Sample records for visualizing lignin coalescence

  1. Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Donald L. (Moscow, ID); Ramachandra, Muralidhara (Moscow, ID)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A newly discovered lignin peroxidase enzyme is provided. The enzyme is obtained from a bacterial source and is capable of degrading the lignin portion of lignocellulose in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is extracellular, oxidative, inducible by lignin, larch wood xylan, or related substrates and capable of attacking certain lignin substructure chemical bonds that are not degradable by fungal lignin peroxidases.

  2. Redistribution of Lignin Caused by Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D. K.; Donohoe, B. S.; Katahira, R.; Tucker, M. P.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research conducted at NREL has shown that lignin undergoes a phase transition during thermochemical pretreatments conducted above its glass transition temperature. The lignin coalesces within the plant cell wall and appears as microscopic droplets on cell surfaces. It is clear that pretreatment causes significant changes in lignin distribution in pretreatments at all scales from small laboratory reactors to pilot scale reactors. A method for selectively extracting lignin droplets from the surfaces of pretreated cell walls has allowed us to characterize the chemical nature and molecular weight distribution of this fraction. The effect of lignin redistribution on the digestibility of pretreated solids has also been tested. It is clear that removal of the droplets increases the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The improved digestibility could be due to decreased non-specific binding of enzymes to lignin in the droplets, or because the droplets no longer block access to cellulose.

  3. Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Donald L. (Moscow, ID); Ramachandra, Muralidhara (Wilmington, DE)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DNA constructs are provided for the production of Streptomyces lignin peroxidase. The enzyme finds use in the degradation of lignin and oxidation of organic substrates.

  4. Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, D.L.; Ramachandra, M.

    1993-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    DNA constructs are provided for the production of Streptomyces lignin peroxidase. The enzyme finds use in the degradation of lignin and oxidation of organic substrates.

  5. Solvent Fractionation of Lignin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. The major issues for the commercial production of value added high performance lignin products are lignin s physical and chemical heterogenities. To overcome these problems, a variety of procedures have been developed to produce pure lignin suitable for high performace applications such as lignin-derived carbon materials. However, most of the isolation procedures affect lignin s properties and structure. In this chapter, a short review of the effect of solvent fractionation on lignin s properties and structure is presented.

  6. Lignin Valorization-final-sm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methods of depolymerizing lignin will improve economics of biorefineries and create a renewable resource for chemicals Biofuels: Increasing the Value of Lignin Lignin...

  7. Modulating lignin in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  8. Crack coalescence in granite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, James Thomas, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis experimentally investigates crack coalescence in prismatic Barre Granite specimens with two pre-cut, open flaws under uniaxial compression. Using a high-speed video system, crack initiation, propagation, and ...

  9. Fluorescence analyzer for lignin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berthold, John W. (Salem, OH); Malito, Michael L. (Hubbard, OH); Jeffers, Larry (Alliance, OH)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for measuring lignin concentration in a sample of wood pulp or black liquor comprises a light emitting arrangement for emitting an excitation light through optical fiber bundles into a probe which has an undiluted sensing end facing the sample. The excitation light causes the lignin concentration to produce fluorescent emission light which is then conveyed through the probe to analyzing equipment which measures the intensity of the emission light. Measures a This invention was made with Government support under Contract Number DOE: DE-FC05-90CE40905 awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  10. Lignin blockers and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Bin (West Lebanon, NH); Wyman, Charles E. (Norwich, VT)

    2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion and allows for the determination of optimized pretreatment conditions. Additionally, ethanol yields from a Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process are improved 5-25% by treatment with a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

  11. Fluorescence analyzer for lignin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berthold, J.W.; Malito, M.L.; Jeffers, L.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring lignin concentration with time resolved fluorescence in an undiluted wood pulp or black liquor sample, on a real-time, in situ basis is described, comprising: light source means for applying excitation light pulses at a selected wavelength and at known time intervals to the undiluted sample for causing the lignin concentration to produce fluorescent emission light with a fluorescence intensity that monotonically decreases in a quenched fluorescence regime; light detector means for measuring the emission light at the known time intervals and establishing signals indicative thereof; switching means for turning said light detector means on at precise specified time intervals after each excitation light pulse; and signal processing means connected to the light source means and the light detector means for comparing intensities of the emission light from the lignin in the quenched fluorescence regime to the intensities of the excitation light pulses on a time resolved basis for providing a measurement of the lignin concentration in the undiluted sample as a function of the time resolved emission light intensity.

  12. Lignin blockers and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion and allows for the determination of optimized pretreatment conditions. Additionally, ethanol yields from a Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process are improved 5-25% by treatment with a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein.

  13. The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trajano, Heather L; Engle, Nancy L; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wyman, Charles E

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of autohydrolysis aspen (P. tremuloides) lignins. Part 3.role for delignification of aspen wood by steam explosion.H: Characterization of aspen exploded wood lignin. Can J

  14. Lignin Valorization: Improving Lignin Processing in the Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragauskas, Arthur [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Beckham, Gregg [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Biddy, Mary J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Chandra, Richard [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chen, Fang [University of North Texas; Davis, Dr. Mark F. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Davison, Brian H [ORNL; Dixon, Richard [University of North Texas; Gilna, Paul [ORNL; Keller, Martin [ORNL; Langan, Paul [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Saddler, Jack N [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Wyman, Charles E, [University of California, Riverside; Harber, Karen S [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research and development activities directed toward commercial production of cellulosic ethanol have created the opportunity to dramatically increase the transformation of lignin to value-added products. Here we highlight recent advances in this lignin valorization effort. Discovery of genetic variants in native populations of bioenergy crops and direct manipulation of biosynthesis pathways have produced lignin feedstocks with favorable properties for recovery and downstream conversion. Advances in analytical chemistry and computational modeling detail the structure of the modified lignin and direct bioengineering strategies for future targeted properties. Refinement of biomass pretreatment technologies has further facilitated lignin recovery, and this coupled with genetic engineering will enable new uses for this biopolymer, including low-cost carbon fibers, engineered plastics and thermoplastic elastomers, polymeric foams, fungible fuels, and commodity chemicals.

  15. Lignin | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano,LakefrontLighthouse Solar Westchester JumpMexico |Lignin

  16. Functionalized lignin, rubber containing functionalized lignin and products containing such rubber composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benko, David Andrew; Hahn, Bruce Raymond; Cohen, Martin Paul; Dirk, Shawn Matthew; Cicotte, Kirsten Nicole

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to functionalized lignin, rubber compositions which contain functionalized lignin and to products which have at least one component comprised of such rubber composition.

  17. Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

  18. Liquid Fuels from Lignins: Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chum, H. L.; Johnson, D. K.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This task was initiated to assess the conversion of lignins into liquid fuels, primarily of lignins relevant to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The task was composed of a literature review of this area and an experimental part to obtain pertinent data on the conversion of lignins germane to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes.

  19. Method of altering lignin in trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacKay, John (Raleigh, NC); O'Malley, David (Cary, NC); Whetten, Ross (Raleigh, NC); Sederoff, Ronald (Raleigh, NC)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of providing and breeding trees having more easily extractable lignin due to the presence of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (Cad) null gene are presented.

  20. The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trajano, Heather L; Engle, Nancy L; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wyman, Charles E

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    followed by a dioxane water extraction, while Trajano et al.water, limited condensation reactions for both substrates, as evidenced by greater lignin extraction

  1. Method of altering lignin in trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacKay, J.; O`Malley, D.; Whetten, R.; Sederoff, R.

    1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of providing and breeding trees having more easily extractable lignin due to the presence of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (Cad) null gene are presented. 16 figs.

  2. Structural Characterization of a Serendipitously Discovered Bioactive Macromolecule, Lignin Sulfate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Umesh R

    Structural Characterization of a Serendipitously Discovered Bioactive Macromolecule, Lignin Sulfate was identified through a battery of biophysical and chemical analyses as a sulfated form of lignin, a three

  3. Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    acid pretreatment process using ASPEN-Plus®. Appl. Biochem.of autohydrolysis aspen (P. tremuloides) lignins. Part 3.Simulated autohydrolysis of aspen milled wood lignin in the

  4. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

  5. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is preferably dried and stored until it is used (along with an alkali, an aldehyde and an adhesive filler) in compounding an adhesive of the type generally used in the manufacture of plywood.

  6. Development of Lignin-Based Polyurethane Thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Tomonori [ORNL] [ORNL; Perkins, Joshua H [ORNL] [ORNL; Jackson, Daniel C [ORNL] [ORNL; Trammell, Neil E [ORNL] [ORNL; Hunt, Marcus A [ORNL] [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In our continued effort to develop value-added thermoplastics from lignin, here we report utilizing a tailored feedstock to synthesize mechanically robust thermoplastic polyurethanes at very high lignin contents (75 65 wt %). The molecular weight and glass transition temperature (Tg) of lignin were altered through cross-linking with formaldehyde. The cross-linked lignin was coupled with diisocyanate-based telechelic polybutadiene as a network-forming soft segment. The appearance of two Tg s, around 35 and 154 C, for the polyurethanes indicates the existence of two-phase morphology, a characteristic of thermoplastic copolymers. A calculated Flory-Huggins interaction parameter of 7.71 also suggests phase immiscibility in the synthesized lignin polyurethanes. An increase in lignin loading increased the modulus, and an increase in crosslink-density increased the modulus in the rubbery plateau region of the thermoplastic. This path for synthesis of novel lignin-based polyurethane thermoplastics provides a design tool for high performance lignin-based biopolymers.

  7. Method for regulation of plant lignin composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapple, Clint (West Lafayette, IN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for the regulation of lignin composition in plant tissue. Plants are transformed with a gene encoding an active F5H gene. The expression of the F5H gene results in increased levels of syringyl monomer providing a lignin composition more easily degraded with chemicals and enzymes.

  8. Methanol Fractionation of Softwood Kraft Lignin: Impact on the Lignin Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Tomonori [ORNL] [ORNL; Perkins, Joshua H [ORNL] [ORNL; Vautard, Frederic [ORNL] [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL] [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL] [ORNL; Tolnai, Balazs [ORNL] [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of technologies to tune lignin properties for high-performance lignin-based materials is crucial for the utilization of lignin in various applications. Here, the effect of methanol (MeOH) fractionation on the molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, glass transition temperature (Tg), thermal decomposition, and chemical structure of lignin were investigated. Repeated MeOH fractionation of softwood Kraft lignin successfully removed the low-molecular-weight fraction. The separated high-molecular-weight lignin showed a Tg of 211 C and a char yield of 47%, much higher than those of asreceived lignin (Tg 153 C, char yield 41%). The MeOH-soluble fraction of lignin showed an increased low-molecular-weight fraction and a lower Tg (117 C) and char yield (32%). The amount of low-molecular-weight fraction showed a quantitative correlation with both 1/Tg and char yield in a linear regression. This study demonstrated the efficient purification or fractionation technology for lignin; it also established a theoretical and empirical correlation between the physical characteristics of fractionated lignins.

  9. Genetic Augmentation of Syringyl Lignin in Low-lignin Aspen Trees, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung-Jui Tsai; Mark F. Davis; Vincent L. Chiang

    2004-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    As a polysaccharide-encrusting component, lignin is critical to cell wall integrity and plant growth but also hinders recovery of cellulose fibers during the wood pulping process. To improve pulping efficiency, it is highly desirable to genetically modify lignin content and/or structure in pulpwood species to maximize pulp yields with minimal energy consumption and environmental impact. This project aimed to genetically augment the syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratio in low-lignin transgenic aspen in order to produce trees with reduced lignin content, more reactive lignin structures and increased cellulose content. Transgenic aspen trees with reduced lignin content have already been achieved, prior to the start of this project, by antisense downregulation of a 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase gene (Hu et al., 1999 Nature Biotechnol 17: 808- 812). The primary objective of this study was to genetically augment syringyl lignin biosynthesis in these low-lignin trees in order to enhance lignin reactivity during chemical pulping. To accomplish this, both aspen and sweetgum genes encoding coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase (Osakabe et al., 1999 PNAS 96: 8955-8960) were targeted for over-expression in wildtype or low-lignin aspen under control of either a constitutive or a xylem-specific promoter. A second objective for this project was to develop reliable and cost-effective methods, such as pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry and NMR, for rapid evaluation of cell wall chemical components of transgenic wood samples. With these high-throughput techniques, we observed increased syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratios in the transgenic wood samples, regardless of the promoter used or gene origin. Our results confirmed that the coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase gene is key to syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The outcomes of this research should be readily applicable to other pulpwood species, and promise to bring direct economic and environmental benefits to the pulp and paper industry.

  10. Bunch coalescing in the Fermilab Main Ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wildman, D.; Martin, P.; Meisner, K.; Miller, H.W.

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new rf system has been installed in the Fermilab Main Ring to coalesce up to 13 individual bunches of protons or antiprotons into a single high-intensity bunch. The coalescing process consists of adiabatically reducing the h = 1113 Main Ring rf voltage from 1 MV to less than 1 kV, capturing the debunched beam in a linearized h = 53 and h = 106 bucket, rotating for a quarter of a synchrotron oscillation period, and then recapturing the beam in a single h = 1113 bucket. The new system will be described and the results of recent coalescing experiments will be compared with computer-generated particle tracking simulations.

  11. Partonic coalescence in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greco, V.; Ko, Che Ming; Levai, P.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a covariant coalescence model, we study hadron production in relativistic heavy ion collisions from both soft partons in the quark-gluon plasma and hard partons in minijets. Including transverse flow of soft partons and independent...

  12. Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Don L. (Moscow, ID); Pometto, III, Anthony L. (Moscow, ID)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

  13. Chemical factors that control lignin polymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangha, Amandeep K [ORNL] [ORNL; Davison, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL; Standaert, Robert F [ORNL] [ORNL; Davis, Dr. Mark F. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)] [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is a complex, branched polymer that reinforces plant tissue. Understanding the factors that govern lignin structure is of central importance to the development of technologies for converting lignocellulosic biomass into fuels because lignin imparts resistance to chemical, enzymatic and mechanical deconstruction. Lignin is formed by enzymatic oxidation of phenolic monomers (monolignols) of three main types, guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S) and p- hydroxyphenyl (H). It is known that increasing the relative abundance of H subunits results in lower molecular-weight lignin polymers, and hence more easily deconstructed biomass, but it is not known why. Here, we report an analysis of frontier molecular orbitals in mono-, di- and trilignols, calculated using density functional theory, which points to a requirement of strong p- electron density on the reacting phenolic oxygen atom of the neutral precursor for enzymatic oxidation to occur. This model is consistent with a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) mechanism and for the first time explains why H subunits in certain linkages ( - or -5) react poorly and tend to cap the polymer. In general, -5 linkages with either a G or H terminus are predicted to inhibit elongation. More broadly, the model correctly accounts for the reactivity of the phenolic groups in a diverse set of dilignols comprising H and G subunits. Thus, we provide a coherent framework for understanding the propensity toward growth or termination of different terminal subunits in lignin.

  14. Deconstruction of Lignin Model Compounds and Biomass-Derived Lignin using Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chmely, S. C.; McKinney, K. A.; Lawrence, K. R.; Sturgeon, M.; Katahira, R.; Beckham, G. T.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is an underutilized value stream in current biomass conversion technologies because there exist no economic and technically feasible routes for lignin depolymerization and upgrading. Base-catalyzed deconstruction (BCD) has been applied for lignin depolymerization (e.g., the Kraft process) in the pulp and paper industry for more than a century using aqueous-phase media. However, these efforts require treatment to neutralize the resulting streams, which adds significantly to the cost of lignin deconstruction. To circumvent the need for downstream treatment, here we report recent advances in the synthesis of layered double hydroxide and metal oxide catalysts to be applied to the BCD of lignin. These catalysts may prove more cost-effective than liquid-phase, non-recyclable base, and their use obviates downstream processing steps such as neutralization. Synthetic procedures for various transition-metal containing catalysts, detailed kinetics measurements using lignin model compounds, and results of the application of these catalysts to biomass-derived lignin will be presented.

  15. Genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Vincent Lee; Li, Laigeng

    2004-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel DNA sequence, which encodes a previously unidentified lignin biosynthetic pathway enzyme, sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that regulates the biosynthesis of syringyl lignin in plants. Also provided are methods for incorporating this novel SAD gene sequence or substantially similar sequences into a plant genome for genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants.

  16. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agblevor, F.A.

    1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

  17. Conductivity factor in the electrostatic coalescence of crude oil emulsions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, James B

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    parameter on the rate of coalescence. Using previously established procedures, the potential for enhancement of the electrostatic coalescence rate for oil/water emulsions of highly refined oils and different grades of crude oils was explored using a 2-L...

  18. Controlling drop coalescence using nano-engineered surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corral, Manuel, Jr

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of drop coalescence are explored on micro-scale surface features for the first time. Drop coalescence is defined as a process by which two or more droplets, bubbles or particles merge during contact to form a ...

  19. Lignin-blocking treatment of biomass and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Bin (Hanover, NH); Wyman, Charles E. (Norwich, VT)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion. Cellulase efficiencies are improved by the protein or polypeptide treatment. The treatment may be used in combination with steam explosion and acid prehydrolysis techniques. Hydrolysis yields from lignin containing biomass are enhanced 5-20%, and enzyme utilization is increased from 10% to 50%. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

  20. Computational Mechanistic Studies of Acid-Catalyzed Lignin Model Dimers for Lignin Depolymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.; Sturgeon, M. R.; Chmely, S. C.; Paton, R. S.; Beckham, G. T.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is a heterogeneous alkyl-aromatic polymer that constitutes up to 30% of plant cell walls, and is used for water transport, structure, and defense. The highly irregular and heterogeneous structure of lignin presents a major obstacle in the development of strategies for its deconstruction and upgrading. Here we present mechanistic studies of the acid-catalyzed cleavage of lignin aryl-ether linkages, combining both experimental studies and quantum chemical calculations. Quantum mechanical calculations provide a detailed interpretation of reaction mechanisms including possible intermediates and transition states. Solvent effects on the hydrolysis reactions were incorporated through the use of a conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) and with cluster models including explicit water molecules in the first solvation shell. Reaction pathways were computed for four lignin model dimers including 2-phenoxy-phenylethanol (PPE), 1-(para-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenoxy-ethanol (HPPE), 2-phenoxy-phenyl-1,3-propanediol (PPPD), and 1-(para-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenoxy-1,3-propanediol (HPPPD). Lignin model dimers with a para-hydroxyphenyl ether (HPPE and HPPPD) show substantial differences in reactivity relative to the phenyl ether compound (PPE and PPPD) which have been clarified theoretically and experimentally. The significance of these results for acid deconstruction of lignin in plant cell walls will be discussed.

  1. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

  2. Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of kraft lignins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidl, W.; Dong, D.; Fricke, A.L. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kraft lignins are the lignin degradation products from kraft pulping. They are complex, heterogeneous polymers with some polar character. The molecular weight of kraft lignins greatly affect the physical properties of black liquors, and are of primary importance in separation from black liquor and in evaluating potential uses. Several purified kraft lignins from slash pine were analyzed for number average molecular weight by vapor pressure osmometry (VPO), for weight average molecular weight by low angle laser light scattering (LALLS), and for the molecular weight distribution by high temperature size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The lignins were run in tetrahydrofuran (THF), N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), DMF with 0.1M LiBr, and pyridine at conditions above the Theta temperature. Experimental methods are discussed. The results show that VPO may be used to determine M[sub n] for kraft lignins if the purity of the lignins and the identity of the impurities are known. LALLS can be used to determine M[sub w] for kraft lignins if measurements are made at or above the Theta temperature of the lignin-solvent pair. SEC should be used at temperatures at, or above, the Theta temperature of the lignin-solvent pair. Size separation is highly dependent on the solvent used, and DMF is a much better solvent than THF for high temperature SEC. Future work using moment resolution procedures to derive an accurate calibration curve are also discussed.

  3. Entrainment in two coalescing axisymmetric turbulent plumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cenedese, Claudia; Linden, P. F.

    2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    process in environmental and indus- trial applications. The air circulation in a ventilated enclosure with multiple heat sources, e.g. offices with electronic equipment and humans, is regulated by the dynamics of tur- bulent buoyant plumes that rise... ridges from hydrothermal vents (Baker et al. 1995; Speer & Rona 1989) and they are occasionally observed to coalesce. Coastal cities often discharge their partially treated waste waters at the bottom of the ocean via an outfall. Ocean outfall design...

  4. p-Hydroxyphenyl (H) Units Lower the Degree of Polymerization in Lignin: Chemical Control in Lignin Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangha, A. K.; Parks, J. M.; Davis, M. F.; Smith, J. C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin, composed predominantly of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) subunits, is a major component of plant cell walls that imparts resistance toward chemical and microbial deconstruction of plant biomass, rendering its conversion inefficient and costly. Previous studies have shown that alterating lignin composition, i.e., the relative abundance of H, G and S subunits, promises more efficient extraction of sugars from plant biomass. Smaller and less branched lignin chains are more easily extracted during pretreatment, making cellulose more readily degradable. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we show that the incorporation of H subunits into lignin via b-b and b-5 interunit linkages reduces the degree of polymerization in lignin. Frontier molecular orbital analyses of lignin dimers and trimers show that H as a terminal subunit on a growing lignin polymer linked via b-b and b-5 linkage cannot undergo radical formation, preventing further chain growth by endwise polymerization resulting in lignin polymers with lower degree of polymerization. These results indicate that, for endwise polymerization in lignin synthesis, there exists a chemical control that may lay a significant role in determining the structure of lignin.

  5. Direct fuel cell for the production of electricity from lignin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weetall, H.H.; Forsyth, B.D.; Hertl, W.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the use of an anthraquinone mediated fuel cell for the direct production of electrical energy from sulfonated lignin and Kraft Black Liquor. The cell produces the equivalent of one kWh for each 2-3 lb sulfonated lignin and 5-8 lb black liquor combustibles. In the case of the sulfonated lignin, chain session occurs during the oxidation process, reducing the molecular weight from ca. 2 x 10/sup 4/ to less than 1000 D.

  6. Determination of Structural Carbohydrates and Lignin in Biomass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determination of Structural Carbohydrates and Lignin in Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: April 2008 Revision Date: August 2012 (Version 08-03-2012) A....

  7. Sandia Energy - "Bionic" Liquids from Lignin: Joint BioEnergy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquids from Lignin: Joint BioEnergy Institute Results Pave the Way for Closed-Loop Biofuel Refineries Home Renewable Energy Energy Transportation Energy Biofuels Facilities...

  8. Modification of lignin content and composition in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ye, Zheng-Hua (Athens, GA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plants and methods of preparing plants having reduced lignin content and/or altered lignin composition are provided. The activities of caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase and/or caffeic acid O-methyltransferase enzymes in the modified plants are reduced.

  9. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

  10. Catalytic Hydrolytic Cleavage and Oxy-Cleavage of Lignin Linkages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Guanguang; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2014-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, new strategies involving organic bases were evaluated to depolymerize lignin to reduced molecular fragments in aqueous medium. NaOH as an inorganic base was also investigated as a reference. Full nature lignin samples are used for the study. As research tools to unravel the complexity of the macro lignin structure and bulky molecular size under this study, size exclusion chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometric analysis, typically used for protein characterizations, were used to follow the progress of lignin depolymerisation by measuring the molecular weight distribution of the products and determining the key molecular fingerprints, respectively. The results show that sodium phenoxide and guanidine carbonate are effective catalysts for lignin depolymerization. It is observed that there exists a synergism between H2O2 and the organic base, which is strongest with guanidine carbonate.

  11. Bubble Coalescence DOI: 10.1002/anie.201006552

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    Bubble Coalescence DOI: 10.1002/anie.201006552 Anomalous Stability of Carbon Dioxide in pH-Controlled Bubble Coalescence** Rico F. Tabor, Derek Y. C. Chan, Franz Grieser, and Raymond R. Dagastine* Gas bubbles are formed as cavities in liquids, their pressure, shape, and deformability determined

  12. Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malito, M.L.; Jeffers, L.A.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, is sponsoring a research and development program for the development of a real-time, in-situ sensor to measure the concentration of lignin in wood pulp. The program is composed of phase I showing feasibility which is now complete, phase II for development and testing of a Field Prototype, in progress, Phase III commercialization. Phase I work (funded entirely by B W) demonstrated a correlation between the fluorescence intensity and lignin concentration (as measured by TAPPI procedure, T 236 hm-85 Kappa Number of Pulp) for undiluted wood pulp samples. In Phase II, a laboratory test program directed at characterizing the fluorescence of wood pulp has been conducted as a prelude to the design of a prototype sensor. The current report summarizes the testing completed in Phase I and documents the Phase II laboratory testing completed through December 1991. Future Phase II efforts include additional laboratory testing, design and fabrication of a prototype sensor, and field testing of the prototype sensor. Phase III of the program will concentrate on the incorporation of the sensor into a control system and commercialization of the sensor.

  13. Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malito, M.L.; Jeffers, L.A.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, is sponsoring a research and development program for the development of a real-time, in-situ sensor to measure the concentration of lignin in wood pulp. The program is composed of phase I showing feasibility which is now complete, phase II for development and testing of a Field Prototype, in progress, Phase III commercialization. Phase I work (funded entirely by B&W) demonstrated a correlation between the fluorescence intensity and lignin concentration (as measured by TAPPI procedure, T 236 hm-85 Kappa Number of Pulp) for undiluted wood pulp samples. In Phase II, a laboratory test program directed at characterizing the fluorescence of wood pulp has been conducted as a prelude to the design of a prototype sensor. The current report summarizes the testing completed in Phase I and documents the Phase II laboratory testing completed through December 1991. Future Phase II efforts include additional laboratory testing, design and fabrication of a prototype sensor, and field testing of the prototype sensor. Phase III of the program will concentrate on the incorporation of the sensor into a control system and commercialization of the sensor.

  14. COALESCING NEUTRON STARS AS GAMMA RAY BURSTERS ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ruffert; H. -Th. Janka; W. Keil; G. Schaefer

    1995-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the dynamics and evolution of coalescing neutron stars. The three-dimensional Newtonian equations of hydrodynamics are integrated by the `Piecewise Parabolic Method' However, we do include the effects of the emission of gravitational waves on the hydrodynamics. The properties of neutron star matter are described by the equation of state of Lattimer & Swesty. In addition to the fundamental hydrodynamic quantities, density, momentum, and energy, we follow the time evolution of the electron density in the stellar gas. Energy losses and changes of the electron abundance due to the emission of neutrinos are taken into account by an elaborate ``neutrino leakage scheme'', which employs a careful calculation of the lepton number and energy source terms of all neutrino types. The grid is Cartesian and equidistant with a resolution of 64**3 or 128**3, which allows us to calculate the self-gravity via fast Fourier transforms.

  15. Producing a True Lignin Depolymerase for Biobleaching Softwood Kraft Pulp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simo Sarkanen

    2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This project constituted an intensive effort devoted to producing, from the white-rot fungus Tramets Cingulata, a lignin degrading enzyme (lignin depolymerase) that is directly able to biobleach or delignify softwood kraft pulp brownstock. To this end, the solutions in which T. cingulata was grown contained dissolved kraft lignin which fulfilled two functions; it behaved as a lignin deploymerase substrate and it also appeared to act as an inducer of enzyme expression. However, the lignin depolymerase isoenzymes (and other extracellular T. cingulata enzymes) interacted very strongly with both the kraft lignin components and the fungal hypae, so the isolating these proteins from the culture solutions proved to be unexpectedly difficult. Even after extensive experimentation with a variety of protein purification techniques, only one approach appeared to be capable of purifying lignin depolymerases to homogeneity. Unfortunately the procedure was extremely laborious; it involved the iso electric focusing of concentrated buffer-exchanged culture solutions followed by electro-elution of the desired protein bands from the appropriate polyacrylamide gel segments

  16. Gamma irradiation effects on the biodegradation of lignin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krysinski, Thomas Leon

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4/ X / 2. 0 3. 0 4. 0 5. 0 6. 0 7. 0 Wavelength in microns 8. 0 9. 0 28 CHAPTER VI RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS A commercia I CLS was irradiated in a dry state to various total dose levels of Co-60 gamma rays. The effects on the structure... structure of lignin and lignin derivatives, some alteration in the structure of these compounds may be necessary before any of the above treatment processes can yield a higher reduction in the residual lignin content. For many years the effects of gamma...

  17. Molecular simulation as a tool for studying lignin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangha, Amandeep K [ORNL; Petridis, Loukas [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Ziebell, Angela L [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignocellulosic biomass provides a sustainable source of sugars for biofuel and biomaterial production. However, biomass resistance to degradation imposes difficulties for economical conversion of plant carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. One of the key contributors to recalcitrance is lignin. Understanding the properties of lignin macromolecules in the cell wall matrix is useful for manipulating biomass structure to generate more easily degradable biomass. Along with experimental techniques such as 2D-NMR and mass spectrometry, computational techniques can be useful for characterizing the structural and energetic properties of the biomass assembly and its individual constituents. Here, we provide a brief introduction to lignin, review some of the recent, relevant scientific literature, and give our perspectives on the role of molecular simulation in understanding lignin structure.

  18. RESEARCH Open Access The fate of lignin during hydrothermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    , heteronuclear single quantum coherence NMR, compositional analysis, and gas chromatography­mass spectrometry of aromatic monomers point strongly to depolymerization and condensation being primary mechanisms for lignin during pretreatment. Keywords: Condensation, Depolymerization, Flowthrough pretreatment, Hydrothermal

  19. Hydrothermal Processing of Lignin for Bio-crude Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toor, Saqib

    . There are a wide range of biomass feedstocks on the globe that can be converted through a variety of technologies of the biomass feedstock when the reactor was at the desired conditions. HTL conversion of Alkali lignin produced

  20. NREL Overcomes Obstacles in Lignin Valorization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This NREL Highlight is being produced for the 2015 February Alliance S&T Board meeting, and describes research that shows lignin can be converted into renewable fuels, chemicals, and materials.

  1. Plants with modified lignin content and methods for production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Qiao; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods for decreasing lignin content and for increasing the level of fermentable carbohydrates in plants by down-regulation of the NST transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of NST are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise reduced lignin content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops. Methods for processing plant tissue and for producing ethanol by utilizing such plants are also provided.

  2. Coalescence of bubbles and drops in an outer fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph D. Paulsen; Rémi Carmigniani; Anerudh Kannan; Justin C. Burton; Sidney R. Nagel

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    When two liquid drops touch, a microscopic connecting liquid bridge forms and rapidly grows as the two drops merge into one. Whereas coalescence has been thoroughly studied when drops coalesce in vacuum or air, many important situations involve coalescence in a dense surrounding fluid, such as oil coalescence in brine. Here we study the merging of gas bubbles and liquid drops in an external fluid. Our data indicate that the flows occur over much larger length scales in the outer fluid than inside the drops themselves. Thus we find that the asymptotic early regime is always dominated by the viscosity of the drops, independent of the external fluid. A phase diagram showing the crossovers into the different possible late-time dynamics identifies a dimensionless number that signifies when the external viscosity can be important.

  3. Genealogies of regular exchangeable coalescents with applications to sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limic, Vlada

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article considers a model of genealogy corresponding to a regular exchangeable coalescent (also known as Xi-coalescent) started from a large finite configuration, and undergoing neutral mutations. Asymptotic expressions for the number of active lineages were obtained by the author in a previous work. Analogous results for the number of active mutation-free lineages and the combined lineage lengths are derived using the same martingale-based technique. They are given in terms of convergence in probability, while extensions to convergence in moments and convergence almost surely are discussed. The above mentioned results have direct consequences on the sampling theory in the Xi-coalescent setting. In particular, the regular Xi-coalescents that come down from infinity (i.e., with locally finite genealogies), have an asymptotically equal number of families under the corresponding infinite alleles and infinite sites models. In special cases, quantitative asymptotic formulae for the number of families that con...

  4. Modeling of crack initiation, propagation and coalescence in rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonçalves da Silva, Bruno Miguel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural or artificial fracturing of rock plays a very important role in geologic processes and for engineered structures in and on rock. Fracturing is associated with crack initiation, propagation and coalescence, which ...

  5. Crack coalescence in rock-like material under cycling loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Tae Young, 1973-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A total of 170 tests (68 tests for monotonic loading, 102 tests for cyclic loading) have been performed to investigate crack initiation, propagation and coalescence. The specimens have two pre-existing flaws which are ...

  6. Crack coalescence in molded gypsum and Carrara marble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Ngai Yuen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigates the fracturing and coalescence behavior in prismatic laboratory molded gypsum and Carrara marble specimens, which consist of either one or two preexisting open flaws, under uniaxial compression. ...

  7. The influence of surface tension gradients on drop coalescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bush, John W. M.

    We present the results of a combined experimental and numerical investigation of the coalescence of a drop with a liquid reservoir of a miscible but distinct fluid. Particular attention is given to elucidating the influence ...

  8. Void Nucleation, Growth and Coalescence in Irradiated Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surh, M P; Sturgeon, J B; Wolfer, W G

    2008-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel computational treatment of dense, stiff, coupled reaction rate equations is introduced to study the nucleation, growth, and possible coalescence of cavities during neutron irradiation of metals. Radiation damage is modeled by the creation of Frenkel pair defects and helium impurity atoms. A multi-dimensional cluster size distribution function allows independent evolution of the vacancy and helium content of cavities, distinguishing voids and bubbles. A model with sessile cavities and no cluster-cluster coalescence can result in a bimodal final cavity size distribution with coexistence of small, high-pressure bubbles and large, low-pressure voids. A model that includes unhindered cavity diffusion and coalescence ultimately removes the small helium bubbles from the system, leaving only large voids. The terminal void density is also reduced and the incubation period and terminal swelling rate can be greatly altered by cavity coalescence. Temperature-dependent trapping of voids/bubbles by precipitates and alterations in void surface diffusion from adsorbed impurities and internal gas pressure may give rise to intermediate swelling behavior through their effects on cavity mobility and coalescence.

  9. Kraft lignin recovery by ultrafiltration: economic feasibility and impact on the kraft recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkman, A.G.; Gratzl, J.S.; Edwards, L.L.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The widespread use of the kraft pulping process could provide a ready supply of lignin materials for many uses. Simulation studies demonstrate that recovery of the high-molecular-weight kraft lignin by ultrafiltration of a fraction of the black liquor flow is attractive from both an economic and an operational standpoint. Benefits are derived from relief of a furnace-limited recovery system and from the marketing of the lignin or modified lignin products. 10 references.

  10. Preliminary feasibility study of pulping catalyst production from lignin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Power, A.J. (Power (Arthur J.) and Associates, Boulder, CO (USA)); Bozell, J.J.; Chum, H.L. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary evaluation of the economic feasibility of preparing anthraquinone, a pulping catalyst, from readily available lignin has been performed. The proposed process begins with a fractionation of lignin from a black liquor stream by means of a supercritical fluid or conventional solvent extraction to give a low molecular weight fraction conductive to further chemical treatment. This fraction is sequentially oxidized with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, treated with a diene and dehydrogenated to give anthraquinone. The cost of the proposed process is most dependent on the overall yield of the chemical processing steps with a smaller contribution noted for lignin processing. The projections indicate that anthraquinone could be produced for as low as $1.00--$1.25/lb using this process. Details of the process, chemical reactions and calculations are included.

