Volatiles as a link between planetary interiors and the environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Benjamin A. (Benjamin Alexander)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatiles derived from planetary interiors influence magma evolution and environmental processes. Over appropriate timescales, Earth's mantle, crust, ocean, and atmosphere constitute coupled systems. The apparently synchronous ...

  3. Growth History Of Kilauea Inferred From Volatile Concentrations...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inferred From Volatile Concentrations In Submarine-Collected Basalts Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Growth History Of Kilauea...

  4. Ammonia volatilization from N fertilizers surface applied on bermudagrass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panossian, Jack B.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The biological activity was measured by trapping the CO in NaOH (0. 422 N). The NH3 which was volatilized from the urea was trapped in boric acid according to Bremner (1965). Volatilized NH and evolved CO were measured daily by titrating the boric acid and 13... was passed over the soil surface, then bubbled into boric acid to trap volatilized NH (Bremner, 1965). Humidified air was used to prevent rapid soil drying which would retard NH volatilization (Ernst and Massey, 1960). The apparatus is diagrammed in Fig. 1...

  5. Measuring Spatial Variability of Vapor Flux to Characterize Vadose-zone VOC Sources: Flow-cell Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mainhagu, Jon; Morrison, C.; Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Brusseau, Mark

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method termed vapor-phase tomography has recently been proposed to characterize the distribution of volatile organic contaminant mass in vadose-zone source areas, and to measure associated three-dimensional distributions of local contaminant mass discharge. The method is based on measuring the spatial variability of vapor flux, and thus inherent to its effectiveness is the premise that the magnitudes and temporal variability of vapor concentrations measured at different monitoring points within the interrogated area will be a function of the geospatial positions of the points relative to the source location. A series of flow-cell experiments was conducted to evaluate this premise. A well-defined source zone was created by injection and extraction of a non-reactive gas (SF6). Spatial and temporal concentration distributions obtained from the tests were compared to simulations produced with a mathematical model describing advective and diffusive transport. Tests were conducted to characterize both areal and vertical components of the application. Decreases in concentration over time were observed for monitoring points located on the opposite side of the source zone from the local–extraction point, whereas increases were observed for monitoring points located between the local–extraction point and the source zone. The results illustrate that comparison of temporal concentration profiles obtained at various monitoring points gives a general indication of the source location with respect to the extraction and monitoring points.

  6. Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, Terrence L. (Lenior City, TN); Wilson, James H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing.

  7. Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, T.L.; Wilson, J.H.

    1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing. 2 figures.

  8. Numerical Convergence Properties of Option Pricing PDEs with Uncertain Volatility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forsyth, Peter A.

    is then simply the cost of this hedge. The principal source of risk is the price of the underlying assetNumerical Convergence Properties of Option Pricing PDEs with Uncertain Volatility D. M. Pooley , P, 2001 Abstract The pricing equations derived from uncertain volatility models in finance are often cast

  9. IMPLICIT SOLUTION OF UNCERTAIN VOLATILITY/TRANSACTION COST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forsyth, Peter A.

    IMPLICIT SOLUTION OF UNCERTAIN VOLATILITY/TRANSACTION COST OPTION PRICING MODELS WITH DISCRETELY OBSERVED BARRIERS P.A. FORSYTH \\Lambda AND K.R. VETZAL y Abstract. Option pricing models with uncertain volatility/transaction costs give rise to a nonlinear PDE. Previous work has focussed on explicit methods

  10. Role of Volatilization in Changing TBA and MTBE Concentrations at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Role of Volatilization in Changing TBA and MTBE Concentrations at MTBE-Contaminated Sites J U A N tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) added to gasoline. Frequent observations of high TBA, and especially rising TBA/MTBE of MTBE to TBA. Typically overlooked is the role of volatilization in the attenuation of these chemicals

  11. Cursed Resources? Political Conditions and Oil Market Volatility*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    that there is a pronounced negative relationship between a country's political openness and the short-run volatility in oil shifts in oil demand or supply affect prices (see, for example, Hamilton (2009a) for a recent assessmentCursed Resources? Political Conditions and Oil Market Volatility* Gilbert E. Metcalf Tufts

  12. PSERC 98-22 "Market Power and Price Volatility in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PSERC 98-22 "Market Power and Price Volatility in Restructured Markets for Electricity" Tim Mount/IEEE Service Center/445 Hoes Lane/P.O. Box 1331/Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331, USA. Telephone: + Intl. 908-562-3966. #12;MARKET POWER AND PRICE VOLATILITY IN RESTRUCTURED MARKETS FOR ELECTRICITY Tim Mount School

  13. Scaling and memory in volatility return intervals in financial markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    markets, we study the return intervals between the daily volatilities of the price changes that are above.federal- reserve.gov releases H10 hist. We choose to study daily data records because there are intraday trendsScaling and memory in volatility return intervals in financial markets Kazuko Yamasaki* , Lev

  14. Organizational Adaptation in Volatile Environments Kathleen M. Carley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    Organizational Adaptation in Volatile Environments Kathleen M. Carley Dept. of Social and Decision. Citation: Kathleen M. Carley, 2000, "Organizational Adaptation in Volatile Environments" Ch. 11 in C. L. Hulin & D. R. Ilgen (Eds.) Computational Modeling in Organizational Behavior: The Third Scientific

  15. Essays on Resource Allocation and Management, Price Volatility and Applied Nonparametrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nigatu, Getchew Sisay

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    85 3.4.4 Comparing GARCH and MRS VolatilityMRS and GARCH Conditional Standard Deviation for (a) CCXF. (2002). Improving GARCH Volatility Forecasts with Regime-

  16. Design of Semiconductor-Based Back Reflectors for High Voc Monolithic Multijunction Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, I.; Geisz, J.; Steiner, M.; Olson, J.; Friedman, D.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    State-of-the-art multijunction cell designs have the potential for significant improvement before going to higher number of junctions. For example, the Voc can be substantially increased if the photon recycling taking place in the junctions is enhanced. This has already been demonstrated (by Alta Devices) for a GaAs single-junction cell. For this, the loss of re-emitted photons by absorption in the underlying layers or substrate must be minimized. Selective back surface reflectors are needed for this purpose. In this work, different architectures of semiconductor distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) are assessed as the appropriate choice for application in monolithic multijunction solar cells. Since the photon re-emission in the photon recycling process is spatially isotropic, the effect of the incident angle on the reflectance spectrum is of central importance. In addition, the DBR structure must be designed taking into account its integration into the monolithic multijunction solar cells, concerning series resistance, growth economics, and other issues. We analyze the tradeoffs in DBR design complexity with all these requirements to determine if such a reflector is suitable to improve multijunction solar cells.

  17. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  18. Woodland Route 72 Dump EPA ID#: NJD980505879

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -volatiles, heavy metals, and pesticides. The ground surface at two areas on the site had elevated levels of gamma, and harvesting of cedar and pine for wood products. Residents rely on ground water for drinking, household use. Threat and Contaminants Ground water is contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi

  19. Woodland Route 532 Dump EPA ID#: NJD980505887

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Contaminants Ground water and surface soils were contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatiles, heavy metals, and pesticides. Goodwater Run contained elevated levels of zinc and lead. Subsurface soils a study of soil and ground water pollution at the site in 1989. In 1990, EPA and NJDEP selected

  20. Method of increasing biodegradation of sparingly soluble vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherry, Robert S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for increasing biodegradation of sparingly soluble volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a bioreactor is disclosed. The method comprises dissolving in the aqueous phase of the bioreactor a water soluble, nontoxic, non-biodegradable polymer having a molecular weight of at least 500 and operable for decreasing the distribution coefficient of the VOCs. Polyoxyalkylene alkanols are preferred polymers. A method of increasing the growth rate of VOC-degrading microorganisms in the bioreactor and a method of increasing the solubility of sparingly soluble VOCs in aqueous solution are also disclosed.

  1. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy ? FY11 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel volatile organic compounds (VOCs) air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. we targeted a VOC air cleaning system that could enable a 50% reduction in ventilation rates. In a typical commercial HVAC system that provides a mixture of recirculated and outdoor air, a VOC air cleaner in the supply airstream must have a 15% to 20% VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply.

  2. Global Emissions of Terpenoid VOCs from Terrestrial Vegetation in the Last Millennium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Smolander, S.; Struthers, H.; Zorita, E.; Ekman, A. M.; Kaplan, J. O.; Guenther, Alex B.; Arneth, A.; Riipinen, I.

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the millennial variability of global BVOC emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene and Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ8 GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends of global isoprene emissions to be mostly affected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have signicant short term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr-1 (13% and 19% less than during during 1750-1850 and 1000- 15 1200, respectively) and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr-1 (15% and 20% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr-1 (10% and 6% higher than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr-1 (2% higher and 5% 19 20 less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr-1 (10% and 4% higher than during1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar We investigated the millennial variability of global BVOC emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene and Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ8GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends ofglobal isoprene emissions to be mostly a*ected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have signifcant short term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr-1 (13% and 19% less than during during 1750-1850 and 1000- 1200, respectively) and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr-1 (15% and 16 17 20% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr-1 (10% and 6% higher than during 1750-1850 and 18 1000-1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr-1 (2% higher and 5% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr-1 (10% and 4% higher than during1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation.emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation.

  3. Financial distortions and the distribution of global volatility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eden, Maya Rachel

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I study the interactions between various aspects of the financial system and macroeconomic volatility in a globally integrated environment. In Chapter 1, I illustrate that an efficient allocation of liquidity ...

  4. Bootstrap Prediction for Returns and Volatilities in GARCH Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortega, Esther Ruiz

    Bootstrap Prediction for Returns and Volatilities in GARCH Models Lorenzo Pascuala , Juan Romob of GARCH processes is proposed. Financial market participants have shown an increasing interest Autoregressive Conditionally Heteroscedastic (GARCH) models, originally introduced by Bollerslev (1986), provide

  5. Forecasting Returns and Volatilities in GARCH Processes Using the Bootstrap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romo, Juan

    Forecasting Returns and Volatilities in GARCH Processes Using the Bootstrap Lorenzo Pascual, Juan generated by GARCH processes. The main advantage over other bootstrap methods previously proposed for GARCH by having conditional heteroscedasticity. Generalized Autoregressive Conditionally Heteroscedastic (GARCH

  6. acidos grasos volatiles: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (more) Ntainjua Ndifor, Edwin. 2007-01-01 32 Impact of Multiple Volatilities in Bioenergy Investments CiteSeer Summary: The paper investigates the effect of the output and...

  7. The impact of fuel price volatility on transportation mode choice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Eun Hie

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, the price of oil has driven large fluctuations in the price of diesel fuel, which is an important cost component in freight logistics. This thesis explores the impact of fuel price volatility on supply ...

  8. Temporal Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geochemical Variations In Volatile Emissions From Mount St Helens, Usa, 1980-1994 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Temporal...

  9. Using Pre-Modeled Scenarios to Estimate Groundwater VOC Concentrations Resulting from Vadose Zone Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Truex, Michael J.; Rice, Amy K.; Johnson, Christian D.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Becker, Dave; Simon, Michelle A.

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a prevalent remediation approach for volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. To support selection of an appropriate endpoint for the SVE remedy, an evaluation is needed to determine whether vadose zone contamination has been diminished sufficiently to protect groundwater. When vapor-phase transport is an important component of the overall contaminant fate and transport from a vadose zone source, the contaminant concentration expected in groundwater is controlled by a limited set of parameters, including specific site dimensions, vadose zone properties, and source characteristics. An approach was developed for estimating the contaminant concentration in groundwater resulting from a contaminant source in the vadose zone based on pre-modeling contaminant transport for a matrix of parameter value combinations covering a range of potential site conditions. An interpolation and scaling process are then applied to estimate groundwater impact for site-specific conditions.

  10. CSTB / CTBA Wood Preservation -Cannes 2001 MEASUREMENT OF VOC EMISSIONS FROM CURATIVE TREATED WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Committee for Standardization (CEN) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has prepared the draft international standard ISO/DIS 16000 analytical methods are needed. The aim of this paper is to present the new standards prepared by the European

  11. Oxidation of volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. Final technical report, September 1980-February 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malte, P.C.; Thornton, M.M.; Kamber, P.D.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to measure, through the use of laboratory combustors, those conditions which promote complete combustion of wood volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. The conditions of interest are combustion temperature, residence time, stoichiometry, and air mixing. The project objectives are met through two laboratory approaches: (1) model compound studies: in order to measure the overall rates of oxidative pyrolysis of biomass volatiles, and to determine the types of intermediate organic species which are likely to form as part of this process, model compounds have been reacted in a specialized jet-stirred reactor, which has been developed as part of this research. (2) high-intensity wood combustion: in order to study the clean combustion of wood, that is, to investigate the conceptual design features required for clean burning, and to ascertain the levels and types of pollutant and condensible species which are most difficult to oxidize, a high-intensity, research wood combustor has been developed and examined for the different phases of the wood burning cycle. Although the objectives of the project have been met, it has not been possible, because of support limitations, to thoroughly explore several interesting aspects which have arisen because of this research. For example, a third laboratory system in which wood pyrolysis gas is injected directly into the a well characterized reactor, so that the kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reaction of the actual biomass volatiles can be studied, could not be thoroughly developed. Refinements in the high-intensity wood combustor, which would bring its design features closer to practicality for the industry, could not be considered. 32 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.

  12. An advanced hybrid reprocessing system based on UF{sub 6} volatilization and chromatographic separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Yuezhou [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200240 (China); Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Liu, Ruiqin; Wu, Yan; Zu, Jianhua; Zhao, Long [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200240 (China); Mimura, Hitoshi [Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Shi, Weiqun; Chai, Zhifang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Jinling; Ding, Youqian [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To recover U, Pu, MA (Np, Am, Cm) and some specific fission products FPs (Cs, Sr, Tc, etc.) from various spent nuclear fuels (LWR/FBR: Oxide, Metal Fuels), we are studying an advanced hybrid reprocessing system based on UF6 volatilization (Pyro) and chromatographic separation (Aqueous). Spent fuels are de-cladded by means of thermal and mechanical methods and then applied to the fluorination/volatilization process, which selectively recovers the most amount of U. Then, the remained fuel components are converted to oxides and dissolved by HNO{sub 3} solution. Compared to U, since Pu, MA and FPs are significantly less abundant in spent fuels, the scale of the aqueous separation process could become reasonably small and result in less waste. For the chromatographic separation processes, we have prepared different types of porous silica-based organic/inorganic adsorbents with fast diffusion kinetics, improved chemical stability and low pressure drop in a packed column. So they are advantageously applicable to efficient separation of the actinides and FP elements from the fuel dissolved solution. In this work, adsorption and separation behavior of representative actinides and FP elements was studied. Small scale separation tests using simulated and genuine fuel dissolved solutions were carried out to verify the feasibility of the proposed process. (authors)

  13. Impact of Storage Time on the Needed Capture Efficiency for Volatile Radionuclides - 13369

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jubin, R.T.; Ilas, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37849 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37849 (United States); Soelberg, N.R. [Idaho National Laboratory (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory (United States); Strachan, D.M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the processing of used nuclear fuel (UNF), volatile radionuclides will be discharged from the facility stack if no recovery processes are in place to limit their release. The volatile radionuclides of concern are {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I. There are three key regulations that address the release of these radionuclides to the environment- 40 CFR 61, 40 CFR 190, and 10 CFR 20. These regulations apply to the total radionuclide release and establish dose limits for the maximum exposed individual (MEI) in the public both in terms of whole body dose and dose to specific organs such as the thyroid. Each radionuclide released to the environment contributes to the total dose to some degree. In this paper we attempt to evaluate the efficiency requirements for the capture processes to limit the doses to the MEI to regulatory levels. Since the total amount of each volatile radionuclide present in the UNF changes with the age of the fuel, the respective capture requirements also change with time. Specifically, we are interested in the impact of the decreasing contribution of {sup 3}H and {sup 85}Kr, which have relatively short half-lives, 12.32 y and 10.76 y, respectively, with the increasing age of the fuel (i.e., time between when the UNF is removed from the reactor and the time it is processed) on the capture requirements. In this paper we examine the capture requirements for these four radionuclides for three fuel types (pressurized water reactor [PWR] with uranium oxide fuel [UOX], PWR with mixed oxide fuel [MOX], and an advanced high temperature gas-cooled reactor [AHTGR]), several burnup values, and time out of reactor extending to 200 y. We calculate doses to the MEI with the EPA code CAP-88 and look at two dose contribution cases. In the first case, we assume that the total allowable dose is attributed to only the four volatile radionuclides. This establishes the lowest capture efficiency value possible. Since this is unrealistic, because it assumes zero dose contribution from all other radionuclides, we also examine a second case, where only 10% of the allowable dose is assigned to the four volatile radionuclides. We calculate the required decontamination factors (DFs) for both of these cases for the three fuel types, multiple fuel burnups, and fuel ages and determine whether or not the dose to the whole body or to the thyroid that drives the capture requirements would require additional effluent controls for the shorter half-life volatile radionuclides based on dose considerations. This analysis indicates that the principal isotopes of concern are generally {sup 3}H and {sup 129}I, the latter requiring the highest DFs. The maximum DF value for {sup 129}I is 8000 for the evaluated cases and assumptions used. ?60 for fresh fuels. The DF for {sup 14}C could be as high as 30 for certain fuels. These values are based on just meeting the regulatory limits, and additional engineering margins (perhaps 3x to 10x or higher) should be applied to provide a safety factor for compliance. However, by assuming less conservative dose allocations, taller stacks, different radionuclide speciation, fuel aging, and other reprocessing facility design and location parameters, the DF requirements could be significantly reduced. (authors)

  14. Estimating monthly and state-level NO sub x , SO sub 2 , VOC and CO sub 2 emissions using the MSCET database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cilek, C.M.; Kohout, E.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the Month and State Current Emission Trends (MSCET) database. It describes the methodology used to estimate NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, VOC, and CO{sub 2} emissions and the data sources used by the methodology. Selected emissions results from the database are presented. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Estimating monthly and state-level NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, VOC and CO{sub 2} emissions using the MSCET database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cilek, C.M.; Kohout, E.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the Month and State Current Emission Trends (MSCET) database. It describes the methodology used to estimate NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, VOC, and CO{sub 2} emissions and the data sources used by the methodology. Selected emissions results from the database are presented. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Freeway Short-Term Traffic Flow Forecasting by Considering Traffic Volatility Dynamics and Missing Data Situations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yanru

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    , assuming constant variance when perform forecasting. This method does not consider the volatility nature of traffic flow data. This paper demonstrated that the variance part of traffic flow data is not constant, and dependency exists. A volatility model...

