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1

AVS: Experimental Tests of a New Process to Inductively Vitrify HLW Inside the Final Disposal Containers at Very High Waste Loadings  

SciTech Connect

The design and performance capabilities of the Advanced Vitrification System (AVS) are described, together with the results of experimental tests. The AVS is an in-can melting system in which high-level waste (HLW) is vitrified directly inside the final disposal container. The AVS container, or module, consists of an outer stainless steel canister and an alumina-lined, inner graphite crucible, which is thermally insulated from the outer stainless canister. The graphite crucible is inductively heated to very high temperatures (up to 1500 C) by an external low frequency (30 Hertz) alternating current (AC) transformer coil. The actively cooled outer stainless canister remains at near ambient temperature. The HLW/frit mixture is fed into the hot graphite crucible, where it is vitrified. After cooldown, the HLW/frit feed and off-gas pipes are disconnected from the top of the module, which is then sealed and readied for shipment or storage. All radioactively contaminated melter components inside the module are disposed of along with the vitrified waste. The graphite crucible also provides a geologically stable barrier for the vitrified product. The AVS potentially can double HLW loading over that obtained from Joule melters; lower vitrification costs by about half; reduce the number of disposal canisters required by about half; handle diverse waste feeds with high concentrations of problem elements such as chromium and zirconium; and reduce the time needed to vitrify a given inventory of HLW.

Powell, J.; Reich, M.; Jordan, J.; Ventre, L.; Barletta, R.; Manowitz, B.; Steinberg, M.; Grossman, W.; Maise, G.; Salzano, F.; Hess, C.; Ramsey, W. G.; Plodinec, M. J.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

2

Review of Alternative Technologies for Pretreatment of Accumulated HLW  

SciTech Connect

Accumulated liquid high-level wastes (HLW) from nuclear centers in Russia and the United States (U. S.) contain great amounts of nonradioactive salts; it is prudent to vitrify not the entire volume of these wastes, but only the concentrates of radionuclides recovered from them. For this purpose, different pretreatment technologies based on liquid-liquid extraction are under development.

Romanovsky, V.; Rimski-Korsakov, A.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

3

Iron Phosphate Glasses for Vitrifying DOE High Priority Nuclear Wastes  

SciTech Connect

Iron phosphate glasses have been studied as an alternative glass for vitrifying Department of Energy (DOE) high priority wastes. The high priority wastes were the Low Activity Waste (LAW) and the High Level Waste (HLW) with high chrome content stored at Hanford, WA, and the Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. These wastes were recommended by Tanks Focus Area since they were expected to require special attention when vitrified in borosilicate glasses. All three of these wastes have been successfully vitrified in iron phosphate glasses at waste loadings ranging from a low of 32 wt% for the high sulfate LAW to 40 wt% for the SBW to a high of 75 wt% for the high chrome HLW. In addition to these desirable high waste loadings, the iron phosphate glasses were easily melted, typically between 950 and 1200 C, in less than 4 hours in commercial refractory oxide containers. It is noteworthy that the chemical durability of both glassy and deliberately crystallized iron phosphate wasteforms not only met, but significantly exceeded, all current DOE chemical durability requirements as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and Vapor Hydration Test (VHT). The high waste loading, low melting temperature, rapid furnace throughput (short melting time) and their outstanding chemical durability could significantly accelerate the clean up effort and reduce the time and cost of vitrifying these high priority wastes.

Kim, C.W.; Day, D.E.

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

4

PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation is to provide a dose consequence analysis of high-level waste (HLW) consisting of plutonium immobilized in vitrified HLW to be handled at the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain for a beyond design basis event (BDBE) under expected conditions using best estimate values for each calculation parameter. In addition to the dose calculation, a plutonium respirable particle size for dose calculation use is derived. The current concept for this waste form is plutonium disks enclosed in cans immobilized in canisters of vitrified HLW (i.e., glass). The plutonium inventory at risk used for this calculation is selected from Plutonium Immobilization Project Input for Yucca Mountain Total Systems Performance Assessment (Shaw 1999). The BDBE examined in this calculation is a nonmechanistic initiating event and the sequence of events that follow to cause a radiological release. This analysis will provide the radiological releases and dose consequences for a postulated BDBE. Results may be considered in other analyses to determine or modify the safety classification and quality assurance level of repository structures, systems, and components. This calculation uses best available technical information because the BDBE frequency is very low (i.e., less than 1.0E-6 events/year) and is not required for License Application for the Monitored Geologic Repository. The results of this calculation will not be used as part of a licensing or design basis.

J.A. Ziegler

2000-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

5

EM Waste Acceptance Product Specification (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EM Waste Acceptance Product EM Waste Acceptance Product Specification (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms Presentation to the HLW Corporate Board July 24, 2008 By Tony Kluk/Ken Picha 2 Background * Originally Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications were Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) documents and project specific: - Defense Waste Processing Facility (PE-03, July 1989) - West Valley Demonstration Project (PE-04, January 1990) * Included many of same specifications as current version of WAPS * First version of RW Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document in January 1993 (included requirements for both SNF and HLW) * EM decided to extract requirements for HLW and put into the WAPS document 3 Background (Cont'd) * Lists technical specifications for acceptance of borosilicate HLW

6

HLW Glass Waste Loadings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HLW HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC Overview Overview  Vitrification - general background  Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) technology  Factors affecting waste loadings  Waste loading requirements and projections  WTP DWPF  DWPF  Yucca Mountain License Application requirements on waste loading  Summary Vitrification  Immobilization of waste by conversion into a glass  Internationally accepted treatment for HLW  Why glass?  Amorphous material - able to incorporate a wide spectrum of elements over wide ranges of composition; resistant to radiation damage  Long-term durability - natural analogs Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large  Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large scale  There

7

HLW-OVP-96 C  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

aligns the System Plan with the FY96 Ten Year Plan, under which the site's 24 old-style tanks will be emptied by 2006 and all existing high level waste will be vitrified by 2018....

8

PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

CERTA, P.J.

2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

9

HLW Glass Studies: Development of Crystal-Tolerant HLW Glasses  

SciTech Connect

In our study, a series of lab-scale crucible tests were performed on designed glasses of different compositions to further investigate and simulate the effect of Cr, Ni, Fe, Al, Li, and RuO2 on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the HLW melter. The experimental data were used to expand the compositional region covered by an empirical model developed previously (Maty et al. 2010b), improving its predictive performance. We also investigated the mechanism for agglomeration of particles and impact of agglomerates on accumulation rate. In addition, the TL was measured as a function of temperature and composition.

Matyas, Josef; Huckleberry, Adam R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Lang, Jesse B.; Owen, Antionette T.; Kruger, Albert A.

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

10

Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant HLW Waste Vitrification...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant HLW Waste Vitrification Facility Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant HLW Waste Vitrification Facility Full Document and Summary Versions...

11

A Method to Evaluate Additional Waste Forms to Optimize Performance of the HLW Repository  

SciTech Connect

The DOE high-level waste (HLW) disposal system is based on decisions made in the 1970s. The de facto Yucca Mountain WAC for HLW, contained in the Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document (WASRD), and the DOE-EM Waste Acceptance Product Specification for Vitrified High Level Waste Forms (WAPS) tentatively describes waste forms to be interred in the repository, and limits them to borosilicate glass (BSG). It is known that many developed waste forms are as durable as or better than environmental assessment or EA-glass. Among them are the salt-ceramic and metallic waste forms developed at ANL-W. Also, iron phosphate glasses developed at University of Missouri show promise in stabilizing the most refractory materials in Hanford HLW. However, for any of this science to contribute, the current Total System Performance Assessment model must be able to evaluate the additional waste form to determine potential impacts on repository performance. The results can then support the technical bases required in the repository license application. A methodology is proposed to use existing analysis models to evaluate potential additional waste forms for disposal without gathering costly material specific degradation data. The concept is to analyze the potential impacts of waste form chemical makeup on repository performance assuming instantaneous waste matrix dissolution. This assumption obviates the need for material specific degradation models and is based on the relatively modest fractional contribution DOE HLW makes to the repository radionuclide and hazardous metals inventory. The existing analysis models, with appropriate data modifications, are used to evaluate geochemical interactions and material transport through the repository. This methodology would support early screening of proposed waste forms through simplified evaluation of disposal performance, and would provide preliminary guidance for repository license amendment in the future.

D. Gombert; L. Lauerhass

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

HLW system plan - revision 2  

SciTech Connect

The projected ability of the Tank Farm to support DWPF startup and continued operation has diminished somewhat since revision 1 of this Plan. The 13 month delay in DWPF startup, which actually helps the Tank Farm condition in the near term, was more than offset by the 9 month delay in ITP startup, the delay in the Evaporator startups and the reduction to Waste Removal funding. This Plan does, however, describe a viable operating strategy for the success of the HLW System and Mission, albeit with less contingency and operating flexibility than in the past. HLWM has focused resources from within the division on five near term programs: The three evaporator restarts, DWPF melter heatup and completion of the ITP outage. The 1H Evaporator was restarted 12/28/93 after a 9 month shutdown for an extensive Conduct of Operations upgrade. The 2F and 2H Evaporators are scheduled to restart 3/94 and 4/94, respectively. The RHLWE startup remains 11/17/97.

Not Available

1994-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

13

Reevaluation of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria for Potential Cost Savings at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13598  

SciTech Connect

At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form. (authors)

Ray, J.W. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation (United States); Marra, S.L.; Herman, C.C. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Reevaluation Of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria For Potential Cost Savings At The Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form.

Ray, J. W.; Marra, S. L.; Herman, C. C.

2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

15

Summary - WTP HLW Waste Vitrification Facility  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

W W HLW W DOE is Immob site's t facilitie Facility to iden the HL to be i norma The as along w Level ( * H * H * H Sy * Pu D The Ele Site: H roject: W Report Date: M ited States Waste T Why DOE Waste Vitrificatio s constructing bilization Plant tank wastes. T es including a H y (HLW). The ntify the critical LW and determ ncorporated in ally requires a T What th ssessment team with each elem (TRL) for the H LW Melter Fee LW Melter Pro LW Melter Offg ystem/Process ulse Jet Mixer isposal System To view the full T http://www.em.doe. objective of a Tech ements (CTEs), usin Hanford/ORP Waste Treatme March 2007 Departmen Treatmen W E-EM Did This n Facility a Waste Treat (WTP) at Hanf The WTP is com High-Level Wa purpose of this technology ele mine if these are to the final WT Technology Re he TRA Team m identified the

16

DOE Statement on Savannah River Site Vitrified Waste Concentrations |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Statement on Savannah River Site Vitrified Waste Concentrations Statement on Savannah River Site Vitrified Waste Concentrations DOE Statement on Savannah River Site Vitrified Waste Concentrations April 30, 2010 - 12:30pm Addthis "The Office of Environmental Management has decided not to move forward at this time with its February decision to direct contractors to start planning for higher concentrations of plutonium in waste canisters at the Savannah River Site. While this may ultimately be a better way to manage and minimize the volume of waste, the Department wants to further review the issues involved before proceeding. No canisters have been filled at the higher concentration level." Addthis Related Articles Energy Secretary Chu Announces $6 Billion in Recovery Act Funding for Environmental Cleanup Department of Energy Projects Win 36 R&D 100 Awards for 2011

17

Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF)...

18

Coincidence counter design for the assay of vitrified nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

For the termination of nuclear safeguards and transfers to waste storage, the verification of the plutonium content in vitrified nuclear waste is required by international safeguards agreements. A novel design has been used to develop a coincidence counter for measuring vitrified nuclear waste. The authors have devised a method to measure the {sup 244}Cm content and to calculate the plutonium content from the curium-to-plutonium ratio. In order to provide unattended inspection, the counter is designed for continuous operation in the presence of highly radioactive samples: 3.0 {times} 10{sup 7} Rad/h gamma and 9.0 {times} 10{sup 7}/s neutron fluence. Operability under these conditions has been obtained by designing a heavily shielded detector with radiation hard components subtending a limited solid angle. A counting technique, Localized Source Term Coincidence Counting, has been developed to allow neutron assay of this type of sample. The system will be installed at the Power Nuclear Corporation Tokai Vitrification Facility in the later part of 1998.

Beddingfield, D.H.; Menlove, H.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Iwamoto, T.; Tomikawa, H. [Power Nuclear Corp. (Japan)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

19

Waste Acceptance for Vitrified Sludge from Oak Ridge Tank Farms  

SciTech Connect

The Tanks Focus Area of the DOE`s Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) has funded the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to develop formulations which can incorporate sludges from Oak Ridge Tank Farms into immobilized glass waste forms. The four tank farms included in this study are: Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST), Bethel Valley Evaporation Service Tanks (BVEST), Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT), and Old Hydrofracture Tanks (OHF).The vitrified waste forms must be sent for disposal either at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Waste loading in the glass is the major factor in determining where the waste will be sent and whether the waste will be remote-handled (RH) or contact-handled (CH). In addition, the waste loading significantly impacts the costs of vitrification operations and transportation to and disposal within the repository.This paper focuses on disposal options for the vitrified Oak Ridge Tank sludge waste as determined by the WIPP (1) and NTS (2) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The concentrations for both Transuranic (TRU) and beta/gamma radionuclides in the glass waste form will be presented a a function of sludge waste loading. These radionuclide concentrations determine whether the waste forms will be TRU (and therefore disposed of at WIPP) and whether the waste forms will be RH or CH.

Harbour, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Andrews, M.K.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS MATRICES FOR HLW RADIOACTIVE WASTES  

SciTech Connect

Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either borosilicate glass or phosphate glass. One of the primary reasons that glass has become the most widely used immobilization media is the relative simplicity of the vitrification process, e.g. melt waste plus glass forming frit additives and cast. A second reason that glass has become widely used for HLW is that the short range order (SRO) and medium range order (MRO) found in glass atomistically bonds the radionuclides and governs the melt properties such as viscosity, resistivity, sulphate solubility. The molecular structure of glass controls contaminant/radionuclide release by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. The molecular structure is flexible and hence accounts for the flexibility of glass formulations to waste variability. Nuclear waste glasses melt between 1050-1150 C which minimizes the volatility of radioactive components such as Tc{sup 99}, Cs{sup 137}, and I{sup 129}. Nuclear waste glasses have good long term stability including irradiation resistance. Process control models based on the molecular structure of glass have been mechanistically derived and have been demonstrated to be accurate enough to control the world's largest HLW Joule heated ceramic melter in the US since 1996 at 95% confidence.

Jantzen, C.

2010-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant HLW Waste Vitrification Facility  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6 6 Technology Readiness Assessment for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) HLW Waste Vitrification Facility L. Holton D. Alexander C. Babel H. Sutter J. Young August 2007 Prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Richland, Washington, 99352 07-DESIGN-046 Technology Readiness Assessment for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) HLW Waste Vitrification Facility L. Holton D. Alexander C. Babel H. Sutter J. Young August 2007 Prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 07-DESIGN-046 iii Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) and the DOE Office of Environmental and Radioactive Waste Management (EM), Office of Project Recovery have completed a

22

Oil Quantity : The histori  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

model for Prudhoe Bay. Figure 11: Historical Prudhoe Bay oil production data, modeled economically Production (million bbl per Month) Historical Production Best Fit (Hist. Tax w/ELF, Ref. P) High Price 120 140 160 19 Oil Quantity Con Wel N E A N N ng Results e Bay : The histori Bay over tim : Prudhoe Ba

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

23

Water quality Water quantity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

01-1 · Water quality · Water quantity · Remediation strategies MinE 422: Water Resources: Younger, Banwart and Hedin. 2002. Mine Water. Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation. Impacts of mining on water mining ­ Often the largest long term issue ­ Water quality affected, surface/ground water pollution

Boisvert, Jeff

24

Water quality Water quantity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Water quality · Water quantity · Remediation strategies MinE 422: Water Resources: Younger, Banwart and Hedin. 2002. Mine Water. Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation. Impacts of mining on water mining ­ Often the largest long term issue ­ Water quality affected, surface/ground water pollution

Boisvert, Jeff

25

Quantity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

View View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Special page Facebook icon Twitter icon » Quantity Jump to: navigation, search Properties of type "Quantity" Showing 53 properties using this type. A Property:Area Property:AvgReservoirDepth C Property:Capacity E Property:EstReservoirVol Property:EstimatedCostHighUSD Property:EstimatedCostLowUSD Property:EstimatedCostMedianUSD Property:EstimatedTime Property:EstimatedTimeHigh Property:EstimatedTimeLow Property:EstimatedTimeMedian F Property:FirstWellDepth Property:FirstWellFlowRate G Property:GeneratingCapacity Property:GrossProdCapacity I Property:IdentifiedHydrothermalPotential Property:InstalledCapacity M Property:MeanCapacity N Property:NetProdCapacity

26

EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR FORMULATION OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HLW GLASSES  

SciTech Connect

Historically, high-level waste (HLW) glasses have been formulated with a low liquideus temperature (T{sub L}), or temperature at which the equilibrium fraction of spinel crystals in the melt is below 1 vol % (T{sub 0.01}), nominally below 1050 C. These constraints cannot prevent the accumulation of large spinel crystals in considerably cooler regions ({approx} 850 C) of the glass discharge riser during melter idling and significantly limit the waste loading, which is reflected in a high volume of waste glass, and would result in high capital, production, and disposal costs. A developed empirical model predicts crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass, and thereby provides guidance in formulating crystal-tolerant glasses that would allow high waste loadings by keeping the spinel crystals small and therefore suspended in the glass.

KRUGER AA; MATYAS J; HUCKLEBERRY AR; VIENNA JD; RODRIGUEZ CA

2012-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

27

Evaluation of Shortline Railroads & SNF/HLW Rail Shipment Inspections  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaluation of Shortline Railroads & SNF/HLW Rail Shipment Evaluation of Shortline Railroads & SNF/HLW Rail Shipment Inspections Tasked for the Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Evaluation of Shortline Railroads & SNF/HLW Rail Shipment Inspections Tasked for the Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Task: Identify Shortline Railroads Serving Nuclear Power Plants Establish Contact Information with Railroads Officials Field Review of each Railroad's Physical and Operational Infrastructure Facilitate Upgrades to Meet Safe Acceptable Standards Evaluation of Shortline Railroads & SNF/HLW Rail Shipment Inspections Tasked for the Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel More Documents & Publications TEC Meeting Summaries - February 2008 Presentations TEC Meeting Summaries - July 2007 Presentations TEC Meeting Summaries - September 2006

28

Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

GC-52 provides legal advice to DOE regarding the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). SNF is nuclear fuel that has been used as fuel in a reactor...

29

Amended Record of Decision for the Idaho High-Level Waste (HLW...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Record of Decision for the Idaho High-Level Waste (HLW) and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement Amended Record of Decision for the Idaho High-Level Waste...

30

Stabilization of vitrified wastes: Task 4. Topical report, October 1994--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this task was to work with private industry to refine existing vitrification processes to produce a more stable vitrified product. The initial objectives were to (1) demonstrate a waste vitrification procedure for enhanced stabilization of waste materials and (2) develop a testing protocol to understand the long-term leaching behavior of the stabilized waste form. The testing protocol was expected to be based on a leaching procedure called the synthetic groundwater leaching procedure (SGLP). This task will contribute to the US DOE`s identified technical needs in waste characterization, low-level mixed-waste processing, disposition technology, and improved waste forms. The proposed work was to proceed over 4 years in the following steps: literature surveys to aid in the selection and characterization of test mixtures for vitrification, characterization of optimized vitrified test wastes using advanced leaching protocols, and refinement and demonstration of vitrification methods leading to commercialization. For this year, literature surveys were completed, and computer modeling was performed to determine the feasibility of removing heavy metals from a waste during vitrification, thereby reducing the hazardous nature of the vitrified material and possibly producing a commercial metal concentrate. This report describes the following four subtasks: survey of vitrification technologies; survey of cleanup sites; selection and characterization of test mixtures for vitrification and crystallization; and selection of crystallization methods based on thermochemistry modeling.

Nowok, J.W.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Hassett, D.J.; Hurley, J.P.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Cool data: quantity AND quality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ways of optimizing X-ray cryo-data quality and quantity are discussed. The possible advantages/disadvantages of collecting X-ray data at 30 K instead of 100 K are also considered.

Garman, E.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

FINAL REPORT TESTS ON THE DURAMELTER 1200 HLW PILOT MELTER SYSTEM USING AZ-101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-02R0100-2 REV 1 2/17/03  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the final report on data and results obtained from a series of nine tests performed on the one-third scale DuraMelter{trademark} 1200 (DM1200) HLW Pilot Melter system that has been installed at VSL with an integrated prototypical off-gas treatment system. That system has replaced the DM1000 system that was used for HLW throughput testing during Part B1 [1]. Both melters have similar melt surface areas (1.2 m{sup 2}) but the DM1200 is prototypical of the present RPP-WTP HLW melter design whereas the DM1000 was not. These tests were performed under a corresponding RPP-WTP Test Specification and associated Test Plans. The nine tests reported here were preceded by an initial series of short-duration tests conducted to support the start-up and commissioning of this system. This report is a followup to the previously issued Preliminary Data Summary Reports. The DM1200 system was deployed for testing and confirmation of basic design, operability, flow sheet, and process control assumptions as well as for support of waste form qualification and permitting. These tests include data on processing rates, off-gas treatment system performance, recycle stream compositions, as well as process operability and reliability. Consequently, this system is a key component of the overall HLW vitrification development strategy. The primary objective of the present series of tests was to determine the effects of a variety of parameters on the glass production rate in comparison to the RPP-WTP HL W design basis of 400 kg/m{sup 2}/d. Previous testing on the DMIOOO system [1] concluded that achievement of that rate with simulants of projected WTP melter feeds (AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102) was unlikely without the use of bubblers. As part of those tests, the same feed that was used during the cold-commissioning of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) HLW vitrification system was run on the DM1000 system. The DM1000 tests reproduced the rates that were obtained at the larger WVDP facility, lending confidence to the tests results [1]. Since the inclusion or exclusion of a bubbler has significant design implications, the Project commissioned further tests to address this issue. In an effort to identify factors that might increase the glass production rate for projected WTP melter feeds, a subsequent series of tests was performed on the DM100 system. Several tests variables led to glass production rate increases to values significantly above the 400 kg/m2/d requirement. However, while small-scale melter tests are useful for screening relative effects, they tend to overestimate absolute glass production rates, particularly for un-bubbled tests. Consequently, when scale-up effects were taken into account, it was not clear that any of the variables investigated would conclusively meet the 400 kg/m{sup 2}/d requirement without bubbling. The present series of tests was therefore performed on the DM1200 one-third scale HLW pilot melter system to provide the required basis for a final decision on whether bubblers would be included in the HLW melter. The present tests employed the same AZ-101 waste simulant and glass composition that was used for previous testing for consistency and comparability with the results from the earlier tests.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; BARDAKCI T; GONG W; D'ANGELO NA; SCHATZ TR; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

33

The production of advanced glass ceramic HLW forms using cold crucible induction melter  

SciTech Connect

Cold Crucible Induction Melters (CCIM) will favorably change how High-Level radioactive Waste (from nuclear fuel recovery) is treated in a near future. Unlike the existing Joule-Heated Melters (JHM) currently in operation for the glass-based immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW), CCIM offers unique material features that will increase melt temperatures, increase throughput, increase mixing, increase loading in the waste form, lower melter foot prints, eliminate melter corrosion and lower costs. These features not only enhance the technology for producing HLW forms, but also provide advantageous attributes to the waste form by allowing more durable alternatives to glass. It is concluded that glass ceramic waste forms that are tailored to immobilize fission products of HLW can be can be made from the HLW processed with the CCIM. The advantageous higher temperatures reached with the CCIM and unachievable with JHM allows the lanthanides, alkali, alkaline earths, and molybdenum to dissolve into a molten glass. Upon controlled cooling they go into targeted crystalline phases to form a glass ceramic waste form with higher waste loadings than achievable with borosilicate glass waste forms. Natural cooling proves to be too fast for the formation of all targeted crystalline phases.

Rutledge, V.J.; Maio, V. [Idaho National Laboratory: P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID, 83415-2110 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Microsoft PowerPoint - 2-05 PEGG-2 - Melter Tests with High Al HLW - Nov 2010 emb.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Melter Melter Testing with High Aluminum HLW Streams Ian L. Pegg, Hao Gan, Wing K. Kot, Keith S. Matlack, and Innocent Joseph * Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC * EnergySolutions, Inc. DOE EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange 2010 Print Close Melter Testing with High Aluminum HLW Streams 2 LAW Vitrification (90+% of waste mass) HLW Vitrification (90+% of waste activity) Pretreatment (solid/liquid separation, Cs-IX, Al, Cr, leaching) SLUDGE SUPERNATE Maximize Mass Maximize Activity Hanford WTP - Key Process Flows LAW glass disposed on site HLW glass disposed of in National Geologic Repository - TBD * Supernate: Solution of Na, Al, P, K, S, Cl, Cs, Tc, nitrates, hydroxides... * Sludge: Solids high in Fe, Al, Zr, Cr, Bi, Sr, TRU, oxides, hydroxides....

35

Corrosion mechanisms of low level vitrified radioactive waste in a loamy soil M.I. Ojovan1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corrosion mechanisms of low level vitrified radioactive waste in a loamy soil M.I. Ojovan1 , W-sodium content radioactive waste borosilicate glass buried in a loamy soil (glass K-26) and in an open testing. INTRODUCTION Vitrification of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) is attracting great interest

Sheffield, University of

36

SEISMIC DESIGN EVALUATION GUIDELINES FOR BURIED PIPING FOR THE DOE HLW FACILITIES'  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

6 1 6 1 7 1 1 SEISMIC DESIGN EVALUATION GUIDELINES FOR BURIED PIPING FOR THE DOE HLW FACILITIES' Chi-Wen Lin Consultant, Martinez, CA George Antaki Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC Kamal Bandyopadhyay Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY ABSTRACT This paper presents the seismic design and evaluation guidelines for underground piping for the Department of Energy (DOE) High-Level-Waste (HLW) Facilities. The underground piping includes both single and double containment steel pipes and concrete pipes with steel lining, with particular emphasis on the double containment piping. The design and evaluation guidelines presented in this paper follow the generally accepted beam-on-elastic- foundation analysis principle and the inertial response calculation method, respectively, for piping directly

37

HLW Melter Control Strategy Without Visual Feedback VSL-12R2500-1 Rev 0  

SciTech Connect

Plans for the treatment of high level waste (HL W) at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) are based upon the inventory of the tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the pretreatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form [I]. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat and mass transfer and increase glass melting rates. The WTP HLW melter has a glass surface area of 3.75 m{sup 2} and depth of ~ 1.1 m. The two melters in the HLW facility together are designed to produce up to 7.5 MT of glass per day at 100% availability. Further increases in HL W waste processing rates can potentially be achieved by increasing the melter operating temperature above 1150?C and by increasing the waste loading in the glass product. Increasing the waste loading also has the added benefit of decreasing the number of canisters for storage.

Kruger, A A. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Joseph, Innocent [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Matlack, Keith S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Callow, Richard A. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Abramowitz, Howard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Brandys, Marek [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kot, Wing K. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States)

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

38

Title: An Advanced Solution for the Storage, Transportation and Disposal of Vitrified High Level Waste  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Presented at Global 99, Jackson, Wyoming, August 29 - September 2, 1999 Presented at Global 99, Jackson, Wyoming, August 29 - September 2, 1999 1 AN ADVANCED SOLUTION FOR THE STORAGE, TRANSPORTATION AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT FUEL AND VITRIFIED HIGH LEVEL WASTE William J. Quapp Teton Technologies, Inc. 860 W. Riverview Dr. Idaho Falls, ID 83401 208-535-9001 ABSTRACT For future nuclear power deployment in the US, certain changes in the back end of the fuel cycle, i.e., disposal of high level waste and spent fuel, must become a real options. However, there exists another problem from the front end of the fuel cycle which has until recently, received less attention. Depleted uranium hexafluoride is a by-product of the enrichment process and has accumulated for over 50 years. It now represents a potential environmental problem. This paper describes a

39

Prices vs. quantities with incomplete enforcement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper extends Weitzman's (1974) "Prices vs. Quantities" to allow for incomplete enforcement. Whether the regulator uses prices (e.g., taxes) or quantities (e.g., tradeable quotas), a first-best design is always ...

Montero, Juan-Pablo

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

The results of HLW processing using zirconium salt of dibutyl phosphoric acid  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Zirconium salt of dibutyl-phosphoric acid (ZS HDBP) dissolved in a diluent, is a promising solvent for liquid HLW processing. The investigations carried out earlier showed that ZS HDBP can recover a series of radionuclides (TPE, RE, U, Pu, Np, Sr) and some other elements (Mo, Ca, Fe) from aqueous solutions. The possibility of TPE and RE effective recovery and separation into appropriate fractions with high purification from each other was demonstrated as well. The results of extraction tests in the mixer-settlers in the course of liquid HLW treatment in hot cells, using ZS HDBP (0.4 M HDBP and 0.044 M Zr) dissolved in 30% TBP are presented. 30 liters of the feed solution containing TPE, RE, Sr and Cs with the total specific activity of 520 MBq/L and acidity of 2 M HNO{sub 3} were processed using the two-cycle flowsheet. TPE and RE recovery with subsequent stripping was realized in the first cycle, while Sr was recovered and concentrated in the second cycle. Raffinate of the latter contained almost all Cs. The degree of TPE and RE recovery was 104, and that of Sr was {approx}10. Decontamination factor of TPE and RE from Cs and Sr was 104, and that of Sr from TPE and Cs was 103. So, ZS HDBP can be used for separation of long-lived radionuclides from HLW with respect to radio-toxic category of the process products. (authors)

Fedorov, Yury; Zilberman, Boris; Shmidt, Olga; Saprikin, Vladimir; Ryasantsev, Valery [V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 194021, 28, 2nd Murinsky pr., Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS PHASE 2 FULL SCALE COOLING COILS GROUT FILL DEMONSTATIONS  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) support for the Tank Closure and Technology Development (TCTD) group's strategy for closing high level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, this task addresses the ability to successfully fill intact cooling coils, presently within the HLW tanks, with grout that satisfies the fresh and cured grout requirements [1] under simulated field conditions. The overall task was divided into two phases. The first phase was the development of a grout formulation that satisfies the processing requirements for filling the HLW tank cooling coils [5]. The second phase of the task, which is documented in this report, was the filling of full scale cooling coils under simulated field conditions using the grout formulation developed in the first phase. SRS Type I tank cooling coil assembly design drawings and pressure drop calculations were provided by the Liquid Waste (LW) customer to be used as the basis for configuring the test assemblies. The current concept for closing tanks equipped with internal cooling coils is to pump grout into the coils to inhibit pathways for infiltrating water. Access to the cooling coil assemblies is through the existing supply/return manifold headers located on top of the Type I tanks. The objectives for the second phase of the testing, as stated in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance plan (TTQAP) [2], were to: (1) Perform a demonstration test to assess cooling coil grout performance in simulated field conditions, and (2) Measure relevant properties of samples prepared under simulated field conditions. SRNL led the actual work of designing, fabricating and filling two full-scale cooling coil assemblies which were performed at Clemson Engineering Technologies Laboratory (CETL) using the South Carolina University Research and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program. A statement of work (SOW) was issued to CETL [6] to perform this work.

Hansen, E; Alex Cozzi, A

2008-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

42

AKUFVE studies on extraction behavior of neptunium from simulated HLW solutions by 30% TBP  

SciTech Connect

The extraction behavior of neptunium from 3 M nitric acid as well as simulated pressurized heavy water reactor high level radioactive waste (PHWR-HLW) solution by 30% TBP/dodecane was studied using AKUFVE. Np(IV)/Np(V) was oxidized to Np(VI) using oxidizing agents, such as K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}, VO{sub 2}{sup +} and NaNO{sub 2}. Stripping of neptunium from the loaded TBP phase was studied using reducing agents like hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid, hydroxylamine hydrochloride and hydrazine sulfate. Results of these extraction and stripping studies have been discussed in this paper.

Chitnis, R.R.; Wattal, P.K.; Murali, M.S.; Nair, G.C.; Mathur, J.N. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Conserved Quantities for Polyhomogeneous Space-Times  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The existence of conserved quantities with a structure similar to the Newman-Penrose quantities in a polyhomogeneous space-time is addressed. The most general form for the initial data formally consistent with the polyhomogeneous setting is found. The subsequent study is done for those polyhomogeneous space-times where the leading term of the shear contains no logarithmic terms. It is found that for these space-times the original NP quantities cease to be constants, but it is still possible to construct a set of other 10 quantities that are constant. From these quantities it is possible to obtain as a particular case a conserved quantity found by Chrusciel et al.

J. A. Valiente Kroon

1998-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

44

A Review of Iron Phosphate Glasses and Recommendations for Vitrifying Hanford Waste  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a comprehensive review of the research conducted, world-wide, on iron phosphate glass over the past ~30 years. Special attention is devoted to those iron phosphate glass compositions which have been formulated for the purpose of vitrifying numerous types of nuclear waste, with special emphasis on the wastes stored in the underground tanks at Hanford WA. Data for the structural, chemical, and physical properties of iron phosphate waste forms are reviewed for the purpose of understanding their (a) outstanding chemical durability which meets all current DOE requirements, (b) high waste loadings which can exceed 40 wt% (up to 75 wt%) for several Hanford wastes, (c) low melting temperatures, can be as low as 900C for certain wastes, and (d) high tolerance for problem waste components such as sulfates, halides, and heavy metals (chromium, actinides, noble metals, etc.). Several recommendations are given for actions that are necessary to smoothly integrate iron phosphate glass technology into the present waste treatment plans and vitrification facilities at Hanford.

Delbert E. Ray; Chandra S. Ray

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Methods of vitrifying waste with low melting high lithia glass compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

Jantzen, Carol M. (Aiken, SC); Pickett, John B. (Aiken, SC); Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Marra, James C. (Aiken, SC)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Waste acceptance and waste loading for vitrified Oak Ridge tank waste  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Science and Technology of the DOE has funded a joint project between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to evaluate vitrification and grouting for the immobilization of sludge from ORNL tank farms. The radioactive waste is from the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT), the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST), the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST), and the Old Hydrofractgure Tanks (OHF). Glass formulation development for sludge from these tanks is discussed in an accompanying article for this conference (Andrews and Workman). The sludges contain transuranic radionuclides at levels which will make the glass waste form (at reasonable waste loadings) TRU. Therefore, one of the objectives for this project was to ensure that the vitrified waste form could be disposed of at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In order to accomplish this, the waste form must meet the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). An alternate pathway is to send the glass waste forms for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A sludge waste loading in the feed of 6 wt percent will lead to a waste form which is non-TRU and could potentially be disposed of at NTS. The waste forms would then have to meet the requirements of the NTS WAC. This paper presents SRTC`s efforts at demonstrating that the glass waste form produced as a result of vitrification of ORNL sludge will meet all the criteria of the WIPP WAC or NTS WAC.

Harbour, J.R.; Andrews, M.K.

1997-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

47

DEVELOPING AN OPTIMIZED PROCESS STRATEGY FOR ACID CLEANING OF THE SAVANNAH RIVERSITE HLW TANKS  

SciTech Connect

At the Savannah River Site (SRS), there remains approximately 35 million gallons of High Level Waste (HLW) that was mostly created from Purex and SRS H-Area Modified (HM) nuclear fuel cycles. The waste is contained in approximately forty-nine tanks fabricated from commercially available carbon steel. In order to minimize general corrosion, the waste is maintained as very-alkaline solution. The very-alkaline chemistry has caused hydrated metal oxides to precipitate and form a sludge heel. Over the years, the sludge waste has aged, with some forming a hardened crust. To aid in the removal of the sludge heels from select tanks for closure the use of oxalic acid to dissolve the sludge is being investigated. Developing an optimized process strategy based on laboratory analyses would be prohibitively costly. This research, therefore, demonstrates that a chemical equilibrium based software program can be used to develop an optimized process strategy for oxalic acid cleaning of the HLW tanks based on estimating resultant chemistries, minimizing resultant oxalates sent to the evaporator, and minimizing resultant solids sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF).

Ketusky, E

2006-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

48

The Production of Advanced Glass Ceramic HLW Forms using Cold Crucible Induction Melter  

SciTech Connect

Cold Crucible Induction Melters (CCIMs) will favorably change how High-Level radioactive Waste (from nuclear fuel recovery) is treated in the 21st century. Unlike the existing Joule-Heated Melters (JHMs) currently in operation for the glass-based immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW), CCIMs offer unique material features that will increase melt temperatures, increase throughput, increase mixing, increase loading in the waste form, lower melter foot prints, eliminate melter corrosion and lower costs. These features not only enhance the technology for producing HLW forms, but also provide advantageous attributes to the waste form by allowing more durable alternatives to glass. This paper discusses advantageous features of the CCIM, with emphasis on features that overcome the historical issues with the JHMs presently utilized, as well as the benefits of glass ceramic waste forms over borosilicate glass waste forms. These advantages are then validated based on recent INL testing to demonstrate a first-of-a-kind formulation of a non-radioactive ceramic-based waste form utilizing a CCIM.

Veronica J Rutledge; Vince Maio

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Evaluation of Shortline Railroads & SNF/HLW Rail Shipment Inspections Tasked for the Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transportation Transportation Stakeholders National Transportation Stakeholders National Transportation Stakeholders National Transportation Stakeholders Forum Forum 2011 Annual Meeting 2011 Annual Meeting 2011 Annual Meeting 2011 Annual Meeting May 11, 2011 May 11, 2011 Evaluation of Shortline Railroads Evaluation of Shortline Railroads & & & & SNF/HLW Rail Shipment Inspections SNF/HLW Rail Shipment Inspections Tasked for the Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Tasked for the Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Evaluation of Shortline Railroads Evaluation of Shortline Railroads Evaluation of Shortline Railroads Evaluation of Shortline Railroads Task: Task: Task: Task: Identify Shortline Railroads Serving Nuclear Power Plants Identify Shortline Railroads Serving Nuclear Power Plants

50

Prototype pushing robot for emplacing vitrified waste canisters into horizontal disposal drifts  

SciTech Connect

Within the French Underground Disposal concept, as described in ANDRA's (Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs) Dossier 2005, the Pushing Robot is an application envisaged for the emplacement (and the potential retrieval) of 'Vitrified waste packages', also called 'C type packages'. ANDRA has developed a Prototype Pushing Robot within the framework of the ESDRED Project (Engineering Studies and Demonstration of Repository Design) which is co-funded by the European Commission as part of the sixth EURATOM Research and Training Framework Programme (FP6) on nuclear energy (2002 - 2006). The Rationale of the Pushing Robot technology comes from various considerations, including the need for (1) a simple and robust system, capable of moving (and potentially retrieving) on up to 40 metres (m), a 2 tonne C type package (mounted on ceramic sliding runners) inside the carbon steel sleeve constituting the liner (and rock support) of a horizontal disposal cell, (2) small annular clearances between the package and the liner, (3) compactness of the device to be transferred from surface to underground, jointly with the package, inside a shielding cask, and (4) remote controlled operations for the sake of radioprotection. The initial design, based on gripping supports, has been replaced by a 'technical variant' based on inflatable toric jacks. It was then possible, using a test bench, to check that the Pushing Robot worked properly. Steps as high as 7 mm were successfully cleared by a dummy package pushed by the Prototype.. Based on the lessons learned by ANDRA's regarding the Prototype Pushing Robot, a new Scope of Work is being written for the Contract concerning an Industrial Scale Demonstrator. The Industrial Scale Demonstration should be completed by the end of the second Quarter of 2008. (authors)

Londe, L.; Seidler, W.K.; Bosgiraud, J.M.; Guenin, J.J. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Devaux, P. [CREATIV ALLIANCE, 78 - Viroflay (France)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING GLASS FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS  

SciTech Connect

This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat transfer and glass melting rate. The WTP HLW melter has a glass surface area of 3.75 m{sup 2} and depth of {approx}1.1 m. The two melters in the HLW facility together are designed to produce up to 7.5 MT of glass per day at 100% availability. Further increases in HLW waste processing rates can potentially be achieved by increasing the melter operating temperature above 1150 C and by increasing the waste loading in the glass product Increasing the waste loading also has the added benefit of decreasing the number of canisters for storage. The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet WTP contract requirements. The WTP's overall mission will require the immobilization oftank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulfur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in waste-loading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. It is expected that these higher waste loading glasses will reduce the HLW canister production requirement by about 25% or more.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I

2009-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

52

Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste (HLW) structural integrity program  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site has fifty-one underground tanks for radioactive waste storage and processing with doubly-contained piping systems for waste transfer. The SRS High Level Waste structural Integrity Program provides a process for evaluation and documenting material aging issues for structures, systems and components (SSC) in these facilities to maintain their confinement function. SRS has been monitoring waste, waste storage tanks, testing transfer lines and controlling waste chemistry for many years. A successful structural integrity (SI) program requires the following: detailed understanding of applicable degradation mechanisms; controlled chemistries and additions, as necessary; regular chemistry sampling and monitoring; structural capacity considerations; and a combination of on-line and periodic inspection and testing programs to provide early detection of generic degradation and verify effectiveness of the management of degradation under aging conditions identified by the SI Program. The application of these elements in the HLW SI Program achieves confinement in the facilities throughout desired service life.

Marra, J.E.; Abodishish, H.A.; Barnes, D.M.; Sindelar, R.L.; Flanders, H.E.; Houston, T.W.; Wiersma, B.J.; McNatt, F.G. Sr.; Cowfer, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Production of Large Quantities of Heavy Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... concentrates of the new water are now produced on a large scale in Norway by Norsk Hydro-Elektrisk Kvlstofaktieselskab, Oslo. Large quantities of 1: 300-water can be ...

LEIF TRONSTAD

1934-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

54

Comments on a paper tilted `The sea transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes: Unresolved safety issues`  

SciTech Connect

The cited paper estimates the consequences that might occur should a purpose-built ship transporting Vitrified High Level Waste (VHLW) be involved in a severe collision that causes the VHLW canisters in one Type-B package to spill onto the floor of a major ocean fishing region. Release of radioactivity from VHLW glass logs, failure of elastomer cask seals, failure of VHLW canisters due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and the probabilities of the hypothesized accident scenario, of catastrophic cask failure, and of cask recovery from the sea are all discussed.