  11. Characterization and analysis of the molecular weight of lignin for biorefining studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolbert, Allison [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Akinosho, Hannah [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Khunsupat, Taya Ratayakorn [ORNL] [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL] [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The molecular weight of lignin is a fundamental property that infl uences the recalcitrance of biomass and the valorization of lignin. The determination of the molecular weight of lignin in native biomass is dependent on the bioresources used and the isolation and purifi cation procedures employed. The three most commonly employed isolation methods are milled wood lignin (MWL), cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL), and enzymatic mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL). Common characterization techniques for determining the molecular weight of lignin will be addressed, with an emphasis on gel permeation chromatography (GPC). This review also examines the mechanisms behind several biological, physical, and chemical pre-treatments and their impact on the molecular weight of lignin. The number average molecular weight (Mn), weight average molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity index (D) all vary in magnitude depending on the biomass source, pre-treatment conditions, and isolation method. Additionally, there is a growing body of literature that supports changes in the molecular weight of lignin in response to genetic modifi cations in the lignin biosynthetic pathways. This review summarizes different procedures for obtaining the molecular weight of lignin that have been used in recent years and highlight future opportunities for applications of lignin.

  12. Coalescence of Low-Viscosity Fluids in Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarah C. Case

    2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical method is used to study the early stages of coalescence of two low-viscosity drops. A drop of aqueous NaCl solution is suspended in air above a second drop of the same solution which is grown until the drops touch. At that point a rapidly widening bridge forms between them. By measuring the resistance and capacitance of the system during this coalescence event, one can obtain information about the time dependence of the characteristic bridge radius and its characteristic height. At early times, a new asymptotic regime is observed that is inconsistent with previous theoretical predictions. The measurements at several drop radii and approach velocities are consistent with a model in which the two liquids coalesce with a slightly deformed interface.

  13. Spontaneous Jumping of Coalescing Drops on a Superhydrophobic Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boreyko, Jonathan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When micrometric drops coalesce in-plane on a superhydrophobic surface, a surprising out-of-plane jumping motion was observed. Such jumping motion triggered by drop coalescence was reproduced on a Leidenfrost surface. High-speed imaging revealed that this jumping motion results from the elastic interaction of the bridged drops with the superhydrophobic/Leidenfrost surface. Experiments on both the superhydrophobic and Leidenfrost surfaces compare favorably to a simple scaling model relating the kinetic energy of the merged drop to the surface energy released upon coalescence. The spontaneous jumping motion on water repellent surfaces enables the autonomous removal of water condensate independently of gravity; this process is highly desirable for sustained dropwise condensation.

  14. Coalescence model for crumpled globules formed in polymer collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bunin, Guy

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid collapse of a polymer, due to external forces or changes in solvent, yields a long-lived `crumpled globule,' shaped by hierarchical collapse dynamics. The conjectured fractal structure of this state has proved difficult to establish, even with large simulations. To unravel this puzzle, we study a coarse-grained model with in-falling spherical blobs that coalesce upon contact. Distances between pairs of monomers are assigned upon their initial coalescence, and do not `equilibrate' subsequently. Surprisingly, the model reproduces quantitatively the dependence of distance on segment length, suggesting that the slow approach to scaling is related to a wide distribution of blob sizes.

  15. Solvent-Driven Preferential Association of Lignin with Regions of Crystalline Cellulose in Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindner, Benjamin [ORNL] [ORNL; Petridis, Loukas [ORNL] [ORNL; Schulz, Roland [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The precipitation of lignin onto cellulose after pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is an obstacle to economically viable cellulosic ethanol production. Here, 750 ns nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are reported of a system of lignin and cellulose in aqueous solution. Lignin is found to strongly associate with itself and the cellulose. However, noncrystalline regions of cellulose are observed to have a lower tendency to associate with lignin than crystalline regions, and this is found to arise from stronger hydration of the noncrystalline chains. The results suggest that the recalcitrance of crystalline cellulose to hydrolysis arises not only from the inaccessibility of inner fibers but also due to the promotion of lignin adhesion.

  16. Lignin-derived thermoplastic co-polymers and methods of preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Saito, Tomonori; Pickel, Joseph M.; Baker, Frederick S.; Eberle, Claude Clifford; Norris, Robert E.; Mielenz, Jonathan Richard

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a crosslinked lignin comprising a lignin structure having methylene or ethylene linking groups therein crosslinking between phenyl ring carbon atoms, wherein said crosslinked lignin is crosslinked to an extent that it has a number-average molecular weight of at least 10,000 g/mol, is melt-processible, and has either a glass transition temperature of at least 100.degree. C., or is substantially soluble in a polar organic solvent or aqueous alkaline solution. Thermoplastic copolymers containing the crosslinked lignin are also described. Methods for producing the crosslinked lignin and thermoplastic copolymers are also described.

  17. Soda-anthraquinone lignin sacrificial agents in oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dardis, R. E.

    1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A supplemental oil recovery method comprising injecting into a subterranean formation a fluid containing soda-anthraquinone lignin which is adsorbed by adsorptive sites therein and functions as a sacrificial agent and thereafter injecting a micellar dispersion containing a surfactant into the subterranean formation to displace the oil contained therein.

  18. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-yield process for converting lignin into reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline compositions of high quality is provided. The process is a two-stage catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage of the process, a lignin feed material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction, followed by a selective hydrocracking reaction which utilizes a superacid catalyst to produce a high oxygen-content depolymerized lignin product mainly composed of alkylated phenols, alkylated alkoxyphenols, and alkylbenzenes. In the second stage of the process, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to an exhaustive etherification reaction, optionally followed by a partial ring hydrogenation reaction, to produce a reformulated, partially oxygenated/etherified gasoline product, which includes a mixture of substituted phenyl/methyl ethers, cycloalkyl methyl ethers, C.sub.7 -C.sub.10 alkylbenzenes, C.sub.6 -C.sub.10 branched and multibranched paraffins, and alkylated and polyalkylated cycloalkanes.

  19. Hadron production from quark coalescence and jet fragmentation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greco, V.; Ko, Che Ming; Vitev, I.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transverse momentum spectra of pions, protons, and antiprotons in Au+Au collisions at intermediate RHIC energy root s(NN)=62 GeV are studied in a model that includes both quark coalescence from the dense partonic matter and fragmentation...

  20. Coalesced Martensite in Pressure Vessel Steels Hector Pous-Romero

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Coalesced Martensite in Pressure Vessel Steels Hector Pous-Romero Department of Materials Science.ac.uk Harry Bhadeshia Department of Materials Science & Metallurgy University of Cambridge Cambridge RPV Reactor pressure vessels. SEM Scanning electron microscopy. HAZ Heat affected zone. Bs Bainite

  1. Hydrotreating Pyrolytic Lignin to Produce a Refinery Feedstock (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, R. J.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass followed by water separation to produce pyrolytic lignin and hydrotreating of the lignin could be used to produce a stable volatile low-oxygen intermediate liquid. Such a liquid could be converted into a finished motor-fuel in a refinery, taking advantage of the existing infrastructure and economies of scale of refineries. Hydrotreating just the lignin would consume less hydrogen while preserving about half of the energy of the original oil. The aqueous by-products could be reformed to produce the needed hydrogen and would contain much of the unwanted acids and unstable oxygenates. To assess such intermediate liquids, several pyrolytic lignins were prepared by mixing pyrolysis oil with water at 1:1 and 3:1 ratios. The carboxylic acidity in the pyrolytic lignin was reduced to 24 and 10 mg-KOH/g-lignin compared to 81 in the whole oil. These lignins were hydrotreated using Ni-Mo(S)/alumina, Pt/char, or Pd/C(activated) in a semi-batch 1 L stirred autoclave. The oil was stabilized under hydrogen at 150-280 degrees C, then water and light organics were removed by partial depressurization. Hydrodeoxygenation was then performed at 340-400 degrees C. Total pressure was controlled at 70 or 170 bar with hydrogen gas. Organic liquid yields of 39-56% were obtained. For many experiments the organic oxygen content was <7%, acidity was < 7 mg-KOH/g-oil, the volatility was greater than or equal to 94% and, on a carbon basis, the total yield of organic products miscible in hydrocarbons at a 1:10 ratio was over 50%. These properties are probably acceptable to a refinery.The residual liquids left in the reactor at the end of the experiment comprised 60-85% of the organic-phase product while the rest was condensate. 13C-NMR of the residual liquids showed that they were 50-80% aliphatic. 13C-NMR coupled with GC-MS identified phenolic compounds as the main oxygenates in most residual liquids.

  2. Bio-inspired MOF-based Catalysts for Lignin Valorization.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Stavila, Vitalie; Ramakrishnan, Parthasarathi; Davis, Ryan Wesley

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is a potentially plentiful source of renewable organics, with ~50Mtons/yr produced by the pulp/paper industry and 200-300 Mtons/yr projected production by a US biofuels industry. This industry must process approximately 1 billion tons of biomass to meet the US Renewable Fuel goals. However, there are currently no efficient processes for converting lignin to value-added chemicals and drop-in fuels. Lignin is therefore an opportunity for production of valuable renewable chemicals, but presents staggering technical and economic challenges due to the quantities of material involved and the strong chemical bonds comprising this polymer. Aggressive chemistries and high temperatures are required to degrade lignin without catalysts. Moreover, chemical non-uniformity among lignins leads to complex product mixtures that tend to repolymerize. Conventional petrochemical approaches (pyrolysis, catalytic cracking, gasification) are energy intensive (400-800 degC), require complicated separations, and remove valuable chemical functionality. Low-temperature (25-200 degC) alternatives are clearly desirable, but enzymes are thermally fragile and incompatible with liquid organic compounds, making them impractical for large-scale biorefining. Alternatively, homogeneous catalysts, such as recently developed vanadium complexes, must be separated from product mixtures, while many heterogenous catalysts involve costly noble metals. The objective of this project is to demonstrate proof of concept that an entirely new class of biomimetic, efficient, and industrially robust synthetic catalysts based on nanoporous Metal- Organic Frameworks (MOFs) can be developed. Although catalytic MOFs are known, catalysis of bond cleavage reactions needed for lignin degradation is completely unexplored. Thus, fundamental research is required that industry and most sponsoring agencies are currently unwilling to undertake. We introduce MOFs infiltrated with titanium and nickel species as catalysts for the C-O bond hydrogenolysis in model compounds, which mimic the b-O-4, a-O-4, and 4-O-5 linkages of natural lignin. The versatile IRMOF-74(n) series is proposed as a platform for creating efficient hydrogenolysis catalysts as it not only displays tunable pore sizes, but also has the required thermal and chemical stability. The catalytic C-O bond cleavage occurs at 10 bar hydrogen pressure and temperatures as low as 120 degC. The conversion efficiency of the aromatic ether substrates into the corresponding hydrocarbons and phenols varies as PhCH 2 CH 2 OPh > PhCH 2 OPh > PhOPh (Ph = phenyl), while the catalytic activity generally follows the following trend Ni%40IRMOF-74>Ti%40IRMOF-74>IRMOF-74. Conversions as high as 80%, coupled with good selectivity for hydrogenolysis vs. hydrogenation, highlight the potential of MOF-based catalysts for the selective cleavage of recalcitrant aryl-ether bonds found in lignin and other biopolymers. This project supports the DOE Integrated Biorefinery Program goals, the objective of which is to convert biomass to fuels and high-value chemicals, by addressing an important technology gap: the lack of low-temperature catalysts suitable for industrial lignin degradation. Biomass, which is ~30 wt% lignin, constitutes a potentially major source of platform chemicals that could improve overall profitability and productivity of all energy-related products, thereby benefiting consumers and reducing national dependence on imported oil. Additionally, DoD has a strong interest in low-cost drop-in fuels (Navy Biofuel Initiative) and has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with DOE and USDA to develop a sustainable biofuels industry.

  3. Turning Renewable Resources into Recyclable Polymer: Development of Lignin-Based Thermoplastic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Brown, Rebecca H [ORNL; Hunt, Marcus A [ORNL; Pickel, Deanna L [ORNL; Pickel, Joseph M [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL; Keller, Martin [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Productive uses of lignin, the third most abundant natural polymer, have been sought for decades. One especially attractive possibility is that of developing value-added products including thermoplastics based on lignin. This possibility warrants special attention due to growth of the modern biofuel industries. However, the polydisperse molecular weight and hyper-branched structure of lignin has hindered the creation of high-performance biopolymers. Here, we report the preparation and characterization of novel lignin-based, partially carbon-neutral thermoplastics. We first altered the molecular weight of lignin, either by fractionation with methanol, or by formaldehyde crosslinking. A crosslinking of lignin increases the molecular weight, exhibiting Mn = 31000 g/mol, whereas that of native lignin is 1840 g/mol. Tuning the molecular weight of lignin enabled successful preparation of novel lignin-derived thermoplastics, when coupled with telechelic polybutadiene soft-segments at proper feed ratios. Characteristic to thermoplastic rubbers, free-standing films of the resulting copolymers exhibit two-phase morphology and associated relaxations in the dynamic mechanical loss spectrum. To our knowledge this article is the first report to demonstrate phase immiscibility, melt-processibility, and biphasic morphology of soft and hard segments in a lignin-based copolymer for all feed ratios of two macromolecular components. The use of higher molecular weight lignin enhanced the resulting shear modulus due to efficient network formation of telechelic polybutadiene bridges. The storage modulus in the rubbery plateau region increased with increasing lignin content. The successful synthesis of novel lignin-based thermoplastics will open a new pathway to biomass utilization and will help conserve petrochemicals.

  4. Hadron production from quark coalescence and jet fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greco, V.; Ko, Che Ming; Vitev, I.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    studies were on particle yields and their ratios. Recent studies have been more concerned with observables that are related to collective dynamics and production of hadronswith relatively large trans- verse momenta. Furthermore, effects of minijet... of coalescence involves the emission of a third particle or, more generally, offshell effects to guarantee energy conservation and color neutrality. However, under the assumption of a fast process in which the binding interaction is turned on suddenly...

  5. Bubble coalescence dynamics and supersaturation in electrolytic gas evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stover, R.L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus and procedures developed in this research permit the observation of electrolytic bubble coalescence, which heretofore has not been possible. The influence of bubble size, electrolyte viscosity, surface tension, gas type, and pH on bubble coalescence was examined. The Navier-Stokes equations with free surface boundary conditions were solved numerically for the full range of experimental variables that were examined. Based on this study, the following mechanism for bubble coalescence emerges: when two gas bubbles coalesce, the surface energy decreases as the curvature and surface area of the resultant bubble decrease, and the energy is imparted into the surrounding liquid. The initial motion is driven by the surface tension and slowed by the inertia and viscosity of the surrounding fluid. The initial velocity of the interface is approximately proportional to the square root of the surface tension and inversely proportional to the square root of the bubble radius. Fluid inertia sustains the oblate/prolate oscillations of the resultant bubble. The period of the oscillations varies with the bubble radius raised to the 3/2 power and inversely with the square root of the surface tension. Viscous resistance dampens the oscillations at a rate proportional to the viscosity and inversely proportional to the square of the bubble radius. The numerical simulations were consistent with most of the experimental results. The differences between the computed and measured saddle point decelerations and periods suggest that the surface tension in the experiments may have changed during each run. By adjusting the surface tension in the simulation, a good fit was obtained for the 150-{micro}m diameter bubbles. The simulations fit the experiments on larger bubbles with very little adjustment of surface tension. A more focused analysis should be done to elucidate the phenomena that occur in the receding liquid film immediately following rupture.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Transition Metal Complexes Useful for the Catalytic Deconstruction of Lignin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chmely, S. C.; Kim, S.; Beckham, G. T.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is an earth-abundant biopolymer that is grossly underutilized as a source of fuels and value-added chemicals. However, lignin is an intractable heteropolymer, which makes it difficult to deconstruct and upgrade in many chemically selective biomass conversion routes. The development of new catalytic routes to depolymerize this recalcitrant biopolymer is required to more effectively utilize lignin. To that end, our group aims to synthesize and characterize a collection of inorganic and organometallic catalysts to promote atom-economical catalytic lignin depolymerization. These catalysts have been screened against a continuum of model compounds and biomass-derived lignin for their usefulness in the deconstruction of these substrates. In addition, we have coupled our experimental efforts with quantum mechanical calculations to elucidate the mechanisms of catalysts to identify the mechanisms of lignin depolymerization. Detailed synthetic procedures, as well as spectroscopic and crystallographic characterization and DFT calculations will be presented.

  7. Countercurrent Process for Lignin Separation from Biomass Matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiran Kadam; Ed Lehrburger

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of the project was to test the concept of using a twin-screw extruder to conduct autohydrolysis pretreatment of wheat straw in countercurrent fashion, demonstrate in situ solid/liquid separation, and produce a low-lignin cellulose product using ethanol as an extractant. The resultant solid product is suitable for sugar production through enzymatic hydrolysis and for pulp applications. Pilot-scale equipment was used to successfully demonstrate the process both for sugar and pulp applications.

  8. J/Psi Production by Charm Quark Coalescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. E. Kahana; S. H. Kahana

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of $c\\bar c$ pairs in elementary hadron-hadron collisions is introduced in a simulation of relativistic heavy ion collisions. Coalescence of charmed quarks and antiquarks into various charmonium states is performed and the results are compared to PHENIX J$/\\psi$ Au+Au data. The $\\chi$ and $\\psi$' bound states must be included as well as the ground state J$/\\psi$, given the appreciable feeding from the excited states down to the J$/\\psi$ via gamma decays. Charmonium coalescence is found to take place at relatively late times: generally after $c$($\\bar c$)-medium interactions have ceased. Direct production of charmonia through hadron-hadron interactions, {\\it ie.} without explicit presence of charm quarks, occurring only at early times, is suppressed by collisions with comoving particles and accounts for some $\\sim 5\\%$ of the total J$/\\psi$ production. Coalescence is especially sensitive to the level of open charm production, scaling naively as $n_{c\\bar c}^2$. The J$/\\psi$ transverse momentum distribution is dependent on the charm quark transverse momentum distribution and early charm quark-medium interaction, thus providing a glimpse of the initial collision history.

  9. Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor. Final report. Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffers, L.A.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate objective of the DOE-sponsored program discussed in this report is to commercialize an instrument for real-time, in-situ measurement of lignin in wood pulp at a variety of locations in the pulp process stream. The instrument will be used as a primary sensor for process control in the pulp and paper industry. Work done by B&W prior to the initiation of this program had shown: there is a functional relationship between the fluorescence intensity and the Kappa number as measured at the pulp mill laboratory. Kappa number is a standard wet chemical method for determination of the lignin concentration; the relationship is one of decreasing intensity with Kappa number, indicating operation in the quenched fluorescence regime; a great deal of scatter in the data. Because of the preliminary nature of the study, the origin of the scatter was not identified. This report documents the results of laboratory measurements made on a variety of well defined pulp samples to generate the data necessary to: determine the feasibility of an instrument for on-line lignin concentration measurement using laser fluorescence; identify the preferred measurement strategy; define the range of applicability of the instrument; and to provide background information to guide the design of a field-worthy prototype.

  10. On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jeffers, L.A.; Malito, M.L.

    1996-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method. 6 figs.

  11. On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jeffers, Larry A. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH); Malito, Michael L. (Liberty Township, Trumbull County, OH)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method.

  12. Characterization of trapped lignin-degrading microbes in tropical forest soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeAngelis, K.M.; Allgaier, M.; Chavarria, Y.; Fortney, J.L.; Hugenholz, P.; Simmons, B.; Sublette, K.; Silver, W.L.; Hazen, T.C.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

  13. Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeAngelis, Kristen M.; Allgaier, Martin; Chavarria, Yaucin; Fortney, Julian L.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Simmons, Blake A.; Sublette, Kerry; Silver, Whendee; Hazen, Terry C.

    2011-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

  14. Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeAngelis, Kristen; Allgaier, Martin; Chavarria, Yaucin; Fortney, Julian; Hugenholtz, Phillip; Simmons, Blake; Sublette, Kerry; Silver, Whendee; Hazen, Terry

    2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

  15. Catalytic C-O Bond Cleavage of 2-Aryloxy-1-arylethanols and Its Application to the Depolymerization of Lignin-Related Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Lignin-Related Polymers Jason M. Nichols, Lee M. Bishop,found in lignin-related polymers. The bond transformationof a lignin-related polymer quantitatively yields the

  16. Optimizing Noncovalent Interactions Between Lignin and Synthetic Polymers to Develop Effective Compatibilizers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, Nathan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Harper, David [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), Center for Renewable Carbon; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments are designed and completed to identify an effective polymeric compatibilizer for lignin polystyrene blends. Copolymers of styrene and vinylphenol are chosen as the structure of the compatibilizer as the VPh unit can readily form intermolecular hydrogen bonds with the lignin molecule. Electron microscopy, thermal analysis, and neutron refl ectivity results demonstrate that among these compatibilizers, a copolymer of styrene and VPh with 20% 30% VPh most readily forms intermolecular interactions with the lignin molecule and results in the most well-dispersed blends with lignin. This behavior is explained by invoking the competition of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding and functional group accessibility in forming intermolecular interactions.

  17. Forest Biomass and Lignocellulosic Materials Forest-derived biopolymers lignin and cellulose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Forest Biomass and Lignocellulosic Materials Forest-derived biopolymers lignin and cellulose of sustainable products such as nanocellulose and biocomposites from forest biomass; biorefining to develop high

  18. Manipulation of lignin composition in plants using a tissue-specific...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manipulation of lignin composition in plants using a tissue-specific promoter Re-direct Destination: The present invention relates to methods and materials in the field of...

  19. Characterization of trapped lignin-degrading microbes in tropical forest soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeAngelis, K.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Center for Applied Biogeosciences, University of Tulsa,Tulsa OK 74104; Department of Environmental Science, PolicyBio-Sep® (University of Tulsa) beads to create the lignin-

  20. Final Report: Investigation of Catalytic Pathways for Lignin Breakdown into Monomers and Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gluckstein, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Kidder, Michelle [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL; Sturgeon, Matthew R [ORNL

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is a biopolymer that comprises up to 35% of woody biomass by dry weight. It is currently underutilized compared to cellulose and hemicellulose, the other two primary components of woody biomass. Lignin has an irregular structure of methoxylated aromatic groups linked by a suite of ether and alkyl bonds which makes it difficult to degrade selectively. However, the aromatic components of lignin also make it promising as a base material for the production of aromatic fuel additives and cyclic chemical feed stocks such as styrene, benzene, and cyclohexanol. Our laboratory research focused on three methods to selectively cleave and deoxygenate purified lignin under mild conditions: acidolysis, hydrogenation and electrocatalysis. (1) Acidolysis was undertaken in CH2Cl2 at room temperature. (2) Hydrogenation was carried out by dissolving lignin and a rhodium catalyst in 1:1 water:methoxyethanol under a 1 atm H2 environment. (3) Electrocatalysis of lignin involved reacting electrically generated hydrogen atoms at a catalytic palladium cathode with lignin dissolved in a solution of aqueous methanol. In all of the experiments, the lignin degradation products were identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy and flame ionization detection. Yields were low, but this may have reflected the difficulty in recovering the various fractions after conversion. The homogeneous hydrogenation of lignin showed fragmentation into monomers, while the electrocatalytic hydrogenation showed production of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and substituted benzenes. In addition to the experiments, promising pathways for the conversion of lignin were assessed. Three conversion methods were compared based on their material and energy inputs and proposed improvements using better catalyst and process technology. A variety of areas were noted as needing further experimental and theoretical effort to increase the feasibility of lignin conversion to fuels.

  1. Conversion of lignin precursors to carbon fibers with nanoscale graphitic domains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Jones, Eric B [ORNL; Clingenpeel, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; McKenna, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; McNutt, Nicholas W [ORNL; Keffer, David J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Johs, Alexander [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is one of the most abundant and inexpensive natural biopolymers. It can be efficiently converted to low cost carbon fiber, monolithic structures or powders that could be used directly in the production of anodes for lithium-ion batteries. In this work, we report processing parameters relevant for the conversion of lignin precursors into electrochemically active carbon fibers, the impact of lignin precursor modification on melt processing and the microstructure of the final carbon material. The conversion process encompasses melt spinning of the lignin precursor, oxidative stabilization and a low temperature carbonization step in a nitrogen/hydrogen atmosphere. To assess electrochemical performance, we determined resistivities of individual carbon fiber samples and characterized the microstructure by scanning electron microscopy and neutron diffraction. The chemical modification and subsequent thermomechanical processing methods reported here are effective for conversion into carbon fibers while preserving the macromolecular backbone structure of lignin. Modification of softwood lignin produced functionalities and rheological properties that more closely resemble hardwood lignin thereby enabling the melt processing of softwood lignin in oxidative atmospheres (air). Structural characterization of the carbonized fibers reveals nanoscale graphitic domains that are linked to enhanced electrochemical performance.

  2. Effect of Xylan and Lignin Removal by Batch and Flowthrough Pretreatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Effect of Xylan and Lignin Removal by Batch and Flowthrough Pretreatment on the Enzymatic for pretreating cellulosic biomass, including higher hemicellulose sugar yields, enhanced cellulose digestibility understand these trade-offs, comparative data are reported on xylan and lignin removal and enzymatic

  3. Rumen microbial degradation of modified lignin plants observed by electron microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Rumen microbial degradation of modified lignin plants observed by electron microscopy C Mign6, E-Genès-Champanelle, France The microbial degradation of modified lignin tobacco (Samson variety) plants (homozygous line 40 introduced in the rumen for 4 h, 8 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. As from the first hours of degradation (8 h

  4. The Paleozoic origin of enzymatic mechanisms for lignin degradation reconstructed using 31 fungal genomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Riley, Robert; Barry, Kerrie; Blanchette, Robert A; Henrissat, Bernard; Martinez, Angel T.; Otillar, Robert; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Yadav, Jagit S.; Aerts, Andrea; Benoit, Isabelle; Boyd, Alex; Carlson, Alexis; Copeland, Alex; Coutinho, Pedro M.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Ferreira, Patricia; Findley, Keisha; Foster, Brian; Gaskell, Jill; Glotzer, Dylan; Gorecki, Pawel; Heitman, Joseph; Hesse, Cedar; Hori, Chiaki; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Jurgens, Joel A.; Kallen, Nathan; Kersten, Phil; Kohler, Annegret; Kues, Ursula; Kumar, T. K. Arun; Kuo, Alan; LaButti, Kurt; Larrondo, Luis F.; Lindquist, Erika; Ling, Albee; Lombard, Vincent; Lucas, Susan; Lundell, Taina; Martin, Rachael; McLaughlin, David J.; Morgenstern, Ingo; Morin, Emanuelle; Murat, Claude; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Nolan, Matt; Ohm, Robin A.; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Rokas, Antonis; Ruiz-Duenas, Francisco J.; Sabat, Grzegorz; Salamov, Asaf; Samejima, Masahiro; Schmutz, Jeremy; Slot, Jason C.; St. John, Franz; Stenlid, Jan; Sun, Hui; Sun, Sheng; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Tsang, Adrian; Wiebenga, Ad; Young, Darcy; Pisabarro, Antonio; Eastwood, Daniel C.; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Hibbett, David S.

    2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Wood is a major pool of organic carbon that is highly resistant to decay, owing largely to the presence of lignin. The only organisms capable of substantial lignin decay are white rot fungi in the Agaricomycetes, which also contains non?lignin-degrading brown rot and ectomycorrhizal species. Comparative analyses of 31 fungal genomes (12 generated for this study) suggest that lignin-degrading peroxidases expanded in the lineage leading to the ancestor of the Agaricomycetes, which is reconstructed as a white rot species, and then contracted in parallel lineages leading to brown rot and mycorrhizal species. Molecular clock analyses suggest that the origin of lignin degradation might have coincided with the sharp decrease in the rate of organic carbon burial around the end of the Carboniferous period.

  5. Experimental Investigation of the Kinetics of a Ruthenium-Catalyzed Deconstruction of Lignin Model Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bu, L.; Nimlos, M. R.; Shirts, M. R.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.; Beckham, G. T.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is a major component of plant cell walls that is typically underutilized in selective conversion strategies for renewable fuels and chemicals. The mechanisms by which thermal and catalytic treatments deconstruct lignin remain elusive. In this work, we have investigated the kinetics of the catalytic deconstruction of lignin model compounds using a ruthenium catalyst reported by Bergman et al. in 2010. A series of investigations using NMR spectroscopy and GC/MS will be presented. In addition, we propose detailed mechanisms for lignin depolymerization with ruthenium catalysts. We have also used DFT to compute transition state geometries of catalytic cycle intermediates and compare the values determined computationally with those observed experimentally. Ultimately, our objective is to apply our methods to the design of new homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for the effective deconstruction and valorization of lignin.

  6. A NEW PROCESS DEVELOPED FOR SEPARATION OF LIGNIN FROM AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE PRETREATMENT SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Milliken, C.

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for separating lignin from liquid solutions resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials such as switchgrass with ammonium hydroxide. The method involves a sequence of steps including acidification, evaporation, and precipitation or centrifugation that are performed under defined conditions, and results in a relatively pure, solid lignin product. The method is tested on ammonium hydroxide solutions containing lignin extracted from switchgrass. Experimental results show that the method is capable of recovering between 66-95% of dissolved lignin as a precipitated solid. Cost estimates of pilot-scale and industrial-scale expressions of the process indicate that breakeven lignin prices of $2.36/kg and $0.78/kg, respectively, may be obtainable with this recovery method.

  7. Separation of kraft lignin from kraft black liquor: Final report, July 1984-April 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurple, K.R.

    1988-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of this work is related to the fact that with over 16 million tons of kraft lignin available annually, practically all of it is burned just for its heat value. In essence, kraft lignin has no real value except its heat value. The major accomplishments of this research has shown that it is possible to produce high purity kraft lignin from kraft black liquor. This patented technology represents a way of producing a material that can be utilized in a wide variety of markets. Kraft lignin that was produced using this technology was sent to major corporations who used this kraft lignin as a starting material in their chemical processes. 3 figs.

  8. Electrostatic coalescence system with independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hovarongkura, A. David (Arlington, VA); Henry, Jr., Joseph D. (Morgantown, WV)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved electrostatic coalescence system is provided in which independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes are employed to provide more complete dehydration of an oil emulsion. The AC field is produced between an AC electrode array and the water-oil interface wherein the AC electrode array is positioned parallel to the interface which acts as a grounded electrode. The emulsion is introduced into the AC field in an evenly distributed manner at the interface. The AC field promotes drop-drop and drop-interface coalescence of the water phase in the entering emulsion. The continuous oil phase passes upward through the perforated AC electrode array and enters a strong DC field produced between closely spaced DC electrodes in which small dispersed droplets of water entrained in the continuous phase are removed primarily by collection at hydrophilic DC electrodes. Large droplets of water collected by the electrodes migrate downward through the AC electrode array to the interface. All phase separation mechanisms are utilized to accomplish more complete phase separation.

  9. Simulations of black hole-neutron star binary coalescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William H. Lee

    2001-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We show the results of dynamical simulations of the coalescence of black hole-neutron star binaries. We use a Newtonian Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics code, and include the effects of gravitational radiation back reaction with the quadrupole approximation for point masses, and compute the gravitational radiation waveforms. We assume a polytropic equation of state determines the structure of the neutron star in equilibrium, and use an ideal gas law to follow the dynamical evolution. Three main parameters are explored: (i) The distribution of angular momentum in the system in the initial configuration, namely tidally locked systems vs. irrotational binaries; (ii) The stiffness of the equation of state through the value of the adiabatic index Gamma (ranging from Gamma=5/3 to Gamma=3); (iii) The initial mass ratio q=M(NS)/M(BH). We find that it is the value of Gamma that determines how the coalescence takes place, with immediate and complete tidal disruption for Gamma less than 2, while the core of the neutron star survives and stays in orbit around the black hole for Gamma=3. This result is largely independent of the initial mass ratio and spin configuration, and is reflected directly in the gravitational radiation signal. For a wide range of mass ratios, massive accretion disks are formed (M(disk)~0.2 solar masses), with baryon-free regions that could possibly give rise to gamma ray bursts.

  10. Resonant oscillations and tidal heating in coalescing binary neutron stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, D

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tidal interaction in a coalescing neutron star binary can resonantly excite the g-mode oscillations of the neutron star when the frequency of the tidal driving force equals the intrinsic g-mode frequencies. We study the g-mode oscillations of cold neutron stars using recent microscopic nuclear equations of state, where we determine self-consistently the sound speed and Brunt-V\\"ais\\"al\\"a frequency in the nuclear liquid core. The properties of the g-modes associated with the stable stratification of the core depend sensitively on the pressure-density relation as well as the symmetry energy of the dense nuclear matter. The frequencies of the first ten g-modes lie approximately in the range of 10-100 Hz. Resonant excitations of these g-modes during the last few minutes of the binary coalescence result in energy transfer and angular momentum transfer from the binary orbit to the neutron star. The angular momentum transfer is possible because a dynamical tidal lag develops even in the absence of fluid viscosity. ...

  11. A coalescent model for the effect of advantageous mutations on the genealogy of a population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durrett, Richard

    A coalescent model for the effect of advantageous mutations on the genealogy of a population in this paper is to describe the coalescent processes that arise when we consider the genealogy of a population individuals at random from this population at time zero. To describe the genealogy of the sample, we

  12. Scaling law in liquid drop coalescence driven by surface tension Mingming Wua)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cubaud, Thomas

    Scaling law in liquid drop coalescence driven by surface tension Mingming Wua) Department experimental results on the coalescence of two liquid drops driven by surface tension. Using a high speed that such scaling law is robust when using fluids of different viscosities and surface tensions. The prefactor

  13. Evidence supporting dissimilatory and assimilatory lignin degradation in Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeAngelis, Kristen M.; Sharma, Deepak; Varney, Rebecca; Simmons, Blake A.; Isern, Nancy G.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Taylor, Ronald C.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Robinson, Errol W.

    2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The anaerobic isolate Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1 was initially cultivated based on anaerobic growth on lignin as sole carbon source. The source of the isolated bacteria was from tropical forest soils that decompose litter rapidly with low and fluctuating redox potentials, making it likely that bacteria using oxygen-independent enzymes play an important role in decomposition. We have examined differential expression of the anaerobic isolate Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1 during growth on lignin. After 48 hours of growth, we used transcriptomics and proteomics to define the enzymes and other regulatory machinery that these organisms use to degrade lignin, as well as metabolomics to measure lignin degradation and monitor the use of lignin and iron as terminal electron acceptors that facilitate more efficient use of carbon. Proteomics revealed accelerated xylose uptake and metabolism under lignin-amended growth, and lignin degradation via the 4-hydroxyphenylacetate degradation pathway, catalase/peroxidase enzymes, and the glutathione biosynthesis and glutathione S-transferase proteins. We also observed increased production of NADH-quinone oxidoreductase, other electron transport chain proteins, and ATP synthase and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Our data shows the advantages of a multi-omics approach, where incomplete pathways identified by genomics were completed, and new observations made on coping with poor carbon availability. The fast growth, high efficiency and specificity of enzymes employed in bacterial anaerobic litter deconstruction makes these soils useful templates for improving biofuel production.