  17. Quantifying the value that wind power provides as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Pricing by Regulated Natural Gas Utilities, Docket No.A HEDGE AGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES Mark Bolinger,A HEDGE AGAINST VOLATILE NATURAL GAS PRICES Mark Bolinger,

  18. Effects of anthropogenic activities on the molecular composition of urban organic aerosols: an ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kourtchev, I.; O'Connor, I. P.; Giorio, C.; Fuller, S.; Kristenen, K.; Maenhaut, W.; Wenger, J. C.; Sodeau, J. R.; Glasius, M.; Kalberer, M.

    2014-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    (secondary organic aerosol, SOA). Various sources contribute 56 to formation of PM and include anthropogenic sources such as use of diesel and petrol, 57 burning of fossil fuel and biomass. Biogenic sources include VOCs emitted by vegetation. 58 Urban... 279405). 417 418 References 419 Birch, M.E., Cary, R.A., 1996. Elemental carbon-based method for monitoring occupational 420 exposure to particulate diesel exhaust. Aerosol Science and Technology 25, 221–241. 421 Cecinato, A., Di Palo, V., Pomata, D...

  19. Quantifying the value that energy efficiency and renewable energy provide as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Bachrach, Devra; Golove, William

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Pricing by Regulated Natural Gas Utilities, Docket No.a Hedge Against Volatile Natural Gas Prices Mark Bolinger,wake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility during

  20. Ammonia volatilization from surface application of ammonium sulfate to carbonate systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feagley, Sam Edward

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from surface application of' ammonium fertilizers to calcareous soils 7 Ammonia Volatilization from Limed, Acid Soil Comparison of ammonia vole, tilization from different ammonium fertilizers Other factors affecting ammonia volatilization 10...-Newman-Keul's multiple range analysis of ammonia volatilization from a limed, acid soil supporting Coastal bermudagrass as affected by calcium carbonate . 58 Student-Newman-Keul's multiple range analysis of ammonia volatilization i'rom a limed. , acid soil supporting...

  1. Neuropeptide alterations in the tree shrew hypothalamus during volatile anesthesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neuropeptide alterations in the tree shrew hypothalamus during volatile anesthesia Laetitia perception and brain cognitive state. Prolonged general anesthesia has an impact on many of these processes anesthesia administered accompanying a neurosurgical procedure. Using a predicted-peptide database and hybrid

  2. Enhanced phytoremediation of volatile environmental pollutants with transgenic trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of plants for the treatment of environmental pollutants (1, 2). Plants act as solar-powered pumpEnhanced phytoremediation of volatile environmental pollutants with transgenic trees Sharon L. Doty 98195-2100; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

  3. Predicting Market-Volatility from Federal Reserve Board Meeting Minutes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Geoffrey J.

    been applied to predict intra-day stock market returns, e.g. by (Pui Cheong Fung et al., 2003Predicting Market-Volatility from Federal Reserve Board Meeting Minutes NLP for Finance Reza Bosagh Zadeh, Andreas Zollmann 1 Introduction Predicting markets has always had a certain appeal to researchers

  4. Modeling Energy Market Volatility Using REMI October 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    ;Disclaimer #12;Some Background on Energy Market Volatility (EMV) · EMV is defined here to include price techniques #12;Some Specifics · Energy Prices in real (and nominal) terms are highly variable ­ Including oil Sources: WTI prices from EIA, Short Term Energy Outlook, Table 2 and GDP deflator from Bureau of Economic

  5. Ammonia volatilization from soils with surface rice straw residue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barghassa, Peyam

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rice residue and related factors on NH3 volatilization from an acid Beaumont clay (pH 5.4) and an alkaline Lake Charles clay (pH 7.4). The treatments in the greenhouse and lab consisted of all possible combinations of the following variables: surface...

  6. Temperature-driven decoupling of key phases of organic matter degradation in marine sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Nathaniel B.

    organic matter is further hydrolyzed and fermented to LMW-DOC, such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs) (2 (9­12). The organic carbon consumed by sulfate- reducing bacteria is often VFAs, such as acetic acid is recycled or buried. A diverse consor- tium of microorganisms that hydrolyze, ferment, and terminally

  7. Thin-Film Solid-Phase Extraction To Measure Fugacities of Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gobas, Frank

    Thin-Film Solid-Phase Extraction To Measure Fugacities of Organic Chemicals with Low Volatility organic chemicals ranging in octanol-air partition coefficients from 105.6 to 109.2. Thin films feasibility, equilibration times, reproducibility, and property characteristics of the thin films

  8. Final Report for Organic Partitioning Resulting from Operation of an INTEC Double-needle Sampler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael B. Heiser

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The double needle sampler testing is a continuation of previous test series that investigated the fate of organic species in the Process Equipment Waste Evaporator (PEWE) system at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). This test series was designed to investigate the effects of operation of the double needle sampling systems on volatile organic constituents in an acidic feed matrix.

  9. ELSEVIER Physica A 245 (1997) 441445 Volatility distribution in the S&P500 stock index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cizeau a, Yanhui Liu a, Martin Meyer a, C.-K. Peng b,a, H. Eugene Stanley a,. aCenter Jbr Polymer Studies Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA Received 15 August 1997 Abstract We study the volatility; Volatility; S&P500; Multiplicative processes The volatility is a measure of the mean fluctuation of a market

  10. Innovative technology summary report: in situ air stripping using horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ air stripping (ISAS) technology was developed to remediate soils and ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) both above and below the water table. ISAS employs horizontal wells to inject (sparge) air into the ground water and vacuum extract VOCs from vadose zone soils. The innovation is creation of a system that combines two somewhat innovative technologies, air sparging and horizontal wells, with a baseline technology, soil vapor extraction, to produce a more efficient in situ remediation system.

  11. he Sun Rises From the Village (Gne Kyden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gürel, Levent

    the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that come out of bacterial activities at an early stage, well before food University's umbrella organization for student volunteer activity. The goal of The Sun Rises From the Village than a human nose can, the food can be consumed or discarded well before it becomes a danger to health

  12. The tomato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 genes contribute to the formation of the flavor volatiles b-ionone,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klee, Harry J.

    volatiles b-ionone, pseudoionone, and geranylacetone Andrew J. Simkin1 , Steven H. Schwartz2 , Michele

  13. Method for refreshing a non-volatile memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riekels, James E. (New Hope, MN); Schlesinger, Samuel (Aventura, FL)

    2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-volatile memory and a method of refreshing a memory are described. The method includes allowing an external system to control refreshing operations within the memory. The memory may generate a refresh request signal and transmit the refresh request signal to the external system. When the external system finds an available time to process the refresh request, the external system acknowledges the refresh request and transmits a refresh acknowledge signal to the memory. The memory may also comprise a page register for reading and rewriting a data state back to the memory. The page register may comprise latches in lieu of supplemental non-volatile storage elements, thereby conserving real estate within the memory.

  14. Pilot-scale study of the solar detoxification of VOC-contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehos, M.; Turchi, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Pacheco, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boegel, A.J.; Merrill, T.; Stanley, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Detoxification Field Experiment was designed to investigate the photocatalytic decomposition of organic contaminants in groundwater at a Superfund site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The process uses ultraviolet (UV) energy, available in sunlight, in conjunction with the photocatalyst, titanium dioxide, to decompose organic chemicals into nontoxic compounds. The field experiment was developed by three federal laboratories: the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNLA), and LLNL. The US Department of Energy funded the experiment. The objectives of the pilot-scale study included the advancement of the solar technology into a nonlaboratory waste-remediation environment the compilation of test data to help guide laboratory research and future demonstrations and the development of safe operational procedures. Results of the pilot study are discussed, emphasizing the effect of several process variables on the system performance. These variables include alkalinity, catalyst loading, flow velocity through the reactor, and incident solar UV radiation. The performance of the solar detoxification process are discussed as it relates to concentrating and nonconcentrating collectors.

  15. New, improved equation solves for volatile oil, condensate reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, M.P. (Petroleum Recovery Research Inst., Austin, TX (United States))

    1994-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A new generalized material-balance equation (GMBE) can be applied to the full range of reservoir fluids, including volatile oil and gas condensate. The GMBE replaces the nearly 60-year-old conventional material-balance equation (CMBE). Material balance methods are routinely used by petroleum engineers to estimate reserves. The so-called straight-line methods are the most common. Two of the most popular are: P/z-plot for estimating gas reserves in a dry-gas reservoir; and Havlena and Odeh method for estimating original oil-in-place (N) and original gas-in-place (G) in a black-oil reservoir. A major shortcoming of these and other straight-line methods is that none apply to the full range of reservoir fluids and very few, if any, deal satisfactorily with volatile oil and rich gas condensate. Also, the limits of the methods are not well defined. As drilling goes deeper and more volatile oil and gas-condensate reservoirs are discovered, there is a growing need for a general straight-line method to estimate N and G. For the GMBE, no restrictions are placed on the initial fluid compositions.

  16. Position Paper on Practicable Performance Criteria for the Removal Efficiency of Volatile Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. T. Jubin; N. Soelberg; D. M. Strachan

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of fuel reprocessing, volatile radionuclides may be released from the facility stack if no processes are put in place to remove them. The radionuclides that are of concern in this document are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. The question we attempted to answer is how efficient must this removal process be for each of these radionuclides? To answer this question, we examined the three regulations that may impact the degree to which these radionuclides must be reduced before process gases can be released from the facility. These regulations are 40 CFR 61 (EPA 2010a), 40 CFR 190(EPA 2010b), and 10 CFR 20 (NRC 2012). These regulations apply to the total radionuclide release and to a particular organ - the thyroid. Because these doses can be divided amongst all the radionuclides in different ways and even within the four radionuclides in question, we provided several cases. We first looked at the inventories for these radionuclides for three fuel types (PWR UOX, PWR MOX, and AHTGR), several burn-up values, and time out of reactor extending to 200 y. We calculated doses to the maximum exposed individual (MEI) with the EPA code CAP-88 (Rosnick 1992). Finally, we looked at two dose cases. Allocating all of the allowable dose to be used by the volatile radionuclides is one case, but, perhaps, unrealistic. In lieu of this, we arbitrarily selected a value of 10% of the allowable dose to be assigned to the volatile radionuclides. We calculated the required decontamination factors (DFs) for both of these cases, including the case for the thyroid dose for which 14C and 129I were the main contributors. With respect to 129I doses, we found that the highest dose was calculated with iodine as a fine particulate. The dose scaled as the fraction of the total 129I that was particulate. Therefore, we assumed for all of our calculations that 100% of the 129I was particulate and allow the user of the results given here to scale our calculated doses to their needs.

  17. Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl, T.; Apel, E.; Hodzic, A.; Riemer, D. D; Blake, D. R; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl-tertiary-butyl- ether (MTBE) and the biomass burningfrom all source categories. MTBE is a gasoline additive andwith the fuel tracer MTBE (e.g. 0.82 for MTBE/benzene).

  18. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol Ethanol Acetone MEK MTBE CO Methane UCI UCI TOGA/methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), and toluene all ratioedthe observed decay. For MTBE, also a species that is not

  19. Sampling Throughout The Hydrologic Cycle To Characterize Sources Of Volatile Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    ether (MTBE) are sufficiently high to cause detection in ground water, whereas atmospheric that point sources of MTBE, such as spills or infiltration of urban runoff, are also prevalent are widespread. MTBE is detected less frequently in observation wells that tap 10- to 15-year-old ground water

  20. QUANTIFYING NON-POINT SOURCES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN STORMWATER FROM A PARKING LOT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -butyl ether (MTBE) on urban particles indicates a site- specific interaction between MTBE and a particulate is a possible source only for the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Lopes and Bender (1998

  1. Factors Affecting Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Site of Subsurface Gasoline Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, M.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L. Fischer, AbraOF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L. Fischer, Abrareporting indoor air contamination (6,7). Estimation of

  2. Methyl halide and biogenic volatile organic compound fluxes from perennial bioenergy crops and annual arable crops 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrison, Eilidh Christina

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The depletion of fossil fuel resources, pollution concerns and the challenge of energy security are driving the search for renewable energy sources. The use of lignocellulosic plant biomass as an energy source is increasing ...

  3. Hybrid membranes and their use in volatile organic compound/air separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krohn, John Eric

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of membrane. This housing is equipped with a gasket seal between the high and low pressure sides ol tbe membrane. While the feed/retentate side of the membrane is held at 20-30 in HtO above atmospheric pressure, the permeate side is held at approximately...

  4. Measurements and receptor modeling of volatile organic compounds in Southeastern Mexico City, 2000 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    to account for non-vehicular emissions entering the tunnel from outside. The time for each sample was 2 hours Traffic count Total: 673 vehicles per hour Gasoline vehicle (car, pickup): 91% Diesel vehicle (truck / bus (truck / bus): 11% motor bike: 3% Figure 2. Fotos from inside the Subterránea (left and middle panel

  5. A study of the tropospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds using chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broekhuizen, Keith Edward, 1974-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanisms and kinetics of reactions important to the troposphere have been investigated using a high pressure, turbulent, discharge-flow technique coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The ability to ...

  6. Source characteristics of volatile organic compounds during high ozone episodes in Hong Kong, Southern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.; Wang, T.; Chameides, W. L; Cardelino, C.; Blake, D. R; Streets, D. G

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    related to industrial/petrochemical activities. This in turnrelated to industrial/petrochemical activities. However,were likely related to petrochemical/industrial, waterfront,

  7. Effect of moisture on air stripping of non volatile organic contaminants from soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Roberto

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Institute of Technology Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Aydin Akgerman More than 40% of the United States population relies on ground water for drinking, and approximately 25% of fresh water for all purposes is obtained from the ground. Contamination... is usually a more economical alternative of soil treatment than excavation and off site disposal or incineration. The removed contaminants are usually tdath~a?ah *ith lig, ' tal * . H* activated carbon-adsorption. system. may&e installeddf the...

  8. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and dispersion of a Mexico City pollution out- flow eventon air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area,pollution transport during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign: a case study of a major Mexico

  9. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds in Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Emission Factors for Modeling Exposures of California Populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    acrylate Ethy lbenzene 3-Methyl- 1-butanol Pyridine Pyrroleethyl acrylate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, N-nitrosodiethylamineEthylbenzene Formaldehyde 3-Methyl-1-butanol Phenol Styrene

  10. Adsorption and desorption of binary mixtures of volatile organic contaminants on soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Yang

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the potential theory and the ideal adsorbed solution theory for mixture adsorption were also evaluated for prediction of the experimental results for binary adsorption. All models failed for prediction of the BET type III isotherms when methanol was present...

  11. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C-130 T0 T1 G1 Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-Pentane n-ppbv) Ethane Ethene Ethyne Propane Propene i-Butane n-Butanee.g. , ethane, ethene, propane, propane, methanol, ethanol,

  12. In-situ remediation system for volatile organic compounds with deep recharge mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Jr., Dennis G. (Augusta, GA); Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Nichols, Ralph L. (Augusta, SC); Phifer, Mark A. (Augusta, SC)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for the treatment and remediation of a contaminated aquifer in the presence of an uncontaminated aquifer at a different hydraulic potential. The apparatus consists of a wellbore inserted through a first aquifer and into a second aquifer, an inner cylinder within the wellbore is supported and sealed to the wellbore to prevent communication between the two aquifers. Air injection is used to sparge the liquid having the higher static water level and, to airlift it to a height whereby it spills into the inner cylinder. The second treatment area provides treatment in the form of aeration or treatment with a material. Vapor stripped in sparging is vented to the atmosphere. Treated water is returned to the aquifer having the lower hydraulic potential.