Sprung, J.L.; McConnell, P.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Ammerman, D.J. [and others

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

INTEGRATED DM 1200 MELTER TESTING OF HLW C-106/AY-102 COMPOSITION USING BUBBLERS VSL-03R3800-1 REV 0 9/15/03  

SciTech Connect

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW C-106/AY-102 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post test inspections of system components.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

56

Property:DayQuantity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DayQuantity DayQuantity Jump to: navigation, search Property Name DayQuantity Property Type String Description Enter the number of days (the default), but convert it to whatever time metric you'd like. Please note that the conversion to months and years is not accurate since the conversion depends on the specific years and months, but which are not known. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 day,Day,days,Days,DAY,DAYS,d,D 24 hour,hours,Hour,Hours,hr,hrs,HOUR,HOURS,HR,HRS 1440 minute,minutes,Minute,Minutes,min,Min,MINUTE,MINUTES,MIN 86400 second,seconds,Second,Seconds,sec,Sec,SECOND,SECONDS,SEC 0.142857143 week,weeks,Week,Weeks,wk,Wk,WEEK,WEEKS,WK 0.032786885 month,months,Month,Months,MONTH,MONTHS 0.002739726 year,years,Year,Years,yr,Yr,YEAR,YEARS,YR 1 day,Day,days,Days,DAY,DAYS,d,D

57

FINAL REPORT START-UP AND COMMISSIONING TESTS ON THE DURAMELTER 1200 HLW PILOT MELTER SYSTEM USING AZ-101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-01R0100-2 REV 0 1/20/03  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the final report on data and results obtained from commissioning tests performed on the one-third scale DuraMelter{trademark} 1200 (DM 1200) HLW Pilot Melter system that has been installed at VSL with an integrated prototypical off-gas treatment system. That system has replaced the DM1000 system that was used for HLW throughput testing during Part BI [1]. Both melters have similar melt surface areas (1.2 m{sup 2}) but the DM1200 is prototypical of the present RPP-WTP HLW melter design whereas the DM1000 was not. These tests were performed under a corresponding RPP-WTP Test Specification and associated Test Plan. This report is a followup to the previously issued Preliminary Data Summary Report. The DM1200 system will be used for testing and confirmation of basic design, operability, flow sheet, and process control assumptions as well as for support of waste form qualification and permitting. This will include data on processing rates, off-gas treatment system performance, recycle stream compositions, as well as process operability and reliability. Consequently, this system is a key component of the overall HLW vitrification development strategy. The results presented in this report are from the initial series of short-duration tests that were conducted to support the start-up and commissioning of this system prior to conducting the main body of development tests that have been planned for this system. These tests were directed primarily at system 'debugging,' operator training, and procedure refinement. The AZ-101 waste simulant and glass composition that was used for previous testing was selected for these tests.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; BRANDYS M; WILSON CN; SCHATZ TR; GONG W; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

58

Final Report - Sulfate Solubility in RPP-WTP HLW Glasses, VSL-06R6780-1, Rev. 0  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of work and testing specified by Test Specifications 24590-HLW-TSP-RT-01-006 Rev 1, Test Plans VSL-02T7800-1 Rev 1 and Test Exceptions 24590-HLW-TEF-RT-05-00007. The work and any associated testing followed established quality assurance requirements and were conducted as authorized. The descriptions provided in this report are an accurate account of both the conduct of the work and the data collected. Results required by the Test Plans are reported. Also reported are any unusual or anomalous occurrences that are different from the starting hypotheses. The test results and this report have been reviewed and verified.

Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Feng, A.; Gan, H.; Kot, W. K.

2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

59

Hamiltonian Structure and Statistically Relevant Conserved Quantities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

power. This additional conserved quantity, beyond the energy, has been ignored in previ- ous statistical of the Hamiltonian beyond that of the energy. First, an ap- propriate statistical theory is developed that includes in contemporary science ranging from short-term climate prediction for the coupled atmosphere-ocean system

Majda, Andrew J.

60

Final Report - Testing of Optimized Bubbler Configuration for HLW Melter VSL-13R2950-1, Rev. 0, dated 6/12/2013  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this work was to determine the glass production rate increase and ancillary effects of adding more bubbler outlets to the current WTP HLW melter baseline. This was accomplished through testing on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) at VSL. The DM1200 unit was selected for these tests since it was used previously with several HLW waste streams including the four tank wastes proposed for initial processing at Hanford. This melter system was also used for the development and optimization of the present baseline WTP HLW bubbler configuration for the WTP HLW melter, as well as for MACT testing for both HLW and LAW. Specific objectives of these tests were to: Conduct DM1200 melter testing with the baseline WTP bubbling configuration and as augmented with additional bubblers. Conduct DM1200 melter testing to differentiate the effects of total bubbler air flow and bubbler distribution on glass production rate and cold cap formation. Collect melter operating data including processing rate, temperatures at a variety of locations within the melter plenum space, melt pool temperature, glass melt density, and melter pressure with the baseline WTP bubbling configuration and as augmented with additional bubblers. Collect melter exhaust samples to compare particulate carryover for different bubbler configurations. Analyze all collected data to determine the effects of adding more bubblers to the WTP HLW melter to inform decisions regarding future lid re-designs. The work used a high aluminum HLW stream composition defined by ORP, for which an appropriate simulant and high waste loading glass formulation were developed and have been previously processed on the DM1200.

Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Callow, R. A.; Joseph, I.; Matlack, K. S.; Kot, W. K.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

High-Level Waste Tank Cleaning and Field Characterization at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is nearing completion of radioactive high-level waste (HLW) retrieval from its storage tanks and subsequent vitrification of the HLW into borosilicate glass. Currently, 99.5% of the sludge radioactivity has been recovered from the storage tanks and vitrified. Waste recovery of cesium-137 (Cs-137) adsorbed on a zeolite media during waste pretreatment has resulted in 97% of this radioactivity being vitrified. Approximately 84% of the original 1.1 x 1018 becquerels (30 million curies) of radioactivity was efficiently vitrified from July 1996 to June 1998 during Phase I processing. The recovery of the last 16% of the waste has been challenging due to a number of factors, primarily the complex internal structural support system within the main 2.8 million liter (750,000 gallon) HLW tank designated 8D-2. Recovery of this last waste has become exponentially more challenging as less and less HLW is available to mobilize and transfer to the Vitrification Facility. This paper describes the progressively more complex techniques being utilized to remove the final small percentage of radioactivity from the HLW tanks, and the multiple characterization technologies deployed to determine the quantity of Cs-137, strontium-90 (Sr-90), and alpha-transuranic (alpha-TRU) radioactivity remaining in the tanks.

Drake, J. L.; McMahon, C. L.; Meess, D. C.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

62

FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING USING AZ 102 AND C 106/AY-102 HLW SIMULANTS: HLW SIMULANT VERIFICATION VSL-05R5800-1 REV 0 6/27/05  

SciTech Connect

The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter tests were to determine the effects of feed rheology, feed solid content, and bubbler configuration on glass production rate and off-gas system performance while processing the HLW AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 feed compositions; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components, as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and perform pre- and post test inspections of system components. The specific objectives (including test success criteria) of this testing, along with how each objective was met, are outlined in a table. The data provided in this Final Report address the impacts of HLW melter feed rheology on melter throughput and validation of the simulated HLW melter feeds. The primary purpose of this testing is to further validate/verify the HLW melter simulants that have been used for previous melter testing and to support their continued use in developing melter and off-gas related processing information for the Project. The primary simulant property in question is rheology. Simulants and melter feeds used in all previous melter tests were produced by direct addition of chemicals; these feed tend to be less viscous than rheological the upper-bound feeds made from actual wastes. Data provided here compare melter processing for the melter feed used in all previous DM100 and DM1200 tests (nominal melter feed) with feed adjusted by the feed vendor (NOAH Technologies) to be more viscous, thereby simulating more closely the upperbounding feed produced from actual waste. This report provides results of tests that are described in the Test Plan for this work. The Test Plan is responsive to one of several test objectives covered in the WTP Test Specification for this work; consequently, only part of the scope described in the Test Specification was addressed in this particular Test Plan. For the purpose of comparison, the tests reported here were performed with AZ-102 and C-106/AY-102 HLW simulants and glass compositions that are essentially the same as those used for recent DM1200 tests. One exception was the use of an alternate, higher-waste-loading C-106/AY-102 glass composition that was used in previous DM100 tests to further evaluate the performance of the optimized bubbler configuration.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

63

Performance Assessment Uncertainty Analysis for Japan's HLW Program Feasibility Study (H12)  

SciTech Connect

Most HLW programs in the world recognize that any estimate of long-term radiological performance must be couched in terms of the uncertainties derived from natural variation, changes through time and lack of knowledge about the essential processes. The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute followed a relatively standard procedure to address two major categories of uncertainty. First, a FEatures, Events and Processes (FEPs) listing, screening and grouping activity was pursued in order to define the range of uncertainty in system processes as well as possible variations in engineering design. A reference and many alternative cases representing various groups of FEPs were defined and individual numerical simulations performed for each to quantify the range of conceptual uncertainty. Second, parameter distributions were developed for the reference case to represent the uncertainty in the strength of these processes, the sequencing of activities and geometric variations. Both point estimates using high and low values for individual parameters as well as a probabilistic analysis were performed to estimate parameter uncertainty. A brief description of the conceptual model uncertainty analysis is presented. This paper focuses on presenting the details of the probabilistic parameter uncertainty assessment.

BABA,T.; ISHIGURO,K.; ISHIHARA,Y.; SAWADA,A.; UMEKI,H.; WAKASUGI,K.; WEBB,ERIK K.

1999-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

64

Iron Phosphate Glass for Vitrifying Hanford AZ102 LAW in Joule Heated and Cold Crucible Induction Melters  

SciTech Connect

An iron phosphate composition for vitrifying a high sulfate (~17 wt%) and high alkali (~80 wt%) low activity Hanford waste, known as AZ102 LAW, has been developed for processing in a Joule Heated Melter (JHM) or a Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). This composition produced a glass waste form, designated as MS26AZ102F-2, with a waste loading of 26 wt% of the AZ102 which corresponded to a total alkali and sulfate (SO3) content of 21 and 4.2 wt%, respectively. A slurry (7M Na) of MS26AZ102F-2 simulant was melted continuously at temperatures between 1030 and 1090C for 10 days in a small JHM at PNNL and for 7 days in a CCIM at INL. The as-cast glasses produced in both melters and in trial laboratory experiments along with their CCC-treated counterparts met the DOE LAW requirements for the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the Vapor Hydration Test (VHT). These glass waste forms retained up to 77 % of the SO3 (3.3 wt%), 100% of the Cesium, and 33 to 44% of the rhenium, surrogate for Tc-99, all of which either exceeded or were comparable to the retention limit for these species in borosilicate glass nuclear waste form. Analyses of commercial K-3 refractory lining and the Inconel 693 metal electrodes used in JHM indicated only minimum corrosion of these components by the iron phosphate glass. This is the first time that an iron phosphate composition (slurry feed) was melted continuously in the JHM and CCIM, thereby, demonstrating that iron phosphate glasses can be used as alternative hosts for vitrifying nuclear waste.

Day, Delbert E.; Brow, R. K.; Ray, C. S.; Kim, Cheol-Woon; Reis, Signo T.; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David K.; Johnson, Fabienne; Hansen, E. K.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Soelberg, Nicolas R.; Pegg, Ian L.; Gan, Hao

2012-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

65

Crystallization In High Level Waste (HLW) Glass Melters: Operational Experience From The Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

processing strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal tolerant high level waste (HLW) glasses targeting higher waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. This report provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with scaled melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by K-3 refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. This report includes a review of the crystallization observed with the scaled melters and the full scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2). Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for WTP. Operation of the first and second (current) DWPF melters has demonstrated that the strategy of using a liquidus temperature predictive model combined with a 100 C offset from the normal melter operating temperature of 1150 C (i.e., the predicted liquidus temperature (TL) of the glass must be 1050 C or less) has been successful in preventing any detrimental accumulation of spinel in the DWPF melt pool, and spinel has not been observed in any of the pour stream glass samples. Spinel was observed at the bottom of DWPF Melter 1 as a result of K-3 refractory corrosion. Issues have occurred with accumulation of spinel in the pour spout during periods of operation at higher waste loadings. Given that both DWPF melters were or have been in operation for greater than 8 years, the service life of the melters has far exceeded design expectations. It is possible that the DWPF liquidus temperature approach is conservative, in that it may be possible to successfully operate the melter with a small degree of allowable crystallization in the glass. This could be a viable approach to increasing waste loading in the glass assuming that the crystals are suspended in the melt and swept out through the riser and pour spout. Additional study is needed, and development work for WTP might be leveraged to support a different operating limit for the DWPF. Several recommendations are made regarding considerations that need to be included as part of the WTP crystal tolerant strategy based on the DWPF development work and operational data reviewed here. These include: Identify and consider the impacts of potential heat sinks in the WTP melter and glass pouring system; Consider the contributions of refractory corrosion products, which may serve to nucleate additional crystals leading to further accumulation; Consider volatilization of components from the melt (e.g., boron, alkali, halides, etc.) and determine their impacts on glass crystallization behavior; Evaluate the impacts of glass REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) conditions and the distribution of temperature within the WTP melt pool and melter pour chamber on crystal accumulation rate; Consider the impact of precipitated crystals on glass viscosity; Consider the impact of an accumulated crystalline layer on thermal convection currents and bubbler effectiveness within the melt pool; Evaluate the impact of spinel accumulation on Joule heating of the WTP melt pool; and Include noble metals in glass melt experiments because of their potential to act as nucleation site

Fox, K. M.

2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

66

Unit Conversion Factors Quantity Equivalent Values  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unit Conversion Factors Quantity Equivalent Values Mass 1 kg = 1000 g = 0.001 metric ton = 2.921 inHg at 0 C Energy 1 J = 1 N·m = 107 ergs = 107 dyne·cm = 2.778?10-7 kW·h 1 J = 0.23901 cal = 0·R 10.73 psia·ft3 lbmol·R 62.36 liter·torr mol·K 0.7302 ft3·atm lbmol·R Temperature Conversions: T

Ashurst, W. Robert

67

Granite Recrystallization The Key to an Alternative Strategy for HLW Disposal? Fergus G.F. Gibb  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

JD, U.K. ABSTRACT An alternative strategy is proposed for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF HLWs, such as spent reactor fuel, to `cool' for a period (usually a few decades) prior to disposal potentially damaging temperature rises. Secondly, the waste contains sufficient quantities of very long lived

Sheffield, University of

68

FINAL REPORT DM1200 TESTS WITH AZ 101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-03R3800-4 REV 0 2/17/04  

SciTech Connect

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM 1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW AZ-101 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW AZ-101 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate and feed solids content on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post-test inspections of system components. The test objectives (including test success criteria), along with how they were met, are outlined in a table.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; GONG W; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

69

Effect of composition and temperature on the properties of High-Level Waste (HLW) glasses melting above 1200{degrees}C (Draft)  

SciTech Connect

Increasing the melting temperature of HLW glass allows an increase of waste loading (thus reducing product volume) and the production of more durable glasses at a faster melting rate. However, HLW glasses that melt at high temperatures differ in composition from glasses formulated for low temperature ({approximately}1150{degree}C). Consequently, the composition of high-temperature glasses falls in a region previously not well tested or understood. This report represents a preliminary study of property/composition relationships of high-temperature Hanford HLW glasses using a one-component-at-a-time change approach. A test matrix has been designed to explore a composition region expected for high-temperature high-waste loading HLW glasses to be produced at Hanford. This matrix was designed by varying several key components (SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, UO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and others) starting from a glass based on a Hanford HLW all-blend waste. Glasses were fabricated and tested for viscosity, glass transition temperature, electrical conductivity, crystallinity, liquidus temperature, and PCT release. The effect of individual components on glass properties was assessed using first- and second- order empirical models. The first-order component effects were compared with those from low-temperature HLW glasses.

Vienna, J.D.; Hrma, P.R.; Schweiger, M.J. [and others

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Enhanced near infrared emission from the partially vitrified Nd{sup 3+} and silver co-doped zeolite Y  

SciTech Connect

Near infrared (NIR) emission from the Nd{sup 3+} doped zeolite Y was strongly enhanced by partially vitrifying the zeolite structure via extra loading silver ions and post annealing. Under the low annealing temperatures at 450?C and 650?C, the states of the loaded silver were determined to be the co-existence of the isolated Ag{sup 0} atoms, the Ag{sup +} ions, and the Ag{sub 2}{sup +} dimers. However, there was no enhancement in the NIR emission by the introduction of these small silver clusters. Under higher annealing temperature at 900?C where the lattice of the zeolite Y was partially collapsed into the amorphous phase, strong NIR emission enhancement at 1064?nm with a factor of 6.8 was observed. The partial vitrification process by the co-loading of silver and post heat-treatment had strong effect on eliminating the H{sub 2}O molecules, which can greatly enhance the NIR emission.

Lin, Hui, E-mail: linh8112@163.com, E-mail: fujii@eedept.kobe-u.ac.jp; Chu Rong Gui, Sa; Imakita, Kenji; Fujii, Minoru, E-mail: linh8112@163.com, E-mail: fujii@eedept.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

71

Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

Mandigo, R.L.

1996-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

72

A Ceramic membrane to Recycle Caustic  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A A Ceramic Membrane to Recycle Caustic in Low-Activity Waste Stream Processing The Office of Waste Processing is sponsoring an R&D project with Ceramatec, Inc. to develop a ceramic membrane capable of separating sodium from the Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) stream. The Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) tanks must be maintained in a caustic environment to inhibit corrosion. Consequently, they contain large quantities of NaOH. Ultimately the HLW will be retrieved, separated into HLW and LAW streams, with both streams being vitrified at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). Prior to processing, additional NaOH will be added to the LAW stream to solubilize the alumina, preventing alumina precipitation, but further increasing the NaOH quantity. This project's goal is to separate the sodium from the LAW stream prior to vitrification which will allow the NaOH to be recycled and further

73

Advances in Glass Formulations for Hanford High-Aluminum, High-Iron and Enhanced Sulphate Management in HLW Streams - 13000  

SciTech Connect

The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Contract terms. The WTP's overall mission will require the immobilization of tank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulphur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings and higher throughput efficiencies. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in waste loading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. In view of the importance of aluminum limited waste streams at Hanford (and also Savannah River), the ability to achieve high waste loadings without adversely impacting melt rates has the potential for enormous cost savings from reductions in canister count and the potential for schedule acceleration. Consequently, the potential return on the investment made in the development of these enhancements is extremely favorable. Glass composition development for one of the latest Hanford HLW projected compositions with sulphate concentrations high enough to limit waste loading have been successfully tested and show tolerance for previously unreported tolerance for sulphate. Though a significant increase in waste loading for high-iron wastes has been achieved, the magnitude of the increase is not as substantial as those achieved for high-aluminum, high-chromium, high-bismuth or sulphur. Waste processing rate increases for high-iron streams as a combined effect of higher waste loadings and higher melt rates resulting from new formulations have been achieved. (author)

Kruger, Albert A. [WTP Engineering Division, United States Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Post Office Box 450, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [WTP Engineering Division, United States Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Post Office Box 450, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Advances in Glass Formulations for Hanford High-Alumimum, High-Iron and Enhanced Sulphate Management in HLW Streams - 13000  

SciTech Connect

The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Contract terms. The WTP?s overall mission will require the immobilization of tank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulphur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings and higher throughput efficiencies. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in waste loading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. In view of the importance of aluminum limited waste streams at Hanford (and also Savannah River), the ability to achieve high waste loadings without adversely impacting melt rates has the potential for enormous cost savings from reductions in canister count and the potential for schedule acceleration. Consequently, the potential return on the investment made in the development of these enhancements is extremely favorable. Glass composition development for one of the latest Hanford HLW projected compositions with sulphate concentrations high enough to limit waste loading have been successfully tested and show tolerance for previously unreported tolerance for sulphate. Though a significant increase in waste loading for high-iron wastes has been achieved, the magnitude of the increase is not as substantial as those achieved for high-aluminum, high-chromium, high-bismuth or sulphur. Waste processing rate increases for high-iron streams as a combined effect of higher waste loadings and higher melt rates resulting from new formulations have been achieved.

Kruger, Albert A.

2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

75

High Level Waste Management Division High-Level Waste System...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

describes the HLW Program that will vitrify all HLW contained in the old and new-style tanks by FY2028. The canister production rate is projected to average 200 canisters per...

76

Some Intensive and Extensive Quantities in High-Energy Collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review the evolution of some statistical and thermodynamical quantities measured in difference sizes of high-energy collisions at different energies. We differentiate between intensive and extensive quantities and discuss the importance of their distinguishability in characterizing possible critical phenomena of nuclear collisions at various energies with different initial conditions.

A. Tawfik

2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

77

ARM - Evaluation Product - Critical soil quantities for describing land  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsCritical soil quantities for describing land ProductsCritical soil quantities for describing land properties Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Critical soil quantities for describing land properties 1994.01.01 - 2012.12.31 Site(s) SGP General Description The ARMBELAND is a subset of the ARM Best Estimate (ARMBE) products for supporting community land-atmospheric research and land model developments. It contains several critical soil quantities that ARM has been measuring for many years for describing land properties. The quantities in ARMBE-Land are averaged over one hour time interval, consistent with other ARMBE datasets. It is recommended to use with other ARMBE data products such as ARMBECLDRAD (cloud and radiative fluxes) and ARMBEATM (surface

78

Kinematic quantities of finite elastic and plastic deformation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kinematic quantities for finite elastic and plastic deformations are defined via an approach that does not rely on auxiliary elements like reference frame and reference configuration, and that gives account of the inertial-noninertial aspects explicitly. These features are achieved by working on Galilean spacetime directly. The quantity expressing elastic deformations is introduced according to its expected role: to measure how different the current metric is from the relaxed/stressless metric. Further, the plastic kinematic quantity is the change rate of the stressless metric. The properties of both are analyzed, and their relationship to frequently used elastic and plastic kinematic quantities is discussed. One important result is that no objective elastic or plastic quantities can be defined from deformation gradient.

T. Flp; P. Vn

2012-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

79

Final Report - Effects of High Spinel and Chromium Oxide Crystal Contents on Simulated HLW Vitrification in DM100 Melter Tests, VSL-09R1520-1, Rev. 0, dated 6/22/09  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of the work was to evaluate the effects of spinel and chromium oxide particles on WTP HLW melter operations and potential impacts on melter life. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests, settling and rheological tests, and tests on the DM100 melter system. Crucible testing was designed to develop and identify HLW glass compositions with high waste loadings that exhibit formation of crystalline spinel and/or chromium oxide phases up to relatively high crystal contents (i.e., > 1 vol%). Characterization of crystal settling and the effects on melt rheology was performed on the HLW glass formulations. Appropriate candidate HLW glass formulations were selected, based on characterization results, to support subsequent melter tests. In the present work, crucible melts were formulated that exhibit up to about 4.4 vol% crystallization.

Kruger, Albert A.; Matlack, K. S.; Kot, W.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Lutze, W.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

80

South Dakota Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) South Dakota Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,846 1,947 2,558 2,231 3,431 3,920 4,369 1990's 881 93 1,006 854 1,000 848 0 687 772 702 2000's 648 563 531 550 531 446 455 422 1,099 NA 2010's NA - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 1/7/2014 Next Release Date: 1/31/2014 Referring Pages: Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value South Dakota Natural Gas Wellhead Value and Marketed Production

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

EM's Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity Cleanup Contracts |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EM's Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity Cleanup Contracts EM's Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity Cleanup Contracts EM's Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity Cleanup Contracts The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has 23 Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contracts to provide cleanup services at EM sites across the United States. The scope of work of the IDIQ contracts includes: environmental remediation deactivation, decommissioning, demolition and removal of contaminated facilities waste management regulatory compliance These nationwide, multiple-award IDIQ contracts allow EM sites to place timely, competitive and cost-effective task orders for environmental services with either large or small businesses, as determined by the complexity of the requirements. Twelve of the IDIQ contracts were awarded

82

Indiana Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Indiana Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 135 394 367 365 217 412 416 1990's 399 232 174 192 107 249 360 526 615 855 2000's 899 1,064 1,309 1,464 3,401 3,135 2,921 3,606 4,701 4,927 2010's 6,802 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value Indiana Natural Gas Wellhead Value and Marketed Production

83

Integrated quality and quantity modeling of a production line  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The interaction of quantity and quality performance in a factory is clearly of great economic importance. However, there is very little quantitative analytical literature in this area. This thesis is an essential early ...

Kim, Jongyoon, 1974-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

TESTS WITH HIGH-BISMUTH HLW GLASSES FINAL REPORT VSL-10R1780-1 REV 0 12/13/10  

SciTech Connect

This Final Report describes the testing of glass formulations developed for Hanford High Level Waste (HLW) containing high concentrations of bismuth. In previous work on high-bismuth HLW streams specified by the Office of River Protection (ORP), fully compliant, high waste loading compositions were developed and subjected to melter testing on the DM100 vitrification system. However, during heat treatment according to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) HLW canister centerline cooling (CCC) curves, crucible melts of the high-bismuth glasses were observed to foam. Clearly, such an occurrence during cooling of actual HLW canisters would be highly undesirable. Accordingly, the present work involves larger-scale testing to determine whether this effect occurs under more prototypical conditions, as well as crucible-scale tests to determine the causes and potentially remediate the observed foaming behavior. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts designed to determine the underlying causes of the foaming behavior as well as to assess potential mitigation strategies. Testing was also conducted on the DM1200 HLW Pilot melter with a composition previously tested on the DM100 and shown to foam during crucible-scale CCC heat treatment. The DM1200 tests evaluated foaming of glasses over a range of bismuth concentrations poured into temperature-controlled, 55-gallon drums which have a diameter that is close to that of the full-scale WTP HLW canisters. In addition, the DM1200 tests provided the first large-scale melter test data on high-bismuth WTP HLW compositions, including information on processing rates, cold cap behavior and off-gas characteristics, and data from this waste composition on the prototypical DM1200 off-gas treatment system. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for ORP on the same waste composition. The scope of this study was outlined in a Test Plan that was prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. The present glass formulation and melter testing work was aimed at one of the four waste streams previously specified by the Office of River Protection (ORP). Such testing supports the ORP basis for projection of the amount of Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) to be produced at Hanford and evaluation of the likely potential for future enhancements of the WTP over and above the present well-developed baseline. It should be noted that the compositions of the four ORP-specified waste streams differ significantly from those of the feed tanks (AZ-101, AZ-102, C-16/AY-102, and C-104/AY-101) that have been the focus of the extensive technology development and design work performed for the WTP baseline. In this regard, the work on the ORP-specified compositions is complementary to and necessarily of a more exploratory nature than the work in support of the current WTP baseline.

MATLACK KS; KRUGER AA; JOSEPH I; GAN H; KOT WK; CHAUDHURI M; MOHR RK; MCKEOWN DA; BARDAKEI T; GONG W; BUECCHELE AC; PEGG IL

2011-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

85

Low Level Waste Disposition - Quantity and Inventory | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low Level Waste Disposition - Quantity and Inventory Low Level Waste Disposition - Quantity and Inventory Low Level Waste Disposition - Quantity and Inventory This study has been prepared by the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) campaign of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) program. The purpose of this study is to provide an estimate of the volume of low level waste resulting from a variety of commercial fuel cycle alternatives in order to support subsequent system-level evaluations of disposal system performance. This study provides an estimate of Class A/B/C low level waste (LLW), greater than Class C (GTCC) waste, mixed LLW and mixed GTCC waste generated from the following initial set of fuel cycles and recycling processes: 1. Operations at a geologic repository based upon a once through light

86

Low Level Waste Disposition - Quantity and Inventory | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low Level Waste Disposition - Quantity and Inventory Low Level Waste Disposition - Quantity and Inventory Low Level Waste Disposition - Quantity and Inventory This study has been prepared by the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) campaign of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) program. The purpose of this study is to provide an estimate of the volume of low level waste resulting from a variety of commercial fuel cycle alternatives in order to support subsequent system-level evaluations of disposal system performance. This study provides an estimate of Class A/B/C low level waste (LLW), greater than Class C (GTCC) waste, mixed LLW and mixed GTCC waste generated from the following initial set of fuel cycles and recycling processes: 1. Operations at a geologic repository based upon a once through light

87

Discussion the Traceability of Quantity Value of Digital Watthour Meter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To resolve the traceability of quantity value and calibration of digital watt-hour meter, in this paper introduced working principium of digital electric power metering system briefly, and analyzed the main origin of error from the theory of digital watt-hour meter and its calibration device. This paper also proposed new verification method of digital watt-hour meter calibration device and project of digital watt-hour meter traceability of quantity value. The method is used in digital signal generator calibration. The traceability project is traceability to the national primary standard which is corresponding to the device using in the method. The project in this paper, which is figure out verification and traceability of quantity value from main origin of error, provides a reasonable approach to traceability of digital watt-hour meter and a useful reference to decriminalization of digital metrology. Meantime, the scheme provides strong technical support for construction of digital transformer substation and Smart Strong Grid.

Meng Xiangfu; Liu Yuchao; Wang Yuhua

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

DATA SUMMARY REPORT SMALL SCALE MELTER TESTING OF HLW ALGORITHM GLASSES MATRIX1 TESTS VSL-07S1220-1 REV 0 7/25/07  

SciTech Connect

Eight tests using different HLW feeds were conducted on the DM100-BL to determine the effect of variations in glass properties and feed composition on processing rates and melter conditions (off-gas characteristics, glass processing, foaming, cold cap, etc.) at constant bubbling rate. In over seven hundred hours of testing, the property extremes of glass viscosity, electrical conductivity, and T{sub 1%}, as well as minimum and maximum concentrations of several major and minor glass components were evaluated using glass compositions that have been tested previously at the crucible scale. Other parameters evaluated with respect to glass processing properties were +/-15% batching errors in the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs) to the feed, and variation in the sources of boron and sodium used in the GFCs. Tests evaluating batching errors and GFC source employed variations on the HLW98-86 formulation (a glass composition formulated for HLW C-106/AY-102 waste and processed in several previous melter tests) in order to best isolate the effect of each test variable. These tests are outlined in a Test Plan that was prepared in response to the Test Specification for this work. The present report provides summary level data for all of the tests in the first test matrix (Matrix 1) in the Test Plan. Summary results from the remaining tests, investigating minimum and maximum concentrations of major and minor glass components employing variations on the HLW98-86 formulation and glasses generated by the HLW glass formulation algorithm, will be reported separately after those tests are completed. The test data summarized herein include glass production rates, the type and amount of feed used, a variety of measured melter parameters including temperatures and electrode power, feed sample analysis, measured glass properties, and gaseous emissions rates. More detailed information and analysis from the melter tests with complete emission chemistry, glass durability, and melter operating details will be provided in the final report. A summary of the tests that were conducted is provided in Table 1. Each of the seven tests was of nominally one hundred hours in duration. Test B was conducted in two equal segments: the first with nominal additives, and the second with the replacement of borax with a mixture of boric acid and soda ash to determine the effect of alternative OPC sources on production rates and processing characteristics. Interestingly, sugar additions were required near mid points of Tests W and Z to reduce excessive foaming that severely limited feed processing rates. The sugar additions were very effective in recovering manageable processing conditions, albeit over the relatively short remainder of the test duration. Tests W and Z employed the highest melt viscosities but not by a particularly wide margin. Other tests, which did not exhibit such foaming Issues, employed higher concentrations of manganese or iron or both. These results highlight the need for the development of protocols for the a priori determination of which HLW feeds will require sugar additions and the appropriate amounts of sugar to be added in order to control foaming (and maintain throughput) without over-reduction of the melt (which could lead to molten metal formation). In total, over 8,800 kg of feed was processed to produce over 3200 kg of glass. Steady-state processing rates were achieved, and no secondary sulfate phases were observed during any of the tests. Analysis was performed on samples of the glass product taken throughout the tests to verify composition and properties. Sampling and analysis was also performed on melter exhaust to determine the effect of the feed and glass changes on melter emissions.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

89

Virginia Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4,342 8,928 15,041 15,427 19,223 18,424 17,935 1990's 14,283 14,906 24,734 37,840 50,259 49,818 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 NA NA NA NA NA NA 2010's NA - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value Virginia Natural Gas Wellhead Value and Marketed Production

90

Oregon Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Oregon Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3 2,790 4,080 4,600 3,800 4,000 2,500 1990's 2,815 2,741 2,580 4,003 3,221 1,923 1,439 1,173 1,067 1,291 2000's 1,214 1,069 837 688 467 433 NA 390 751 751 2010's 1,376 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value Oregon Natural Gas Wellhead Value and Marketed Production

91

Alaska Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Alaska Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Alaska Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Alaska Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 211,569 211,579 222,637 304,841 271,120 228,284 192,760 1990's 191,798 200,557 206,259 224,786 201,891 227,797 193,278 191,017 192,982 186,727 2000's 189,896 197,735 200,871 199,616 413,667 502,887 494,323 368,344 337,359 397,077 2010's 316,546 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead

92

Alabama Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Alabama Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 59,051 56,685 42,925 34,164 35,674 45,488 41,614 1990's 37,229 35,972 51,219 75,474 70,489 54,964 493,069 583,370 560,414 544,020 2000's 521,215 376,241 370,753 348,722 304,212 285,237 274,176 259,062 246,747 225,666 2010's 212,769 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 1/7/2014 Next Release Date: 1/31/2014 Referring Pages: Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead

93

Pennsylvania Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 118,372 166,342 150,234 159,889 163,318 167,089 191,774 1990's 177,609 152,500 138,675 189,443 187,113 177,139 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 NA NA NA NA NA NA 2010's NA - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value Pennsylvania Natural Gas Wellhead Value and Marketed

94

Nebraska Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,091 2,300 1,944 1,403 1,261 910 878 1990's 793 785 1,177 1,375 2,098 1,538 1,332 1,194 1,285 1,049 2000's 879 883 892 1,168 1,172 1,172 NA 1,555 3,082 2,908 2010's 2,231 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value Nebraska Natural Gas Wellhead Value and Marketed Production

95

Montana Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 47,751 47,534 46,113 42,203 42,814 47,748 52,044 1990's 45,998 48,075 50,359 58,810 51,953 46,739 46,868 50,409 51,967 55,780 2000's 67,294 78,493 86,075 86,027 90,771 101,666 106,843 110,942 802,619 293,941 2010's 87,539 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead

96

North Dakota Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 69,319 60,111 62,371 58,593 51,671 21,240 12,290 1990's 11,537 5,138 3,994 4,420 0 0 0 52,401 53,185 52,862 2000's 48,714 57,949 57,015 57,808 59,513 57,972 53,675 54,745 52,469 59,369 2010's 81,837 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 1/7/2014 Next Release Date: 1/31/2014 Referring Pages: Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead

97

California Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) California Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 282,639 343,079 361,739 329,366 346,720 327,399 283,509 1990's 275,738 211,841 195,515 76,381 199,649 263 37,823 219,216 264,810 382,715 2000's 323,864 328,778 309,399 293,691 276,520 274,817 278,933 268,016 263,107 241,916 2010's 251,559 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead

98

Mississippi Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 211,116 206,871 178,426 197,217 195,299 196,912 148,167 1990's 149,012 126,637 129,340 131,450 105,646 95,349 88,805 98,075 88,723 83,232 2000's 70,965 76,986 112,979 133,901 145,692 52,923 60,531 73,460 96,641 97,258 2010's 73,721 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead

99

Colorado Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 139,820 143,552 126,037 163,684 164,557 191,544 216,737 1990's 242,997 271,159 314,105 388,016 441,343 511,513 559,473 637,375 696,321 705,477 2000's 735,332 800,712 819,205 989,678 1,058,383 1,106,993 1,170,819 1,280,638 1,436,203 1,409,172 2010's 1,548,576 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead

100

Michigan Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 138,910 144,537 131,855 127,287 146,996 146,145 155,988 1990's 106,193 189,497 190,637 199,746 216,268 238,203 245,740 305,950 278,076 277,364 2000's 296,556 275,036 274,476 236,987 259,681 261,112 NA NA 153,130 159,400 2010's 151,886 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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101

Arkansas Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Arkansas Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 78,097 75,575 86,552 68,206 42,688 102,046 42,226 1990's 99,456 83,864 85,177 122,596 24,326 180,117 76,671 71,449 61,012 54,382 2000's 55,057 16,901 161,871 166,329 183,299 190,533 193,491 269,886 446,551 680,613 2010's 936,600 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead

102

West Virginia Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 130,078 143,730 144,883 135,431 160,000 174,942 177,192 1990's 95,271 198,605 202,775 171,024 55,756 50,439 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 NA 0 NA NA NA NA NA NA 2010's NA - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value West Virginia Natural Gas Wellhead Value and Marketed

103

NDHA REQUIREMENTS FOR FCNS 320 Quantity Food Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of practical food service work experience. CERTIFICATION & TB TEST GUIDELINES Food Sanitation CertificateNDHA REQUIREMENTS FOR FCNS 320 ­ Quantity Food Production OVERVIEW State Of Illinois Food) Skin Test Verification of 100 Hours Completed Work Experience in Food Production Verification

Kostic, Milivoje M.

104

Economics of California Agriculture and Water Quality and Quantity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economics of California Agriculture and Water Quality and Quantity December 2012 Daniel A. Sumner County in the South #12;Animal Products 10% Field Crops 16% Fruits 20%Tree Nuts 27% Vegetables 7% Wine 7 (available categories) Base Sector Output Water Cost Increase (75%) Water Availability Reduction (-25

California at Davis, University of

105

Kentucky Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 46,720 61,518 73,126 80,195 70,125 44,725 72,417 1990's 75,333 78,904 79,690 86,966 73,081 74,754 81,435 79,547 81,868 76,770 2000's 81,545 81,723 88,259 87,609 94,259 92,795 95,320 95,437 114,116 NA 2010's 135,355 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 1/7/2014 Next Release Date: 1/31/2014 Referring Pages: Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead

106

Ohio Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 149,096 184,651 180,458 180,287 164,960 166,690 159,730 1990's 154,619 146,189 143,381 135,939 130,855 125,085 119,251 116,246 108,542 102,505 2000's 98,551 97,272 103,158 120,081 119,847 83,523 86,315 88,095 84,858 88,824 2010's 78,122 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead

107

New York Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) New York Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 17,836 25,200 31,561 22,964 25,676 23,455 20,433 1990's 25,023 21,704 22,543 20,620 19,684 17,325 0 15,415 15,415 15,426 2000's 17,166 27,187 35,941 35,044 45,436 54,377 55,344 54,942 50,320 44,849 2010's 35,241 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead

108

Joint determination of order quantity and reorder point of continuous review model under quantity and freight rate discounts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The increased emphasis on transportation costs has enhanced the need to develop models with transportation consideration explicitly. However, in stochastic inventory models, the transportation cost is considered implicitly as part of fixed ordering cost ... Keywords: Inventory, Quantity discount, Stochastic demand, Transportation

M. A. Darwish

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

New Mexico Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 884,517 925,298 880,307 676,886 790,639 752,629 833,593 1990's 949,735 1,029,824 1,274,220 1,489,052 1,510,804 1,480,327 1,553,103 1,540,157 1,483,370 1,511,671 2000's 1,685,664 1,670,644 1,614,045 1,576,639 1,578,773 1,571,920 1,562,754 1,495,615 895,675 1,370,727 2010's 1,287,399 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014

110

Oklahoma Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,730,061 1,985,869 1,936,341 1,917,493 2,004,797 2,106,632 2,185,204 1990's 2,186,153 2,119,161 1,937,224 2,005,971 1,879,257 1,765,788 1,751,487 1,452,233 1,644,531 1,577,961 2000's 1,612,890 1,477,058 1,456,375 1,531,657 1,584,905 1,571,615 1,683,563 1,589,871 1,765,988 1,621,316 2010's 1,408,061 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014

111

Texas Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 6,227,995 6,630,246 6,367,936 6,465,964 6,414,021 6,386,544 6,276,968 1990's 6,476,032 6,066,256 5,893,069 5,769,437 5,834,671 5,592,323 4,684,140 4,716,304 4,777,945 5,719,128 2000's 5,869,901 5,159,233 5,166,315 5,186,213 5,271,306 5,539,052 5,993,702 6,454,249 7,483,842 7,623,747 2010's 7,470,752 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014

112

Louisiana Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,149,192 3,650,412 3,179,306 2,986,468 3,243,795 3,158,903 3,066,789 1990's 3,780,551 3,355,867 3,404,963 3,454,646 3,562,360 3,709,015 3,976,305 5,398,216 5,410,523 5,265,670 2000's 3,587,815 1,529,733 1,365,925 1,350,399 1,357,366 1,296,048 1,361,119 1,275,806 1,292,478 1,449,809 2010's 2,140,525 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 1/7/2014 Next Release Date: 1/31/2014

113

Wyoming Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Quantity of Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 395,656 447,615 416,565 352,858 407,863 471,095 623,915 1990's 690,356 711,799 765,254 63,667 14,283 12,449 27,821 719,933 1,004,020 1,079,375 2000's 1,240,038 1,359,868 1,533,724 1,561,322 1,724,725 1,729,760 1,811,992 1,916,238 2,116,818 2,239,778 2010's 2,318,486 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages:

114

Distributions of 14 elements on 60 selected absorbers from two simulant solutions (acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate) for Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY  

SciTech Connect

Sixty commercially available or experimental absorber materials were evaluated for partitioning high-level radioactive waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. The distributions of 14 elements onto each absorber were measured from simulated solutions that represent acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate solutions from Hanford high-level waste (HLW) Tank 102-SY. The selected elements, which represent fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y); actinides (U, Pu, and Am); and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr), were traced by radionuclides and assayed by gamma spectrometry. Distribution coefficients for each of the 1680 element/absorber/solution combinations were measured for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to provide sorption kinetics information for the specified elements from these complex media. More than 5000 measured distribution coefficients are tabulated.

Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

INCONEL 690 CORROSION IN WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT) HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASS MELTS RICH IN ALUMINUM & BISMUTH & CHROMIUM OR ALUMINUM/SODIUM  

SciTech Connect

Metal corrosion tests were conducted with four high waste loading non-Fe-limited HLW glass compositions. The results at 1150 C (the WTP nominal melter operating temperature) show corrosion performance for all four glasses that is comparable to that of other typical borosilicate waste glasses, including HLW glass compositions that have been developed for iron-limited WTP streams. Of the four glasses tested, the Bi-limited composition shows the greatest extent of corrosion, which may be related to its higher phosphorus content. Tests at higher suggest that a moderate elevation of the melter operating temperature (up to 1200 C) should not result in any significant increase in Inconel corrosion. However, corrosion rates did increase significantly at yet higher temperatures (1230 C). Very little difference was observed with and without the presence of an electric current density of 6 A/inch{sup 2}, which is the typical upper design limit for Inconel electrodes. The data show a roughly linear relationship between the thickness of the oxide scale on the coupon and the Cr-depletion depth, which is consistent with the chromium depletion providing the material source for scale growth. Analysis of the time dependence of the Cr depletion profiles measured at 1200 C suggests that diffusion of Cr in the Ni-based Inconel alloy controls the depletion depth of Cr inside the alloy. The diffusion coefficient derived from the experimental data agrees within one order of magnitude with the published diffusion coefficient data for Cr in Ni matrices; the difference is likely due to the contribution from faster grain boundary diffusion in the tested Inconel alloy. A simple diffusion model based on these data predicts that Inconel 690 alloy will suffer Cr depletion damage to a depth of about 1 cm over a five year service life at 1200 C in these glasses.

KRUGER AA; FENG Z; GAN H; PEGG IL

2009-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

116

A Stochastic Perishable Inventory System with Random Supply Quantity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper considers a continuous review perishable inventory system with demands ar-rive according to a Markovian arrival process (MAP). We model, in this paper, the situation in which not all the ordered items are usable and the supply may contain a fraction of defec-tive items. The number of usable items is a random quantity. We consider a modified (s, S) policy which allows a finite number of pending order to be placed. We assume full back-logging of demands that occurred during stock out periods and that the recent backlogged demand may renege the system after an exponentially distributed amount of time. The limiting distribution of the inventory level is derived and shown to have matrix geometric form. The measures of system performance in the steady state are derived.

Paul Manuel; A. Shophia Lawrence; G. Arivarignan

117

Memo, "Incorporation of HLW Glass Shell V2.0 into the Flowsheets," to ED Lee, CCN: 184905, October 20, 2009  

SciTech Connect

Efforts are being made to increase the efficiency and decrease the cost of vitrifying radioactive waste stored in tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The compositions of acceptable and processable high-level waste (HL W) glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to reduce cost. A database of glass properties of waste glass and associated simulated waste glasses was collected and documented in PNNL 18501, Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume and glass property models were curve-fitted to the glass compositions. A routine was developed that estimates HL W glass volumes using the following glass property models: II Nepheline, II One-Percent Crystal Temperature (T1%), II Viscosity (11) II Product Consistency Tests (PCT) for boron, sodium, and lithium, and II Liquidus Temperature (TL). The routine, commonly called the HL W Glass Shell, is presented in this document. In addition to the use of the glass property models, glass composition constraints and rules, as recommend in PNNL 18501 and in other documents (as referenced in this report) were incorporated. This new version of the HL W Glass Shell should generally estimate higher waste loading in the HL W glass than previous versions.

Gimpel, Rodney F.; Kruger, Albert A.

2013-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

118

Testing DM warmness and quantity via the RRG model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the framework of a recently proposed model of reduced relativistic gas (RRG) to obtain the bounds for $\\Omega$'s of Dark Matter and Dark Energy (in the present case, a cosmological constant), taking into consideration an arbitrary warmness of Dark Matter. Two kind of tests are accounted for, namely the ones coming from the dynamics of the conformal factor of the homogeneous and isotropic metric and also the ones based on linear cosmic perturbations. The RRG model demonstrated its high effectiveness, permitting to explore a large volume in the space of mentioned parameters in a rather economic way. Taking all the tests together, namely Supernova type Ia (Union2 sample), $H(z)$, CMB ($R$ factor), BAO and LSS (2dfGRS data) into account, we confirm that $\\La$CDM is the most favored model. At the same time, for the 2dfGRS data alone we met the possibility of an alternative model with a very small quantity of a Dark Matter. This output is potentially relevant in view of the fact that the LSS is the only test...

Fabris, Julio C; Velasquez-Toribio, A M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Transmission of the size of units of quantities and verification conditions as applied to measurement systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The meaning of transmission of the size of units of quantities and verification conditions applied to measurement systems is considered.

A. A. Danilov

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING OF BUBBLER CONFIGURATIONS USING HLW AZ-101 SIMULANTS VSL-04R4800-4 REV 0 10/5/04  

SciTech Connect

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of AZ-101 HLW simulants. The tests reported herein are a subset of six tests from a larger series of tests described in the Test Plan for the work; results from the other tests have been reported separately. The solids contents of the melter feeds were based on the WTP baseline value for the solids content of the feeds from pretreatment which changed during these tests from 20% to 15% undissolved solids resulting in tests conducted at two feed solids contents. Based on the results of earlier tests with single outlet 'J' bubblers, initial tests were performed with a total bubbling rate of 651 pm. The first set of tests (Tests 1A-1E) addressed the effects of skewing this total air flow rate back and forth between the two installed bubblers in comparison to a fixed equal division of flow between them. The second set of tests (2A-2D) addressed the effects of bubbler depth. Subsequently, as the location, type and number of bubbling outlets were varied, the optimum bubbling rate for each was determined. A third (3A-3C) and fourth (8A-8C) set of tests evaluated the effects of alternative bubbler designs with two gas outlets per bubbler instead of one by placing four bubblers in positions simulating multiple-outlet bubblers. Data from the simulated multiple outlet bubblers were used to design bubblers with two outlets for an additional set of tests (9A-9C). Test 9 was also used to determine the effect of small sugar additions to the feed on ruthenium volatility. Another set of tests (10A-10D) evaluated the effects on production rate of spiking the feed with chloride and sulfate. Variables held constant to the extent possible included melt temperature, plenum temperature, cold cap coverage, the waste simulant composition, and the target glass composition. The feed rate was increased to the point that a constant, essentially complete, cold cap was achieved, which was used as an indicator of a maximized feed rate for each test. The first day of each test was used to build the cold cap and decrease the plenum temperature. The remainder of each test was split into two- to six-day segments, each with a different bubbling rate, bubbler orientation, or feed concentration of chloride and sulfur.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; LUTZE W; CALLOW RA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Technical Design and Optimization of a HLW-Repository in the Gorleben Salt Dome including Detailed Design of the Sealing System - 13305  

SciTech Connect

The preliminary safety analysis for a HLW repository at Gorleben, the potential repository site in Germany, takes into account an updated set of data on the amounts and types of expected heat generating waste, the documented results of the exploration of the Gorleben salt dome, and the 'Safety Requirements Governing the Final Disposal of Heat-Generating Radioactive Waste' as at 30 September 2010. A repository design was developed for two emplacement concepts (drift disposal and borehole disposal) mainly influenced by the thermal impact of the heat-generating waste on the host rock and taking into account mining constrains. According to the objective to create the conditions for a safe containment of the waste containers in the host rock, a closure concept consisting of backfilling and sealing measures was developed. The repository was designed in such a way that retrievability requirements can be met for all waste containers within the operating phase of the repository. In addition, it could be shown that sufficient measures for ensuring subcriticality are provided both during the operational and the post-closure phases of the repository. (authors)

Bollingerfehr, W.; Filbert, W.; Herold, P.; Lerch, C.; Mueller-Hoeppe, N. [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Eschenstrasse 55, D-31224 Peine (Germany)] [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Eschenstrasse 55, D-31224 Peine (Germany); Charlier, F. [International nuclear safety engineering GmbH, Jesuitenstrasse 4, D-52062 Aachen (Germany)] [International nuclear safety engineering GmbH, Jesuitenstrasse 4, D-52062 Aachen (Germany); Kilger, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Boltzmannstr. 14, D-85748 Garching (Germany)] [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Boltzmannstr. 14, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

FINAL REPORT DETERMINATION OF THE PROCESSING RATE OF RPP WTP HLW SIMULANTS USING A DURAMELTER J 1000 VITRIFICATION SYSTEM VSL-00R2590-2 REV 0 8/21/00  

SciTech Connect

This report provides data, analysis, and conclusions from a series of tests that were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic University of America (VSL) to determine the melter processing rates that are achievable with RPP-WTP HLW simulants. The principal findings were presented earlier in a summary report (VSL-00R2S90-l) but the present report provides additional details. One of the most critical pieces of information in determining the required size of the RPP-WTP HLW melter is the specific glass production rate in terms of the mass of glass that can be produced per unit area of melt surface per unit time. The specific glass production rate together with the waste loading (essentially, the ratio of waste-in to glass-out, which is determined from glass formulation activities) determines the melt area that is needed to achieve a given waste processing rate with due allowance for system availability. As a consequence of the limited amount of relevant information, there exists, for good reasons, a significant disparity between design-base specific glass production rates for the RPP-WTP LAW and HLW conceptual designs (1.0 MT/m{sup 2}/d and 0.4 MT/m{sup 2}/d, respectively); furthermore, small-scale melter tests with HLW simulants that were conducted during Part A indicated typical processing rates with bubbling of around 2.0 MT/m{sup 2}/d. This range translates into more than a factor of five variation in the resultant surface area of the HLW melter, which is clearly not without significant consequence. It is clear that an undersized melter is undesirable in that it will not be able to support the required waste processing rates. It is less obvious that there are potential disadvantages associated with an oversized melter, over and above the increased capital costs. A melt surface that is consistently underutilized will have poor cold cap coverage, which will result in increased volatilization from the melt (which is generally undesirable) and increased plenum temperatures due to increased thermal radiation from the melt surface (which mayor may not be desirable but the flexibility to choose may be lost). Increased volatilization is an issue both in terms of the increased challenge to the off-gas system as well as for the ability to effectively close the recycle loops for volatile species that must be immobilized in the glass product, most notably technetium and cesium. For these reasons, improved information is needed on the specific glass production rates of RPP-WTP HLW streams in DuraMelterJ systems over a range of operating conditions. Unlike the RPP-WTP LAW program, for which a pilot melter system to provide large-scale throughout information is already in operation, there is no comparable HLW activity; the results of the present study are therefore especially important. This information will reduce project risk by reducing the uncertainty associated with the amount of conservatism that mayor may not be associated with the baseline RPP-WTP HLW melter sizing decision. After the submission of the first Test Plan for this work, the RPP-WTP requested revisions to include tests to determine the processing rates that are achievable without bubbling, which was driven by the potential advantages of omitting bubblers from the HLW melter design in terms of reduced maintenance. A further objective of this effort became the determination of whether the basis of design processing rate could be achieved without bubbling. Ideally, processing rate tests would be conducted on a full-scale RPP-WTP melter system with actual HLW materials, but that is clearly unrealistic during Part B1. As a practical compromise the processing rate determinations were made with HL W simulants on a DuraMelter J system at as close to full scale as possible and the DM 1000 system at VSL was selected for that purpose. That system has a melt surface area of 1.2 m{sup 2}, which corresponds to about one-third scale based on the specific glass processing rate of 0.4 MT/m{sup 2}/d assumed in the RPP-WTP HLW conceptual design, but would correspon

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEREZ-CARDENAS F; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

123

Draft Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental Environmental...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

materials production activities at SRS have produced HLW that is stored on site in tanks. The function of DWPF is to vitrify the low-volume, high- activity radioactive...

124

research 1..7  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

waste (HLW) fractions that will then be vitrified into separate glass waste forms for long-term storage. The LAW vitrification product will be stored at the on-site integrated...

125

Table A23. Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas by Type" 3. Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas by Type" " of Supplier, Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" ,," Electricity",," Steam",," Natural Gas" ,," (Million kWh)",," (Billion Btu)",," (Billion cu ft)" ,," -------------------------",," -------------------------",," ---------------------------------------",,,"RSE" "SIC",,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Transmission","Other","Row"

126

BLOW UP OF SUBCRITICAL QUANTITIES AT THE FIRST SINGULAR TIME OF THE MEAN CURVATURE FLOW  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BLOW UP OF SUBCRITICAL QUANTITIES AT THE FIRST SINGULAR TIME OF THE MEAN CURVATURE FLOW NAM Q. LE curvature flow, singularity time, blow up, subcritical quantities. 1 #12;2 NAM Q. LE develop singularities, we give a logarithmic improvement of the above results by showing that a family of subcritical

Le, Nam

127

A GEOCHEMICAL MODULE FOR "AMDTreat" TO COMPUTE CAUSTIC QUANTITY, EFFLUENT QUALITY, AND SLUDGE VOLUME1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1413 A GEOCHEMICAL MODULE FOR "AMDTreat" TO COMPUTE CAUSTIC QUANTITY, EFFLUENT QUALITY, AND SLUDGE with the quantities of chemical added and sludge produced. The pH and metals concentrations do not change linearlyH and the corresponding effluent composition and sludge volume can not be accurately determined without empirical

128

Hedging Quantity Risks with Standard Power Options in a Competitive Wholesale Electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hedging Quantity Risks with Standard Power Options in a Competitive Wholesale Electricity Market, GA, 30332-0205 USA March 3, 2005 Abstract This paper addresses quantity risk in the electricity of a load serving entity, which provides electricity service at a regulated price in electricity markets

129

Hedging Quantity Risks with Standard Power Options in a Competitive Wholesale Electricity Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hedging Quantity Risks with Standard Power Options in a Competitive Wholesale Electricity MarketScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). Abstract: This paper addresses quantity risk in the electricity market-serving entity, which provides electricity service at a regulated price in electricity markets with price

Oren, Shmuel S.

130

Table A27. Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas by Type" Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas by Type" " of Supplier, Census Region, and Economic Characteristics of the Establishment," 1991 " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" " "," Electricity",," Steam",," Natural Gas" ," (Million (kWh)",," (Billion Btu)",," (Billion cu ft)" ," -----------------------",," -----------------------",," ------------------------------------",,,"RSE" ,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Transmission","Other","Row"

131

HLW System Integrated Project Team  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

l l W S Hi h l W S High Level Waste System High Level Waste System Integrated Project Team Integrated Project Team Integrated Project Team Integrated Project Team Steve Schneider Steve Schneider Office of Engineering and Technology High Level Waste Corporate Board March 5, 2009 This document is intended for planning and analysis purposes, assuming a continuing constrained budget environment. Every effort will be made to comply with all applicable environmental and legal obligations, while also assuring that essential functions necessary to protect human health, the environment and national security are maintained. 1 Introduction Introduction Introduction Introduction Challenges and Priorities High Level Waste Strategic Initiative Results High Level Waste System Integrated

132

FCRD-USED-2010-000033, LLW Quantity and Inventory, FINAL R...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cycle Research and Development Cycle Research and Development Used Fuel Disposition Low Level Waste Disposition - Quantity and Inventory Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Used Nuclear Fuel Robert H. Jones, SRS June 2011 Revision 2 FCRD-USED-2010-000033 FCRD-USED-2010-000033 Fuel Cycle Research and Development June 2011 Used Fuel Disposition Revision 2 Low Level Waste - Quantity and Inventory Page ii of x THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

133

Table 7.7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" 7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" " "," ",,,"Electricity",,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam"," ",," " " "," ",,"Electricity","from Sources",,"Natural Gas","from Sources",,"Steam","from Sources"

134

Table A30. Quantity of Electricity Sold to Utility and Nonutility Purchasers  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Quantity of Electricity Sold to Utility and Nonutility Purchasers" Quantity of Electricity Sold to Utility and Nonutility Purchasers" " by Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1994" " (Estimates in Million Kilowatthours)" " "," "," "," "," ","RSE" "SIC"," "," ","Utility ","Nonutility","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Group and Industry","Total Sold","Purchaser(b)","Purchaser(c)","Factors" ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column Factors:",0.9,1.1,1 , 20,"Food and Kindred Products",1829," W "," W ",28

135

DIRECTOR'S REPORT Diminishing quantities of water and their management continue to be a problem for Nebraska . In addition to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIRECTOR'S REPORT Diminishing quantities of water and their management continue to be a problem of the Interior, contains eight research projects related to the Water Quantity and Management and Water Quality programs outlined in the "Research Framework." Water Quantity and Management Declining groundwater tables

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

136

"Table A32. Total Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region,"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region," Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region," " Census Division, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1994" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" ,,,,,,"Natural",,,"Coke" " "," ","Total","Electricity","Residual","Distillate","Gas(c)"," ","Coal","and Breeze"," ","RSE" "SIC"," ","(trillion","(million","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","(billion","LPG","(1000","(1000","Other(d)","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Group and Industry","Btu)","kWh)","(1000 bbl)","(1000 bbl)","cu ft)","(1000 bbl)","short tons)","short tons)","(trillion Btu)","Factors"

137

Table A18. Quantity of Electricity Sold to Utility and Nonutility Purchasers  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8. Quantity of Electricity Sold to Utility and Nonutility Purchasers" 8. Quantity of Electricity Sold to Utility and Nonutility Purchasers" " by Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991" " (Estimates in Million Kilowatthours)" " "," "," "," "," ","RSE" "SIC"," "," ","Utility ","Nonutility","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","Total Sold","Purchaser(b)","Purchaser(c)","Factors" ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column Factors:",0.9,1,1 , 20,"Food and Kindred Products",988,940,48,16.2 2011," Meat Packing Plants",0,0,0,"NF"

138

"Table A22. Total Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region,"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Total Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region," 2. Total Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region," " Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" ,,,,,,"Natural",,,"Coke" " "," ","Total","Electricity","Residual","Distillate","Gas(c)"," ","Coal","and Breeze"," ","RSE" "SIC"," ","(trillion","(million","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","(billion","LPG","(1000","(1000","Other(d)","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","Btu)","kWh)","(1000 bbls)","(1000 bbls)","cu ft)","(1000 bbls)","short tons)","short tons)","(trillion Btu)","Factors"

139

Proposal for a quantity based data model in the Virtual Observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose the beginnings of a data model for the Virtual Observatory (VO) built up from simple ``quantity'' objects. In this paper we present how an object-oriented, domain (or namespace)-scoped simple quantity may be used to describe astronomical data. Our model is designed around the requirements that it be searchable and serve as a transport mechanism for all types of VO data and meta-data. In this paper we describe this model in terms of an OWL ontology and UML diagrams. An XML schema is available online.

Brian Thomas; Edward Shaya

2003-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

140

Table A21. Quantity of Electricity Sold to Utility and Nonutility Purchasers  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Quantity of Electricity Sold to Utility and Nonutility Purchasers" 1. Quantity of Electricity Sold to Utility and Nonutility Purchasers" " by Census Region and Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Million Kilowatthours)" ,,,,"RSE" " "," ","Utility ","Nonutility","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Total Sold","Purchaser(b)","Purchaser(c)","Factors" ,"Total United States",,, "RSE Column Factors:",1,1.1,1 "Value of Shipments and Receipts" "(million dollars)" " Under 20",188,122,66,35.6 " 20-49",2311,1901,410,39.5 " 50-99",2951,2721,230,9.6 " 100-249",6674,5699,974,7.1

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Table A31. Quantity of Electricity Sold to Utility and Nonutility Purchasers  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Quantity of Electricity Sold to Utility and Nonutility Purchasers by Census Region," Quantity of Electricity Sold to Utility and Nonutility Purchasers by Census Region," " Census Division, and Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Million Kilowatthours)" ,,,,"RSE" " "," ","Utility ","Nonutility","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Total Sold","Purchaser(b)","Purchaser(c)","Factors" ,"Total United States",,, "RSE Column Factors:",0.9,1.1,1 "Value of Shipments and Receipts" "(million dollars)" " Under 20",222,164," Q ",23.3 " 20-49",1131,937,194,17.2

142

A COMPARISON OF CLOUD MICROPHYSICAL QUANTITIES WITH FORECASTS FROM CLOUD PREDICTION MODELS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Program, Bethesda, MD March 15-19, 2010 Environmental Sciences Department/Atmospheric Plains (SGP) site. Cloud forecasts generated by the models are compared with cloud microphysical and radiosonde) are used to derive the cloud microphysical quantities: ice water content, liquid water content

143

Processing Quantities with Heavy-Tailed Distribution of Measurement Uncertainty: How  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Processing Quantities with Heavy-Tailed Distribution of Measurement Uncertainty: How to Estimate, the distribution of measurement errors is sometimes heavy-tailed, when very large values have a reasonable, in the amount of oil in an oil well, etc. In such situations in which we cannot measure y directly, we can often

Kreinovich, Vladik

144

ARTICLE IN PRESS Analysis of large scale MHD quantities in expanding magnetic clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Astronomi´a y Fi´sica del Espacio, CONICET-UBA, CC. 67 Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina b Departamento de Fi´sica, FCEN, UBA, Argentina c Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en energy per unit length along the flux tube. We find that these quantities do not differ more than 25

Demoulin, Pascal

145

Introducing Flexible Quantity Contracts into Distributed SoC and Embedded System Design Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introducing Flexible Quantity Contracts into Distributed SoC and Embedded System Design Processes and flexible contracts regulate cooperation and cost distribution. The process ef- fectively delays the design a distributed design process. Today we already find dis- tributed design processes in automotive engineering

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

146

How Antigen Quantity and Quality Determine T-Cell Decisions in Lymphoid Tissue  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...phase two and how they regulate this decision is crucial. Such an understanding was...K. F. 1987. Renormalization group theory of macromolecules. J. Wiley, New York...quantity and quality determine T-cell decisions in lymphoid tissue. | T lymphocytes...

Huan Zheng; Bo Jin; Sarah E. Henrickson; Alan S. Perelson; Ulrich H. von Andrian; Arup K. Chakraborty

2008-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

147

Tracking Quantity Fluctuations using STT Robert C. Kahlert, Ben Rode, David Baxter,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of oil price fluctuations are an example of such events, and are tracked in the STT (Situation Tracking- mation to be extracted. Our primary example domain will be quantity changes related to oil price language CycL and apply this representation to the problem of identifying and extracting information from

Forbus, Kenneth D.

148

Predicting Experimental Quantities in Protein Folding Kinetics using Stochastic Roadmap Simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predicting Experimental Quantities in Protein Folding Kinetics using Stochastic Roadmap Simulation the transition state ensemble (TSE) and predict the rates and -values for protein folding. The new method as a gen- eral tool for studying protein folding kinetics. 1 Introduction Protein folding is a crucial

Pratt, Vaughan

149

Using Stochastic Roadmap Simulation to Predict Experimental Quantities in Protein Folding Kinetics: Folding Rates and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using Stochastic Roadmap Simulation to Predict Experimental Quantities in Protein Folding Kinetics for studying protein folding kinetics. It uses the recently intro- duced Stochastic Roadmap Simulation (SRS validate the SRS method and indicate its potential as a general tool for studying protein folding kinetics

Pratt, Vaughan

150

Project plans for transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy comples-10522  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), has been tasked to write Project Plans for all of the Small Quantity Sites (SQS) with defense related Transuranic (TRU) waste in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Transuranic Work-Off Plans were precursors to the Project Plans. LANL-CO prepared a Work-Off Plan for each small quantity site. The Work-Off Plan that identified issues, drivers, schedules, and inventory. Eight sites have been chosen to deinventory their legacy TRU waste; Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, General Electric-Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory-Area 300, Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Radiation Development, Sandia National Laboratory, and the Separations Process Research Unit. Each plan was written for contact and/or remote handled waste if present at the site. These project plans will assist the small quantity sites to ship legacy TRU waste offsite and de-inventory the site of legacy TRU waste. The DOE is working very diligently to reduce the nuclear foot print in the United States. Each of the eight SQSs will be de-inventoried of legacy TRU waste during a campaign that ends September 2011. The small quantity sites have a fraction of the waste that large quantity sites possess. During this campaign, the small quantity sites will package all of the legacy TRU waste and ship to Idaho or directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The sites will then be removed from the Transuranic Waste Inventory if they are de-inventoried of all waste. Each Project Plan includes the respective site inventory report, schedules, resources, drivers and any issues. These project plans have been written by the difficult waste team and will be approved by each site. Team members have been assigned to each site to write site specific project plans. Once the project plans have been written, the difficult team members will visit the sites to ensure nothing has been overlooked and to verify the inventory. After each site has approved their project plan, the site will begin writing procedures and packaging/repackaging their waste. In some cases the sites have already begun the process. The waste will be shipped after all of the waste has been characterized and approved.

Mctaggart, Jerri Lynne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lott, Sheila [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gadbury, Casey [DOE

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

FINAL REPORT MELTER TESTS WITH AZ-101 HLW SIMULANT USING A DURAMELTER 100 VITRIFICATION SYSTEM VSL-01R10N0-1 REV 1 2/25/02  

SciTech Connect

This report provides data, analyses, and conclusions from a series of tests that were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic of America (VSL) to determine the processing rates that are achievable with AZ-101 HLW simulants and corresponding melter feeds on a DuraMelter 100 (DM100) vitrification system. One of the most critical pieces of information in determining the required size of the RPP-WTP HLW melter is the specific glass production rate in terms of the mass of glass that can be produced per unit area of melt surface per unit time. The specific glass production rate together with the waste loading (essentially, the ratio of waste-in to glass-out, which is determined from glass formulation activities) determines the melt area that is needed to achieve a given waste processing rate with due allowance for system availability. Tests conducted during Part B1 (VSL-00R2590-2) on the DM1000 vitrification system installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic University of America showed that, without the use of bubblers, glass production rates with AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 simulants were significantly lower than the Project design basis rate of 0.4 MT/m{sup 2}/d. Conversely, three-fold increases over the design basis rate were demonstrated with the use of bubblers. Furthermore, an un-bubbled control test using a replica of the melter feed used in cold commissioning tests at West Valley reproduced the rates that were observed with that feed on the WVDP production melter. More recent tests conducted on the DM1200 system, which more closely represents the present RPP-WTP design, are in general agreement with these earlier results. Screening tests conducted on the DM10 system have provided good indications of the larger-scale processing rates with bubblers (for both HL W and LAW feeds) but significantly overestimated the DM1000 un-bubbled rate observed for C-106/AY-102 melter feeds. This behavior is believed to be a consequence of the role of heat transfer in rate attainment and the much greater role of wall effects in heat transfer when the melt pool is not agitated. The DM100 melter used for the present tests has a surface area of 0.108 m{sup 2}, which is approximately 5 times larger than that of the DM10 (0.021 m{sup 2}) and approximately 11 times smaller than that of the DM1000 (1.2 m{sup 2}) (the DM1000 has since been replaced by a pilot-scale prototypical HLW melter, designated the DM1200, which has the same surface area as the DM1000). Testing on smaller melters is the most economical method for obtaining data over a wide range of operating conditions (particularly at extremes) and for guiding the more expensive tests that are performed at pilot-scale. Thus, one objective of these tests was to determine whether the DM100 melters are sufficiently large to reproduce the un-bubbled melt rates observed at the DM1000 scale, or to determine the extent of any off-set. DM100-scale tests can then be used to screen feed chemistry variations that may serve to increase the un-bubbled production rates prior to confirmation at pilot scale. Finally, extensive characterization data obtained on simulated HLW melter feeds formed from various glass forming additives indicated that there may be advantages in terms of feed rheology and stability to the replacement of some of the hydroxides by carbonates. A further objective of the present tests was therefore to identify any deleterious processing effects of such a change before adopting the carbonate feed as the baseline. Data from the WVDP melter using acidified (nitrated) feeds, and without bubbling, showed productions rates that are higher than those observed with the alkaline RPP feeds at the VSL. Therefore, the effect of feed acidification on production rate also was investigated. This work was performed under Test Specification, 'TSP-W375-00-00019, Rev 0, 'HLW-DM10 and DM100 Melter Tests' dated November 13, 2000 and the corresponding Test Plan. It should be noted, however, that the RPP-WTP Project directed a series of changes to the Test Plan as the result

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

152

Table 7.7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; 7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Electricity Natural Gas Steam Electricity from Sources Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Electricity from Local Other than Natural Gas from Local Other than Steam from Local Other than NAICS Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million kWh) (million kWh) (million kWh) (billion cu ft) (billion cu ft)

153

Shipment of Small Quantities of Unspecified Radioactive Material in Chalfant Packagings  

SciTech Connect

In the post 6M era, radioactive materials package users are faced with the disciplined operations associated with use of Certified Type B packagings. Many DOE, commercial and academic programs have a requirement to ship and/or store small masses of poorly characterized or unspecified radioactive material. For quantities which are small enough to be fissile exempt and have low radiation levels, the materials could be transported in a package which provides the required containment level. Because their Chalfant type containment vessels meet the highest standard of containment (helium leak-tight), the 9975, 9977, and 9978 are capable of transporting any of these contents. The issues associated with certification of a high-integrity, general purpose package for shipping small quantities of unspecified radioactive material are discussed and certification of the packages for this mission is recommended.

Smith, Allen; Abramczyk, Glenn; Nathan, Steven; Bellamy, Steve

2009-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

154

SAFETY ANALYSIS REPORT FOR PACKAGING, MODEL 9977, ADDENDUM 3, JUSTIFICATION FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITY CONTENTS  

SciTech Connect

This Addendum establishes a new family of content envelopes consisting of small quantities of radioactive materials. These content envelopes and specific packing configurations are shown to be subcritical. However, the dose rates of some payloads must be measured and shown to comply with applicable radiation limits. Authorization for shipment of the content envelop requires acceptance of this Addendum by the DOE-HQ certifying official as a supplement to the 9977 SARP Revision 2 and DOE-HQ?s subsequent revision of the CoC Revision 10 (which is based on SARP Addendum 2 and SARP Addendum 4) to authorize the additional content envelope. The Small Gram Quantity Content Envelopes and packing configurations will be incorporated in the next revision of the 9977 SARP.

Abramczyk, G.

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

155

Quantity comparison of concurrency control methods for XML database systems based on DOM API  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Existing works on processing of eXtensible Markup Language (XML) documents have been concentrated on query optimisation, storage problems, documents transformation, compressing methods and normalisation. There are only few papers on concurrency control in accessing and modifying XML documents, which are stored in XML database systems. The aim of this paper is to analyse and compare the quantity of concurrency control methods for XML database systems based on DOM API.

Krzysztof Jankiewicz; Aleksandra Siekierska; Maciej Siekierski

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Set-Aside EM Nation-Wide Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity Contracts  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SET-ASIDE EM NATION-WIDE SET-ASIDE EM NATION-WIDE INDEFINITE DELIVERY/INDEFINITE QUANTITY CONTRACTS Contractor Name Team Members/Principal Subcontractors Clauss Construction AECOM, Inc. Cavanagh Services Group, Inc. EnergX, LLC Dynamic Management Solutions, LLC (DMS) CA - LLC Member Restoration Services, Inc, LLC Member Wastren Advantage, Inc. - LLC Member SAIC Bartlett Services, Inc. Siempelkamp Nuclear Services Gonzales-Stoller Remediation Services, LLC JG Management Systems, Inc. - LLC Member (Protégé) The S.M. Stoller Corporation - LLC Member (Mentor) AET Environmental, Inc. ALS Laboratory Group AquaTierra Associates, Inc. DBA Weiss Assoc. ARCADIS U.S., Inc. AREVA Federal Services, LLC

157

Unrestricted EM Nation-Wide Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity Contracts  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

UNRESTRICTED EM NATION-WIDE UNRESTRICTED EM NATION-WIDE INDEFINITE DELIVERY/INDEFINITE QUANTITY CONTRACTS Contractor Name Principal Subcontracts AECOM Technical Services, Inc. Bartlett Services, Inc., Cavanagh Services Group, Inc. Clauss Construction EnergX, LLC NuVision Engineering Bechtel National, Inc. Eberline Services, Inc. North Wind, Inc. Philotechnics, Ltd. TC Program Solutions, LLC CDM, JV Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc. Newport News Nuclear, Inc. MSE Technology Applications, Inc. CH2M Hill Constructors, Inc. Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group EnergySolutions Federal Solutions, Inc. DEMCO, Inc. Terranear PMC, LLC Tetra Tech EC, Inc. Fluor Federal Services, Inc.

158

Department of Energy, Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity, Multiple Award, Energy Savings Performance  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 DE-AM36-09GO290XX / Mod 6 2 DE-AM36-09GO290XX / Mod 6 Department of Energy, Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity, Multiple Award, Energy Savings Performance Contract Awarded by the Department of Energy, Golden Field Office to 16 Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) on December 17, 2008 What follows is a generic version of the contract. All 16 contracts are identical with the exception of the SF33, Solicitation, Offer and Award, and Attachment J-13, Subcontracting Plan, which are specific to each ESCO. This is a conformed version of the contract as of November 2012, through modification 6, excluding contractor specific modifications for novations and name changes." 1 NEGOTIATED (RFP) November 2012 DE-AM36-09GO290XX / Mod 6 SOLICITATION, OFFER, AND AWARD 1. THIS CONTRACT IS A RATED ORDER

159

NETL: News Release - New Projects to Study Ways to Recover Vast Quantities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

March 12, 2002 March 12, 2002 New Projects to Study Ways to Recover Vast Quantities of "Left Behind" Oil TULSA, OK - Nearly two out of every three barrels of oil discovered in the United States remain trapped underground after conventional recovery operations. This staggering amount of remaining oil - approximately 200 billion barrels - can be one of America's best hopes for greater energy security if new technologies can be developed to recover it. Often, however, the "left behind" oil is in regions of the reservoir that are difficult to access and the oil is held tightly in place within tiny rock pores by capillary pressures that resist many traditional oil production practices. Now, as part of its program to develop ways to free this unrecovered oil, the Department of Energy's Fossil Energy research program is adding three new projects to be carried out by three of the Nation's top petroleum engineering universities:

160

Fluctuations of Conserved Quantities in High Energy Nuclear Collisions at RHIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fluctuations of conserved quantities in heavy-ion collisions are used to probe the phase transition and the QCD critical point for the strongly interacting hot and dense nuclear matter. The STAR experiment has carried out moment analysis of net-proton (proxy for net-baryon (B)), net-kaon (proxy for net-strangeness (S)), and net-charge (Q). These measurements are important for understanding the quantum chromodynamics phase diagram. We present the analysis techniques used in the moment analysis by the STAR experiment and discuss the moments of net-proton and net-charge distributions from the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

Luo, Xiaofeng

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Department of Energy, Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity, Multiple Award, Energy Savings Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DE-AM36-09GO290XX / Mod 6 DE-AM36-09GO290XX / Mod 6 Department of Energy, Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity, Multiple Award, Energy Savings Performance Contract Awarded by the Department of Energy, Golden Field Office to 16 Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) on December 17, 2008 What follows is a generic version of the contract. All 16 contracts are identical with the exception of the SF33, Solicitation, Offer and Award, and Attachment J-13, Subcontracting Plan, which are specific to each ESCO. This is a conformed version of the contract as of November 2012, through modification 6, excluding contractor specific modifications for novations and name changes." 1 NEGOTIATED (RFP) November 2012 DE-AM36-09GO290XX / Mod 6 SOLICITATION, OFFER, AND AWARD 1. THIS CONTRACT IS A RATED ORDER

162

Application of Specialized Optimization Techniques in Water Quantity and Quality Management with Respect to Planning for the Trinity River Basi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the disposal of wastes. Thus, there is a clear interaction between quantity and quality of water. However, largely due to the agency structure in state and federal government, water quality management and water development activities are usually separated...

Meier Jr., W. L.; Shih, C. S.

163

Mobile loading transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy complex-10523  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), operates mobile loading operations for all of the large and small quantity transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The mobile loading team performs loading and unloading evolutions for both contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste. For small quantity sites, many of which have yet to remove their TRU waste, the mobile loading team will load shipments that will ship to Idaho National Laboratory, a centralization site, or ship directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). For example, Argonne National Laboratory and General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center have certified programs for RH waste so they will ship their RH waste directly to WIPP. Many of the other sites will ship their waste to Idaho for characterization and certification. The Mobile Loading Units (MLU) contain all of the necessary equipment needed to load CH and RH waste into the appropriate shipping vessels. Sites are required to provide additional equipment, such as cranes, fork trucks, and office space. The sites are also required to provide personnel to assist in the shipping operations. Each site requires a site visit from the mobile loading team to ensure that all of the necessary site equipment, site requirements and space for shipping can be provided. The mobile loading team works diligently with site representatives to ensure that all safety and regulatory requirements are met. Once the waste is ready and shipping needs are met, the mobile loading team can be scheduled to ship the waste. The CH MLU is designed to support TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading activities wherever needed within the DOE complex. The team that performs the mobile loading operation has obtained national certification under DOE for TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading and shipment certification. The RH MLU is designed to support removable lid canister (RLC) and RH-72B cask loading activities wherever needed within the DOE complex. The team that performs the mobile loading operation has obtained national certification under DOE for RLC and RH-72B Cask loading and shipment certification. To date, the mobile loading team has successfully made 2,131 CH and RH TRU waste shipments. The mobile loading team continues to provide each site with safe and compliant loading ofTRU waste.

Carter, Mitch [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Howard, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weyerman, Wade [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mctaggart, Jerri [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

ITEM NO. SUPPLIES/SERVICES QUANTITY UNIT UNIT PRICE AMOUNT NAME OF OFFEROR OR CONTRACTOR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ITEM NO. ITEM NO. SUPPLIES/SERVICES QUANTITY UNIT UNIT PRICE AMOUNT NAME OF OFFEROR OR CONTRACTOR 2 2 CONTINUATION SHEET REFERENCE NO. OF DOCUMENT BEING CONTINUED PAGE OF OAK RIDGE ASSOCIATED UNIVERSITIES, INC. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) DE-AC05-06OR23100/0456 Payment: OR for Oak Ridge/OSTI U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office Oak Ridge Financial Service Center P.O. Box 6017 Oak Ridge TN 37831 Period of Performance: 01/01/2006 to 12/31/2015 NSN 7540-01-152-8067 OPTIONAL FORM 336 (4-86) Sponsored by GSA FAR (48 CFR) 53.110 ___________ (x) x DE-AC05-06OR23100 copies of the amendment; (b) By acknowledging receipt of this amendment on each copy of the offer submitted; or (c) By separate letter or telegram which includes a reference to the solicitation and amendment numbers. FAILURE OF YOUR ACKNOWLEDGEMENT TO BE RECEIVED AT

165

Alternative Techniques for Injecting Massive Quantities of Gas for Plasma Disruption Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

Injection of massive quantities of noble gases or D2 has proven to be effective at mitigating some of the deleterious effects of disruptions in tokamaks. Two alternative methods that might offer some advantages over the present technique for massive gas injection are shattering massive pellets and employing closecoupled rupture disks. Laboratory testing has been carried out to evaluate their feasibility. For the study of massive pellets, a pipe gun pellet injector cooled with a cryogenic refrigerator was fitted with a relatively large barrel (16.5 mm bore), and D2 and Ne pellets were made and were accelerated to speeds of ~600 and 300 m/s, respectively. Based on the successful proof-of-principle testing with the injector and a special double-impact target to shatter pellets, a similar system has been prepared and installed on DIII-D, with preliminary experiments already carried out. To study the applicability of rupture disks for disruption mitigation, a simple test apparatus was assembled in the lab. Commercially available rupture disks of 1 in. nominal diameter were tested at conditions relevant for the application on tokamaks, including tests with Ar and He gases and rupture pressures of ~54 bar. Some technical and practical issues of implementing this technique on a tokamak are discussed.

Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Caughman, John B [ORNL; Commaux, Nicolas JC [ORNL; Fehling, Dan T [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; McGill, James M [ORNL; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Conserved quantities and dual turbulent cascades in Anti-de Sitter spacetime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the dynamics of a spherically symmetric massless scalar field coupled to general relativity in Anti--de Sitter spacetime in the small-amplitude limit. Within the context of our previously developed two time framework (TTF) to study the leading self-gravitating effects, we demonstrate the existence of two new conserved quantities in addition to the known total energy $E$ of the modes: The particle number $N$ and Hamiltonian $H$ of our TTF system. $H$ represents the next-order contribution after $E$ to the total ADM mass $M$. Simultaneous conservation of $E$ and $N$ implies that weak turbulent processes undergo dual cascades (direct cascade of $E$ and inverse cascade of $N$ or vice versa). This partially explains the observed dynamics of 2-mode initial data. In addition, conservation of $E$ and $N$ limits the region of phase space that can be explored within the TTF approximation and in particular rules out equipartion of energy among the modes for general initial data. Finally, we discuss possible effects of conservation of $N$ and $E$ on late time dynamics.

Alex Buchel; Stephen R. Green; Luis Lehner; Steve L. Liebling

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

167

Density equation of bio-coal briquettes and quantity of maize cob in Phitsanulok, Thailand  

SciTech Connect

One of the most important crops in Phitsanulok, a province in Northern Thailand, is maize. BaseD on the calculation, the quantity of maize cob produced in this region was approximately 220 kton year{sup -1}. The net heating value of maize cob was found to be 14.2 MJ kg{sup -1}. Therefore, the total energy over 874 TJ year-1 can be obtained from this agricultural waste. In the experiments, maize cob was utilized as the major ingredient for producing biomass-coal briquettes. The maize cob was treated with sodium hydroxide solution before mixing with coal fine. The ratios of coal:maize were 1:2 and 1:3, respectively. The range of briquetting pressures was from 4-8 MPa. The result showed that the density was strongly affected by both parameters. Finally, the relationship between biomass ratio, briquetting pressures and briquette density was developed and validated by using regression technique. 13 refs., 2 figs.

Patomsok Wilaipon [Naresuan University, Phitsanulok (Thailand). Department of Mechanical Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

The composition of a quad of buildings sector energy: Physical, economic, and environmental quantities  

SciTech Connect

In an analysis conducted for the US Department of Energy Office of Building Technologies (OBT), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory examined the fuel type composition of energy consumed in the US buildings sector. Numerical estimates were developed for the physical quantities of fuel consumed, as well as of the fossil fuel emissions (carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) and nuclear spent fuel byproducts associated with that consumption. Electric generating requirements and the economic values associated with energy consumption also were quantified. These variables were quantified for a generic quad (1 quadrillion Btu) of primary energy for the years 1987 and 2010, to illustrate the impacts of a fuel-neutral reduction in buildings sector energy use, and for specific fuel types, to enable meaningful comparisons of benefits achievable through various OBT research projects or technology developments. Two examples are provided to illustrate how these conversion factors may be used to quantify the impacts of energy savings potentially achievable through OBT building energy conservation efforts. 18 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs.