  14. Separation and characterization of lignins from the black liquor of oil palm trunk fiber pulping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, R.; Tomkinson, J.; Bolton, J.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six lignin preparations, isolated by a novel two-step precipitation method instead of the traditional one-step precipitation method from the oil palm trunk fiber pulping (OPTFP) black liquor, were found to be relatively free of nonlignin materials such as polysaccharide degradation products, ash, and salts. A lignin fraction with a purity of 99.5% was obtained at an optimum precipitation pH 1.5 after isolation of the nonlignin materials in ethanol. About 94% of the total lignin was recovered by this novel method at this condition, and the value of COD in the treated black liquor reduced significantly to lower 250. The isolated lignin fractions contained syringyl, guaiacyl, and p-hydroxyphenyl units in an approximate molar ratio of 16--20:5:1 on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analysis. Small amounts of p-hydroxybenzoic acids were found to be esterified to lignin, while ferulic acids were associated to lignin by ether linkage. {sup 13}C-NMR indicated the presence of {beta}-O-4 ether bonds, and {beta}-5 and 5-5{prime} carbon-carbon linkages between the lignin molecules.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of lignin-based carbon materials with tunable microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL] [ORNL; Clingenpeel, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida] [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; McKenna, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida] [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; Rios, Orlando [ORNL] [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin-based carbons can be used as a low-cost alternative to graphite and petroleum-based carbons enabling the production of sustainable, functional carbon materials for various applications. The microstructure development of these carbons can be controlled through chemical modification of the lignin precursor and choice of carbonization parameters. In this work, microstructured carbon materials are synthesized from lignin using a combination of chemical modification and carbon fiber processing techniques. Lignin is modified by incorporating different ester groups which results in a precursor highly compatible with melt processing using the fiber extrusion technique and conversion into microstructured carbons by oxidative stabilization and subsequent carbonization. Furthermore, the impact of esterifications on precursor chemistry and carbonizations is investigated. A nuclear magnetic resonance study of modified lignins shows characteristic spectral changes as a result of esterifications. Ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry shows the modification process does not affect the polymeric character of the lignin backbone. Esterifications result in moderate shifts in O:C and H:C ratios. Thermogravimetric analysis of lignins reveals distinct differences in mass loss trends during oxidations and carbonizations.

  16. Mechanistic Investigation of Acid-Catalyzed Cleavage of Aryl-Ether Linkages: Implications for Lignin Depolymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturgeon, M. R.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon-oxygen bonds are the primary inter-monomer linkages lignin polymers in plant cell walls, and as such, catalyst development to cleave these linkages is of paramount importance to deconstruct biomass to its constituent monomers for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. For many decades, acid catalysis has been used to depolymerize lignin. Lignin is a primary component of plant cell walls, which is connected primarily by aryl-ether linkages, and the mechanism of its deconstruction by acid is not well understood, likely due to its heterogeneous and complex nature compared to cellulose. For effective biomass conversion strategies, utilization of lignin is of significant relevance and as such understanding the mechanisms of catalytic lignin deconstruction to constituent monomers and oligomers is of keen interest. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the acid catalysis of a range of dimeric species exhibiting the b-O-4 linkage, the most common inter-monomer linkage in lignin. We demonstrate that the presence of a phenolic species dramatically increases the rate of cleavage in acid at 150 degrees C. Quantum mechanical calculations on dimers with the para-hydroxyl group demonstrate that this acid-catalyzed pathway differs from the nonphenolic dimmers. Importantly, this result implies that depolymerization of native lignin in the plant cell wall will proceed via an unzipping mechanism wherein b-O-4 linkages will be cleaved from the ends of the branched, polymer chains inwards toward the center of the polymer. To test this hypothesis further, we synthesized a homopolymer of b-O-4 with a phenolic hydroxyl group, and demonstrate that it is cleaved in acid from the end containing the phenolic hydroxyl group. This result suggests that genetic modifications to lignin biosynthesis pathways in plants that will enable lower severity processes to fractionate lignin for upgrading and for easier access to the carbohydrate fraction of the plant cell wall.

  17. A Continuous-State Coalescent and the Impact of Weak Selection on the Structure of Gene Genealogies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Fred

    A Continuous-State Coalescent and the Impact of Weak Selection on the Structure of Gene Genealogies for understanding the shape of gene genealogies and resulting patterns of genetic diversity. However, the coalescent words: coalescent, weak selection, gene genealogies, interference,multisite selection. Researcharticle

  18. Resonant Oscillations and Tidal Heating in Coalescing Binary Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong Lai

    1994-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Tidal interaction in a coalescing neutron star binary can resonantly excite the g-mode oscillations of the neutron star when the frequency of the tidal driving force equals the intrinsic g-mode frequencies. We study the g-mode oscillations of cold neutron stars using recent microscopic nuclear equations of state, where we determine self-consistently the sound speed and Brunt-V\\"ais\\"al\\"a frequency in the nuclear liquid core. The properties of the g-modes associated with the stable stratification of the core depend sensitively on the pressure-density relation as well as the symmetry energy of the dense nuclear matter. The frequencies of the first ten g-modes lie approximately in the range of $10-100$ Hz. Resonant excitations of these g-modes during the last few minutes of the binary coalescence result in energy transfer and angular momentum transfer from the binary orbit to the neutron star. The angular momentum transfer is possible because a dynamical tidal lag develops even in the absence of fluid viscosity. However, since the coupling between the g-mode and the tidal potential is rather weak, the amount of energy transfer during a resonance and the induced orbital phase error are very small. Resonant excitations of the g-modes play an important role in tidal heating of binary neutron stars. Without the resonances, viscous dissipation is effective only when the stars are close to contact. The resonant oscillations result in dissipation at much larger orbital separation. The actual amount of tidal heating depends on the viscosity of the neutron star. Using the microscopic viscosity, we find that the binary neutron stars are heated to a temperature $\\sim 10^8$ K before they come into contact.

  19. Controlling porosity in lignin-derived nanoporous carbon for supercapacitor applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jeon, Ju-Won [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Libing [Washington State University, Richland, WA (United States); Lutkenhaus, Jodie L. [Texas A&M University, College Station, TX (United States); Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D. [Washington Statte University, Richland, WA (United States); Lemmon, John P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Choi, Daiwon [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Nandasiri, Manjula I. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Hashmi, Ali [Washington State University, Vancouver, WA (United States); Xu, Jie [Washington State University, Vancouver, WA (United States); Motkuri, Radha K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Fernandez, Carlos A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Tucker, Melvin P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); McGrail, Peter B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Yang, Bin [Washington State University, Richland, WA (United States); Nune, Satish K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-cost renewable lignin has been used as a precursor to produce porous carbons. However, to date, it has not been easy to obtain high surface area porous carbon without activation processes or templating agents. Here, we demonstrate that low molecular weight lignin yields highly porous carbon (1092 m² g?¹) with more graphitization through direct carbonization without additional activation processes or templating agents. We found that molecular weight and oxygen consumption during carbonization are critical factors to obtain high surface area, graphitized porous carbons. This highly porous carbon from low-cost renewable lignin sources is a good candidate for supercapacitor electrode materials.

  20. Structural Analysis of Novel Lignin-derived Carbon Composite Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNutt, Nicholas W [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Feygenson, Mikhail [ORNL; Proffen, Thomas E [ORNL; Keffer, David J [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of novel lignin-based carbon composite anodes consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous domains motivates the understanding of a relationship of the structural properties characterizing these materials, such as crystallite size, intracrystallite dspacing, crystalline volume fraction and composite density, with their pair distribution functions (PDF), obtained from both molecular dynamics simulation and neutron scattering. A model for these composite materials is developed as a function of experimentally measurable parameters and realized in fifteen composite systems, three of which directly match all parameters of their experimental counterparts. The accurate reproduction of the experimental PDFs using the model systems validates the model. The decomposition of the simulated PDFs provides an understanding of each feature in the PDF and allows for the development of a mapping between the defining characteristics of the PDF and the material properties of interest.

  1. Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeAngelis, Kristen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Related Articles on the Web University of Tulsa,Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States of America, 6 Department ofBio-Sep® (University of Tulsa) beads to create the lignin-

  2. Electrostatic coalescence of used automotive crankcase oil as an alternative to other separation processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixon, John Leslie

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents an initial investigation of using electrostatic coalescence as an alternative to conventional separation processes to purify used automotive crankcase oil. Specific emphasis of this study was the feasibility of this approach...

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Complexes to be Employed in the Catalytic Depolymerization of Lignin Model Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chmely, S. C.; Kim, S.; Beckham, G. T.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is an earth-abundant biopolymer that is grossly underutilized as a value stream in current biomass conversion technologies because there exist no economic and technically feasible routes for lignin depolymerization and upgrading to fuels and chemicals. The development of new mild and selective catalytic routes to depolymerize this recalcitrant biopolymer is required to more effectively utilize lignin. To that end, our group aims to synthesize and characterize a collection of organometallic catalysts to promote atom-economical catalytic lignin deconstruction. These catalysts have been screened against dimeric lignin model compounds in order to gain mechanistic insights into their modes of action. In addition, experimental efforts have been coupled with quantum mechanical calculations to elucidate solution behavior of the catalysts as well as the mechanisms of lignin depolymerization. Detailed synthetic procedures, as well as spectroscopic and crystallographic characterization and DFT calculations will be presented.

  4. Mobility and coalescence of stacking fault tetrahedra in Cu

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martínez, Enrique; Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2015-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) are ubiquitous defects in face-centered cubic metals. They are produced during cold work plastic deformation, quenching experiments or under irradiation. From a dislocation point of view, the SFTs are comprised of a set of stair-rod dislocations at the (110) edges of a tetrahedron bounding triangular stacking faults. These defects are extremely stable, increasing their energetic stability as they grow in size. At the sizes visible within transmission electron microscope they appear nearly immobile. Contrary to common belief, we show in this report, using a combination of molecular dynamics and temperature accelerated dynamics, how small SFTs canmore »diffuse by temporarily disrupting their structure through activated thermal events. More over, we demonstrate that the diffusivity of defective SFTs is several orders of magnitude higher than perfect SFTs, and can be even higher than isolated vacancies. Finally, we show how SFTs can coalesce, forming a larger defect in what is a new mechanism for the growth of these omnipresent defects.« less

  5. Induced coalescence of temporary water-in-oil emulsions by flow through fiberglass beds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mankekar, Ajit D

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INDUCED COALESCENCE OF TEMPORARY WATER-IN-OIL EMULSIONS BY FLOW THROUGH FIBERGLASS BEDS A Thesis by AJIT D. MANKEKAR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering INDUCED COALESCENCE OF TEMPORARY WATER-IN-OIL EMULSIONS BY FLOW THROUGH FIBERGLASS BEDS A Thesis by AJIT D. MANKEKAR Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee) (Hea...

  6. Gravitational Waves from Coalescing Binary Black Holes: Theoretical and Experimental Challenges

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A network of ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors (LIGO/VIRGO/GEO/...) is currently taking data near its planned sensitivity. Coalescing black hole binaries are among the most promising, and most exciting, gravitational wave sources for these detectors. The talk will review the theoretical and experimental challenges that must be met in order to successfully detect gravitational waves from coalescing black hole binaries, and to be able to reliably measure the physical parameters of the source (masses, spins, ...).

  7. Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted feed and other by-products. It can be burned as fuel for the plant or can be diverted into higher-value products. One such higher-valued product is pyrolysis oil, a fuel that can be further upgraded into motor gasoline fuels. While pyrolysis of pure lignin is not a good source of pyrolysis liquids, raw lignin containing unconverted feed and by-products may have potential as a feedstock. This report considers only the production of the pyrolysis oil and does not estimate the cost of upgrading that oil into synthetic crude oil or finished gasoline and diesel. A techno-economic analysis for the production of pyrolysis oil from raw lignin was conducted. comparing two cellulosic ethanol fermentation based biorefineries. The base case is the NREL 2002 cellulosic ethanol design report case where 2000 MTPD of corn stover is fermented to ethanol (NREL 2002). In the base case, lignin is separated from the ethanol product, dewatered, and burned to produce steam and power. The alternate case considered in this report dries the lignin, and then uses fast pyrolysis to generate a bio-oil product. Steam and power are generated in this alternate case by burning some of the corn stover feed, rather than fermenting it. This reduces the annual ethanol production rate from 69 to 54 million gallons/year. Assuming a pyrolysis oil value similar to Btu-adjusted residual oil, the estimated ethanol selling price ranges from $1.40 to $1.48 (2007 $) depending upon the yield of pyrolysis oil. This is considerably above the target minimum ethanol selling price of $1.33 for the 2012 goal case process as reported in the 2007 State of Technology Model (NREL 2008). Hence, pyrolysis oil does not appear to be an economically attractive product in this scenario. Further research regarding fast pyrolysis of raw lignin from a cellulosic plant as an end product is not recommended. Other processes, such as high-pressure liquefaction or wet gasification, and higher value products, such as gasoline and diesel from fast pyrolysis oil should be considered in future studies.

  8. Determining the Effect of Concerted Elimination Reactions in the Pyrolysis of Lignin Using Model Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robichaud, D.; Clark, J.; Nimlos, M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin pyrolysis is a significant impediment in forming liquid fuel from biomass. Lignin pyrolyzes at a higher temperature than other biomass components (ie cellulose, hemicellulose) and tends to form radicals which lead to cross linking and ultimately char formation. A primary step in advances biomass-to-fuel technology will be to discover mechanisms that can disassemble lignin at lower temperatures and depolymerize lignin into more stable products. We have investigated the thermochemistry of the various inter-linkage units found in lignin ({beta}-O4, {alpha}-O4, {beta}-{beta}, {beta}-O5, etc) using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2x/6-311++G(d,p) on a series of dimer model compounds. In addition to the usually-assumed bond homolysis reactions, we have investigated a variety of concerted elimination pathways that will tend to produce closed-shell stable products. Such a bottom-up approach could aid in the targeted development of catalysts that produce more desirable products under less severe reactor conditions.

  9. Phenotypic classes of phenoloxidase-negative mutants of the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liwicki, R.; Paterson, A.; MacDonald, M.J.; Broda, P.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the isolation of phenoloxidase-negative mutants of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the results of a survey of idiophasic functions among these mutants. The mutant strains were isolated from a medium containing o-anisidine after gamma irradiation of wild-type spores and fell into four classes, divided by the manner in which they mineralized /sup 14/C-lignin wheat lignocellulose. Examples are strain LMT7, which degraded lignin at a rate similar to that of the wild type; strain LMT26, in which degradation was enhanced; strain LMT16, whose degradation rate was apparently unaffected, although the onset of lignin attack was delayed compared with that in the wild type; and strain LMT24, which was unable to evolve significant amounts of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from the radiolabeled substrate. The mutants were not necessarily defective in other functions associated with idiophasic activities (intracellular cyclic AMP levels, sporulation, extracellular glucan production, veratryl alcohol synthesis). The authors conclude that phenoloxidase activity as detected by the o-anisidine plate test is not necessary for lignin degradation. In addition, mutations resulting in the loss of lignin-degrading ability were not necessarily pleiotropic with other idiophasic functions.

  10. Deuteron production in p-Be interactions at 450 GeV/c and the coalescing model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Bonesini; for the HARP Collaboration

    2007-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The analysis of the deuteron production in p--Be interactions at 450 GeV/c taken by the NA56/SPY experiment at CERN SPS is presented. In the framework of the coalescence model, the coalescence factor $\\kappa$ is determined as $(0.79 \\pm 0.05 \\pm 0.13) \\times 10^{-2}$. Our results disfavour the hypothesis that coalescence be the dominant mechanism for deuteron production in $p+Be$ interactions at low $p_T$.

  11. Visual Breakout

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Visual Breakout of the Cummulative Barrels of Oil Recovered by the Discoverer Enterprise, Q4000 and HP1. Updated through 12:00 AM on July 16, 2010.

  12. Experimental and Computational Methods for the Deconstruction and Valorization of Lignin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chmely, S. C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is among the most abundant natural heteropolymers on Earth. While lignin represents an abundant feedstock material for the production of renewable fuels and value-added chemicals, it is an underutilized value stream in current biomass conversion technologies because there exist no economic and technically feasible routes for lignin depolymerization and upgrading. My work at NREL has focused on elucidating deconstruction pathways of this recalcitrant polymer using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. This entails testing putative catalyst species against a library of model compounds as well as using computational modeling of the substrates and catalysts to determine thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. From these preliminary studies, I hope to develop strategies for the selective conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Synthetic techniques applicable to a model compound library, synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of catalyst species, as well as DFT studies of all of the aforementioned will be presented.

  13. Manipulation of lignin composition in plants using a tissue-specific promoter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapple, Clinton C. S.

    2003-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to methods and materials in the field of molecular biology, the manipulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway and the regulation of proteins synthesis through plant genetic engineering. More particularly, the invention relates to the introduction of a foreign nucleotide sequence into a plant genome, wherein the introduction of the nucleotide sequence effects an increase in the syringyl content of the plant's lignin. In one specific aspect, the invention relates to methods for modifying the plant lignin composition in a plant cell by the introduction there into of a foreign nucleotide sequence comprising at issue specific plant promoter sequence and a sequence encoding an active ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H) enzyme. Plant transformants harboring an inventive promoter-F5H construct demonstrate increased levels of syringyl monomer residues in their lignin, rendering the polymer more readily delignified and, thereby, rendering the plant more readily pulped or digested.

  14. Top Value-Added Chemicals from Biomass - Volume II—Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Biorefinery Lignin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holladay, John E.; White, James F.; Bozell, Joseph J.; Johnson, David

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates lignin’s role as a renewable raw material resource. Opportunities that arise from utilizing lignin fit into one of three categories: 1)power, fuel and syngas (generally near-term opportunities) 2) macromolecules (generally medium-term opportunities) 3) aromatics and miscellaneous monomers (long-term opportunities). Biorefineries will receive and process massive amounts of lignin. For this reason, how lignin can be best used to support the economic health of the biorefinery must be defined. An approach that only considers process heat would be shortsighted. Higher value products present economic opportunities and the potential to significantly increase the amount of liquid transportation fuel available from biomass. In this analysis a list of potential uses of lignin was compiled and sorted into “product types” which are broad classifications (listed above as power—fuel—syngas; macromolecules; and aromatics). In the first “product type” (power—fuel—gasification) lignin is used purely as a carbon source and aggressive means are employed to break down its polymeric structure. In the second “product type” (macromolecules) the opposite extreme is considered and advantage of the macromolecular structure imparted by nature is retained in high-molecular weight applications. The third “product type” (aromatics) lies somewhere between the two extremes and employs technologies that would break up lignin’s macromolecular structure but maintain the aromatic nature of the building block molecules. The individual opportunities were evaluated based on their technical difficulty, market, market risk, building block utility, and whether a pure material or a mixture would be produced. Unlike the “Sugars Top 10” report it was difficult to identify the ten best opportunities, however, the potential opportunities fell nicely into near-, medium- and long-term opportunities. Furthermore, the near-, medium- and long-term opportunities roughly align with the three “product types.” From this analysis a list of technical barriers was developed which can be used to identify research needs. Lignin presents many challenges for use in the biorefinery. Chemically it differs from sugars having a complex aromatic substructure. Unlike cellulose, which has a relatively simple substructure of glucose subunits, lignin has a high degree of variability in its structure which differs both from biomass source and from the recovery process used. In addition to its variability lignin is also reactive and to some degree less stable thermally and oxidatively to other biomass streams. What this means is that integrating a lignin process stream within the biorefinery will require identifying the best method to separate lignin from biomass cost-effectively.

  15. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, S.K.; Hames, B.R.; Myers, M.D.

    1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  16. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO); Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO); Myers, Michele D. (Dacono, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  17. Manipulation Of Lignin Biosynthesis To Maximize Ethanol Production From Populus Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Clint Chapple; Dr. Rick Lindroth; Dr. Burce Dien; Dr. Glen Stanosz; Dr. Alex Wiedenhoeft; Dr. Fu Zhao; Dr. Duane Wegener; Dr. Janice Kelly; Dr. Leigh Raymond; Dr. Wallace Tyner

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Our research focuses on transgenic strategies for modifying lignification to improve biomass quality, without leading to deleterious effects on plant performance. In order to accomplish this objective, we designed molecular strategies and selected appropriate transgenes for manipulating the expression of lignification-associated genes; we generated poplar engineered for altered lignin content and/or monomer composition, and field-tested them for fitness; we analyzed the impact of these transgenic strategies on metabolism in general and lignin biosynthesis in particular; and evaluated the ease with which cell wall deconstruction can be accomplished using both chemical and enzymatic means using wild-type and high syringyl poplar.

  18. Phase-Space Coalescence for heavy and light quarks at RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Greco

    2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the application and successes of a phase-space coalescence plus fragmentation model that has been applied for hadronization at RHIC. The physical concept is discussed together with the practical implementation. The robustness of main predictions is reviewed together with several open issues like relevance of three dimensional calculation, finite width of the wave functions, effects of quark masses, energy-entropy conservation, space-momentum correlation. Eventually the relevance of coalescence also for the study of the microscopic interaction of heavy quarks is highlighted.

  19. Separation of kraft lignin from kraft black liquor: Final report, July 1984-April 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurple, K.R.

    1988-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    All the objectives were accomplished: a high-quality kraft lignin containing less than 50 ppM sodium was separated into a solvent phase (freon) from as much as 1000 lb kraft black liquor. Supporting data (infrared spectra, chemical analyses, etc.) are included. (DLC)

  20. Lignin-Derived Carbon Fiber as a Co-Product of Refining Cellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Baker, Fred S [ORNL; Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL; Boeman, Raymond G [ORNL; Keller, Martin [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin by-products from biorefineries has the potential to provide a low-cost alternative to petroleum-based precursors to manufacture carbon fiber, which can be combined with a binding matrix to produce a structural material with much greater specific strength and specific stiffness than conventional materials such as steel and aluminum. The market for carbon fiber is universally projected to grow exponentially to fill the needs of clean energy technologies such as wind turbines and to improve the fuel economies in vehicles through lightweighting. In addition to cellulosic biofuel production, lignin-based carbon fiber production coupled with biorefineries may provide $2,400 to $3,600 added value dry Mg-1 of biomass for vehicle applications. Compared to producing ethanol alone, the addition of lignin-derived carbon fiber could increase biorefinery gross revenue by 30% to 300%. Using lignin-derived carbon fiber in 15 million vehicles per year in the US could reduce fossil fuel consumption by 2-5 billion liters year-1, reduce CO2 emissions by about 6.7 million Mg year-1, and realize fuel savings through vehicle lightweighting of $700 to $1,600 per Mg biomass processed. The value of fuel savings from vehicle lightweighting becomes economical at carbon fiber price of $6.60 kg-1 under current fuel prices, or $13.20 kg-1 under fuel prices of about $1.16 l-1.

  1. Batch Microreactor Studies of Lignin Depolymerization by Bases. 1. Alcohol Solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MILLER, JAMES E.; EVANS, LINDSEY; LITTLEWOLF, ALICIA; TRUDELL, DANIEL E.

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass feedstocks contain roughly 10-30% lignin, a substance that can not be converted to fermentable sugars. Hence, most schemes for producing biofuels (ethanol) assume that the lignin coproduct will be utilized as boiler fuel to provide heat and power to the process. However, the chemical structure of lignin suggests that it will make an excellent high value fuel additive, if it can be broken down into smaller molecular units. From fiscal year 1997 through fiscal year 2001, Sandia National Laboratories was a participant in a cooperative effort with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the University of Utah to develop and scale a base catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) process for lignin conversion. SNL's primary role in the effort was to utilize rapidly heated batch microreactors to perform kinetic studies, examine the reaction chemistry, and to develop alternate catalyst systems for the BCD process. This report summarizes the work performed at Sandia during FY97 and FY98 with alcohol based systems. More recent work with aqueous based systems will be summarized in a second report.

  2. Coalescing Executions for Fast Uncertainty Analysis William N. Sumner Tao Bao Xiangyu Zhang Sunil Prabhakar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xiangyu

    of the output. In this paper, we propose a technique to improve the cost-effectiveness of MC methods. Assuming.3 [Programming Languages]: Language Con- structs and Features General Terms Languages, Experimentation, Performance Keywords uncertainty, sensitivity, monte carlo, coalescing 1. INTRODUCTION Uncertain data

  3. Electrostatic coalescence of used automotive crankcase oil as an alternative to other separation processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixon, John Leslie

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , verified by separating and analyzing a used oil emulsion. The metal removal efficiency was compared to that of a five day gravity settling. Separation experiments were performed in a 2.26 L coalescer with a flat parallel insulated electrode configuration...

  4. Production of Heavy Clusters with an Expanded Coalescence Model in CEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leslie M. Kerby; Stepan G. Mashnik

    2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of heavy clusters in nuclear reactions is important in a wide variety of applications: radiation shielding, space engineering and design, medical physics, accelerator design, and more. According to the Cascade Exciton Model (CEM), there are three ways high-energy heavy clusters can be produced. The first way is via coalescence of nucleons produced in the IntraNuclear Cascade (INC). The second way is via the preequilibrium model. The last way is via Fermi breakup. Previous work in CEM examines the impact of expansions of the preequilibrium model and Fermi breakup model on heavy cluster production. The present work studies the impact of expanding the coalescence model on heavy cluster spectra. CEM03.03, the default event generator in the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code version 6 (MCNP6) for intermediate-energy nuclear reactions, is capable of producing light fragments up to He4 in its coalescence model. In the present study, we have expanded the coalescence model to be able to produce up to Be7. Preliminary results are promising.

  5. Materials Characterisation 59 (2008) 877-882 Three-dimensional analysis of coalesced bainite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The composition in wt. % unless stated along with welding parameters interpass temperature (°C) and heat input (k A coarse grained constituent recently discovered in high strength steel weld metals ­ Coalesced Bainite the bainite formation temperature is close to the martensite start temperature [5]. More recently these large

  6. Herpesviral replication compartments move and coalesce at nuclear speckles to enhance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knipe, David M.

    Herpesviral replication compartments move and coalesce at nuclear speckles to enhance export, Biomedical Computer Vision Group, BIOQUANT, Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology (IPMB at and reorganize nuclear speckles. Lastly, distinct effects of actin and myosin inhibitors on viral gene expression

  7. Results of Analysis of Macrobatch 3 Decontaminated Salt Solution Coalescer from May 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    SRNL analyzed the Decontamination Salt Solution (DSS) coalescer from MCU by several analytical methods. This unit was removed from service in May 2010. The results of these analyses indicate that there is very little evidence of fouling via excessive solids, either from the leaching studies or X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis.

  8. An advanced understanding of the specific effects of xylan and surface lignin contents on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, Xiaohui; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Xiao

    2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A deep understanding of biomass recalcitrance has been hampered by the intricate and heterogeneous nature of pretreated biomass substrates obtained from random deconstruction methods. In this study, we established a unique methodology based on chemical pulping principles to create "reference substrates" with intact cellulose fibers and controlled morphological and chemical properties that enable us to investigate the individual effect of xylan, bulk, and surface lignin content on enzymatic hydrolysis. We also developed and demonstrated an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique for quantifying surface lignin content on biomass substrates. The results from this study show that, apart from its hindrance effect, xylan can facilitate cellulose fibril swelling and thus create more accessible surface area, which improves enzyme and substrate interactions. Surface lignin has a significant impact on enzyme adsorption kinetics and hydrolysis rate. Advanced understanding of xylan, bulk, and surface lignin effects provides critical information for an effective biomass conversion process.

  9. Visualizing data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilik, Violeta

    We used Viewshare to visualize three different sets of data. Frist one is a collection of budget reports published by the Texas A&M System. The file was crosswalked from MARCXML to MODS and uploaded to Viewshare as an XML MODS file. The second...

  10. A Preliminary Study of Oxidation of Lignin from Rubber Wood to Vanillin in Ionic Liquid Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamsuri, A A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, lignin was oxidised to vanillin by means of oxygen in ionic liquid (1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate) medium. The parameters of the oxidation reaction that have been investigated were the following: concentration of oxygen (5, 10, 15 and 20 ft3 h-1), reaction time (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h) and reaction temperature (25, 40, 60, 80 and 100{\\deg}C). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet-visible analyses were used to characterise the product. The results revealed vanillin as the product obtained via the oxidation reaction. The optimum parameters of vanillin production were 20 ft3 h-1 of oxygen for 10 h at 100{\\deg}C. In conclusion, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate could be used as an oxidation reaction medium for the production of vanillin from rubber wood lignin.

  11. Understanding the Nature and Reactivity of Residual Lignin for Improved Pulping and Bleaching Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan-Zong Lai

    2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most formidable challenges in kraft pulping to produce bleached chemical pulps is how to effectively remove the last 5-10% of lignin while maintaining the fiber quality. To avoid a severe fiber degradation, kraft pulping is usually terminated in the 25-30 kappa number range and then followed by an elementally chlorine free (ECF) or a totally chlorine free (TCF) bleaching sequence to reduce the environmental impacts.

  12. Distinguishing compact binary population synthesis models using gravitational-wave observations of coalescing binary black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Simon; Fairhurst, Stephen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coalescence of compact binaries containing neutron stars or black holes is one of the most promising signals for advanced ground-based laser interferometer gravitational-wave detectors, with the first direct detections expected over the next few years. The rate of binary coalescences and the distribution of component masses is highly uncertain, and population synthesis models predict a wide range of plausible values. Poorly constrained parameters in population synthesis models correspond to poorly understood astrophysics at various stages in the evolution of massive binary stars, the progenitors of binary neutron star and binary black hole systems. These include effects such as supernova kick velocities, parameters governing the energetics of common envelope evolution and the strength of stellar winds. Observing multiple binary black hole systems through gravitational waves will allow us to infer details of the astrophysical mechanisms that lead to their formation. We simulate gravitational-wave observati...

  13. Short Gamma Ray Bursts as possible electromagnetic counterpart of coalescing binary systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Capozziello; M. De Laurentis; I. De Martino; M. Formisano

    2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Coalescing binary systems, consisting of two collapsed objects, are among the most promising sources of high frequency gravitational waves signals detectable, in principle, by ground-based interferometers. Binary systems of Neutron Star or Black Hole/Neutron Star mergers should also give rise to short Gamma Ray Bursts, a subclass of Gamma Ray Bursts. Short-hard-Gamma Ray Bursts might thus provide a powerful way to infer the merger rate of two-collapsed object binaries. Under the hypothesis that most short Gamma Ray Bursts originate from binaries of Neutron Star or Black Hole/Neutron Star mergers, we outline here the possibility to associate short Gamma Ray Bursts as electromagnetic counterpart of coalescing binary systems.

  14. RESULTS OF ANALYSES OF MACROBATCH 3 DECONTAMINATED SALT SOLUTION (DSS) COALESCER AND PRE-FILTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    SRNL analyzed the pre-filter and Decontamination Salt Solution (DSS) coalescer from MCU by several analytical methods. The results of these analyses indicate that overall there is light to moderate solids fouling of both the coalescer and pre-filter elements. The majority of the solids contain aluminum, sodium, silicon, and titanium, in oxide and/or hydroxide forms that we have noted before. The titanium is presumably precipitated from leached, dissolved monosodium titanate (MST) or fines from MST at ARP, and the quantity we find is significantly greater than in the past. A parallel report discusses potential causes for the increased leaching rate of MST, showing that increases in free hydroxide concentration of the feed solutions and of chemical cleaning solutions lead to faster leaching of titanium.

  15. Sensitivity comparison of searches for binary black hole coalescences with ground-based gravitational-wave detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohapatra, Satya

    Searches for gravitational-wave transients from binary black hole coalescences typically rely on one of two approaches: matched filtering with templates and morphology-independent excess power searches. Multiple algorithmic ...

  16. Search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence in LIGO and Virgo data from S5 and VSR1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barsotti, Lisa

    We report the results of the first search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence using data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Virgo detectors. Five months of data were collected ...

  17. Improved Wood Properties Through Genetic Manipulation: Engineering of Syringyl Lignin in Softwood Species Through Xylem-Specific Expression of Hardwood Syringyl Monolignol Pathway Genes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandrashekhar P. Joshi; Vincent L. Chiang

    2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Project Objective: Our long-term goal is to genetically engineer higher value raw materials with desirable wood properties to promote energy efficiency, international competitiveness, and environmental responsiveness of the U.S. forest products industry. The immediate goal of this project was to produce the first higher value softwood raw materials engineered with a wide range of syringyl lignin quantities. Summary: The most important wood property affecting directly the levels of energy, chemical and bleaching requirements for kraft pulp production is lignin. Softwoods contain almost exclusively chemically resistant guaiacyl (G) lignin, whereas hardwoods have more reactive or easily degradable lignins of the guaiacyl (G)-syringyl (S) type. It is also well established that the reactive S lignin component is the key factor that permits much lower effective alkali and temperature, shorter pulping time and less bleaching stages for processing hardwoods than for softwoods. Furthermore, our pulping kinetic study explicitly demonstrated that every increase in one unit of the lignin S/G ratio would roughly double the rate of lignin removal. These are clear evidence that softwoods genetically engineered with S lignin are keys to revolutionizing the energy efficiency and enhancing the environmental performance of this industry. Softwoods and hardwoods share the same genetic mechanisms for the biosynthesis of G lignin. However, in hardwoods, three additional genes branch out from the G-lignin pathway and become specifically engaged in regulating S lignin biosynthesis. In this research, we simultaneously transferred aspen S-specific genes into a model softwood, black spruce, to engineer S lignin.

  18. Synergy between ground and space based gravitational wave detectors for estimation of binary coalescence parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Remya; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the advantage of the co-existence of future ground and space based gravitational wave detectors, in estimating the parameters of a binary coalescence. Using the post-Newtonian waveform for the inspiral of non-spinning neutron star-black hole pairs in circular orbits, we study how the estimates for chirp mass, symmetric mass ratio, and time and phase at coalescence are improved by combining the data from different space-ground detector pairs. Since the gravitational waves produced by binary coalescence also provide a suitable domain where we can study strong field gravity, we also study the deviations from general relativity using the parameterized post-Einsteinian framework. As an example, focusing on the Einstein telescope and DECIGO pair, we demonstrate that there exists a sweet spot range of sensitivity in the pre-DECIGO phase where the best enhancement due to the synergy effect can be obtained for the estimates of the post-Newtonian waveform parameters as well as the modification parameters to ge...

  19. Visualizing Music

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haggerty, Mary Beth

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Craig Hammack demonstrated super human levels of pat ience throughout this process and he lped me retain my focus. I would also like to thank my comrades in the Visualization Laboratory, they have expanded my horizons a n d given a g o o d ba lance... the unrounded, warm. Consonants were realized by their manner of articulation and if they were vo iced. For example, the frictive f is cerulean blue and frictive y is violet. The breaks or breaths in the text FIGURE 1: Ox; URSONATE, 2nd Half of the Fourth...

  20. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Lignin-Rich Biorefinery Residues and Algae Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.

    2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of the work performed by PNNL using feedstock materials provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, KL Energy and Lignol lignocellulosic ethanol pilot plants. Test results with algae feedstocks provided by Genifuel, which provided in-kind cost share to the project, are also included. The work conducted during this project involved developing and demonstrating on the bench-scale process technology at PNNL for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of lignin-rich biorefinery residues and algae. A technoeconomic assessment evaluated the use of the technology for energy recovery in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant.

  1. Continuous on-line measurement of lignin concentration in wood pulp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffers, L.A.; Roman, G.W.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We are working toward the development of an instrument for the continuous, on-line measurement of the lignin concentration in wood pulp. The instrument is based on laser induced fluorescence of the wood pulp and is to be used as a primary sensor for both feedback control of the pulping and feedforward control of bleaching. We report here the results of a series of laboratory tests that characterized the fluorescence properties of wood pulp and demonstrated a correlation between various fluorescence functions and the Kappa number of the pulps as determined by TAPPI Procedure T236.