  13. ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS – FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddalena, Randy L.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    24 No. 11/12, pp. 420-429. Battelle. 1996. Determination ofFactors from CARB’s Battelle (1996) study 1 41California, conducted by Battelle Labs during 1995 (Battelle

  14. Removal of volatile organic compounds from polluted air in a reverse flow reactor: An experimental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beld, B. van de; Borman, R.A.; Derkx, O.R.; Woezik, B.A.A. van; Westerterp, K.R. (Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study of the reverse flow reactor for the purification of contaminated air has been carried out. An experimental reactor with an inner diameter of 0.145 m has been constructed. It almost completely reached the goal of an adiabatically operating system. The influence of several operating parameters such as gas velocity, cycle period, chemical character, and concentration of the pollutants and reactor pressure are discussed. The reactor could be operated autothermally provided that the inlet concentrations were sufficiently high. If a mixture of contaminants is fed to the reactor, it might be necessary to increase the total hydrocarbon concentration to assure an autothermal process. Increasing the reactor pressure will hardly change the axial temperature profiles, if the mass flux is kept constant. Increasing the mass flow rate will lead to a higher plateau temperature. Not only the reactor behavior at fixed operating conditions, but also the response of the reactor toward variations in inlet conditions is reported.

  15. Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline on Motor Vehicle Emissions. 2. Volatile Organic Compound Speciation and Reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchstetter, Thomas; Singer, Brett; Harley, Robert

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diurnal, hot-soak, and running loss emissions lie somewherea contribution from running loss evaporative emissions. Asof diurnal, hot-soak, and running loss evaporative emissions

  16. Temperature dependence of volatile organic compound evaporative emissions from motor vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    emissions associated with venting of fuel tank vapors as temperature increases during the day, running loss

  17. Flux Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds from an Urban Tower Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Chang Hyoun

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    11. INTRODUCTION Air quality studies overwhelmingly focus on the concentration of US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) criteria air pollutants using monitoring and numerical modeling. While the latter uses surface fluxes from emission... chemistry and public health. Urban air pollution sources are related to a multitude of land-uses and human-made structures, which, together with natural and introduced vegetation, make up the urban fabric. To measure pollutant flux over urban terrain, a...

  18. Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl, T.; Apel, E.; Hodzic, A.; Riemer, D. D; Blake, D. R; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. R. , and Hao, W. M. : Emissions from forest fires nearM. O. and Merlet, P. : Emission of trace gases and aerosolsW. : Automo- bile Emissions of Acetonitrile: Assessment of

  19. Volatile organic acids and microbial processes in the Yegua formation, east-central Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Routh, J.; Grossman, E. L.; Ulrich, G. A.; Suflita, J. M.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reducing bacteria (SRB) in sands. Notably, SRB activity is mostly confined to aquifer sands. Vertical diffusion and advection were modeled to estimate acetic acid transport from aquitard to aquifer. Assuming that SRB completely respire the acetic acid...

  20. Detecting Volatile Organic Compounds from Orbit J. J. Harrison & P. F. Bernath

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ethane retrievals are currently being optimised by updating and improving the microwindow set. Propane cross sections have also been determined from spectra recorded at the MSF. Propane 215 K Propane Q

  1. Class 2 Permit Modification Request Revise Volatile Organic Compound Monitoring Procedures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization2 Permit Modification Request Revise

  2. In Vitro Genotoxicity of Particulate and Semi-Volatile Organic Compound

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovement of the LostDepartment ofParticulate andExhaust

  3. Equation calculates activated carbon's capacity for adsorbing pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Bu, L.; Nijhawan, S. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

    1995-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorption on activated carbon is an effective method for removing volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminants from gases. A new, simple equation has been developed for calculating activated carbon's adsorption capacity as a function of the VOC concentration in the gas. The correlation shows good agreement with experimental results. Results from the equation are applicable for conditions commonly encountered in air pollution control techniques (25 C, 1 atm). The only input parameters needed are VOC concentrations and a table of correlation coefficients for 292 C[sub 8]-C[sub 14] compounds. The table is suitable for rapid engineering usage with a personal computer or hand calculator.

  4. Quarterly sampling of the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K.L.; cummins, C.L.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In May 1994, well point water and bucket samples were collected for tritium and volatile organic compounds in the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch south of 643-E (old burial ground). The well point samples were collected from seven locations and the bucket samples from four locations. Results support that T and VOCs originating from 643-E are outcropping in the wetlands near this ditch. Based on differences in tritium contents at each location, it was determined that the sampling devices intercepted different groundwater flow paths; however, when VOCs were normalized, based on differences in T, resulting well point and bucket VOCs were comparable in most cases.

  5. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nemser, Stuart M.

    2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In the first part of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the second part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. In one aspect of this invention, a vacuum is drawn in the membrane separation unit thus reducing overall VOC emissions.

  6. In situ bioremediation using horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Situ Bioremediation (ISB), which is the term used in this report for Gaseous Nutrient Injection for In Situ Bioremediation, remediates soils and ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) both above and below the water table. ISB involves injection of air and nutrients (sparging and biostimulation) into the ground water and vacuum extraction to remove .VOCs from the vadose zone concomitant with biodegradation of VOCs. The innovation is in the combination of 3 emerging technologies, air stripping, horizontal wells, and bioremediation via gaseous nutrient injection with a baseline technology, soil vapor extraction, to produce a more efficient in situ remediation system.

  7. Global data set of biogenic VOC emissions calculated by the MEGAN model over the last 30 years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sindelarova, K.; Granier, Claire; Bouarar, I.; Guenther, Alex B.; Tilmes, S.; Stavrakou, T.; Muller, J. F.; Kuhn, U.; Stefani, P.; Knorr, W.

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGANv2.1) together with the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological fields were used to create a global emission dataset of biogenic VOCs available on a monthly basis for the time period of 1980 - 2010. This dataset is called MEGAN-MACC. The model estimated mean annual total BVOC emission of 760 Tg(C) yr1 consisting of isoprene (70%), monoterpenes (11%), methanol (6%), acetone (3%), sesquiterpenes (2.5%) and other BVOC species each contributing less than 2 %. Several sensitivity model runs were performed to study the impact of different model input and model settings on isoprene estimates and resulted in differences of * 17% of the reference isoprene total. A greater impact was observed for sensitivity run applying parameterization of soil moisture deficit that led to a 50% reduction of isoprene emissions on a global scale, most significantly in specific regions of Africa, South America and Australia. MEGAN-MACC estimates are comparable to results of previous studies. More detailed comparison with other isoprene in ventories indicated significant spatial and temporal differences between the datasets especially for Australia, Southeast Asia and South America. MEGAN-MACC estimates of isoprene and*-pinene showed a reasonable agreement with surface flux measurements in the Amazon andthe model was able to capture the seasonal variation of emissions in this region.

  8. Leadership, Organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmeri, Thomas

    Leadership, Policy & Organizations #12;2 At Peabody students have the opportunity to develop new College, in the Department of Leadership, Policy and Organizations (LPO). The faculty believes Patricia and Rodes Hart Chair, and Professor of Education Policy and Leadership, Ellen Goldring also serves

  9. Improvement of SOFC Electrodes through Catalyst Infiltration & Control of Cr Volatilization from FeCr Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visco, S.J.; Jacobson, C.; Kurokawa, H.; Sholklapper, T.; Lu, C.; De Jonghe, L.

    2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the improvement of SOFC electrodes through catalyst infiltration and control of Cr volatilization from FeCr components.

  10. Field measurements of ammonia volatilization from surface applications of nitrogen fertilizers to a calcareous soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hargrove, W. L

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to measure volatilized NH3 in the labora- tory. A) Vacuum pump, B) Boric acid trap to collect volatilized NH ~ C) NH3 volatilization chamber, D) Trkp to re- move NH3 from incoming air . . . . . . . . . . . 21 A schematic of the apparatus used to make... direct measurements of NH losses in the field. A) Vacuum pum), B) Boric acid trap, C) NH volatilization chamber, consisting of metal cylinder and plexi- glass top The cumulative NH losses over time for four rates of' a)plication of urea...

  11. Characterization of Persistent Volatile Contaminant Sources in the Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Kenneth C.; Truex, Michael J.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Parker, Kyle R.; Mackley, Rob D.; Rohay, Virginia J.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Remediation activities over time will alter the subsurface distribution of contaminants and likely create significant changes in the source-zone architecture. A field method was demonstrated for use of data collected from multiple individual soil vapor extraction (SVE) system well tests to locate and characterize the distribution of persistent VOC sources in the vadose zone. Operational data collected at the Department of Energy’s Hanford site were used to examine source zone alteration over time due to SVE operation and to illustrate the source-zone characterization approach. Individual well test results confirmed a heterogeneous distribution of permeability and contaminant mass discharge throughout the vadose zone. The trends in mass discharge and concentration were analyzed to determine the location and extent of the primary source zone within a lower-permeability unit at the site. This information is useful to evaluate the performance of SVE operations, and support decisions concerning system alteration or closure based on risk assessments of the impact of vadose-zone sources on groundwater contamination or vapor intrusion.

  12. Commodity Price Volatility and the Sources of Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cavalcanti, Tiago V. de V.; Mohaddes, Kamiar; Raissi, Mehdi

    2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    -2000, show that higher levels of exchange rate volatility can stunt growth, especially in countries with thin capital markets. Bleaney and Greenaway (2001) estimate a panel data model for a sample of 14 sub-Saharan African countries over 1980-1995 and show... countries, we set t0 to this year.5 Furthermore, we assume a depreciation rate, #14;, of six percent and compute the subsequent values of the capital stock as: Kit = (1#0; #14;)Kit#0;1 + Iit: (6) 3.3 Human Capital Stock To calculate the level of human...

  13. Organic Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mielke

    2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Intense magnetic fields are an essential tool for understanding layered superconductors. Fundamental electronic properties of organic superconductors are revealed in intense (60 tesla) magnetic fields. Properties such as the topology of the Fermi surface and the nature of the superconducting order parameter are revealed. With modest maximum critical temperatures~13K the charge transfer salt organic superconductors prove to be incredibly valuable materials as their electronically clean nature and layered (highly anisotropic) structures yield insights to the high temperature superconductors. Observation of de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillatory phenomena, magnetic field induced superconductivity and re-entrant superconductivity are some of the physical phenomena observed in the charge transfer organic superconductors. In this talk, I will discuss the nature of organic superconductors and give an overview of the generation of intense magnetic fields; from the 60 tesla millisecond duration to the extreme 1000 tesla microsecond pulsed magnetic fields.

  14. Process Development for High Voc CdTe Solar Cells: Phase I, Annual Technical Report, October 2005 - September 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferekides, C. S.; Morel, D. L.

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this project is the open-circuit voltage of the CdTe thin-film solar cell. CdTe continues to be one of the leading materials for large-scale cost-effective production of photovoltaics, but the efficiency of the CdTe solar cell has been stagnant for the last few years. At the manufacturing front, the CdTe technology is fast paced and moving forward with U.S.-based First Solar LLC leading the world in CdTe module production. To support the industry efforts and continue the advancement of this technology, it will be necessary to continue improvements in solar cell efficiency. A closer look at the state-of-the-art performance levels puts the three solar cell efficiency parameters of short-circuit current density (JSC), open-circuit voltage (VOC), and fill factor (FF) in the 24-26 mA/cm2, 844?850 mV, and 74%-76% ranges respectively. During the late 1090s, efforts to improve cell efficiency were primarily concerned with increasing JSC, simply by using thinner CdS window layers to enhance the blue response (<510 nm) of the CdTe cell. These efforts led to underscoring the important role 'buffers' (or high-resistivity transparent films) play in CdTe cells. The use of transparent bi-layers (low-p/high-p) as the front contact is becoming a 'standard' feature of the CdTe cell.

  15. Volatile Loss and Classification of Kuiper Belt Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, R E; Young, L A; Volkov, A N; Schmidt, C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations indicate that some of the largest Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) have retained volatiles in the gas phase, which implies the presence of an atmosphere that can affect their reflectance spectra and thermal balance. Volatile escape rates driven by solar heating of the surface were estimated by Schaller and Brown (2007) (SB) and Levi and Podolak (2009)(LP) using Jeans escape from the surface and a hydrodynamic model respectively. Based on recent molecular kinetic simulations these rates can be hugely in error (e.g., a factor of $\\sim 10^{16}$ for the SB estimate for Pluto). In this paper we estimate the loss of primordial N$_2$ for several large KBOs guided by recent molecular kinetic simulations of escape due to solar heating of the surface and due to UV/EUV heating of the upper atmosphere. For the latter we extrapolate simulations of escape from Pluto (Erwin et al. 2013) using the energy limited escape model recently validated for the KBOs of interest by molecular kinetic simulations (Johnson et al. 2...

  16. Volatility-- a statistical comparison between the secondary and primary home markets : the lower Cape's volatility and average return compared to three Boston area primary markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knight, Craig, 1971-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis attempts to analyze the long-standing perception that the secondary home market, homes built in and around vacation areas, is more volatile than the primary home market. For the first time, this study measures ...

  17. Cross-Section of Option Returns and Volatility Goizueta Business School

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    compute the stock's IV by taking the average of the ATM call and put implied-volatilities. This also-section of stock option returns by constructing decile portfolios of straddles and delta-hedged calls and puts based on sorting stocks on the differ- ence between historical realized volatility and at

  18. A comparison of option prices under different pricing measures in a stochastic volatility model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howison, Sam

    A comparison of option prices under different pricing measures in a stochastic volatility model with correlation Vicky Henderson Princeton University David Hobson § University of Bath Sam Howison ¶ University option prices in an incomplete stochastic volatility model with correlation. In a general setting, we

  19. Buying in a volatile market: variable or fixed price? Professor of Purchasing Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellekoop, Michel

    , in markets like money, stock or oil markets; sometimes they are rather lengthy, in markets like the steelBuying in a volatile market: variable or fixed price? Jan Telgen Professor of Purchasing Management Many commodities are bought in a volatile market, where the purchasing price changes constantly

  20. Volatility Forecasts in Financial Time Series with HMM-GARCH Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Volatility Forecasts in Financial Time Series with HMM-GARCH Models Xiong-Fei Zhuang and Lai {xfzhuang,lwchan}@cse.cuhk.edu.hk Abstract. Nowadays many researchers use GARCH models to generate of the two parameters G1 and A1[1], in GARCH models is usually too high. Since volatility forecasts in GARCH

  1. Output Growth and Its Volatility: The Gold Standard through the Great Moderation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    of real GDP growth and some form of a generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH GARCH or exponential GARCH (EGARCH) process, capturing the movement in volatility. The neglect persistence in the conditional volatility or integrated GARCH (IGARCH). That is, typically all persistence

  2. Scaling and memory of intraday volatility return intervals in stock markets Fengzhong Wang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    Scaling and memory of intraday volatility return intervals in stock markets Fengzhong Wang,1 Kazuko interval between price volatilities that are above a certain threshold q for 31 intraday data sets Yamasaki,1,2 Shlomo Havlin,1,3 and H. Eugene Stanley1 1 Center for Polymer Studies and Department

  3. Volatile fractionation in the early solar system and chondrule matrix complementarity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Volatile fractionation in the early solar system and chondrule matrix complementarity Philip A and Astromaterials Research Centre, Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD. Although volatile depletion was the most fundamental chemical process affecting the inner solar nebula

  4. Mass-Transit Options Around Brandeis University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraden, Seth

    ://www.publictransportation.org/facts/ EPANational Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory http (CO), 90% less volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and about half as much carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions represent 82% of total US human-made greenhouse emissions · Vehicle emissions fromthe combustion

  5. *Corresponding author. Tel.: #1-510-643-2451; fax: #1-510-643-5098.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    contributions to acetone mixing ratios in a rural environment Allen H. Goldstein*, Gunnar W. Schade Ecosystem correlated with acetone mixing ratios (r"0.80), suggesting that the quantity of biogenic and anthropogenic of biogenically and anthropogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and biomass burning

  6. A backward-time stochastic Lagrangian air quality model Deyong Wen a,*, John C. Lin a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    that simulated O3 concentrations usually agree well with observations across sites in rural areas, small towns). Biomass burning from land use change has been accelerating (Setzer et al., 1994), releasing large quantities of NOx (NO þ NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) to the atmosphere (Chatfield and Delany

  7. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen PREFACE / INTRODUCTION 13.4.2002 1-1 Chapter 1 Preface /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    .2 Objectives and scope Textbooks on this subject are, in general, limited to what can be called "conventional" flue gas cleaning for conventional pulverised coal combustion processes, i.e. wet flue gas and furanes; and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Also

  8. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen PREFACE / INTRODUCTION 4.2.2004 1-1 Chapter 1 Preface /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    .2 Objectives and scope Textbooks on this subject are, in general, limited to what can be called "conventional" flue gas cleaning for conventional pulverised coal combustion processes, i.e. wet flue gas and furanes; and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Also

  9. Rejection and fate of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) during membrane distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rejection and fate of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) during membrane distillation Kaushalya COCs) Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) Volatility Fate and transport Hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity a b s t r a c t In this study, we examined the feasibility of membrane distillation (MD) for removing

  10. Organic sponges for cost-effective CVOC abatement. Final report, September 1992--April 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, W.P.; Grade, M.M.; Horney, D.P.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Salvo, J.J.; Sivavec, T.M.; Stephens, M.L.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air contaminated with CVOCs (chlorinated volatile organic compounds) arise from air stripping of ground water or from soil and dual phase vapor extraction. A research program was undertaken to develop sorbents better than activated carbon for remediation. Two such sorbents were found: Dow`s XUS polymer and Rohm and Haas` Ambersorb 563 (carbonaceous). Opportunities exist to further develop sorption and biodegradation technologies.