Secrest, T.J.; Nicholls, A.K.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Conserved quantities and dual turbulent cascades in Anti-de Sitter spacetime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the dynamics of a spherically symmetric massless scalar field coupled to general relativity in Anti--de Sitter spacetime in the small-amplitude limit. Within the context of our previously developed two time framework (TTF) to study the leading self-gravitating effects, we demonstrate the existence of two new conserved quantities in addition to the known total energy $E$ of the modes: The particle number $N$ and Hamiltonian $H$ of our TTF system. Simultaneous conservation of $E$ and $N$ implies that weak turbulent processes undergo dual cascades (direct cascade of $E$ and inverse cascade of $N$ or vice versa). This partially explains the observed dynamics of 2-mode initial data. In addition, conservation of $E$ and $N$ limits the region of phase space that can be explored within the TTF approximation and in particular rules out equipartion of energy among the modes for general initial data. Finally, we discuss possible effects of conservation of $N$ and $E$ on late time dynamics.

Alex Buchel; Stephen R. Green; Luis Lehner; Steven L. Liebling

2015-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

170

"Table A33. Total Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region, Census Division,"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region, Census Division," Quantity of Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region, Census Division," " and Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" ,,,,,"Natural",,,"Coke" " ","Total","Electricity","Residual","Distillate","Gas(c)"," ","Coal","and Breeze","Other(d)","RSE" " ","(trillion","(million","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","(billion","LPG","(1000 ","(1000","(trillion","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Btu)","kWh)","(1000 bbl)","(1000 bbl)","cu ft)","(1000 bbl)","short tons)","short tons)","Btu)","Factors"

171

$ 6WXG\\ RI 0DJQR[ :DVWH *ODVV 8QGHU &RQGLWLRQV RI +LJK 7HPSHUDWXUH 9HU\\ 'HHS *HRORJLFDO 'LVSRVDO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

boreholes drilled into suitable rock (e.g. granite) to depths in excess of 4km. HLW packages are lowered repository concept for the disposal of High Level nuclear Waste (HLW) [1, 2]. This scheme uses large diameter into the borehole which is then backfilled with host rock and sealed. The composition and quantity of HLW in each

Sheffield, University of

172

The equation of state for stellar envelopes. IV. Thermodynamic quantities and selected ionization fractions for six elemental mixes  

SciTech Connect

The free-energy minimization technique in the form developed in the preceding papers in this series is employed to evaluate thermodynamic quantities and ionization fractions on a fine temperature and density grid for six astrophysical mixtures of 15 elements. The mixtures range from that appropriate to super-metal-rich stars, through solar abundance, to that for extreme Population II objects. In this paper, the results for solar abundances are summarized in a form that is illustrative and which facilitates comparison with the results from other equation of state calculations. 16 refs.

Mihalas, D.; Hummer, D.G.; Mihalas, B.W.; Daeppen, W. (Illinois Univ., Urbana (USA) High Altitude Observatory, Boulder, CO (USA) Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, CO (USA) Paris Observatoire, Meudon (France))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

HLW-OVP-94-00n High Level Waste Management Division HLW System...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

B.2 Environmental Documentation C. Waste Removal Schedule C. 1 Type I, II and IV Tanks C. 2 Type III Tanks D. Process Logic Diagram E. Process Logic Interactive Matrix F....

174

Reportable Quantity-Calculator  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Any time a hazardous substance as defined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or more commonly known as Superfund) is released to the environment...

175

Price, rebate and order quantity decisions in a newsvendor framework with rebate-dependent recapture of lost sales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper analyses a single-period decision of a retailer facing uncertain and price dependent demand. The typical modeling of the problem in a newsvendor framework assumes the unfulfilled demand to be lost once and for all. However, in reality, there may be an opportunity to backlog the lost sales, by offering some incentive for waiting. Nevertheless, the retailer's procurement price may be higher, due to the likely cost increase of the emergency purchase. Further, not all the customers that could not buy in the first instance may avail the rebate offer and buy. The backlog fill rate is modeled as a function of the proportion of the rebate to the price. Then the retailer has to decide ahead of the realization of the demand the quantity to be ordered, the price and the rebate to be offered for backlogged sales that will maximize its expected profit. Numerical examples are presented to highlight model sensitivities to parametric changes.

F.J. Arcelus; Ravi Gor; G. Srinivasan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

SHIELDING AND DETECTOR RESPONSE CALCULATIONS PERTAINING TO CATEGORY 1 QUANTITIES OF PLUTONIUM AND HAND-HELD PLASTIC SCINTILLATORS  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear facilities sometimes use hand-held plastic scintillator detectors to detect attempts to divert special nuclear material in situations where portal monitors are impractical. MCNP calculations have been performed to determine the neutron and gamma radiation field arising from a Category I quantity of weapons-grade plutonium in various shielding configurations. The shields considered were composed of combinations of lead and high-density polyethylene such that the mass of the plutonium plus shield was 22.7 kilograms. Monte-Carlo techniques were also used to determine the detector response to each of the shielding configurations. The detector response calculations were verified using field measurements of high-, medium-, and low- energy gamma-ray sources as well as a Cf-252 neutron source.

Couture, A.

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

177

A note on supply chain coordination for joint determination of order quantity and reorder point using a credit option  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Credit options and side payments are two methods suggested for achieving coordination in a two-echelon supply chain. We examine the credit option coordination mechanism introduced by Chaharsooghi and Heydari [Chaharsooghi, S., & Heydari, J. (2010). Supply chain coordination for the joint determination of order quantity and reorder point using credit option. European Journal of Operational Research, 204(1), 8695]. This method assumes that the suppliers opportunity costs are equal to the reduction in the buyers financial holding costs during the credit period. In this note, we show that Chaharsooghi and Heydaris method is not applicable when buyer and supplier opportunity costs are not equal. We introduce an alternate per order rebate method that reduces supply chain costs to centralized management levels.

Barry R. Cobb; Alan W. Johnson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Quantities and characteristics of the contact-handled low-level mixed waste streams for the DOE complex  

SciTech Connect

This report supports the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Study initiated by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), which is a system engineering assessment of a variety of mixed waste treatment process. The DOE generates and stores large quantities of mixed wastes that are contaminated with both chemically hazardous and radioactive species. The treatment of these mixed wastes requires meeting the standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency for the specific hazardous contaminants regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act while also providing adequate control of the radionuclides. The thrust of the study is to develop preconceptual designs and life-cycle cost estimates for integrated thermal treatment systems ranging from conventional incinerators, such as rotary kiln and controlled air systems, to more innovative but not yet established technologies, such as molten salt and molten metal waste destruction systems. Prior to this engineering activity, the physical and chemical characteristics of the DOE low-level mixed waste streams to be treated must be defined or estimated. This report describes efforts to estimate the DOE waste stream characteristics.

Huebner, T.L.; Wilson, J.M.; Ruhter, A.H.; Bonney, S.J. [SAIC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Supplemental Immobilization Cast Stone Technology Development and Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment facility will have the capacity to separate all of the tank wastes into the HLW and LAW fractions, and the HLW Vitrification Facility will have the capacity to vitrify all of the HLW. However, a second immobilization facility will be needed for the expected volume of LAW requiring immobilization. A number of alternatives, including Cast Stonea cementitious waste formare being considered to provide the additional LAW immobilization capacity.

Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Pierce, Eric M.; Cozzi, Alex; Chung, Chul-Woo; Swanberg, David J.

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

180

An indirect sensing technique for diesel fuel quantity control. Technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1998  

SciTech Connect

Work has proceeded intensely with the objective of completing the commercial prototype system prior to the end of the contract period. At the time of this report, testing and refinement of the commercial version of the system has not been completed. During this reporting period, several major milestones were reached and many significant lessons were learned. These are described. The experimental retrofit system has achieved all performance objectives in engine dynamometer tests. The prototype commercial version of the system will begin demonstration service on the first of several Santa Maria Area Transit (SMAT) transit buses on February 1, 1999. The commercial system has been redesignated the Electronic Diesel Smoke Reduction System (EDSRS) replacing the original internal pseudonym ADSC. The focus has been narrowed to a retrofit product suitable for installation on existing mechanically-governed diesel engines. Included in this potential market are almost all diesel-powered passenger cars and light trucks manufactured prior to the introduction of the most recent clean diesel engines equipped with particulate traps and electronic controls. Also included are heavy-duty trucks, transit vehicles, school buses, and agricultural equipment. This system is intended to prevent existing diesel engines from overfueling to the point of visible particulate emissions (smoke), while allowing maximum smoke-limited torque under all operating conditions. The system employs a microcontroller and a specialized exhaust particulate emission sensor to regulate the maximum allowable fuel quantity via an adaptive throttle-limit map. This map specifies a maximum allowable throttle position as a function of engine speed, turbocharger boost pressure and engine coolant temperature. The throttle position limit is mechanized via a servo actuator inserted in the throttle cable leading to the injection pump.

MacCarley, C.A.

1999-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Alcohol Quantity and Type on Risk of Recurrent Gout Attacks: An Internet-based Case-crossover Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractObjectives Although beer and liquor have been associated with risk of incident gout, wine has not. Yet anecdotally, wine is thought to trigger gout attacks. Further, how much alcohol intake is needed to increase the risk of gout attack is not known. We examined the quantity and type of alcohol consumed on risk of recurrent gout attacks. Methods We conducted a prospective Internet-based case-crossover study in the US among participants with gout and who had at least one attack during the 1 year of follow-up. We evaluated the association of alcohol intake over the prior 24 hours as well as the type of alcoholic beverage with risk of recurrent gout attack, adjusting for potential time-varying confounders. Results This study included 724 participants with gout (78% men, mean age 54 years). There was a significant dose-response relationship between amount of alcohol consumption and risk of recurrent gout attacks (P gout attack was 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.88) and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.09-2.09) times higher for >1-2 and >2-4 alcoholic beverages, respectively, compared with no alcohol consumption in the prior 24 hours. Consuming wine, beer, or liquor was each associated with an increased risk of gout attack. Conclusions Episodic alcohol consumption, regardless of type of alcoholic beverage, was associated with an increased risk of recurrent gout attacks, including potentially with moderate amounts. Individuals with gout should limit alcohol intake of all types to reduce the risk of recurrent gout attacks.

Tuhina Neogi; Clara Chen; Jingbo Niu; Christine Chaisson; David J. Hunter; Yuqing Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Iron Phosphate Glasses: An Alternative for Vitrifying Certain Nuclear Wastes  

SciTech Connect

Vitrification of nuclear waste in a glass is currently the preferred process for waste disposal. DOE currently approves only borosilicate (BS) type glasses for such purposes. However, many nuclear wastes, presently awaiting disposal, have complex and diverse chemical compositions, and often contain components that are poorly soluble or chemically incompatible in BS glasses. Such problematic wastes can be pre-processed and/or diluted to compensate for their incompatibility with a BS glass matrix, but both of these solutions increases the wasteform volume and the overall cost for vitrification. Direct vitrification using alternative glasses that utilize the major components already present in the waste is preferable, since it avoids pre-treating or diluting the waste, and, thus, minimizes the wasteform volume and overall cost.

Delbert E. Day; Chandra S. Ray; Cheol-Woon Kim

2004-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

183

PRO-DAIRY Alert and Action Statement Water use reporting required for New York State dairy farms that use large quantities of water.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 PRO-DAIRY Alert and Action Statement Water use reporting required for New York State dairy farms to have plentiful water, the reporting of water usage provides NYSDEC information to manage the state that use large quantities of water. All dairy farms should be aware of this requirement, especially those

Walter, M.Todd

184

texas water resources institute Water management is one of the most significant challenges facing Texas today. Major water quantity and water quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

texas water resources institute Water management is one of the most significant challenges facing Texas today. Major water quantity and water quality problems exist, affecting the environment and economy. Texas needs solutions. At the Texas Water Resources Institute, we help solve these pressing water

185

Time series of high resolution photospheric spectra in a quiet region of the Sun. II. Analysis of the variation of physical quantities of granular structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

From the inversion of a time series of high resolution slit spectrograms obtained from the quiet sun, the spatial and temporal distribution of the thermodynamical quantities and the vertical flow velocity is derived as a function of logarithmic optical depth and geometrical height. Spatial coherence and phase shift analyzes between temperature and vertical velocity depict the height variation of these physical quantities for structures of different size. An average granular cell model is presented, showing the granule-intergranular lane stratification of temperature, vertical velocity, gas pressure and density as a function of logarithmic optical depth and geometrical height. Studies of a specific small and a specific large granular cell complement these results. A strong decay of the temperature fluctuations with increasing height together with a less efficient penetration of smaller cells is revealed. The T -T coherence at all granular scales is broken already at log tau =-1 or z~170 km. At the layers beyon...

Puschmann, K G; Vazquez, M; Bonet, J A; Hanslmeier, A; 10.1051/0004-6361:20047193

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Water quantity and quality model for the evaluation of water-management strategies in the Netherlands: application to the province of Friesland  

SciTech Connect

The Netherlands have a rather complex water-management system consisting of a number of major rivers, canals, lakes and ditches. Water-quantity management on a regional scale is necessary for an effective water-quality policy. To support water management, a computer model was developed that includes both water quality and water quantity, based on three submodels: ABOPOL for the water movement, DELWAQ for the calculation of water quality variables and BLOOM-II for the phytoplankton growth. The northern province of Friesland was chosen as a test case for the integrated model to be developed, where water quality is highly related to the water distribution and the main trade-off is minimizing the intake of (eutrophicated) alien water in order to minimize external nutrient load and maximizing the intake in order to flush channels and lakes. The results of the application of these models to this and to a number of hypothetical future situations are described.

Brinkman, J.J.; Griffioen, P.S.; Groot, S.; Los, F.J.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

The application of the fusion method of thermit welding to small diameter tubing: An analysis of mold design and powder quantity.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of an exothermic reaction between iron oxide and aluminum, in the form of a finely powdered mixture. Produced in this reaction are steel, aluminum oxide, and a specific quantity of heat. In the early lgDD' s, the thermit process was used extensively... Pl ~ Glynn, who investigated another basic aspect of this problem. The science of aluminothermics involves the reduc- tion of a metallic oxide in the presence of aluminum. This reduction occurs in the form of an ebullient exothermic reaction...

Eller, Frank Charles

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

ALUMINUM AND CHROMIUM LEACHING WORKSHOP WHITEPAPER  

SciTech Connect

A workshop was held on January 23-24, 2007 to discuss the status of processes to leach constituents from High Level Waste (HLW) sludges at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites. The objective of the workshop was to examine the needs and requirements for the HLW flowsheet for each site, discuss the status of knowledge of the leaching processes, communicate the research plans, and identify opportunities for synergy to address knowledge gaps. The purpose of leaching of non-radioactive constituents from the sludge waste is to reduce the burden of material that must be vitrified in the HLW melter systems, resulting in reduced HLW glass waste volume, reduced disposal costs, shorter process schedules, and higher facility throughput rates. The leaching process is estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of SRS by seven years and decrease the number of HLW canisters to be disposed in the Repository by 1000 [Gillam et al., 2006]. Comparably at Hanford, the aluminum and chromium leaching processes are estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of the Waste Treatment Plant by 20 years and decrease the number of canisters to the Repository by 15,000-30,000 [Gilbert, 2007]. These leaching processes will save the Department of Energy (DOE) billions of dollars in clean up and disposal costs. The primary constituents targeted for removal by leaching are aluminum and chromium. It is desirable to have some aluminum in glass to improve its durability; however, too much aluminum can increase the sludge viscosity, glass viscosity, and reduce overall process throughput. Chromium leaching is necessary to prevent formation of crystalline compounds in the glass, but is only needed at Hanford because of differences in the sludge waste chemistry at the two sites. Improving glass formulations to increase tolerance of aluminum and chromium is another approach to decrease HLW glass volume. It is likely that an optimum condition can be found by both performing leaching and improving formulations. Disposal of the resulting aluminum and chromium-rich streams are different at the two sites, with vitrification into Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass at Hanford, and solidification in Saltstone at SRS. Prior to disposal, the leachate solutions must be treated to remove radionuclides, resulting in increased operating costs and extended facility processing schedules. Interim storage of leachate can also add costs and delay tank closure. Recent projections at Hanford indicate that up to 40,000 metric tons of sodium would be needed to dissolve the aluminum and maintain it in solution, which nearly doubles the amount of sodium in the entire current waste tank inventory. This underscores the dramatic impact that the aluminum leaching can have on the entire system. A comprehensive view of leaching and the downstream impacts must therefore be considered prior to implementation. Many laboratory scale tests for aluminum and chromium dissolution have been run on Hanford wastes, with samples from 46 tanks tested. Three samples from SRS tanks have been tested, out of seven tanks containing high aluminum sludge. One full-scale aluminum dissolution was successfully performed on waste at SRS in 1982, but generated a very large quantity of liquid waste ({approx}3,000,000 gallons). No large-scale tests have been done on Hanford wastes. Although the data to date give a generally positive indication that aluminum dissolution will work, many issues remain, predominantly because of variable waste compositions and changes in process conditions, downstream processing, or storage limitations. Better approaches are needed to deal with the waste volumes and limitations on disposal methods. To develop a better approach requires a more extensive understanding of the kinetics of dissolution, as well as the factors that effect rates, effectiveness, and secondary species. Models of the dissolution rate that have been developed are useful, but suffer from limitations on applicable compositional ranges, mineral phases, and particle properties that are difficult to measure. The experimental

McCabe, D; Jeff Pike, J; Bill Wilmarth, B

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

189

Fruit Yield and Quality, and Irrigation Water Use Efficiency of Summer Squash Drip-Irrigated with Different Irrigation Quantities in a Semi-Arid Agricultural Area  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fruit yield, yield components, fruit mineral content, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) of summer squash responses to different irrigation quantities were evaluated with a field study. Irrigations were done when the total evaporated water from a Class A pan was about 30 mm. Different irrigation quantities were adjusted using three different plant-pan coefficients (Kcp, 100% (Kcp1), 85% (Kcp2) and 70% (Kcp3)). Results indicated that lower irrigation quantities provided statistically lower yield and yield components. The highest seasonal fruit yield (80.0 t ha?1) was determined in the Kcp1 treatment, which applied the highest volume of irrigation water (452.9 mm). The highest early fruit yield, average fruit weight and fruit diameter, length and number per plant were also determined in the Kcp1 treatment, with values of 7.25 t ha?1, 264.1 g, 5.49 cm, 19.95 cm and 10.92, respectively. Although the IWUE value was the highest in the Kcp1 treatment (176.6 kg ha?1 mm?1), it was statistically similar to the value for Kcp3 treatment (157.1 kg ha?1 mm?1). Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fruits was higher in the Kcp1 (44.27 ?g gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg?1 fresh sample) and in the Kcp2 (84.75%) treatments, respectively. Major (Na, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S) and trace (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and B) mineral contents of squash fruits were the highest in the Kcp2 treatment, with the exception of P, Ca and Cu. Mineral contents and total phenolic content were significantly affected by irrigation quantities, but antioxidant activity was not affected. It can be concluded that the Kcp1 treatment was the most suitable for achieving higher yield and IWUE. However, the Kcp2 treatment will be the most suitable due to the high fruit quality and relatively high yield in water shortage conditions.

Yasemin Kuslu; Ustun Sahin; Fatih M Kiziloglu; Selcuk Memis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

H:\cindy_pratt\hlw rod.tif  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RECORD OF DECISION RECORD OF DECISION For The Idaho High- Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement December 2005 United States Department of Energy 1 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Environmental Management Record of Decision for the Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement SUMMARY: DOE is making decisions pursuant to the Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) (DOEÆIS-287), issued in October 2002. The Final EIS presents the analysis of a proposed action containing two sets of alternatives: (1) waste processing alternatives for treating, storing and disposing of liquid mixed (radioactive and hazardous) transuranic (TRU) waste/sodium-bearing

191

Options for Determining Equivalent MHTM (Metric Tons of Heavy Metal) for DOE High Level Waste  

SciTech Connect

Section 114(d) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), limits the overall capacity of the first repository to 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM). Current DOE policy is to allocate DOE spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) at 10 percent of the total, or 7,000 MTHM. For planning purposes, 4,667 MTHM will be allocated for HLW. While the NWPA provides a technical basis for determining the MTHM equivalence of HLW, it does not address the significant technical differences between DOE HLW and commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Although more than 170,000 MTHM of DOE fuel has been reprocessed to produce the inventory of HLW, the amount of radioactive waste generated per metric ton of DOE fuel is only a few percent of that in a metric ton of commercial fuel. This study compares the results of four methods for determining the MTHM equivalence of DOE HLW. These methods include (1) using the actual weight of heavy metal in reprocessed DOE fuel, (2) assuming the historical equivalence of 0.5 MTHM/canister of vitrified DOE HLW, (3) comparing the total radioactivity in DOE HLW to the radioactivity of commercial SNF, and (4) comparing the total radiotoxicity of DOE HLW, as defined for those radionuclides identified in 10 CFR 20, with SNF at 1,000 and 10,000 years. This study concludes that either of the last two options would meet Congresss stated purposes of the NWPA, which are to (1) provide "reasonable assurance that the public and the environment will be adequately protected from the hazards posed by high-level radioactive waste and such spent nuclear fuel as may be disposed of in a repository", and (2) to "define Federal policy for the disposal of such waste and spent fuel".

Knecht, Dieter August; Valentine, James Henry; Luptak, Alan Jay; Staiger, Merle Daniel; Loo, Henry Hung Yiu; Wichmann, Thomas Leonard

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Method for quantitative determination and separation of trace amounts of chemical elements in the presence of large quantities of other elements having the same atomic mass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Photoionization via autoionizing atomic levels combined with conventional mass spectroscopy provides a technique for quantitative analysis of trace quantities of chemical elements in the presence of much larger amounts of other elements with substantially the same atomic mass. Ytterbium samples smaller than 10 ng have been detected using an ArF* excimer laser which provides the atomic ions for a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Elemental selectivity of greater than 5:1 with respect to lutetium impurity has been obtained. Autoionization via a single photon process permits greater photon utilization efficiency because of its greater absorption cross section than bound-free transitions, while maintaining sufficient spectroscopic structure to allow significant photoionization selectivity between different atomic species. Separation of atomic species from others of substantially the same atomic mass is also described.

Miller, C.M.; Nogar, N.S.

1982-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

193

Seagate Crystal Reports - sum5.  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Activities for the Current Year (Sum-5) Total In Situ M a n a g e d Quantity (m 3) W a s t e T y p e T r e a t m e n t Q u a n i t y ( m 3 ) Dis p o s a l Q u a n t i t y ( m 3 ) O t h e r P r o c e s s i n g Quantity (m 3) Current Year: 2000 0.00 6,179.16 0.00 13,302.16 High Level Waste 7,123.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 HLW - Vitrified* 0.00 25,224,051.67 109,482.56 620,184.69 25,997,927.64 Low Level Waste 44,208.72 1,769,462.20 26,793.32 12,478.78 1,813,177.23 Mixed Low Level Waste 4,442.93 290,997.70 89.16 734.39 296,005.30 Transuranic Waste 4,184.05 145,882.00 0.00 183,013.00 333,902.56 Other** 5,007.56 O n S i t e T r e a t m e n t ( M T H M ) S h i p t o O t h e r D O E S i t e s f o r M anagam e n t /Storage Ship for Final Dis p o s a l ( M T H M ) Total (M T HM ) 14.6110 14.5110 0.1000 0.0000 Spent Nuclear Fuel*** Data Set ID: EM Corporate - FY 2001 Update

194

Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage  

SciTech Connect

This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist.

Deffenbaugh, M.L.

1997-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

195

Production of a High-Level Waste Glass from Hanford Waste Samples  

SciTech Connect

The HLW glass was produced from a HLW sludge slurry (Envelope D Waste), eluate waste streams containing high levels of Cs-137 and Tc-99, solids containing both Sr-90 and transuranics (TRU), and glass-forming chemicals. The eluates and Sr-90/TRU solids were obtained from ion-exchange and precipitation pretreatments, respectively, of other Hanford supernate samples (Envelopes A, B and C Waste). The glass was vitrified by mixing the different waste streams with glass-forming chemicals in platinum/gold crucibles and heating the mixture to 1150 degree C. Resulting glass analyses indicated that the HLW glass waste form composition was close to the target composition. The targeted waste loading of Envelope D sludge solids in the HLW glass was 30.7 wt percent, exclusive of Na and Si oxides. Condensate samples from the off-gas condenser and off-gas dry-ice trap indicated that very little of the radionuclides were volatilized during vitrification. Microstructure analysis of the HLW glass using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX) showed what appeared to be iron spinel in the HLW glass. Further X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the presence of nickel spinel trevorite (NiFe2O4). These crystals did not degrade the leaching characteristics of the glass. The HLW glass waste form passed leach tests that included a standard 90 degree C Product Consistency Test (PCT) and a modified version of the United States Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

Crawford, C.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Farrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.; Bibler, N.E.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Summary - Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) for Low-Actvity Waste at Hanford  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DBVS DBVS ETR Report Date: September 2006 ETR-3 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) for Low Activity Waste (LAW) at Hanford Why DOE-EM Did This Review The Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with the safe retrieval, treatment and disposal of 53 million gallons of Hanford radioactive waste. The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being designed to treat and vitrify the High Level Waste (HLW) fraction in 20-25 years. The WTP is undersized for vitrifying the LAW fraction over the same time frame. The DOE is evaluating Bulk Vitrification as an alternative to increasing the size of the WTP LAW treatment process. Bulk vitrification is an in-container melting

197

EIS-0082-S2: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0082-S2: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement Savannah River Site Salt Processing This SEIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of alternatives for separating the high-activity fraction from the low-activity fraction of the high-level radioactive waste salt solutions now stored in underground tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The high-activity fraction of the high-level waste (HLW) salt solution would then be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and stored until it could be disposed of as HLW in a geologic repository. The low activity fraction would be disposed of as low-level waste (saltstone) in vaults at SRS. EIS-0082-S2-2001.pdf

198

EIS-0082-S2: Savannah River Site Salt Processing, Savannah River Site,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

082-S2: Savannah River Site Salt Processing, Savannah River 082-S2: Savannah River Site Salt Processing, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina EIS-0082-S2: Savannah River Site Salt Processing, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina SUMMARY This SEIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of alternatives for separating the high-activity fraction from the low-activity fraction of the high-level radioactive waste salt solutions now stored in underground tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The high-activity fraction of the high-level waste (HLW) salt solution would then be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and stored until it could be disposed of as HLW in a geologic repository. The low activity fraction would be disposed of as low-level waste (saltstone)

199

Identification of potential transuranic waste tanks at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to identify potential transuranic (TRU) material among the Hanford Site tank wastes for possible disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as an alternative to disposal in the high-level waste (HLW) repository. Identification of such material is the initial task in a trade study suggested in WHC-EP-0786, Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The scope of this document is limited to the identification of those tanks that might be segregated from the HLW for disposal as TRU, and the bases for that selection. It is assumed that the tank waste will be washed to remove soluble inert material for disposal as low-level waste (LLW), and the washed residual solids will be vitrified for disposal. The actual recommendation of a disposal strategy for these materials will require a detailed cost/benefit analysis and is beyond the scope of this document.

Colburn, R.P.

1995-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

200

Experimental data and analysis to support the design of an ion-exchange process for the treatment of Hanford tank waste supernatant liquids  

SciTech Connect

Hanford`s 177 underground storage tanks contain a mixture of sludge, salt cake, and alkaline supernatant liquids. Disposal options for these wastes are high-level waste (HLW) glass for disposal in a repository or low-level waste (LLW) glass for onsite disposal. Systems-engineering studies show that economic and environmental considerations preclude disposal of these wastes without further treatment. Difficulties inherent in transportation and disposal of relatively large volumes of HLW make it impossible to vitrify all of the tank waste as HLW. Potential environmental impacts make direct disposal of all of the tank waste as LLW glass unacceptable. Although the pretreatment and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include retrieval of the aqueous liquids, dissolution of the salt cakes, and washing of the sludges to remove soluble components. Most of the cesium is expected to be in the aqueous liquids, which are the focus of this report on cesium removal by ion exchange. The main objectives of the ion-exchange process are removing cesium from the bulk of the tank waste (i.e., decontamination) and concentrating the separated cesium for vitrification. Because exact requirements for removal of {sup 137}Cs have not yet been defined, a range of removal requirements will be considered. This study addresses requirements to achieve {sup 137}Cs levels in LLW glass between (1) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Class C (10 CFR 61) limit of 4600 Ci/m{sup 3} and (2) 1/10th of the NRC Class A limit of 1 Ci/m{sup 3} i.e., 0.1/m{sup 3}. The required degrees of separation of cesium from other waste components is a complex function involving interactions between the design of the vitrification process, waste form considerations, and other HLW stream components that are to be vitrified.

Kurath, D.E.; Bray, L.A.; Brooks, K.P.; Brown, G.N.; Bryan, S.A.; Carlson, C.D.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.; Kim, A.Y.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Vitrified municipal waste as a host form for high-level nuclear waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using glass as a safe and long term hosting matrix for hazardous wastes and for the immobilization of heavy metals and nuclear wastes has become an attractive method [3]. The most known glasses used as nuclear waste

N. A. El-Alaily; E. M. Abou-Hussein

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Scientists and Engineers: Quantity plus Quality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...television sets or swimming id of a race in pools. nts are on the...military and atomic-energy projects, therefore...will consume more energy, more natural...materials and energy could never re-turn...sources of in-efficiency. In the first...

Lee A. DuBridge

1956-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

203

Conserved quantities in a black hole collision  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Newman-Penrose constants of the spacetime corresponding to the development of the Brill-Lindquist initial data are calculated by making use of a particular representation of spatial infinity due to H. Friedrich. The Brill-Lindquist initial data set represents the head-on collision of two non-rotating black holes. In this case one non-zero constant is obtained. Its value is given in terms of the product of the individual masses of the black holes and the square of a distance parameter separating the two black holes. This constant retains its value all along null infinity, and therefore it provides information about the late time evolution of the collision process. In particular, it is argued that the magnitude of the constants provides information about the amount of residual radiation contained in the spacetime after the collision of the black holes.

S. Dain; J. A. Valiente-Kroon

2001-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

204

ITEM QUANTITY LOCATION RPI Tag AC Connectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accelerometer Demo 2 2C21 Shelf J, bottom Adjusting Screws 2C41 Drawer 181 Air Flow Indicator 2C41 Drawer 171 Air Hockey Table 1 2C21 Under table, rear Air Pucks - Small Plastic 12 2C21 Shelf D, two from top Air Pucks - Spark Paper 6 2C21 Shelf D, one from top Air Track - 5' 2C21 Center, on floor Air Track - 5

Varela, Carlos

205

Status Report on Phase Identification in Hanford Tank Sludges  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy plans to vitrify Hanford's underground storage tank wastes. The vitrified wastes will be divided into low-activity and high-level fractions. There is an effort to reduce the quantity of high-activity wastes by removing nonradioactive components because of the high costs involved in treating high-level waste. Pretreatment options, such as caustic leaching, to selectively remove nonradioactive components are being investigated. The effectiveness of these proposed processes for removing nonradioactive components depends on the chemical phases in the tank sludges. This review summarizes the chemical phases identified to date in Hanford tank sludges.

Rapko, Brian M.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2000-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

206

Microsoft PowerPoint - 9-07 Case Atlanta HLW techexchange.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Calcine Disposition Project Calcine Disposition Project Joel Case Calcine Disposition Project Federal Project Director November 17, 2010 Print Close 2 2 Calcine is Solidified First & Other Cycle Raffinates * Resulted in a 7 to 1 volume reduction * Capable of being safely stored for several hundred years in 43 large shielded bins contained in six bin sets Print Close 3 3 Calcine Generation History Campaign Parameters Begin End Volume gal Volume ft 3 Volume m 3 Curies Dec- 63 Mar - 81 4,081,000 77,300 2,189 Aug - 82 May - 00 3,644,000 78,000 2,209 Total 7,725,000 155,300 4,398 3.64E+07 Print Close 4 4 Calcine Solids Storage Facility (CSSF) Status CSSF Bins Capacity (m 3 ) In Use 1 12 227 2 7 851 3 7 1,130 4 3 486 5 7 1,010 6 7 1,506 Sub 43 5,210 Not in Use 7 7 1,784 Total 50 6,994 1 2 3 4 5 6 Print Close 5 Hot Isostatic Press Treatment Technology * The Department Selected Hot Isostatic

207

Enhanced Sulfate Management in HLW Glass Formulations VSL12R2540-1 REV 0  

SciTech Connect

The Low Activity Waste (LAW) tanks that are scheduled to provide the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) with waste feeds contain significant amounts of sulfate. The sulfate content in the LAW feeds is sufficiently high that a separate molten sulfate salt phase may form on top of the glass melt during the vitrification process unless suitable glass formulations are employed and sulfate levels are controlled. Since the formation of the salt phase is undesirable from many perspectives, mitigation approaches had to be developed. Considerable progress has been made and reported by the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) in enhancing sulfate incorporation into LAW glass melts and developing strategies to manage and mitigate the risks associated with high-sulfate feeds.

Kruger, A. A. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kot, Wing [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Matlack, Keith S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States)

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

208

Hanford Supplemental Treatment: Literature and Modeling Review of SRS HLW Salt Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization  

SciTech Connect

In order to accelerate waste treatment and disposal of Hanford tank waste by 2028, the Department of Energy (DOE) and CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CHG), Inc. are evaluating alternative technologies which will be used in conjunction with the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) to safely pretreat and immobilize the tank waste. Several technologies (Bulk Vitrification and Steam Reforming) are currently being evaluated for immobilizing the pretreated waste. Since the WTP does not have sufficient capacity to pretreat all the waste going to supplemental treatment by the 2028 milestone, two technologies (Selective Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization) are being considered for pretreatment of salt waste. The scope of this task was to: (1) evaluate the recent Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 41 dissolution campaign and other literature to provide a more complete understanding of selective dissolution, (2) provide an update on the progress of salt dissolution and modeling activities at SRS, (3) investigate SRS experience and outside literature sources on industrial equipment and experimental results of previous fractional crystallization processes, and (4) evaluate recent Hanford AP104 boildown experiments and modeling results and recommend enhancements to the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) to improve its predictive capabilities. This report provides a summary of this work and suggested recommendations.

Choi, A. S.; Flach, G. P.; Martino, C. J.; Zamecnik, J. R.; Harris, M. K.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Calloway, T. B.

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

209

Performance Assessment Modeling for Savannah River Glass HLW Disposal in a Potential Repository at Yucca Mountain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Performance assessment (PA) simulates the long-term performance of a conceptual geological repository for nuclear waste or the performance of a subsystem such as the engineered barrier system (drifts, waste pa...

W. J. OConnell; W. L. Bourcier; J. Gansemer

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Management of nuclear materials and non-HLW | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the consolidation and disposition of nuclear materials, including plutonium, uranium, and nuclear waste in accordance with applicable statutes, DOE Orders and international...

211

River Protection Project (RPP) Immobilized High Level Waste (HLW) Interim Storage Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document replaces HNF-1751, Revision 1. It incorporates updates to reflect changes in programmatic direction associated with the vitrification plant contract and associated DOE-ORP guidance. In addition it includes planning associated with failed/used melter and sample handling and disposition work scope. The document also includes format modifications and section numbering update consistent with CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. procedures.

BRIGGS, M.G.

2000-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

212

Physical, Chemical and Structural Evolution of Zeolite - Containing Waste Forms Produced from Metakaolinite and Calcined HLW  

SciTech Connect

During the seventh year of the current grant (DE-FG02-05ER63966) we completed an exhaustive study of cold calcination and began work on the development of tank fill materials to fill empty tanks and control residuals. Cold calcination of low and high NOx low activity waste (LAW) SRS Tank 44 and Hanford AN-107 simulants, respectively with metallic Al + Si powders was evaluated. It was found that a combination of Al and Si powders could be used as reducing agents to reduce the nitrate and nitrite content of both low and high NOx LAW to low enough levels to allow the LAW to be solidified directly by mixing it with metakaolin and allowing it to cure at 90 C. During room temperature reactions, NOx was reduced and nitrogen was emitted as N2 or NH3. This was an important finding because now one can pretreat LAW at ambient temperatures which provides a low-temperature alternative to thermal calcination. The significant advantage of using Al and Si metals for denitration/denitrition of the LAW is the fact that the supernate could potentially be treated in situ in the waste tanks themselves. Tank fill materials based upon a hydroceramic binder have been formulated from mixtures of metakaolinite, Class F fly ash and Class C flue gas desulphurization (FGD) ash mixed with various concentrations of NaOH solution. These harden over a period of hours or days depending on composition. A systematic study of properties of the tank fill materials (leachability) and ability to adsorb and hold residuals is under way.

Grutzeck, Michael

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

HLW-OVP-97-0068 High Level Waste Management Division High-Level...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

not exceed the applicable concentration limits for Class C low-level waste as set out in 10 CFR Part 61; and (c) will be managed, pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act, so that safety...

214

Extended Development Work to Validate a HLW Calcine Waste Form via INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter  

SciTech Connect

To accomplish calcine treatment objectives, the Idaho Clean-up Project contractor, CWI, has chosen to immobilize the calcine in a glass-ceramic via the use of a Hot-Isostatic-Press (HIP); a treatment selection formally documented in a 2010 Record of Decision (ROD). Even though the HIP process may prove suitable for the calcine as specified in the ROD and validated in a number of past value engineering sessions, DOE is evaluating back-up treatment methods for the calcine as a result of the technical, schedule, and cost risk associated with the HIPing process. Consequently DOE HQ has requested DOE ID to make INL's bench-scale cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM) available for investigating its viability as a process alternate to calcine treatment. The waste form is the key component of immobilization of radioactive waste. Providing a solid, stable, and durable material that can be easily be stored is the rationale for immobilization of radioactive waste material in glass, ceramic, or glass-ceramics. Ceramic waste forms offer an alternative to traditional borosilicate glass waste forms. Ceramics can usually accommodate higher waste loadings than borosilicate glass, leading to smaller intermediate and long-term storage facilities. Many ceramic phases are known to possess superior chemical durability as compared to borosilicate glass. However, ceramics are generally multiphase systems containing many minor phase that make characterization and prediction of performance within a repository challenging. Additionally, the technologies employed in ceramic manufacture are typically more complex and expensive. Thus, many have proposed using glass-ceramics as compromise between in the more inexpensive, easier to characterize glass waste forms and the more durable ceramic waste forms. Glass-ceramics have several advantages over traditional borosilicate glasses as a waste form. Borosilicate glasses can inadvertently devitrify, leading to a less durable product that could crack during cooling and crystals may be prone to dissolution. By designing a glass-ceramics, the risks of deleterious effects from devitrification are removed. Furthermore, glass-ceramics have higher mechanical strength and impact strengths and possess greater chemical durability as noted above. Glass-ceramics should provide a waste form with the advantages of glass - ease of manufacture - with improved mechanical properties, thermal stability, and chemical durability. This report will cover aspects relevant for the validation of the CCIM use in the production of glass-ceramic waste forms.

James A. King; Vince Maio

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Microsoft PowerPoint - Glass formulation and Testing for US HLW...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Outline Background and Objectives Research Approach Definition of two tasks Task 1: Glass Property Data with Systematic Composition Variation Results for year 1 Planned...

216

THERMAL ANALYSIS OF WASTE GLASS MELTER FEEDS  

SciTech Connect

Melter feeds for high-level nuclear waste (HLW) typically contain a large number of constituents that evolve gas on heating, Multiple gas-evolving reactions are both successive and simultaneous, and include the release of chemically bonded water, reactions of nitrates with organics, and reactions of molten salts with solid silica. Consequently, when a sample of a HLW feed is subjected to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the rate of change of the sample mass reveals multiple overlapping peaks. In this study, a melter feed, formulated for a simulated high-alumina HLW to be vitrified in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, currently under construction at the Hanford Site in Washington State, USA, was subjected to TGA. In addition, a modified melter feed was prepared as an all-nitrate version of the baseline feed to test the effect of sucrose addition on the gas-evolving reactions. Activation energies for major reactions were determined using the Kissinger method. The ultimate aim of TGA studies is to obtain a kinetic model of the gas-evolving reactions for use in mathematical modeling of the cold cap as an element of the overall model of the waste-glass melter. In this study, we focused on computing the kinetic parameters of individual reactions without identifying their actual chemistry, The rough provisional model presented is based on the first-order kinetics.

KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; POKORNY R; PIERCE DA

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

217

Radiological assessment of the consequences of the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in subseabed sediments  

SciTech Connect

The radiological assessment of the seabed option consists in estimating the detriment to man and to the environment that could result from the disposal of high-level waste (HLW) within the seabed sediments in deep oceans. The assessment is made for the high-level waste (vitrified glass) produced by the reprocessing of 10/sup 5/ tons of heavy metal from spent fuel, which represents the amount of waste generated by 3333 reactor-yr of 900-MW(electric) reactors, i.e., 3000 GW(electric) x yr. The disposal option considered is to use 14,667 steel penetrators, each of them containing five canisters of HLW glass (0.15 m/sup 3/ each). These penetrators would reach a depth of 50 m in the sediments and would be placed at an average distance of 180 m from each other, requiring a disposal area on the order of 22 x 22 km. Two such potential disposal areas in the Atlantic Ocean were studied, Great Meteor East (GME) and South Nares Abyssal Plains (SNAP). A special ship design is proposed to minimize transportation accidents. Approximately 100 shipments would be necessary to dispose of the proposed amount of waste. The results of this radiological assessment seem to show that the disposal of HLW in subseabed sediments is radiologically a very acceptable option.

de Marsily, G.; Behrendt, V.; Ensminger, D.A.; Flebus, C.; Hutchinson, B.L.; Kane, P.; Karpf, A.; Klett, R.D.; Mobbs, S.; Poulin, M.; Stanners, D.A.; Wuschke, D.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest risks of contracting thyroid cancer. Doses from cow's milk are considerably less . Detailed dose and risk estimates, and associated uncertainties, for other contaminants studied for the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction are presented in several other technical reports. One way to easily locate them in OSTI's Information Bridge is by searching the ''report number field'' for the number DOE/OR/21981*. Be sure to place the asterisk after the base number so your search can list the complete series of reports related to Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction.

Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Compliance with Waste Acceptance Criteria of WIPP and NTS for Vitrified Low-Level and TRU Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect

A joint project between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been established to evaluate vitrification as an option for the immobilization of waste within ORNL tank farms. This paper presents details of calculations based on current best available analyses of the Oak Ridge Tanks on the limits for waste loadings imposed by the waste acceptance criteria.

Harbour, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Andrews, M.K.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

High Level Waste System Impacts from Small Column Ion Exchange Implementation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this task is to identify potential waste streams that could be treated with the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) and perform an initial assessment of the impact of doing so on the High-Level Waste (HLW) system. Design of the SCIX system has been performed as a backup technology for decontamination of High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX consists of three modules which can be placed in risers inside underground HLW storage tanks. The pump and filter module and the ion exchange module are used to filter and decontaminate the aqueous tank wastes for disposition in Saltstone. The ion exchange module contains Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST in its engineered granular form is referred to as IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911), and is selective for removal of cesium ions. After the IE-911 is loaded with Cs-137, it is removed and the column is refilled with a fresh batch. The grinder module is used to size-reduce the cesium-loaded IE-911 to make it compatible with the sludge vitrification system in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). If installed at the SRS, this SCIX would need to operate within the current constraints of the larger HLW storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal system. Although the equipment has been physically designed to comply with system requirements, there is also a need to identify which waste streams could be treated, how it could be implemented in the tank farms, and when this system could be incorporated into the HLW flowsheet and planning. This document summarizes a preliminary examination of the tentative HLW retrieval plans, facility schedules, decontamination factor targets, and vitrified waste form compatibility, with recommendations for a more detailed study later. The examination was based upon four batches of salt solution from the currently planned disposition pathway to treatment in the SCIX. Because of differences in capabilities between the SRS baseline and SCIX, these four batches were combined into three batches for a total of about 3.2 million gallons of liquid waste. The chemical and radiological composition of these batches was estimated from the SpaceMan Plus{trademark} model using the same data set and assumptions as the baseline plans.

McCabe, D. J.; Hamm, L. L.; Aleman, S. E.; Peeler, D. K.; Herman, C. C.; Edwards, T. B.

2005-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

This is the title of the presentation on three lines if you need it  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

41 41 In-Riser Ion Exchange: Resorcinol- Formaldehyde Maturation Bill King*, Dan McCabe, and Frank Pennebaker SRNL Environmental and Chemical Process Technology May 20, 2009 Office of Waste Processing Technical Exchange 2 SRNL-STI-2009-00341 Agenda Objectives Background Original Design Media Considered Current Conceptual Design Recent Progress Current Activities Project Goals SRNL - Environmental and Chemical Process Technology 3 SRNL-STI-2009-00341 Objectives SRNL - Environmental and Chemical Process Technology Develop in-tank system to decontaminate HLW salt solution at SRS and Hanford to accelerate salt processing and tank closure Vitrify Cs-137 or transfer to compliant tanks Support spherical RF maturation for various DOE applications Current concept: in-riser IX similar to Cesium

222

HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 4 VARIABILITY STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing for vitrification of High Level Waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) in early FY2007. To support this process, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 503 for vitrifying this sludge batch, based on the composition projection provided by the Liquid Waste Organization on June 22, 2006. Frit 418 was also recommended for possible use during the transition from SB3 to SB4. A critical step in the SB4 qualification process is to demonstrate the applicability of the durability models, which are used as part of the DWPF's process control strategy, to the glass system of interest via a variability study. A variability study is an experimentally-driven assessment of the predictability and acceptability of the quality of the vitrified waste product that is anticipated from the processing of a sludge batch. At the DWPF, the durability of the vitrified waste product is not directly measured. Instead, the durability is predicted using a set of models that relate the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response of a glass to the chemical composition of that glass. In addition, a glass sample is taken during the processing of that sludge batch, the sample is transmitted to SRNL, and the durability is measured to confirm acceptance. The objective of a variability study is to demonstrate that these models are applicable to the glass composition region anticipated during the processing of the sludge batch - in this case the Frit 503 - SB4 compositional region. The success of this demonstration allows the DWPF to confidently rely on the predictions of the durability/composition models as they are used in the control of the DWPF process.

Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

223

Crystal chemical adaptations of the apatite structure for the incorporation of simulated high level nuclear waste (HLW).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Singapore has achieved outstanding econmic success since gaining independence, through the creation of industrial pillars in finance, shipping, semiconductors, petrochemicals, and more recently, biotechnology. These (more)

Lim, Sing Chin.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Incorporation of Fines and Noble Metals into HLW Borosilicate Glass: Industrial Responses to a Challenging Issue - 13056  

SciTech Connect

During the early stages of spent fuel reprocessing, the fuel rods are cut and dissolved to separate the solid metallic parts of the rods (cladding and end pieces) from the radioactive nitric acid solution containing uranium, plutonium, minor actinides and fission products (FP). This solution contains small, solid particles produced during the shearing process. These small particles, known as 'fines', are then separated from the liquid by centrifugation. At the La Hague plant in France, the fines solution is transferred to the vitrification facilities to be incorporated into borosilicate glass along with the highly radioactive FP solution. These fines are also composed of Zr, Mo and other noble metals (i.e. Ru, Pd, Rh, etc.) that are added before vitrification to the the FP solution that already contained noble metals. As noble metals has the potential to modify the glass properties (including viscosity, electrical conductivity, etc.) and to be affected by sedimentation inside the melter, their behavior in borosilicate glass has been studied in depth over the years by the AREVA and CEA teams which are now working together in the Joint Vitrification Laboratory (LCV). At La Hague, the R7 vitrification facility started operation in 1989 using induction-heated metallic melter technology and was quickly followed by the T7 vitrification facility in 1992. Incorporating the fines into glass has been a challenge since operation began, and has given rise to several R and D studies resulting in a number of technological enhancements to improve the mixing capability of the melters (multiple bubbling technology and mechanical stirring in the mid-90's). Nowadays, the incorporation of fines into R7T7 glass is well understood and process adaptations are deployed in the La Hague facilities to increase the operating flexibility of the melters. The paper will briefly describe the fines production mechanisms, give details of the resulting fines characteristics, explain how the metallic particles can influence the glass properties and challenge vitrification technologies and finally, give a rundown of the R and D efforts which have produced innovative solutions contributing to the operational excellence of AREVA's vitrification facilities in the La Hague reprocessing plant. (authors)

Chauvin, E.; Chouard, N.; Prod'homme, A. [AREVA, AREVA NC, Paris (France)] [AREVA, AREVA NC, Paris (France); Boudot, E. [AREVA, AREVA NC, La Hague (France)] [AREVA, AREVA NC, La Hague (France); Gruber, Ph.; Pinet, O. [CEA Marcoule LCV, France (France)] [CEA Marcoule LCV, France (France); Grosman, R. [AREVA, SGN, Paris (France)] [AREVA, SGN, Paris (France)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Cost estimate of high-level radioactive waste containers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the bottoms-up cost estimates for fabrication of high-level radioactive waste disposal containers based on the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design (SCP-CD). These estimates were acquired by Babcock and Wilcox (B&S) under sub-contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The estimates were obtained for two leading container candidate materials (Alloy 825 and CDA 715), and from other three vendors who were selected from a list of twenty solicited. Three types of container designs were analyzed that represent containers for spent fuel, and for vitrified high-level waste (HLW). The container internal structures were assumed to be AISI-304 stainless steel in all cases, with an annual production rate of 750 containers. Subjective techniques were used for estimating QA/QC costs based on vendor experience and the specifications derived for the LLNL-YMP Quality Assurance program. In addition, an independent QA/QC analysis is reported which was prepared by Kasier Engineering. Based on the cost estimates developed, LLNL recommends that values of $825K and $62K be used for the 1991 TSLCC for the spent fuel and HLW containers, respectively. These numbers represent the most conservative among the three vendors, and are for the high-nickel anstenitic steel (Alloy 825). 6 refs., 7 figs.

Russell, E.W.; Clarke, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Domian, H.A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States)] [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Madson, A.A. [Kaiser Engineers California Corp., Oakland, CA (United States)] [Kaiser Engineers California Corp., Oakland, CA (United States)

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Crystal Reports - sum4.rpt  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Waste/Contaminated Media Waste/Contaminated Media and SNF Inventories By Program (Sum-4) Current Year: 2000 Pr o g r am HL W HL W -V i trifie d * T RU M L L W L L W O T HER ** S N F *** Qu a n t ity (m 3) Qu an tit y (NC ) Qu an tity (m 3) Qu a n tity (m 3 ) Qu an tit y (m 3) Qu an tity (m 3) Qu an tit y (M T HM ) Office of Defense Programs 0.00 0.00 628.20 391.82 1,843.59 0.00 2.44 Office of Environmental Management 353,500.78 1,201.00 110,447.25 45,869.38 156,965.74 3,946.00 2,442.12 Nuclear Energy 0.00 0.00 60.90 226.20 0.00 0.00 22.10 Non-DOE sources 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Office of Science 0.00 0.00 100.29 60.50 100.25 0.00 0.61 *Vitrified HLW quantites are reported in # of HLW Canisters. **Other includes "Unspecified" and 11(e)2 waste types.

227

Quantity of Natural Gas Production Associated with Reported Wellhead Value  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 View History U.S. 15,425,867 15,981,421 1980-2006 Alabama 285,237 274,176 259,062 246,747 225,666 212,769 1983-2010 Alaska 502,887 494,323 368,344 337,359 397,077 316,546 1983-2010 Arizona 211 588 634 503 695 165 1983-2010 Arkansas 190,533 193,491 269,886 446,551 680,613 936,600 1983-2010 California 274,817 278,933 268,016 263,107 241,916 251,559 1983-2010 Colorado 1,106,993 1,170,819 1,280,638 1,436,203 1,409,172 1,548,576 1983-2010 Florida NA NA NA NA NA NA 1983-2010 Illinois NA NA NA NA NA NA 1983-2010 Indiana

228

Comparing infrared star formation rate indicators with optically derived quantities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......infrared star formation rate indicators with optically...USA 4 School of Physics, Astronomy, and...Spitzer 24-mum band pass and Halpha-measured star formation rate varies from galaxy...Spitzer 8.0-mum band pass, ultraviolet-excited...track star formation rate (SFR; e.g. Calzetti......

J. E. Young; C. Gronwall; J. J. Salzer; J. L. Rosenberg

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

TC1 Parts List Quantity Size Description **Possible Vendor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for spring coils 1 800+ ohms coil 2000-4000 wraps of 38ga or 40ga copper magnet wire. (I target 970 to 1200.5" Slinky Jr. metal spring, cut in half. Toys R Us 3 ¼" id x3/4"od x 1/4"thick RC44 Neodymium ring magnets Kohms, using 2500 wraps of 40ga). All Spectrum Electronics 1 1"id x 1.75"long pvc Coil body. Use the 200

Barrash, Warren

230

Material quantities in building structures and their environmental impact  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Improved operational energy efficiency has increased the percentage of embodied energy in the total life cycle of building structures. Despite a growing interest in this field, practitioners lack a comprehensive survey of ...

De Wolf, Catherine (Catherine Elvire Lieve)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Value of Demand Response: Quantities from Production Cost Modeling (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility particularly on future systems with high penetrations of variable wind and solar power generation. However, managed loads in grid models are limited by data availability and modeling complexity. This presentation focuses on the value of co-optimized DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services in a production cost model. There are significant variations in the availabilities of different types of DR resources, which affect both the operational savings as well as the revenue for each DR resource. The results presented include the system-wide avoided fuel and generator start-up costs as well as the composite revenue for each DR resource by energy and operating reserves. In addition, the revenue is characterized by the capacity, energy, and units of DR enabled.

Hummon, M.

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Impact of Stochastic Renewable Energy Generation on Market Quantities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electricity generation from stochastic renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power ... , has a non-negligible impact on electricity markets. The origins of that impact relate to the economical aspects ...

Juan M. Morales; Antonio J. Conejo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Analytic solutions and conserved quantities of wave equation on torus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper discusses the wave equation on torus in terms of classical Lie theory. The symmetry algebra is computed and found solvable. A general element of one-dimensional Lie algebra is used to compute similarity variables. Further invariant solutions ... Keywords: Conservation law, Lie algebra, Lie symmetries

Adil Jhangeer; M. N. Qureshi; S. Sial; S. Sharif

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF QUANTITY DATA WITH EXACT ZEROES #  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

models, weather variables such as wind speed, rainfall, snowfall, and population size (Perry 1981, 1985 or inclined supine the worst, with respect to presence/absence of reflux, mean pH, number of reflux episodes

Smyth, Gordon K.

235

Regression Analysis of Quantity Data with Exact Zeroes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, for example threshold models, weather variables such as wind speed, rainfall, snowfall, and population size the best and supine or inclined supine the worst, with respect to presence/absence of reflux, mean p

Smyth, Gordon K.

236

Reference concepts for the final disposal of LWR spent fuel and other high activity wastes in Spain  

SciTech Connect

Studies over the last three years have been recently concluded with the selection of a reference repository concept for the final disposal of spent fuel and other high activity wastes in deep geological formations. Two non-site specific preliminary designs, at a conceptual level, have been developed; one considers granite as the host rock and the other rock salt formations. The Spanish General Radioactive Waste Program also considers clay as a potential host rock for HLW deep disposal; conceptualization for a deep repository in clay is in the initial phase of development. The salt repository concept contemplates the disposal of the HLW in self-shielding casks emplaced in the drifts of an underground facility, excavated at a depth of 850 m in a bedded salt formation. The Custos Type I(7) cask admits up to seven intact PWR fuel assemblies or 21 of BWR type. The final repository facilities are planned to accept a total of 20,000 fuel assemblies (PWR and BWR) and 50 vitrified waste canisters over a period of 25 years. The total space needed for the surface facilities amounts to 322,000 m{sup 2}, including the rock salt dump. The space required for the underground facilities amounts to 1.2 km{sup 2}, approximately. The granite repository concept contemplates the disposal of the HLW in carbon steel canisters, embedded in a 0.75 m thick buffer of swelling smectite clay, in the drifts of an underground facility, excavated at a depth of 55 m in granite. Each canister can host 3 PWR or 9 BWR fuel assemblies. For this concept the total number of canisters needed amounts to 4,860. The space required for the surface and underground facilities is similar to that of the salt concept. The technical principles and criteria used for the design are discussed, and a description of the repository concept is presented.

Huertas, F.; Ulibarri, A. [ENRESA, Madrid (Spain)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

237

HIGH-LEVEL WASTE FEED CERTIFICATION IN HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANKS  

SciTech Connect

The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission modeling and WTP facility modeling assume that individual 3785 cubic meter (l million gallon) HLW feed tanks are homogenously mixed, representatively sampled, and consistently delivered to the WTP. It has been demonstrated that homogenous mixing ofHLW sludge in Hanford DSTs is not likely achievable with the baseline design thereby causing representative sampling and consistent feed delivery to be more difficult. Inconsistent feed to the WTP could cause additional batch-to-batch operational adjustments that reduce operating efficiency and have the potential to increase the overall mission length. The Hanford mixing and sampling demonstration program will identify DST mixing performance capability, will evaluate representative sampling techniques, and will estimate feed batch consistency. An evaluation of demonstration program results will identify potential mission improvement considerations that will help ensure successful mission completion. This paper will discuss the history, progress, and future activities that will define and mitigate the mission risk.

THIEN MG; WELLS BE; ADAMSON DJ

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

238

Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The ability to accurately determine a volume is a function of the quantity and quality of the waste tank images. Currently, mapping is performed remotely with closed circuit video cameras and still photograph cameras due to the hazardous environment. There are two methods that can be used to create a solids volume map. These methods are: liquid transfer mapping / post transfer mapping and final residual solids mapping. The task is performed during a transfer because the liquid level (which is a known value determined by a level measurement device) is used as a landmark to indicate solids accumulation heights. The post transfer method is primarily utilized after the majority of waste has been removed. This method relies on video and still digital images of the waste tank after the liquid transfer is complete to obtain the relative height of solids across a waste tank in relation to known and usable landmarks within the waste tank (cooling coils, column base plates, etc.). In order to accurately monitor solids over time across various cleaning campaigns, and provide a technical basis to support final waste tank closure, a consistent methodology for volume determination has been developed and implemented at SRS.

Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

2014-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

239

MOLYBDENUM IN GLASSES CONTAINING VITRIFIED NUCLEAR R.J. Hand, R.J. Short, S. Morgan, N.C. Hyatt, G. Mbus and W.E. Lee  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. High level nuclear waste can contain corrosion products, a wide range of fission products, as well) was used (reducing sparge) whereas compressed air (BOC) was used for a neutral atmosphere (air sparge). One

Sheffield, University of

240

Laser-Assisted In Vitro Fertilization Facilitates Fertilization of Vitrified-Warmed C57BL/6 Mouse Oocytes with Fresh and Frozen-Thawed Spermatozoa, Producing Live Pups  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The utility of cryopreserved mouse gametes for reproduction of transgenic mice depends on development of assisted reproductive technologies, including vitrification of unfertilized mouse oocytes. Due to hardening of the ...

Woods, Stephanie E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer- APPENDICES Appendices-Volume 1A  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of all the appendices for the report described below: In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values as appendices. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest risks of contracting thyroid cancer. Doses from cow's milk are considerably less. Detailed dose and risk estimates, and associated uncertainties, for other contaminants studied in the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction are presented in several other technical reports. One way to easily locate them in OSTI's Information Bridge is by searching the ''report number field'' for the number DOE/OR/21981*. Be sure to place the asterisk after the base number so your search can list the complete series of reports related to Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction.

Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Vitrification of excess plutonium  

SciTech Connect

As a result of nuclear disarmament activities, many thousands of nuclear weapons are being retired in the US and Russia, producing a surplus of about 50 MT of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) in each country. In addition, the Department of Energy (DOE) has more than 20 MT of Pu scrap, residue, etc., and Russia is also believed to have at least as much of this type of material. The entire surplus Pu inventories in the US and Russia present a clear and immediate danger to national and international security. It is important that a solution be found to secure and manage this material effectively and that such an effort be implemented as quickly as possible. One option under consideration is vitrification of Pu into a relatively safe, durable, accountable, proliferation-resistant form. As a result of decades of experience within the DOE community involving vitrification of a variety of hazardous and radioactive wastes, this existing technology can now be expanded to include immobilization of large amounts of Pu. This technology can then be implemented rapidly using the many existing resources currently available. A strategy to vitrify many different types of Pu will be discussed. In this strategy, the arsenal of vitrification tools, procedures and techniques already developed throughout the waste management community can be used in a staged Pu vitrification effort. This approach uses the flexible vitrification technology already available and can even be made portable so that it may be brought to the source and ultimately, used to produce a common, borosilicate glass form for the vitrified Pu. The final composition of this product can be made similar to nationally and internationally accepted HLW glasses.

Wicks, G.G.; Mckibben, J.M.; Plodinec, M.J.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

243

SRS vitrification studies in support of the U.S. program for disposition of excess plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Many thousands of nuclear weapons are being retired in the U.S. and Russian as a result of nuclear disarmament activities. These efforts are expected to produce a surplus of about 50 MT of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) in each country. In addition to this inventory, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has more than 20 MT of Pu scrap, residue, etc., and Russian is also believed to have at least as much of this type of material. The entire surplus Pu inventories in the U.S. and Russian present a clear and immediate danger to national and international security. It is important that a solution be found to secure and manage this material effectively and that such an effort be implemented as quickly as possible. One option under consideration is vitrification of Pu into a safe, durable, accountable and proliferation-resistant form. As a result of decades to experience within the DOE community involving vitrification of a variety of hazardous and radioactive wastes, this existing technology can now be expanded to include mobilization of large amounts of Pu. This technology can then be implemented rapidly using the many existing resources currently available. An overall strategy to vitrify many different types of Pu will be already developed throughout the waste management community can be used in a staged Pu vitrification effort. This approach uses the flexible vitrification technology already available and can even be made portable so that it may be brought to the source and ultimately, used to produce a consistent and common borosilicate glass composition for the vitrified Pu. The final composition of this product can be made similar to nationally and internationally accepted HLW glasses.

Wicks, G.G.; McKibben, J.M.; Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Depleted uranium: A DOE management guide  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. The annual storage and maintenance cost is approximately $10 million. This report summarizes several studies undertaken by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to evaluate options for long-term depleted uranium management. Based on studies conducted to date, the most likely use of the depleted uranium is for shielding of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or vitrified high-level waste (HLW) containers. The alternative to finding a use for the depleted uranium is disposal as a radioactive waste. Estimated disposal costs, utilizing existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion, depending on factors such as applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the location of the disposal site. The cost of recycling the depleted uranium in a concrete based shielding in SNF/HLW containers, although substantial, is comparable to or less than the cost of disposal. Consequently, the case can be made that if DOE invests in developing depleted uranium shielded containers instead of disposal, a long-term solution to the UF{sub 6} problem is attained at comparable or lower cost than disposal as a waste. Two concepts for depleted uranium storage casks were considered in these studies. The first is based on standard fabrication concepts previously developed for depleted uranium metal. The second converts the UF{sub 6} to an oxide aggregate that is used in concrete to make dry storage casks.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

ACTUAL-WASTE TESTS OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING FOR RETRIEVAL OF SRS HLW SLUDGE TANK HEELS AND DECOMPOSITION OF OXALIC ACID  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge.

Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

246

FINAL REPORT DURAMELTER 100 HLW SIMULANT VALIDATION TESTS WITH C-106/AY-102 FEEDS VSL-05R5710-1 REV 0 6/2/05  

SciTech Connect

The principal objectives of the DM100 tests were to determine the processing characteristics of several C-106/AY102 feeds derived from simulants prepared by different methods, which result in different physical characteristics of the feed. The VSL simulant used in a previous test was prepared by the direct hydroxide method, which was the method used for feed preparation in the bulk of previous VSL melter testing. The NOAH Technologies Corporation modified-rheology simulant was prepared to the same composition as the VSL simulant using a method that resulted in rheological properties closer to those of certain actual waste samples. The SIPP simulant was produced by processing a co-precipitated waste simulant through a non-radioactive pilot scale semi-integrated pretreatment facility. The general intent of these tests was to provide a basis for determining whether the variations in rheology or other feed physical characteristics arising from the different methods of simulant preparation have significant effects on the processing characteristics of the feed in the melter. Completion of the test objectives is detailed in a table.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

247

Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludge: Results of FY 1997 studies  

SciTech Connect

The current plan for remediating the Hanford tank farms consists of waste retrieval, pretreatment, treatment (immobilization), and disposal. The tank wastes will be partitioned into high-level and low-level fractions. The HLW will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass matrix; the resulting glass canisters will then be disposed of in a geologic repository. Because of the expected high cost of HLW vitrification and geologic disposal, pretreatment processes will be implemented to reduce the volume of immobilized high-level waste (IHLW). Caustic leaching (sometimes referred to as enhanced sludge washing or ESW) represents the baseline method for pretreating Hanford tank sludges. Caustic leaching is expected to remove a large fraction of the Al, which is present in large quantities in Hanford tank sludges. A significant portion of the P is also expected to be removed from the sludge by metathesis of water-insoluble metal phosphates to insoluble hydroxides and soluble Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Similar metathesis reactions can occur for insoluble sulfate salts, allowing the removal of sulfate from the HLW stream. This report describes the sludge washing and caustic leaching tests performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 1996. The sludges used in this study were taken from Hanford tanks AN-104, BY-108, S-101, and S-111.

Lumetta, G.J.; Burgeson, I.E.; Wagner, M.J.; Liu, J.; Chen, Y.L.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Office of the Assistant General Counsel for Civilian Nuclear...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

(HLW) and Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Management of Nuclear Materials and Non-HLW Nuclear Fuel Cycle Energy Research and Development Non-Proliferation Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

249

Summary Of Cold Crucible Vitrification Tests Results With Savannah River Site High Level Waste Surrogates  

SciTech Connect

The cold crucible inductive melting (CCIM) technology successfully applied for vitrification of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) at SIA Radon, Russia, was tested to be implemented for vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) stored at Savannah River Site, USA. Mixtures of Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and 4 (SB4) waste surrogates and borosilicate frits as slurries were vitrified in bench- (236 mm inner diameter) and full-scale (418 mm inner diameter) cold crucibles. Various process conditions were tested and major process variables were determined. Melts were poured into 10L canisters and cooled to room temperature in air or in heat-insulated boxes by a regime similar to Canister Centerline Cooling (CCC) used at DWPF. The products with waste loading from ~40 to ~65 wt.% were investigated in details. The products contained 40 to 55 wt.% waste oxides were predominantly amorphous; at higher waste loadings (WL) spinel structure phases and nepheline were present. Normalized release values for Li, B, Na, and Si determined by PCT procedure remain lower than those from EA glass at waste loadings of up to 60 wt.%.

Stefanovsky, Sergey; Marra, James; Lebedev, Vladimir

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

250

Preliminary ILAW Formulation Algorithm Description, 24590 LAW RPT-RT-04-0003, Rev. 1  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), has contracted with Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) to design, construct, and commission the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site (DOE 2000). This plant is designed to operate for 40 years and treat roughly 50 million gallons of mixed hazardous high-level waste (HLW) stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The process involves separating the hight-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions through filtration, leaching, Cs ion exchange, and precipitation. Each fraction will be separately vitrified into borosilicate waste glass. This report documents the initial algorithm for use by Hanford WTP in batching LAW and glass-forming chemicals (GFCs) in the LAW melter feed preparation vessel (MFPV). Algorithm inputs include the chemical analyses of the pretreated LAW in the concentrate receipt vessel (CRV), the volume of the MFPV heel, and the compositions of individual GFCs. In addition to these inputs, uncertainties in the LAW composition and processing parameters are included in the algorithm.

Kruger, Albert A.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.

2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

251

Decontamination and decommissioning of the Chemical Process Cell (CPC): Topical report for the period January 1985-March 1987  

SciTech Connect

To support interim storage of vitrified High-Level Waste (HLW) at the West Valley Demonstration Project, the shielded, remotely operated Chemical Process Cell (CPC) was decommissioned and decontaminated. All equipment was removed, packaged and stored for future size reduction and decontamination. Floor debris was sampled, characterized, and vacuumed into remotely handled containers. The cell walls, ceiling, and floor were decontaminated. Three 20 Mg (22.5 ton) concrete neutron absorber cores were cut with a high-pressure water/abrasive jet cutting system and packaged for disposal. All operations were performed remotely using two overhead bridge cranes which included two 1.8 Mg (2 ton) hoists, one 14.5 Mg (16 ton) hoist, and an electromechanical manipulator or an industrial robot mounted on a mobile platform. Initial general area dose rates in the cell ranged from 1 to 50 R/h. Target levels of less than 10 mR/h general area readings were established before decontamination and decommissioning was initiated; general area dose rates between 200 mR/h and 1200 mR/h were obtained at the completion of the decontamination work. 4 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

Meigs, R. A.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Radiological assessment of the consequences of the disposal of high level radioactive waste in sub-seabed sediments  

SciTech Connect

The radiological assessment of the Seabed option consists of estimating the detriment to man and to the environment that could result from the disposal of high-level nuclear waste within the seabed sediments in the deep oceans. The assessment is made for the high-level waste (vitrified glass) produced by the reprocessing of 10/sup 5/ tons of heavy metal from spent fuel, which represents the amount of waste generated by 3333 reactor-years of 900 MW(e) reactors, i.e., 3000 GW(E).a. The disposal option considered is to use 14,667 steel penetrators, each of them containing five canisters of HLW glass (0,15 m/sup 3/ each). These penetrators would reach a depth of 50 m in the sediments and would be placed at an average distance of 180 m from each other, requiring a disposal area on the order of 22 x 22 km. Two such potential disposal areas in the Atlantic ocean were studied, Great Meteor East (GME) and South Nares Abyssal Plains (SNAP). A special ship design is proposed to minimize transportation accidents. Approximately 100 shipments would be necessary to dispose of the proposed amount of waste. 1 ref.

de Marsily, G.; Behrendt, V.; Ensminger, D.A.; Flebus, C.; Hutchinson, B.L.; Kane, P.; Karpf, A.; Klett, R.D.; Mobbs, S.; Poulin, M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

(Prefix) Chemical Company Amount Location Quantity(>1) acetone dimethyl acetal MCB 500g 1013 YC #1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

refridge. 3 N- acetyl L-tyrosine Aldrich 5g refridge. acetylacetone Pfaltz & Bauer 500g 1013 YC #1 1 Chloride Engelhard 10 g 1013 MC #1 Ammonium iron( II) sulfate hexahydrate Sigma 100g 1013 MC #1 #12

Turro, Claudia

254

Apparatus for Conditioning Unlimited Quantities of Finished Waters for Enteric Virus Detection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...additive containers, and (v) a hydraulic pressure-driven fluid propor...The angle iron, two-wheeled dolly carrier can be readily con...shown mounted on a two-wheeled dolly constructed of angle iron...the angle iron, two-wheeled dolly carrier and mounting the component...

William F. Hill Jr.; Elmer W. Akin; William H. Benton; Charles J. Mayhew; Walter Jakubowski

1974-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Effect of Age, Sex, and Fertility of Angora Goats on the Quality and Quantity of Mohair.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the various groups, were shipped to College Sta- tion for scouring in the Station Wool and Mohair Scouring Plant. In order to obtain the clean (scoured) weight of the individual fleece, each was scoured separately. The scouring equipment used... of the various groups, were shipped to College Sta- tion for scouring in the Station Wool and Mohair Scouring Plant. In order to obtain the clean (scoured) weight of the individual fleece, each was scoured separately. The scouring equipment used...

Jones, J. M. (John Mckinley)

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Synthesis of milligram quantities of proteins using a reconstituted in vitro protein synthesis system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, the amount of protein synthesized using an in vitro protein synthesis system composed of only highly purified components (the PURE system) was optimized. By varying the concentrations of each system component, we determined the component concentrations that result in the synthesis of 0.38mg/mL green fluorescent protein (GFP) in batch mode and 3.8mg/mL GFP in dialysis mode. In dialysis mode, protein concentrations of 4.3 and 4.4mg/mL were synthesized for dihydrofolate reductase and ?-galactosidase, respectively. Using the optimized system, the synthesized protein represented 30% (w/w) of the total protein, which is comparable to the level of overexpressed protein in Escherichia coli cells. This optimized reconstituted in vitro protein synthesis system may potentially be useful for various applications, including in vitro directed evolution of proteins, artificial cell assembly, and protein structural studies.

Yasuaki Kazuta; Tomoaki Matsuura; Norikazu Ichihashi; Tetsuya Yomo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

ITEM NO. SUPPLIES/SERVICES QUANTITY UNIT UNIT PRICE AMOUNT NAME...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

e-mail msg dtd 05232011 ORO O 350, Ch. III Deletion: This Policy was cancelled by DOE Oak Ridge Operations and is no longer needed in the B&W Y-12 Baseline List of Required...

258

Bulk Quantities of Single-Crystal Silicon Micro-/Nanoribbons Generated from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as oxides (ZnO, SnO2, Ga2O3, Fe2O3, In2O3, CdO, PbO2, etc.),3 sulfides (CdS, ZnS),4 nitride (GaN),5, crystallinity, and doping levels. These methods can form membranes, tubes, and ribbons, with thicknesses

Rogers, John A.

259

Quantity and quality of milk produced by beef cows in selected herds in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

College herd. Mr. H. W. Franke, Superintendent of the College Farm, Mr. P, T. Marion and Mr. J. C. Sinith, Superintendents of Substations No. 7 and 3, respectively of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, and Mr. F. A. Wolters, Superintendent... for Milk Yield- T. A. E. S. Substation No. 3 42 LlST OF TABLES (Cont. ) Table Analysis of Variance of Milk Yield - T. A, E. S. Substation No. 3 Milk Production Data of Hereford and Angus Cows by Age Groups ? A 8r. M College of Texas 44 13. Milk...

Klett, Ramon Hollis

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

260

Electron-beam processing of kilogram quantities of iridium for radioisotope thermoelectric generator applications  

SciTech Connect

Iridium alloys are used as fuel-cladding materials in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Hardware produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been used in Voyagers I and 2, Galilee, and Ulysses spacecraft. An integral part of the production of iridium-sheet metal involves electron-beam (EB) processing. These processes include the degassing of powder-pressed compacts followed by multiple meltings in order to purify 500-g buttons of Ir-0.3% W alloy. Starting in 1972 and continuing into 1992, our laboratory EB processing was Performed (ca. 1970) in a 60-kW (20 kV at 3 A), two-gun system. In 1991, a new 150-kW EB gun facility was installed to complement the older unit. This paper describes how the newly installed system was qualified for production of RTG developmental work is discussed that will potentially improve the existing process by utilizing the capabilities of the new EB system.

Huxford, T.J.; Ohriner, E.K.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

A method for calculation of radiation quantities at all points in gamma radiation calibration fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Chi-square test in a gamma radiation calibration field was...dimensions) in a gamma radiation calibration field can...be used in dosimetry software of gamma radiation calibration fields...2000) Vienna: IAEA. Safety Reports Series, No......

S. M. Hosseini-Pooya; M. Khoshnoodi; A. Ansarinejad; F. Torkzadeh; M. Jafarizadeh

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Soil stabilization using optimum quantity of calcium chloride with Class F fly ash  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On-going research at Texas A&M University indicated that soil stabilization using calcium chloride filter cake along with Class F fly ash generates high strength. Previous studies were conducted with samples containing calcium chloride filter cake...

Choi, Hyung Jun

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

263

Spill-Minimizing Rules For Parallel Reservoirs: Quantity and Quality Javier Paredes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to incorporate constraints on conservative constituents. Willey et al. (1996) #12;modified the water allocation is considered, with different pools having different water quality characteristics. This fragmentation This paper presents a spill-minimizing operating policy for refill of reservoirs in parallel for water supply

Lund, Jay R.

264

On the conservation of fundamental optical quantities in non-paraxial imaging systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in applications such as optical traps, frequency conversion, high-resolution microscopy and optical data storage system, it is shown that the response in the image space can be expressed in terms of a limited set of the non-paraxial Gauss­Laguerre eigenmodes. Conservation of energy, linear momentum and angular momentum

265

Energy Flux We discuss various ways of describing energy flux and related quantities.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.0.4 Radiance Radiance is the energy flux density per solid angle.[W/(m2 ? steradian)] 6.0.5 Radiant Intensity Radiant intensity is the energy flux per solid angle [W/steradian] (radiometry) 6.0.6 Intensity Intensity)· ^Ndt (6.4) Intensity is again measured in [W/m2 ] 6.0.7 Fluence Fluence is radiant energy per area

Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

266

Rapid Silica Atomic Layer Deposition on Large Quantities of Cohesive Nanoparticles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, TEM Laboratory, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 ... As determined by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) elemental nanoanalysis, the films were mainly composed of silicon and aluminum (Figure S2, see the Supporting Information). ... Dynamic agglomerates partially break apart and reform because of constant solids recirculation and gas flow through the bed of particles. ...

Xinhua Liang; Kathryn S. Barrett; Ying-Bing Jiang; Alan W. Weimer

2010-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

267

Modification of quantity and quality of safflower oil through plant breeding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Less than 20 years have passed since safflower was established commercially in the southwestern area of the United States. Already hybrid varieties are available, oil and protein contents have been raised grea...

P. F. Knowles

1969-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Linking lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) condition with male gamete quality and quantity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Ontario, Canada L7R 4A6 b Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Pfendler Hall, Purdue University quality (i.e., sperm swimming speed) in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were related to residual soma mass. Fork length was the most important predictor of sperm swimming speed with larger males from

Suski, Cory David

269

QUANTITY AND CAPACITY EXPANSION DECISIONS FOR ETHANOL IN NEBRASKA AND A MEDIUM SIZED PLANT.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Corn-based ethanol is the leader of sustainable sources of energy in the United States due to the abundance of corn and the popularity of ethanol-gasoline (more)

Khoshnoud, Mahsa

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Method and apparatus for dispensing small quantities of mercury from evacuated and sealed glass capsules  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A technique is disclosed for opening an evacuated and sealed glass capsule containing a material that is to be dispensed which has a relatively high vapor pressure such as mercury. The capsule is typically disposed in a discharge tube envelope. The technique involves the use of a first light source imaged along the capsule and a second light source imaged across the capsule substantially transversely to the imaging of the first light source. Means are provided for constraining a segment of the capsule along its length with the constraining means being positioned to correspond with the imaging of the second light source. These light sources are preferably incandescent projection lamps. The constraining means is preferably a multiple looped wire support. 6 figs.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Pai, R.Y.

1985-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

271

Method and apparatus for dispensing small quantities of mercury from evacuated and sealed glass capsules  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A technique for opening an evacuated and sealed glass capsule containing a material that is to be dispensed which has a relatively high vapor pressure such as mercury. The capsule is typically disposed in a discharge tube envelope. The technique involves the use of a first light source imaged along the capsule and a second light source imaged across the capsule substantially transversely to the imaging of the first light source. Means are provided for constraining a segment of the capsule along its length with the constraining means being positioned to correspond with the imaging of the second light source. These light sources are preferably incandescent projection lamps. The constraining means is preferably a multiple looped wire support.

Grossman, Mark W. (Framingham, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA); Pai, Robert Y. (Hamilton, MA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Impacts of large quantities of wind energy on the electric power system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wind energy has been surging on a global scale. Significant penetration of wind energy is expected to take place in the power system, bringing new challenges because of the variability and uncertainty of this renewable ...

Yao, Yuan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Joint production and economic retention quantity decisions in capacitated production systems serving multiple market segments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with respect to I we obtain: dVn(I) dI = p+ dJn(y n(I);z n) dI dVn(I) dI = p+ 8 >>>> >>> >>>> >>> >>>> >>> >>> >>>> >>> >>>> >>> >>> >>>> >>> >>>: (r1 +b+h)[1 Fn(I)] (r2 +h)[1 Fn(I z n)] +(r2 p) +RII z n dVn 1(I x) dI dFn(x) sn I 0 I sn Cn +I (r1 +b+h)[1 Fn...(Cn +I)] (r2 +h)[1 Fn(Cn +I z n)] + (r2 p) +RCn+ICn+I z n dVn 1(Cn+I x) dI dFn(x) sn Cn +I 27 d2Vn(I) dI2 = 8 >>> >>> >>>> >>> >>>> >>> >>>> >>> >>> >>>> >>>>> >>> >>>> >>> >>>> >>> >>> >>>> >>> >>>> >: (r1 +b+h)fn(I) + (r2 +h)fn(I z n) +RII z n d2...

Katariya, Abhilasha Prakash

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Perspectives on quantity-sensitivity and decomposed scalar constraints: A view from Hindi stress  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

24 6.2 WSP VS . P K P ROM . . . . . . . . . .P K P ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .that the constraint, P K P ROM , often the driving force in

Buchanan, Kendra Nicole

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Quotation No. 3605 rev 2 Item No. 1 Date 10/6/2004 Quantity 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Report Noise Measurement NPSH Test with Curve Vibration / Bearing #12;#12;Application Manual for NEMA

McDonald, Kirk

276

Application of curium measurements for safeguarding at reprocessing plants. Study 1: High-level liquid waste and Study 2: Spent fuel assemblies and leached hulls  

SciTech Connect

In large-scale reprocessing plants for spent fuel assemblies, the quantity of plutonium in the waste streams each year is large enough to be important for nuclear safeguards. The wastes are drums of leached hulls and cylinders of vitrified high-level liquid waste. The plutonium amounts in these wastes cannot be measured directly by a nondestructive assay (NDA) technique because the gamma rays emitted by plutonium are obscured by gamma rays from fission products, and the neutrons from spontaneous fissions are obscured by those from curium. The most practical NDA signal from the waste is the neutron emission from curium. A diversion of waste for its plutonium would also take a detectable amount of curium, so if the amount of curium in a waste stream is reduced, it can be inferred that there is also a reduced amount of plutonium. This report studies the feasibility of tracking the curium through a reprocessing plant with neutron measurements at key locations: spent fuel assemblies prior to shearing, the accountability tank after dissolution, drums of leached hulls after dissolution, and canisters of vitrified high-level waste after separation. Existing pertinent measurement techniques are reviewed, improvements are suggested, and new measurements are proposed. The authors integrate these curium measurements into a safeguards system.

Rinard, P.M.; Menlove, H.O.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Available Options for Waste Disposal [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...vitrified high-activity waste in properly selected deep...alternatives to present projects of waste disposal, but rather as...benefits will be different. Long-term storage of either spent fuel or vitrified waste, although not an alternative...

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

The Evaluation of the Mechanical Strength of Epoxy-Based Resin as a Plugging Material, and the Development of a Novel Plug and Abandon Technique Using Vitrified Solid Epoxy-Based Resin Beads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

window in the cure process where the curing process can be suspended by quenching the partially cured liquid epoxy in water at room temperature, thereby changing the liquid epoxy into solid beads. The beads can then be pumped into the wellbore, where...