  2. NREL Refines Method to Convert Lignin to Nylon Precursor - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gifNREL NREL Refines Method to Convert Lignin to Nylon

  3. General coalescence conditions for the exact wave functions. II. Higher-order relations for many-particle systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurokawa, Yusaku I., E-mail: y-kurokawa@qcri.or.jp, E-mail: h.nakatsuji@qcri.or.jp; Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi, E-mail: y-kurokawa@qcri.or.jp, E-mail: h.nakatsuji@qcri.or.jp [Quantum Chemistry Research Institute, Kyodai Katsura Venture Plaza 107, Goryo Oohara 1-36, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8245 (Japan)

    2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We derived the necessary conditions that must be satisfied by the non-relativistic time-independent exact wave functions for many-particle systems at a two-particle coalescence (or cusp) point. Some simple conditions are known to be Kato's cusp condition (CC) and Rassolov and Chipman's CC. In a previous study, we derived an infinite number of necessary conditions that two-particle wave functions must satisfy at a coalescence point. In the present study, we extend these conditions to many-particle systems. They are called general coalescence conditions (GCCs), and Kato's CC and Rassolov and Chipman's CC are included as special conditions. GCCs can be applied not only to Coulombic systems but also to any system in which the interaction between two particles is represented in a power series of inter-particle distances. We confirmed the correctness of our derivation of the GCCs by applying the exact wave function of a harmonium in electron-electron and electron-nucleus coalescence situations. In addition, we applied the free complement (FC) wave functions of a helium atom to the GCCs to examine the accuracy of the FC wave function in the context of a coalescence situation.

  4. ReaxFF Study of the Oxidation of Lignin Model Compounds for the Most Common Linkages in Softwood in View of Carbon Fiber Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beste, Ariana [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is an underused but major component of biomass. One possible area of utilization is the production of carbon fiber. A necessary processing step is the stabilization of lignin fiber (typically in an oxygen environment) before high temperature treatment. We investigate oxidative, thermal conversion of lignin using computational methods. Dilignol model compounds for the most common (seven) linkages in softwood are chosen to represent the diverse structure of lignin. We perform molecular dynamics simulation where the potential energy surface is described by a reactive force field (ReaxFF). We calculate overall activation energies for model conversion and reveal initial mechanisms of formaldehyde formation. We record fragmentation patterns and average carbon oxidation numbers at various temperatures. Most importantly, we identify mechanisms for stabilizing reactions that result in cyclic, and rigid connections in softwood lignin fibers that are necessary for further processing into carbon fibers.

  5. The detectability of eccentric compact binary coalescences with advanced gravitational-wave detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Coughlin; Patrick Meyers; Eric Thrane; Jialun Luo; Nelson Christensen

    2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Compact binary coalescences are a promising source of gravitational waves for second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors such as advanced LIGO and advanced Virgo. While most binaries are expected to possess circular orbits, some may be eccentric, for example, if they are formed through dynamical capture. Eccentric orbits can create difficulty for matched filtering searches due to the challenges of creating effective template banks to detect these signals. In previous work, we showed how seedless clustering can be used to detect low-mass ($M_\\text{total}\\leq10M_\\odot$) compact binary coalescences for both spinning and eccentric systems, assuming a circular post-Newtonian expansion. Here, we describe a parameterization that is designed to maximize sensitivity to low-eccentricity ($0\\leq\\epsilon\\leq0.6$) systems, derived from the analytic equations. We show that this parameterization provides a robust and computationally efficient method for detecting eccentric low-mass compact binaries. Based on these results, we conclude that advanced detectors will have a chance of detecting eccentric binaries if optimistic models prove true. However, a null observation is unlikely to firmly rule out models of eccentric binary populations.

  6. Coalescence of Drops Near A Hydrophilic Boundary Leads to Long Range Directed Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manoj K. Chaudhury; Aditi Chakrabarti; Tapasya Tibrewal

    2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A new mechanism for the passive removal of drop on a horizontal surface is described that does not require pre-fabrication of a surface energy gradient. The method relies upon the preparation of alternate hydrophilic/hydrophobic stripes on a surface. When one side of this surface is exposed to steam, with its other surface convectively cooled with cold water, steam condenses as a continuous film on the hydrophilic stripes but as droplets on the hydrophobic stripes. Coalescence leads to a random motion of the center of mass of the fused drops on the surface, which are readily removed as they reach near the boundary of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic zones thus resulting in a net diffusive flux of the coalesced drops from the hydrophobic to the hydrophilic stripes of the surface. Although an in-situ produced thermal gradient due to differential heat transfer coefficients of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes could provide additional driving force for such a motion, it is, however, not a necessary condition for motion to occur. This method of creating directed motion of drops does not require a pre-existing wettability gradient and may have useful applications in thermal management devices.

  7. Lipid-Based Nanodiscs as Models for Studying Mesoscale Coalescence A Transport Limited Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Andrew [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Fan, Tai-Hsi [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Katsaras, John [ORNL; Xia, Yan [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Li, Ming [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Nieh, Mu-Ping [University of Connecticut, Storrs

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lipid-based nanodiscs (bicelles) are able to form in mixtures of long- and short-chain lipids. Initially, they are of uniform size but grow upon dilution. Previously, nanodisc growth kinetics have been studied using time-resolved small angle neutron scattering (SANS), a technique which is not well suited for probing their change in size immediately after dilution. To address this, we have used dynamic light scattering (DLS), a technique which permits the collection of useful data in a short span of time after dilution of the system. The DLS data indicate that the negatively charged lipids in nanodiscs play a significant role in disc stability and growth. Specifically, the charged lipids are most likely drawn out from the nanodiscs into solution, thereby reducing interparticle repulsion and enabling the discs to grow. We describe a population balance model, which takes into account Coulombic interactions and adequately predicts the initial growth of nanodiscs with a single parameter i.e., surface potential. The results presented here strongly support the notion that the disc coalescence rate strongly depends on nanoparticle charge density. The present system containing low-polydispersity lipid nanodiscs serves as a good model for understanding how charged discoidal micelles coalesce.

  8. Integration of air separation membrane and coalescing filter for use on an inlet air system of an engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moncelle, Michael E. (Bloomington, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An intake air separation system suitable for combustion air of an internal combustion engine. An air separation device of the system includes a plurality of fibers, each fiber having a tube with a permeation barrier layer on the outer surface thereof and a coalescing layer on the inner surface thereof, to restrict fluid droplets from contacting the permeation barrier layer.

  9. Search for gravitational waves from low mass binary coalescences in the first year of LIGO’s S5 data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zucker, Michael E.

    We have searched for gravitational waves from coalescing low mass compact binary systems with a total mass between 2M[subscript ?] and 35M[subscript ?] and a minimum component mass of 1M[subscript ?] using data from the ...

  10. Search for Gravitational Waves from Low Mass Binary Coalescences in the First Year of LIGO's S5 Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LIGO Scientific Collaboration; B. Abbott

    2009-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We have searched for gravitational waves from coalescing low mass compact binary systems with a total mass between 2 and 35 Msun and a minimum component mass of 1 Msun using data from the first year of the fifth science run (S5) of the three LIGO detectors, operating at design sensitivity. Depending on mass, we are sensitive to coalescences as far as 150 Mpc from the Earth. No gravitational wave signals were observed above the expected background. Assuming a compact binary objects population with a Gaussian mass distribution representing binary neutron star systems, black hole-neutron star binary systems, and binary black hole systems, we calculate the 90%-confidence upper limit on the rate of coalescences to be 3.9 \\times 10^{-2} yr^{-1} L_{10}^{-1}, 1.1 \\times 10^{-2} yr^{-1} L_{10}^{-1}, and 2.5 \\times 10^{-3} yr^{-1} L_{10}^{-1} respectively, where $L_{10}$ is $10^{10}$ times the blue solar luminosity. We also set improved upper limits on the rate of compact binary coalescences per unit blue-light luminosity, as a function of mass.

  11. Search for gravitational waves from low mass binary coalescences in the first year of LIGO's S5 data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Aso, Y.; Ballmer, S.; Barton, M. A.; Betzwieser, J.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Brooks, A. F.; Cannon, K. C.; Cardenas, L.; Cepeda, C.; Chalermsongsak, T. [LIGO-California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)] (and others)

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have searched for gravitational waves from coalescing low mass compact binary systems with a total mass between 2M{sub {center_dot}} and 35M{sub {center_dot}} and a minimum component mass of 1M{sub {center_dot}} using data from the first year of the fifth science run of the three LIGO detectors, operating at design sensitivity. Depending on the mass, we are sensitive to coalescences as far as 150 Mpc from the Earth. No gravitational-wave signals were observed above the expected background. Assuming a population of compact binary objects with a Gaussian mass distribution representing binary neutron star systems, black hole-neutron star binary systems, and binary black hole systems, we calculate the 90% confidence upper limit on the rate of coalescences to be 3.9x10{sup -2} yr{sup -1}L{sub 10}{sup -1}, 1.1x10{sup -2} yr{sup -1}L{sub 10}{sup -1}, and 2.5x10{sup -3} yr{sup -1}L{sub 10}{sup -1}, respectively, where L{sub 10} is 10{sup 10} times the blue solar luminosity. We also set improved upper limits on the rate of compact binary coalescences per unit blue-light luminosity, as a function of mass.

  12. The Gravitational Wave Background From Coalescing Compact Binaries: A New Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evangelista, E F D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravitational waves are perturbations in the spacetime that propagate at the speed of light. The study of such phenomenon is interesting because many cosmological processes and astrophysical objects, such as binary systems, are potential sources of gravitational radiation and can have their emissions detected in the near future by the next generation of interferometric detectors. Concerning the astrophysical objects, an interesting case is when there are several sources emitting in such a way that there is a superposition of signals, resulting in a smooth spectrum which spans a wide range of frequencies, the so-called stochastic background. In this paper, we are concerned with the stochastic backgrounds generated by compact binaries (i.e. binary systems formed by neutron stars and black holes) in the coalescing phase. In particular, we obtain such backgrounds by employing a new method developed in our previous studies.

  13. A novel scheme for rapid parallel parameter estimation of gravitational waves from compact binary coalescences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pankow, C; Ochsner, E; O'Shaughnessy, R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a highly-parallelizable architecture for estimating parameters of compact binary coalescence using gravitational-wave data and waveform models. Using a spherical harmonic mode decomposition, the waveform is expressed as a sum over modes that depend on the intrinsic parameters (e.g. masses) with coefficients that depend on the observer dependent extrinsic parameters (e.g. distance, sky position). The data is then prefiltered against those modes, at fixed intrinsic parameters, enabling efficiently evaluation of the likelihood for generic source positions and orientations, independent of waveform length or generation time. We efficiently parallelize our intrinsic space calculation by integrating over all extrinsic parameters using a Monte Carlo integration strategy. Since the waveform generation and prefiltering happens only once, the cost of integration dominates the procedure. Also, we operate hierarchically, using information from existing gravitational-wave searches to identify the regions of pa...

  14. Field evaluation of the lignin-degrading fungus 'phanerochaete sordida' to treat creosote-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M.W.; Glaser, J.A.; Evans, J.W.; Lamar, R.T.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A field study to determine the ability of selected lignin-degrading fungi to remediate soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol and creosote was performed at a wood treating facility in south central Mississippi in the Autumn of 1991. The study was designed to evaluate 7 fungal treatments and appropriate control treatments. Soil concentrations of 14 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) components of creosote were measured over time to determine treatment efficacies. Fungal treatments involved mixing fungal inocula and aspen chips into the contaminated soil and maintaining moisture by irrigation and aeration by tillage. PAHs of more than 4 rings persisted at their original concentrations during the 8 wk course of the study for all treatments and controls.

  15. Visual servoing Francois Chaumette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Concepts ­ Visual navigation ­ Visual tracking ­ Robot vision ­ Pan/Tilt/Zoom camera control ­ Image-guided robotic surgery Definition Visual servoing refers to the use of computer vision data as input of real time closed loop control schemes to control the motion of a dynamic system, a robot typically [8

  16. Hyun Jin Lee Visual Studio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    ( ) . · . · . · .NET . . : Visual Studio 2010 10 - Intro Visual Studio 2010 ! . Visual Studio Studio 2010 (Microsoft .NET Framework 4), Visual Studio 2008 (.NET Framework 3.5), Visual Studio 2005 (.NET Framework 2.0) . Visual Studio IT Enterprise Desktop Administrator #12;/ MCTS: Microsoft

  17. Search for Gravitational Waves from Compact Binary Coalescence in LIGO and Virgo Data from S5 and VSR1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the LIGO Scientific Collaboration; the Virgo Collaboration

    2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the results of the first search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence using data from the LIGO and Virgo detectors. Five months of data were collected during the concurrent S5 (LIGO) and VSR1 (Virgo) science runs. The search focused on signals from binary mergers with a total mass between 2 and 35 Msun. No gravitational waves are identified. The cumulative 90%-confidence upper limits on the rate of compact binary coalescence are calculated for non-spinning binary neutron stars, black hole-neutron star systems, and binary black holes to be 8.7x10^-3, 2.2x10^-3 and 4.4x10^-4 yr^-1 L_10^-1 respectively, where L_10 is 10^10 times the blue solar luminosity. These upper limits are compared with astrophysical expectations.

  18. Sensitivity to Gravitational Waves from Compact Binary Coalescences Achieved during LIGO's Fifth and Virgo's First Science Run

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The LIGO Scientific Collaboration; the Virgo Collaboration; J. Abadie; B. P. Abbott; R. Abbott; M Abernathy; T. Accadia; F. Acernese; C. Adams; R. Adhikari; P. Ajith; B. Allen; G. Allen; E. Amador Ceron; R. S. Amin; S. B. Anderson; W. G. Anderson; F. Antonucci; S. Aoudia; M. A. Arain; M. Araya; M. Aronsson; K. G. Arun; Y. Aso; S. Aston; P. Astone; D. E. Atkinson; P. Aufmuth; C. Aulbert; S. Babak; P. Baker; G. Ballardin; S. Ballmer; D. Barker; S. Barnum; F. Barone; B. Barr; P. Barriga; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; M. A. Barton; I. Bartos; R. Bassiri; M. Bastarrika; J. Bauchrowitz; Th. S. Bauer; B. Behnke; M. G. Beker; M. Benacquista; A. Bertolini; J. Betzwieser; N. Beveridge; P. T. Beyersdorf; S. Bigotta; I. A. Bilenko; G. Billingsley; J. Birch; S. Birindelli; R. Biswas; M. Bitossi; M. A. Bizouard; E. Black; J. K. Blackburn; L. Blackburn; D. Blair; B. Bland; M. Blom; C. Boccara; O. Bock; T. P. Bodiya; R. Bondarescu; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bork; M. Born; S. Bose; L. Bosi; M. Boyle; S. Braccini; C. Bradaschia; P. R. Brady; V. B. Braginsky; J. E. Brau; J. Breyer; D. O. Bridges; A. Brillet; M. Brinkmann; V. Brisson; M. Britzger; A. F. Brooks; D. A. Brown; R. Budzy?ski; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; A. Buonanno; J. Burguet--Castell; O. Burmeister; D. Buskulic; R. L. Byer; L. Cadonati; G. Cagnoli; E. Calloni; J. B. Camp; E. Campagna; P. Campsie; J. Cannizzo; K. C. Cannon; B. Canuel; J. Cao; C. Capano; F. Carbognani; S. Caride; S. Caudill; M. Cavaglià; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; C. Cepeda; E. Cesarini; T. Chalermsongsak; E. Chalkley; P. Charlton; E. Chassande-Mottin; S. Chelkowski; Y. Chen; A. Chincarini; N. Christensen; S. S. Y. Chua; C. T. Y. Chung; D. Clark; J. Clark; J. H. Clayton; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; C. N. Colacino; J. Colas; A. Colla; M. Colombini; R. Conte; D. Cook; T. R. Corbitt; C. Corda; N. Cornish; A. Corsi; C. A. Costa; J. -P. Coulon; D. Coward; D. C. Coyne; J. D. E. Creighton; T. D. Creighton; A. M. Cruise; R. M. Culter; A. Cumming; L. Cunningham; E. Cuoco; K. Dahl; S. L. Danilishin; R. Dannenberg; S. D'Antonio; K. Danzmann; A. Dari; K. Das; V. Dattilo; B. Daudert; M. Davier; G. Davies; A. Davis; E. J. Daw; R. Day; T. Dayanga; R. De Rosa; D. DeBra; J. Degallaix; M. del Prete; V. Dergachev; R. DeRosa; R. DeSalvo; P. Devanka; S. Dhurandhar; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; I. Di Palma; M. Di Paolo Emilio; A. Di Virgilio; M. Díaz; A. Dietz; F. Donovan; K. L. Dooley; E. E. Doomes; S. Dorsher; E. S. D. Douglas; M. Drago; R. W. P. Drever; J. C. Driggers; J. Dueck; J. -C. Dumas; T. Eberle; M. Edgar; M. Edwards; A. Effler; P. Ehrens; R. Engel; T. Etzel; M. Evans; T. Evans; V. Fafone; S. Fairhurst; Y. Fan; B. F. Farr; D. Fazi; H. Fehrmann; D. Feldbaum; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; L. S. Finn; I. Fiori; R. Flaminio; M. Flanigan; K. Flasch; S. Foley; C. Forrest; E. Forsi; N. Fotopoulos; J. -D. Fournier; J. Franc; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; M. Frede; M. Frei; Z. Frei; A. Freise; R. Frey; T. T. Fricke; D. Friedrich; P. Fritschel; V. V. Frolov; P. Fulda; M. Fyffe; L. Gammaitoni; J. A. Garofoli; F. Garufi; G. Gemme; E. Genin; A. Gennai; I. Gholami; S. Ghosh; J. A. Giaime; S. Giampanis; K. D. Giardina; A. Giazotto; C. Gill; E. Goetz; L. M. Goggin; G. González; M. L. Gorodetsky; S. Goßler; R. Gouaty; C. Graef; M. Granata; A. Grant; S. Gras; C. Gray; R. J. S. Greenhalgh; A. M. Gretarsson; C. Greverie; R. Grosso; H. Grote; S. Grunewald; G. M. Guidi; E. K. Gustafson; R. Gustafson; B. Hage; P. Hall; J. M. Hallam; D. Hammer; G. Hammond; J. Hanks; C. Hanna; J. Hanson; J. Harms; G. M. Harry; I. W. Harry; E. D. Harstad; K. Haughian; K. Hayama; J. Heefner; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; I. S. Heng; A. Heptonstall; M. Hewitson; S. Hild; E. Hirose; D. Hoak; K. A. Hodge; K. Holt; D. J. Hosken; J. Hough; E. Howell; D. Hoyland; D. Huet; B. Hughey; S. Husa; S. H. Huttner; T. Huynh--Dinh; D. R. Ingram; R. Inta; T. Isogai; A. Ivanov; P. Jaranowski; W. W. Johnson; D. I. Jones; G. Jones; R. Jones; L. Ju; P. Kalmus; V. Kalogera; S. Kandhasamy; J. Kanner; E. Katsavounidis; K. Kawabe; S. Kawamura; F. Kawazoe; W. Kells; D. G. Keppel; A. Khalaidovski; F. Y. Khalili; E. A. Khazanov; C. Kim; H. Kim; P. J. King; D. L. Kinzel; J. S. Kissel; S. Klimenko; V. Kondrashov; R. Kopparapu; S. Koranda; I. Kowalska; D. Kozak; T. Krause; V. Kringel; S. Krishnamurthy; B. Krishnan; A. Królak; G. Kuehn; J. Kullman; R. Kumar; P. Kwee; M. Landry; M. Lang; B. Lantz; N. Lastzka; A. Lazzarini; P. Leaci; J. Leong; I. Leonor; N. Leroy; N. Letendre; J. Li; T. G. F. Li; H. Lin; P. E. Lindquist; N. A. Lockerbie; D. Lodhia; M. Lorenzini; V. Loriette; M. Lormand; G. Losurdo; P. Lu; J. Luan; M. Lubinski; A. Lucianetti; H. Lück; A. Lundgren; B. Machenschalk; M. MacInnis; J. M. Mackowski; M. Mageswaran; K. Mailand; E. Majorana; C. Mak; N. Man; I. Mandel; V. Mandic; M. Mantovani; F. Marchesoni; F. Marion; S. Márka; Z. Márka; E. Maros; J. Marque; F. Martelli

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We summarize the sensitivity achieved by the LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors for compact binary coalescence (CBC) searches during LIGO's fifth science run and Virgo's first science run. We present noise spectral density curves for each of the four detectors that operated during these science runs which are representative of the typical performance achieved by the detectors for CBC searches. These spectra are intended for release to the public as a summary of detector performance for CBC searches during these science runs.

  19. Application of Graphics Processing Units to Search Pipeline for Gravitational Waves from Coalescing Binaries of Compact Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin Kee Chung; Linqing Wen; David Blair; Kipp Cannon; Amitava Datta

    2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a novel application of graphics processing units (GPUs) for the purpose of accelerating the search pipelines for gravitational waves from coalescing binaries of compact objects. A speed-up of 16 fold has been achieved compared with a single central processing unit (CPU). We show that substantial improvements are possible and discuss the reduction in CPU count required for the detection of inspiral sources afforded by the use of GPUs.

  20. Delayed outflows from black hole accretion tori following neutron star binary coalescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Expulsion of neutron-rich matter following the merger of neutron star (NS) binaries is crucial to the radioactively-powered electromagnetic counterparts of these events and to their relevance as sources of r-process nucleosynthesis. Numerical simulations of NS-NS coalescence find, however, a wide range in the quantity of prompt dynamically-ejected mass. Here we explore the long-term (viscous) evolution of remnant black hole accretion disks formed in such mergers by means of two-dimensional, time-dependent hydrodynamical simulations. The evolution of the electron fraction due to charged-current weak interactions is included, and neutrino self-irradiation is modeled as a lightbulb that accounts for the disk geometry and moderate optical depth effects. Over several viscous times (~1s), a fraction ~10% of the initial disk mass is ejected as a moderately neutron-rich wind (Y_e ~ 0.2) powered by viscous heating and nuclear recombination, with neutrino self-irradiation playing a sub-dominant role. Although the prope...

  1. Parameter estimation on compact binary coalescences with abruptly terminating gravitational waveforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilya Mandel; Christopher P L Berry; Frank Ohme; Stephen Fairhurst; Will M Farr

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravitational-wave astronomy seeks to extract information about astrophysical systems from the gravitational-wave signals they emit. For coalescing compact-binary sources this requires accurate model templates for the inspiral and, potentially, the subsequent merger and ringdown. Models with frequency-domain waveforms that terminate abruptly in the sensitive band of the detector are often used for parameter-estimation studies. We show that the abrupt waveform termination contains significant information that affects parameter-estimation accuracy. If the sharp cutoff is not physically motivated, this extra information can lead to misleadingly good accuracy claims. We also show that using waveforms with a cutoff as templates to recover complete signals can lead to biases in parameter estimates. We evaluate when the information content in the cutoff is likely to be important in both cases. We also point out that the standard Fisher matrix formalism, frequently employed for approximately predicting parameter-estimation accuracy, cannot properly incorporate an abrupt cutoff that is present in both signals and templates; this observation explains some previously unexpected results found in the literature. These effects emphasize the importance of using complete waveforms with accurate merger and ringdown phases for parameter estimation.

  2. Sensitivity Comparison of Searches for Binary Black Hole Coalescences with Ground-based Gravitational-Wave Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satya Mohapatra; Laura Cadonati; Sarah Caudill; James Clark; Chad Hanna; Sergey Klimenko; Chris Pankow; Ruslan Vaulin; Gabriele Vedovato; Salvatore Vitale

    2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Searches for gravitational-wave transients from binary black hole coalescences typically rely on one of two approaches: matched filtering with templates and morphology-independent excess power searches. Multiple algorithmic implementations in the analysis of data from the first generation of ground-based gravitational wave interferometers have used different strategies for the suppression of non-Gaussian noise transients, and targeted different regions of the binary black hole parameter space. In this paper we compare the sensitivity of three such algorithms: matched filtering with full coalescence templates, matched filtering with ringdown templates and a morphology-independent excess power search. The comparison is performed at a fixed false alarm rate and relies on Monte-carlo simulations of binary black hole coalescences for spinning, non-precessing systems with total mass 25-350 solar mass, which covers the parameter space of stellar mass and intermediate mass black hole binaries. We find that in the mass range of 25 -100 solar mass the sensitive distance of the search, marginalized over source parameters, is best with matched filtering to full waveform templates, to within 10 percent at a false alarm rate of 3 events per year. In the mass range of 100-350 solar mass, the same comparison favors the morphology-independent excess power search to within 20 percent. The dependence on mass and spin is also explored.

  3. Studies on Supercapacitor Electrode Material from Activated Lignin-Derived Mesoporous Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saha, Dipendu [ORNL] [ORNL; Li, Yunchao [ORNL] [ORNL; Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL] [ORNL; Chen, Jihua [ORNL] [ORNL; Keum, Jong Kahk [ORNL] [ORNL; Hensley, Dale K [ORNL] [ORNL; Grappe, Hippolyte A. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)] [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE); Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL] [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL] [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We synthesized mesoporous carbon from pre-cross-linked lignin gel impregnated with a surfactant as the pore-forming agent, and then activated the carbon through physical and chemical methods to obtain activated mesoporous carbon. The activated mesoporous carbons exhibited 1.5- to 6-fold increases in porosity with a maximum BET specific surface area of 1148 m2/g and a pore volume of 1.0 cm3/g. Slow physical activation helped retain dominant mesoporosity; however, aggressive chemical activation caused some loss of the mesopore volume fraction. Plots of cyclic voltammetric data with the capacitor electrode made from these carbons showed an almost rectangular curve depicting the behavior of ideal double-layer capacitance. Although the pristine mesoporous carbon exhibited the same range of surface-area-based capacitance as that of other known carbon-based supercapacitors, activation decreased the surface-area-based specific capacitance and increased the gravimetric-specific capacitance of the mesoporous carbons. Surface activation lowered bulk density and electrical conductivity. Warburg impedance as a vertical tail in the lower frequency domain of Nyquist plots supported good supercapacitor behavior for the activated mesoporous carbons. Our work demonstrated that biomass-derived mesoporous carbon materials continue to show potential for use in specific electrochemical applications.

  4. Video-Visuals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Multimedia resources at the United States Department of Energy help to message geothermal development visually through video, photographs, renderings of the subsurface, and resource maps. VIDEO links

  5. Visualizing conceptual information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunner, Matthew Conrad

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    choices followed by an evaluation of the visualization and the collaborative process. A review of selected, relevant film follows the evaluation....

  6. Constraining the neutron star equation of state with gravitational wave signals from coalescing binary neutron stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalis Agathos; Jeroen Meidam; Walter Del Pozzo; Tjonnie G. F. Li; Marco Tompitak; John Veitch; Salvatore Vitale; Chris Van Den Broeck

    2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently exploratory studies were performed on the possibility of constraining the neutron star equation of state (EOS) using signals from coalescing binary neutron stars, or neutron star-black hole systems, as they will be seen in upcoming advanced gravitational wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. In particular, it was estimated to what extent the combined information from multiple detections would enable one to distinguish between different equations of state through hypothesis ranking or parameter estimation. Under the assumption of zero neutron star spins both in signals and in template waveforms and considering tidal effects to 1PN order, it was found that O(20) sources would suffice to distinguish between a hard, moderate, and soft equation of state. Here we revisit these results, this time including neutron star tidal effects to the highest order currently known, termination of gravitational waveforms at the contact frequency, neutron star spins, and the resulting quadrupole-monopole interaction. We also take the masses of neutron stars in simulated sources to be distributed according to a relatively strongly peaked Gaussian, as hinted at by observations, but without assuming that the data analyst will necessarily have accurate knowledge of this distribution for use as a mass prior. We find that especially the effect of the latter is dramatic, necessitating many more detections to distinguish between different EOS and causing systematic biases in parameter estimation, on top of biases due to imperfect understanding of the signal model pointed out in earlier work. This would get mitigated if reliable prior information about the mass distribution could be folded into the analyses.

  7. Multivariate Classification with Random Forests for Gravitational Wave Searches of Black Hole Binary Coalescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul T. Baker; Sarah Caudill; Kari A. Hodge; Dipongkar Talukder; Collin Capano; Neil J. Cornish

    2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Searches for gravitational waves produced by coalescing black hole binaries with total masses $\\gtrsim25\\,$M$_\\odot$ use matched filtering with templates of short duration. Non-Gaussian noise bursts in gravitational wave detector data can mimic short signals and limit the sensitivity of these searches. Previous searches have relied on empirically designed statistics incorporating signal-to-noise ratio and signal-based vetoes to separate gravitational wave candidates from noise candidates. We report on sensitivity improvements achieved using a multivariate candidate ranking statistic derived from a supervised machine learning algorithm. We apply the random forest of bagged decision trees technique to two separate searches in the high mass $\\left( \\gtrsim25\\,\\mathrm{M}_\\odot \\right)$ parameter space. For a search which is sensitive to gravitational waves from the inspiral, merger, and ringdown (IMR) of binary black holes with total mass between $25\\,$M$_\\odot$ and $100\\,$M$_\\odot$, we find sensitive volume improvements as high as $70_{\\pm 13}-109_{\\pm 11}$\\% when compared to the previously used ranking statistic. For a ringdown-only search which is sensitive to gravitational waves from the resultant perturbed intermediate mass black hole with mass roughly between $10\\,$M$_\\odot$ and $600\\,$M$_\\odot$, we find sensitive volume improvements as high as $61_{\\pm 4}-241_{\\pm 12}$\\% when compared to the previously used ranking statistic. We also report how sensitivity improvements can differ depending on mass regime, mass ratio, and available data quality information. Finally, we describe the techniques used to tune and train the random forest classifier that can be generalized to its use in other searches for gravitational waves.

  8. A novel scheme for rapid parallel parameter estimation of gravitational waves from compact binary coalescences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Pankow; P. Brady; E. Ochsner; R. O'Shaughnessy

    2015-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a highly-parallelizable architecture for estimating parameters of compact binary coalescence using gravitational-wave data and waveform models. Using a spherical harmonic mode decomposition, the waveform is expressed as a sum over modes that depend on the intrinsic parameters (e.g. masses) with coefficients that depend on the observer dependent extrinsic parameters (e.g. distance, sky position). The data is then prefiltered against those modes, at fixed intrinsic parameters, enabling efficiently evaluation of the likelihood for generic source positions and orientations, independent of waveform length or generation time. We efficiently parallelize our intrinsic space calculation by integrating over all extrinsic parameters using a Monte Carlo integration strategy. Since the waveform generation and prefiltering happens only once, the cost of integration dominates the procedure. Also, we operate hierarchically, using information from existing gravitational-wave searches to identify the regions of parameter space to emphasize in our sampling. As proof of concept and verification of the result, we have implemented this algorithm using standard time-domain waveforms, processing each event in less than one hour on recent computing hardware. For most events we evaluate the marginalized likelihood (evidence) with statistical errors of less than about 5%, and even smaller in many cases. With a bounded runtime independent of the waveform model starting frequency, a nearly-unchanged strategy could estimate NS-NS parameters in the 2018 advanced LIGO era. Our algorithm is usable with any noise curve and existing time-domain model at any mass, including some waveforms which are computationally costly to evolve.

  9. Advanced Recombinant Manganese Peroxidase for Biosynthesis of Lignin Bioproducts, Phase I Final Report, STTR Grant #: DE-SC0007503.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beatty, Christopher; Kitner, Joshua; Lajoie, Curtis; McClain, Sean; Potochnik, Steve

    2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The core purpose of this Phase I STTR was to evaluate the feasibility of a new method of producing a recombinant version of manganese peroxidase (MnP) enzyme. MnP is a potentially valuable enzyme for producing high value lignin products and also for industrial de-coloring operations such as biobleaching of pulp and color removal from textile dye effluents. This lignin-modifying enzyme is produced in small amounts by the native host, a white rot fungus. Previous work by Oregon State University developed a secreted recombinant version of the enzyme in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Unfortunately, the expression is barely moderate and the enzyme is heavily glycosylated, which inhibits purification. In this work, the gene for the enzyme is given a tag which targets production of the enzyme to the peroxisome. This is a promising approach since this location is also where heme and hydrogen peroxide are sequestered, which are both necessary cofactors for MnP. More than ten recombinant strains were constructed, verified, and expressed in the Pichia system. Constitutive (GAP) and methanol-induced promoters (AOX) were tried for peroxisomal targeted, cytosolic, and secreted versions of MnP. Only the secreted strains showed activity. The amount of expression was not significantly changed. The degree of glycosylation was lessened using the AOX (methanol) promotoer, but the resulting enzyme was still not able to be purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Additional work beyond the scope of the defined Phase I project was undertaken to construct, verify, and express Pichia strains that mutated the MnP glycosylation sites to inhibit this process. These strains did not show significant activity. The cause is not known, but it is possible that these sites are important to the structure of the enzyme. Also beyond the scope proposed for our Phase I STTR, the team collaborated with AbSci, a startup with a new E. coli based expression system focused on the production of antibodies and enzymes containing disulfide bonds and requiring folding/post-translational modification. With only limited time remaining in the Phase I schedule, a single construct was made to produce MnP with this system. The enzyme was produced in the soluble fraction of the cell lysate, but no activity was measured. MnP from the existing recombinant source was used to act on lignin. The lignin was from a Kraft process and had a molecular weight of about 10,000 Da. Using 1000 Da dialysis membranes and UV-visible spectroscopy, no modification of either lignin was evident in the dialysate or the retentate. Assays using 2,6 dimethoxy phenol (DMP) as a substrate showed consistent activity throughout the project. In summary, these results fell far short of our expectations. A Phase II proposal was not submitted. Possible reasons for the failure of peroxisomal targeting include destruction by native hydrogen peroxide, native proteases, or unforeseen causes. The AbSci system was only lighted tested and further work may yield a strain with active enzyme. The lack of evidence for lignin modification may be due to the techniques employed. NMR or GC-MS studies may reveal evidence of modification.

  10. Visual compass Frederic Labrosse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Labrosse, Frédéric

    Visual compass Fr´ed´eric Labrosse Department of Computer Science University of Wales, Aberystwyth://www.taros.org.uk. #12;Visual compass Fr´ed´eric Labrosse Department of Computer Science University of Wales Aberystwyth results that show a performance similar to a magnetic compass. In particular, the heading measured

  11. Architecture for Teraflop Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breckenridge, A.R.; Haynes, R.A.

    1999-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia Laboratories' computational scientists are addressing a very important question: How do we get insight from the human combined with the computer-generated information? The answer inevitably leads to using scientific visualization. Going one technology leap further is teraflop visualization, where the computing model and interactive graphics are an integral whole to provide computing for insight. In order to implement our teraflop visualization architecture, all hardware installed or software coded will be based on open modules and dynamic extensibility principles. We will illustrate these concepts with examples in our three main research areas: (1) authoring content (the computer), (2) enhancing precision and resolution (the human), and (3) adding behaviors (the physics).