  11. Summary Report on the Volatile Radionuclide and Immobilization Research for FY2011 at PNNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Chun, Jaehun; Matyas, Josef; Lepry, William C.; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The materials development summarized here is in support of the Waste Forms campaign, Volatile Radionuclide task. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal and immobilization of iodine and krypton, specifically 129I and 85Kr. During FY 2011, aerogel materials were investigated for removal and immobilization of 129I. Two aerogel formulations were investigated, one based on silica aerogels and the second on chalcogen-based aerogels (i.e., chalcogels). A silica aerogel was tested at ORNL for total I2 sorption capacity. It was determined to have 48 mass% capacity while having little physisorbed I2 (I2 not taken up in the aerogel pores). For 85Kr, metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated and a new MOF with about 8 mass% capacity for Xe and Kr. The selectivity can be changed from Xe > Kr to Xe < Kr simply by lowering the temperature below 0 C. A patent disclosure has been filed. Lastly, silicon carbide (SiC) was loaded with Kr. The diffusion of Kr in SiC was found to be less than detectable at 500 C.

  12. Analysis of volatile contaminants in US Navy fleet soda lime. Technical report, August 1992-May 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lillo, R.S.; Ruby, R.; Gummin, D.D.; Porter, W.R.; Caldwell, J.M.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contamination was suspected of U.S. Navy Fleet soda lime (High Performance Sodasorb(R)) when an ammonia-like odor was reported during its use in August 1992. This material contained indicator dye and was used for carbon dioxide absorption during diving. This incident had a major impact on the U.S Navy diving program when the Navy temporarily banned use of Sodasorb(R) and authorized Sofnolime(R) as an interim replacement. The Naval Medical Research Institute was immediately assigned to investigate. Testing involved sampling from the headspace (gas space) inside closed buckets and from an apparatus simulating conditions during operational diving. Volatile organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry; ammonia and amines were measured by infrared spectroscopy. Significant amounts of ammonia (up to 30 ppm), ethyl and diethyl amines (up to several ppm), and various aliphatic hydrocarbons (up to 60 ppm) were detected during testing of both Sodasorb(R) and Sofnolime(R). Contaminants were slowly removed by gas flow and did not return. The source(s) of the ammonia and amines are unknown, although they may result from the breakdown of the indicator dye. Hydrocarbon contamination appeared to result from the materials of which the bucket is constructed. Based on these findings, the U.S. Navy is expected to phase in non-indicating soda lime that will be required to meet defined contaminant limits.

  13. Using futures prices to filter short-term volatility and recover a latent, long-term price series for oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herce, Miguel Angel

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil prices are very volatile. But much of this volatility seems to reflect short-term,transitory factors that may have little or no influence on the price in the long run. Many major investment decisions should be guided ...

  14. System for loading executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Bartholomew, David B. (Springville, UT); Johnson, Monte L. (Orem, UT)

    2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for loading an executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises a surface control unit comprising executable code. An integrated downhole network comprises data transmission elements in communication with the surface control unit and the volatile memory. The executable code, stored in the surface control unit, is not permanently stored in the downhole tool string component. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the downhole tool string component comprises boot memory. In another embodiment, the executable code is an operating system executable code. Preferably, the volatile memory comprises random access memory (RAM). A method for loading executable code to volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises sending the code from the surface control unit to a processor in the downhole tool string component over the network. A central processing unit writes the executable code in the volatile memory.

  15. Volatility return intervals analysis of the Japanese market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Woo-Sung; Havlin, Shlomo; Kaizoji, Taisei; Moon, Hie-Tae; Stanley, H Eugene

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate scaling and memory effects in return intervals between price volatilities above a certain threshold $q$ for the Japanese stock market using daily and intraday data sets. We find that the distribution of return intervals can be approximated by a scaling function that depends only on the ratio between the return interval $\\tau$ and its mean $$. We also find memory effects such that a large (or small) return interval follows a large (or small) interval by investigating the conditional distribution and mean return interval. The results are similar to previous studies of other markets and indicate that similar statistical features appear in different financial markets. We also compare our results between the period before and after the big crash at the end of 1989. We find that scaling and memory effects of the return intervals show similar features although the statistical properties of the returns are different.

  16. In-Situ Contained And Of Volatile Soil Contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varvel, Mark Darrell (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

  17. In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varvel, Mark Darrell

    2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

  18. Bayesian analysis of GARCH and stochastic volatility: modeling leverage, jumps and heavy-tails for financial time series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolpert, Robert L

    Bayesian analysis of GARCH and stochastic volatility: modeling leverage, jumps and heavy for two broad major classes of varying volatility model, GARCH and stochastic volatility (SV) models-t errors yields the best performance among the competing models on the return data. Key words: GARCH, Heavy

  19. Estimation of Volatility The values of the parameters r, t, St, T, and K used to price a call op-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Privault, Nicolas

    is the price of light sweet crude oil futures traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), basedChapter 7 Estimation of Volatility The values of the parameters r, t, St, T, and K used to price the historical, implied, and local volatility models, and refer to [26] for stochastic volatility models. 7

  20. A Big Data Approach to Analyzing Market Volatility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Kesheng; Bethel, E. Wes; Gu, Ming; Leinweber, David; Ruebel, Oliver

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the microstructure of the financial market requires the processing of a vast amount of data related to individual trades, and sometimes even multiple levels of quotes. Analyzing such a large volume of data requires tremendous computing power that is not easily available to financial academics and regulators. Fortunately, public funded High Performance Computing (HPC) power is widely available at the National Laboratories in the US. In this paper we demonstrate that the HPC resource and the techniques for data-intensive sciences can be used to greatly accelerate the computation of an early warning indicator called Volume-synchronized Probability of Informed trading (VPIN). The test data used in this study contains five and a half year?s worth of trading data for about 100 most liquid futures contracts, includes about 3 billion trades, and takes 140GB as text files. By using (1) a more efficient file format for storing the trading records, (2) more effective data structures and algorithms, and (3) parallelizing the computations, we are able to explore 16,000 different ways of computing VPIN in less than 20 hours on a 32-core IBM DataPlex machine. Our test demonstrates that a modest computer is sufficient to monitor a vast number of trading activities in real-time ? an ability that could be valuable to regulators. Our test results also confirm that VPIN is a strong predictor of liquidity-induced volatility. With appropriate parameter choices, the false positive rates are about 7percent averaged over all the futures contracts in the test data set. More specifically, when VPIN values rise above a threshold (CDF > 0.99), the volatility in the subsequent time windows is higher than the average in 93percent of the cases.

  1. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doherty, Joseph P. (Elkton, MD); Marek, James C. (Augusta, GA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper (II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the orginal organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge and transferred to a virtrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage.

  3. Ethanol as Internal Standard for Quantitative Determination of Volatile Compounds in Spirit Drinks by Gas Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Kulevich, Nikita V; Makoed, Nicolai M; Mazanik, Arkadzi L; Sytova, Svetlana N

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The new methodical approach of using ethanol as internal standard in gas chromatographic analysis of volatile compounds in spirit drinks in daily practice of testing laboratories is proposed. This method provides determination of volatile compounds concentrations in spirit drinks directly expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) of absolute alcohol according to official methods without measuring of alcohol strength of analyzed sample. The experimental demonstration of this method for determination of volatile compounds in spirit drinks by gas chromatography is described. Its validation was carried out by comparison with experimental results obtained by internal standard method and external standard method.

  4. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Estimating the Volatility of Wholesale Electricity Spot Prices in the US

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marathe, Achla

    permission. Estimating the Volatility of Wholesale Electricity Spot Prices in the US Lester Hadsell; Achla

  5. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest andOptimize carbon AboutOrganizing Committee

  6. Volatility of hotel market fundamentals and the determinants of variations between markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cason, Brian (Brian Paul)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    How can volatility as well as other dynamics and characteristics in hotel market fundamentals affecting risk be better understood? This paper explores that fundamental question along with other more specific questions that ...

  7. HOW TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN CLOUDY MINI-NEPTUNES AND WATER/VOLATILE-DOMINATED SUPER-EARTHS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benneke, Björn

    One of the most profound questions about the newly discovered class of low-density super-Earths is whether these exoplanets are predominately H2-dominated mini-Neptunes or volatile-rich worlds with gas envelopes dominated ...

  8. The Effect of Growth Volatility on Income Inequality Ho-Chuan (River) Huang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    positively affects growth. Barro (2000) uncovers a nonlinear inequality-growth nexus, with inequality growth in low-income ones. Rather than examining the volatility-growth or the inequality-growth linkages

  9. A statistical analysis of the natural gas futures market : the interplay of sentiment, volatility and prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fazzio, Thomas J. (Thomas Joseph)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper attempts to understand the price dynamics of the North American natural gas market through a statistical survey that includes an analysis of the variables influencing the price and volatility of this energy ...

  10. The performance of a volatile oil reservoir overlain by a gas cap 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Joseph Ralph, Jr

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE PERFORMANCE OF A VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR OVERLAIN BY A GAS CAP A Thesis By J. RALPH ELLIS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1960 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING THE PERFORMANCE OF A VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR OVERLAIN BY A GAS CAP A Thesis By J. RALPH ELLIS, JR. Approved as to style and content by: hairxnan of Coxnxnittee) (Head...

  11. The performance of a volatile oil reservoir overlain by a gas cap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Joseph Ralph, Jr

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE PERFORMANCE OF A VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR OVERLAIN BY A GAS CAP A Thesis By J. RALPH ELLIS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1960 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING THE PERFORMANCE OF A VOLATILE OIL RESERVOIR OVERLAIN BY A GAS CAP A Thesis By J. RALPH ELLIS, JR. Approved as to style and content by: hairxnan of Coxnxnittee) (Head...

  12. Identification and evaluation of volatile compounds associated with vacuum and modified atmosphere packaged fresh red meats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Timothy Court

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH VACUUM AND MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGED FRESH RED MEATS A Thesis by TIMOTHY COURT JACKSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1989 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH VACUUM AND MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGED FRESH RED MEATS A...

  13. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Energy Price Volatility and Forecast Uncertainty

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is often noted that energy prices are quite volatile, reflecting market participants' adjustments to new information from physical energy markets and/or markets in energy-related financial derivatives. Price volatility is an indication of the level of uncertainty, or risk, in the market. This paper describes how markets price risk and how the marketclearing process for risk transfer can be used to generate "price bands" around observed futures prices for crude oil, natural gas, and other commodities.

  14. From association to organization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandler, George

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S.M. (1978). Organization theory and memory for prose: Aand summarize organization theory and relevant empiricalexplained in terms of organization theory. The hierarchical

  15. Organization Chart - Home

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LSD Logo About Us People & Organization Research News & Events Safety Internal Resources Organization Chart Departments Scientific Staff Directory Committees Organization Chart...

  16. Evaluation of Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation for Indoor AirApplications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Sullivan, D.P.; Fisk, W.J.

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acceptable indoor air quality in office buildings may be achieved with less energy by combining effective air cleaning systems for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with particle filtration then by relying solely on ventilation. For such applications, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) systems are being developed for VOC destruction. An experimental evaluation of a UVPCO system is reported. The evaluation was unique in that it employed complex mixtures of VOCs commonly found in office buildings at realistically low concentrations. VOC conversion efficiencies varied over a broad range, usually exceeded 20%, and were as high as {approx}80%. Conversion efficiency generally diminished with increased air flow rate. Significant amounts of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were produced due to incomplete mineralization. The results indicate that formaldehyde and acetaldehyde production rates may need to be reduced before such UVPCO systems can be deployed safely in occupied buildings.

  17. In situ bioremediation using horizontal wells. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Situ Bioremediation (ISB) is the term used in this report for Gaseous Nutrient Injection for In Situ Bioremediation. This process (ISB) involves injection of air and nutrients (sparging and biostimulation) into the ground water and vacuum extraction to remove Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from the vadose zone concomitant with biodegradation of the VOCs. This process is effective for remediation of soils and ground water contaminated with VOCs both above and below the water table. A full-scale demonstration of ISB was conducted as part of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration: VOCs in Soils and Ground Water at Nonarid Sites. This demonstration was performed at the Savannah River Site from February 1992 to April 1993.

  18. Erace--an integrated system for treating organic-contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caley, S.M.; Heath, W.O.; Bergsman, T.M.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Pillay, C.; Moss, R.W.; Shah, R.R.; Goheen, S.C.; Camiaoni, D.M.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a suite of electrical technologies for treating sites contaminated with hazardous organic compounds. These include: (1) Six-Phase Soil Heating (SPSH) to remove volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds from soils; (2) In Situ Corona (ISC) to decompose nonvolatile and bound organic contaminants in soils; (3) High-Energy Corona (HEC) to treat contaminated off-gases; and (4) Liquid Corona (LC) to treat contaminated liquids. These four technologies comprise ERACE (Electrical Remediation at Contaminated Environments), an integrated system for accomplishing site remediation with little or no secondary wastes produced that would require off-site treatment or disposal. Each ERACE technology can be employed individually as a stand-alone treatment process, or combined as a system for total site remediation. For example, an ERACE system for treating sites contaminated with volatile organics would integrate SPSH to remove the contaminants from the soil, LC to continuously treat an aqueous stream condensed out of the soil off-gas, and HEC to treat non-condensibles remaining in the off-gas, before atmospheric release.

  19. LONG-TERM STABILITY TESTING RESULTS USING SURROGATES AND SORBENTS FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE ORGANIC AND AQUEOUS WASTESTREAMS - 10016

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, H.

    2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) with evaluating the long-term stability of various commercially available sorbent materials to solidify two organic surrogate wastestreams (both volatile and nonvolatile), a volatile organic surrogate with a residual aqueous phase, an aqueous surrogate, and an aqueous surrogate with a residual organic phase. The Savannah River Site (SRS) Legacy and F-Canyon plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) process waste surrogates constituted the volatile organic surrogates, and various oils constituted the nonvolatile organic surrogates. The aqueous surrogates included a rainwater surrogate and an aqueous organic surrogate. MSE also evaluated the PUREX surrogate with a residual aqueous component with and without aqueous type sorbent materials. Solidification of the various surrogate wastestreams listed above was performed from 2004 to 2006 at the MSE Test Facility located in Butte, Montana. This paper summarizes the comparison of the initial liquid release test (LRT) values with LRT results obtained during subsequent sampling events in an attempt to understand and define the long-term stability characteristics for the solidified wastestreams.

  20. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy. [Hydrocarbon (HC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  1. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  2. A study of the volatile matter of coal as a function of the heating rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanes, E.; Wilhite, D.; Riley, J.M. Jr. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the volatile matter yields as a function of the heating rate was conducted. A suite of 21 coal and coke samples varying in rank from anthracitic to lignitic and heating rates from 10{degrees}C/min to about 450{degrees}C/min were used in the study. Heating rates up to 60{degrees}C per minute, which are typically used in ASTM Test Method 5142 (instrumental Proximate Analysis), were achieved in a macro thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) system. Heating rates of 50-200{degrees}C/min were obtained in a micro TGA system. All measurements were made in a nitrogen atmosphere. The results of the study illustrate the dependence of the volatile matter yield on the heating rate. For most coals and cokes the optimum heating rate for determining volatile matter values that agree with those obtained by ASTM Method D 3175 appears to be in the 100-150{degrees}C range.

  3. Determination of Henry's law constants of organics in dilute aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, K.C.; Zhou, Zhou; Yaws, C.L.; Aminabhavi, T.M. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate knowledge of Henry's law constants, H, or air/water partitioning coefficients are required to predict the behavior of organic compounds in the environment. In particular, when the compounds are relatively volatile and exhibit low solubility in water, air stripping may be a viable method for above-ground treatment. Henry's law constants of 15 volatile organic compounds in dilute aqueous solutions were measured by the procedure of equilibrium partitioning in a closed system. The method is based upon the measurement of the headspace concentration by gas chromatography. The compounds investigated included six halogenated hydrocarbons, four aromatic hydrocarbons, and five alkanes. The measurements were made at three temperatures between 25 and 45 C. The measured Henry's law constants compared well with the literature data of some liquids. The temperature dependence of Henry's law constant was also studied from the van't Hoff relation.