Abuelaish, Ahmed

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

279

Technitium Management at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

Long Abstract. Full Text. The Hanford tank waste contains approx 26,000 Ci of technetium-99 (Tc-99), the majority of which is in the supernate fraction. Tc-99 is a long-lived radionuclide with a half-life of approx 212,000 years and, in its predominant pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}) form, is highly soluble and very mobile in the vadose zone and ultimately the groundwater. Tc-99 is identified as the major dose contributor (in groundwater) by past Hanford site performance assessments and therefore considered a key radionuclide of concern at Hanford. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) River Protection Project's (RPP) long-term Tc-99 management strategy is to immobilize the Tc-99 in a waste form that will retain the Tc-99 for many thousands of years. To achieve this, the RPP flowsheet will immobilize the majority of the Tc-99 as a vitrified low-activity waste product that will be ultimately disposed on site in the Integrated Disposal Facility. The Tc-99 will be released gradually from the glass at very low rates such that the groundwater concentrations at any point in time would be substantially below regulatory limits.The liquid secondary waste will be immobilized in a low-temperature matrix (cast stone) and the solid secondary waste will be stabilized using grout. Although the Tc-99 that is immobilized in glass will meet the release rate for disposal in IDF, a proportion is driven into the secondary waste stream that will not be vitrified and therefore presents a disposal risk. If a portion of the Tc-99 were to be removed from the Hanford waste inventory and disposed off-site, (e.g., as HLW), it could lessen a major constraint on LAW waste form performance, i.e., the requirement to retain Tc-99 over thousands of years and have a positive impact on the IDF Performance Assessment. There are several technologies available at various stages of technical maturity that can be employed for Tc-99 removal. The choice of technology and the associated efficacy of the technology are dependent on the chemical fonn of the technetium in the waste, the removal location in the tlowsheet. and the ultimate disposition path chosen for the technetium product. This paper will discuss the current plans for the management of the technetium present in the Hanford tank waste. It will present the risks associated with processing technetium in the current treatment flowsheet and present potential mitigation opportunities, the status of available technetium removal technologies, the chemical speciation of technetium in the tank waste, and the available disposition paths and waste forms for technetium containing streams.

Robbins, Rebecca A.

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

Pulse Jet Mixer Overblow Testing for Assessment of Loadings During Multiple Overblows  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protections Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being designed and built to pretreat and then vitrify a large portion of the wastes in Hanfords 177 underground waste storage tanks. The WTP consists of three primary facilities: pretreatment, low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification, and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. The pretreatment facility will receive waste feed from the Hanford tank farms and separate it into 1) a high-volume, low-activity liquid stream stripped of most solids and radionuclides and 2) a much smaller volume of HLW slurry containing most of the solids and most of the radioactivity. Many of the vessels in the pretreatment facility will contain pulse jet mixers (PJMs) that will provide some or all of the mixing in the vessels. This technology was selected for use in so-called black cell regions of the WTP, where maintenance capability will not be available for the operating life of the WTP. PJM technology was selected for use in these regions because it has no moving mechanical parts that require maintenance. The vessels with the most concentrated slurries will also be mixed with air spargers and/or steady jets in addition to the mixing provided by the PJMs. This report contains the results of single and multiple PJM overblow tests conducted in a large, ~13 ft-diameter 15-ft-tall tank located in the high bay of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) 336 Building test facility. These single and multiple PJM overblow tests were conducted using water and a clay simulant to bound the lower and upper rheological properties of the waste streams anticipated to be processed in the WTP. Hydrodynamic pressures were measured at a number of locations in the test vessel using an array of nine pressure sensors and four hydrophones. These measurements were made under normal and limiting vessel operating conditions (i.e., maximum PJM fluid emptying velocity, maximum and minimum vessel contents for PJM operation, and maximum and minimum rheological properties). Test data collected from the PJM overblow tests were provided to Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) for assessing hydrostatic, dynamic, and acoustic pressure loadings on in-tank structures during 1) single overblows; 2) multiple overlapping overblows of two to four PJMs; 3) simultaneous overblows of pairs of PJMs.

Pfund, David M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Michener, Thomas E.; Nigl, Franz; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Leigh, Richard J.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Baumann, Aaron W.; Kurath, Dean E.; Hoza, Mark; Combs, William H.; Fort, James A.; Bredt, Ofelia P.

2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Pulse Jet Mixer Overblow Testing for Assessment of Loadings During Multiple Overblows  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protections Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being designed and built to pretreat and then vitrify a large portion of the wastes in Hanfords 177 underground waste storage tanks. The WTP consists of three primary facilities: pretreatment, low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification, and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. The pretreatment facility will receive waste feed from the Hanford tank farms and separate it into 1) a high-volume, low-activity liquid stream stripped of most solids and radionuclides and 2) a much smaller volume of HLW slurry containing most of the solids and most of the radioactivity. Many of the vessels in the pretreatment facility will contain pulse jet mixers (PJMs) that will provide some or all of the mixing in the vessels. This technology was selected for use in so-called black cell regions of the WTP, where maintenance capability will not be available for the operating life of the WTP. PJM technology was selected for use in these regions because it has no moving mechanical parts that require maintenance. The vessels with the most concentrated slurries will also be mixed with air spargers and/or steady jets in addition to the mixing provided by the PJMs. This report contains the results of single and multiple PJM overblow tests conducted in a large, ~13 ft-diameter 15-ft-tall tank located in the high bay of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) 336 Building test facility. These single and multiple PJM overblow tests were conducted using water and a clay simulant to bound the lower and upper rheological properties of the waste streams anticipated to be processed in the WTP. Hydrodynamic pressures were measured at a number of locations in the test vessel using an array of nine pressure sensors and four hydrophones. These measurements were made under normal and limiting vessel operating conditions (i.e., maximum PJM fluid emptying velocity, maximum and minimum vessel contents for PJM operation, and maximum and minimum rheological properties). Test data collected from the PJM overblow tests were provided to Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) for assessing hydrostatic, dynamic, and acoustic pressure loadings on in-tank structures during 1) single overblows; 2) multiple overlapping overblows of two to four PJMs; 3) simultaneous overblows of pairs of PJMs.

Pfund, David M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Michener, Thomas E.; Nigl, Franz; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Leigh, Richard J.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Baumann, Aaron W.; Kurath, Dean E.; Hoza, Mark; Combs, William H.; Fort, James A.; Bredt, Ofelia P.

2008-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

282

In situ vitrification of Oak Ridge National Laboratory soil and limestone  

SciTech Connect

Process feasibility studies were successfully performed on two different developmental scales to determine the technical application of in situ vitrification (ISV) to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) intermediate-level waste. In the laboratory, testing was performed on crucibles containing quantities of 50% ORNL soil and 50% ORNL limestone. In the engineering-scale testing, a 1/12-scaled simulation of ORNL Trench 7 was constructed and vitrified, resulting in waste product soil and limestone concentrations of 68% and 32%, respectively. Results from the two scales of testing indicate that the ORNL intermediate-level waste sites may be successfully processed by ISV; the waste form will retain significant quantities of the cesium and strontium. Because /sup 137/Cs is the major component of the radionuclide inventory in the ORNL seepage pits and trenches, final field process decontamination factors (i.e., off gas at the ground surface relative to the waste inventory) of 10/sup 4/ are desired to minimize activity buildup in the off-gas system. These values were realized during the engineering-scale test for both cesium and strontium. The vitrified material effectively contained 99.996% of the cesium and strontium placed in the engineering-scale test. This is equivalent to decontamination factors of greater than 10/sup 4/. Volume reduction for the engineering-scale test was 60%. No migration of the cesium to the uncontaminated surrounding soil was detected. These favorable results indicate that, once verified in a pilot-scale test, an adequately designed ISV system could be produced to treat the ORNL seepage pits and trenches without excessive activity accumulation in the off-gas treatment system.

Carter, J.G.; Bates, S.O.; Maupin, G.D.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING WITH ACUTAL HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTES VERIFYING FBSR AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the cleanup mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is one of the supplementary treatments being considered. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and other secondary wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates/nitrites, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, and/or radio-nuclides like I-129 and Tc-99. Radioactive testing of Savannah River LAW (Tank 50) shimmed to resemble Hanford LAW and actual Hanford LAW (SX-105 and AN-103) have produced a ceramic (mineral) waste form which is the same as the non-radioactive waste simulants tested at the engineering scale. The radioactive testing demonstrated that the FBSR process can retain the volatile radioactive components that cannot be contained at vitrification temperatures. The radioactive and nonradioactive mineral waste forms that were produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process are shown to be as durable as LAW glass.

Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Bannochie, C.; Daniel, G.; Nash, C.; Cozzi, A.; Herman, C.

2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

284

Utilization of Cs{sup 137} to generate a radiation barrier for weapons grade plutonium immobilized in borosilicate glass canisters. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

One of the ways recommended by a recent National Academy of Sciences study to dispose of excess weapons-grade plutonium is to encapsulate the plutonium in a glass in combination with high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) to generate an intense radiation dose rate field. The objective is to render the plutonium as difficult to access as the plutonium contained in existing US commercial spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel until it can be disposed of in a permanent geological repository. A radiation dose rate from a sealed canister of 1,000 rem/h (10 Sv/h) at 1 meter for at least 30 years after fabrication was assumed in this paper to be a radiation dose comparable to spent LWR fuel. This can be achieved by encapsulating the plutonium in a borosilicate glass with an adequate amount of a single fission product in the HLWS, namely radioactive Cs{sup 137}. One hundred thousand curies of Cs{sup 137} will generate a dose rate of 1,000 rem/h (10 Sv/h) at 1 meter for at least 30 years when imbedded into canisters of the size proposed for the Savannah River Site`s vitrified high-level wastes. The United States has a current inventory of 54 MCi of CS{sup 137} that has been separated from defense HLWs and is in sealed capsules. This single curie inventory is sufficient to spike 50 metric tons of excess weapons-grade plutonium if plutonium can be loaded at 5.5 wt% in glass, or 540 canisters. Additional CS{sup 137} inventories exist in the United States` HLWs from past reprocessing operations, should additional curies be required. Using only one fission product, CS{sup 137}, rather than the multiple chemical elements and compounds in HLWs to generate a high radiation dose rate from a glass canister greatly simplifies the processing engineering retirement for encapsulating plutonium in a borosilicate glass.

Jardine, L.J.; Armantrout, G.A.; Collins, L.F.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Environmental Sampling FY01 Annual Report - Understanding the Movement of Mercury in the Environmental Surrounding the INEEL  

SciTech Connect

Environmental fate and transport of the toxic air pollutant mercury (Hg) is currently a high-priority regional concern for the INEEL, and national and global concern for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). At the INEELs Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), significant quantities (est. 40 kg/year) of Hg may have been released over 37 years of Environmental Managements (EM) High-Level Waste (HLW) treatment operations. The EPA is very concerned about the continued global buildup of Hg in the atmosphere and aquatic ecosystems, and has recently invested heavily in Hg research to better understand its complex environmental cycling.1,2 The Environmental Sampling work began in FY99 as a joint INEEL/U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) field research effort to (a) better understand the fate and potential impacts of Hg emissions from the INEELs HLW treatment operations (operational component) and (b) contribute at a national level to the scientific understanding of local, regional, and global Hg fate and transport (research component). The USGS contributed snow sampling support in the field (Water Resources Division, Salt Lake City) and laboratory analysis of all samples (Wisconsin District Mercury Research Laboratory).

Abbott, Michael Lehman

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

ESTIMATING HIGH LEVEL WASTE MIXING PERFORMANCE IN HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS  

SciTech Connect

The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of high level waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Tank Operations Contractor (TOC), Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is currently demonstrating mixing, sampling, and batch transfer performance in two different sizes of small-scale DSTs. The results of these demonstrations will be used to estimate full-scale DST mixing performance and provide the key input to a programmatic decision on the need to build a dedicated feed certification facility. This paper discusses the results from initial mixing demonstration activities and presents data evaluation techniques that allow insight into the performance relationships of the two small tanks. The next steps, sampling and batch transfers, of the small scale demonstration activities are introduced. A discussion of the integration of results from the mixing, sampling, and batch transfer tests to allow estimating full-scale DST performance is presented.

THIEN MG; GREER DA; TOWNSON P

2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

287

ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: A NEW PROCESS FOR CHEMICALLY CLEANING SAVANNAH RIVER WASTE TANKS  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 high level waste (HLW) tanks that must be emptied, cleaned, and closed as required by the Federal Facilities Agreement. The current method of chemical cleaning uses several hundred thousand gallons per tank of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to partially dissolve and suspend residual waste and corrosion products such that the waste can be pumped out of the tank. This adds a significant quantity of sodium oxalate to the tanks and, if multiple tanks are cleaned, renders the waste incompatible with the downstream processing. Tank space is also insufficient to store this stream given the large number of tanks to be cleaned. Therefore, a search for a new cleaning process was initiated utilizing the TRIZ literature search approach, and Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination--Ultraviolet (CORD-UV), a mature technology currently used for decontamination and cleaning of commercial nuclear reactor primary cooling water loops, was identified. CORD-UV utilizes oxalic acid for sludge dissolution, but then decomposes the oxalic acid to carbon dioxide and water by UV treatment outside the system being treated. This allows reprecipitation and subsequent deposition of the sludge into a selected container without adding significant volume to that container, and without adding any new chemicals that would impact downstream treatment processes. Bench top and demonstration loop measurements on SRS tank sludge stimulant demonstrated the feasibility of applying CORD-UV for enhanced chemical cleaning of SRS HLW tanks.

Ketusky, E; Neil Davis, N; Renee Spires, R

2008-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

288

Enhanced Chemical Cleaning: A New Process for Chemically Cleaning Savannah River Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

At the Savannah River Site (SRS) there are 49 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks that eventually must be emptied, cleaned, and closed. The current method of chemically cleaning SRS HLW tanks, commonly referred to as Bulk Oxalic Acid Cleaning (BOAC), requires about a half million liters (130,000 gallons) of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to clean a single tank. During the cleaning, the oxalic acid acts as the solvent to digest sludge solids and insoluble salt solids, such that they can be suspended and pumped out of the tank. Because of the volume and concentration of acid used, a significant quantity of oxalate is added to the HLW process. This added oxalate significantly impacts downstream processing. In addition to the oxalate, the volume of liquid added competes for the limited available tank space. A search, therefore, was initiated for a new cleaning process. Using TRIZ (Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch or roughly translated as the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving), Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination with Ultraviolet Light (CORD-UV{reg_sign}), a mature technology used in the commercial nuclear power industry was identified as an alternate technology. Similar to BOAC, CORD-UV{reg_sign} also uses oxalic acid as the solvent to dissolve the metal (hydr)oxide solids. CORD-UV{reg_sign} is different, however, since it uses photo-oxidation (via peroxide/UV or ozone/UV to form hydroxyl radicals) to decompose the spent oxalate into carbon dioxide and water. Since the oxalate is decomposed and off-gassed, CORD-UV{reg_sign} would not have the negative downstream oxalate process impacts of BOAC. With the oxalate destruction occurring physically outside the HLW tank, re-precipitation and transfer of the solids, as well as regeneration of the cleaning solution can be performed without adding additional solids, or a significant volume of liquid to the process. With a draft of the pre-conceptual Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) flowsheet, taking full advantage of the many CORD-UV{reg_sign} benefits, performance demonstration testing was initiated using available SRS sludge simulant. The demonstration testing confirmed that ECC is a viable technology, as it can dissolve greater than 90% of the sludge simulant and destroy greater than 90% of the oxalates. Additional simulant and real waste testing are planned.

Ketusky, Edward; Spires, Renee; Davis, Neil

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

289

Seagate Crystal Reports - sum6.  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Shipping and Shipping and Receiving Activity (Sum-6) Current Year: 2000 Receiving Site: Hanford Shipping Site HLW HL W -V i trified TRU M L L W LLW OTHER* SNF** Quantity (m 3) Quantity (m 3) Quantity ( m 3) Quantity (m 3) Quantity (m 3) Quantity ( m 3) Quantity (M THM ) Ames Lab 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 5.460 0.000 0.0000 Argonne-E 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1,049.800 0.000 0.0000 Bettis 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 11.680 0.000 0.0000 Brookhaven 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 55.070 0.000 0.0000 Columbus 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 156.070 0.000 0.0000 EnergyTech 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 41.780 0.000 0.0000 Fermi 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 42.840 0.000 0.0000 GenAtomics 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 164.030 0.000 0.0000 Lawr-Berk 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 12.220 0.000 0.0000 NavRctrFac 0.000 0.000 0.000 16.000 0.000 0.000 0.0000

290

Risk-informing decisions about high-level nuclear waste repositories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Performance assessments (PAs) are important sources of information for societal decisions in high-level radioactive waste (HLW) management, particularly in evaluating safety cases for proposed HLW repository development. ...

Ghosh, Suchandra Tina, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Summary - Tank 48 at the Savannah River Site  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tank 48 Tank 48 ETR Report Date: August 2006 ETR-2 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of Tank 48 at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Why DOE-EM Did This Review Tank 48 is a 1.3 million gallon tank with full secondary containment, located and interconnected within the SRS tank system that will play a very important role in removal and processing of high-level waste (HLW) in the years ahead. However, the tank is currently isolated from the system and unavailable for use, because its contents. It contains approximately 250,000 gallons of salt solution containing Cesium-137 and other radioisotopes which are contaminated with significant quantities of tetraphenylborate (TPB), a material which

292

Savannah River Site - Tank 48 SRS Review Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ETR-2 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of Tank 48 at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Why DOE-EM Did This Review Tank 48 is a 1.3 million gallon tank with full secondary containment, located and interconnected within the SRS tank system that will play a very important role in removal and processing of high-level waste (HLW) in the years ahead. However, the tank is currently isolated from the system and unavailable for use, because its contents. It contains approximately 250,000 gallons of salt solution containing Cesium-137 and other radioisotopes which are contaminated with significant quantities of tetraphenylborate (TPB), a material which can release benzene vapor to the tank head space in

293

HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT ENHANCED MISSION PLANNING THROUGH INNOVATIVE TOOLS LIFECYCLE COST MODELING AND AQUEOUS THERMODYNAMIC MODELING - 12134  

SciTech Connect

Two notable modeling efforts within the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) are currently underway to (1) increase the robustness of the underlying chemistry approximations through the development and implementation of an aqueous thermodynamic model, and (2) add enhanced planning capabilities to the HTWOS model through development and incorporation of the lifecycle cost model (LCM). Since even seemingly small changes in apparent waste composition or treatment parameters can result in large changes in quantities of high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glass, mission duration or lifecycle cost, a solubility model that more accurately depicts the phases and concentrations of constituents in tank waste is required. The LCM enables evaluation of the interactions of proposed changes on lifecycle mission costs, which is critical for decision makers.

PIERSON KL; MEINERT FL

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

294

Removing a small quantity of THT from gas storage groundwater through air stripping and gas-phase carbon adsorption  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with the response to a case of contaminated groundwater located in France. The natural gas is stored during summer in porous underground rocks. When energy requirements increase (particularly in winter), gas is drawn off, but water is also pumped during this operation. The water has a strong characteristic odour of the TetraHydroThiophene (THT), which has been used by Gaz de France as an additive in order to detect gas leakages because of its strong odour. Unfortunately, the presence of THT in medium other than natural gas can be responsible for safety problems. Gas stripping combined with adsorption on granular activated carbon was chosen to obtain removal of THT from the groundwater. The gas to water ratio for stripping column is higher than usual and the gas used for stripping was recycled in order to prevent air pollution. Carbon consumption is approximately 3 tons a year. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Girod, J.F.; Leclerc, J.P.; Muhr, H. [CNRS, Nancy (France)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

295

Adequacy of a Small Quantity Site RH-TRU Waste Program in Meeting Proposed WIPP Characterization Objectives  

SciTech Connect

The first remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste is expected to be permanently disposed of at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during Fiscal Year (FY) 2003. The first RH-TRU waste shipments are scheduled from the Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL) to WIPP in order to facilitate compliance with BCL Decommissioning Project (BCLDP) milestones. Milestones requiring RH-TRU waste containerization and removal from the site by 2004 in order to meet a 2006 site closure goal, established by Congress in the Defense Facilities Closure Projects account, necessitated the establishment and implementation of a site-specific program to direct the packaging of BCLDP RH-TRU waste prior to the finalization of WIPP RH-TRU waste characterization requirements. The program was designed to collect waste data, including audio and videotape records of waste packaging, such that upon completion of waste packaging, comprehensive data records exist from which compliance with final WIPP RH-TRU waste characterization requirements can be demonstrated. With the BCLDP data records generated to date and the development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) of preliminary documents proposing the WIPP RH-TRU waste characterization program, it is possible to evaluate the adequacy of the BCLDP program with respect to meeting proposed characterization objectives. The BCLDP characterization program uses primarily acceptable knowledge (AK) and visual examination (VE) during waste packaging to characterize RH-TRU waste. These methods are used to estimate physical waste parameters, including weight percentages of metals, cellulosics, plastics, and rubber in the waste, and to determine the absence of prohibited items, including free liquids. AK combined with computer modeling is used to estimate radiological waste parameters, including total activity on a waste container basis, for the majority of BCLDP RH-TRU waste. AK combined with direct analysis is used to characterize radiological parameters for the small populations of the RH-TRU waste generated by the BCLDP. All characterization based on AK is verified. Per its design for comprehensive waste data collection, the BCLDP characterization program using AK and waste packaging procedures, including VE during packaging, meets the proposed WIPP RH-TRU waste characterization objectives. The conservative program design implemented generates certification data that will be adequate to meet any additional program requirements that may be imposed by the CBFO.

Biedscheid, J.; Stahl, S.; Devarakonda, M.; Peters, K.; Eide, J.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

296

Results of the regional intercomparison exercise for the determination of operational quantity HP(10) in Latin America  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......B1802AYA, Ezeiza, Argentina 2 Instituto Venezolano...Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN) Argentina 6 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Austria...dosemeter from the ARN (Argentina) or one dosemeter...detector used, the energy and dose range covered......

M. Sarav; A. Zaretzky; C. Lindner; J. Daz; G. Walwyn; R. Amorim; D. De Souza; B. Gregori; S. Papadpulos; A. Meghzifene; P. Ferruz; R. Cruz Surez

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Estimation of rotor angles of synchronous machines using artificial neural networks and local PMU-based quantities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates a possibility for estimating rotor angles in the time frame of transient (angle) stability of electric power systems, for use in real-time. The proposed dynamic state estimation technique is based on the use of voltage and current ... Keywords: Electric power systems, Multilayer perceptrons, Phasor measurement units, Transient stability monitoring and control

Alberto Del Angel; Pierre Geurts; Damien Ernst; Mevludin Glavic; Louis Wehenkel

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Estimation of rotor angles of synchronous machines using artificial neural networks and local PMU-based quantities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates a possibility for estimating rotor angles in the time frame of transient (angle) stability of electric power systems, for use in real-time. The proposed dynamic state estimation technique is based on the use of voltage and current phasors obtained from a phasor measurement unit supposed to be installed on the extra-high voltage side of the substation of a power plant, together with a multilayer perceptron trained off-line from simulations. We demonstrate that an intuitive approach to directly map phasor measurement inputs to the neural network to generator rotor angle does not offer satisfactory results. We found out that a good way to approach the angle estimation problem is to use two neural networks in order to estimate the sin ( ? ) and cos ( ? ) of the angle and recover the latter from these values by simple post-processing. Simulation results on a part of the Mexican interconnected system show that the approach could yield satisfactory accuracy for real-time monitoring and control of transient instability.

Alberto Del Angel; Pierre Geurts; Damien Ernst; Mevludin Glavic; Louis Wehenkel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Efficient and Specific Trypsin Digestion of Microgram to Nanogram Quantities of Proteins in Organic-Aqueous Solvent Systems  

SciTech Connect

Mass spectrometry-based identification of the components of multiprotein complexes often involves solution-phase proteolytic digestion of the complex. The affinity purification of individual protein complexes often yields nanogram to low-microgram amounts of protein, which poses several challenges for enzymatic digestion and protein identification. We tested different solvent systems to optimize trypsin digestions of samples containing limited amounts of protein for subsequent analysis by LC-MS-MS. Data collected from digestion of 10-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2- g portions of a protein standard mixture indicated that an organicaqueous solvent system containing 80% acetonitrile consistently provided the most complete digestion, producing more peptide identifications than the other solvent systems tested. For example, a 1-h digestion in 80% acetonitrile yielded over 52% more peptides than the overnight digestion of 1 g of a protein mixture in purely aqueous buffer. This trend was also observed for peptides from digested ribosomal proteins isolated from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. In addition to improved digestion efficiency, the shorter digestion times possible with the organic solvent also improved trypsin specificity, resulting in smaller numbers of semitryptic peptides than an overnight digestion protocol using an aqueous solvent. The technique was also demonstrated for an affinityisolated protein complex, GroEL. To our knowledge, this report is the first using mass spectrometry data to show a linkage between digestion solvent and trypsin specificity. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a widely used method for studying proteins, protein complexes, and whole proteomes because of innovations in soft ionization techniques, bioinformatics, and chromatographic separation techniques.1-7 An example of a high-throughput mass spectrometry strategy commonly used for this purpose is a variation of the "shotgun" approach, involving in-solution digestion of a protein complex followed by onedimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) MS-MS.6-8 One of the applications of this method is for characterizing multiprotein complexes by identifying large numbers of proteins in a single data acquisition.9 Large-scale implementations of this strategy have been reported for yeast and Escherichia coli.10-12 To achieve a goal of characterizing large numbers of protein complexes13 isolated by affinity purification from Rhodopseudomonas palustris,14 an efficient protocol for digesting these complexes is required.

Strader, Michael B [ORNL; Tabb, Dave L [ORNL; Hervey, IV, William Judson [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

The influence of high quantity of fly ash on reducing the expansion due to ASR in the presence of alkalis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A testing program was devised to study the role of high volume fly ash (HVFA) in reducing the expansion caused by alkali-silica reaction (ASR). A series of modified ASTM C 1260 tests were performed, where the replacement of cement by Class F fly ash...

Mohidekar, Saleel D.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

The quality-quantity-quasity and energy-exergy-entropy exegesis of expected value calculation of citation performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Quantitative assessment of information production processes requires the definition of a robust citation performance indicator. This is particularly so where there is a need to introduce a normalization mechanism...

Gangan Prathap

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

RCC Contract No. DE-AC06-05RL14655 TABLE B.2 SCHEDULE OF QUANTITIES...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

82709) REA-023 - 100-D Chrome Site (Definitized by Mod 132 issued 82509) REA-025 - LockoutTagout (Definitized by Mod 144 issued 101409) REA-032 - 100-F Shoreline...

303

The effect of light quality and quantity on the flight activity of the adult hickory shuckworm Laspeyresia caryana (Fitch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. These chambers have +he advantage over black'light trap +echniques in that each specimen is held under constant observation. Five light-tight chambers constructed of plywood 21" x 18" x i6" were built into two cab nets . Ventilation openings in each chamber... the activity period to some degree, but the mean remained in phase with the previous record. Low intensity light was shown to depress the level of activity for D. robusta. In constant darkness, activity was so slight that no rhythm could be detected. Among...

Teel, Pete Don

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Identification and evolution of quantities of interest for a stochastic process view of complex space system development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of stochastic process design is to strategically identify, measure, and reduce sources of uncertainty to guide the development of complex systems. Fundamental to this design approach is the idea that system ...

Sondecker, George Ralph, IV

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Results of the regional intercomparison exercise for the determination of operational quantity HP(10) in Latin America  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Austria...International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the...exercises involved an audit by the IAEA SSDL, where...International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the...exercises involved an audit by the IAEA SSDL, where......

M. Sarav; A. Zaretzky; C. Lindner; J. Daz; G. Walwyn; R. Amorim; D. De Souza; B. Gregori; S. Papadpulos; A. Meghzifene; P. Ferruz; R. Cruz Surez

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Storm water quantity control has long been a challenge for highway designers. Traditionally, centralized best management practice designs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such storm water management controls adequately, how- ever, further research and correlation between concept in storm water management is emerging as a result of increased interest in storm water impacts and environmentally sound storm water management practice (1, 6). Numerous studies and other research efforts have

Fiedler, Fritz R.

307

Training for how to ship `excepted quantities' of regulated chemicals Addendum 1 to the Shipping Biological Materials Quick Reference Guide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hazardous chemicals, i.e. food and water samples Ethanol solutions 24% v/v International - not regulated solutions ethanol solutions 24% v/v Domestic - ground

California at Irvine, University of

308

Method and an apparatus for non-invasively determining the quantity of an element in a body organ  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and a method for determining in a body organ the amount of an element with the aid of a gaseous gamma ray source, where the element and the source are paired in predetermined pairs, and with the aid of at least one detector selected from the group consisting of Ge(Li) and NaI(Tl). Gamma rays are directed towards the organ, thereby resonantly scattering the gamma rays from nuclei of the element in the organ; the intensity of the gamma rays is detected by the detector; and the amount of the element in the organ is then substantially proportional to the detected intensity of the gamma rays.

Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

1980-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

309

Evaluation of interim and final waste forms for the newly generated liquid low-level waste flowsheet  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this review is to evaluate the final forms that have been proposed for radioactive-containing solid wastes and to determine their application to the solid wastes that will result from the treatment of newly generated liquid low-level waste (NGLLLW) and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Since cesium and strontium are the predominant radionuclides in NGLLLW and MVST supernate, this review is focused on the stabilization and solidification of solid wastes containing these radionuclides in cement, glass, and polymeric materials-the principal waste forms that have been tested with these types of wastes. Several studies have shown that both cesium and strontium are leached by distilled water from solidified cement, although the leachabilities of cesium are generally higher than those of strontium under similar conditions. The situation is exacerbated by the presence of sulfates in the solution, as manifested by cracking of the grout. Additives such as bentonite, blast-furnace slag, fly ash, montmorillonite, pottery clay, silica, and zeolites generally decrease the cesium and strontium release rates. Longer cement curing times (>28 d) and high ionic strengths of the leachates, such as those that occur in seawater, also decrease the leach rates of these radionuclides. Lower cesium leach rates are observed from vitrified wastes than from grout waste forms. However, significant quantities of cesium are volatilized due to the elevated temperatures required to vitrify the waste. Hence, vitrification will generally require the use of cleanup systems for the off-gases to prevent their release into the atmosphere.

Abotsi, G.M.K. [Clark Atlanta Univ., GA (United States); Bostick, D.T.; Beck, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

EIS-0082-S2: Notice of Intent to Prepare a Supplemental Environmental...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

was intended to separate soluble high-activity radionuclides (for example, cesium, strontium, uranium, and plutonium) from liquid high-level radioactive waste before vitrifying...

311

Graphs from Volume 1 Book 2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to vitrify all Low Activity Waste (second LAW plant) -- Alternative 2B. 2 For all glass options, most of the impacts come from secondary waste. Secondary waste causes...

312

FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING MINERALIZATION FOR HIGH ORGANIC AND NITRATE WASTE STREAMS FOR THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NO{sub x} in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {ge} 1000 C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NO{sub x}. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O.

Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

2008-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

313

Idaho National Engineering Laboratory High-Level Waste Roadmap. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) High-Level Waste (HLW) Roadmap takes a strategic look at the entire HLW life-cycle starting with generation, through interim storage, treatment and processing, transportation, and on to final disposal. The roadmap is an issue-based planning approach that compares ``where we are now`` to ``where we want and need to be.`` The INEL has been effectively managing HLW for the last 30 years. Calcining operations are continuing to turn liquid HLW into a more manageable form. Although this document recognizes problems concerning HLW at the INEL, there is no imminent risk to the public or environment. By analyzing the INEL current business operations, pertinent laws and regulations, and committed milestones, the INEL HLW Roadmap has identified eight key issues existing at the INEL that must be resolved in order to reach long-term objectives. These issues are as follows: A. The US Department of Energy (DOE) needs a consistent policy for HLW generation, handling, treatment, storage, and disposal. B. The capability for final disposal of HLW does not exist. C. Adequate processes have not been developed or implemented for immobilization and disposal of INEL HLW. D. HLW storage at the INEL is not adequate in terms of capacity and regulatory requirements. E. Waste streams are generated with limited consideration for waste minimization. F. HLW is not adequately characterized for disposal nor, in some cases, for storage. G. Research and development of all process options for INEL HLW treatment and disposal are not being adequately pursued due to resource limitations. H. HLW transportation methods are not selected or implemented. A root-cause analysis uncovered the underlying causes of each of these issues.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Development And Initial Testing Of Off-Gas Recycle Liquid From The WTP Low Activity Waste Vitrification Process - 14333  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process flow was designed to pre-treat feed from the Hanford tank farms, separate it into a High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fraction and vitrify each fraction in separate facilities. Vitrification of the waste generates an aqueous condensate stream from the off-gas processes. This stream originates from two off-gas treatment unit operations, the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrospray Precipitator (WESP). Currently, the baseline plan for disposition of the stream from the LAW melter is to recycle it to the Pretreatment facility where it gets evaporated and processed into the LAW melter again. If the Pretreatment facility is not available, the baseline disposition pathway is not viable. Additionally, some components in the stream are volatile at melter temperatures, thereby accumulating to high concentrations in the scrubbed stream. It would be highly beneficial to divert this stream to an alternate disposition path to alleviate the close-coupled operation of the LAW vitrification and Pretreatment facilities, and to improve long-term throughput and efficiency of the WTP system. In order to determine an alternate disposition path for the LAW SBS/WESP Recycle stream, a range of options are being studied. A simulant of the LAW Off-Gas Condensate was developed, based on the projected composition of this stream, and comparison with pilot-scale testing. The primary radionuclide that vaporizes and accumulates in the stream is Tc-99, but small amounts of several other radionuclides are also projected to be present in this stream. The processes being investigated for managing this stream includes evaporation and radionuclide removal via precipitation and adsorption. During evaporation, it is of interest to investigate the formation of insoluble solids to avoid scaling and plugging of equipment. Key parameters for radionuclide removal include identifying effective precipitation or ion adsorption chemicals, solid-liquid separation methods, and achievable decontamination factors. Results of the radionuclide removal testing indicate that the radionuclides, including Tc-99, can be removed with inorganic sorbents and precipitating agents. Evaporation test results indicate that the simulant can be evaporated to fairly high concentration prior to formation of appreciable solids, but corrosion has not yet been examined.

McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Adamson, Duane J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Morse, Megan M.

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

315

TIME-TEMPERATURE-TRANSFORMATION DIAGRAMS FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 3 - FRIT 418 GLASS SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

As a part of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms defined by the Department of Energy - Office of Environmental Management, the phase stability must be determined for each of the projected high-level waste (HLW) types at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, WAPS 1.4.1 requires the glass transition temperature (Tg) to be defined and time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams to be developed. The Tg of a glass is an indicator of the approximate temperature where the supercooled liquid converts to a solid on cooling or conversely, where the solid begins to behave as a viscoelastic solid on heating. A TTT diagram identifies the crystalline phases that can form as a function of time and temperature for a given waste type or more specifically, the borosilicate glass waste form. In order to assess durability, the Product Consistency Test (PCT) was used and the durability results compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The measurement of glass transition temperature and the development of TTT diagrams have already been performed for the seven Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) projected compositions as defined in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP). These measurements were performed before DWPF start-up and the results were incorporated in Volume 7 of the Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). Additional information exists for other projected compositions, but overall these compositions did not consider some of the processing scenarios now envisioned for DWPF to accelerate throughput. Changes in DWPF processing strategy have required this WAPS specification to be revisited to ensure that the resulting phases have been bounded. Frit 418 was primarily used to process HLW Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) at 38% waste loading (WL) through the DWPF. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) fabricated a cache of glass from reagent grade oxides to simulate the SB3-Frit 418 system at a 38 wt % WL for glass transition temperature measurement and TTT diagram development. The glass transition temperature (Tg) was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and was recorded to be 443 {+-} 3 C. Using the previous TTT diagrams as guidance, subsamples of the glass were isothermally heat treated for 0.5 to 768 hours at temperatures between 400 C to 1100 C. Each of the 56 heat treated samples, along with quenched and centerline canister cooled (CCC) treated samples, were analyzed using Xray diffraction (XRD) and the PCT. Crystallization was detected only in samples treated at 600 C for more than 192 hours, and 700, 800, and 900 C for more than 48 hours. Phases crystallized were similar in composition if not the same as those found in the previous TTT studies. Six different crystalline phases were detected, including nepheline, acmite, lithium silicate, trevorite, krinovite, and albite. Overall, phases were spinel (iron) based, lithium metasilicate, sodium aluminosilicate or sodium transition metal silicate in composition. No new crystalline families were detected. Durability, as measured by the PCT, decreased when lithium silicate or nepheline crystals were present. Only one heat treated sample had a measured PCT response exceeding the benchmark EA glass, which was a sample treated at 600 C for 768 hours. During normal processing at the DWPF these conditions would be highly unlikely to occur, even in an extreme accident scenario. In order to continue to meet the requirements of the WCP, a simplified strategy is suggested for the generation of future TTT diagrams. A strategy has been developed that would require completing two more TTT diagrams for two averaged, future, predicted waste types. By creating diagrams for the resulting glass compositions of encompassing waste types, it will give insight to the crystallization regions possible for those averages. As discussed in the report, 'Initial MAR Assessments to Access the Impact of Al-Dissolution on DWPF Operating Windows' (WSRC-STI 2007-00688), the majority of waste compositions could be grouped into two futu

Billings, A; Tommy Edwards, T

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

316

PJM Controller Testing with Prototypic PJM Nozzle Configuration  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protections Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being designed and built to pre-treat and then vitrify a large portion of the wastes in Hanfords 177 underground waste storage tanks. The WTP consists of three primary facilitiespretreatment, low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification, and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. The pretreatment facility will receive waste piped from the Hanford tank farms and separate it into a high-volume, low-activity liquid stream stripped of most solids and radionuclides and a much smaller volume of HLW slurry containing most of the solids and most of the radioactivity. Many of the vessels in the pretreatment facility will contain pulse jet mixers (PJM) that will provide some or all of the mixing in the vessels. Pulse jet mixer technology was selected for use in black cell regions of the WTP, where maintenance cannot be performed once hot testing and operations commence. The PJMs have no moving mechanical parts that require maintenance. The vessels with the most concentrated slurries will also be mixed with air spargers and/or steady jets in addition to the mixing provided by the PJMs. Pulse jet mixers are susceptible to overblows that can generate large hydrodynamic forces, forces that can damage mixing vessels or their internal parts. The probability of an overblow increases if a PJM does not fill completely. The purpose of the testing performed for this report was to determine how reliable and repeatable the primary and safety (or backup) PJM control systems are at detecting drive overblows (DOB) and charge vessel full (CVF) conditions. Testing was performed on the ABB 800xA and Triconex control systems. The controllers operated an array of four PJMs installed in an approximately 13 ft diameter 15 ft tall tank located in the high bay of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) 336 Building test facility. The PJMs were fitted with 4 inch diameter discharge nozzles representative of the nozzles to be used in the WTP. This work supplemented earlier controller tests done on PJMs with 2 inch nozzles (Bontha et al. 2007). Those earlier tests enabled the selection of appropriate pressure transmitters with associated piping and resulted in an alternate overblow detection algorithm that uses data from pressure transmitters mounted in a water flush line on the PJM airlines. Much of that earlier work was only qualitative, however, due to a data logger equipment failure that occurred during the 2007 testing. The objectives of the current work focused on providing quantitative determinations of the ability of the BNI controllers to detect DOB and CVF conditions. On both control systems, a DOB or CVF is indicated when the values of particular internal functions, called confidence values, cross predetermined thresholds. There are two types of confidence values; one based on a transformation of jet pump pair (JPP) drive and suction pressures, the other based on the pressure in the flush line. In the present testing, we collected confidence levels output from the ABB and Triconex controllers. These data were analyzed in terms of the true and noise confidence peaks generated during multiple cycles of DOB and CVF events. The distributions of peak and noise amplitudes were compared to see if thresholds could be set that would enable the detection of DOB and CVF events at high probabilities, while keeping false detections to low probabilities. Supporting data were also collected on PJM operation, including data on PJM pressures and levels, to provide direct experimental evidence of when PJMs were filling, full, driving, or overblowing.

Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Nigl, Franz; Weier, Dennis R.; Leigh, Richard J.; Johnson, Eric D.; Wilcox, Wayne A.; Pfund, David M.; Baumann, Aaron W.; Wang, Yeefoo

2009-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

317

2012 Annual Workforce Analysis and Staffing Plan Report - West Valley Demonstration Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ATTACHMENT ATTACHMENT 1 Annual Workforce Analysis and Staffing Plan Report As ofDecember 31, 2012 Reporting Office: West Valley Demonstration Project Section 1: Current Mission(s) of the Organization and Potential Changes The mission of the WVDP as defined by the West Valley Demonstration Project Act (Public Law 96-368) is to accomplish five activities: 1) solidify high-level radioactive waste (HLW), 2) develop containers suitable for permanent disposal of the HLW, 3) transport the HLW to a Federal repository for permanent disposal, 4) dispose of low-level and transuranic waste produced by the solidification of the HLW, and 5) decontaminate and decommission the HLW tanks and facilities, materials and hardware used to solidify the HLW. DOE expects to accomplish these WVDP activities through proactive leadership, management, and implementation of safe and environmentally sound operations.

318

Microsoft PowerPoint - 10-04 Sundar Technology Needs for WTP Simulants - PSSundar.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Needs for WTP Simulants Needs for WTP Simulants P. S. Sundar Process Technology - Plant Operations Div Waste Treatment Plant Project November 17, 2010 Bechtel National, Inc. Print Close Technology Needs for WTP Simulants 2 Agenda * Major simulant requirements of WTP Project and the associated challenges Bechtel National, Inc. Close Print Technology Needs for WTP Simulants 3 Simplified Process Flowsheet IHLW ILAW LAW Feed HLW Feed HLW Recycles LAW Recycles Bechtel National, Inc. Close Print Technology Needs for WTP Simulants 4 Simulant Needs * Commissioning Simulants - As received and pretreated LAW supernatants - As received HLW sludge - Pretreated HLW sludge - Vitrification recycle streams

319

PowerPoint Presentation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

waste (HLW) tanks, ancillary structures, associated liquid waste sites, and soils contamination (cribs, trenches, graves, unplanned releases) * Cr, I-129, Tc-99, nitrate...

320

High Level Waste ManagemenfDivision ..  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

B.2 Environmental Documentation C. Regulatory Waste Removal Schedule (Type I, II and IV Tanks) D. Process Logic Diagram E. Process Logic Interactive Matrix F. HLW Integrated...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

High Level Waste Management Division . H L W System Plan  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Regulatory Documentation C. Regulatory Waste Removal Schedule (Type I, II and IV Tanks) D. Process Logic Diagram E. Process Logic Interactive Matrix F. HLW Integrated...

322

The Report To The President And The Congress By The Secretary...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

and projected inventories of SNF and HLW, and the projected capacity of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. The Report To The President And The Congress By The Secretary...