  12. Search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence in LIGO and Virgo data from S5 and VSR1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Anderson, S. B.; Araya, M.; Aronsson, M.; Aso, Y.; Ballmer, S.; Betzwieser, J.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.; Cannon, K. C.; Cepeda, C.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Coyne, D. C. [LIGO - California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the results of the first search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence using data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Virgo detectors. Five months of data were collected during the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory's S5 and Virgo's VSR1 science runs. The search focused on signals from binary mergers with a total mass between 2 and 35M{sub {center_dot}}. No gravitational waves are identified. The cumulative 90%-confidence upper limits on the rate of compact binary coalescence are calculated for nonspinning binary neutron stars, black hole-neutron star systems, and binary black holes to be 8.7x10{sup -3} yr{sup -1} L{sub 10}{sup -1}, 2.2x10{sup -3} yr{sup -1} L{sub 10}{sup -1}, and 4.4x10{sup -4} yr{sup -1} L{sub 10}{sup -1}, respectively, where L{sub 10} is 10{sup 10} times the blue solar luminosity. These upper limits are compared with astrophysical expectations.

  13. Computational visual reality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirsch, Matthew Waggener

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is not so far-fetched to envision a future student working through a difficult physics problem by using their hands to manipulate a 3D visualization that floats above the desk. A doctor preparing for heart surgery will ...

  14. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL] [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL] [ORNL; Pullum, Laura L [ORNL] [ORNL; Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL] [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL] [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Given the scale and complexity of today s data, visual analytics is rapidly becoming a necessity rather than an option for comprehensive exploratory analysis. In this paper, we provide an overview of three applications of visual analytics for addressing the challenges of analyzing climate, text streams, and biosurveilance data. These systems feature varying levels of interaction and high performance computing technology integration to permit exploratory analysis of large and complex data of global significance.

  15. were obtained when using the different CW criteria (crude fibre, ADF, NDF, AD lignine) which were highly correlated with each other. In particular, DE varied curvilinearly with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    were obtained when using the different CW criteria (crude fibre, ADF, NDF, AD lignine) which were highly correlated with each other. In particular, DE varied curvilinearly with the level of crude fibre of oilmeals. Our results enable to correct easily the digestible energy content of oilmeals from their crude

  16. Visualization of Solution Gas Drive in Viscous Oil, SUPRI TR-126

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, D.S.; Kovscek, A.R.

    2001-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Several experimental studies of solution gas drive are available in this report. Almost all of the studies have used light oil. Solution gas drive behavior, especially in heavy oil reservoirs, is poorly understood. Experiments were performed in which pore-scale solution gas drive phenomena were viewed in water/carbon dioxide and viscous oil/carbon dioxide systems. A new pressure vessel was designed and constructed to house silicon-wafer micromodels that previously operated at low (<3 atm) pressure. The new apparatus is used for the visual studies. Several interesting phenomena were viewed. The repeated nucleation of gas bubbles was observed at a gas-wet site occupied by dirt. Interestingly, the dissolution of a gas bubble into the liquid phase was previously recorded at the same nucleation site. Gas bubbles in both systems grew to span one ore more pore bodies before mobilization. Liquid viscosity affected the ease with which gas bubbles coalesced. More viscous solutions result in slower rates of coalescence. The transport of solid particles on gas-liquid interfaces was also observed.

  17. phi and Omega production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in a dynamical quark coalescence model RID A-2398-2009 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, LW; Ko, Che Ming.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (-)+Omega(+)) baryons and their anisotropic flows in Au + Au collisions at RHIC using a dynamical quark coalescence model that includes the effect from quark phase-space distributions inside hadrons. With current quark masses and fixing the phi and Omega radii from...

  18. Prospects for joint gravitational-wave and electromagnetic observations of neutron-star--black-hole coalescing binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Pannarale; Frank Ohme

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Coalescing neutron-star-black-hole (NS-BH) binaries are a promising source of gravitational-wave (GW) signals detectable with large-scale laser interferometers such as Advanced LIGO and Virgo. They are also one of the main short gamma-ray burst (SGRB) progenitor candidates. If the BH tidally disrupts its companion, an SGRB may be ignited when a sufficiently massive accretion disk forms around the remnant BH. Detecting an NS-BH coalescence both in the GW and electromagnetic (EM) spectrum offers a wealth of information about the nature of the source. How much can actually be inferred from a joint detection is unclear, however, as a mass/spin degeneracy may reduce the GW measurement accuracy. To shed light on this problem and on the potential of joint EM+GW observations, we here combine recent semi-analytical predictions for the remnant disk mass with estimates of the parameter-space portion that is selected by a GW detection. We identify cases in which an SGRB ignition is supported, others in which it can be excluded, and finally others in which the outcome depends on the chosen model for the currently unknown NS equation of state. We pinpoint a range of systems that would allow us to place lower bounds on the equation of state stiffness if both the GW emission and its EM counterpart are observed. The methods we develop can broaden the scope of existing GW detection and parameter-estimation algorithms and could allow us to disregard about half of the templates in an NS-BH search following an SGRB trigger, increasing its speed and sensitivity.

  19. Newtonian hydrodynamics of the coalescence of black holes with neutron stars IV: Irrotational binaries with a soft equation of state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William H. Lee

    2001-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the final stages of inspiral in a black hole-neutron star binary, when the separation is comparable to the stellar radius. We use a Newtonian Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code to model the evolution of the system, and take the neutron star to be a polytrope with a soft (adiabatic index G=2 and G=5/3) equation of state and the black hole to be a Newtonian point mass. The only non-Newtonian effect we include is a gravitational radiation back reaction force, computed in the quadrupole approximation for point masses. We use irrotational binaries as initial conditions for our dynamical simulations, which are begun when the system is on the verge of initiating mass transfer and followed for approximately 23 ms. For all the cases studied we find that the star is disrupted on a dynamical time-scale, and forms a massive (the disc mass is approximately 0.2 solar masses) accretion torus around the spinning (Kerr) black hole. The rotation axis is clear of baryons (less than 1.e-5 solar masses within 10 degrees) to an extent that would not preclude the formation of a relativistic fireball capable of powering a cosmological gamma ray burst. Some mass (the specific amount is sensitive to the stiffness of the equation of state) may be dynamically ejected from the system during the coalescence and could undergo r-process nucleosynthesis. We calculate the waveforms, luminosities and energy spectra of the gravitational radiation signal and show how they reflect the global outcome of the coalescence process.

  20. Interactive visual supports for children with autism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, Gillian R.; Hirano, Sen; Marcu, Gabriela; Monibi, Mohamad; Nguyen, David H.; Yeganyan, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    010-0294-8 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Interactive visual supports fordesign guidelines for interactive visual supports that wouldvSked, a multi-device interactive visual schedule system.

  1. PERCEPTION AND Visual Perception

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majumder, Aditi

    1 PERCEPTION AND ACTION Visual Perception Slide 2 Aditi Majumder, UCI Ecological Approach to Perception J. J. Gibson in 1929 Traditional experiments too constrained Subjects cannot move their heads Study of snapshot vision Perception in its natural environment Emphasizes relationship between

  2. Information visualization as creative nonfiction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jia, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information visualizations are an important means through which we communicate knowledge. By considering visualizations as data-driven narratives, this thesis uses narrative thinking as an orienting concept to support the ...

  3. HOGgles: Visualizing Object Detection Features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vondrick, Carl Martin

    We introduce algorithms to visualize feature spaces used by object detectors. The tools in this paper allow a human to put on 'HOG goggles' and perceive the visual world as a HOG based object detector sees it. We found ...

  4. Investigating Physical Visualizations Yvonne Jansen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    such as 3D printers facilitates the creation of accurate data visualizations. Most work so far focused of physical visualizations compared to on-screen visualizations ­ with a focus on the chal- lenges posed by 3D model of yvonne.jansen@inria.fr pierre.dragicevic@inria.fr jean-daniel.fekete@inria.fr a 3D time

  5. Collaboration Topics - Visualization | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Simulation and Computing and Institutional R&D Programs NNSACEA Cooperation in Computer Science Collaboration Topics - Visualization Collaboration Topics - Visualization...

  6. Processing Visual Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litke, Alan (UC Santa Cruz) [UC Santa Cruz

    2006-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The back of the eye is lined by an extraordinary biological pixel detector, the retina. This neural network is able to extract vital information about the external visual world, and transmit this information in a timely manner to the brain. In this talk, Professor Litke will describe a system that has been implemented to study how the retina processes and encodes dynamic visual images. Based on techniques and expertise acquired in the development of silicon microstrip detectors for high energy physics experiments, this system can simultaneously record the extracellular electrical activity of hundreds of retinal output neurons. After presenting first results obtained with this system, Professor Litke will describe additional applications of this incredible technology.

  7. A blind hierarchical coherent search for gravitational-wave signals from coalescing compact binaries in a network of interferometric detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukanta Bose; Thilina Dayanga; Shaon Ghosh; Dipongkar Talukder

    2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a hierarchical data analysis pipeline for coherently searching for gravitational wave (GW) signals from non-spinning compact binary coalescences (CBCs) in the data of multiple earth-based detectors. It assumes no prior information on the sky position of the source or the time of occurrence of its transient signals and, hence, is termed "blind". The pipeline computes the coherent network search statistic that is optimal in stationary, Gaussian noise, and allows for the computation of a suite of alternative statistics and signal-based discriminators that can improve its performance in real data. Unlike the coincident multi-detector search statistics employed so far, the coherent statistics are different in the sense that they check for the consistency of the signal amplitudes and phases in the different detectors with their different orientations and with the signal arrival times in them. The first stage of the hierarchical pipeline constructs coincidences of triggers from the multiple interferometers, by requiring their proximity in time and component masses. The second stage follows up on these coincident triggers by computing the coherent statistics. The performance of the hierarchical coherent pipeline on Gaussian data is shown to be better than the pipeline with just the first (coincidence) stage.

  8. Search for Gravitational Waves from Low Mass Compact Binary Coalescence in LIGO's Sixth Science Run and Virgo's Science Runs 2 and 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the LIGO Scientific Collaboration; the Virgo Collaboration; J. Abadie; B. P. Abbott; R. Abbott; T. D. Abbott; M. Abernathy; T. Accadia; F. Acernese; C. Adams; R. Adhikari; C. Affeldt; M. Agathos; P. Ajith; B. Allen; G. S. Allen; E. Amador Ceron; D. Amariutei; R. S. Amin; S. B. Anderson; W. G. Anderson; K. Arai; M. A. Arain; M. C. Araya; S. M. Aston; P. Astone; D. Atkinson; P. Aufmuth; C. Aulbert; B. E. Aylott; S. Babak; P. Baker; G. Ballardin; S. Ballmer; D. Barker; F. Barone; B. Barr; P. Barriga; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; M. A. Barton; I. Bartos; R. Bassiri; M. Bastarrika; A. Basti; J. Batch; J. Bauchrowitz; Th. S. Bauer; M. Bebronne; B. Behnke; M. G. Beker; A. S. Bell; A. Belletoile; I. Belopolski; M. Benacquista; J. M. Berliner; A. Bertolini; J. Betzwieser; N. Beveridge; P. T. Beyersdorf; I. A. Bilenko; G. Billingsley; J. Birch; R. Biswas; M. Bitossi; M. A. Bizouard; E. Black; J. K. Blackburn; L. Blackburn; D. Blair; B. Bland; M. Blom; O. Bock; T. P. Bodiya; C. Bogan; R. Bondarescu; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bonnand; R. Bork; M. Born; V. Boschi; S. Bose; L. Bosi; B. Bouhou; S. Braccini; C. Bradaschia; P. R. Brady; V. B. Braginsky; M. Branchesi; J. E. Brau; J. Breyer; T. Briant; D. O. Bridges; A. Brillet; M. Brinkmann; V. Brisson; M. Britzger; A. F. Brooks; D. A. Brown; A. Brummit; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; A. Buonanno; J. Burguet--Castell; O. Burmeister; D. Buskulic; C. Buy; R. L. Byer; L. Cadonati; G. Cagnoli; E. Calloni; J. B. Camp; P. Campsie; J. Cannizzo; K. Cannon; B. Canuel; J. Cao; C. D. Capano; F. Carbognani; S. Caride; S. Caudill; M. Cavaglià; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; C. Cepeda; E. Cesarini; O. Chaibi; T. Chalermsongsak; E. Chalkley; P. Charlton; E. Chassande-Mottin; S. Chelkowski; Y. Chen; A. Chincarini; A. Chiummo; H. Cho; N. Christensen; S. S. Y. Chua; C. T. Y. Chung; S. Chung; G. Ciani; F. Clara; D. E. Clark; J. Clark; J. H. Clayton; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; P. -F. Cohadon; C. N. Colacino; J. Colas; A. Colla; M. Colombini; A. Conte; R. Conte; D. Cook; T. R. Corbitt; M. Cordier; N. Cornish; A. Corsi; C. A. Costa; M. Coughlin; J. -P. Coulon; P. Couvares; D. M. Coward; D. C. Coyne; J. D. E. Creighton; T. D. Creighton; A. M. Cruise; A. Cumming; L. Cunningham; E. Cuoco; R. M. Cutler; K. Dahl; S. L. Danilishin; R. Dannenberg; S. D'Antonio; K. Danzmann; V. Dattilo; B. Daudert; H. Daveloza; M. Davier; G. Davies; E. J. Daw; R. Day; T. Dayanga; R. De Rosa; D. DeBra; G. Debreczeni; J. Degallaix; W. Del Pozzo; M. del Prete; T. Dent; V. Dergachev; R. DeRosa; R. DeSalvo; S. Dhurandhar; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; I. Di Palma; M. Di Paolo Emilio; A. Di Virgilio; M. Díaz; A. Dietz; J. DiGuglielmo; F. Donovan; K. L. Dooley; S. Dorsher; M. Drago; R. W. P. Drever; J. C. Driggers; Z. Du; J. -C. Dumas; S. Dwyer; T. Eberle; M. Edgar; M. Edwards; A. Effler; P. Ehrens; G. Endröczi; R. Engel; T. Etzel; K. Evans; M. Evans; T. Evans; M. Factourovich; V. Fafone; S. Fairhurst; Y. Fan; B. F. Farr; W. Farr; D. Fazi; H. Fehrmann; D. Feldbaum; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; L. S. Finn; I. Fiori; R. P. Fisher; R. Flaminio; M. Flanigan; S. Foley; E. Forsi; L. A. Forte; N. Fotopoulos; J. -D. Fournier; J. Franc; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; M. Frede; M. Frei; Z. Frei; A. Freise; R. Frey; T. T. Fricke; D. Friedrich; P. Fritschel; V. V. Frolov; P. J. Fulda; M. Fyffe; M. Galimberti; L. Gammaitoni; M. R. Ganija; J. Garcia; J. A. Garofoli; F. Garufi; M. E. Gáspár; G. Gemme; R. Geng; E. Genin; A. Gennai; L. Á. Gergely; S. Ghosh; J. A. Giaime; S. Giampanis; K. D. Giardina; A. Giazotto; C. Gill; E. Goetz; L. M. Goggin; G. González; M. L. Gorodetsky; S. Goßler; R. Gouaty; C. Graef; M. Granata; A. Grant; S. Gras; C. Gray; N. Gray; R. J. S. Greenhalgh; A. M. Gretarsson; C. Greverie; R. Grosso; H. Grote; S. Grunewald; G. M. Guidi; C. Guido; R. Gupta; E. K. Gustafson; R. Gustafson; T. Ha; B. Hage; J. M. Hallam; D. Hammer; G. Hammond; J. Hanks; C. Hanna; J. Hanson; A. Hardt; J. Harms; G. M. Harry; I. W. Harry; E. D. Harstad; M. T. Hartman; K. Haughian; K. Hayama; J. -F. Hayau; J. Heefner; A. Heidmann; M. C. Heintze; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; M. A. Hendry; I. S. Heng; A. W. Heptonstall; V. Herrera; M. Hewitson; S. Hild; D. Hoak; K. A. Hodge; K. Holt; T. Hong; S. Hooper; D. J. Hosken; J. Hough; E. J. Howell; B. Hughey; S. Husa; S. H. Huttner; T. Huynh-Dinh; D. R. Ingram; R. Inta; T. Isogai; A. Ivanov; K. Izumi; M. Jacobson; H. Jang; P. Jaranowski; W. W. Johnson; D. I. Jones; G. Jones; R. Jones; L. Ju; P. Kalmus; V. Kalogera; I. Kamaretsos; S. Kandhasamy; G. Kang; J. B. Kanner; E. Katsavounidis; W. Katzman; H. Kaufer; K. Kawabe; S. Kawamura; F. Kawazoe; W. Kells; D. G. Keppel; Z. Keresztes; A. Khalaidovski; F. Y. Khalili; E. A. Khazanov; B. Kim; C. Kim; D. Kim; H. Kim; K. Kim; N. Kim; Y. -M. Kim; P. J. King; M. Kinsey; D. L. Kinzel; J. S. Kissel; S. Klimenko; K. Kokeyama; V. Kondrashov; R. Kopparapu; S. Koranda

    2012-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on a search for gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries using LIGO and Virgo observations between July 7, 2009 and October 20, 2010. We searched for signals from binaries with total mass between 2 and 25 solar masses; this includes binary neutron stars, binary black holes, and binaries consisting of a black hole and neutron star. The detectors were sensitive to systems up to 40 Mpc distant for binary neutron stars, and further for higher mass systems. No gravitational-wave signals were detected. We report upper limits on the rate of compact binary coalescence as a function of total mass, including the results from previous LIGO and Virgo observations. The cumulative 90%-confidence rate upper limits of the binary coalescence of binary neutron star, neutron star- black hole and binary black hole systems are 1.3 x 10^{-4}, 3.1 x 10^{-5} and 6.4 x 10^{-6} Mpc^{-3}yr^{-1}, respectively. These upper limits are up to a factor 1.4 lower than previously derived limits. We also report on results from a blind injection challenge.

  9. Expanding the Frontiers of Visual Analytics and Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dill, John; Earnshaw, Rae; Kasik, David; Vince, John; Wong, Pak C.

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Expanding the Frontiers of Visual Analytics and Visualization contains international contributions by leading researchers from within the field. Dedicated to the memory of Jim Thomas, the book begins with the dynamics of evolving a vision based on some of the principles that Jim and colleagues established and in which Jim’s leadership was evident. This is followed by chapters in the areas of visual analytics, visualization, interaction, modelling, architecture, and virtual reality, before concluding with the key area of technology transfer to industry.

  10. Methods of visualizing graphs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak C. (Richland, WA); Mackey, Patrick S. (Kennewick, WA); Perrine, Kenneth A. (Richland, WA); Foote, Harlan P. (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA)

    2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for visualizing a graph by automatically drawing elements of the graph as labels are disclosed. In one embodiment, the method comprises receiving node information and edge information from an input device and/or communication interface, constructing a graph layout based at least in part on that information, wherein the edges are automatically drawn as labels, and displaying the graph on a display device according to the graph layout. In some embodiments, the nodes are automatically drawn as labels instead of, or in addition to, the label-edges.

  11. Scientific Visualization, Seeing the Unseeable

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    LBNL

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    June 24, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in bo... June 24, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in both experimental and computational sciences. Wes Bethel, who heads the Scientific Visualization Group in the Computational Research Division, presents an overview of visualization and computer graphics, current research challenges, and future directions for the field.

  12. Knowledge Assisted Visualization Knowledge-assisted visualization of seismic data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for knowledge-assisted annotation and computer-assisted interpretation of seismic data for oil and gas, using seismic interpretation, is performed that makes it fit very naturally into the paradigmKnowledge Assisted Visualization Knowledge-assisted visualization of seismic data Daniel Patel a

  13. Testing general relativity with compact coalescing binaries: comparing exact and predictive methods to compute the Bayes factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter Del Pozzo; Katherine Grover; Ilya Mandel; Alberto Vecchio

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The second generation of gravitational-wave detectors is scheduled to start operations in 2015. Gravitational-wave signatures of compact binary coalescences could be used to accurately test the strong-field dynamical predictions of general relativity. Computationally expensive data analysis pipelines, including TIGER, have been developed to carry out such tests. As a means to cheaply assess whether a particular deviation from general relativity can be detected, Cornish et al. and Vallisneri recently proposed an approximate scheme to compute the Bayes factor between a general-relativity gravitational-wave model and a model representing a class of alternative theories of gravity parametrised by one additional parameter. This approximate scheme is based on only two easy-to-compute quantities: the signal-to-noise ratio of the signal and the fitting factor between the signal and the manifold of possible waveforms within general relativity. In this work, we compare the prediction from the approximate formula against an exact numerical calculation of the Bayes factor using the lalinference library. We find that, using frequency-domain waveforms, the approximate scheme predicts exact results with good accuracy, providing the correct scaling with the signal-to-noise ratio at a fitting factor value of 0.992 and the correct scaling with the fitting factor at a signal-to-noise ratio of 20, down to a fitting factor of $\\sim$ 0.9. We extend the framework for the approximate calculation of the Bayes factor which significantly increases its range of validity, at least to fitting factors of $\\sim$ 0.7 or higher.

  14. Newtonian hydrodynamics of the coalescence of black holes with neutron stars III: Irrotational binaries with a stiff equation of state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William H. Lee

    2000-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a hydrodynamical study of the final stages of inspiral in a black hole-neutron star (NS) binary. We use a Newtonian 3D SPH code, and model the NS with a stiff (index G=3 and G=2.5) polytropic equation of state and the black hole as a Newtonian point mass. Our initial conditions correspond to irrotational binaries in equilibrium (approximating the NS as a compressible ellipsoid), and we have explored configurations with different initial mass ratios, 0.2< q=M_ns/M_bh<0.5. The dynamical evolution is followed for ~23ms. We include gravitational radiation losses in the quadrupole approximation for a point-mass binary. For G=3, after an initial episode of mass transfer, the NS is not completely disrupted and a remnant core remains in orbit about the black hole. For G=2.5 the disruption is more complex, with the NS being totally disrupted during a second periastron passage. The accretion disc formed around the black hole contains ~0.2 solar masses. A nearly baryon-free axis is always present in the system, and only modest beaming of a relativistic fireball that could give rise to a GRB would be sufficient to avoid baryon contamination. Around 0.01 solar masses may be dynamically ejected from the system, and could contribute substantially to the amount of observed galactic r-process material. We calculate the gravitational radiation waveforms in the quadrupole approximation. We also present the results of simulations that have used spherical NSs relaxed in isolation as initial conditions, in order to gauge the effect of using non-equilibrium initial conditions on the coalescence.

  15. Developing visual associations through filmmaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shetti, Vishwanand Venkatesh

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    .................................................... 9 4.CREATING THE ROADMAP.................................... 11 5.TRAVERSING THE ROADMAP.................................. 12 6.DEVELOPING A HISTORY...................................... 13 7.WITHHOLDING EVENTS... to a visual abstraction of the film’s structure, or a roadmap as I called it. 11 4. CREATING THE ROADMAP Before adding all the details that occupy the world of Discretion, a very basic roadmap was created to visualize the basic decisions...

  16. Comments on "Microscale flow visualization"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kwang-Hua Chu

    2005-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We make comments on the presentation of Sinton's paper (Microfluidics and Nanofluidics {\\bf 1}: 2, 2004) about the microscale flow visualization since the effects of the roughness along the microfabricated wall upon the current macroflow visualization methods could be significant and cannot be neglected in microdomain and even nanodomain.

  17. Building statistical models by visualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minka,Tom

    books · "The Elements of Graphing Data", William Cleveland, 2nd Ed. · "Visualizing Data", WilliamBuilding statistical models by visualization Tom Minka CMU Statistics Dept #12;Outline-scatterplot for unpaired data · Quantile of x = fraction of points

  18. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Report about the Ocean Thermal...

  19. Dynamic visualization of data streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak Chung (Richalnd, WA); Foote, Harlan P. (Richland, WA); Adams, Daniel R. (Kennewick, WA); Cowley, Wendy E. (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA)

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    One embodiment of the present invention includes a data communication subsystem to receive a data stream, and a data processing subsystem responsive to the data communication subsystem to generate a visualization output based on a group of data vectors corresponding to a first portion of the data stream. The processing subsystem is further responsive to a change in rate of receipt of the data to modify the visualization output with one or more other data vectors corresponding to a second portion of the data stream as a function of eigenspace defined with the group of data vectors. The system further includes a display device responsive to the visualization output to provide a corresponding visualization.

  20. Visualizing DNA What is it?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    Visualizing DNA #12;What is it? Gel electrophoresis is one of the techniques scientists use to look at the DNA they have. This technique separates DNA by size. #12;How does it work? First a gel is prepared. Gels

  1. JSF AND VISUAL WEB DEVELOPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Y. Daniel

    JSF AND VISUAL WEB DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 41 Objectives To explain what JSF is (§41.1). To create/16/09 10:18 AM Page 41­1 #12;41­2 Chapter 41 JSF and Visual Web Development 41.1 Introduction The use of servlets, introduced in Chapter 39, is the foundation of the Java Web technology. It is a primitive way

  2. Data mining and visualization techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak Chung (Richland, WA); Whitney, Paul (Richland, WA); Thomas, Jim (Richland, WA)

    2004-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are association rule identification and visualization methods, systems, and apparatus. An association rule in data mining is an implication of the form X.fwdarw.Y where X is a set of antecedent items and Y is the consequent item. A unique visualization technique that provides multiple antecedent, consequent, confidence, and support information is disclosed to facilitate better presentation of large quantities of complex association rules.

  3. Visual Analytics at the Pacific Northwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    customers. The success of PNNL's information visualization software, such as IN-SPIRETM and StarlightTM, and publications in top visualization journals and conference proceedings are the results of PNNL researchers with a focus on analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces. PNNL's visual analytics team

  4. Correct Use of the Lifshitz-Slyosov-Wagner Expression for the Calculation of the Average Radius of an Oil-In-Water (o/w) Emulsion Subject to Coalescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem Rahn-Chique; German Urbina-Villalba

    2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The analytic expression proposed by Lifshitz-Slyozov and Wagner (LSW theory) for the linear variation of the cube average radius (R3) of an emulsion as function of time (t) is commonly used to appraise the effect of Ostwald ripening. However, we proved here both experimentally and theoretically that such approach is incorrect in those cases in which the coalescence of the drops cannot be prevented. In this event, the expression of LSW should be corrected in order to account for the actual average radius of the emulsion at each time, and instead of the radius predicted by the equations of LSW without consideration of the coalescence process.

  5. Visual experience induces long-term potentiation in the primary visual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooke, Samuel Frazer

    Stimulus-specific response potentiation (SRP) is a robust form of experience-dependent plasticity that occurs in primary visual cortex. In awake mice, visual evoked potentials (VEPs) recorded in layer 4 of binocular visual ...

  6. Visual Experience Induces Long-Term Potentiation in the Primary Visual Cortex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooke, Samuel Frazer

    Stimulus-specific response potentiation (SRP) is a robust form of experience-dependent plasticity that occurs in primary visual cortex. In awake mice, visual evoked potentials (VEPs) recorded in layer 4 of binocular visual ...

  7. Visual Engineering | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening aTurbulenceUtilize AvailableMedia1.1 The Visual Engineering Visual

  8. A Taxonomy of Dynamic ATC Visualizations Christophe HURTER, Stphane CONVERSY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Taxonomy of Dynamic ATC Visualizations Christophe HURTER, Stéphane CONVERSY Abstract-- Air in the interpretation of visualization. Index Terms-- Information Visualization, taxonomy, graphical coding. I

  9. Visually Accurate Multi-Field Weather Visualization Purdue University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    -dimensional, and involve global scale phenomena. Less commonly, but no less importantly, weather events are examined weather pat- terns, they are ineffective when examining storm scale weather phe- nomena. Two@cs.utah.edu Jason Levit University of Oklahoma jlevit@ou.edu Figure 1: Time Series of a Cloud Scale Visualization

  10. Improving Moments-based Visual Servoing with Tunable Visual Features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    that are subjects of active research. The first is the design of visual features most pertinent to the robotic task and y rotational motions. With the proposed method, it is possible to design moment invariants to demonstrate the validity of the proposed ideas. Results from each case are then used to design a moment

  11. Time-domain analysis of a dynamically tuned signal recycled interferometer for the detection of chirp gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. A. Simakov

    2015-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we study a particular method of detection of chirp signals from coalescing compact binary stars -- the so-called dynamical tuning, i.e. amplification of the signal via tracking of its instantaneous frequency by the tuning of the signal-recycled detector. A time-domain consideration developed for signal-recycled interferometers, in particular GEO 600, describes the signal and noise evolution in the non-stationary detector. Its non-stationarity is caused by motion of the signal recycling mirror, whose position defines the tuning of the detector. We prove that the shot noise from the dark port and optical losses remains white. The analysis of the transient effects shows that during the perfect tracking of the chirp frequency only transients from amplitude changes arise. The signal-to-noise-ratio gain, calculated in this paper, is ~ 16 for a shot-noise limited detector and ~ 4 for a detector with thermal noise.

  12. TIGER: A data analysis pipeline for testing the strong-field dynamics of general relativity with gravitational wave signals from coalescing compact binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalis Agathos; Walter Del Pozzo; Tjonnie G. F. Li; Chris Van Den Broeck; John Veitch; Salvatore Vitale

    2014-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct detection of gravitational waves with upcoming second-generation gravitational wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO and Virgo will allow us to probe the genuinely strong-field dynamics of general relativity (GR) for the first time. We present a data analysis pipeline called TIGER (Test Infrastructure for GEneral Relativity), which is designed to utilize detections of compact binary coalescences to test GR in this regime. TIGER is a model-independent test of GR itself, in that it is not necessary to compare with any specific alternative theory. It performs Bayesian inference on two hypotheses: the GR hypothesis $\\mathcal{H}_{\\rm GR}$, and $\\mathcal{H}_{\\rm modGR}$, which states that one or more of the post-Newtonian coefficients in the waveform are not as predicted by GR. By the use of multiple sub-hypotheses of $\\mathcal{H}_{\\rm modGR}$, in each of which a different number of parameterized deformations of the GR phase are allowed, an arbitrarily large number of 'testing parameters' can be used without having to worry about a model being insufficiently parsimonious if the true number of extra parameters is in fact small. TIGER is well-suited to the regime where most sources have low signal-to-noise ratios, again through the use of these sub-hypotheses. Information from multiple sources can trivially be combined, leading to a stronger test. We focus on binary neutron star coalescences, for which sufficiently accurate waveform models are available that can be generated fast enough on a computer to be fit for use in Bayesian inference. We show that the pipeline is robust against a number of fundamental, astrophysical, and instrumental effects, such as differences between waveform approximants, a limited number of post-Newtonian phase contributions being known, the effects of neutron star spins and tidal deformability on the orbital motion, and instrumental calibration errors.

  13. The human activity of visualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Griffin et al 2006 #12;Human-Computer Interaction: Software of the Mind each user has a setThe human activity of visualization cultural and psychological factors in representation; Gibbon 1998; Marcus 2000) conventions and metaphors of Westerners may not hold worldwide colors

  14. VCAT: Visual Crosswalk Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cleland, Timothy J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Forslund, David W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cleland, Catherine A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    VCAT is a knowledge modeling and analysis tool. It was synthesized from ideas in functional analysis, business process modeling, and complex network science. VCAT discovers synergies by analyzing natural language descriptions. Specifically, it creates visual analytic perspectives that capture intended organization structures, then overlays the serendipitous relationships that point to potential synergies within an organization or across multiple organizations.

  15. MULTIVARIATE NONPARAMETRIC REGRESSION AND VISUALIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klemelä, Jussi

    not be available in electronic format. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Klemel¨a, Jussi AND CLASSIFICATION 1 Overview of Regression and Classification 3 2 Linear Methods and Extensions 77 3 Kernel Methods Visualization xxi I.4 Literature xxiii PART I METHODS OF REGRESSION AND CLASSIFICATION 1 Overview of Regression

  16. Carbon smackdown: visualizing clean energy

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Juan Meza

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The final Carbon Smackdown match took place Aug. 9, 2010. Juan Meza of the Computational Research Division revealed how scientists use computer visualizations to accelerate climate research and discuss the development of next-generation clean energy technologies such as wind turbines and solar cells.

  17. Carbon smackdown: visualizing clean energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juan Meza

    2010-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The final Carbon Smackdown match took place Aug. 9, 2010. Juan Meza of the Computational Research Division revealed how scientists use computer visualizations to accelerate climate research and discuss the development of next-generation clean energy technologies such as wind turbines and solar cells.

  18. Opera in Chinese Visual Culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Laurie J.

    PERFORMING IMAGES Opera in Chinese Visual Culture SPRING 2014 ISSUE 3 VOLUME 2 AT THE SMART WINTER/ #12;The Smart Museum of Art at the University of Chicago opens the world through art and ideas this makes it wonderful to live in the city, it also imposes a responsibility that each

  19. Visualizing roadmaps: A design-driven approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, Clive; Phaal, Robert

    2015-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    strategic plans of the Royal Australian Navy using a roadmapping framework as a visual composite canvas. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management 26(1): 1–22. Phaal, R., and Muller, G. 2009. An architectural framework for roadmapping: Towards visual...

  20. Energy Integration Visualization Room (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This two-page fact sheet describes the new Energy Integration Visualization Room in the ESIF and talks about some of the capabilities and unique visualization features of the the room.

  1. Visualization of Ant Pheromone Based Path Following

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Benjamin T.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    for demonstrating how ant colonies gather food. An interactive real time 3D visualization is built on top of the simulation. A graphical user interface layer allows user interaction with the simulation and visualization....