  4. Final Report - Glass Formulation Testing to Increase Sulfate Volatilization from Melter, VSL-04R4970-1, Rev. 0, dated 2/24/05

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Matlack, K. A.; Pegg, I. L.; Gong, W.

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objectives of the DM100 and DM10 tests were to determine the impact of four different organics and one inorganic feed additive on sulfate volatilization and to determine the sulfur partitioning between the glass and the off-gas system. The tests provided information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data including sulfur incorporation and partitioning. A series of DM10 and DM100 melter tests were conducted using a LAW Envelope A feed. The testing was divided into three parts. The first part involved a series of DM10 melter tests with four different organic feed additives: sugar, polyethylene glycol (PEG), starch, and urea. The second part involved two confirmatory 50-hour melter tests on the DM100 using the best combination of reductants and conditions based on the DM10 results. The third part was performed on the DM100 with feeds containing vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) as an inorganic additive to increase sulfur partitioning to the off-gas. Although vanadium oxide is not a reductant, previous testing has shown that vanadium shows promise for partitioning sulfur to the melter exhaust, presumably through its known catalytic effect on the SO{sub 2}/SO{sub 3} reaction. Crucible-scale tests were conducted prior to the melter tests to confirm that the glasses and feeds would be processable in the melter and that the glasses would meet the waste form (ILAW) performance requirements. Thus, the major objectives of these tests were to: ? Perform screening tests on the DM10 followed by tests on the DM100-WV system using a LAW -Envelope A feed with four organic additives to assess their impact on sulfur volatilization. ? Perform tests on the DM100-WV system using a LAW -Envelope A feed containing vanadium oxide to assess its impact on sulfur volatilization. ? Determine feed processability and product quality with the above additives. ? Collect melter emissions data to determine the effect of additives on sulfur partitioning and melter emissions. ? Collect and analyze discharged glass to determine sulfur retention in the glass. ? Prepare and characterize feeds and glasses with the additives to confirm that the feeds and the glass melts are suitable for processing in the DM100 melter. ? Prepare and characterize glasses with the additives to confirm that the glasses meet the waste form (ILAW) performance requirements.

  5. Method for removing volatile components from a ceramic article, and related processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klug, Frederic Joseph (Schenectady, NY); DeCarr, Sylvia Marie (Waterford, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing substantially all of the volatile component in a green, volatile-containing ceramic article is disclosed. The method comprises freezing the ceramic article; and then subjecting the frozen article to a vacuum for a sufficient time to freeze-dry the article. Frequently, the article is heated while being freeze-dried. Use of this method efficiently reduces the propensity for any warpage of the article. The article is often formed from a ceramic slurry in a gel-casting process. A method for fabricating a ceramic core used in investment casting is also described.

  6. The effect of chemical dispersants on the solution of volatile liquid hydrocarbons from spilled crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Thomas Joseph

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Oceanography THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Approved as to style and content by...

  7. Method For Removing Volatile Components From A Gel-Cast Ceramic Article

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klug, Frederic Joseph (Schenectady, NY); DeCarr, Sylvia Marie (Schenectady, NY)

    2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing substantially all of the volatile component in a green, volatile-containing ceramic article is disclosed. The method comprises freezing the ceramic article; and then subjecting the frozen article to a vacuum for a sufficient time to freeze-dry the article. Frequently, the article is heated while being freeze-dried. Use of this method efficiently reduces the propensity for any warpage of the article. The article is often formed from a ceramic slurry in a gel-casting process. A method for fabricating a ceramic core used in investment casting is also described.

  8. The effect of chemical dispersants on the solution of volatile liquid hydrocarbons from spilled crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Thomas Joseph

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Oceanography THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS ON THE SOLUTION OF VOLATILE LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM SPILLED CRUDE OIL A Thesis by THOMAS JOSEPH McDONALD Approved as to style and content by...

  9. Gas-chromatographic identification of volatile products from thermal processing of Bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zenkevich, I.G.; Ventura, K. [Advanced Chemical Engineering Institute, Pardubice (Czechoslovakia)

    1992-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The variety of bitumen industrial brands is evident in the significant variation of composition and ratio of volatile thermal processing products, which makes their detailed characterization difficult. For that reason, in the authors` opinion a simple and easily reproducible method for gas chromatographic analysis and identification of these substances should be of greater interest than gathering more such results. In this report the authors discuss the selection of an optimal combination of group and individual gas chromatographic methods for identification of volatile thermal processing products in the presence of air, using the example of AP bitumen, the main brand used in Czechoslavakia for production of asphalt. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  10. An unexpected journey: experimental insights into magma and volatile transport beneath Erebus volcano, Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iacovino, Kayla

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    fugacity of the volatile component and the concentration of that volatile dissolved in the melt. Because of the poor fit of our CO2 data to a power law regression, the pure-CO2 experiments of Lesne et al. (2011b) were used to create these isobars... /mantle boundary. Seismic and gravitational investigations on and around Ross Island suggest that this boundary is ?20 km deep (Cooper et al., 1994; Finotello et al., 2011; Newhall & Dzurisin, 1989). The evolution of the Erebus cone itself is inferred to have taken...

  11. Reply to: "Recycled" volatiles in mantle derived diamonds--Evidence from nitrogen and noble gas isotopic data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cartigny, Pierre

    and Honda [R.K. Mohapatra, and M. Honda, "Recycled" volatiles in mantle derived diamonds--evidence from (2005) 559­572.]. We present here reasons why the alternative view of Mohapatra and Honda [R.K. Mohapatra and M. Honda, "Recycled" volatiles in mantle derived diamonds--evidence from nitrogen and noble

  12. NOTE SUR LES EFFETS DE L'INFUSION PERMANENTE D'UN MLANGE D'ACIDES GRAS VOLATILS DANS LE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NOTE SUR LES EFFETS DE L'INFUSION PERMANENTE D'UN MÉLANGE D'ACIDES GRAS VOLATILS DANS LE RUMEN DU problèmes techniques : infusion permanente et prolongée, dans le rumen, de quantités d'acides gras volatils début de l'infusion, les veaux étaient âgés d'environ 4 mois et pesaient respectivement 95 et 80 kg

  13. Partitioning Behavior of Organic Contaminants in Carbon Storage Environments: A Critical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burant, Aniela; Lowry, Gregory V.; Karamalidis, Athanasios K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon capture and storage is a promising strategy for mitigating the CO{sub 2} contribution to global climate change. The large scale implementation of the technology mandates better understanding of the risks associated with CO{sub 2} injection into geologic formations and the subsequent interactions with groundwater resources. The injected supercritical CO{sub 2} (sc-CO{sub 2}) is a nonpolar solvent that can potentially mobilize organic compounds that exist at residual saturation in the formation. Here, we review the partitioning behavior of selected organic compounds typically found in depleted oil reservoirs in the residual oil–brine–sc-CO{sub 2} system under carbon storage conditions. The solubility of pure phase organic compounds in sc-CO{sub 2} and partitioning of organic compounds between water and sc-CO{sub 2} follow trends predicted based on thermodynamics. Compounds with high volatility and low aqueous solubility have the highest potential to partition to sc-CO{sub 2}. The partitioning of low volatility compounds to sc-CO{sub 2} can be enhanced by co-solvency due to the presence of higher volatility compounds in the sc-CO{sub 2}. The effect of temperature, pressure, salinity, pH, and dissolution of water molecules into sc-CO{sub 2} on the partitioning behavior of organic compounds in the residual oil-brine-sc-CO{sub 2} system is discussed. Data gaps and research needs for models to predict the partitioning of organic compounds in brines and from complex mixtures of oils are presented. Models need to be able to better incorporate the effect of salinity and co-solvency, which will require more experimental data from key classes of organic compounds.

  14. Figure S1. Relative contribution to total OH reactivity (a), of observed VOCs to calculated OH reactivity (b) and alkyl nitrate production (c,d) in the afternoon (12pm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    production from aromatic VOCs is highly uncertain, and the result is thus bracketed by lower and upper extremes for aromatic branching ratios (see text). #12;2 Table S1. Speciated ANs precursors observed.07E-13(2) 0.00037 0.084 Propane 5. 7 0.036 1.07E-12(1) 0.0055 0.29 Propene 0.42 0.015 2.66E-11(3) 0

  15. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowser, John

    2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In one of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the other part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. Ambient air is charged to the membrane separation unit during the latter part of the cycle.

  16. Effect of Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Ozonolysis of ?-Pinene. Effect of Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic...

  17. French permanent survey on indoor air quality--microenvironmental concentrations of volatile organic compounds in 90 French dwellings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    conducted in France on indoor pollution. The survey's design (sampling, analytical methods, questionnaire, temperature, humidity) and questionnaires on building characteristics, occupants' description and time (30 compounds including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, BTEX) were measured by passive samplers, during 7

  18. The development of a sensitive method to study volatile organic compounds in gaseous emissions of lung cancer cell lines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroly, Anupam

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a low cost, reliable system that would lead to early detection of lung cancer. Tests involved the quantitation of gaseous metabolic emissions from immortalized lung ...

  19. Model Estimates of the Contributions of Environmental Tobacco Smoke to Volatile Organic Compound Exposures in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisey, J.M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vinyl ketone 2,3-Butadione Acrolein Limonene 1,3-Butadieneconcentrations for for acrolein, acetaldehyde and 1,3-

  20. Separation and Volatility of Locational Marginal Prices in Restructured Wholesale Power Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    1 Separation and Volatility of Locational Marginal Prices in Restructured Wholesale Power Markets (LMPs) in an ISO-managed restructured wholesale power market operating over an AC transmission grid-determining) generation companies induce correlations among neighboring LMPs. Index Terms--Restructured wholesale power

  1. Accurate dispensing of volatile reagents on demand for chemical reactions in EWOD chips{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accurate dispensing of volatile reagents on demand for chemical reactions in EWOD chips{ Huijiang the use of a filler liquid (e.g., oil). These properties pose challenges for delivering controlled volumes are introduced to the chip, independent of time delays between dispensing operations. On-demand dispensing

  2. Experimental evidence for interaction of water vapor and platinum crucibles at high temperatures : Implications for volatiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cartigny, Pierre

    The extraction of water from igneous rocks and minerals is classically achieved by induction heating or foils, to extract water from rocks or minerals should be avoided. The interaction high- lighted : Implications for volatiles from igneous rocks and minerals Matthieu Clog , Pierre Cartigny, Cyril Aubaud

  3. An empirical behavioral model of liquidity and volatility Szabolcs Mike and J. Doyne Farmer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    develop a behavioral model for liquidity and volatility based on empirical reg- ularities in trading order interesting regularities in the way trading orders are placed and cancelled. The resulting simple model of absolute returns |r| are well described by a power law of the form P(|r| > R) R-r , with a value of r

  4. Investor-Voters and Electoral Volatility in Sub-Saharan Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asingo, Patrick Odhiambo

    2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    is harmful if it permanently blocks some groups in the society from accessing power (Giliomee and Simkins, 1999). One can also argue that in the new and emerging democracies, low volatility can raise doubt about the quality of the elections. Understanding...

  5. Experimental studies of actinide volatilities with application to mixed waste oxidation processors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krikorian, O.H.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Condit, R.H.; Adamson, M.G.; Fontes, A.S. Jr.; Fleming, D.L.

    1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The transpiration technique is used to measure volatilities of U from U{sub 3}O{sub 8}(s), Pu from PuO{sub 2}(s) and Pu and Am from PuO{sub 2}/2%AmO{sub 2}(s) in the presence of steam and oxygen at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1300{degree}C.

  6. Effects on milk yield and composition of infusions of volatile fatty acids and caseinate into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects on milk yield and composition of infusions of volatile fatty acids and caseinate isoenergetic infusions of either a low (17 mol/day of 64% acetic, 21% propionic and 15% butyric acids) or high that with infusions, energy and nitrogen needs were met and consisted of 60% maize silage, 10% hay, 21.5% energy

  7. Options introduction and volatility in the EU ETS1 Julien Chevallier 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of derivatives instruments on the underlying crude oil market and derived products. Thus, detecting whether identify a potential destabilizing effect of the introduction of options on the underlying market (EU ETS either decrease (due to more market depth) or increase (due to more speculation) volatility

  8. Volatile impurities in the ceramic form for the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cozzi, A.D.

    2000-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal for the impurity tests performed at SRS was to determine the maximum level of volatile impurities that can be accommodated into the ceramic form without significantly affecting product properties. The properties investigated in this study are the apparent porosity and the phase assemblage.

  9. Agriculture and Trade Opportunities for Tanzania: Past Volatility and Future Climate Changerode_672 429..447

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    Agriculture and Trade Opportunities for Tanzania: Past Volatility and Future Climate Changerode_672 global heterogeneity in climate-induced agricultural variability,Tanzania has the potential to substan could thus export grain to countries as climate change increases the likelihood of severe precipitation

  10. Effets d'infusions d'un mlange complet d'acides gras volatils en cours de repas sur la prise alimentaire de vaches taries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effets d'infusions d'un mélange complet d'acides gras volatils en cours de repas sur la prise-Gilles, 35590 L'Hermitage, France Summary ― Infusions of 3 or 6 mol of a volatile fatty acid mixture dépressifs des infusions d'acides gras volatils (AGV) dans le rumen sur l'ingestion d'aliments ont été

  11. Organic Photovoltaics Philip Schulz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Field Effect Transistors Organic Light Emitting Diodes Organic Solar Cells .OFET, OTFT .RF-ID tag 1977 ­ Conductivity in polymers 1986 ­ First heterojunction OPV 1987 ­ First organic light emitting diode (OLED) 1993 ­ First OPV from solution processing 2001 ­ First certified organic solar cell with 2

  12. Departmental Organization and Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1993-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Effective immediately, the Departmental organization structure reflected in the chart at Attachment 1 has been approved.

  13. Mechanisms of Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols and Implications for Global Radiative Forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John H. Seinfeld

    2011-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic material constitutes about 50% of global atmospheric aerosol mass, and the dominant source of organic aerosol is the oxidation of volatile hydrocarbons, to produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Understanding the formation of SOA is crucial to predicting present and future climate effects of atmospheric aerosols. The goal of this program is to significantly increase our understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere. Ambient measurements indicate that the amount of SOA in the atmosphere exceeds that predicted in current models based on existing laboratory chamber data. This would suggest that either the SOA yields measured in laboratory chambers are understated or that all major organic precursors have not been identified. In this research program we are systematically exploring these possibilities.

  14. Organe und Gremien Organe der Stiftung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Batavia IL (USA) Prof. Dr. F. Krausz BESSY GmbH, Berlin Prof. Dr. B. Naroska Universität Hamburg Prof. Dr. F. Pauss European Organization for Particle Physics CERN, Geneva (CH) Dr. N. Roe Lawrence Berkeley Organization for Particle Physics CERN, Geneva (CH) Dr. A. Wrulich Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (CH) 14 #12

  15. Organe und Gremien Organe der Stiftung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medizinische Forschung, Heidelberg Prof. Dr. E. Jaeschke BESSY GmbH, Berlin Prof. Dr. W. Jentschke Institut für Experimentalphysik, Universität Hamburg (Ehrenmitglied) Dr. K.-H. Kissler European Organization for Particle Physics Organization for Particle Physics CERN, Geneva (CH) Prof. Dr. W. Sandner Max-Born-Institut, Berlin Dr. M

  16. Organe und Gremien Organe der Stiftung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassel Prof. Dr. S. Großmann Fachbereich Physik, Universität Marburg Prof. Dr. E. Jaeschke BESSY Gmb Organization for Particle Physics CERN, Genf (CH) Prof. Dr. V. Metag Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung GSI, Darmstadt Dr. D. Möhl European Organization for Particle Physics CERN, Genf (CH) Prof. Dr. J. Stachel

  17. Organe und Gremien Organe der Stiftung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BESSY GmbH, Berlin Prof. Dr. W. Jentschke II. Institut für Experimentalphysik, Universität Hamburg (Ehrenmitglied) Dr. K.-H. Kissler European Organization for Particle Physics CERN, Geneva (CH) Prof. Dr. K. Königsmann Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg Dr. J. May European Organization for Particle Physics CERN

  18. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  19. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Organic Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 when nitrogen oxide and nitric acid (HNO3) species react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here, we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory generated particles composed of water soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e. NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) investigated using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates releasing gaseous HNO3 during dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase due to its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that in turn may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling, which may further affect concentrations of gas- and aerosol-phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  20. Declining Volatility, a General Property of Disparate Systems: From Fossils, to Stocks, to the Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Bruce S

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There may be structural principles pertaining to the general behavior of systems that lead to similarities in a variety of different contexts. Classic examples include the descriptive power of fractals, the importance of surface area to volume constraints, the universality of entropy in systems, and mathematical rules of growth and form. Documenting such overarching principles may represent a rejoinder to the Neodarwinian synthesis that emphasizes adaptation and competition. Instead, these principles could indicate the importance of constraint and structure on form and evolution. Here we document a potential example of a phenomenon suggesting congruent behavior of very different systems. We focus on the notion that universally there has been a tendency for more volatile entities to disappear from systems such that the net volatility in these systems tends to decline. We specifically focus on origination and extinction rates in the marine animal fossil record, the performance of stocks in the stock market, and...