323

TEC Working Group Topic Groups Security | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

concerned with secure transport of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW) to Yucca Mountain. Current activities include updating the security portion of DOE's...

324

Evaluation of Options for Permanent Geologic Disposal of Spent...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

engineering, earth sciences, materials science, chemical engineering, and materials safeguards and security, and regulatory considerations. The inventory of HLW and SNF is...

325

Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Observation of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant High Level Waste Facility Radioactive Liquid Waste Disposal System Hazards Analysis Activities (EA-WTP-HLW-2014-08-18(a))...

326

Mr. Frank Russo, Project Director Bechtel National, Inc. 2435...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

pipejoggles were consistent with weekly schedule goals. HLW is almost bought out on bulk materials, freeing up money for other priorities. " BNI held vendors accountable by...

327

seismic margin  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

particulate air (filter) HFE human failure event HLW high-level radioactive waste HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning ITS important to safety LLW low-level...

328

E-Print Network 3.0 - asm heat treating Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Example ASME code symbol stamps include S Power Boilers E Electric Boilers H Heating Boilers HLW Water... . Certification (American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME...

329

Section C  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Assessment of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant: The Contractor shall conduct Operations Research assessments for the Pretreatment Facility, HLW Vitrification...

330

Independent Oversight Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Oversight's November 2013 review included observation of a pneumatic pressure test, structural steel bolting in the High-Level Waste Facility (HLW), and review of the...

331

Josef Maty,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(HLW) from the Hanford and Savannah River Sites in stable borosilicate glass for long-term storage and disposal. However, current melters (Figure 1) are periodically idled and...

332

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic radiation unscear Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Acronyms, Abbreviations, Symbols, and Notation A.1.0 Acronyms And Abbreviations AA Atomic absorption ASCII... -hydroxyethyl) ethylenedinitrilotriacetic acid HLW High level...

333

Used Fuel Disposition Campaign Disposal Research and Development...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

related to storage, transportation and disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high level nuclear waste (HLW) generated by existing and future nuclear fuel cycles. The disposal of...

334

Tank Waste Committee - Transcribed Flipcharts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TRU waste retrieval Provided the State of New Mexico concurs Determine not HLW (process knowledge) As long as meets all applicable requirements "evaluation" not...

335

Tank Waste Committee Page 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

be the facility construction. If this project moves forward there will be an interface control document for the HLW facility that is separate from pretreatment. This proposal...

336

Contract DE-AC27-08RV14800  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modification No. 060 Oocumnpf Number Title. DOEIRW-051 1, Rev 2 Integrated Interface Control Document (lCD), Vol 1, US DOE SNF & HLW lto the...

337

app_d  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOEEIS-0287 Idaho HLW & FD EIS - New Information - Document 58, COGEMA, Inc. (Rhonnie Smith), Idaho Falls, ID Page 1 of 13 Document 57, Studsvik, Inc. (Thomas Oliver), Columbia,...

338

Microsoft PowerPoint - ESGCold Cap Melting (2) [Read-Only  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pre-Treatment Facility HLW Vitrification Facility LAW Vitrification Facility Outline * Glass-melting furnace (melter) and cold cap (batch blanket) * Melter feed conversion to...

339

Microsoft PowerPoint - 13000 Presentation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in Glass Formulations for Hanford High-Aluminum, High-Iron and Enhanced Sulphate Management in HLW - 13000 Albert A. Kruger, Glass Scientist 26 February 2013 Session 58...

340

E. Required Information (MANDATORY) A. Information Category  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

02192013 ORP-54302 -VA Revision 0 Advances in Glass Formulations for Hanford High-Aluminum, High-Iron and Enhanced Sulphate Management in HLW WasteManagement Proceedings...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Detection of Irradiated Ingredients Included in Low Quantity in Non-irradiated Food Matrix. 2. ESR Analysis of Mechanically Recovered Poultry Meat and TL Analysis of Spices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Protocols EN 1786 and EN 1788 for the detection of irradiated food by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and thermoluminescence (TL) were not conceived for the detection of irradiated ingredients included in low concentration in nonirradiated ...

Eric Marchioni; Pter Horvatovich; Helne Charon; Florent Kuntz

2005-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

342

DETERMINATION OF THE QUANTITY OF I-135 RELEASED FROM THE AGR-1 TEST FUELS AT THE END OF ATR OPERATING CYCLE 138B  

SciTech Connect

The AGR-1 experiment is a multiple fueled-capsule irradiation experiment being conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in support of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The experiment began irradiation in the ATR with a cycle that reached full power on December 26, 2006 and ended with shutdown of the reactor for a brief outage on February 10, 2007 at 0900. The AGR-1 experiment will continue cyclical irradiation for about 2.5 years. In order to allow estimation of the amount of radioiodine released during the first cycle, purge gas flow to all capsules continued for about 4 days after reactor shutdown. The FPMS data acquired during part of that shutdown flow period has been analyzed to elucidate the level of 135I released during the operating cycle.

J. K. Hartwell; D. M. Scates; J. B. Walter; M. W. Drigert

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Effect of differing mineral contents in process water on the quantity and nitrogen concentration of protein isolates from defatted soy and cottonseed flours  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solids and nitrogen in the whey fractions. Positive effects of using deionized process waters in the cotton- seed protein isolation process were shown only with non-storage protein (NSP) curds, the minor isolates. Deionized process waters increased... of deionization of process water on curd 25 28 Effect of deionization of process water on whey . . . . . 35 Results from cottonseed protein isolation process . . . . . . . 36 Effect of deionization of process water on residue . 42 Effect of deionization...

Kim, Heikyung

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

344

Application of neutron activation analysis and high resolution x-ray spectrometry for the determination of trace quantities of elements with short-lived activation products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conversion Interferences and Errors 3, PROCEDURES AND EXPERIMENTAL SETUP Sample Preparation Pneumatic Sample Transfer System Sample Irradiation X-ray Spectrometry Data Reduction 4. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS System Analysis Analysis Problems.... C. Roentgen made the classic observation that a highly penatrative radiation, unknown at that time, was produced when fast electrons impinged on matter. This radiation, which h called x-rays, was being studied in all parts of the world less than...

Marshall, John Richard

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

National Beef Quality Audit-2011: In-Plant Survey of Targeted Carcass Characteristics Related to Quality, Quantity, Value, and Marketing of Fed Steers and Heifers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Mean USDA YG traits were USDA YG (2.9), HCW (374.0 kg), AFT (1.3 cm), LM area (88.8 cm2), and KPH (2.3%); Frequencies of USDA YG distributions were YG 1 (12.4%), YG 2 (41.0%), YG 3 (36.3%), YG 4 (8.6%), and YG 5 (1.6%). Mean USDA QG traits were USDA QG...

Moore, Melanie 1989-

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

346

Abstract P1-13-08: A Cross-Sectional Study Evaluating Bone Quantity and Quality in Women with Bone Metastases from Breast Cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...investigate low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation-induced...target size and radiation quality and are likely to have...involved high linear energy transfer (LET) alpha-particles...target size and radiation quality and are likely to have...Humans Hybrid Cells Linear Energy Transfer Magnetics Mutagenesis...

OC Freedman; E Amir; AM Cheung; H Hu; E Lee; G Dranitsaris; and MJ. Clemons

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power by Thomas Schmeister B.Sc., University to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power by Thomas Schmeister B.Sc., University of Colorado, 1991 cells as a heat and electrical power source for residential combined heat and power (CHP

Victoria, University of

348

Communication has always been part of human society but has become much faster with the advent of the Internet, which has made enormous quantities of information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

other consumer durables, and may be used to address environmental issues such as erosion, pollution. They provide food for humans, timber for construction and the manufacture of furniture, clothing and numerous and industrial organisations and private individuals, enabling rapid transmission of information. Although

Nottingham, University of

349

Effects of Timing and Quantity of Chronic Dietary Ethanol Consumption on Azoxymethane-induced Colonic Carcinogenesis and Azoxymethane Metabolism in Fischer 344 Rats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Dose-Response Relationship, Drug Energy Intake Ethanol toxicity Male Rats Rats...in previous studies to energy wastage associated with ethanol metabolism (29). The...feeding, possibly due to energy wastage by ethanol metabolism (29). Bottom...

Stanley R. Hamilton; Ock Soon Sohn; and Emerich S. Fiala

1987-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

350

Effects of Timing and Quantity of Chronic Dietary Ethanol Consumption on Azoxymethane-induced Colonic Carcinogenesis and Azoxymethane Metabolism in Fischer 344 Rats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Basic Sciences Effects of Chronic Dietary Ethanol on in Vivo and in Vitro Metabolism of Methylazoxymethanol...an isocaloric liquid diet containing 6.6% ethanol by volume (continuous ethanol diet), or the ethanol diet for 20.5 days followed...

Stanley R. Hamilton; Ock Soon Sohn; Emerich S. Fiala

1987-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

When fecundity does not equal fitness: evidence of an offspring quantity versus quality trade-off in pre-industrial humans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...families, above-average maternal fecundity does indeed lead to below-average overall...ecology of human family size. In The Oxford handbook of evolutionary psychology R.I.M Dunbar...Perspect. 6, 33-49. When fecundity does not equal fitness: evidence of an offspring...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

UTILIZING STATISTICS TO DETERMINE HOW MUCH SAMPLING AND ANALYSISIS WARRANTED TO SUPPORT SAVANNAH RIVER SITEHIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH PREPARATION  

SciTech Connect

Accelerated cleanup initiatives at the SRS include expediting radioactive sludge processing. Sludge is the highest risk component of waste since it contains the highest concentrations of long-lived radionuclides. The sludge is staged into ''batches'' that are then the feed material to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) which vitrifies the waste into a safe form for permanent disposal. The preparation of each batch includes sampling and analysis of the slurried material. The results of the characterization are used as the bases for batch blending and processing decisions. Uncertainty is inherent in the information used for planning. There is uncertainty in the quantity of sludge contained in a tank, the waste composition, and the waste physical properties. The goal of this analysis is to develop the basis for the number of physical samples that should be taken from the slurried waste tank and the number of replicates of laboratory measurements that should be performed in order to achieve a specified uncertainty level. Recommendations for sampling and analysis strategies are made based on the results of the analysis.

Hamm, B

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

353

Nuclear Waste Management in the United StatesStarting Over  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Morris, IL, reprocessing plant; an additional DOE site with HLW is the decommissioned commercial reprocessing plant, West Valley, NY. There is no SNF or HLW in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands. 16 The U.S. Department of...

Rodney C. Ewing; Frank N. von Hippel

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

354

Microsoft Word - WM10 ORP - 10241.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

at 45 wt% Waste Loading. Oxide High-Al HLW* (wt%) Waste in Glass (wt%) Glass Forming Additives (wt%) Glass Composition HLW-E-Al-27 (wt%) Al 2 O 3 53.27 23.97 - 23.97 B 2 O 3...

355

EIS-0356: Retrieval, Treatment and Disposal of Tank Wastes and Closure of Single-Shell Tanks at the Hanford Site, Richland, WA  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EIS analyzes DOE's proposed retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the waste being managed in the high-level waste (HLW) tank farms at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, and closure of the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and associated facilities in the HLW tank farms.

356

Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

Burgard, K.C.

1998-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

357

Microsoft PowerPoint - 2-04_Vienna Glass Models Draft (11-15-10) v2.pptx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

D. J.D. Vienna D. J.D. Vienna Vienna Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA J.D. Belsher, P.A. Empey, and F.L. Meinert J.D. Belsher, P.A. Empey, and F.L. Meinert Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA Property Models for High Waste Property Models for High Waste Loaded Hanford HLW Glasses Loaded Hanford HLW Glasses Print Close 2  Waste loading improvements in Hanford HLW glasses  Glass property models  Systems studies with dynamic flowsheet model  waste glass predictions for Hanford  influential components  glass testing priorities  Status of the testing/modeling task  Summary and conclusions  Acknowledgements Outline Print Close Waste Loading Improvements in Hanford HLW Glass  Hanford HLW covers a broad range of compositions -

358

Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Assessment of Disposal Options for DOE-Managed High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel report assesses the technical options for the safe and permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) managed by the Department of Energy. Specifically, it considers whether DOE-managed HLW and SNF should be disposed of with commercial SNF and HLW in one geologic repository or whether there are advantages to developing separate geologic disposal pathways for some DOE-managed HLW and SNF. The report recommends that the Department begin implementation of a phased, adaptive, and consent-based strategy with development of a separate mined repository for some DOE-managed HLW and cooler DOE-managed SNF.

359

Economic Feasibility of Electrochemical Caustic Recycling at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a review of potential cost benefits of NaSICON Ceramic membranes for the separation of sodium from Hanford tank waste. The primary application is for caustic recycle to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pretreatment leaching operation. The report includes a description of the waste, the benefits and costs for a caustic-recycle facility, and Monte Carlo results obtained from a model of these costs and benefits. The use of existing cost information has been limited to publicly available sources. This study is intended to be an initial evaluation of the economic feasibility of a caustic recycle facility based on NaSICON technology. The current pretreatment flowsheet indicates that approximately 6,500 metric tons (MT) of Na will be added to the tank waste, primarily for removing Al from the high-level waste (HLW) sludge (Kirkbride et al. 2007). An assessment (Alexander et al. 2004) of the pretreatment flowsheet, equilibrium chemistry, and laboratory results indicates that the quantity of Na required for sludge leaching will increase by 6,000 to 12,000 MT in order to dissolve sufficient Al from the tank-waste sludge material to maintain the number of HLW canisters produced at 9,400 canisters as defined in the Office of River Protection (ORP) System Plan (Certa 2003). This additional Na will significantly increase the volume of LAW glass and extend the processing time of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Future estimates on sodium requirements for caustic leaching are expected to significantly exceed the 12,000-MT value and approach 40,000-MT of total sodium addition for leaching (Gilbert, 2007). The cost benefit for caustic recycling is assumed to consist of four major contributions: 1) the cost savings realized by not producing additional immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glass, 2) caustic recycle capital investment, 3) caustic recycle operating and maintenance costs, and 4) research and technology costs needed to deploy the technology. In estimating costs for each of these components, several parameters are used as inputs. Due to uncertainty in assuming a singular value for each of these parameters, a range of possible values is assumed. A Monte Carlo simulation is then performed where the range of these parameters is exercised, and the resulting range of cost benefits is determined.

Poloski, Adam P.; Kurath, Dean E.; Holton, Langdon K.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Fountain, Matthew S.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

EM's Year in Review at Savannah River Site | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

had been in storage, and following dissolution it was moved to high-level waste tanks to be vitrified, or turned into glass and salt waste; workers also began dissolution...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Microsoft Word - JMatyas_Empirical model of spinel settling.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hanford and Savannah River Sites is being vitrified in stable borosilicate glass for long-term storage and disposal. This process is time consuming and expensive because it is...

362

Photo Gallery - Hanford Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to the Waste Treatment Plant where it will be vitrified (turned into glass) for safe long-term storage. Experts at the workshop came from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,...

363

Hanford Information Related to the American Recovery and Reinvestment...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant where the waste will be vitrified for long-term storage. Hanford Reach Natl Monument Map Icon The Hanford Reach National Monument...

364

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT FOR HANFORD'S LOW ACTIVITY WASTE AND SECONDARY WASTES  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of I-125/129 and Tc-99 to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Ninety six grams of radioactive product were made for testing. The second campaign commenced using SRS LAW chemically trimmed to look like Hanford's LAW. Six hundred grams of radioactive product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

365

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

366

LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS  

SciTech Connect

The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for the WTP Pretreatment facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) feed and Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium in the WTP Pretreatment facility, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the LAW portion of the tank waste, i.e., the LAW feed from the WTP Pretreatment facility. Removal of {sup 99}Tc from the LAW Feed, followed by off-site disposal of the {sup 99}Tc, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing {sup 99}Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. The conceptual flow sheet of the {sup 99}Tc removal process includes a filter to remove insoluble solids prior to processing the stream in an ion exchange column, but the characteristics and behavior of the liquid and solid phases has not previously been investigated. This report contains results of testing of a simulant that represents the projected composition of the feed to the Supplemental LAW process. This feed composition is not identical to the aqueous tank waste fed to the Waste Treatment Plant because it has been processed through WTP Pretreatment facility and therefore contains internal changes and recycle streams that will be generated within the WTP process. Although a Supplemental LAW feed simulant has previously been prepared, this feed composition differs from that simulant because those tests examined only the fully soluble aqueous solution at room temperature, not the composition formed after evaporation, including the insoluble solids that precipitate after it cools. The conceptual flow sheet for Supplemental LAW immobilization has an option for removal of {sup 99}Tc from the feed stream, if needed. Elutable ion exchange has been selected for that process. If implemented, the stream would need filtration to remove the insoluble solids prior to processing in an ion exchange column. The characteristics, chemical speciation, physical properties, and filterability of the solids are important to judge the feasibility of the concept, and to estimate the size and cost of a facility. The insoluble solids formed during these tests were primarily natrophosphate, natroxalate, and a sodium aluminosilicate compound. At the elevated temperature and 8 M [Na+], appreciable insoluble solids (1.39 wt%) were present. Cooling to room temperature and dilution of the slurry from 8 M to 5 M [Na+] resulted in a slurry containing 0.8 wt% insoluble solids. The solids (natrophosphate, natroxalate, sodium aluminum silicate, and a hydrated sodium phosphate) were relatively stable and settled quickly. Filtration rates were in the range of those observed with iron-based simulated Hanford tank sludge simulants, e.g., 6 M [Na+] Hanford tank 241-AN-102, even though their chemical speciation is considerably different. Chemical cleaning of the crossflow filter was readily accomplished with acid. As this simulant formulation was based on an average composition of a wide range of feeds using an integrated computer model, this exact composition may never be observed. But the test conditions were selected to enable comparison to the model to enable improving its chemical prediction capability.

McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

2014-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

367

Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives  

SciTech Connect

The High Level Waste (HLW) Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team was formed on March 13, 1998, and chartered to identify options, evaluate alternatives, and recommend a selected alternative(s) for processing HLW salt to a permitted wasteform. This requirement arises because the existing In-Tank Precipitation process at the Savannah River Site, as currently configured, cannot simultaneously meet the HLW production and Authorization Basis safety requirements. This engineering study was performed in four phases. This document provides the technical bases, assumptions, and results of this engineering study.

Dimenna, R.A.; Jacobs, R.A.; Taylor, G.A.; Durate, O.E.; Paul, P.K.; Elder, H.H.; Pike, J.A.; Fowler, J.R.; Rutland, P.L.; Gregory, M.V.; Smith III, F.G.; Hang, T.; Subosits, S.G.; Campbell, S.G.

2001-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

368

The role of local structure in dynamical arrest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Amorphous solids, or glasses, are distinguished from crystalline solids by their lack of long-range structural order. At the level of two-body structural correlations, glassformers show no qualitative change upon vitrifying from a supercooled liquid. Nonetheless the dynamical properties of a glass are so much slower that it appears to take on the properties of a solid. While many theories of the glass transition focus on dynamical quantities, a solid's resistance to flow is often viewed as a consequence of its structure. Here we address the viewpoint that this remains the case for a glass. Recent developments using higher-order measures show a clear emergence of structure upon dynamical arrest in a variety of glass formers and offer the tantalising hope of a structural mechanism for arrest. However a rigorous fundamental identification of such a causal link between structure and arrest remains elusive. We undertake a critical survey of this work in experiments, computer simulation and theory and discuss what might strengthen the link between structure and dynamical arrest. We move on to highlight the relationship between crystallisation and glass-forming ability made possible by this deeper understanding of the structure of the liquid state, and emphasize the potential to design materials with optimal glassforming and crystallisation ability, for applications such as phase-change memory. We then consider aspects of the phenomenology of glassy systems where structural measures have yet to make a large impact, such as polyamorphism (the existence of multiple liquid states), aging (the time-evolution of non-equilibrium materials below their glass transition) and the response of glassy materials to external fields such as shear.

C. Patrick Royall; Stephen R. Williams

2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

369

Cesium and Strontium Specific Exchangers for Nuclear Waste Effluent Remediation  

SciTech Connect

During the past 50 years, nuclear defense activities have produced large quantities of nuclear waste that now require safe and permanent disposal. The general procedure to be implemented involves the removal of cesium and strontium from the waste solutions for disposal in permanently vitrified media. This requires highly selective sorbents or ion exchangers. Further, at the high radiation doses present in the solution, organic exchangers or sequestrants are likely to decompose over time. Inorganic ion exchangers are resistant to radiation damage and can exhibit remarkably high selectivities. We have synthesized three families of tunnel-type ion exchangers. The crystal structures of these compounds as well as their protonated phases, coupled with ion exchange titrations, were determined and this information was used to develop an understanding of their ion exchange behavior. The ion exchange selectivities of these phases could be regulated by isomorphous replacement of the framework metals by larger or smaller radius metals. In the realm of layered compounds, we prepared alumina, silica, and zirconia pillared clays and sodium micas. The pillared clays yielded very high Kd values for Cs+ and were very effective in removing Cs+ from groundwaters. The sodium micas also had a high affinity for Cs+ but an even greater attraction for S42+. They also possess the property of trapping these ions permanently as the layers slowly decrease their interlayer distance as loading occurs. Sodium nonatitanate exhibited extremely high Kd values for Sr2+ in alkaline tank wastes and should be considered for removal of Sr2+ in such cases. For tank wastes containing complexing agents, we have found that adding Ca2+ to the solution releases the complexed Sr2+ which may then be removed with the CST exchanger.

A. Clearfield; A. I. Bortun; L. A. Bortun; E. A. Bhlume; P. Sylvester; G. M. Graziano

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

High Level Waste Corporate Board Charter  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

on 24 July 2008 1 on 24 July 2008 1 Office of Environmental Management High-Level Waste Corporate Board Charter Purpose This Charter establishes the High- Level Waste (HLW) Corporate Board, (hereinafter referred to as the 'Board') within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The Board will serve as a consensus building body to integrate the Department of Energy (DOE) HLW management and disposition activities across the EM program and, with the coordination and cooperation of other program offices, across the DOE complex. The Board will identify the need for and develop policies, planning, standards and guidance and provide the integration necessary to implement an effective and efficient national HLW program. The Board will also evaluate the implications of HLW issues and their

371

EIS-0287: Notice of Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Technology |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Technology EIS-0287: Notice of Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Technology Idaho High-Level Waste (HLW) and Facilities Disposition In October 2002, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) issued the Final Idaho High-Level Waste (HLW) and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0287 (Final EIS)). The Final EIS contains an evaluation of reasonable alternatives for the management of mixed transuranic waste/sodium bearing waste (SBW),1 mixed HLW calcine, and associated low-level waste (LLW), as well as disposition alternatives for HLW facilities when their missions are completed. DOE/EIS-0287, Notice of Preferred Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Technology, Office of Environmental Management, Idaho, 70 FR 44598 (August

372

Accelerated Weathering of High-Level and Plutonium-bearing Lanthanide...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

This configuration consists of a high-level waste (HLW) canister fitted with a rack that holds mini-canisters containing a Pu-bearing lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) waste...

373

High Level Waste System Plan Revision 9  

SciTech Connect

Revision 9 of the High Level Waste System Plan documents the current operating strategy of the HLW System at SRS to receive, store, treat, and dispose of high-level waste.

Davis, N.R.; Wells, M.N.; Choi, A.S.; Paul, P.; Wise, F.E.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

ch_3  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

13 DOEEIS-0287 Idaho HLW & FD EIS except the pillar and panel tanks) would be full of mixed transuranic waste in approximately 2017. Other facilities depending on the capacity of...

375

DRAFT EM SSAB Chair's Meeting Waste Disposition Strategies...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

of lessons learned and equipment for use of TRUPACT-III at other sites * Closed Tanks 5 and 6, which are the 5 th and 6 th tanks to be closed * Continuing production of HLW...

376

I:'"  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is to facilitate the removal of high level waste from the older style Type I, II and IV Tanks while maintaining adequate and safe storage of the remaining HLW. The secondary...

377

WM'02 Conference, February 24-28, 2002, Tucson, AZ  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

V. Saprykin Khlopin Radium Institute, 194021, St. Petersburg, 2 nd Murinsky Ave, 28, Russia P. Rance British Nuclear Fuels, Sellafield, U.K. ABSTRACT One type of HLW associated...

378

app_d  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Appendix D Document 10, Jeffrey Joel, Kelly, WY Page 1 of 1 Document 11, Avril Currier, Jackson, WY Page 1 of 2 - New Information - D-19 DOEEIS-0287 Idaho HLW & FD EIS Document...

379

Final Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and treat the waste remaining in 177 underground storage tanks; store the high-level radioactive waste (HLW); dispose of the low-activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford Site...

380

Microsoft Word - FAQs _English_ 01-22-10 WITH NEW PARAGRAPHS...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and treat the waste remaining in 177 underground storage tanks; store the high-level radioactive waste (HLW); dispose of the low-activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford Site...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

pepa_crystaline02_PRINT  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of HLW from the Hanford and Savannah River Sites in stable borosilicate glass for long-term storage and disposal. However, a worry that crystals of spinel (Fe, Ni, Mn, Sn,...

382

Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant December 2014  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Operational Awareness Record for the Observation of Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant High Level Waste Facility Radioactive Liquid Waste Disposal System Hazards Analysis Activities (EA-WTP-HLW-2014-08-18(a))

383

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

has always been sized to handle the recycle streams from both LAW treatment facilities * Process plans in place to handle build up of sodium and sulfate PTF LAW HLW Supplemental...

384

Microsoft Word - FINAL_TWC_March08_summary.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

information for HLW processing. Ed said Ecology Tank Waste Committee Page 3 Final Meeting Summary March 11, 2008 is concerned about the impact of 34 metric tons of sodium on...

385

Supplemental Treatment Technologies Hanford Advisory Board Tank...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the waste form in the integrated disposal facility. If the Tc were precipitated as Goethite - (Tc,Fe)OOH - it could be diverted to the HLW stream . - Testing will focus on...

386

Microsoft PowerPoint - CIMTEC Talk Final (6-17-14) [Read-Only...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Developments in the HLW Glass Formulation for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant and their Impacts on its Mission JD VIENNA 1 , DS KIM 1 , AA KRUGER 2 , AND...

387

ch_5  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

25 25 DOE/EIS-0287 Idaho HLW & FD EIS 5.3 Facility Disposition Impacts Section 5.3 presents a discussion of potential impacts associated with the disposition of exist- ing HLW management facilities at INEEL and disposition of new facilities that would be built in support of the proposed waste processing alternatives. The discussion includes (1) the potential impacts of short-term actions in dispo- sitioning new and existing HLW management facilities, (2) the potential long-term impacts from the disposal of the grouted low-level waste fraction in either a new disposal facility at INTEC or in the Tank Farm and bin sets, and (3) the potential long-term impacts of residual con- tamination in closed HLW management facili- ties. The six facility disposition alternatives are

388

app_d  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 DOEEIS-0287 Idaho HLW & FD EIS Document 24, Snake River Alliance (Jay Hormel), Bliss, ID Page 1 of 1 Document 25, Ruthann Saphier, Ketchum, ID Page 1 of 1 - New Information -...

389

Nuclear Waste: Knowledge Waste?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...4). Although disposal of HLW remains...for long-term disposal is through deep...successful waste-disposal program has eluded...geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Authorized...Administration withdrew funding for Yucca Mountain...

Eugene A. Rosa; Seth P. Tuler; Baruch Fischhoff; Thomas Webler; Sharon M. Friedman; Richard E. Sclove; Kristin Shrader-Frechette; Mary R. English; Roger E. Kasperson; Robert L. Goble; Thomas M. Leschine; William Freudenburg; Caron Chess; Charles Perrow; Kai Erikson; James F. Short

2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

390

Genital Herpes Evaluation by Quantitative TaqMan PCR: Correlating Single Detection and Quantity of HSV-2 DNA in Cervicovaginal Lavage Fluids with Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Clinical Data.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

load and the frequency of lesion-episodes observed during the subsequent followload and the frequency of subsequent lesion recurrences observed during the followviral load with log10 HSV-2 DNA copy number of 6.4. Follow

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Quantity of 135I Released from the AGR 1, AGR 2, and AGR 3/4 Experiments and Discovery of 131I at the FPMS Traps during the AGR-3/4 Experiment  

SciTech Connect

A series of three Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) experiments have been conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). From 2006 through 2014, these experiments supported the development and qualification of the new U.S. tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel for Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). Each AGR experiment consisted of multiple fueled capsules, each plumbed for independent temperature control using a mix of helium and neon gases. The gas leaving a capsule was routed to individual Fission Product Monitor (FPM) detectors. For intact fuel particles, the TRISO particle coatings provide a substantial barrier to fission product release. However, particles with failed coatings, whether because of a minute percentage of initially defective particles, those which fail during irradiation, or those designed to fail (DTF) particles, can release fission products to the flowing gas stream. Because reactive fission product elements like iodine and cesium quickly deposit on cooler capsule components and piping structures as the effluent gas leaves the reactor core, only the noble fission gas isotopes of Kr and Xe tend to reach FPM detectors. The FPM system utilizes High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors coupled with a thallium activated sodium iodide NaI(Tl) scintillator. The HPGe detector provides individual isotopic information, while the NaI(Tl) scintillator is used as a gross count rate meter. During irradiation, the 135mXe concentration reaching the FPM detectors is from both direct fission and by decay of the accumulated 135I. About 2.5 hours after irradiation (ten 15.3 minute 135mXe half lives) the directly produced 135mXe has decayed and only the longer lived 135I remains as a source. Decay systematics dictate that 135mXe will be in secular equilibrium with its 135I parent, such that its production rate very nearly equals the decay rate of the parent, and its concentration in the flowing gas stream will appear to decay with the parent half life. This equilibrium condition enables the determination of the amount of 135I released from the fuel particles by measurement of the 135mXe at the FPM following reactor shutdown. In this paper, the 135I released will be reported and compared to similar releases for noble gases as well as the unexpected finding of 131I deposition from intentional impure gas injection into capsule 11 of experiment AGR 3/4.

Dawn Scates

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Immobilization and Waste Form Product Acceptance for Low Level and TRU Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect

The Tanks Focus Area is supporting technology development in immobilization of both High Level (HLW) and Low Level (LLW) radioactive wastes. The HLW process development at Hanford and Idaho is patterned closely after that of the Savannah River (Defense Waste Processing Facility) and West Valley Sites (West Valley Demonstration Project). However, the development and options open to addressing Low Level Waste are diverse and often site specific. To start, it is important to understand the breadth of Low Level Wastes categories.

Holtzscheiter, E.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Harbour, J.R.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

SLUDGE HEEL REMOVAL BY ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE 12390  

SciTech Connect

High Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored in aging underground storage tanks. This waste is a complex mixture of insoluble solids, referred to as sludge, and soluble salts. Continued long-term storage of these radioactive wastes poses an environmental risk. Operations are underway to remove and disposition the waste, clean the tanks and fill with grout for permanent closure. Heel removal is the intermediate phase of the waste retrieval and tank cleaning process at SRS, which is intended to reduce the volume of waste prior to treatment with oxalic acid. The goal of heel removal is to reduce the residual amount of radioactive sludge wastes to less than 37,900 liters (10,000 gallons) of wet solids. Reducing the quantity of residual waste solids in the tank prior to acid cleaning reduces the amount of acid required and reduces the amount of excess acid that could impact ongoing waste management processes. Mechanical heel removal campaigns in Tank 12 have relied solely on the use of mixing pumps that have not been effective at reducing the volume of remaining solids. The remaining waste in Tank 12 is known to have a high aluminum concentration. Aluminum dissolution by caustic leaching was identified as a treatment step to reduce the volume of remaining solids and prepare the tank for acid cleaning. Dissolution was performed in Tank 12 over a two month period in July and August, 2011. Sample results indicated that 16,440 kg of aluminum oxide (boehmite) had been dissolved representing 60% of the starting inventory. The evolution resulted in reducing the sludge solids volume by 22,300 liters (5900 gallons), preparing the tank for chemical cleaning with oxalic acid.

Keefer, M.

2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

394

Tank waste remediation system operation and utilization plan,vol. I {ampersand} II  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL) is in the first stages of contracting with private companies for the treatment and immobilization of tank wastes. The components of tank waste retrieval, treatment, and immobilization have been conceived in two phases (Figure 1.0-1). To meet RL's anticipated contractual requirements, the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) companies will be required to provide waste feeds to the private companies consistent with waste envelopes that define the feeds in terms of quantity, and concentration of both chemicals and radionuclides. The planning that supports delivery of the feed must be well thought out in four basic areas: (1) Low-activity waste (LAW)/high-level waste (HLW) feed staging plans. How is waste moved within the existing tanks to deliver waste that corresponds to the defined feed envelopes to support the Private Contractor's processing schedule and processing rate? (2) Single-shell tank (SST) retrieval sequence. How are Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1994) milestones for SST retrieval integrated into the Phase I processing to set the stage for Phase II processing to complete the mission? (3) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flowsheet. How do materials flow from existing tank inventories through: (1) blending and pretreatment functions in the double-shell tanks (DSTs), (2) contractor processing facilities, and (3) stored waste forms (Figure 1.0-2); (4) Storage and disposal of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) and immobilized high-level waste (IHLW) product. How is the ILAW and IHLW product received from the private companies, the ILAW disposed onsite, and the IHLW stored onsite until final disposal?

Kirkbride, R.A.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Regulatory issues in vitrification research: A case study of circuit board reclamation  

SciTech Connect

Vitrification has shown great potential as a method of remediation, as it incorporates aspects of all of the fundamental treatment techniques of destruction, extraction, and immobilization. A wide variety of waste streams can be treated to levels acceptable for disposal in municipal solid waste landfills. However, it is important that an individual considering vitrification as a treatment method understands the regulatory mechanism whereby a vitrified waste may be disposed of in a Subtitle D (i.e. non-hazardous) land disposal facility. This presentation is designed to orient the individual to the current RCRA requirements for land disposal of vitrified waste residues.

Bickford, D.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Compton, K.L.; Bennert, D.M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Systems Engineering

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Regulatory issues in vitrification research: A case study of circuit board reclamation  

SciTech Connect

Vitrification has shown great potential as a method of remediation, as it incorporates aspects of all of the fundamental treatment techniques of destruction, extraction, and immobilization. A wide variety of waste streams can be treated to levels acceptable for disposal in municipal solid waste landfills. However, it is important that an individual considering vitrification as a treatment method understands the regulatory mechanism whereby a vitrified waste may be disposed of in a Subtitle D (i.e. non-hazardous) land disposal facility. This presentation is designed to orient the individual to the current RCRA requirements for land disposal of vitrified waste residues.

Bickford, D.F. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Compton, K.L.; Bennert, D.M. (Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Systems Engineering)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

The incandescent disposal system  

SciTech Connect

The electrotechnology device being introduced to the low-level waste market is an Incandescent Disposal System (IDS) for volume reduction and vitrification. The process changes the composition of the waste material, usually long molecular chains, into simple molecules and elements. It renders the volume of low-level wastes to a manageable solid vitrified residue, carbon black, and a water discharge. The solid material, which has been vitrified if silica is introduced into the waste stream, is an ideal inert filler. The carbon black is non-leaching and is readily available for vitrification as it comes out of the IDS.

Smith, R.G.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Idaho National Laboratory Description, Chellenges, Technology, Issues, and Needs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

i f th Hi i f th Hi h L l W t (HLW) P Overview of the High Level Waste (HLW) Program at the Id h N ti l L b t (INL) Sit Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Description Challenges Technology Issues and Needs Description, Challenges, Technology, Issues, and Needs 1 April 1, 2008 INL Site HLW is in Dry Storage in the Form of Calcine 8 9M ll f li id HLW t d t 4400 bi t f * 8-9M gallons of liquid HLW were converted to 4400 cubic meters of granular solid (calcine) through a fluidized bed calcination process - 7 to 1 volume reduction achieved * Average particle size is 0.4 cm * Bulk density is about 1 5 to 1 8 g/cc * Bulk density is about 1.5 to 1.8 g/cc - Contains roughly 44 metric tons heavy metal * Calcine is stored in 43 bins in 6 concrete-shielded binsets with one spare p - 7 th set of bins - intended for calcined SBW

399

Slide 1  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Inventory map reflects the non-federally owned SNF and HLW covered by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act Inventory map reflects the non-federally owned SNF and HLW covered by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act 2 Metric Tons Heavy Metal (MTHM) 3 Based on actual data through 2002 , as provided in the RW-859, and projected discharges for 2003-2010 which are rounded to two significant digits. Reflects trans-shipments as of end-2002. End of Year 2010 SNF & HLW Inventories 1 Approximately 64,000 MTHM 2 of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) 3 & 275 High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Canisters CT 1,900 TX 2,000 MD 1,200 VT 610 RI MT WY NE 790 SD ND OK KS 600 TX 2,000 LA 1,200 AR 1,200 IA 480 MN 1,100 WI 1,300 KY TN 1,500 MS 780 AL 3,000 GA 2,400 FL 2,900 NC 3,400 VA 2,400 WV OH 1,100 PA 5,800 ME 540 NJ 2,400 DE MI 2,500 MA 650 NH 480 IN SC 3,900 CO MO 670 IL 8,400 NY 3,300 CA 2,800 AZ 1,900 NM OR 360 NV UT WA 600 ID < 1 Commercial HLW 275 Canisters (~640 MTHM)

400

Life extension program for the modular caustic side solvent extraction unit at Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. At SRS, the CSSX process is deployed in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. Coalescers and decanters process the Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) and Strip Effluent (SE) streams to allow recovery and reuse of the organic solvent and to limit the quantity of solvent transferred to the downstream facilities. MCU is operated in series with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) which removes strontium and actinides from salt waste utilizing monosodium titanate. ARP and MCU were developed and implemented as interim salt processing until future processing technology, the CSSX-based Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), is operational. SWPF is slated to come on-line in October 2014. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU process, however, was reached in April 2011. Nevertheless, most of the individual process components are capable of operating longer. An evaluation determined ARP/MCU can operate until 2015 before major equipment failure is expected. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU Life Extension (ARP/MCU LE) program will bridge the gap between current ARP/MCU operations and the start of SWPF operation. The ARP/MCU LE program introduces no new technologies. As a portion of this program, a Next Generation Solvent (NGS) and corresponding flowsheet are being developed to provide a major performance enhancement at MCU. This paper discusses all the modifications performed in the facility to support the ARP/MCU Life Extension. It will also discuss the next generation chemistry, including NGS and new stripping chemistry, which will increase cesium removal efficiency in MCU. Possible implementation of the NGS chemistry in MCU accomplishes two objectives. MCU serves as a demonstration facility for improved flowsheet deployment at SWPF; operating with NGS and boric acid validates improved cesium removal performance and increased throughput as well as confirms Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) ability to vitrify waste streams containing boron. NGS implementation at MCU also aids the ARP/MCU LE operation, mitigating the impacts of delays and sustaining operations until other technology is able to come on-line.

Samadi-Dezfouli, Azadeh

2012-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Method of making nanostructured glass-ceramic waste forms  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of rendering hazardous materials less dangerous comprising trapping the hazardous material in nanopores of a nanoporous composite material, reacting the trapped hazardous material to render it less volatile/soluble, sealing the trapped hazardous material, and vitrifying the nanoporous material containing the less volatile/soluble hazardous material.

Gao, Huizhen; Wang, Yifeng; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Bencoe, Denise N.

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

402

Radioactive Wastes: Some Urgent Unfinished Business  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...however. An NRC study of management alterna-tives for the now-defunct Nuclear Fuel Services reprocessing operation at West Valley, New York, found that to develop an operational process for vitrifying (con-verting to glass) the 600,000 gallons...

LUTHER J. CARTER

1977-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

403

Fast high-pressure freezing of protein crystals in their mother liquor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Protein crystals were vitrified using high-pressure freezing in their mother liquor at 210 MPa and 77 K without cryoprotectants or oil coating. The method was successfully applied to photosystem II, which is representative of a membrane protein with a large unit cell and weak crystal contacts.

Burkhardt, A.

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

404

Na, Mg, Ni and Cs distribution and speciation after long-term alteration of a simulated nuclear waste glass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

distribution and speciation of Na, Mg, Ni and Cs in a simulated (inactive) nuclear waste glass were studied and Cs represent dose determining long-lived radionuclides (59 Ni, 135 Cs) in vitrified nuclear wasteNa, Mg, Ni and Cs distribution and speciation after long-term alteration of a simulated nuclear

405

Radioactive waste disposal package  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Potential-tuning molecular dynamics studies of fusion, and the question of ideal glassformers: (I) The Gay-Berne model.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ85287-1604. Abstract The ability of some liquids to vitrify to the empirics of coal briquetting for maximum trucking efficiency2 that some object shapes find little advantage efficiency, various G-B crystalline states, that cannot be obtained directly from the liquid, disorder

Angell, C. Austen

407

CREATED USING THE RSC COMMUNICATION TEMPLATE (VER. 3.1) -SEE WWW.RSC.ORG/ELECTRONICFILES FOR DETAILS ARTICLE TYPE www.rsc.org/xxxxxx | XXXXXXXX  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on an adaption of the empirics of industrial age coal briquetting (for maximum trucking efficiency)[1], to the10. 20 It is generally assumed that liquids are always supercooled when they vitrify tuning studies of melting by the method of Molinero et al[3], using the Gay- Berne model of liquid

Angell, C. Austen

408

Proceedings of NAWTEC16 16th Annual North American Waste-to-Energy Conference  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

require pre-processing of the MSW, combust the resulting syngas to generate steam, and produce a vitrified used globally for energy recovery from municipal solid wastes is combustion of "as received" MSW combustion of solid wastes. In China, there have been some mass-burn new plants and also over forty

Columbia University

409

Leach tests of simulated low-level transuranic waste forms containing transuranic elements  

SciTech Connect

Simulations of waste forms that might be produced by slagging pyrolysis incineration of low-level transuranic (TRU) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been fabricated containing the transuranic isotopes /sup 237/Np, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, /sup 244/Cm at levels of approximately 1 ..mu..Ci per gram of each. Leach tests were performed using frit and vitrified monolithic specimens of average INEL TRU waste, portland cement monoliths made with frit as aggregate, and vitrified monoliths of INEL soil and simulated Rocky Flats sludge. Static leach tests were performed at 90, 70, 40, and 25/sup 0/C in deionized water for up to 364 days. Leachates were analyzed for the TRU elements by alpha spectrometry. The following generalizations can be made: (1) Cemented frit and vitrified sludge waste forms produce leachates with the highest pHs (>11) and have the lowest TRU leach rates, 10/sup -4/ g/m/sup 2/.d at 90/sup 0/C. (2) Neptunium has a higher leach rate than the other three TRU elements by as much as two orders of magnitude for all waste forms tested except cemented frit. (3) Only the vitrified soil samples display a marked temperature dependence for leach rates of all four TRU elements.