  2. Physics-Based Deformable Tongue Visualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Xiaohu "Tiger"

    capture data gathered during speech production. Several novel deformation visualization techniques energy is utilized to provide an intuitive low dimensional visualization for the high dimensional sequential motion. Energy-interpolation-based morphing is also equipped to effectively highlight the subtle

  3. Video Visualization Gareth Daniel Min Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, P. W.

    Video Visualization Gareth Daniel Min Chen University of Wales Swansea, UK Abstract Video data, generated by the entertainment industry, security and traffic cameras, video conferencing systems, video a novel methodology for "summarizing" video sequences using volume visualization techniques. We outline

  4. BA in VISUAL ARTS: Illustration Emphasis (488043) MAP Sheet Department of Visual Arts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    requirements for admission to this major. Admission to the Department of Visual Arts does not guarantee

  5. BA in VISUAL ARTS: Illustration Emphasis (488043) Map Sheet Department of Visual Arts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    requirements for admission to this major. Admission to the Department of Visual Arts does not guarantee

  6. BA in VISUAL ARTS: Studio Arts Emphasis (488045) Map Sheet Department of Visual Arts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    requirements for admission to this major. Admission to the Department of Visual Arts does not guarantee

  7. BA in VISUAL ARTS: Studio Arts Emphasis (488045) MAP Sheet Department of Visual Arts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    requirements for admission to this major. Admission to the Department of Visual Arts does not guarantee

  8. BA in VISUAL ARTS: Photography Emphasis (488044) MAP Sheet Department of Visual Arts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    requirements for admission to this major. Admission to the Department of Visual Arts does not guarantee

  9. BA in VISUAL ARTS: Photography Emphasis (488044) Map Sheet Department of Visual Arts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    requirements for admission to this major. Admission to the Department of Visual Arts does not guarantee

  10. Prediction of visual perceptions with artificial neural networks in a visual prosthesis for the blind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rattray, Magnus

    Prediction of visual perceptions with artificial neural networks in a visual prosthesis. Introduction The European project OPTIVIP (Optimisation of the Visual Implantable Prosthesis) has recently been based visual prosthesis in order to restore partial vision to the blind. In this paper, an attempt

  11. Visualization Fusion: Hurricane Isabel Dataset Naeem Shareef

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawfis, Roger

    Visualization Fusion: Hurricane Isabel Dataset Ming Jiang Naeem Shareef Caixia Zhang Roger Crawfis in developing visualization techniques for the Hurricane Isabel dataset is to engender better understand- ing of the underlying physical phenomenon. We want the visualization to produce novel insights into how a hurricane

  12. Visual Attention: Light Enters the Jochen Braun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Jochen

    Visual Attention: Light Enters the Jungle Jochen Braun Recent studies focusing on basic visual-perceptual processing that awareness entails -- short-term memory, percep- tual decisions, voluntary responses and so time. The coaxing was done by a visual search near fixation, which the observer was obliged to carry

  13. Breakdown Visualization: Multiple Foci Polyarchies of Values and Attributes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    breakdown visualization, financial visualization, polyarchy structure, multiple foci, visual decompositionBreakdown Visualization: Multiple Foci Polyarchies of Values and Attributes Sandeep Prabhakar Department of Computer Science Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Blacksburg, VA 24061

  14. Visualization drivers for Geant4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beretvas, Andy; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is on Geant4 visualization tools (drivers), evaluating pros and cons of each option, including recommendations on which tools to support at Fermilab for different applications. Four visualization drivers are evaluated. They are OpenGL, HepRep, DAWN and VRML. They all have good features, OpenGL provides graphic output without an intermediate file. HepRep provides menus to assist the user. DAWN provides high quality plots and even for large files produces output quickly. VRML uses the smallest disk space for intermediate files. Large experiments at Fermilab will want to write their own display. They should proceed to make this display graphics independent. Medium experiment will probably want to use HepRep because of it's menu support. Smaller scale experiments will want to use OpenGL in the spirit of having immediate response, good quality output and keeping things simple.

  15. SciDAC Institute for Ultrascale Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, Grigori R.

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Institute for Ultrascale Visualization aims to address visualization needs of SciDAC science domains, including research topics in advanced scientific visualization architectures, algorithms, and interfaces for understanding large, complex datasets. During the current project period, the focus of the team at the University of Virginia has been interactive remote rendering for scientific visualization. With high-performance computing resources enabling increasingly complex simulations, scientists may desire to interactively visualize huge 3D datasets. Traditional large-scale 3D visualization systems are often located very close to the processing clusters, and are linked to them with specialized connections for high-speed rendering. However, this tight coupling of processing and display limits possibilities for remote collaboration, and prohibits scientists from using their desktop workstations for data exploration. In this project, we are developing a client/server system for interactive remote 3D visualization on desktop computers.

  16. Cognitive Foundations for Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Noonan, Christine F.; Franklin, Lyndsey

    2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we provide an overview of scientific/technical literature on information visualization and VA. Topics discussed include an update and overview of the extensive literature search conducted for this study, the nature and purpose of the field, major research thrusts, and scientific foundations. We review methodologies for evaluating and measuring the impact of VA technologies as well as taxonomies that have been proposed for various purposes to support the VA community. A cognitive science perspective underlies each of these discussions.

  17. SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.W. Markman

    2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of difficulty and complexity in determining requirements in adapting existing data communication highways to support the subsurface visual alarm system. These requirements would include such things as added or new communication cables, added Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Inputs and Outputs (I/O), and communication hardware components, and human machine interfaces and their software operating system. (4) Select the best data communication highway system based on this review of adapting or integrating with existing data communication systems.

  18. Visualizing Twenty Years of Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potel, Mike; Wong, Pak C.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This issue of IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications marks the 20th anniversary of the Applications department as a regular feature of the magazine. We thought it might be interesting to look back at the 20 years of Applications department articles to assess its evolution over that time. By aggregating all twenty years of articles and applying a little statistical and visual analytics, we’ve uncovered some interesting characteristics and trends we thought we’d share to mark this 20 year milestone.

  19. Visual Analysis of Weblog Content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Payne, Deborah A.; McColgin, Dave; Cramer, Nick O.; Love, Douglas V.

    2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, one of the advances of the World Wide Web is social media and one of the fastest growing aspects of social media is the blogosphere. Blogs make content creation easy and are highly accessible through web pages and syndication. With their growing influence, a need has arisen to be able to monitor the opinions and insight revealed within their content. In this paper we describe a technical approach for analyzing the content of blog data using a visual analytic tool, IN-SPIRE, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We highlight the capabilities of this tool that are particularly useful for information gathering from blog data.

  20. Visual-servoing optical microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callahan, Daniel E; Parvin, Bahram

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and devices for the knowledge-based discovery and optimization of differences between cell types. In particular, the present invention provides visual servoing optical microscopy, as well as analysis methods. The present invention provides means for the close monitoring of hundreds of individual, living cells over time; quantification of dynamic physiological responses in multiple channels; real-time digital image segmentation and analysis; intelligent, repetitive computer-applied cell stress and cell stimulation; and the ability to return to the same field of cells for long-term studies and observation. The present invention further provides means to optimize culture conditions for specific subpopulations of cells.

  1. Visual-servoing optical microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callahan, Daniel E. (Martinez, CA); Parvin, Bahram (Mill Valley, CA)

    2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and devices for the knowledge-based discovery and optimization of differences between cell types. In particular, the present invention provides visual servoing optical microscopy, as well as analysis methods. The present invention provides means for the close monitoring of hundreds of individual, living cells over time; quantification of dynamic physiological responses in multiple channels; real-time digital image segmentation and analysis; intelligent, repetitive computer-applied cell stress and cell stimulation; and the ability to return to the same field of cells for long-term studies and observation. The present invention further provides means to optimize culture conditions for specific subpopulations of cells.

  2. Horizon-absorption effects in coalescing black-hole binaries: An effective-one-body study of the non-spinning case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastiano Bernuzzi; Alessandro Nagar; Anil Zenginoglu

    2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the horizon absorption of gravitational waves in coalescing, circularized, nonspinning black hole binaries. The horizon absorbed fluxes of a binary with a large mass ratio (q=1000) obtained by numerical perturbative simulations are compared with an analytical, effective-one-body (EOB) resummed expression recently proposed. The perturbative method employs an analytical, linear in the mass ratio, effective-one-body (EOB) resummed radiation reaction, and the Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli (RWZ) formalism for wave extraction. Hyperboloidal (transmitting) layers are employed for the numerical solution of the RWZ equations to accurately compute horizon fluxes up to the late plunge phase. The horizon fluxes from perturbative simulations and the EOB-resummed expression agree at the level of a few percent down to the late plunge. An upgrade of the EOB model for nonspinning binaries that includes horizon absorption of angular momentum as an additional term in the resummed radiation reaction is then discussed. The effect of this term on the waveform phasing for binaries with mass ratios spanning 1 to 1000 is investigated. We confirm that for comparable and intermediate-mass-ratio binaries horizon absorbtion is practically negligible for detection with advanced LIGO and the Einstein Telescope (faithfulness greater than or equal to 0.997).

  3. Eye fixation determined by the visual shape and semantic matches in language-mediated visual search 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Lei

    2007-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    When participants are presented simultaneously a visual display with spoken input, eye fixation could be determined by a match between representations from spoken input and visual objects. Previous studies found that eye fixation on the semantic...

  4. Data Analytics and Visualization at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wind (Image by Burlen Loring) Overview Exploratory Visualization, Data Analysis, and Mining tools are used to inspect datasets, create and test hypotheses as well as to find...

  5. Strategies for Choosing Analytics and Visualization Software...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    be interchangeable. Visualization Analytics Visit Matlab Python tools: Numpy, Scipy, iPython, matplotlib Paraview Mathematica Perl IDL Python TCLTK AVSExpress R SQL ImageJFiji...

  6. Visualization of Microearthquake Data from Enhanced Geothermal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microearthquake Visualization of Microearthquake Data from Enhanced Geothermal Systems microearthquake.png We are working with geophysicists in the Earth Sciences Division (ESD) at...

  7. Visualization of Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    of processed data Ideal basis for specialized AMR visualization tool replacement [Argon bubble subjected: ­ Create new variables from existing ones via arithmetic expressions: +, -, *, /, dot product, cross

  8. Visualizing Global Inequality on the Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Ian; Lodha, S K; Crow, Ben D; Fulfrost, Brian

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Mapping Global Inequality, University of California,Visualizing Global Inequality on the Web Ian Myers 1 ,for mapping global inequality by (i) creating a simple user

  9. Data Analysis & Visualization | Neutron Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Analysis and Visualization As the data sets generated by the increasingly powerful neutron scattering instruments at HFIR and SNS grow ever more massive, the facilities'...

  10. Neutron Data Analysis & Visualization | More Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Analysis and Visualization As the data sets generated by the increasingly powerful neutron scattering instruments at HFIR and SNS grow ever more massive, the facilities'...

  11. Towards a Visual Turing Challenge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateusz Malinowski; Mario Fritz

    2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    As language and visual understanding by machines progresses rapidly, we are observing an increasing interest in holistic architectures that tightly interlink both modalities in a joint learning and inference process. This trend has allowed the community to progress towards more challenging and open tasks and refueled the hope at achieving the old AI dream of building machines that could pass a turing test in open domains. In order to steadily make progress towards this goal, we realize that quantifying performance becomes increasingly difficult. Therefore we ask how we can precisely define such challenges and how we can evaluate different algorithms on this open tasks? In this paper, we summarize and discuss such challenges as well as try to give answers where appropriate options are available in the literature. We exemplify some of the solutions on a recently presented dataset of question-answering task based on real-world indoor images that establishes a visual turing challenge. Finally, we argue despite the success of unique ground-truth annotation, we likely have to step away from carefully curated dataset and rather rely on 'social consensus' as the main driving force to create suitable benchmarks. Providing coverage in this inherently ambiguous output space is an emerging challenge that we face in order to make quantifiable progress in this area.

  12. Analytical, Visual, and Interactive Concepts for Geo-Visual Analytics Heidrun Schumanna,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tominski, Christian

    Supporting the visual analysis of structured multivariate geo-spatial data is a challenging task involving [15], Chapter 4). In this work, we consider visual analytics support for the analysis of multivariate and analysis of geo-spatial data. In particular, we address the visualization of hierarchical structures

  13. IEEE Visualization Contest 2011 Visualizing Unsteady Vortical Behavior of a Centrifugal Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEEE Visualization Contest 2011 Visualizing Unsteady Vortical Behavior of a Centrifugal Pump number 226042. em eg We present our results analyzing a centrifugal pump as a part of the IEEE Visualization Contest 2011. The given data set represents a high resolution simulation of a centrifugal pump

  14. Query-Driven Visualization and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruebel, Oliver; Bethel, E. Wes; Prabhat, Mr.; Wu, Kesheng

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report focuses on an approach to high performance visualization and analysis, termed query-driven visualization and analysis (QDV). QDV aims to reduce the amount of data that needs to be processed by the visualization, analysis, and rendering pipelines. The goal of the data reduction process is to separate out data that is "scientifically interesting'' and to focus visualization, analysis, and rendering on that interesting subset. The premise is that for any given visualization or analysis task, the data subset of interest is much smaller than the larger, complete data set. This strategy---extracting smaller data subsets of interest and focusing of the visualization processing on these subsets---is complementary to the approach of increasing the capacity of the visualization, analysis, and rendering pipelines through parallelism. This report discusses the fundamental concepts in QDV, their relationship to different stages in the visualization and analysis pipelines, and presents QDV's application to problems in diverse areas, ranging from forensic cybersecurity to high energy physics.

  15. Landscape Management Systems The Visual Management System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Landscape Management Systems The Visual Management System of the Forest Service, USDA1 Warren R presentation on how the Visual Management System (VMS) functions. 1/ Presented at the National Conference Manual 2380, Landscape Management, USDA. INTRODUCTION The American people are concerned about the quality

  16. Visual Sample Plan Version 3.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PNNL-14970 Visual Sample Plan Version 3.0 User's Guide N. L. Hassig R. O. Gilbert J. E. Wilson B. A-14970 Visual Sample Plan Version 3.0 User's Guide N. L. Hassig R. O. Gilbert J. E. Wilson B. A Sample Plan (VSP) Version 3.0 and provides instructions for using the software. VSP selects

  17. The Evolving Leadership Path of Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kluse, Michael; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Gracio, Deborah K.

    2012-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a requested book chapter for an internationally authored book on visual analytics and related fields, coordianted by a UK university and to be published by Springer in 2012. This chapter is an overview of the leadship strategies that PNNL's Jim Thomas and other stakeholders used to establish visual analytics as a field, and how those strategies may evolve in the future.

  18. Computer systems and methods for visualizing data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stolte, Chris (Palo Alto, CA); Hanrahan, Patrick (Portola Valley, CA)

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming a visual plot using a hierarchical structure of a dataset. The dataset comprises a measure and a dimension. The dimension consists of a plurality of levels. The plurality of levels form a dimension hierarchy. The visual plot is constructed based on a specification. A first level from the plurality of levels is represented by a first component of the visual plot. A second level from the plurality of levels is represented by a second component of the visual plot. The dataset is queried to retrieve data in accordance with the specification. The data includes all or a portion of the dimension and all or a portion of the measure. The visual plot is populated with the retrieved data in accordance with the specification.

  19. First Generation ASCI Production Visualization Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heermann, P.D.

    1999-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The delivery of the first one tera-operations/sec computer has significantly impacted production data visualization, affecting data transfer, post processing, and rendering. Terascale computing has motivated a need to consider the entire data visualization system; improving a single algorithm is not sufficient. This paper presents a systems approach to decrease by a factor of four the time required to prepare large data sets for visualization.For daily production use, all stages in the processing pipeline from physics simulation code to pixels on a screen, must be balanced to yield good overall performance. Also, to complete the data path from screen to the analyst's eye, user display systems for individuals and teams are examined. Performance of the initial visualization system is compared with recent improvements. Lessons learned from the coordinated deployment of improved algorithms are also discussed, including the need for 64 bit addressing and a fully parallel data visualization pipeline.

  20. Visualization and Data Analysis at the Exascale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrens, James P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of our working group is scientific visualization and data analysis. Scientific visualization refers to the process of transforming scientific simulation and experimental data into images to facilitate visual understanding. Data analysis refers to the process of transforming data into an information-rich form via mathematical or computational algorithms to promote better understanding. We share scope on data management with the Storage group. Data management refers to the process of tracking, organizing and enhancing the use of scientific data. The purpose of our work is to enable scientific discovery and understanding. Visualization and data analysis has a broad scope as an integral part of scientific simulations and experiments, it is also a distinct separate service for scientific discovery and documentation purposes. Our scope includes an exascale software and hardware infrastructure that effectively supports visualization and data analysis.

  1. 3D Representations for Software Visualization Andrian Marcus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    research from software analysis, information visualization, human-computer interaction, and cognitive, texture, abstraction mechanism, and by supporting new manipulation techniques and user interfaces.2 [Information Interfaces and Presentation] User Interfaces Keywords: Software visualization, 3D visualization

  2. The mouse visually evoked potential : neural correlates and functional applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muhammad, Rahmat

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The visually evoked potential (VEP) is a local field potential (LFP) evoked in visual cortex in response to visual stimuli. Unlike extracellular single unit recordings, which allow us to probe the function of single spiking ...

  3. View-Dependent Visualization for Analysis of Large Datasets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overby, Derek Robert

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    such as computer security (sometimes referred to as cyber-security) [34] [47] and biological studies [2]. 14 B. Visualization Techniques In this section we briefly review related work in glyph visualization techniques and interactive visual analysis methods...

  4. Short Gamma Ray Burst Formation Rate from BATSE data using E_p-L_p correlation and the minimum gravitational wave event rate of coalescing compact binary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisuke Yonetoku; Takashi Nakamura; Tatsuya Sawano; Keitaro Takahashi; Asuka Toyanago

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Using 72 Short Gamma Ray Bursts (SGRBs) with well determined spectral data observed by BATSE, we determine their redshift and the luminosity by applying $E_p$--$L_p$ correlation for SGRBs found by \\cite{tsutsui13}. For 53 SGRBs with the observed flux brighter than $4 \\times 10^{-6}~{\\rm erg~cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$, the cumulative redshift distribution up to $z=1$ agrees well with that of 22 {\\it Swift}~SGRBs. This suggests that the redshift determination by the $E_p$--$L_p$ correlation for SGRBs works well. The minimum event rate at $z=0$ is estimated as $\\rho_{SGRB}(0) = 6.3_{-3.9}^{+3.1} \\times 10^{-10}~{\\rm events~Mpc^{-3}yr^{-1}}$ so that the minimum beaming angle is $0.6^\\circ-7.8^\\circ$ assuming the merging rate of $10^{-7}-4\\times 10^{-6}~{\\rm events~Mpc^{-3}yr^{-1}}$ suggested from the binary pulsar data. Interestingly, this angle is consistent with that for SGRB130603B of $\\sim 4^\\circ-8^\\circ$\\citep{fong13b}. On the other hand, if we assume the beaming angle of $\\sim 6^\\circ$ suggested from four SGRBs with the observed value of beaming angle, the minimum event rate including off-axis SGRBs is estimated as $\\rho_{SGRB,all}^{min}(0)=1.15_{-0.71}^{+0.57}\\times 10^{-7}~{\\rm events~Mpc^{-3}yr^{-1}}$. If SGRBs are induced by coalescence of binary neutron stars (NSs) and/or black holes (BHs), this event rate leads to the minimum gravitational-wave detection rate of $\\rm 3.9_{-2.4}^{+1.9} (152_{-94}^{+75})~events~y^{-1}$ for NS-NS (NS-BH) binary, respectively, by a worldwide network with KAGRA, advanced-LIGO, advanced-Virgo, and GEO.

  5. automatic visual inspection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oil and gas, pipe inspection, pipe crawler, visual odometry 12;Abstract Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) processing facilities contain large 13 Active Visual Localisation for Cooperating...

  6. active visual perception: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    additional informative visual input. Acoustic characteristics on the speechreader's eyeglasses. The current research evaluates how easily a number of different visual...

  7. 64 _____________________________________Math & Computational Sciences Division High Performance Computing and Visualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perkins, Richard A.

    64 _____________________________________Math & Computational Sciences Division High Performance Computing and Visualization Research and Development in Visual Analysis Judith Devaney Terrence Griffin John

  8. Visual inspection submersible for nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, M.; Okano, H.; Ozaki, O.; Shimada, H. [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) are currently in use for visual inspections within reactor pressure vessels (RPV). In boiling water reactors (BWR), there is a complex RPV consisting of structures which are not disassembled during outages. To inspect the large volume of the RPV and associated components, the inspection vehicle must be compact and easily maneuverable. Toshiba has developed an ROV for the purpose of visual inspections in BWRS. This paper describes this ROV, the most compact visual inspection submersible yet manufactured and used in a BWR.

  9. A visual simulation playground for engineering dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fong, Donald Brian

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A VISUAL SIMULATION PLAYGROUND FOR ENGINEERING DYNAMICS A Thesis by DONALD BRIAN FONG Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2008 Major... Subject: Visualization Sciences A VISUAL SIMULATION PLAYGROUND FOR ENGINEERING DYNAMICS A Thesis by DONALD BRIAN FONG Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  10. Processing of Audio-Visual Collections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diaz, Angel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    invisible histories visible collection notes from the NEH/2012 Processing of AUDIO-VISUAL COLLECTIONS A s of June, 15of the audio and video collections San Francisco Bay Area.

  11. A study of temporal visual composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Xiaohua, 1972-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the rapid growth of digital art, the temporal dimension is becoming a more and more important aspect of visual creations. This thesis is an effort to contribute to the construction of a disciplined basis for the ...

  12. Data visualization in the first person

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeCamp, Philip (Philip James)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation will examine what a first person viewpoint means in the context of data visualization and how it can be used for navigating and presenting large datasets. Recent years have seen rapid growth in Big Data ...

  13. Introducing FRED, Enabling Unique Visualization and Manipulation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sfederspiel's picture Submitted by Sfederspiel(5) Member 20 May, 2013 - 13:28 FRED Free Energy Data Map OpenEI Tool Visualization The U.S. Department of Energy, the Pacific...

  14. Comparing Visual Features for Morphing Based Recognition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jia Jane

    2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a method of object classification using the idea of deformable shape matching. Three types of visual features, geometric blur, C1 and SIFT, are used to generate feature descriptors. These feature ...

  15. Comparison of open source visual analytics toolkits.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crossno, Patricia Joyce; Harger, John R.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of the first stage of a two-stage evaluation of open source visual analytics packages. This stage is a broad feature comparison over a range of open source toolkits. Although we had originally intended to restrict ourselves to comparing visual analytics toolkits, we quickly found that very few were available. So we expanded our study to include information visualization, graph analysis, and statistical packages. We examine three aspects of each toolkit: visualization functions, analysis capabilities, and development environments. With respect to development environments, we look at platforms, language bindings, multi-threading/parallelism, user interface frameworks, ease of installation, documentation, and whether the package is still being actively developed.

  16. Generative modeling of dynamic visual scenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Dahua, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling visual scenes is one of the fundamental tasks of computer vision. Whereas tremendous efforts have been devoted to video analysis in past decades, most prior work focuses on specific tasks, leading to dedicated ...

  17. VOLUMETRICCSG ---A MODELBASED VOLUME VISUALIZATION APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Shiaofen

    res­ onance imaging (MRI), or computer generated sim­ ulation data (e.g. in computational fluid, such as cutting, drilling, bending and repositioning, on indi­ vidual bones, tissues or tumors, and visualize them

  18. Visualization of vibration experienced in offshore platforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrikalakis, Alexander Marinos Charles

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I design and evaluate methods to optimize the visualization of vortex-induced vibration (VIV) in marine risers. VIV is vibration experienced by marine risers in offshore drilling platforms due to ocean ...

  19. A Computer Program to Visualize Gravitational Lenses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francisco Frutos-Alfaro

    2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravitational lenses are presently playing an important role in astrophysics. By means of these lenses the parameters of the deflector such as its mass, ellipticity, etc. and Hubble's constant can be determined. Using C, Xforms, Mesa and Imlib a computer program to visualize this lens effect has been developed. This program has been applied to generate sequences of images of a source object and its corresponding images. It has also been used to visually test different models of gravitational lenses.

  20. An instability due to the nonlinear coupling of p-modes to g-modes: Implications for coalescing neutron star binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nevin N. Weinberg; Phil Arras; Joshua Burkart

    2013-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A weakly nonlinear fluid wave propagating within a star can be unstable to three-wave interactions. The resonant parametric instability is a well-known form of three-wave interaction in which a primary wave of frequency \\omega_a excites a pair of secondary waves of frequency \\omega_b+\\omega_c\\simeq \\omega_a. Here we consider a nonresonant form of three-wave interaction in which a low-frequency primary wave excites a high-frequency p-mode and a low-frequency g-mode such that \\omega_b+\\omega_c >> \\omega_a. We show that a p-mode can couple so strongly to a g-mode of similar radial wavelength that this type of nonresonant interaction is unstable even if the primary wave amplitude is small. As an application, we analyze the stability of the tide in coalescing neutron star (NS) binaries to p-g mode coupling. We find that the equilibrium tide and dynamical tide are both p-g unstable at gravitational wave frequencies f_gw > 20 Hz and drive short wavelength p-g mode pairs to significant energies on very short timescales (much less than the orbital decay time due to gravitational radiation). Resonant parametric coupling to the tide is, by contrast, either stable or drives modes at a much smaller rate. We do not solve for the saturation of the p-g instability and therefore cannot say precisely how it influences NS binaries. However, we show that if even a single daughter mode saturates near its wave breaking amplitude, the p-g instability of the equilibrium tide: (i) induces significant orbital phase errors (\\Delta\\phi > 1 radian) that accumulate primarily at low frequencies (f_gw 100 unstable daughters, \\Delta\\phi and T are potentially much larger than these values. Tides might therefore significantly influence the gravitational wave signal and electromagnetic emission at much larger orbital separations than previously thought.

  1. A Visual Compass based on SLAM J. M. M. Montiel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davison, Andrew

    A Visual Compass based on SLAM J. M. M. Montiel Dpt. de Informatica e Ingenieria de Sistemas cost camera hardware. Our goal is to build full 3 axis visual compass using standard low cost computer ones. We consider this visual compass as the first step for real time outdoor visual SLAM, where we

  2. Visualization of time-dependent seismic vector fields with glyphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuinn, Emmett

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tensor fields in geomechanics. Visualization Conference,single timestep of a geomechanics simulation. Glyph geometry

  3. Visualization and Analysis in Support of Fusion Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanderson, Allen R. [Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute] [Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of the award for “Visualization and Analysis in Support of Fusion Science.” With this award our main efforts have been to develop and deploy visualization and analysis tools in three areas 1) magnetic field line analysis 2) query based visualization and 3) comparative visualization.

  4. HIV classification using coalescent theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letiner, Thomas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Algorithms for subtype classification and breakpoint detection of HIV-I sequences are based on a classification system of HIV-l. Hence, their quality highly depend on this system. Due to the history of creation of the current HIV-I nomenclature, the current one contains inconsistencies like: The phylogenetic distance between the subtype B and D is remarkably small compared with other pairs of subtypes. In fact, it is more like the distance of a pair of subsubtypes Robertson et al. (2000); Subtypes E and I do not exist any more since they were discovered to be composed of recombinants Robertson et al. (2000); It is currently discussed whether -- instead of CRF02 being a recombinant of subtype A and G -- subtype G should be designated as a circulating recombination form (CRF) nd CRF02 as a subtype Abecasis et al. (2007); There are 8 complete and over 400 partial HIV genomes in the LANL-database which belong neither to a subtype nor to a CRF (denoted by U). Moreover, the current classification system is somehow arbitrary like all complex classification systems that were created manually. To this end, it is desirable to deduce the classification system of HIV systematically by an algorithm. Of course, this problem is not restricted to HIV, but applies to all fast mutating and recombining viruses. Our work addresses the simpler subproblem to score classifications of given input sequences of some virus species (classification denotes a partition of the input sequences in several subtypes and CRFs). To this end, we reconstruct ancestral recombination graphs (ARG) of the input sequences under restrictions determined by the given classification. These restritions are imposed in order to ensure that the reconstructed ARGs do not contradict the classification under consideration. Then, we find the ARG with maximal probability by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The probability of the most probable ARG is interpreted as a score for the classification. To our knowledge, this particular problem was not addressed up to now. The software package Lamarc Kuhner et al. (2000) allows for sampling ARGs, but it assumes that recombination events only involve one breakpoint. However, in HIV recombinants usually have more than one breakpoint. Moreover, Lamarc does not perform an explicit breakpoint detection, but tries to find them by chance. Although this approach is suitable for most situations, it will not lead to satisfying results in case of highly recombining viruses with multiple breakpoints.

  5. CRADA Final Report: Materials Development For Pulp and Paper Mills, Task 9 Proof of Commercial Concept: Commodity Carbon Fibers From Weyerhaeuser Lignin Based Fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulauskas, Felix L [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Gorog, John Peter [Weyerhaeuser Company

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tasks were assigned to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers for the development of lignin-based carbon fiber from a specific precursor that was produced by the Participant (Weyerhaeuser Corporation). These tasks included characterization of precursor polymers and fibers; and the development of conversion parameters for the fibers. ORNL researchers provided recommendations for in-house characterization of the precursor at the participant's laboratory. During the early stage of the precursor fiber production trials of various spools of fibers with varied compositions were produced. Some of those samples were sent to ORNL (by the Participant) for the development of conversion protocol. The trial tow samples were oxidized at ORNL's precursor evaluation system (PES), a bench-scale facility consisting of an oven, filament winder, tension controller, and a let off creel. The PES is a modular tool useful for the development of precursor conversion protocol. It can handle a single filament to a large single tow (50k filaments). It can also offer precise tensioning for few-filament tows. In the PES, after oxidation, fibers are typically carbonized first at low temperature, {le} 600 C, and subsequently at a higher temperature, {le} 1200 C with controlled residence time. ORNL has recently installed a new carbonization furnace with 1700 C limit and a furnace with 2500 C capacity is under installation. A protocol for the oxidation and carbonization of the trial precursor fibers was developed. Oxidized fiber with a density of 1.46 g/cc (oxidation time: 90 min) shows qualitative flame retardancy via simple flame test (fibers do not catch fire or shrink when exposed to flame). Oxidized and carbonized filaments of the Weyerhaeuser precursor fibers show moderate mechanical properties and 47-51 % carbon yield (based on oxidized fiber mass) after carbonization between 1000-1400 C. The properties of fibers from nonoptimized composition and processing parameters indicate the potential of low-cost, low-end carbon fibers based on renewable resource materials. Further work is necessary to produce high quality precursor and the corresponding carbonized filaments of superior properties.

  6. Visual Field Maps, Population Receptive Field Sizes, and Visual Field Coverage in the Human MT Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumoulin, Serge O.

    of processing in human motion-selective cortex. I N T R O D U C T I O N Neuroimaging experiments localize human by additional experiments. Defining human MT based on stimulus selectivity means that the identificationVisual Field Maps, Population Receptive Field Sizes, and Visual Field Coverage in the Human MT

  7. A Magnification Lens for Interactive Volume Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaMar, E; Hamann, B; Joy, K I

    2001-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume visualization of large data sets suffers from the same problem that many other visualization modalities suffer from: either one can visualize the entire data set and lose small details or visualize a small region and lose the context. In this paper, they present a magnification lens technique for volume visualization. While the notion of a magnification-lens is not new, and other techniques attempt to simulate the physical properties of a magnifying lens, their contribution is in developing a magnification lens that is fast, can be implemented using a fairly small software overhead, and has a natural, intuitive appearance. The issue with magnification lens is the border, or transition, region. The lens center and exterior have a constant zoom factor, and are simple to render. It is the border region that blends between the external and interior magnification, and has a non-constant magnification. They use the perspective-correct textures capability, available in most current graphics systems, to produce a lens with a tessellated border region that approximates linear compression with respect to the radius of the magnification lens. They discuss how a cubic border can mitigate the discontinuities resulting from the use of a linear function, without significant performance loss. They discuss various issues concerning development of a three-dimensional magnification lens.

  8. Variable Interactions in Query-Driven Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bethel, E. Wes; Gosink, Luke J.; Anderson, John C.; Joy, Kenneth I.

    2007-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    One fundamental element of scientific inquiry is discoveringrelationships, particularly the interactions between different variablesin observed or simulated phenomena. Building upon our prior work in thefield of Query-Driven Visualization, where visual data analysisprocessing is focused on subsets of large data deemed to be"scientifically interesting," this new work focuses on a novel knowledgediscovery capability suitable for use with petascale class datasets. Itenables visual presentation of the presence or absence of relationships(correlations) between variables in data subsets produced by Query-Drivenmethodologies. This technique holds great potential for enablingknowledge discovery from large and complex datasets currently emergingfrom SciDAC and INCITE projects. It is sufficiently generally to beapplicable to any time of complex, time-varying, multivariate data fromstructured, unstructured or adaptive grids.

  9. Techniques for interactive 3-D scientific visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glinert, E.P. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (USA). Dept. of Computer Science); Blattner, M.M. (Anderson (M.D.) Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX (USA). Dept. of Biomathematics California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Becker, B.G. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National La

    1990-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in interactive 3-D graphics has exploded of late, fueled by (a) the allure of using scientific visualization to go where no-one has gone before'' and (b) by the development of new input devices which overcome some of the limitations imposed in the past by technology, yet which may be ill-suited to the kinds of interaction required by researchers active in scientific visualization. To resolve this tension, we propose a flat 5-D'' environment in which 2-D graphics are augmented by exploiting multiple human sensory modalities using cheap, conventional hardware readily available with personal computers and workstations. We discuss how interactions basic to 3-D scientific visualization, like searching a solution space and comparing two such spaces, are effectively carried out in our environment. Finally, we describe 3DMOVE, an experimental microworld we have implemented to test out some of our ideas. 40 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Lignin Valorization-final-sm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let us countLighting Sign

  11. Visual Matrix Clustering of Social Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Foote, Harlan P.; May, Richard A.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The prevailing choices to graphically represent a social network in today’s literature are a node-link graph layout and an adjacency matrix. Both visualization techniques have unique strengths and weaknesses when applied to different domain applications. In this article, we focus our discussion on adjacency matrix and how to turn the matrix-based visualization technique from merely showing pairwise associations among network actors (or graph nodes) to depicting clusters of a social network. We also use node-link layouts to supplement the discussion.

  12. Navigating nuclear science: Enhancing analysis through visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irwin, N.H.; Berkel, J. van; Johnson, D.K.; Wylie, B.N.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data visualization is an emerging technology with high potential for addressing the information overload problem. This project extends the data visualization work of the Navigating Science project by coupling it with more traditional information retrieval methods. A citation-derived landscape was augmented with documents using a text-based similarity measure to show viability of extension into datasets where citation lists do not exist. Landscapes, showing hills where clusters of similar documents occur, can be navigated, manipulated and queried in this environment. The capabilities of this tool provide users with an intuitive explore-by-navigation method not currently available in today`s retrieval systems.

  13. Digital Watermark Detection in Visual Multimedia Content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uhl, Andreas

    Digital Watermark Detection in Visual Multimedia Content Peter Meerwald Cumulative thesis (online or video. Watermark detection is an integral component of a watermarking system. This cumulative thesis. The computational effort for blind, spread-spectrum watermark detection is analyzed in- cluding the determination

  14. Enhancing Law Enforcement Using Data & Visual Analytics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authority of New York and New Jersey (PA NY/NJ), Pacific Northwest National Labs (PNNL), Intuidex will integrate visual analytics methods developed at PNNL to mine valuable links between entities in order Authority of New York and New Jersey (PA NY/NJ) · Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) · Intuidex

  15. Conducting a Wildland Visual Resources Inventory1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Conducting a Wildland Visual Resources Inventory1 James F. Palmer 2/ 1/ Submitted to the National of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003. Abstract: This paper describes a procedure for system- atically inventorying- tion and description of each inventoried scene are recorded on U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps

  16. Visualization of Large-Scale Distributed Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Andrew

    that are now considered the "lenses" for examining large-scale data. THE LARGE-SCALE DATA VISUALIZATIONVisualization of Large-Scale Distributed Data Jason Leigh1 , Andrew Johnson1 , Luc Renambot1 representation of data and the interactive manipulation and querying of the visualization. Large-scale data

  17. Information Visualization Graduate Project (Group Project)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rusu, Adrian

    Information Visualization Fall 2011 Graduate Project (Group Project) (100 points total) Handed out:59PM Research Article due by online submission on Sunday, December 11, 2011, 11:59PM Project Demo due last week of classes The idea of the project is to take the knowledge and background that you

  18. Controlling an uninstrumented manipulator by visual servoing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Controlling an uninstrumented manipulator by visual servoing ´Eric Marchand, Fran¸cois Chaumette and this manipulator is usually open-loop controlled. In order to get a more efficient control interface, we propose, measurements of the manipulator motion with proprioceptive sensors is not required to precisely control the end

  19. Information Visualization The Author(s) 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramakrishnan, Naren

    and chiller efficiency in data centers.3 Figure 1 shows an example of the visual analysis of a pair of data center chillers (chiller 1 and chiller 2), a percentage utilization time series in which different motifs were discovered. A chiller is a key component of the cooling infrastructure of a data center.4

  20. Visualizing highdimensional posterior distributions in Bayesian modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaski, Samuel

    Visualizing high­dimensional posterior distributions in Bayesian modeling Jarkko Venna and Samuel on the posterior distribution of the model parameters. The closed­form solution is seldom known and samples distributions; the current method is based on Self­Organizing Maps and Fisher metrics. Sample applications have

  1. The Visualization Process CMSC 436/636

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheingans, Penny

    that rendering energy · NSF justifiably looking for other agencies to partner in funding visualization · Malaise ­ Human perceptual system in loop · Enabling technology for other disciplines ­ Statistics analogy: also: direction ­ Fund pilot program to encourage vis and domain people to work together » Foster collaboration

  2. Research Report Attentional Modulation of Visual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottingham, University of

    Research Report Attentional Modulation of Visual Processing in Adult Dyslexia A Spatial play a causal role in dyslexia. How- ever, traditional methods for investigating this assertion have that this spatial-cuing deficit is not merely a sec- ondary consequence of magnocellular dysfunction. Dyslexia

  3. A genomic integration method to visualize

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    technique for the sustained visualization of endogenous mRNA in vivo is required. PCR-based strategies for genomic tagging in yeast, via homo- logous recombination, have yielded deletion libraries7 as well as GFP- and epitope-tagged protein expression libraries8,9. To develop a similar resource for the systematic mapping

  4. LOAD AND THE SPATIAL PROFILE OF VISUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 PhD Thesis LOAD AND THE SPATIAL PROFILE OF VISUAL SELECTIVE ATTENTION Serge Caparos Goldsmiths). This thesis examined (1) the shape of the profile of perceptual resources in space and (2) the effect of several factors on the focus of this profile. The spatial profile of perceptual resources was indexed

  5. Visualizing the kinematics of relativistic wave packets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernd Thaller

    2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This article investigates some solutions of the time-dependent free Dirac equation. Visualizations of these solutions immediately reveal strange phenomena that are caused by the interference of positive- and negative-energy waves. The effects discussed here include the Zitterbewegung, the opposite direction of momentum and velocity in negative-energy wave packets, and the superluminal propagation of the wave packet's local maxima.