  1. Volatile Profile Differences and the Associated Sirex noctilio Activity in Two Host Tree Species in the Northeastern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    induced higher volatile emission rates in the Scots pine chemotypes than in white pine, although. Truck Rd., Buzzards Bay, MA 02542, USA Present Address: K. Böröczky Department of Entomology, North

  2. Evaluation of the colossal electroresistance (CER) effect and its application in the non-volatile Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wicaksono, Aulia Tegar

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flash memory, the current leading technology for non-volatile memory (NVM), is projected by many to run obsolete in the face of future miniaturization trend in the semiconductor devices due to some of its technical ...

  3. The Impact of Tax Shocks and Oil Price Volatility on Risk - A Study of North Sea Oilfield Projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kretzschmar, Gavin Lee; Moles, Peter

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the impact of market volatility and increased fiscal take on risk in strategic natural resource projects. An increase in 2006 UK oilfield taxation is used as a natural experiment for assessing the impact of a ...

  4. Vertical composition gradient effects on original hydrocarbon in place volumes and liquid recovery for volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo Arias, Juan Manuel

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Around the world, volatile oil and retrograde gas reservoirs are considered as complex thermodynamic systems and even more when they exhibit vertical composition variations. Those systems must be characterized by an equation of state (EOS...

  5. Organic photovoltaics and concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mapel, Jonathan King

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of light harvesting and charge generation offers several advantages in the design of organic photovoltaics and organic solar concentrators for the ultimate end goal of achieving a lower cost solar electric ...

  6. A new volatility term in the theory of options with transaction costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Morozovsky

    2000-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The introduction of transaction costs into the theory of option pricing could lead not only to the change of return for options, but also to the change of the volatility. On the base of assumption of the portfolio analysis, a new equation for option pricing with transaction costs is derived. A new solution for the option price is obtained for the time close to expiration date.

  7. The role of microorganisms in the production of volatile sulfhydryl compounds in cheddar cheese slurries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce-Trevino, Raul

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the role of lac- tic cultures on the production of volatile sulfhydryl com- pounds in the slurries. Hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, carbonyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfide were found in the headspace of slurries prepared from curd manufactured... by the culture procedure. Addition of an antibiotic mixture to slurries prepared from curd manufactured by the culture me- thod inhibited bacteria growth and the production of hydro- gen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide. A mixture of antibiotics was added...

  8. The role of non-volatile memory from an application perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kettering, Brett M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nunez, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Current, emerging, and future NVM (non-volatile memory) technologies give us hope that we will be able to architect HPC (high performance computing) systems that initially use them in a memory and storage hierarchy, and eventually use them as the memory and storage for the system, complete with ownership and protections as a HDD-based (hard-disk-drive-based) file system provides today.

  9. Electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectral analysis of a volatile uranyl derivative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reutter, D.J.; Hardy, D.R.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quadrupole mass spectral analysis of the volatile uranium ligand complex bis (1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionato) dioxouranium-di-n-butyl sulfoxide is described utilizing electron impact (EI) and methane chemical ionization (CI) ion sources. All major ions are tentatively identified and the potential usefulness of this complex for determining uranium isotope /sup 235/U//sup 238/U abundance is demonstrated.

  10. Organizing and Personalizing Intelligence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Ah-Hwee

    Vista). More sophis- ticated ones, such as Northern Light, BullsEye and Copernic go a step further organize

  11. Assessment of gas flammability in transuranic waste container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connolly, M.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Loehr, C.A.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package [Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) SARP] set limits for gas generation rates, wattage limits, and flammable volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in transuranic (TRU) waste containers that would be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Based on existing headspace gas data for drums stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), over 30 percent of the contact-handled TRU waste drums contain flammable VOC concentrations greater than the limit. Additional requirements may be imposed for emplacement of waste in the WIPP facility. The conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the facility required that flame tests be performed if significant levels of flammable VOCs were present in TRU waste containers. This paper describes an approach for investigating the potential flammability of TRU waste drums, which would increase the allowable concentrations of flammable VOCS. A flammability assessment methodology is presented that will allow more drums to be shipped to WIPP without treatment or repackaging and reduce the need for flame testing on drums. The approach includes experimental work to determine mixture lower explosive limits (MLEL) for the types of gas mixtures observed in TRU waste, a model for predicting the MLEL for mixtures of VOCS, hydrogen, and methane, and revised screening limits for total flammable VOCs concentrations and concentrations of hydrogen and methane using existing drum headspace gas data and the model predictions.

  12. Effects of uncertainty in SAPRC90 rate constants and selected product yields on reactivity adjustment factors for alternative fuel vehicle emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergin, M.S.; Russell, A.G.; Yang, Y.J.; Milford, J.B.; Kirchner, F.; Stockwell, W.R.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tropospheric ozone is formed in the atmosphere by a series of reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). While NOx emissions are primarily composed of only two compounds, nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), there are hundreds of different VOCs being emitted. In general, VOCs promote ozone formation, however, the rate and extent of ozone produced by the individual VOCs varies considerably. For example, it is widely acknowledged that formaldehyde (HCHO) is a very reactive VOC, and produces ozone rapidly and efficiently under most conditions. On the other hand, VOCs such as methane, ethane, propane, and methanol do not react as quickly, and are likely to form less urban ozone than a comparable mass of HCHO. The difference in ozone forming potential is one of the bases for the use of alternative fuels. The fuels considered in this study included compressed natural gas, LPG, mixtures of methanol and gasoline, ethanol and gasoline, and a reformulated gasoline.

  13. Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruse, C.W.; Carlson, S.L. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Fatemi, M. [Amoco Research Center, Naperville, IL (United States); Snoeyink, V.L.; Feizoulof, C.A. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Klavetter, E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests this quarter showed the adsorption efficiency of an oxidized activated ChemCoal{trademark} (OACC) char for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from spiked water is higher than for unoxidized activated char (ACC). OACC destroyed (or reacted with) a higher percentage of VOCs when loaded char was heated quickly to 850{degrees}C. This was expected based on the OACC`s superiority as an elimination catalyst. Aromatic VOCs appeared to be adsorbed on the chars more readily than the chlorinated ones but the multichlorinated VOCs appeared to be adsorbed more strongly. The performance of two oxidized carbons (OST3-9 and OACC chars) for the removal of the VOCs from two industrial waste waters spiked with VOCs appeared similar. The more active catalyst, OST3-9 appeared more effective than OACC in destroying the adsorbed materials. A series of carbons having differing levels of oxygen on the surface was prepared by desorbing oxygen from the surface placed there by nitric acid oxidation. Tests revealed that the capacity to adsorb 2-nitrophenol increased as the outgassing temperature was increased. This indicates that PNP adsorption is increased as surface oxygen is removed from the carbon.

  14. Volatilization and mixing in glasses of some Apollo 14 regolith breccias

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.H.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three unique samples can be distinguished by analysis of all glass types, including devitrified glasses, in a suite of 26 Apollo 14 regolith breccias. These unique samples include the well-studied sample 14315, which has an abundance of anorthositic gabbro glasses and devitrified glasses; 14004,77, which has no glasses other than those that match the local soil; and 14076,5, which contains no glasses similar to the local soil or to LKFM. Sample 14076,5 is clearly exotic, for it contains devitrified glasses of anorthositic composition and of a silica-volatilized (HASP) trend that stems from anorthosite; these silica-volatilized glasses contain the new mineral yoshiokite. HASP glasses in this exotic sample and HASP glass spheres that stem from the Apollo 14 soil composition differ greatly from the HASP glasses at Apollo 16. The various HASP glasses can be just as useful as non-volatilized glasses in searching or major crustal or regolith lithologies. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Organic photosensitive devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rand, Barry P; Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices. More specifically, it is directed to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices having a photoactive organic region containing encapsulated nanoparticles that exhibit plasmon resonances. An enhancement of the incident optical field is achieved via surface plasmon polariton resonances. This enhancement increases the absorption of incident light, leading to a more efficient device.

  16. CCPPolicyBriefing Organization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    . METHODOLOGY · The author incorporates the economic theory of organizations into the framework of public law to establish the theory of cartel organization, and calls for further studies to disclose the sophisticatedCCPPolicyBriefing September 2008 Cartel Organization and Antitrust Enforcement W: www

  17. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sargent, T.N. Jr. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass.

  18. From Population to Organization Thinking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lane, David; Maxfield, Robert; Read, Dwight W; van der Leeuw, Sander E

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Herbert Simon developed a theory of organization for complexin need of a theory of organization. As we have alreadya deeper theory of organization: complex networks,

  19. Glassy dynamics distinguishes chromosome organization across organisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hongsuk Kang; Young-Gui Yoon; D. Thirumalai; Changbong Hyeon

    2015-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments showing scaling of the intrachromosomal contact probability, $P(s)\\sim s^{-1}$ with the genomic distance $s$, are interpreted to mean a self-similar fractal-like chromosome organization. However, scaling of $P(s)$ varies across organisms, requiring an explanation. We illustrate that dynamical arrest in a highly confined space as a discriminating marker for genome organization, by modeling chromosome inside a nucleus as a self-avoiding homopolymer confined to a sphere of varying sizes. Brownian dynamics simulations show that the chain dynamics slows down as the polymer volume fraction ($\\phi$) inside the confinement approaches a critical value $\\phi_c$. Using finite size scaling analysis, we determine $\\phi_c^{\\infty}\\approx 0.44$ for a sufficiently long polymer ($N\\gg 1$). Our study shows that the onset of glassy dynamics is the reason for the formation of segregated organization in human chromosomes ($N\\approx 3\\times 10^9$, $\\phi\\gtrsim\\phi_c^{\\infty}$), whereas chromosomes of budding yeast ($N\\approx 1.2\\times 10^7$, $\\phi<\\phi_c^{\\infty}$) are equilibrated with no clear signature of such organization.

  20. Sociology: Computational Organization Theory Sociology: Computational Organization Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    Sociology: Computational Organization Theory Sociology: Computational Organization Theory Kathleen; organization theory; organizational learning; social networks; expert systems Citation: Kathleen Carley, 1994, "Sociology: Computational Organization Theory." Social Science Computer Review, 12(4): 611-624. #12;Sociology

  1. Theory of Organic Magnetoresistance in Disordered Organic Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flatte, Michael E.

    Theory of Organic Magnetoresistance in Disordered Organic Semiconductors Nicholas J. Harmon semiconductors, disordered semiconductors, organic magnetoresistance, percolation theory, spin transport organic semiconductors. The theory proposed here maps the complex phenomena of spin-dependent hopping onto

  2. Feasibility of Organizations -A Refinement of Chemical Organization Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinze, Thomas

    Feasibility of Organizations - A Refinement of Chemical Organization Theory with Application to P a theorem providing a criteria for an unfeasible organization. This is a refinement of organization theory organization. Key words: reaction networks, constructive dynamical systems, chem- ical organization theory

  3. In-well vapor stripping drilling and characterization work plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koegler, K.J.

    1994-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This work plan provides the information necessary for drilling, sampling, and hydrologic testing of wells to be completed in support of a demonstration of the in-well vapor stripping system. The in-well vapor stripping system is a remediation technology designed to preferentially extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater by converting them to a vapor phase. Air-lift pumping is used to lift and aerate groundwater within the well. The volatiles escaping the aerated water are drawn off by a slight vacuum and treated at the surface while the water is allowed to infiltrate the vadose zone back to the watertable.

  4. Food Exemption Request Organization Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Food Exemption Request Organization Information Organization Received ______ Organizations are permitted one food exemption per semester. Requests must be submitted): ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Only homemade food may be provided by your organization. Initial ______ No prepared food may

  5. Astatinated organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milius, R.A.; Lambrecht, R.M.; Bloomer, W.D.

    1989-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and kits for incorporating a radioactive astatine isotope (particularly [sup 211]At) into an organic compound by electrophilic astatodestannylation of organostannanes. 3 figs.

  6. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  7. Quarterly sampling of the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch: March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K.L.; Cummins, C.L.; Rogers, V.A.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In March 1994, well point water and near surface water (bucket) samples were collected to further characterize tritium and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch south of 643-E (old burial ground). Groundwater flow paths suggest that compounds detected in water table wells around 643-E would migrate towards the old F-Area effluent ditch and Fourmile Branch. Recent analytical results from near surface water sampling in the wetlands that comprise the old F-Area effluent ditch have shown that tritium and small quantities of VOCs are outcropping in the area. Results of the March 1994 sampling event further support findings that tritium and volatile organic compounds originating from 643-E are outcropping in the wetlands near the old F-Area effluent ditch. Six different analytes were detected in the well points at least once at concentrations greater than the method detection limit: d 1,2-dichloroethylene, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and tritium. 1,2-dichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and tritium were detected at levels above Primary Drinking Water Standards or Maximum Contaminant Levels list. Four analytes, 1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, tritium, and vinyl chloride, were detected at least once at concentrations greater than the method detection limit and least once at concentrations above the PDWS or the MCL. Based on differences in tritium concentrations at each location, it was determined that the sampling devices intercepted different groundwater flow paths. This negated direct comparison of analytical results between devices. However, when VOC concentrations measured at each well point and bucket location were normalized, resulting well point and bucket VOC concentrations were comparable in most cases. These results suggest that volatilization losses of VOCs from the buckets were negligible.

  8. Glassy dynamics distinguishes chromosome organization across organisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Hongsuk; Thirumalai, D; Hyeon, Changbong

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments showing scaling of the intrachromosomal contact probability, $P(s)\\sim s^{-1}$ with the genomic distance $s$, are interpreted to mean a self-similar fractal-like chromosome organization. However, scaling of $P(s)$ varies across organisms, requiring an explanation. We illustrate that dynamical arrest in a highly confined space as a discriminating marker for genome organization, by modeling chromosome inside a nucleus as a self-avoiding homopolymer confined to a sphere of varying sizes. Brownian dynamics simulations show that the chain dynamics slows down as the polymer volume fraction ($\\phi$) inside the confinement approaches a critical value $\\phi_c$. Using finite size scaling analysis, we determine $\\phi_c^{\\infty}\\approx 0.44$ for a sufficiently long polymer ($N\\gg 1$). Our study shows that the onset of glassy dynamics is the reason for the formation of segregated organization in human chromosomes ($N\\approx 3\\times 10^9$, $\\phi\\gtrsim\\phi_c^{\\infty}$), whereas chromosomes of budding yea...

  9. Sorption and permeation of low molecular weight volatile compounds in polypropylene 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vidal, Antonio Ramiro Santiago

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the vapor permeation through the wall of the polypropylene containers. Sorption was calculated by subtracting the estimated permeation from the total loss. The effect of type of volatile compound, composition of polymer, and thickness of the container... LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Treatment setup 12 2 Effect of wall thickness on total loss to the container 33 3 Effect of composition of polymer on total loss to the container 36 4 Effect of type of resin on total loss to the container 38 5...

  10. Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Tuan V. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate therethrough to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex.

  11. Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, T.V.

    1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate there through to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex. 23 figs.

  12. Field-usable portable analyzer for chlorinated organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buttner, W.J.; Penrose, W.R.; Stetter, J.R.; Williams, R.D.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1992, a chemical sensor was developed which showed almost perfect selectivity to vapors of chlorinated solvents. When interfaced to an instrument, a chemical analyzer will be produced that has near- absolute selectivity to vapors of volatile chlorinated organic compounds. TRI has just completed the second of a 2-phase program to develop this new instrument system, which is called the RCL MONITOR. In Phase II, this instrument was deployed in 5 EM40 operations. Phase II applications covered clean-up process monitoring, environmental modeling, routine monitoring, health and safety, and technology validation. Vapor levels between 0 and 100 ppM can be determined in 90 s with a lower detection limit of 0.5 ppM using the hand-portable instrument. Based on the favorable performance of the RCL MONITOR, the commercial instrument was released for commercial sales on Sept. 20, 1996.

  13. Modeling air emissions from contaminated sediment dredged materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valsaraj, K.T.; Thibodeaux, L.J. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Reible, D.D. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); [Univ. of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatilization rates for hydrophobic organic compounds from a confined disposal facility (CDF) containing contaminated dredged material are presently unknown. The primary purpose of this study is to indicate the availability of theoretical models for the evaluation of volatile emission from a CDF. Four emission locales are identified and modeled: the sediment relocation (dredging) locale, the exposed sediment locale, the ponded sediment locale, and the vegetation-covered sediment locale. Rate expressions are derived to estimate the volatile organic chemical (VOC) emission from each locale. Emission rates (in mass of total VOCs per unit time) are primarily dependent on the chemical concentration at the source, the surface area of the source, and the degree to which the dredged material is in direct contact with air. The relative magnitude of these three parameters provides a basis upon which a tentative ranking of emission rates from the different locales can be given. Exposed sediment results in the greatest estimated emissions of volatiles followed by water with high levels of suspended sediments, such as might occur during dredging or during placement in a CDF. Expected to be lower in volatile emissions are dredged materials covered by a quiescent water column or vegetation.