Welch, J.M.; Sill, C.W.; Flinn, J.E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Tank Waste Corporate Board Meeting 11/06/08 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

11/06/08 11/06/08 Tank Waste Corporate Board Meeting 11/06/08 The following documents are associated with the Tank Waste Corporate Board Meeting held on November 6th, 2008. Note: (Please contact Steven Ross at steven.ross@em.doe.gov for a HLW Glass Waste Loadings version with animations on slide 6). Slurry Retrieval, Pipeline Transport & Plugging and Mixing Workshop The Way Ahead - West Valley Demonstration Project High-Level Liquid Waste Tank Integrity Workshop - 2008 Savannah River Tank Waste Residuals Hanford Tank Waste Residuals HLW Glass Waste Loadings High-Level Waste Corporate Board Performance Assessment Subcommittee More Documents & Publications Tank Waste Corporate Board Meeting 11/18/10 System Planning for Low-Activity Waste at Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant HLW Waste Vitrification Facility

411

 

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) is a process for dissolving high-level waste (HLW) tank heel sludge with 2 wt% oxalic acid followed by Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) is a process for dissolving high-level waste (HLW) tank heel sludge with 2 wt% oxalic acid followed by decomposition of the oxalic acid and separation of the precipitated solids by evaporation. The decomposition oxalic acid is accomplished in an external Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) involving ozone injection both with and without ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. Testing of the sludge dissolution, oxalate decomposition, downstream component solubility, and solids rheology, settling rate, and particle size will be performed utilizing actual waste sludge from SRS HLW Tanks 5F, 12H, and 51H. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Real Waste Test Savannah River Site Aiken South Carolina TC-A-2011-00038 , Rev.0 Apr 6, 2011 Andrew R. Grainger

412

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

21 - 15330 of 31,917 results. 21 - 15330 of 31,917 results. Download Smart Grid Conceptual Actors/Data Flow Diagram- Cross Domain Network Focued- Open SG/SG-Network TF http://energy.gov/gc/downloads/smart-grid-conceptual-actorsdata-flow-diagram-cross-domain-network-focued-open-sgsg Download End of Year 2010 SNF & HLW Inventories Map of the United States of America that shows the location of approximately 64,000 MTHM of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) & 275 High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Canisters. http://energy.gov/gc/downloads/end-year-2010-snf-hlw-inventories Download Microsoft PowerPoint- PARS II CPP Deployment Schedule 13Aug10.pptx http://energy.gov/management/downloads/microsoft-powerpoint-pars-ii-cpp-deployment-schedule-13aug10pptx Article Cleanup of 77 Waste Sites Meets Two TPA Milestones: 1.2 million

413

 

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SRNL will be receiving 4 replicate 1-Liter frit decon aqueous samples, and 2 replicate 1-Liter frit decon wet solids samples from DWPF. SRNL will be receiving 4 replicate 1-Liter frit decon aqueous samples, and 2 replicate 1-Liter frit decon wet solids samples from DWPF. These samples will be analyzed and the constituents compared to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). This work will take place in B-103 radiochem hood with sample submission to SRNL Analytical Department (AD) for analyses. These samples are all very low dose radioactive with whole body dose rates of nominal 0.01 mrem/hr. These samples are generated from frit blasting of the outside of the DWPF High Level Waste (HLW) steel canisters that contain HLW glass. The frit blasting generates residual frit that is washed/slurried with water during the outer HLW container frit blasting process.

414

Introduction to Tc/I in Hanford Flowsheet  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Introduction to Tc/I in Hanford Introduction to Tc/I in Hanford Flowsheet Gary Smith Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) November 18, 2010 2 Rough Flowsheet Diagram Tank Farm Evaporator Pretreatment Evaporator IDF ETF HLW LAW Vit Secondary SBS WESP Melter Supplemental ? Repository Secondary -Caustic Scrub (LAW Vit) -HEPA Filters -Carbon Beds -Silver Mordenite (HLW Vit) -Other operating wastes Recycle Options * Continuous recycle of the SBS/WESP bottoms from LAW vitrification are assumed in baseline - could consider purges and breaking of the recycle loop (e.g., off-gas scrub sent to secondary waste treatment, portions diverted to HLW vitrification facility, or supplemental LAW treatment) * WTP mass balance assumes no recycle from supplemental treatment - many estimates have been made on the impacts of scrub solution recycle if

415

 

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) is a process for dissolving high-level waste (HLW) tank heel sludge with 2 wt% oxalic acid followed by Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) is a process for dissolving high-level waste (HLW) tank heel sludge with 2 wt% oxalic acid followed by decomposition of the oxalic acid and separation of the precipitated solids by evaporation. The decomposition oxalic acid is accomplished in an external Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) involving ozone injection both with and without ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. Testing of the sludge dissolution, oxalate decomposition, downstream component solubility, and solids rheology, settling rate, and particle size will be performed utilizing actual waste sludge from SRS HLW Tanks 5F, 12H, and 51H. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Real Waste Test Savannah River Site Aiken South Carolina TC-A-2011-00038 , Rev.0 Apr 6, 2011 Andrew R. Grainger

416

Waste Management | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

July 27, 2011 July 27, 2011 End of Year 2010 SNF & HLW Inventories Map of the United States of America that shows the location of approximately 64,000 MTHM of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) & 275 High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Canisters. July 27, 2011 FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008 The Analysis of the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program presents the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's (OCRWM) May 2007 total system cost estimate for the disposal of the Nation's spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The TSLCC analysis provides a basis for assessing the adequacy of the Nuclear Waste Fund (NWF) Fee as required by Section 302 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended.

417

Recap and Conclusions to Tc/I in Hanford Flowsheet Presentations  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recap & Conclusions to Tc/I in Recap & Conclusions to Tc/I in Hanford Flowsheet Presentations Gary Smith Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) November 18, 2010 2 Rough Flowsheet Diagram Tank Farm Evaporator Pretreatment Evaporator IDF ETF HLW LAW Vit Secondary SBS WESP Melter Supplemental ? Repository Secondary -Caustic Scrub (LAW Vit) -HEPA Filters -Carbon Beds -Silver Mordenite (HLW Vit) -Other operating wastes Fate of Tc-99 at WTP * WTP flowsheet Tc partitions: - approximately 77.1% to supplemental LAW treatment - approximately 20.2% to LAW glass - approximately 2.3% to HLW glass - approximately 0.4% to secondary wastes [assumes no recycle from supplemental LAW treatment] * Secondary Wastes: - Tc-99 concentration in secondary waste is predicted to be < 0.4% of ETF limit 3 Technetium Retention During LAW

418

High-Level Waste Corporate Board Performance Assessment Subcommittee  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Level Level Waste Corporate Board Performance Assessment Subcommittee John E. Marra, Ph.D. Associate Laboratory Director November 6, 2008 Richland, WA DOE-EM HLW Corporate Board Meeting Background - Performance Assessment Process Performance assessments are the fundamental risk assessment tool used by the DOE to evaluate and communicate the effectiveness and long-term impact of waste management and cleanup decisions. This includes demonstrations of compliance, NEPA analyses, and decisions about technologies and 2 analyses, and decisions about technologies and waste forms. Background - Process Perception EM-2 'Precepts' for Improved High-Level Waste Management (HLW Corporate Board Meeting - April 2008) Improved Performance Assessments (PA) The PA process is not consistently applied amongst the 3 The PA process is not consistently applied amongst the major HLW sites PA

419

 

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) is a process for dissolving high-level waste (HLW) tank heel sludge with 1 wt% oxalic acid with pH controlled to 2 Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) is a process for dissolving high-level waste (HLW) tank heel sludge with 1 wt% oxalic acid with pH controlled to 2 followed by decomposition of the oxalic acid and separation of the precipitated solids by evaporation. The decomposition oxalic acid is accomplished in an external Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) involving ozone injection and ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. Testing of the sludge dissolution, oxalate decomposition, precipitated solids separation, and downstream component solubility will be performed utilizing actual waste sludge from SRS HLW Tanks 5F, 12H, and 51H. Real-Waste Testing of Enhanced Chemical Cleaning for Sludge Heel Removal Savannah River Site Aiken South Carolina TC - A - 2010 - 020, Rev.0

420

ch_5  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

45 45 DOE/EIS-0287 Idaho HLW & FD EIS 5.3.4.2 Existing Facilities Associated with High-Level Waste Management The facilities in this group are those that have historically been used at the INTEC to generate, treat, and store HLW. Because of the number of facilities involved, DOE has grouped them in functional groups for purposes of analysis (see Table 3-3). DOE analyzed the HLW tanks and bin sets for closure under all five disposition sce- narios; however, facilities that support the Tank Farm and bin sets were analyzed under a single disposition alternative. As shown in Table 3-3, the facility disposition alternative for most sup- porting facilities is Closure to Landfill Standards. (Two exceptions are the Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Building and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

 

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SRNL will be receiving 4 replicate 1-Liter frit decon aqueous samples, and 2 replicate 1-Liter frit decon wet solids samples from DWPF. SRNL will be receiving 4 replicate 1-Liter frit decon aqueous samples, and 2 replicate 1-Liter frit decon wet solids samples from DWPF. These samples will be analyzed and the constituents compared to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). This work will take place in B-103 radiochem hood with sample submission to SRNL Analytical Department (AD) for analyses. These samples are all very low dose radioactive with whole body dose rates of nominal 0.01 mrem/hr. These samples are generated from frit blasting of the outside of the DWPF High Level Waste (HLW) steel canisters that contain HLW glass. The frit blasting generates residual frit that is washed/slurried with water during the outer HLW container frit blasting process.

422

Alternative generation and analysis for phase I privatization transfer system needs  

SciTech Connect

This decision document provides input for the Phase I Privatization waste staging plans for the High-Level Waste (HLW)and Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Programs. This AGA report evaluates what infrastructure upgrades to existing 200 East waste transfer systems are necessary for delivery of HLW and LLW streams to the Phase I Privatization vendor. The AGA identifies the transfer routing alternatives for supernatant waste transfers from the 241-AN, 241-AW, and 241-AP Tank Farms to the 241-AP-102 tank and/or the 241-AP-104 tank. These two tanks have been targeted as the initial LLW feed staging tanks. In addition,this report addresses the transfer of slurry waste from the 241-AY and 241-AZ Tank Farms to the Phase I Privatization vendor`s facilities for HLW immobilization.

Galbraith, J.D.

1996-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

423

HWVP pilot-scale vitrification system campaign: LFCM-8 summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to treat the high-level radiative waste (HLW) stored in underground storage tanks as an alkaline sludge. Tank waste will first be retrieved and pretreated to minimize solids requiring vitrification as HLW. The glass product resulting from HWVP operations will be stored onsite in stainless steel canisters until the HLW repository is available for final disposal. The first waste stream scheduled to be processed by the HWVP is the neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) stored in double-shell storage tanks. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by providing research, development, and engineering expertise in defined areas. As a part of this support, pilot-scale testing is being conducted to support closure of HWVP design and development issues. Testing results will verify equipment design performance, establish acceptable and optimum process parameters, and support product qualification activities.

Perez, J.M.; Whitney, L.D.; Buchmiller, W.C.; Daume, J.T.; Whyatt, G.A.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Supplement analysis 2 of environmental impacts resulting from modifications in the West Valley Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The West Valley Demonstration Project, located in western New York, has approximately 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in storage in underground tanks. While corrosion analysis has revealed that only limited tank degradation has taken place, the failure of these tanks could release HLW to the environment. Congress requires DOE to demonstrate the technology for removal and solidification of HLW. DOE issued the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) in 1982. The purpose of this second supplement analysis is to re-assess the 1982 Final Environmental Impact Statement's continued adequacy. This report provides the necessary and appropriate data for DOE to determine whether the environmental impacts presented by the ongoing refinements in the design, process, and operations of the Project are considered sufficiently bounded within the envelope of impacts presented in the FEIS and supporting documentation.

NONE

1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

425

Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation: An Examination of Potential Lessons Learned From Prior Shipping Campaigns  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, assigned the Department of Energy (DOE) responsibility for developing and managing a Federal system for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for accepting, transporting, and disposing of SNF and HLW at the Yucca Mountain repository in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. OCRWM faces a near-term challengeto develop and demonstrate a transportation system that will sustain safe and efficient shipments of SNF and HLW to a repository. To better inform and improve its current planning, OCRWM has extensively reviewed plans and other documents related to past high-visibility shipping campaigns of SNF and other radioactive materials within the United States. This report summarizes the results of this review and, where appropriate, lessons learned.

Marsha Keister; Kathryn McBride

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

51 - 11860 of 26,764 results. 51 - 11860 of 26,764 results. Article U.S. Energy Secretary Chu to Lead Delegation to IAEA 54th Annual General Conference http://energy.gov/articles/us-energy-secretary-chu-lead-delegation-iaea-54th-annual-general-conference Download Smart Grid Conceptual Actors/Data Flow Diagram- Cross Domain Network Focued- Open SG/SG-Network TF http://energy.gov/gc/downloads/smart-grid-conceptual-actorsdata-flow-diagram-cross-domain-network-focued-open-sgsg Download End of Year 2010 SNF & HLW Inventories Map of the United States of America that shows the location of approximately 64,000 MTHM of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) & 275 High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Canisters. http://energy.gov/gc/downloads/end-year-2010-snf-hlw-inventories Download Microsoft PowerPoint- PARS II CPP Deployment Schedule 13Aug10.pptx

427

Microsoft PowerPoint - PA CoP Status and plans.pptx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Practice Status and Plans Performance Assessment Community of Practice Technical Exchange May 25, 2011 Martin J Letourneau DOE Office of Environmental Compliance 5/25/2011 Print Close 2 History and Background * Originally envisioned and established in 2008 under DOE HLW Corporate Board * Very DOE and EM oriented * Sponsored 2 technical exchange meetings (Salt Lake and Richland) * Went dormant when HLW Corporate Board was on hiatus * Corporate Board Shifted to Office of Environmental Compliance * Identified opportunity to make PA CoP broader and free- standing 5/25/2011 Print Close 3 Initial Steering Committee Meeting * Met Monday to develop path forward and work on charter - Alaa aly, Intera

428

C-104 high-level waste solids: Washing/leaching and solubility versus temperature studies  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the C-104 HLW solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-104 solids remaining after washing with 0.01 M NaOH or leaching with 3 M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of the C-104 solids as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8, Rev. 0, ``Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids.

GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; SK Fiskum; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

2000-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

429

Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 3, Appendix 3A, ORIGEN2 decay tables for immobilized high-level waste; Appendix 3B, Interim high-level waste forms  

SciTech Connect

This appendix presents the results of decay calculations using the ORIGEN2 code to determine the radiological properties of canisters of immobilized high-level waste as a function of decay time for decay times up to one million years. These calculations were made for the four HLW sites (West Valley Demonstration Project, Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) using the composition data discussed in the HLW section of this report. Calculated ({alpha},n) neutron production rates are also shown.

Not Available

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE (WTP-SW) BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energys Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanfords tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanfords WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular products (both simulant and radioactive) were tested and a subset of the granular material (both simulant and radioactive) were stabilized in a geopolymer matrix. Extensive testing and characterization of the granular and monolith material were made including the following: ? ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) testing of granular and monolith; ? ASTM C1308 accelerated leach testing of the radioactive monolith; ? ASTM C192 compression testing of monoliths; and ? EPA Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The significant findings of the testing completed on simulant and radioactive WTP-SW are given below: ? Data indicates {sup 99}Tc, Re, Cs, and I

Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, G.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

431

NITRATE DESTRUCTION LITERATURE SURVEY AND EVALUATION CRITERIA  

SciTech Connect

This report satisfies the initial phase of Task WP-2.3.4 Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology, Subtask 1; Develop Near-Tank Nitrate/Nitrite Destruction Technology. Some of the more common anions in carbon steel waste tanks at SRS and Hanford Site are nitrate which is corrosive, and nitrite and hydroxide which are corrosion inhibitors. At present it is necessary to periodically add large quantities of 50 wt% caustic to waste tanks. There are three primary reasons for this addition. First, when the contents of salt tanks are dissolved, sodium hydroxide preferentially dissolves and is removed. During the dissolution process the concentration of free hydroxide in the tank liquid can decrease from 9 M to less than 0.2 M. As a result, roughly half way through the dissolution process large quantities of sodium hydroxide must be added to the tank to comply with requirements for corrosion control. Second, hydroxide is continuously consumed by reaction with carbon dioxide which occurs naturally in purge air used to prevent buildup of hydrogen gas inside the tanks. The hydrogen is generated by radiolysis of water. Third, increasing the concentration of hydroxide increases solubility of some aluminum compounds, which is desirable in processing waste. A process that converts nitrate and nitrite to hydroxide would reduce certain costs. (1) Less caustic would be purchased. (2) Some of the aluminum solid compounds in the waste tanks would become more soluble so less mass of solids would be sent to High Level Vitrification and therefore it would be not be necessary to make as much expensive high level vitrified product. (3) Less mass of sodium would be fed to Saltstone at SRS or Low Level Vitrification at Hanford Site so it would not be necessary to make as much low level product. (4) At SRS less nitrite and nitrate would be sent to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so less formic acid would be consumed there and less hydrogen gas would be generated. This task involves literature survey of technologies to perform the nitrate to hydroxide conversion, selection of the most promising technologies, preparation of a flowsheet and design of a system. The most promising technologies are electrochemical reduction of nitrates and chemical reduction with hydrogen or ammonia. The primary reviewed technologies are listed and they aredescribed in more detail later in the report: (1) Electrochemical destruction; (2) Chemical reduction with agents such as ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen; (3) Hydrothermal reduction process; and (4) Calcination. Only three of the technologies on the list have been demonstrated to generate usable amounts of caustic; electrochemical reduction and chemical reduction with ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen and hydrothermal reduction. Chemical reduction with an organic reactant such as formic acid generates carbon dioxide which reacts with caustic and is thus counterproductive. Treatment of nitrate with aluminum or other active metals generates a solid product. High temperature calcination has the potential to generate sodium oxide which may be hydrated to sodium hydroxide, but this is unproven. The following criteria were developed to evaluate the most suitable option. The numbers in brackets after the criteria are relative weighting factors to account for importance: (1) Personnel exposure to radiation for installation, routine operation and maintenance; (2) Non-radioactive safety issues; (3) Whether the technology generates caustic and how many moles of caustic are generated per mole of nitrate plus nitrite decomposed; (4) Whether the technology can handle nitrate and nitrite at the concentrations encountered in waste; (5) Maturity of technology; (6) Estimated annual cost of operation (labor, depreciation, materials, utilities); (7) Capital cost; (8) Selectivity to nitrogen as decomposition product (other products are flammable and/or toxic); (9) Impact of introduced species; (10) Selectivity for destruction of nitrate vs. nitrite; and (11) Cost of deactivation and demolition. Each technology was given a score from one

Steimke, J.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives  

SciTech Connect

The HLW salt waste (salt cake and supernate) now stored at the SRS must be treated to remove insoluble sludge solids and reduce the soluble concentration of radioactive cesium radioactive strontium and transuranic contaminants (principally Pu and Np). These treatments will enable the salt solution to be processed for disposal as saltstone, a solid low-level waste.

Elder, H.H.

2001-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

433

Hanford K-Basin Sludge Characterization Overview February 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) and the definition of High Level Waste (HLW) and Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 in accordance with part 61 of title 10, Code of Federal Regulations. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 U irradiated fuel prior to Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) processing. In 1980, irradiated N-Reactor fuel was placed

434

Enclosure 3 DOE Response to EPA Question Regarding "High-Level Liquid Radioactive Waste"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to date, which is from the definitions in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act: The term "high-level radioactive of waste streams as from the applicable definition of HLW in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. 5/11/20051 #12 defining High Level Waste: For the purpose of this statement of policy, "high-level liquid radioactive

435

Microsoft PowerPoint - ORP Glass Effort TWC HAB  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10 m 2 EnergySolutions M-Area Mixed Waste DM- 5000 5m 2 LAW Pilot DM-3300 3.3 m 2 Hanford HLW Pilot DM-1200 1.2 m 2 EnergySolutionsVSL Test Melters DM-100 0.11 m 2...

436

Breeder Spent Fuel Handling Program multipurpose cask design basis document  

SciTech Connect

The Breeder Spent Fuel Handling (BSFH) Program multipurpose cask Design Basis Document defines the performance requirements essential to the development of a legal weight truck cask to transport FFTF spent fuel from reactor to a reprocessing facility and the resultant High Level Waste (HLW) to a repository. 1 ref.

Duckett, A.J.; Sorenson, K.B.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

GLASS FORMULATION FOR THE HANFORD TANK WASTE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION PLANT (WTP)  

SciTech Connect

A computational method for formulating Hanford HLW glasses was developed that is based on empirical glass composition-property models, accounts for all associated uncertainties, and can be solved in Excel{sup R} in minutes. Calculations for all waste form processing and compliance requirements included. Limited experimental validation performed.

KRUGER AA; VIENNA JD; KIM DS; JAIN V

2009-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

438

Hanford Tank Waste Information Enclosure 1 Hanford Tank Waste Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hanford Tank Waste Information Enclosure 1 1 Hanford Tank Waste Information 1.0 Summary This information demonstrates the wastes in the twelve Hanford Site tanks meet the definition of transuranic (TRU. The wastes in these twelve (12) tanks are not high-level waste (HLW), and contain more than 100 nanocuries

439

Study of the burning capability of the los alamos ATW system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of calculations is to evaluate the evolution of the infinite multiplication factor (k inf) during the irradiation of minor actinides High Level Waste (HLW) and Plutonium. The most important results are independently verified with Monte Carlo calculations. The relative importance of the main parameters affecting the k inf was investigated by performing calculations with several minor actinide and plutonium concentrations as well as different 238U decontamination factors for HLW. The merit figure value for minor actinide alone considering a constant neutron flux indicates that the best results are reached for minor actinide concentration equal to PWR spent fuel. The best plutonium burning results are obtained for a concentration (50.23 g/l) equal to the half of PWR spent fuel one. The simulations lead to two different reactor concepts: one for HLW burning and the other for plutonium burning purposes. To burn the HLW the most suitable reactor is an homogeneous one. This kind of reactor can effectively be utilised to burn minor actinide in low concentration (namely the PWR spent fuel). On the other hand an heterogeneous reactor with channels filled by all actinides present in PWR spent fuel with the exclusion of U isotopes with a concentration of 50 g/l can be studied.

P. A. Landeyro; A. Buccafurni; A. Orazi

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

US Department of Energy Storage of Spent Fuel and High Level Waste  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW) storage management. Like commercial reactor fuel, DOE's SNF and HLW were destined for the Yucca Mountain repository. In March 2010, the DOE filed a motion with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to withdraw the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain. A new repository is now decades away. The default for the commercial and DOE research reactor fuel and HLW is on-site storage for the foreseeable future. Though the motion to withdraw the license application and delay opening of a repository signals extended storage, DOE's immediate plans for management of its SNF and HLW remain the same as before Yucca Mountain was designated as the repository, though it has expanded its research and development efforts to ensure safe extended storage. This paper outlines some of the proposed research that DOE is conducting and will use to enhance its storage systems and facilities.

Sandra M Birk

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vitrified hlw quantities" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

MODELING OF THE THERMOHYDRODYNAMIC AND REACTIVE BEHAVIOR OF COMPACTED CLAY FOR HIGH-LEVEL RADIONUCLIDE WASTE-MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...proposed as an engineered-buffer material in high-level radionuclide...regarding the stability of benonite backfill in a high-level (HLW) repository...pp. Lide, D.R. (1997) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics...proposed as an engineered-buffer material in high-level radionuclide...

Ricardo Juncosa; Vicente Navarro; Jordi Delgado; Ana Vzquez

442

Molybdenum in Nuclear Waste Glasses -Incorporation and Redox state R.J. Short, R.J. Hand, N.C. Hyatt,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molybdenum in Nuclear Waste Glasses - Incorporation and Redox state R.J. Short, R.J. Hand, N form in simulated high level nuclear waste (HLW) glass melts have been studied. It was found less attention has been paid to the effects of redox on nuclear waste glasses. One particular element

Sheffield, University of

443

An Investigation into the Oxidation State of Molybdenum in Simplified High Level Nuclear Waste Glass Compositions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Investigation into the Oxidation State of Molybdenum in Simplified High Level Nuclear Waste of Mo in glasses containing simplified simulated high level nuclear waste (HLW) streams has been originating from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Experiments using simulated nuclear waste streams

Sheffield, University of

444

Nuclear Waste: Knowledge Waste?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...06520, USA. Nuclear power is re-emerging...proclaiming a nuclear renaissance...example, plant safety...liabilities, terrorism at plants and in transport...high-level nuclear wastes (HLW...factor in risk perceptions...supporting nuclear power in the abstract...

Eugene A. Rosa; Seth P. Tuler; Baruch Fischhoff; Thomas Webler; Sharon M. Friedman; Richard E. Sclove; Kristin Shrader-Frechette; Mary R. English; Roger E. Kasperson; Robert L. Goble; Thomas M. Leschine; William Freudenburg; Caron Chess; Charles Perrow; Kai Erikson; James F. Short

2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

445

West Valley Accomplishments: Year in Review  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

WEST VALLEY, N.Y. EM and its contractor at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) made significant progress in decommissioning the former nuclear fuel reprocessing center this year, with a focus on preparing for high-level waste (HLW) relocation, deactivation and demolition of site facilities and shipment of waste for off-site disposal.

446

Technology development program for Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management  

SciTech Connect

Acidic high-level radioactive waste (HLW) resulting from fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been solidified to a calcine since 1963 and stored in stainless steel bins enclosed by concrete vaults. Several different types of unprocessed irradiated DOE-owned fuels are also in storage at the ICPP. In April, 1992, DOE announced that spent fuel would no longer be reprocessed to recover enriched uranium and called for a shutdown of the reprocessing facilities at the ICPP. A new Spent Fuel and HLW Technology Development program was subsequently initiated to develop technologies for immobilizing ICPP spent fuels and HLW for disposal, in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The Program elements include Systems Analysis, Graphite Fuel Disposal, Other Spent Fuel Disposal, Sodium-Bearing Liquid Waste Processing, Calcine Immobilization, and Metal Recycle/Waste Minimization. This paper presents an overview of the ICPP radioactive wastes and current spent fuels, and describes the Spent Fuel and HLW Technology program in more detail.

Ermold, L.F.; Knecht, D.A.; Hogg, G.W.; Olson, A.L.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

ch_2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HLW & FD EIS B i r c h C r e ek East Butte Middle Butte Big Southern Butte LAVA Black Canyon Wilderness Study Area Hell's Half Acre Wilderness Study Area C H A L L I S N A T I...

448

Evaluation of Options for Permanent Geologic Disposal of Spent NuclearFuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

[In Support of a Comprehensive National Nuclear Fuel Cycle Strategy, Volumes I and II (Appendices)] This study provides a technical basis for informing policy decisions regarding strategies for the management and permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in the United States requiring geologic isolation.

449

PROCESSING ALTERNATIVES FOR DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE  

SciTech Connect

Two processes were chosen in the 1980's at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to decontaminate the soluble High Level Waste (HLW). The In Tank Precipitation (ITP) process (1,2) was developed at SRS for the removal of radioactive cesium and actinides from the soluble HLW. Sodium tetraphenylborate was added to the waste to precipitate cesium and monosodium titanate (MST) was added to adsorb actinides, primarily uranium and plutonium. Two products of this process were a low activity waste stream and a concentrated organic stream containing cesium tetraphenylborate and actinides adsorbed on monosodium titanate (MST). A copper catalyzed acid hydrolysis process was built to process (3, 4) the Tank 48H cesium tetraphenylborate waste in the SRS's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Operation of the DWPF would have resulted in the production of benzene for incineration in SRS's Consolidated Incineration Facility. This process was abandoned together with the ITP process in 1998 due to high benzene in ITP caused by decomposition of excess sodium tetraphenylborate. Processing in ITP resulted in the production of approximately 1.0 million liters of HLW. SRS has chosen a solvent extraction process combined with adsorption of the actinides to decontaminate the soluble HLW stream (5). However, the waste in Tank 48H is incompatible with existing waste processing facilities. As a result, a processing facility is needed to disposition the HLW in Tank 48H. This paper will describe the process for searching for processing options by SRS task teams for the disposition of the waste in Tank 48H. In addition, attempts to develop a caustic hydrolysis process for in tank destruction of tetraphenylborate will be presented. Lastly, the development of both a caustic and acidic copper catalyzed peroxide oxidation process will be discussed.

Lambert, D; Thomas Peters, T; Samuel Fink, S

2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

450

Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal  

SciTech Connect

If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being evaluated at Idaho National Laboratory and the facilities weve designed to evaluate options and support optimization.

Dirk Gombert

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Overview of AREVA Logistics Business Unit Capabilities and Expertise  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Outline Outline Presentation Outline Overview of AREVA Logistics Business Unit capabilities and E ti Expertise Overview of Transnuclear Inc Transportation Capabilities in the United States Questions Quick Reminder of Fuel Cycle - p.2 AREVA Logistics Business Unit - p.3 Around 4 000 transports each year Around 4,000 transports each year More than 200 transports of used fuel (France and Europe), of vitrified and compacted waste (Europe and Japan) of vitrified and compacted waste (Europe and Japan) More than 150 MOX fuel transports More than 300 transports of low level waste More than 2,700 front-end transports More than 400 transports of heavy industrial equipment Around 150 transports for research reactors and laboratories - p.4 Around 150 transports for research reactors and laboratories Design, Testing and Licensing:

452

Preconceptual Design Description for Caustic Recycle Facility  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy plans to vitrify both high-level and low-activity waste at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. One aspect of the planning includes a need for a caustic recycle process to separate sodium hydroxide for recycle. Sodium is already a major limitation to the waste-oxide loading in the low-activity waste glass to be vitrified at the Waste Treatment Plant, and additional sodium hydroxide will be added to remove aluminum and to control precipitation in the process equipment. Aluminum is being removed from the high level sludge to reduce the number of high level waste canisters produced. A sodium recycle process would reduce the volume of low-activity waste glass produced and minimize the need to purchase new sodium hydroxide, so there is a renewed interest in investigating sodium recycle. This document describes an electrochemical facility for recycling sodium for the WTP.

Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.

2008-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

453

Vitrification demonstration with surrogate Oak Ridge Reservation K-25 B and C pond sludge  

SciTech Connect

Surrogate Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) K-25 B&C Pond sludge was vitrified in a pilot-scale EnVit Co melter operated by Clemson University at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research Center. This demonstration was performed for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in support of a Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Technology Development (OTD) Technical Task Plan. The intent of the demonstration was to determine the feasibility of vitrifying actual K-25 B&C Pond sludge in an EnVitCo type melter. B&C Pond sludge is a mixed waste consisting primarily of various amounts of Ca, Fe, and Si, with Ni and U as the principal hazardous and radioactive components. The demonstration was successfully completed and homogeneous, durable glass was produced. Characterization of the glass product, as well as details of the demonstration, will be discussed.

Cicero, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Overcamp, T.J.; Erich, D.L. [Clemson Univ., Anderson, SC (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

DRAFT Glass.indd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FAST FACTS FAST FACTS Glass technology provides a versatile method for safely managing a variety of wastes SRNL has studied the behavior in glass of nearly every element in the Periodic Table Overview Converting waste materials into a stable glass form is a highly effective way of treating and disposing of many types of waste, including some hazardous and radioactive wastes. Vitrifi cation - the immobilization of a material in glass - is

455

Appl Phys A (2009) 95: 493500 DOI 10.1007/s00339-008-4926-z  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is the most preferred candidate as planar solid oxide fuel and electrolyzer cell seals [1]. To be used, novel glasses based on SrO­La2O3­ Al2O3­B2O3­SiO2 system are investigated for solid oxide fuel and oxidizing environments and not de- vitrify at solid oxide cell operating temperature for a long time (>50

Bodnar, Robert J.

456

Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants. 6 figs.

Hnat, J.G.; Mathur, A.; Simpson, J.C.

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

457

Vitrification testing of soil fines from contaminated Hanford 100 Area and 300 Area soils  

SciTech Connect

The suitability of Hanford soil for vitrification is well known and has been demonstrated extensively in other work. The tests reported here were carried out to confirm the applicability of vitrification to the soil fines (a subset of the Hanford soil potentially different in composition from the bulk soil) and to provide data on the performance of actual, vitrified soil fines. It was determined that the soil fines were generally similar in composition to the bulk Hanford soil, although the fraction <0.25 mm in the 100 Area soil sample appears to differ somewhat from the bulk soil composition. The soil fines are readily melted into a homogeneous glass with the simple additions of CaO and/or Na{sub 2}O. The vitrified waste (plus additives) occupies only 60% of the volume of the initial untreated waste. Leach testing has shown the glasses made from the soil fines to be very durable relative to natural and man-made glasses and has demonstrated the ability of the vitrified waste to greatly reduce the release of radionuclides to the environment. Viscosity and electrical conductivity measurements indicate that the soil fines will be readily processable, although with levels of additives slightly greater than used in the radioactive melts. These tests demonstrate the applicability of vitrification to the contaminated soil fines and the exceptional performance of the waste form resulting from the vitrification of contaminated Hanford soils.

Ludowise, J.D.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Leach tests of simulated low-level transuranic waste forms containing transuranic elements  

SciTech Connect

Simulations of waste forms that could be produced by slagging pyrolysis incineration of low-level transuranic (TRU) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been fabricated containing the transuranic isotopes /sup 237/Np, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, and /sup 244/Cm at levels of approximately 1 ..mu..Ci/g of each. Leach tests were performed on frit; concrete monoliths made with frit and Portland cement; and vitrified monoliths of average INEL TRU waste, INEL soil, and simulated Rocky Flats plant sludge. Static leach tests were performed at 90, 70, 40, and 25/sup 0/C in deionized water for up to 364 days. Leachates were analyzed for the TRU elements by alpha spectrometry. From the leaching results the following generalizations can be made: (1) cemented frit and vitrified sludge waste forms produce leachates with the highest pHs (> 11) and have the lowest TRU leach rates, 10/sup -4/ g/m/sup 2/ d at 90/sup 0/C; (2) neptunium has a higher leach rate than the other three TRU elements by as much as two orders of magnitude for all waste forms tested except cemented frit; and (3) only the vitrified soil samples display a marked temperature dependence for leach rates of all four TRU elements.

Welch, J.M.; Sill, C.W.; Flinn, J.E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Used fuel disposition campaign international activities implementation plan.  

SciTech Connect

The management of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste is required for any country using nuclear energy. This includes the storage, transportation, and disposal of low and intermediate level waste (LILW), used nuclear fuel (UNF), and high level waste (HLW). The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT), is responsible for conducting research and development pertaining to the management of these materials in the U.S. Cooperation and collaboration with other countries would be beneficial to both the U.S. and other countries through information exchange and a broader participation of experts in the field. U.S. participation in international UNF and HLW exchanges leads to safe management of nuclear materials, increased security through global oversight, and protection of the environment worldwide. Such interactions offer the opportunity to develop consensus on policy, scientific, and technical approaches. Dialogue to address common technical issues helps develop an internationally recognized foundation of sound science, benefiting the U.S. and participating countries. The UNF and HLW management programs in nuclear countries are at different levels of maturity. All countries utilizing nuclear power must store UNF, mostly in wet storage, and HLW for those countries that reprocess UNF. Several countries either utilize or plan to utilize dry storage systems for UNF, perhaps for long periods of time (several decades). Geologic disposal programs are at various different states, ranging from essentially 'no progress' to selected sites and pending license applications to regulators. The table below summarizes the status of UNF and HLW management programs in several countriesa. Thus, the opportunity exists to collaborate at different levels ranging from providing expertise to those countries 'behind' the U.S. to obtaining access to information and expertise from those countries with more mature programs. The U.S. fuel cycle is a once through fuel cycle involving the direct disposal of UNF, as spent nuclear fuel, in a geologic repository (previously identified at Yucca Mountain, Nevada), following at most a few decades of storage (wet and dry). The geology at Yucca Mountain, unsaturated tuff, is unique among all countries investigating the disposal of UNF and HLW. The decision by the U.S. Department of Energy to no longer pursue the disposal of UNF at Yucca Mountain and possibly utilize very long term storage (approaching 100 years or more) while evaluating future fuel cycle alternatives for managing UNF, presents a different UNF and HLW management R&D portfolio that has been pursued in the U.S. In addition, the research and development activities managed by OCRWM have been transferred to DOE-NE. This requires a reconsideration of how the UFDC will engage in cooperative and collaborative activities with other countries. This report presents the UFDC implementation plan for international activities. The DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has cooperated and collaborated with other countries in many different 'arenas' including the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) within the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and through bilateral agreements with other countries. These international activities benefited OCRWM through the acquisition and exchange of information, database development, and peer reviews by experts from other countries. DOE-NE cooperates and collaborates with other countries in similar 'arenas' with similar objectives and realizing similar benefits. However the DOE-NE focus has not typically been in the area of UNF and HLW management. This report will first summarize these recent cooperative and collaborative activities. The manner that the UFDC will cooperate and collaborate in the future is expected to change as R&D is conducted regarding long-term storage and the potential disposal of UNF and HLW in different geolo

Nutt, W. M. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

460

Improving the Estimates of Waste from the Recycling of Used Nuclear Fuel - 13410  

SciTech Connect

Estimates are presented of wastes arising from the reprocessing of 50 GWD/tonne, 5 year and 50 year cooled used nuclear fuel (UNF) from Light Water Reactors (LWRs), using the 'NUEX' solvent extraction process. NUEX is a fourth generation aqueous based reprocessing system, comprising shearing and dissolution in nitric acid of the UNF, separation of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium using solvent extraction in a development of the PUREX process using tri-n-butyl phosphate in a kerosene diluent, purification of the plutonium and uranium-plutonium products, and conversion of them to uranium trioxide and mixed uranium-plutonium dioxides respectively. These products are suitable for use as new LWR uranium oxide and mixed oxide fuel, respectively. Each unit process is described and the wastes that it produces are identified and quantified. Quantification of the process wastes was achieved by use of a detailed process model developed using the Aspen Custom Modeler suite of software and based on both first principles equilibrium and rate data, plus practical experience and data from the industrial scale Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at the Sellafield nuclear site in the United Kingdom. By feeding this model with the known concentrations of all species in the incoming UNF, the species and their concentrations in all product and waste streams were produced as the output. By using these data, along with a defined set of assumptions, including regulatory requirements, it was possible to calculate the waste forms, their radioactivities, volumes and quantities. Quantification of secondary wastes, such as plant maintenance, housekeeping and clean-up wastes, was achieved by reviewing actual operating experience from THORP during its hot operation from 1994 to the present time. This work was carried out under a contract from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and, so as to enable DOE to make valid comparisons with other similar work, a number of assumptions were agreed. These include an assumed reprocessing capacity of 800 tonnes per year, the requirement to remove as waste forms the volatile fission products carbon-14, iodine-129, krypton-85, tritium and ruthenium-106, the restriction of discharge of any water from the facility unless it meets US Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards, no intentional blending of wastes to lower their classification, and the requirement for the recovered uranium to be sufficiently free from fission products and neutron-absorbing species to allow it to be re-enriched and recycled as nuclear fuel. The results from this work showed that over 99.9% of the radioactivity in the UNF can be concentrated via reprocessing into a fission-product-containing vitrified product, bottles of compressed krypton storage and a cement grout containing the tritium, that together have a volume of only about one eighth the volume of the original UNF. The other waste forms have larger volumes than the original UNF but contain only the remaining 0.1% of the radioactivity. (authors)

Phillips, Chris; Willis, William; Carter, Robert [EnergySolutions Federal EPC., 2345 Stevens Drive, Richland, WA, 99354 (United States)] [EnergySolutions Federal EPC., 2345 Stevens Drive, Richland, WA, 99354 (United States); Baker, Stephen [UK National Nuclear Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)] [UK National Nuclear Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

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461

FINAL REPORT SUMMARY OF DM 1200 OPERATION AT VSL VSL-06R6710-2 REV 0 9/7/06  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this report was to summarize the testing experience on the DuraMelter 1200 (DMI200), which is the High Level Waste (HLW) Pilot Melter located at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL). Further objectives were to provide descriptions of the history of all modifications and maintenance, methods of operation, problems and unit failures, and melter emissions and performance while processing a variety of simulated HL W and low activity waste (LAW) feeds for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and employing a variety of operating methods. All of these objectives were met. The River Protection Project - Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) Project has undertaken a 'tiered' approach to vitrification development testing involving computer-based glass formulation, glass property-composition models, crucible melts, and continuous melter tests of increasing, more realistic scales. Melter systems ranging from 0.02 to 1.2 m{sup 2} installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) have been used for this purpose, which, in combination with the 3.3 m{sup 2} low activity waste (LAW) Pilot Melter at Duratek, Inc., span more than two orders of magnitude in melt surface area. In this way, less-costly small-scale tests can be used to define the most appropriate tests to be conducted at the larger scales in order to extract maximum benefit from the large-scale tests. For high level waste (HLW) vitrification development, a key component in this approach is the one-third scale DuraMelter 1200 (DM 1200), which is the HLW Pilot Melter that has been installed at VSL with an integrated prototypical off-gas treatment system. That system replaced the DM1000 system that was used for HLW throughput testing during Part B1. Both melters have similar melt surface areas (1.2 m{sup 2}) but the DM1200 is prototypical of the present RPP-WTP HLW melter design whereas the DM1000 was not. In particular, the DM1200 provides for testing on a vitrification system with the specific train of unit operations that has been selected for both HLW and LAW RPP-WTP off-gas treatment.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; DIENER G; BARDAKCI T; PEGG IL