  6. Visualization of Fuel Cell Simulations Niklas Rober

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Richard "Hao"

    Visualization of Fuel Cell Simulations Niklas R¨ober Otto-von-Guericke-Universit¨at, Magdeburg is used for this is a numerical simulation of a fuel cell. This data set is multiparametric and consist for the display of such data sets are discussed and evaluated on the fuel cell example. v #12;vi vi #12

  7. Visualizing Power System Operationsin an Open Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    Visualizing Power System Operationsin an Open Market ThomasJ. Overbye',George Gross',Mark J in a revamping of the way power systems operate and the way power industry players are structured. These changes PowerWorld, a comprehensive power system simulation package developed to help meet this need

  8. Visualizing rhythms of intimacy in email communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandic, Mirko

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    ...............................................................13 2.3.3 Time Oriented ..........................................................................................15 3 RESEARCH CONTRIBUTION.............................................................................17 3.1 Defining Email... ..................................................................................35 4.2.1 Messages - From Visualization Icons to Message Views........................36 4.2.2 Zooming to Navigate through an Email Collection .................................40 4.2.3 Filtering Messages...

  9. Visualizing quantum mechanics in phase space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heiko Bauke; Noya Ruth Itzhak

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the visualization of quantum mechanics in phase space by means of the Wigner function and the Wigner function flow as a complementary approach to illustrating quantum mechanics in configuration space by wave functions. The Wigner function formalism resembles the mathematical language of classical mechanics of non-interacting particles. Thus, it allows a more direct comparison between classical and quantum dynamical features.

  10. Visual Experience and Motor Action: Are The Bonds Too Tight? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Andy

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    How should we characterize the functional role of conscious visual experience? In particular, how do the conscious contents of visual experience guide, bear upon, or otherwise inform our ongoing motor activities? According ...

  11. Discovering structure of data to create multiple perspective visualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yao, 1978-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of visualization is to help human understand, reason, and learn better and quicker. In pursuit of this goal, this thesis presents an architecture for intelligent visualization systems, which supports multiple ...

  12. An Interactive Visual Analytics Framework for Multi-Field Data...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interactive Visual Analytics Framework for Multi-Field Data in a Geo-Spatial Context. An Interactive Visual Analytics Framework for Multi-Field Data in a Geo-Spatial Context....

  13. 3D Visualization of Water Transport in Ferns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3D Visualization of Water Transport in Ferns 3D Visualization of Water Transport in Ferns Print Monday, 08 April 2013 00:00 Plants transport water through elongated cells called...

  14. Direct Visualization of 2-Butanol Adsorption and Dissociation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Visualization of 2-Butanol Adsorption and Dissociation on TiO2(110). Direct Visualization of 2-Butanol Adsorption and Dissociation on TiO2(110). Abstract: Atomically resolved...

  15. 3D/4D geospatial visualization using Makai Voyager

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frandsen, Jannette B.

    3D/4D geospatial visualization using Makai Voyager John C. Anderson Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc-based, geospatially-enabled software that can fuse and visualize large, multi-variable data sets that change in space

  16. Managing Attack Graph Complexity Through Visual Hierarchical Aggregation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Steven

    Managing Attack Graph Complexity Through Visual Hierarchical Aggregation Steven Noel Center a framework for managing network attack graph complexity through interactive visualization, which includes hierarchical aggregation of graph elements. Aggregation collapses non-overlapping subgraphs of the attack graph

  17. An immersive system for browsing and visualizing surveillance video

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeCamp, Philip James

    HouseFly is an interactive data browsing and visualization system that synthesizes audio-visual recordings from multiple sensors, as well as the meta-data derived from those recordings, into a unified viewing experience. ...

  18. Interactive musical visualization based on emotional and color theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowens, Karessa Natee

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Influenced by synesthesia, the creators of such ‘visual musics’ as abstract art, color organs, abstract film, and most recently visualizers, have attempted to illustrate correspondences between the senses. This thesis attempts to develop a framework...

  19. AN APPROACH TO VISUAL MODELING OF CELLULAR AUTOMATA Sajjan Sarkar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AN APPROACH TO VISUAL MODELING OF CELLULAR AUTOMATA by Sajjan Sarkar A Thesis Presented in Partial APPROACH TO VISUAL MODELING OF CELLULAR AUTOMATA by Sajjan Sarkar has been approved April 2009 Graduate

  20. ASIAN SYMPOSIUM ON VISUALIZATION, 2003 Visualizing Heterogeneous Flows in Micro Fluidic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cubaud, Thomas

    with interesting practical applications in enhanced oil recovery, heat pipes, and micro methanol fuel cells. Gas. Visualizing two-phase flow The transport of gas bubbles in polygonal microchannels is a hydrodynamic problem

  1. BFA in ILLUSTRATION (488035) MAP Sheet Department of Visual Arts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    to this major. Admission to the Department of Visual Arts does not guarantee admission to Brigham Young

  2. BFA in PHOTOGRAPHY (488038) MAP Sheet Department of Visual Arts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    to this major. Admission to the Department of Visual Arts does not guarantee admission to Brigham Young

  3. BFA in ANIMATION (488040) Map Sheet Department of Visual Arts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    to this emphasis. Admission to the Department of Visual Arts does not guarantee admission to Brigham Young

  4. BFA in PHOTOGRAPHY (488038) Map Sheet Department of Visual Arts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    to this major. Admission to the Department of Visual Arts does not guarantee admission to Brigham Young

  5. BFA in ANIMATION (488040) MAP Sheet Department of Visual Arts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    to this emphasis. Admission to the Department of Visual Arts does not guarantee admission to Brigham Young

  6. BFA in ILLUSTRATION (488035) Map Sheet Department of Visual Arts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    to this major. Admission to the Department of Visual Arts does not guarantee admission to Brigham Young

  7. 7 Key Challenges for Visualization in Cyber Network Defense

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Best, Daniel M.; Endert, Alexander; Kidwell, Dan

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present seven challenges, informed by two user studies, to be considered when developing a visualization for cyber security purposes. Cyber security visualizations must go beyond isolated solutions and “pretty picture” visualizations in order to make impact to users. We provide an example prototype that addresses the challenges with a description of how they are met. Our aim is to assist in increasing utility and adoption rates for visualization capabilities in cyber security.

  8. abnormal visual system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    functional magnetic resonance imaging and visual evoked potentials A B Morland, M B Hoffmann, M Neveu, G E Holder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

  9. albino visual cortex: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    functional magnetic resonance imaging and visual evoked potentials A B Morland, M B Hoffmann, M Neveu, G E Holder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

  10. aging visual system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    algorithm animation, software understanding, computer aideed instruction-23 October 1991 Graphics, Visualization, and Usability Center College of Computing Georgia Institute...

  11. Visualizing Scalar Fields Represented by Adaptive Square Triangulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the scalar eld. The visual model is conceived to mimicthe e ects of lightemission Sabella 88 , ab- sorption

  12. Orientation finding using a grid based visual compass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Arnoud

    Orientation finding using a grid based visual compass Georgios Methenitis Patrick M. de Kok Sander an extension of the model-based visual compass is presented, which can be updated contin- uously, allowing, a visual compass can be used [1, 4, 5]. Such a method estimates the robot's heading by comparing

  13. EvoGraphDice : Interactive Evolution for Visual Analytics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EvoGraphDice : Interactive Evolution for Visual Analytics Waldo Cancino, Nadia Boukhelifa, especially in frameworks like industrial design, decision making and visual analytics. Interactive Evolution visualization based on scatterplot matrices. EvoGraphDice interactively evolves com- pound additional dimensions

  14. Multidimensional structured data visualization method and apparatus, text visualization method and apparatus, method and apparatus for visualizing and graphically navigating the world wide web, method and apparatus for visualizing hierarchies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Risch, John S. (Kennewick, WA); Hart, Michelle L. (Richland, WA); Dowson, Scott T. (West Richland, WA)

    2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of displaying correlations among information objects includes receiving a query against a database; obtaining a query result set; and generating a visualization representing the components of the result set, the visualization including one of a plane and line to represent a data field, nodes representing data values, and links showing correlations among fields and values. Other visualization methods and apparatus are disclosed.

  15. Visual Data Exploration and Analysis Panelists and Contributors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and to gain understanding. Visualization is literally everywhere. Images are present in this report of greenhouse gas emissions are familiar examples of such unseeable phenomena. Over time, visualization from the visual language for depicting theoretical molecules or trends in the stock market. No single

  16. InfoCrystal: A visual tool for information retrieval

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spoerri, Anselm

    of interest. The lnfocrystal allows users to specify Boolean as well as vector- space queries graphically C r y s t a l T M ,that can be used as a visualization tool as well as a visual query lan- guage more readily than a direct analysis of the numbers would. Similarly, information visualization seeks

  17. ISFV14 -14th International Symposium on Flow Visualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Settles, Gary S.

    ISFV14 ­ Daegu / Korea ­ 2010 11 BACKGROUND-ORIENTED SCHLIEREN VISUALIZATION OF HEATING AND VENTILATION(s): heating, ventilation, air conditioning, flow visualization Fluid: air Visualization method(s): background airflow patterns in the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) field. We propose background

  18. Multidimensional structured data visualization method and apparatus, text visualization method and apparatus, method and apparatus for visualizing and graphically navigating the world wide web, method and apparatus for visualizing hierarchies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Risch, John S. (Kennewick, WA); Dowson, Scott T. (West Richland, WA); Hart, Michelle L. (Richland, WA); Hatley, Wes L. (Kennewick, WA)

    2008-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of displaying correlations among information objects comprises receiving a query against a database; obtaining a query result set; and generating a visualization representing the components of the result set, the visualization including one of a plane and line to represent a data field, nodes representing data values, and links showing correlations among fields and values. Other visualization methods and apparatus are disclosed.

  19. Robot Studies on SaccadeTriggered Visual Prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moeller, Ralf

    Robot Studies on Saccade­Triggered Visual Prediction Wolfram Schenck Computer Engineering Group@ti.uni-bielefeld.de April 12, 2012 Abstract Three robot studies on visual prediction are presented. In all of them, a vi- sual forward model is used, which predicts the visual consequences of saccade­ like camera movements

  20. Information Visualization Evaluation in Large Companies: Challenges, Experiences and Recommendations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Petra

    environments, whereas field experiments are a compromise strategy where features of the system are ma visualization and visual analyt- ics tools within a large automotive company (BMW Group). From our own visualization in general. Within such an environment a wide range of real data analy- sis problems, tasks

  1. June 27, 2003 Visualization Techniques for Personal Tasks on Mobile Computers Page 1 Visualization Techniques for Personal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tominski, Christian

    on mobile devices #12;June 27, 2003 Visualization Techniques for Personal Tasks on Mobile Computers Page 4June 27, 2003 Visualization Techniques for Personal Tasks on Mobile Computers Page 1 Visualization Techniques for Personal Tasks on Mobile Computers Gerald Bieber Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics

  2. Visualizations for Real-time Pricing Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinovici, Maria C.; Hammerstrom, Janelle L.; Widergren, Steven E.; Dayley, Greg K.

    2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the visualization tools created for monitoring the operations of a real-time pricing demonstration system that runs at a distribution feeder level are presented. The information these tools provide gives insights into demand behavior from automated price responsive devices, distribution feeder characteristics, impact of weather on system’s development, and other significant dynamics. Given the large number of devices that bid into a feeder-level real-time electricity market, new techniques are explored to summarize the present state of the system and contrast that with previous trends as well as future projections. To better understand the system behavior and correctly inform decision-making procedures, effective visualization of the data is imperative.

  3. Visualizing nonclassical effects in phase space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Kühn; W. Vogel

    2014-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonclassicality filters provide a universal method to visualize the nonclassicality of arbitrary quantum states of light through negativities of a regularized Glauber-Sudarshan $P$ function, also denoted as nonclassicality quasiprobability. Such filters are introduced and analyzed for optimizing the experimental certification of nonclassical effects. An analytic filter is constructed which preserves the full information on the quantum state. For balanced homodyne detection, the number of data points is analyzed to get the negativities of the nonclassicality quasiprobability with high statistical significance. The method is applied to different scenarios, such as phase randomized squeezed vacuum states, single-photon-added thermal states, and heralded state engineering with array detectors. The generalization to visualize quantum correlations of multimode radiation fields is also considered.

  4. Visual servoing using statistical pressure snakes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaub, Hanspeter (ORION International Technologies, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nonlinear visual servoing steering law is presented which is used to align a camera view with a visual target. A full color version of statistical pressure snakes is used to identify and track the target with a series of video frames. The nonlinear steering law provides camera-frame centric speed commands to a velocity based servo sub-system. To avoid saturating the subsystem, the commanded speeds are smoothly limited to remain within a finite range. Analytical error analysis is also provided illustrating how the two control gains contribute to the stiffness of the control. The algorithm is demonstrated on a pan and tilt camera system. The control law is able to smoothly realign the camera to point at the target.

  5. Vision of a Visualization Tool for Commissioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isakson, P.; Eriksson, J.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VISION OF A VISUALIZATION TOOL FOR COMMISSIONING Per Isakson*, J?rgen Eriksson** * Building Sciences KTH, Stockholm SWEDEN. per.isakson@byv.kth.se ** ?F-Installation, G?teborg, SWEDEN. jorgen.eriksson@af.se Summary. A prototype... of BEMS to support performance monitoring, nor considerable efforts to develop such use. In Sweden the control manufactures do not see a demand from the marketplace; on the contrary they observe little use of the tools they already provide. Research...

  6. Radial velocities of southern visual multiple stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokovinin, Andrei [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Pribulla, Theodor [Astronomical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 059 60 Tatranská Lomnica (Slovakia); Fischer, Debra, E-mail: atokovinin@ctio.noao.edu, E-mail: pribulla@ta3.sk, E-mail: debra.fischer@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-resolution spectra of visual multiple stars were taken in 2008–2009 to detect or confirm spectroscopic subsystems and to determine their orbits. Radial velocities of 93 late-type stars belonging to visual multiple systems were measured by numerical cross-correlation. We provide the individual velocities, the width, and the amplitude of the Gaussians that approximate the correlations. The new information on the multiple systems resulting from these data is discussed. We discovered double-lined binaries in HD 41742B, HD 56593C, and HD 122613AB, confirmed several other known subsystems, and constrained the existence of subsystems in some visual binaries where both components turned out to have similar velocities. The orbits of double-lined subsystems with periods of 148 and 13 days are computed for HD 104471 Aa,Ab and HD 210349 Aa,Ab, respectively. We estimate individual magnitudes and masses of the components in these triple systems and update the outer orbit of HD 104471 AB.

  7. Visual Analytics for Roof Savings Calculator Ensembles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Chad [University of California, Davis] [University of California, Davis; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL] [ORNL; Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL] [ORNL; Ma, Kwan-Liu [University of California, Davis] [University of California, Davis

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for DOE as an industry-consensus, web-based tool for easily running complex building energy simulations. These simulations allow both homeowners and experts to determine building-specific cost and energy savings for modern roof and attic technologies. Using a database of over 3 million RSC simulations for different combinations of parameters, we have built a visual analytics tool to assist in the exploration and identification of features in the data. Since the database contains multiple variables, both categorical and continuous, we employ a coordinated multi-view approach that allows coordinated feature exploration through multiple visualizations at once. The main component of our system, a parallel coordinates view, has been adapted to handle large-scale, mixed data types as are found in RSC simulations. Other visualizations include map coordinated plots, high dynamic range (HDR) line plot rendering, and an intuitive user interface. We demonstrate these techniques with several use cases that have helped identify software and parametric simulation issues.

  8. Visual Data Exploration and Analysis - Report on the Visualization Breakout Session of the SCaLeS Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bethel, E. Wes; Frank, Randy; Fulcomer, Sam; Hansen, Chuck; Joy, Ken; Kohl, Jim; Middleton, Don

    2003-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientific visualization is the transformation of abstract information into images, and it plays an integral role in the scientific process by facilitating insight into observed or simulated phenomena. Visualization as a discipline spans many research areas from computer science, cognitive psychology and even art. Yet the most successful visualization applications are created when close synergistic interactions with domain scientists are part of the algorithmic design and implementation process, leading to visual representations with clear scientific meaning. Visualization is used to explore, to debug, to gain understanding, and as an analysis tool. Visualization is literally everywhere--images are present in this report, on television, on the web, in books and magazines--the common theme is the ability to present information visually that is rapidly assimilated by human observers, and transformed into understanding or insight. As an indispensable part a modern science laboratory, visualization is akin to the biologist's microscope or the electrical engineer's oscilloscope. Whereas the microscope is limited to small specimens or use of optics to focus light, the power of scientific visualization is virtually limitless: visualization provides the means to examine data that can be at galactic or atomic scales, or at any size in between. Unlike the traditional scientific tools for visual inspection, visualization offers the means to ''see the unseeable.'' Trends in demographics or changes in levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2} as a function of greenhouse gas emissions are familiar examples of such unseeable phenomena. Over time, visualization techniques evolve in response to scientific need. Each scientific discipline has its ''own language,'' verbal and visual, used for communication. The visual language for depicting electrical circuits is much different than the visual language for depicting theoretical molecules or trends in the stock market. There is no ''one visualization too'' that can serve as a panacea for all science disciplines. Instead, visualization researchers work hand in hand with domain scientists as part of the scientific research process to define, create, adapt and refine software that ''speaks the visual language'' of each scientific domain.

  9. Visual probes and methods for placing visual probes into subsurface areas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Don T.; Erickson, Eugene E.; Casper, William L.; Everett, David M.

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Visual probes and methods for placing visual probes into subsurface areas in either contaminated or non-contaminated sites are described. In one implementation, the method includes driving at least a portion of a visual probe into the ground using direct push, sonic drilling, or a combination of direct push and sonic drilling. Such is accomplished without providing an open pathway for contaminants or fugitive gases to reach the surface. According to one implementation, the invention includes an entry segment configured for insertion into the ground or through difficult materials (e.g., concrete, steel, asphalt, metals, or items associated with waste), at least one extension segment configured to selectively couple with the entry segment, at least one push rod, and a pressure cap. Additional implementations are contemplated.

  10. Heat pipe transient measurements incorporating visual methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeHart, Mark David

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    liftoff on January 28, 1 9B6. These five men and two women gave their lives while att mpting to lead mankind into space and open the door for the future of our race. Their noble sacr ifice should r. ever be . orgotten. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish...!!CE December 1986 Major Subject: 1'uclear Eng nearing HEAT PIPE TRANSIENT MEASUREMENTS INCORPORATING VISUAL METHODS A Thesis by MARK DAVID DeHART Approved as to style and content by: Frederick R. Best (Chairman of Committee) Carl A. Erdman (Member...

  11. Visualization of information with an established order

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak Chung (Richland, WA); Foote, Harlan P. (Richmond, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wong, Kwong-Kwok (Sugar Land, TX)

    2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is a system including one or more processors operable to access data representative of a biopolymer sequence of monomer units. The one or more processors are further operable to establish a pattern corresponding to at least one fractal curve and generate one or more output signals corresponding to a number of image elements each representative of one of the monomer units. Also included is a display device responsive to the one or more output signals to visualize the biopolymer sequence by displaying the image elements in accordance with the pattern.

  12. Sequential pattern data mining and visualization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak Chung (Richland, WA); Jurrus, Elizabeth R. (Kennewick, WA); Cowley, Wendy E. (Benton City, WA); Foote, Harlan P. (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA)

    2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    One or more processors (22) are operated to extract a number of different event identifiers therefrom. These processors (22) are further operable to determine a number a display locations each representative of one of the different identifiers and a corresponding time. The display locations are grouped into sets each corresponding to a different one of several event sequences (330a, 330b, 330c. 330d, 330e). An output is generated corresponding to a visualization (320) of the event sequences (330a, 330b, 330c, 330d, 330e).

  13. Sequential pattern data mining and visualization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak Chung (Richland, WA); Jurrus, Elizabeth R. (Kennewick, WA); Cowley, Wendy E. (Benton City, WA); Foote, Harlan P. (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA)

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    One or more processors (22) are operated to extract a number of different event identifiers therefrom. These processors (22) are further operable to determine a number a display locations each representative of one of the different identifiers and a corresponding time. The display locations are grouped into sets each corresponding to a different one of several event sequences (330a, 330b, 330c. 330d, 330e). An output is generated corresponding to a visualization (320) of the event sequences (330a, 330b, 330c, 330d, 330e).

  14. Visualizing Electric Vehicle Sales | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sureReportsofDepartmentSeries |Attacks |Visualizing Electric Vehicle Sales

  15. Visualizing Brain Metals in Health and Disease

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1 -Visualizing Brain Metals in Health and Disease

  16. Visualization and Analytics Software at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening aTurbulenceUtilize AvailableMedia1.1 The Visual Engineering

  17. Visual Patent Search - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship Program TheSite MapScienceVentilationVisitorVisitorsVisual

  18. Visualization Clusters | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship Program TheSiteEureka Analytics and Visualization

  19. Software Modeling of S-Metrics Visualizer: Synergetic Interactive Metrics Visualization Tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dascalu, Sergiu

    utilization, earned-value cost and schedule performance) to provide enhanced management insight in a timely and visualization tool for Windows. Throughout the software development process managers must be aware problems that occur throughout the project's evolution. Software metrics help managers to better monitor

  20. Towards a Visual Perception System for Pipe Inspection: Monocular Visual Odometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , pipe crawler, visual odometry #12;Abstract Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) processing facilities contain large in LNG pipes include Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL), radiography (X-rays), and ultrasound among others wall thickness over time the rate of corrosion can be estimated. For LNG pipes, unlike large mainstream

  1. The Human is the Loop: New Directions for Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Endert, Alexander; Hossain, Shahriar H.; Ramakrishnan, Naren; North, Chris; Fiaux, Patrick; Andrews, Christopher

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Visual analytics is the science of marrying interactive visualizations and analytic algorithms to support exploratory knowledge discovery in large datasets. We argue for a shift from a ‘human in the loop’ philosophy for visual analytics to a ‘human is the loop’ viewpoint, where the focus is on recognizing analysts’ work processes, and seamlessly fitting analytics into that existing interactive process. We survey a range of projects that provide visual analytic support contextually in the sensemaking loop, and outline a research agenda along with future challenges.

  2. VISMASHUP: streamlining the creation of custom visualization applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Santos, Emanuele [UNIV OF UTAH; Lins, Lauro [UNIV OF UTAH; Freire, Juliana [UNIV OF UTAH; Silva, Cl'audio T [UNIV OF UTAH

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Visualization is essential for understanding the increasing volumes of digital data. However, the process required to create insightful visualizations is involved and time consuming. Although several visualization tools are available, including tools with sophisticated visual interfaces, they are out of reach for users who have little or no knowledge of visualization techniques and/or who do not have programming expertise. In this paper, we propose VISMASHUP, a new framework for streamlining the creation of customized visualization applications. Because these applications can be customized for very specific tasks, they can hide much of the complexity in a visualization specification and make it easier for users to explore visualizations by manipulating a small set of parameters. We describe the framework and how it supports the various tasks a designer needs to carry out to develop an application, from mining and exploring a set of visualization specifications (pipelines), to the creation of simplified views of the pipelines, and the automatic generation of the application and its interface. We also describe the implementation of the system and demonstrate its use in two real application scenarios.

  3. 9.036 The Visual System, Spring 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiller, Peter H.

    The organization of the mammalian visual system and the manner in which shape, color, texture, motion, and depth are processed. Alternate years.

  4. Visualization of Electric Power System Information: Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Komomua, C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the workshop entitled: Visualization of Electric Power System Information. The workshop was held on September 11, 2012 on NREL's campus in Golden, Colorado.

  5. A Novel Visualization Technique for Electric Power Grid Analytics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Pak C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Foote, Harlan P.; Chin, George; Guttromson, Ross T.; Thomas, James J.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of information visualization holds tremendous promise for the electric power industry, and yet its potential has not been sufficiently exploited by the visualization community. Prior work on visualizing electric power systems has been limited to depicting raw or processed information on top of a geographic layout. Little effort has been devoted to maximize the analytical strengths naturally gained by the visualization itself. This paper introduces a visualization system prototype, known as GreenGrid, that explores the planning and monitoring of the North American Electricity Infrastructure. For the purposes of visualization, the power infrastructure can be described as a network of nodes and links. The nodes represent the electrical buses where generators and loads are connected, while the links represent the transmission lines that interconnect the buses. This paper focuses mainly on a customized technique within GreenGrid that is designed to visually identify abnormal characteristics of the electricity infrastructure. In particular, we examine an extreme event that occurred within the Western United States power grid on August 10, 1996. We compare our study results with the conclusion of the post-disturbance analysis and find that many of the disturbance characteristics can be readily identified with the proper form of visualization. The paper includes a lessons learned discussion to evaluate the visualization application.

  6. Turing patterns visualized by index of refraction variations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.J.; McCormick, W.D.; Swinney, H.L. (Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department of Physics, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)); Noszticzius, Z. (Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department of Physics, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States) Department of Chemical Physics, The Technical University of Budapest, H-1521, Budapest (Hungary))

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gel pattern is visualized by the refractive index variations.The fossil patterns correspond to a spatial variation in the refractive index. (AIP)

  7. alter visual attention: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    brain's ... Hurlbert, Anya 1986-09-01 39 Visual attentional processes in adults with dyslexia . Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Deficits in sensory processing of...

  8. aided visual odometry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    meteorological data visualization has gone through many dramatic changes (Monmonier, 1999). Weather maps are now displayed and manipulated by computer, even though hand chart...

  9. Capturing and Using Knowledge about the Use of Visualization Toolkits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Rio, Nicholas R.; Pinheiro da Silva, Paulo

    2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    When constructing visualization pipelines using toolkits such as Visualization Toolkit (VTK) and Generic Mapping Tools (GMT), developers must understand (1) what toolkit operators will transform their data from its raw state to some required view state and (2) what viewers are available to present the generated view. Traditionally, developers learn about how to construct visualization pipelines by reading documentation and inspecting code examples, which can be costly in terms of the time and effort expended. Once an initial pipeline is constructed, developers may still have to undergo a trial and error process before a satisfactory visualization is generated. This paper presents the Visualization Knowledge Project (VisKo) that is built on a knowledge base of visualization toolkit operators and how they can be piped together to form visualization pipelines. Developers may now rely on VisKo to guide them when constructing visualization pipelines and in some cases, when VisKo has complete knowledge about some set of operators (i.e., sequencing and parameter settings), automatically generate a fully functional visualization pipeline.

  10. Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characteriz...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance Characterization under Freezing Conditions Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization under Freezing Conditions Part of a 100 million...

  11. Visualizing Assembling Everything (2010 JGI/ANL HPC Workshop)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jaffe, David; Gnerre, Sante

    2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    David Jaffe and Sante Gnerre of the Broad Institute give a presentation on "Visualizing assembling everything" at the JGI/Argonne HPC Workshop on January 25, 2010.

  12. Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium Deposition by in situ Electrochemical Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium...

  13. area visual con: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fernndez de Crdoba, Pedro 8 ConMan: A Visual Programming Language for Interactive Graphics CiteSeer Summary: Traditionally, interactive applications have been difficult to...

  14. Visualization of UHC Emissions for Low-Temperature Diesel Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    UHC Emissions for Low-Temperature Diesel Engine Combustion Visualization of UHC Emissions for Low-Temperature Diesel Engine Combustion Presentation given at DEER 2006, August...

  15. Visualizing Storms from NCAR's Atmosphere Model at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmosphere Model Visualizing Storms from NCAR's Atmosphere Model CCSM-sprabhat.png Global warming will likely change the statistics of tropical cyclones and hurricanes. In this...

  16. Visualization Tools for Lattice QCD - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massimo Di Pierro

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Our research project is about the development of visualization tools for Lattice QCD. We developed various tools by extending existing libraries, adding new algorithms, exposing new APIs, and creating web interfaces (including the new NERSC gauge connection web site). Our tools cover the full stack of operations from automating download of data, to generating VTK #12;files (topological charge, plaquette, Polyakov lines, quark and meson propagators, currents), to turning the VTK #12;files into images, movies, and web pages. Some of the tools have their own web interfaces. Some Lattice QCD visualization have been created in the past but, to our knowledge, our tools are the only ones of their kind since they are general purpose, customizable, and relatively easy to use. We believe they will be valuable to physicists working in the #12;field. They can be used to better teach Lattice QCD concepts to new graduate students; they can be used to observe the changes in topological charge density and detect possible sources of bias in computations; they can be used to observe the convergence of the algorithms at a local level and determine possible problems; they can be used to probe heavy-light mesons with currents and determine their spatial distribution; they can be used to detect corrupted gauge configurations. There are some indirect results of this grant that will benefit a broader audience than Lattice QCD physicists.

  17. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  18. Visual Analytics for Power Grid Contingency Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Pak C.; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Mackey, Patrick S.; Jin, Shuangshuang

    2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Contingency analysis is the process of employing different measures to model scenarios, analyze them, and then derive the best response to remove the threats. This application paper focuses on a class of contingency analysis problems found in the power grid management system. A power grid is a geographically distributed interconnected transmission network that transmits and delivers electricity from generators to end users. The power grid contingency analysis problem is increasingly important because of both the growing size of the underlying raw data that need to be analyzed and the urgency to deliver working solutions in an aggressive timeframe. Failure to do so may bring significant financial, economic, and security impacts to all parties involved and the society at large. The paper presents a scalable visual analytics pipeline that transforms about 100 million contingency scenarios to a manageable size and form for grid operators to examine different scenarios and come up with preventive or mitigation strategies to address the problems in a predictive and timely manner. Great attention is given to the computational scalability, information scalability, visual scalability, and display scalability issues surrounding the data analytics pipeline. Most of the large-scale computation requirements of our work are conducted on a Cray XMT multi-threaded parallel computer. The paper demonstrates a number of examples using western North American power grid models and data.

  19. DOE's SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies -- Strategy for Petascale Visual Data Analysis Success

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bethel, E. Wes; Johnson, Chris; Aragon, Cecilia; Prabhat, ???; Rubel, Oliver; Weber, Gunther; Pascucci, Valerio; Childs, Hank; Bremer,Peer-Timo; Whitlock, Brad; Ahern, Sean; Meredith, Jeremey; Ostrouchov,George; Joy, Ken; Hamann, Bernd; Garth, Christoph; Cole, Martin; Hansen,Charles; Parker, Steven; Sanderson, Allen; Silva, Claudio; Tricoche, Xavier

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this article is on how one group of researchersthe DOE SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies (VACET) is tackling the daunting task of enabling knowledgediscovery through visualization and analytics on some of the world slargest and most complex datasets and on some of the world's largestcomputational platforms. As a Center for Enabling Technology, VACET smission is the creation of usable, production-quality visualization andknowledge discovery software infrastructure that runs on large, parallelcomputer systems at DOE's Open Computing facilities and that providessolutions to challenging visual data exploration and knowledge discoveryneeds of modern science, particularly the DOE sciencecommunity.

  20. Developing an Interactive Overview for Non-Visual Exploration of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewster, Stephen

    , University of Glasgow September 2008 #12;Abstract This thesis investigates the problem of obtaining overview information from complex tabular numerical data sets non-visually. Blind and visually impaired people need methods offer little support. This thesis describes a new interactive parametric sonification technique

  1. Visual and multisensory processing and plasticity in the human brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visual and multisensory processing and plasticity in the human brain Thesis submitted; " , ) ""( " , , . ) (,, . " ) " ( ' , , , . " , ) " ' .( . , , , . " ) "... ( . ' ," ," " . , , , . ,,,,,, ,,,, . " " NIH . An important part of the thesis is a result of collaborations. To Dr. Agnes Floel and Prof for a fruitful scientific collaboration and an exciting journey to the visual cortex of the blind

  2. Visually-Guided Robot Navigation: From Artificial To Natural Landmarks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Visually-Guided Robot Navigation: From Artificial To Natural Landmarks Enric Celaya, Jose-Luis Albarral, Pablo Jim´enez, and Carme Torras Institut de Rob`otica i Inform`atica Industrial (CSIC seems to be the fast detection of reliable visual references in the image stream as the robot moves

  3. An Interactive, Example-Based, Visual Clustering System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Interactive, Example-Based, Visual Clustering System Pierrick Bruneau 1 and Benoit Otjacques 1 1) Abstract This work describes and evaluates a novel interactive visual clustering system. It combines a 2D projection with a clustering algorithm that operates on this pro- jected data. Users can interact directly

  4. INTERACTIVE MODELING AND VISUALIZATION IN UNDERGRADUATE SURVEY COURSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilhelmson, Robert

    INTERACTIVE MODELING AND VISUALIZATION IN UNDERGRADUATE SURVEY COURSES Daniel J. Bramer *, Mohan K to ask how and why. One possible solution is to integrate an interactive modeling and visualization as before, but also the analytical thought all scientists use every day. 2. INTERACTIVITY There exist

  5. BLUE: An Interactive Visualization System for Categorical Data Technical Note

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerbs, R. W.