  14. Effective Presentations Organization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shull, David H.

    1 Pericles Effective Presentations · Content · Organization · Delivery · Visual aids and graphics Be brave Graphics · KISS · Powerpoint: ­ Font · Bigger than you'd expect · San serif ­ Lines · Thicker than · Organization · Energy · Clarity · Poise Key: Practice Web Resources · http

  15. Stable isotopic investigations of in situ bioremediation of chlorinated organic solvents. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturchio, N.C.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'The author has made significant progress in developing innovative methods for investigating the mechanism and extent of in situ bioremediation of chlorinated organic solvents. These methods use precise isotopic ratio measurements of chlorine and carbon in reactant and product species in laboratory experiments and in materials from field demonstration sites. Specific tasks completed during FY 1997 include: (1) refinement and publication of a new analytical method for precise determination of chlorine and carbon isotope ratios in chlorinated volatile organic compounds; (2) laboratory experiments involving biological degradation of chlorinated solvents in liquid cultures and soil columns; and (3) use of chlorine and carbon isotope ratios to investigate natural attenuation of trichloroethene at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. This work can have immediate impact because it will provide the fundamental basis for a new and cost-effective means of evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of in situ bioremediation schemes for chlorinated organic solvents in soils, vadose horizons, and groundwater plumes.'

  16. Oxidation and Volatilization from Tantalum Alloy T-222 During Air Exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolik, Galen Richard; Petti, David Andrew; Sharpe, John Phillip; Schuetz, Stanley Thomas

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tantalum alloys are one of the refractory metals with renewed consideration for high temperatures in fusion reactor applications. Tantalum alloys perform well in protective environments but oxidized readily in gases containing higher oxygen levels. In addition, the radioactive isotope Ta-182 would be produced in tantalum and could be a significant contributor to dose if mobilized. Other isotopes of importance are produced from tungsten and hafnium. Mobilization of activated products during an accident with air ingress is therefore a safety issue. In this study, we measured the extent of oxidation and mobilization from tantalum alloy T-222 oxidized in flowing air between 500 and 1200°C. This alloy nominally contains 10 wt% tungsten, 2.5 wt% hafnium and 0.01 wt% carbon. We found that the mobilization of Ta and Hf was closely linked to the occurrence of oxide spalling. These elements showed no migration from the test chamber. Some W was mobilized by volatilization as evidenced by transport from the chamber. Tungsten volatilization could occur primarily during initial stages of oxidation before an oxide scale forms and impedes the process. The mobilization of Ta and W are presented in terms of the mass flux (g/m 2 -h) as a function of test temperature. These measurements along with specific designs, activation calculations, and accident scenarios provide information useful for dose calculations of future fusion devices

  17. Oxidation and Volatilization from Tantalum Alloy T-222 During Air Exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolik, G.R.; Petti, D.A.; Sharpe, J.P.; Schuetz, S.T.

    2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Tantalum alloys are one of the refractory metals with renewed consideration for high temperatures in fusion reactor applications. Tantalum alloys perform well in protective environments but oxidized readily in gases containing higher oxygen levels. In addition, the radioactive isotope Ta-182 would be produced in tantalum and could be a significant contributor to dose if mobilized. Other isotopes of importance are produced from tungsten and hafnium. Mobilization of activated products during an accident with air ingress is therefore a safety issue. In this study, we measured the extent of oxidation and mobilization from tantalum alloy T-222 oxidized in flowing air between 500 and 1200 C. This alloy nominally contains 10 wt% tungsten, 2.5 wt% hafnium and 0.01 wt% carbon. We found that the mobilization of Ta and Hf was closely linked to the occurrence of oxide spalling. These elements showed no migration from the test chamber. Some W was mobilized by volatilization as evidenced by transport from the chamber. Tungsten volatilization could occur primarily during initial stages of oxidation before an oxide scale forms and impedes the process. The mobilization of Ta and W are presented in terms of the mass flux (g/m 2 -h) as a function of test temperature. These measurements along with specific designs, activation calculations, and accident scenarios provide information useful for dose calculations of future fusion devices.

  18. Scaling and memory of intraday volatility return intervals in stock market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, F; Stanley, H E; Yamasaki, K; Havlin, Shlomo; Wang, Fengzhong; Yamasaki, Kazuko

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the return interval $\\tau$ between price volatilities that are above a certain threshold $q$ for 31 intraday datasets, including the Standard & Poor's 500 index and the 30 stocks that form the Dow Jones Industrial index. For different threshold $q$, the probability density function $P_q(\\tau)$ scales with the mean interval $\\bar{\\tau}$ as $P_q(\\tau)={\\bar{\\tau}}^{-1}f(\\tau/\\bar{\\tau})$, similar to that found in daily volatilities. Since the intraday records have significantly more data points compared to the daily records, we could probe for much higher thresholds $q$ and still obtain good statistics. We find that the scaling function $f(x)$ is consistent for all 31 intraday datasets in various time resolutions, and the function is well approximated by the stretched exponential, $f(x)\\sim e^{-a x^\\gamma}$, with $\\gamma=0.38\\pm 0.05$ and $a=3.9\\pm 0.5$, which indicates the existence of correlations. We analyze the conditional probability distribution $P_q(\\tau|\\tau_0)$ for $\\tau$ following a certa...

  19. Organic Separation Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Separable organics have been defined as “those organic compounds of very limited solubility in the bulk waste and that can form a separate liquid phase or layer” (Smalley and Nguyen 2013), and result from three main solvent extraction processes: U Plant Uranium Recovery Process, B Plant Waste Fractionation Process, and Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Process. The primary organic solvents associated with tank solids are TBP, D2EHPA, and NPH. There is concern that, while this organic material is bound to the sludge particles as it is stored in the tanks, waste feed delivery activities, specifically transfer pump and mixer pump operations, could cause the organics to form a separated layer in the tank farms feed tank. Therefore, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is experimentally evaluating the potential of organic solvents separating from the tank solids (sludge) during waste feed delivery activities, specifically the waste mixing and transfer processes. Given the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste acceptance criteria per the Waste Feed Acceptance Criteria document (24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014) that there is to be “no visible layer” of separable organics in the waste feed, this would result in the batch being unacceptable to transfer to WTP. This study is of particular importance to WRPS because of these WTP requirements.

  20. Departmental Organization Management System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Public Law 95-91, 42 United States Code 7101, Department of Energy Organization Act, Section 642 gives to the Secretary of the Department of Energy the responsibility to approve organization changes affecting the number, designation, or mission of Departmental Elements and to approve the addition, deletion, or transfer of missions and/or functions of or between Departmental Elements. In order to streamline the organizational change process, the Secretary has delegate to the Heads of Departmental Headquarters and Field Elements the authority to approve organization changes. No cancellations.

  1. Effets sur la digestion et le mtabolisme des vaches laitires d'infusions d'acides gras volatils dans le rumen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effets sur la digestion et le métabolisme des vaches laitières d'infusions d'acides gras volatils.N.R.A., Saint-Gilles, 35590, L'Hermitage, France. Summary. Effects of !uminal infusion of volatile fatty acids and duodenal infusion of caseinate on digestion and metabolism in the dairy cow. II. - General and mammary

  2. Effets sur la digestion et le mtabolisme des vaches laitires d'infusions d'acides gras volatils dans le rumen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effets sur la digestion et le métabolisme des vaches laitières d'infusions d'acides gras volatils.N.R.A. Saint-Gilles, 35590 L'Hermitage, France Summary. Effects of ruminal infusion of volatile fatty acids and duodenal infusion of casei- nate on digestion and metabolism in the dairy cow. l. - Production

  3. Quarterly sampling of the wetlands along the old F Area effluent ditch: August 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummins, C.L.; Dixon, K.L.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In August 1994, well point water and near-surface water samples were collected to characterize tritium and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch south of 643-E (old burial ground). The August sampling event was the third in a series of eight events. Groundwater flow paths suggest that compounds detected in water table wells around 643-E migrate towards the old F-Area effluent ditch and Fourmile Branch. Recent analytical results from well point and near-surface water sampling in the wetlands that comprise the old F-Area effluent ditch have shown that tritium and small quantities of VOCs are outcropping in the area. For this study, seven locations along the old F-Area effluent ditch were selected to be sampled. Well point samples were collected from all seven locations and near-surface water samples were collected at four locations. A secondary objective of this project was to compare VOC concentrations between the well points installed to depths of 6 to 8 ft and the near-surface water sampling buckets installed to depths of 1 to 2 ft. Based on differences in tritium concentrations at each location, it was determined that the sampling devices intercepted different groundwater flow paths. This negated direct comparison of analytical results between devices. However, when VOC concentrations measured at each well point and bucket location were normalized, based on the percent differences observed in tritium concentrations at that location, the resulting well point and bucket VOC concentrations were comparable in most cases. These results are consistent with the results from the three previous sampling events, and suggest that volatilization losses of VOCs from the buckets may be negligible. Since the results from the two sampling methodologies are not directly comparable, further sampling of the buckets is not planned.

  4. Organic contaminant separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Mar, P.

    1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is presented of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube. The solvent is capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus is presented for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium. The apparatus includes a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester. The composite tube has an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and has sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube. 2 figures.

  5. Water purification using organic salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  6. Forecasting the conditional volatility of oil spot and futures prices with structural breaks and long memory models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Forecasting the conditional volatility of oil spot and futures prices with structural breaks of oil spot and futures prices using three GARCH-type models, i.e., linear GARCH, GARCH with structural that oil price fluctuations influence economic activity and financial sector (e.g., Jones and Kaul, 1996

  7. An Analysis of Price Volatility in Different Spot Markets for Electricity in the U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Analysis of Price Volatility in Different Spot Markets for Electricity in the U.S.A. by Tim for electricity in the USA vary in fundamental ways. In particular, markets in the East, such as New England, New in the new auction markets for electricity can be described by a stochastic regime-switching model

  8. ANNALS OF GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 48, N. 4/5, August/October 2005 Key words diffusion silicate melts volatiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    ­ volatiles ­ water ­ carbon dioxide ­ sulfur ­ fluorine ­ chlorine ­ melt inclusion ­ igneous processes 1 in silicate magmas provides the frame- work necessary for the understanding of process- es such as bubble equations for water, carbon dioxide, sulfur, flu- orine, and chlorine in silicate melts similar

  9. A non-volatile-memory device on the basis of engineered anisotropies in (Ga,Mn)As

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    ARTICLES A non-volatile-memory device on the basis of engineered anisotropies in (Ga,Mn)As KATRIN by Moore's law, the semiconductor industry will need to develop novel device concepts that go beyond simple Hall effect6 , tunnelling AMR (TAMR)7­9 and Coulomb blockade AMR10 . These previous demonstrations have

  10. UniFI: Leveraging Non-Volatile Memories for a Unified Fault Tolerance and Idle Power Management Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, David A.

    dissipation but also to make power - proportional to performance by managing idle power. The twin challenges noise margins and thermal cycling [42]. Technology scaling and power management both impact systemUniFI: Leveraging Non-Volatile Memories for a Unified Fault Tolerance and Idle Power Management

  11. Effects of digestive infusions of volatile fatty acids or glucose on food intake in lactating or dry cows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of digestive infusions of volatile fatty acids or glucose on food intake in lactating lactating (30 kg of milk/d) and 3 non pregnant dry dairy cows. The effect of each energetic infusion) control solutions of VFA and glucose treatments were infused at the same vol, pH and osmolarity

  12. Phytologia (Oct. 1, 2014) 96(4)252 Comparison of volatile leaf terpenoids from Lippia dulcis (Verbenaceae) obtained by steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Robert P.

    (Verbenaceae) obtained by steam distillation and pentane liquid extraction Robert P. Adams Biology Department, Prairie View, TX 77446 ABSTRACT Comparison of pentane extraction and steam distillation of intact leaves to be due to the different effects of pentane solvent on intact leaves (vs. steam volatilization

  13. Reformulated gasoline: Costs and refinery impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of reformulated gasoline (RFG) costs and refinery impacts have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model (ORNL-RYM), a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy emissions constraints defined by preliminary complex emissions models. Policy makers may use the reformulation cost knee (the point at which costs start to rise sharply for incremental emissions control) to set emissions reduction targets, giving due consideration to the differences between model representations and actual refining operations. ORNL-RYM estimates that the reformulation cost knee for the US East Coast (PADD I) is about 15.2 cents per gallon with a 30 percent reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The estimated cost knee for the US Gulf Coast (PADD III) is about 5.5 cents per gallon with a VOC reduction of 35 percent. Reid vapor pressure (RVP) reduction is the dominant VOC reduction mechanism. Even with anti-dumping constraints, conventional gasoline appears to be an important sink which permits RFG to be blended with lower aromatics and sulfur contents in PADD III. In addition to the potentially large sensitivity of RFG production to different emissions models, RFG production is sensitive to the non-exhaust VOC share assumption for a particular VOC model. ORNL-RYM has also been used to estimate the sensitivity of RFG production to the cost of capital; to the RVP requirements for conventional gasoline; and to the percentage of RFG produced in a refining region.

  14. Integrated test plan for preliminary demonstration of the in situ permeable flow sensor in the unsaturated sediments at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This integrated test plan describes the demonstration of the in situ permeable flow sensor, developed by Sandia National Laboratory, to measure air flow in unsaturated sediments. The ability of this technology to measure groundwater flow velocity in saturated sediments has already been successfully demonstrated. This preliminary test of this device in the unsaturated zone will be considered successful if in fact the flowmeters are able to detect a gas flow velocity. The field demonstration described in this integrated test plan is being conducted as part of the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID). The VOC-Arid ID is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) integrated demonstrations designed to support the testing of emerging environmental management and restoration technologies. The purpose of the VOC-Arid ID is to identify, develop, and demonstrate technologies that may be used to characterize, remediate, and/or monitor arid or semiarid sites containing VOCs (e.g., carbon tetrachloride) with or without associated metal and radionuclide contamination. Initially, the VOC-Arid ID activities are focusing primarily on the carbon tetrachloride and associated contamination found in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. Testing of the in situ permeable flow sensor will be conducted at the location of the proposed Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The data regarding subsurface air flow rates and pathways collected during the flow sensor testing will be used in the ongoing characterization of the proposed ERDF.

  15. Volatile Delivery to Planets from Water-rich Planetesimals around Low Mass Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciesla, Fred J; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Daniel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most models of volatile delivery to accreting terrestrial planets assume that the carriers for water are similar in water content to the carbonaceous chondrites in our Solar System. Here we suggest that the water content of primitive bodies in many planetary systems may actually be much higher, as carbonaceous chondrites have lost some of their original water due to heating from short-lived radioisotopes that drove parent body alteration. Using N-body simulations, we explore how planetary accretion would be different if bodies beyond the water line contained a water mass fraction consistent with chemical equilibrium calculations, and more similar to comets, as opposed to the more traditional water-depleted values. We apply this model to consider planet formation around stars of different masses and identify trends in the properties of Habitable Zone planets and planetary system architecture which could be tested by ongoing exoplanet census data collection. Comparison of such data with the model predicted tren...

  16. Thermodynamic modeling of volatile hazardous metal behavior in the Vortec Vitrification System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowok, J.W.; Hurley, J.P.

    2000-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermochemical equilibrium calculations indicate that at the temperature of a propane--air flame, some volatilization of uranium, plutonium, technetium, and cesium will occur. The expected concentrations of plutonium, technetium, and cesium in the flame will be very low because of the small maximum concentration of these elements in the projected feed materials for the first 30-day test. The quantities volatilized can generally be decreased by operating the flame in a fuel-rich mode, although this will lead to greater carbon monoxide production, which may be more objectionable. The concentrations of chlorine and fluorine, at least at the maximum levels in the projected Vortec feed, are not projected to greatly influence the vaporization rates. Therefore, blending to reduce the concentrations of those elements would most likely not be effective in reducing metal vaporization. Most of the elements vaporized condense by the time the gas cools to 2000 F. These elements would condense either on surfaces near the front of the heat recuperator or on entrained particulates or homogeneously as relatively pure submicron particles. Cesium would be expected to condense at the lower temperatures near the rear of the recuperator, although the expected maximum concentration in the Vortec feed material is extremely low so it should be greatly diluted by other particulates. The elements that condense on other entrained particles will form enriched surface coatings. Particles larger than 10{micro}m or so will be collected in the scrubber. Smaller particles, especially the submicron particles formed from homogeneous nucleation, should be largely collected in the HEPA filter. Deposits formed in the heat recuperator can normally be handled via sootblowing. To reduce handling problems, we suggest that the recuperator be oriented vertically so that the deposits blown off of the heat exchanger fall directly into the molten glass. The large size of the deposits should help to reduce the rate of revaporization, allowing the volatile elements to be removed with the glass. The volatile elements that do not deposit on system surfaces will be concentrated in the smaller particles. Therefore, the HEPA ash will be greatly enriched in these elements. If the HEPA filter is itself sent to a melter, the elements may revaporize and multiply the problems related to metal vaporization significantly. Therefore, the HEPA filters should be disposed of without high-temperature processing. Also, to reduce the formation of these very small particles, it is helpful to include in the feed larger particles to act as condensation nuclei that can then be collected in the scrubber. This can be accomplished by using feed materials with a fraction consisting of particles small enough that they will not be collected in the cyclone in the melter, but large enough that they will easily be collected by the scrubber. This is one advantage that firing bituminous coal has over gas firing; it provides a source of ash particles of the right size range to serve as nucleation sites, but large enough (depending on the coal) so that they can usually be collected efficiently in the scrubber system.

  17. Abundance ratios of volatile vs. refractory elements in planet-harbouring stars: hints of pollution?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Ecuvillon; G. Israelian; N. C. Santos; M. Mayor; G. Gilli

    2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the [X/H] trends as function of the elemental condensation temperature Tc in 88 planet host stars and in a volume-limited comparison sample of 33 dwarfs without detected planetary companions. We gathered homogeneous abundance results for many volatile and refractory elements spanning a wide range of Tc, from a few dozens to several hundreds kelvin. We investigate possible anomalous trends of planet hosts with respect to comparison sample stars in order to detect evidence of possible pollution events. No significant differences are found in the behaviour of stars with and without planets. This result is in agreement with a ``primordial'' origin of the metal excess in planet host stars. However, a subgroup of 5 planet host and 1 comparison sample stars stands out for having particularly high [X/H] vs. Tc slopes.

  18. Volatilization and redox testing in a DC arc melter: FY-93 and FY-94

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grandy, J.D.; Sears, J.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.; McIlwain, M.E.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of these experiments was to study the dissolution, retention, volatilization, and trapping of transuranic radionuclide elements (TRUs), mixed fission and activation products, and high vapor pressure metals (HVPMS) during processing in a high temperature arc furnace. In all cases, surrogate elements (lanthanides) were used in place of radioactive ones. The experiments were conducted utilizing a small DC arc melter developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center (IRC). The small arc melter was originally developed in 1992 and has been used previously for waste form studies of iron enriched basalt (IEB) and IEB with zirconium and titanium additions (IEB4). Section 3 contains a description of the small arc melter and its operational capabilities are discussed in Chapter 4. The remainder of the document describes each testing program and then discusses results and findings.

  19. Methods for characterizing subsurface volatile contaminants using in-situ sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An inverse analysis method for characterizing diffusion of vapor from an underground source of volatile contaminant using data taken by an in-situ sensor. The method uses one-dimensional solutions to the diffusion equation in Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates for isotropic and homogenous media. If the effective vapor diffusion coefficient is known, then the distance from the source to the in-situ sensor can be estimated by comparing the shape of the predicted time-dependent vapor concentration response curve to the measured response curve. Alternatively, if the source distance is known, then the effective vapor diffusion coefficient can be estimated using the same inverse analysis method. A triangulation technique can be used with multiple sensors to locate the source in two or three dimensions. The in-situ sensor can contain one or more chemiresistor elements housed in a waterproof enclosure with a gas permeable membrane.

  20. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongyu [Beijing Building Materials Academy of Science Research/State Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Reuse for Building Material, Beijing 100041 (China); College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Schuchardt, Frank [Johann Heinrich von Thuenen-Institute, Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Li, Guoxue, E-mail: ligx@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ? The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ? Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ? Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup ?1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  1. Methodology for Formulating Diesel Surrogate Fuels with Accurate Compositional, Ignition-Quality, and Volatility Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, C. J.; Cannella, W. J.; Bruno, T. J.; Bunting, B.; Dettman, H. D.; Franz, J. A.; Huber, M. L.; Natarajan, M.; Pitz, W. J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Wright, K.

    2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, a novel approach was developed to formulate surrogate fuels having characteristics that are representative of diesel fuels produced from real-world refinery streams. Because diesel fuels typically consist of hundreds of compounds, it is difficult to conclusively determine the effects of fuel composition on combustion properties. Surrogate fuels, being simpler representations of these practical fuels, are of interest because they can provide a better understanding of fundamental fuel-composition and property effects on combustion and emissions-formation processes in internal-combustion engines. In addition, the application of surrogate fuels in numerical simulations with accurate vaporization, mixing, and combustion models could revolutionize future engine designs by enabling computational optimization for evolving real fuels. Dependable computational design would not only improve engine function, it would do so at significant cost savings relative to current optimization strategies that rely on physical testing of hardware prototypes. The approach in this study utilized the state-of-the-art techniques of {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the advanced distillation curve to characterize fuel composition and volatility, respectively. The ignition quality was quantified by the derived cetane number. Two well-characterized, ultra-low-sulfur No.2 diesel reference fuels produced from refinery streams were used as target fuels: a 2007 emissions certification fuel and a Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel fuel. A surrogate was created for each target fuel by blending eight pure compounds. The known carbon bond types within the pure compounds, as well as models for the ignition qualities and volatilities of their mixtures, were used in a multiproperty regression algorithm to determine optimal surrogate formulations. The predicted and measured surrogate-fuel properties were quantitatively compared to the measured target-fuel properties, and good agreement was found.

  2. Organic aerogel microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kong, Fung-Ming (Pleasanton, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic aerogel microspheres which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonsticky gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  3. Organic aerogel microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Kong, F.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic aerogel microspheres are disclosed which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonstick gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  4. Organic solvent topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  5. Graphic values for some organic constituents of beneficiated coal samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohlenberger, L.B.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first objective of this one-year project is to obtain analytical data on a series of fractions of coal sample IBC-101 of widely varying ash content obtained via a froth flotation physical coal cleaning process. Froth flotation is the fractionation technique to be used rather than float/sink testing as in the Stansfield-Sutherland method because (1) most of the data in our files which were used in the development of these techniques were froth flotation tests and (2) as a way of showing that the fractionating is as effective by one technique as the other, so long as no chemical changes are effected. Analytical values will be obtained in the Coal Analysis Laboratory for moisture, ash, volatile matter, fixed carbon, total carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, total sulfur, sulfate sulfur, organic sulfur, and calorific value. The next objective will be to plot the various values of each of the analyzed species versus its corresponding ash values to obtain x/y plots for each as a function of ash. From the resulting curves, it should be possible to calculate for coal sample IBC-101 a precise measure of its mineral matter content, its dry or moist ,mineral-matter-free calorific value as used in determining the rank of the coal sample, calculate organic sulfur values corresponding to each ash value in cases where the relationship is linear, and possibly find other analyzed values which have a direct correlation with the mineral matter content of the coal.

  6. Separation of C2 Hydrocarbons by Porous Materials: Metal Organic Frameworks as Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Debasis; Liu, Jun; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The effective separation of small hydrocarbon molecules (C1 – C4) is an important process for petroleum industry, determining the end price of many essential commodities in our daily lives. Current technologies for separation of these molecules rely on energy intensive fractional distillation processes at cryogenic temperature, which is particularly difficult because of their similar volatility. In retrospect, adsorptive separation using solid state adsorbents might be a cost effective alternative. Several types of solid state adsorbents (e.g. zeolite molecular sieves) were tested for separation of small hydrocarbon molecules as a function of pressure, temperature or vacuum. Among different types of plausible adsorbents, metal organic frameworks (MOFs), a class of porous, crystalline, inorganic-organic hybrid materials, is particularly promising. In this brief comment article, we discuss the separation properties of different types of solid state adsorbents, with a particular emphasis on MOF based adsorbents for separation of C2 hydrocarbon molecules.

  7. Air quality model evaluation data for organics. 1. Bulk chemical composition and gas/particle distribution factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraser, M.P.; Cass, G.R. [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)] [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Grosjean, D.; Grosjean, E. [DGA, Inc., Ventura, CA (United States)] [DGA, Inc., Ventura, CA (United States); Rasmussen, R.A. [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States)] [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the period of September 8-9, 1993, the South Coast Air Basin that surrounds Los Angeles experienced the worst photochemical smog episode in recent years; ozone concentrations exceeded 0.29 ppm 1-h average, and NO{sub 2} concentrations peaked at 0.21 ppm 1-h average. Field measurements were conducted at a five-station air monitoring network to obtain comprehensive data on the identity and concentration of the individual organic compounds present in both the gas and particle phases during that episode. The data will also serve to support future tests of air quality models designed to study organic air pollutant transport and reaction. Air samples taken in stainless steel canisters were analyzed for 141 volatile organic compounds by GC/ECD, GC/FID, and GC/MS; PAN and PPN were measured by GC/ECD; particulate organics collected by filtration were analyzed for total organics and elemental carbon by thermal evolution and combustion and for individual organic compounds by GC/ MS; semivolatile organics were analyzed by GC/MS after collection on polyurethane foam cartridges. The present paper describes this experiment and present the concentrations of major organic compound classes and their relationship to the inorganic pollutants present. 104 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Methodology for Formulating Diesel Surrogate Fuels with Accurate Compositional, Ignition-Quality, and Volatility Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Charles J.; Cannella, William J.; Bruno, Thomas J.; Bunting, Bruce G.; Dettman, Heather; Franz, James A.; Huber, Marcia L.; Natarajan, Mani; Pitz, William J.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Wright, Ken

    2012-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, a novel approach was developed to formulate surrogate fuels having characteristics that are representative of diesel fuels produced from real-world refinery streams. Because diesel fuels typically consist of hundreds of compounds, it is difficult to conclusively determine the effects of fuel composition on combustion properties. Surrogate fuels, being simpler representations of these practical fuels, are of interest because they can provide a better understanding of fundamental fuel-composition and property effects on combustion and emissions-formation processes in internal-combustion engines. In addition, the application of surrogate fuels in numerical simulations with accurate vaporization, mixing, and combustion models could revolutionize future engine designs by enabling computational optimization for evolving real fuels. Dependable computational design would not only improve engine function, it would do so at significant cost savings relative to current optimization strategies that rely on physical testing of hardware prototypes. The approach in this study utilized the stateof- the-art techniques of 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the advanced distillation curve to characterize fuel composition and volatility, respectively. The ignition quality was quantified by the derived cetane number. Two wellcharacterized, ultra-low-sulfur #2 diesel reference fuels produced from refinery streams were used as target fuels: a 2007 emissions certification fuel and a Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel fuel. A surrogate was created for each target fuel by blending eight pure compounds. The known carbon bond types within the pure compounds, as well as models for the ignition qualities and volatilities of their mixtures, were used in a multiproperty regression algorithm to determine optimal surrogate formulations. The predicted and measured surrogate-fuel properties were quantitatively compared to the measured target-fuel properties, and good agreement was found. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our friend and colleague Jim Franz. Funding for this research was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Office of Vehicle Technologies, and by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) and the companies that employ the CRC members. The study was conducted under the auspices of CRC. The authors thank U.S. DOE program manager Kevin Stork for supporting the participation of the U.S. national laboratories in this study.

  9. Allies in Sport Organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melton, Elizabeth

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOSPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, George B. Cunningham Committee Members, Kathi Miner Gregg... Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. George B. Cunningham Employee support is a key factor in creating more welcoming and accepting work environments for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals in sport. As such, organizations need...

  10. Influence of Wetting and Mass Transfer Properties of Organic Chemical Mixtures in Vadose Zone Materials on Groundwater Contamination by Nonaqueous Phase Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles J Werth; Albert J Valocchi, Hongkyu Yoon

    2011-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies have found that organic acids, organic bases, and detergent-like chemicals change surface wettability. The wastewater and NAPL mixtures discharged at the Hanford site contain such chemicals, and their proportions likely change over time due to reaction-facilitated aging. The specific objectives of this work were to (1) determine the effect of organic chemical mixtures on surface wettability, (2) determine the effect of organic chemical mixtures on CCl4 volatilization rates from NAPL, and (3) accurately determine the migration, entrapment, and volatilization of organic chemical mixtures. Five tasks were proposed to achieve the project objectives. These are to (1) prepare representative batches of fresh and aged NAPL-wastewater mixtures, (2) to measure interfacial tension, contact angle, and capillary pressure-saturation profiles for the same mixtures, (3) to measure interphase mass transfer rates for the same mixtures using micromodels, (4) to measure multiphase flow and interphase mass transfer in large flow cell experiments, all using the same mixtures, and (5) to modify the multiphase flow simulator STOMP in order to account for updated P-S and interphase mass transfer relationships, and to simulate the impact of CCl4 in the vadose zone on groundwater contamination. Results and findings from these tasks and summarized in the attached final report.

  11. Health assessment for Royal Hardage Industrial Hazardous Waste Land Disposal Facility, Criner, Oklahoma, Region 6. CERCLIS No. OKD000400093. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Royal Hardage Industrial Hazardous Waste Land Disposal Facility (Hardage/Criner) National Priorities List Site is located in Criner, McClain County, Oklahoma. The site is located in an agricultural area. There are volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and several heavy metals present in the groundwater and soil, and VOCs in surface water and sediment. The Record of Decision signed November 1986 selected several remedial actions which included excavation of the primary source material and separation of the wastes for treatment, solids to be disposed of in an on-site landfill that meets Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements, organic liquids to be incinerated, and inorganic liquids to be treated by other means as necessary. The site is currently in the remedial-design phase.

  12. The influence of Streptococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp. on production of volatile sulfhydryl compounds in Cheddar cheese slurries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dagerath, Michael Lynn

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resulted from the failure of the direct acidified cheese to reach and maintain the low oxidation- reduction potential needed for volatile compound existence (21, 22). With the exception of hydrogen sulfide (51, 24), it does not appear that lactobacilli... 19 dimethyl sulfide (Aldrich Chemicals, Milwaukee, Wisconsin) into a plastic pouch with 500 ml of previously added nitrogen. The pouch was incubated at 30 ~C. One ml of the gas mixture was removed and injected into a second pouch which contained...

  13. Method and apparatus for measuring volatile compounds in an aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Tyler J [Pasco, WA; Cantrell, Kirk J [West Richland, WA

    2002-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an improvement to the method and apparatus for measuring volatile compounds in an aqueous solution. The apparatus is a chamber with sides and two ends, where the first end is closed. The chamber contains a solution volume of the aqueous solution and a gas that is trapped within the first end of the chamber above the solution volume. The gas defines a head space within the chamber above the solution volume. The chamber may also be a cup with the second end. open and facing down and submerged in the aqueous solution so that the gas defines the head space within the cup above the solution volume. The cup can also be entirely submerged in the aqueous solution. The second end of the. chamber may be closed such that the chamber can be used while resting on a flat surface such as a bench. The improvement is a sparger for mixing the gas with the solution volume. The sparger can be a rotating element such as a propeller on a shaft or a cavitating impeller. The sparger can also be a pump and nozzle where the pump is a liquid pump and the nozzle is a liquid spray nozzle open, to the head space for spraying the solution volume into the head space of gas. The pump could also be a gas pump and the nozzle a gas nozzle submerged in the solution volume for spraying the head space gas into the solution volume.

  14. Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are driven by high volatility and irreversible evaporation of the HCl product from drying particles. These field observations were corroborated in a set of laboratory...

  15. The sublethal effects of the non volatile water soluble fraction of Southern Louisiana crude oil on the growth of Skeletonema costatum (Greve.) Cleve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schauffler, Sue Myhre

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE SUBLETHAL EFFECTS OF THE NON VOLATILE WATER SOLUBLE FRACTION OF SOUTHERN LOUISIANA CRUDE OIL ON THE GROWTH OF Skeletonema costatum (GREVE. ) CLEVE A Thesis by SUE MYHRE SCHAUFFLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ~I University... in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Oceanography THE SUBLETHAL EFFECTS OF THE NON VOLATILE WATER SOLUBLE FRACTION OF SOUTHERN LOUISIANA CRUDE OIL ON THE GROWTH OF Skeletonema...

  16. Neighborhood Progress Through Organized Action.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, Eula; Cox, Bonnie; Martin, E. C.

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] ~ei~ h borhood Progress Through Organized Action E. C. MARTIN, Administrative Assistant BONNIE COX, Organization Specialist MRS. EULA NEWMAN, Specialist in Home Management TEXAS A. & M. COLLEGE SYSTEM "The... coord: lent r peo plt 1. mmunity organization is successful when all families erested groups participate. Such an organization may inate interest in the community and provide an excel- neans for channeling most programs. The interest...

  17. Recovery of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  18. Recovery of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  19. Organization | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you wantJoin us for #SpaceWeekOMB Policies2.0 OpenOrganization

  20. All Lab Organizations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About BecomeTechnologies | Blandine JeromeOrganizations All