    BLUE: An Interactive Visualization System for Categorical Data Technical Note Robert W. Kerbs. This paper introduces a prototype data visualization system, BLUE, to help induce meaningful decision trees from databases that contain primarily categorical attributes. BLUE is an interactive model creation

  6. Mining Aeronautical Data by using Visualized Driven Rules Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Mining Aeronautical Data by using Visualized Driven Rules Extraction Approach Gwenael BOTHOREL a, University of Toulouse, France c ENAC, University of Toulouse, France Abstract. Data Mining aims be greater than the volume of initial data. The second approach is Visual Data Mining which helps

  7. Self terminating, guided or accumulator models of visual search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oram, Mike

    1 Self terminating, guided or accumulator models of visual search: Evidence from stimulus inversion? Efficient search Blonde? #12;2 Accumulator models & visual search · Information acquisition hypothesis ­ E.g. Ratcliff 1978; McClelland 1979; Loftus 1983; Carpenter & Williams, 1995; Gold & Shadlen, 2001 Accumulator

  8. Affordance-Based Control of Visually Guided Action

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fajen, Brett

    in the control of action? Is visual control mediated by internal models of the dynamics of the body is information-based control (Warren, 1998), which is often contrasted with model-based control (Loomis & BeallAffordance-Based Control of Visually Guided Action Brett R. Fajen Department of Cognitive Science

  9. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Visual Feedback Control of Hand Movements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knill, David C.

    -based control. Results were well fit by a control model that optimally integrates noisy, delayed sensory solely on feed- back about hand position. A visual feedback controller might steer to maintainBehavioral/Systems/Cognitive Visual Feedback Control of Hand Movements Jeffrey A. Saunders

  10. Collaborative 3D Visualization on Large Screen Displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbosa, Alberto

    reality (VR) system designed to support collaborative visualization of 3D environments, applied in collaborative work. This paper presents a system that uses remotely located wall sized displays, to offer immersive, interactive collaborative visualization and review of 3D CAD models for engineering applications

  11. A Visualization Application for the Mining Industry Using Standard Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1/1 A Visualization Application for the Mining Industry Using Standard Tools Steven J. Schafrik visualization tools for modeling an orebody, or a mining process such as loading and tramming. This is usually accomplished using commercial tools, such as mine design packages, process simulators, etc., that have a custom

  12. FUTURE POWER GRID INITIATIVE Actionable Visualization Tools for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FUTURE POWER GRID INITIATIVE Actionable Visualization Tools for Power Grid Situation Awareness the fundamental need for greater SA through actionable visualization tools that: » increase the effectiveness to incorrect assumptions about events and even disastrous consequences. The tools developed in this project

  13. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Uncertainty-aware visualization and proximity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    -aware, geospatial-AR system for real time visualization and proximity analysis. Uncertainties are modeled excavation: a geospatial augmented reality approach Xing Su1 , Sanat Talmaki2 , Hubo Cai3* and Vineet R Kamat an uncertainty-aware, geospatial augmented reality (AR) to visualize and monitor the proximity between invisible

  14. A Visual Analytics Approach for Correlation, Classification, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swan II, J. Edward

    are combined into a parallel coordinates based framework for enhanced multivariate visual analysis. Figure 1A Visual Analytics Approach for Correlation, Classification, and Regression Analysis Chad A. Steed Mississippi State University 1021 Balch Blvd. Stennis Space Center, MS 39529 USA T.J. Jankun-Kelly tjk

  15. Does interactivity improve exploratory data analysis of animated trend visualization?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Chris

    ]. In particular, animation has become a popular method for visualizing trends in multivariate information spaces1 Does interactivity improve exploratory data analysis of animated trend visualization? Felwa A technique for data analysis of large data. We compared interactive animations with non-interactive (passive

  16. A Visual Analytics Approach for Correlation, Classification, and Regression Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swan II, J. Edward

    multivariate visual analysis. The current work features an expanded version of MDX that builds on recentA Visual Analytics Approach for Correlation, Classification, and Regression Analysis Chad A. Steeda, Mississippi State University, Stennis Space Center, MS, 39529; cDepartment of Computer Science and Engineering

  17. Complementary Space for Enhanced Uncertainty and Dynamics Visualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    of complementary space, i.e. the space exterior to but still "near" the surface in question. In this paper, we showComplementary Space for Enhanced Uncertainty and Dynamics Visualization Chandrajit Bajaj, Andrew to it. (a) A primal space visualization of the first time step with the heme group identified. (b

  18. Accurate Visual Word Construction using a Supervised Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    comparison with the standard K-means algorithm on the PASCAL VOC-2007 dataset is carried out. The results of the bag of visual words models are used to resorting to clustering techniques such as the K-means- ered as visual words. They are usually extracted by K-means based-algorithms [1, 3] even though other

  19. Interactive Volumetric Information Visualization for Document Corpus Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Ethan L.

    Interactive Volumetric Information Visualization for Document Corpus Management David S Ebert U must be extracted. By contrast, information analysis or document corpus management seeks to understand system that aids in the document corpus management task by em- ploying 3D volumetric visualization

  20. Top-down facilitation of visual recognition , K. S. Kassam*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bar, Moshe

    Top-down facilitation of visual recognition M. Bar* , K. S. Kassam*§ , A. S. Ghuman*§¶ , J. Boshyan gradually promote the role of top-down processing in recognition, but how such facilitation is triggered object recognition by initiating top-down processes projected from orbitofrontal to visual cortex

  1. 187Visual deficits in developmental dyslexia Clinical and laboratory research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Peter

    187Visual deficits in developmental dyslexia Clinical and laboratory research Neuro.2% of the dyslexics from controls, so this type of visual deficit may be an important feature of dyslexia. Our results perception measures may be used to identify children at risk for dyslexia prior to actual reading failure

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Rapid geometric modeling for visual simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    presents a novel algorithm that enables the semi-automatic reconstruction of human-made structures (e in virtual or augmented reality visual simulations or for data acquisition in 3D geographic information building of surrounding structures in visual simulation of engineering processes. Keywords Animation Á

  3. Visual Text Features for Image Matching Sam S. Tsai1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girod, Bernd

    Visual Text Features for Image Matching Sam S. Tsai1 , Huizhong Chen1 , David Chen1 , Vasu features that are based on text in cameraphone images. A robust text detection algorithm locates individual the visual text features in a way that resembles image features. We calculate their location, scale

  4. Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries Its Past, Present, and Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Börner, Katy

    Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries ­ Its Past, Present, and Future Katy Börner School libraries is an integral part to the advances of digital libraries. A wide range of approaches have been in digital libraries). Generally, information visualization examines semantic relationships intrinsic

  5. Insights from Machine Learning Applied to Human Visual Classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Insights from Machine Learning Applied to Human Visual Classification Arnulf B. A. Graf and Felix A to understand visual classification in humans using both psy- chophysical and machine learning techniques). On an algorithmic level, however, methods and understanding of brain processes are still limited. Here we report

  6. Expressive Visualization and Rapid Interpretation of Seismic Volumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Expressive Visualization and Rapid Interpretation of Seismic Volumes Daniel Patel Thesis, Christopher Giertsen, John Thurmond, Eduard Gr¨oller The Seismic Analyzer: Interpreting and Illustrating 2D of Seismic Data Published in: Vision, Modelling and Visualization (VMV) 2007 Authors: Daniel Patel

  7. Classification of the Visual Landscape for Transmission Planning1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    . The third concept is that the specific design of transmission towers can result in a negative re- sponseClassification of the Visual Landscape for Transmission Planning1 Curtis Miller2/ , Nargis Jetha3 can be made of the visual change to the landscape due to the introduction of transmission facilities

  8. Visual Design of Service Deployment in Complex Physical Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Celentano, Augusto

    Visual Design of Service Deployment in Complex Physical Environments Augusto Celentano and Fabio for in- teractive services in complex physical environments using a knowl- edge based approach to define the relations between the environ- ment and the services, and a visual interface to check the associated

  9. Advanced Visualization Technology for Terascale Particle Accelerator Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Kwan-Liu

    Advanced Visualization Technology for Terascale Particle Accelerator Simulations Kwan-Liu Ma £ Greg-performance computing, particle accelerators, perception, point-based rendering, scientific visualization, field lines Introduction Particle accelerators have helped enable some of the most remarkable discoveries of the 20th

  10. The Evolution Matrix: Recovering Software Evolution using Software Visualization Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nierstrasz, Oscar

    The Evolution Matrix: Recovering Software Evolution using Software Visualization Techniques Michele - ABSTRACT One of the major problems in software evolution is coping with the complexity which stems from and effective way to visualize the evolution of software systems which helps to recover the evolution of object

  11. Towards Event Sequence Representation, Reasoning and Visualization for EHR Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golbeck, Jennifer

    Towards Event Sequence Representation, Reasoning and Visualization for EHR Data Cui Tao Dept will provide a comprehensive environment for users to visualize inferred temporal relationships from EHR data the narrative, temporal reasoning is also needed in order to analyze the trends in time. Manually assessing tens

  12. Modelling the heart and visualization of simulated Roman Durikovic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durikovic, Roman

    Modelling the heart and visualization of simulated wavefronts Roman Durikovic Daming Wei Department summarizes our experience in working with an anisotropic computer heart model. We propose the heart rotating- ing of the unknown mechanisms of heart disease. Keywords: heart model, heart visualization 1

  13. VISUAL-BASED PLANNING AND CONTROL FOR NONHOLONOMIC MOBILE ROBOTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Luca, Alessandro

    in the cartesian space. The mobile robot SuperMARIO used in our experiments is a two-wheel differen- tially drivenVISUAL-BASED PLANNING AND CONTROL FOR NONHOLONOMIC MOBILE ROBOTS A. De Luca, G. Oriolo, L. Paone, P: Visual feedback, nonholonomic mo- bile robots, motion planning, nonlinear control Abstract An integrated

  14. A Novel Visual Secret Sharing Scheme without Image Size Expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heys, Howard

    A Novel Visual Secret Sharing Scheme without Image Size Expansion Nazanin Askari, Cecilia Moloney. Visual cryptography is a secure secret sharing scheme that divides secret images into shares which on their own reveal no information of the original secret image. Recovery of the secret image can be performed

  15. Visualization of Density Variation in Lung Aristofanes C. Silva

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endler, Markus

    Visualization of Density Variation in Lung Nodules Arist´ofanes C. Silva e-mail: ari-Rio Inf.MCC09/02 June, 2002 Abstract We propose a method for visualize lung nodule, in order to emphasize, limiar. #12;1 Introduction Lung cancer is known to be the form of cancer with the smallest survival rate

  16. Analysis and visualization of global magnetospheric processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winske, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Mozer, F.S.; Roth, I. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Physics Dept.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project is to develop new computational and visualization tools to analyze particle dynamics in the Earth`s magnetosphere. These tools allow the construction of a global picture of particle fluxes, which requires only a small number of in situ spacecraft measurements as input parameters. The methods developed in this project have led to a better understanding of particle dynamics in the Earth`s magnetotail in the presence of turbulent wave fields. They have also been used to demonstrate how large electromagnetic pulses in the solar wind can interact with the magnetosphere to increase the population of energetic particles and even form new radiation belts.

  17. Overview Report: Normal and Emergency Operation Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an overview report to document and illustrate methods used in a project entitled “Normal and Emergency Operations Visualization” for a utility company, conducted in 2009-2010 timeframe with funding from the utility company and the U.S. Department of Energy. The original final report (about 180 pages) for the project is not available for distribution because it alludes to findings that assessed the design of an operational system that contained proprietary information; this abridged version contains descriptions of methods and some findings to illustrate the approach used, while avoiding discussion of sensitive or proprietary information. The client has approved this abridged version of the report for unlimited distribution to give researchers and collaborators the benefit of reviewing the research concepts and methods that were applied in this study.

  18. Patent Overlay Mapping: Visualizing Technological Distance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Luciano; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L; Rafols, Ismael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new global patent map that represents all technological categories, and a method to locate patent data of individual organizations and technological fields on the global map. This second patent overlay map technique is shown to be of potential interest to support competitive intelligence and policy decision-making. The global patent map is based on similarities in citing-to-cited relationships between categories of the International Patent Classification (IPC) of European Patent Office (EPO) patents from 2000 to 2006. This patent dataset, extracted from PatStat database, represents more than 760,000 patent records in more than 400 IPC categories. To illustrate the kind of analytical support offered by this approach, the paper shows the overlay of nanotechnology-related patenting activities of two companies and two different nanotechnology subfields on to the global patent map. The exercise shows the potential of patent overlay maps to visualize technological areas and...

  19. Reading color barcodes using visual snakes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaub, Hanspeter (ORION International Technologies, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Statistical pressure snakes are used to track a mono-color target in an unstructured environment using a video camera. The report discusses an algorithm to extract a bar code signal that is embedded within the target. The target is assumed to be rectangular in shape, with the bar code printed in a slightly different saturation and value in HSV color space. Thus, the visual snake, which primarily weighs hue tracking errors, will not be deterred by the presence of the color bar codes in the target. The bar code is generate with the standard 3 of 9 method. Using this method, the numeric bar codes reveal if the target is right-side-up or up-side-down.

  20. Visual scanning deficits in schizophrenia and their relationship to executive functioning impairment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verney, Steven

    Visual scanning deficits in schizophrenia and their relationship to executive functioning Abstract Abnormal visual scanning of faces, objects, and line drawings has been observed in patients approach was used to assess whether schizophrenia patients demonstrate restricted visual scanning when

  1. An Overview of Visualization techniques for the Analysis of Large datasets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorban, Alexander N.

    ://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/ #12;Visible Human - animation #12;Information Visualization · Compact graphical presentation ­ Large: ­ animation ­ software visualisation ­ visualisation environments ­ volume rendering and visualization ­ computer graphics ­ visual programming ­ image processing ­ virtual reality ­ Scientific Visualisation

  2. Visual Debugging of Visualization Software: A Case Study for Particle Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angel, Edward; Crossno, Patricia

    1999-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Visualization systems are complex dynamic software systems. Debugging such systems is difficult using conventional debuggers because the programmer must try to imagine the three-dimensional geometry based on a list of positions and attributes. In addition, the programmer must be able to mentally animate changes in those positions and attributes to grasp dynamic behaviors within the algorithm. In this paper we shall show that representing geometry, attributes, and relationships graphically permits visual pattern recognition skills to be applied to the debugging problem. The particular application is a particle system used for isosurface extraction from volumetric data. Coloring particles based on individual attributes is especially helpful when these colorings are viewed as animations over successive iterations in the program. Although we describe a particular application, the types of tools that we discuss can be applied to a variety of problems.

  3. THE JOURNAL OF VISUALIZATION AND COMPUTER ANIMATION J. Visual. Comput. Animat. 2003; 14: 3141 (DOI: 10.1002/vis.303)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faraway, Julian

    an authentically moving virtual human within software such as Jack3 helps the designer detect problemsTHE JOURNAL OF VISUALIZATION AND COMPUTER ANIMATION J. Visual. Comput. Animat. 2003; 14: 31­41 (DOI Introduction Motion capture technology allows the collection of databases of human motions. We can collect data

  4. CLIMATE-BASED DAYLIGHT PERFORMANCE: BALANCING VISUAL AND NON-VISUAL ASPECTS OF LIGHT INPUT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Andersen; J. Mardaljevic; Nicolas Roy; Jens Christoffersen

    This study uses a domestic dwelling as the setting to investigate and explore the applicability of daylighting metrics for residential buildings, including the formulation of metrics for nonvisual effects. The simulation approach used to generate the performance data from which the metrics are derived is called climate-based daylight modelling (CBDM). This approach delivers predictions of various luminous quantities using sun and sky conditions that are derived from standardised annual meteorological datasets. Although there are uncertainties regarding the precise calibration, there is now sufficient empirical data to parameterise models that also simulate the non-visual aspects of daylight, e.g. for circadian entrainment and a general sense of ?alertness?. For these non-visual aspects, vertical illuminance at the eye was predicted using a modified climate-based daylight modelling approach. In the paper, we consider what relation there might be between the three aspects of daylight provision and if these relations appear to be complementary or conflicting in nature: for task; to reduce electric lighting usage; and, for non-visual effects. The implications for future building guidelines for daylighting are also discussed.

  5. Licensing Opportunity Announcements | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Visualization & Analytics System Lignin-Derived High Performance Plastics Low-Cost, Graphite Anodes For Lithium-Ion Batteries Castable Alumina Forming...

  6. Because It's Not There: Verbal Visuality and the Threat of Graphics in Interactive Fiction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kashtan, Aaron

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the power of computer graphics, text still has access tothat are unavailable in graphics – including visual effects.Visuality and the Threat of Graphics in Interactive Fiction

  7. Applications of the Pipeline Environment for Visual Informatics and Genomics Computations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for visual informatics and genomics computations. BMCfor visual informatics and genomics computations Ivo D DinovContemporary informatics and genomics research require

  8. Applications of the pipeline environment for visual informatics and genomics computations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for visual informatics and genomics computations. BMCfor visual informatics and genomics computations Ivo D DinovContemporary informatics and genomics research require

  9. AVATAR -- Adaptive Visualization Aid for Touring And Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. O. Hall; K. W. Bowyer; N. Chawla; T. Moore, Jr.; W. P. Kegelmeyer

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a report on the initial development of software which uses a standard visualization tool to determine, label and display salient regions in large 3D physics simulation datasets. This software uses parallel pattern recognition behind the scenes to handle the huge volume of data. This software is called AVATAR (Adaptive Visualization Aid for Touring and Recovery). It integrates approaches to gathering labeled training data, learning from large training sets utilizing parallelism and the final display of salient data in unseen visualization data sets. The paper uses vorticity fields for a large-eddy simulation to illustrate the method.

  10. Guided Text Analysis Using Adaptive Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL] [ORNL; Symons, Christopher T [ORNL] [ORNL; DeNap, Frank A [ORNL] [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper demonstrates the promise of augmenting interactive visualizations with semi-supervised machine learning techniques to improve the discovery of significant associations and insight in the search and analysis of textual information. More specifically, we have developed a system called Gryffin that hosts a unique collection of techniques that facilitate individualized investigative search pertaining to an ever-changing set of analytical questions over an indexed collection of open-source publications related to national infrastructure. The Gryffin client hosts dynamic displays of the search results via focus+context record listings, temporal timelines, term- frequency views, and multiple coordinated views. Furthermore, as the analyst interacts with the display, the interactions are recorded and used to label the search records. These labeled records are then used to drive semi-supervised machine learning algorithms that re-rank the unlabeled search records such that potentially relevant records are moved to the top of the record listing. Gryffin is described in the context of the daily tasks encountered at the Department of Homeland Securitys Fusion Centers, with whom we are collaborating in its development. The resulting system is capable of addressing the analysts information overload that can be directly attributed to the deluge of information that must be addressed in search and investigative analysis of textual information.

  11. Guided Text Search Using Adaptive Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Symons, Christopher T [ORNL; Senter, James K [ORNL; DeNap, Frank A [ORNL

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research demonstrates the promise of augmenting interactive visualizations with semi- supervised machine learning techniques to improve the discovery of significant associations and insights in the search and analysis of textual information. More specifically, we have developed a system called Gryffin that hosts a unique collection of techniques that facilitate individualized investigative search pertaining to an ever-changing set of analytical questions over an indexed collection of open-source documents related to critical national infrastructure. The Gryffin client hosts dynamic displays of the search results via focus+context record listings, temporal timelines, term-frequency views, and multiple coordinate views. Furthermore, as the analyst interacts with the display, the interactions are recorded and used to label the search records. These labeled records are then used to drive semi-supervised machine learning algorithms that re-rank the unlabeled search records such that potentially relevant records are moved to the top of the record listing. Gryffin is described in the context of the daily tasks encountered at the US Department of Homeland Security s Fusion Center, with whom we are collaborating in its development. The resulting system is capable of addressing the analysts information overload that can be directly attributed to the deluge of information that must be addressed in the search and investigative analysis of textual information.

  12. Graphical models for visual object recognition and tracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudderth, Erik B. (Erik Blaine), 1977-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop statistical methods which allow effective visual detection, categorization, and tracking of objects in complex scenes. Such computer vision systems must be robust to wide variations in object appearance, the ...

  13. Top Ten Interaction Challenges in Extreme-Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Chen, Chaomei

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The chapter presents ten selected user interfaces and interaction challenges in extreme-scale visual analytics. The study of visual analytics is often referred to as 'the science of analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces' in the literature. The discussion focuses on the issues of applying visual analytics technologies to extreme-scale scientific and non-scientific data ranging from petabyte to exabyte in sizes. The ten challenges are: in situ interactive analysis, user-driven data reduction, scalability and multi-level hierarchy, representation of evidence and uncertainty, heterogeneous data fusion, data summarization and triage for interactive query, analytics of temporally evolving features, the human bottleneck, design and engineering development, and the Renaissance of conventional wisdom. The discussion addresses concerns that arise from different areas of hardware, software, computation, algorithms, and human factors. The chapter also evaluates the likelihood of success in meeting these challenges in the near future.

  14. Interactive Visualization Package for 4D Lattice Field Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivan Hip

    2007-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent interest in exploring local vacuum structure of QCD through the properties of the eigenmodes of the lattice Dirac operators rises again the challenge to visualize four-dimensional objects and structures which appear in lattice field theories. In spite of complex and powerful commercial visualization software packages on the market, there are reasons to develop Interactive Visualization Package (IVP). We believe that an apprehension of the complex structures is possible only through the interactive approach, with the user being able to manipulate data representations and slices through the lattice in real-time. Further insight should also be gained by an interactive parallel examination of different physical quantities, e.g. eigenmode density with topological charge or action densities. Finally, thanks to constantly falling hardware prices, IVP makes it possible to use almost any Linux PC as a visualization tool for research in lattice field theory.

  15. Infrared Optical Imaging Techniques for Gas Visualization and Measurement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Safitri, Anisa

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    modeling. In this research, infrared cameras have been used to visualize liquefied natural gas (LNG) plumes from LNG spills on water. The analyses of the thermograms showed that the apparent temperatures were different from the thermocouple measurement...

  16. The cover image shows a range of data visualizations currently

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    , A Schafferhans, R C Wade, E Westho & A J Olson S56 Visualization of omics data for systems biology N Gehlenborg Anita Gould managing Production Editor Ingrid McNamara Senior Production Editor Brandy Cafarella

  17. Display blocks : cubic displays for multi-perspective visualizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pla i Conesa, Pol

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis details the design, execution and evaluation of a new type of display technology, known as Display Blocks. Display Blocks are a response to two major limitations of current displays: visualization and interaction. ...

  18. Shaogang Gong and Tao Xiang VISUAL ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOUR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Shaogang

    Shaogang Gong and Tao Xiang VISUAL ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOUR From Pixels to Semantics February 2011 Springer #12;#12;To Aleka, Philip and Alexander Shaogang Gong To Ning and Rachel Tao Xiang #12;#12;Preface

  19. Beyond visualization : designing interfaces to contextualize geospatial data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luescher, Samuel

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growing sensor data collections about our environment have the potential to drastically change our perception of the fragile world we live in. To make sense of such data, we commonly use visualization techniques, ...

  20. The Role of Knowledge in Visual Shape Representation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saund, Eric

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report shows how knowledge about the visual world can be built into a shape representation in the form of a descriptive vocabulary making explicit the important geometrical relationships comprising objects' shapes. ...

  1. Visualizing the Optical Interaction Tensor of a Gold Nanoparticle Pair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novotny, Lukas

    Visualizing the Optical Interaction Tensor of a Gold Nanoparticle Pair Bradley Deutsch, Rainer Hillenbrand,,§ and Lukas Novotny*, Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao, Spain ABSTRACT The control of optical fields

  2. John Papanikolas: Visualizing Charge Carrier Motion in Nanowires...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    John Papanikolas: Visualizing Charge Carrier Motion in Nanowires Using Femtosecond Pump-Probe Microscopy Apr 17, 2014 | 4:00 PM - 5:00 PM John Papanikolas Professor of Chemistry &...

  3. Visual Similarity Effects in Categorical Search Robert G. Alexander1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelinsky, Greg

    Visual Similarity Effects in Categorical Search Robert G. Alexander1 (rgalexander Microsoft Corporation Abstract The factors affecting search guidance to categorical targets are largely classes, teddy bears and butterflies, affects search guidance. Experiment 1 used a web-based task

  4. Visual Feedback in a Coordinated Hand-Eye System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodham, Robert J.

    A system is proposed for the development of new techniques for the control and monitoring of a mechanical arm-hand. The use of visual feedback is seen to provide new interactive capabilities in a machine hand-eye system. ...

  5. Jefferson Lab Dec. 9 Science Lecture Discusses How Visual Illusions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fields has important implications for the presentation of visual information and student learning. The Dec. 9 lecture will start at 7 p.m., last about an hour and include a...

  6. Spontaneous speech recognition using visual context-aware language models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukherjee, Niloy, 1978-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thesis presents a novel situationally-aware multimodal spoken language system called Fuse that performs speech understanding for visual object selection. An experimental task was created in which people were asked to ...

  7. Structural Monitoring System (SMS) and Visual System (VS)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Axis Communications, Inc. has developed network ready, environmentally tolerant, low-light level camera-visual systems (VS) with built-in pan and tilt mechanisms that permit remote monitoring of...

  8. An Information Visualization Approach to Intelligent Building Assessment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, J.; Chen, Z.; Li, H.; Xu, Q.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a Knowledge-oriented Information Visualization (KIV) approach to facilitating the implementation of building rating systems such as the Asian Intelligent Building Index (AIIB) for the post-assessment of Intelligent Buildings (IBs...

  9. Direct Visualization of Laser-Driven Focusing Shock Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezeril, Thomas

    Direct real-time visualization and measurement of laser-driven shock generation, propagation, and 2D focusing in a sample are demonstrated. A substantial increase of the pressure at the convergence of the cylindrical ...

  10. Presence in a Distributed Virtual Environment for Cooperative Visualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blake, Edwin

    Presence in a Distributed Virtual Environment for Cooperative Visualization Juan Casanueva of computer networks and computer graphics technology, Collabora- tive Virtual Environments are becoming-Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW). Collaborative Vir- tual Environments involve the use of a distributed architecture

  11. Visual Representations of Puerto Rico in Destination Marketing Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davila Rodriguez, Mary Ann

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    a visual qualitative approach, the study analyzed the images of recent promotional campaigns employed by the Puerto Rico Tourism Company. The study then interviewed Puerto Rican residents regarding their attitudes toward tourism development...

  12. Database Structure and Visualization Software for Microbial Physiology Data INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Database Structure and Visualization Software for Microbial Physiology Data INTRODUCTION Nicholas includes database input. Other related information can be entered through the website. The relational structure of the database is responsible for associating related data · A structured query is sent

  13. An Information Visualization Approach to Intelligent Building Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, J.; Chen, Z.; Li, H.; Xu, Q.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a Knowledge-oriented Information Visualization (KIV) approach to facilitating the implementation of building rating systems such as the Asian Intelligent Building Index (AIIB) for the post-assessment of Intelligent Buildings (IBs...

  14. Transforming big data into knowledge : experimental techniques in dynamic visualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Stephen James, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information visualizations, especially those utilizing web-based platforms, are becoming an increasingly common medium for exchanging ideas. This emergent class of tools enabling web-based, interactive platforms for ...

  15. Infrared Optical Imaging Techniques for Gas Visualization and Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Safitri, Anisa

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Advancement in infrared imaging technology has allowed the thermal imaging to detect and visualize several gases, mostly hydrocarbon gases. In addition, infrared cameras could potentially be used as a non-contact temperature measurement for gas...

  16. Femto-photography: capturing and visualizing the propagation of light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velten, Andreas

    We present femto-photography, a novel imaging technique to capture and visualize the propagation of light. With an effective exposure time of 1.85 picoseconds (ps) per frame, we reconstruct movies of ultrafast events at ...

  17. FACULTY OF ARTS & SCIENCE 2012/13 VISUAL STUDIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    specific and interdisciplinary studios. Visual Studies emphasizes a strong commitment to the social include: Art editor Art critic Animator Cartoonist Conservator Curator Exhibit designer Gallery director additional technical training, graduate education and /or experience beyond the undergraduate level. Students

  18. Production system improvement : floor area reduction and visual management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhuling, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis suggests on the development process of a new layout design and visual management tools to improve the efficiency of a production line in a medical device company. Lean production philosophy and common lean ...

  19. Flow visualization and leakage measurements of worn labyrinth seals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Brian Frank

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large-scale flow visualization test facility is used to conduct an experimental investigation into the leakage resistance and flow characteristics of worn labyrinth seals. Wear in labyrinth seals is a consequence of contact between the rotating...

  20. Children's use of visual information in action planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cordova, Alberto

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    CHILDREN?S USE OF VISUAL INFORMATION IN ACTION PLANNING A Dissertation by ALBERTO CORDOVA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2008 Major Subject: Kinesiology CHILDREN?S USE OF VISUAL INFORMATION IN ACTION PLANNING A Dissertation by ALBERTO CORDOVA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...

  1. Visual discrimination at varying distances in domestic goats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blakeman, Nancy Elizabeth

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VISUAL DISCRIMINATION AT VARYINS DISTANCES IN DOMESTIC BOATS A Theaia by NANCY ELIZABETH SLAKEMAN Submitted ta the Sraduate Cel lege ef Taxaa ACcH Univaraity in partial fulfil leant of the requireeents far the degree ef MASTER OF 'SCIENCE... ) J. W. Bassett (Member ) S. C. Bait (Head' o+ Dept-tment) December 1983 Visual Discrimination at Varying Distances in Domestic Boats (December 1983) Nancy Elizabeth Blakeman, B. S. ~ Texas A S N University Chairman of Advisory Coemittee. Dr...

  2. BA in ART EDUCATION K12 (488022) Map Sheet Department of Visual Arts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    requirements for admission to this major. Admission to the Department of Visual Arts does not guarantee

  3. BA in ART EDUCATION K12 (488022) MAP Sheet Department of Visual Arts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    requirements for admission to this major. Admission to the Department of Visual Arts does not guarantee

  4. Visualization of Tokamak Operational Spaces Through the Projection of Data Probability Distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visualization of Tokamak Operational Spaces Through the Projection of Data Probability Distributions

  5. Visual Information Systems Pr. R. Laurini Introduction to the Course 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurini, Robert

    . · Geroinmenko Vladimir, Chen Chaomei Visualizing the Semantic Web, 2002, Springer · Foley James, Van Dam Andries

  6. Large Data Visualization on Distributed Memory Mulit-GPU Clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, Henry R.

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data sets of immense size are regularly generated on large scale computing resources. Even among more traditional methods for acquisition of volume data, such as MRI and CT scanners, data which is too large to be effectively visualization on standard workstations is now commonplace. One solution to this problem is to employ a 'visualization cluster,' a small to medium scale cluster dedicated to performing visualization and analysis of massive data sets generated on larger scale supercomputers. These clusters are designed to fit a different need than traditional supercomputers, and therefore their design mandates different hardware choices, such as increased memory, and more recently, graphics processing units (GPUs). While there has been much previous work on distributed memory visualization as well as GPU visualization, there is a relative dearth of algorithms which effectively use GPUs at a large scale in a distributed memory environment. In this work, we study a common visualization technique in a GPU-accelerated, distributed memory setting, and present performance characteristics when scaling to extremely large data sets.

  7. The Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT): Data Analysis and Visualization for Geoscience Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doutriaux, Charles [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Patchett, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Miller, Ross G [ORNL; Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Krishnan, Harinarayan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Silva, Claudio T. [New York University, Center for Urban Sciences; Chaudhary, Aashish [Kitware; Bremer, Peer-Timo [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Pugmire, Dave [ORNL; Bethel, E Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Childs, Hank [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Prabhat, [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Geveci, Berk [Kitware; Bauer, Andy [Kitware; Pletzer, Alexander [Tech-X Corporation; Poco, Jorge [Polytechnic Institute of New York University; Ellqvist, Tommy [New York University; Santos, Emanuele [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Ceara, Brazil; Potter, Gerald [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); Smith, Brian E [ORNL; Maxwell, Thomas P. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); Kindig, Dave [Tech-X Corporation; Koop, David [New York University

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To support interactive visualization and analysis of complex, large-scale climate data sets, UV-CDAT integrates a powerful set of scientific computing libraries and applications to foster more efficient knowledge discovery. Connected through a provenance framework, the UV-CDAT components can be loosely coupled for fast integration or tightly coupled for greater functionality and communication with other components. This framework addresses many challenges in interactive visual analysis of distributed large-scale data for the climate community.

  8. The Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT): Data Analysis and Visualization for Geoscience Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Bremer, Peer-Timo [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Doutriaux, Charles [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Patchett, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Williams, Sean [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Miller, Ross G [ORNL; Pugmire, Dave [ORNL; Smith, Brian E [ORNL; Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Bethel, E Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Childs, Hank [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Krishnan, Harinarayan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Silva, Claudio T. [New York University, Center for Urban Sciences; Santos, Emanuele [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Ceara, Brazil; Koop, David [New York University; Ellqvist, Tommy [New York University; Poco, Jorge [Polytechnic Institute of New York University; Geveci, Berk [Kitware; Chaudhary, Aashish [Kitware; Bauer, Andy [Kitware; Pletzer, Alexander [Tech-X Corporation; Kindig, Dave [Tech-X Corporation; Potter, Gerald [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); Maxwell, Thomas P. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To support interactive visualization and analysis of complex, large-scale climate data sets, UV-CDAT integrates a powerful set of scientific computing libraries and applications to foster more efficient knowledge discovery. Connected through a provenance framework, the UV-CDAT components can be loosely coupled for fast integration or tightly coupled for greater functionality and communication with other components. This framework addresses many challenges in the interactive visual analysis of distributed large-scale data for the climate community.

  9. The Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT): Data Analysis and Visualization for Geoscience Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Dean [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Doutriaux, Charles [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Patchett, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Sean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Shipman, Galen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, Ross [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Steed, Chad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Krishnan, Harinarayan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Silva, Claudio [NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering, New York, NY (United States); Chaudhary, Aashish [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Bremer, Peer-Timo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pugmire, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bethel, E. Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Childs, Hank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Prabhat, Mr. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Geveci, Berk [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Bauer, Andrew [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States); Pletzer, Alexander [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Poco, Jorge [NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering, New York, NY (United States); Ellqvist, Tommy [NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering, New York, NY (United States); Santos, Emanuele [Federal Univ. of Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil); Potter, Gerald [NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States); Smith, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maxwell, Thomas [NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kindig, David [Tech-X Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Koop, David [NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering, New York, NY (United States)

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To support interactive visualization and analysis of complex, large-scale climate data sets, UV-CDAT integrates a powerful set of scientific computing libraries and applications to foster more efficient knowledge discovery. Connected through a provenance framework, the UV-CDAT components can be loosely coupled for fast integration or tightly coupled for greater functionality and communication with other components. This framework addresses many challenges in the interactive visual analysis of distributed large-scale data for the climate community.

  10. Interaction between visual attention and the processing of visual emotional stimuli in humans : eye-tracking, behavioural and event-related potential experiments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acunzo, David Jean Pascal

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Past research has shown that the processing of emotional visual stimuli and visual attention are tightly linked together. In particular, emotional stimuli processing can modulate attention, and, reciprocally, the processing ...

  11. Short gamma-ray burst formation rate from BATSE data using E{sub p} -L{sub p} correlation and the minimum gravitational-wave event rate of a coalescing compact binary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yonetoku, Daisuke; Sawano, Tatsuya; Toyanago, Asuka [College of Science and Engineering, School of Mathematics and Physics, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Takahashi, Keitaro, E-mail: yonetoku@astro.s.kanazawa-u.ac.jp, E-mail: takashi@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science, Kumamoto University, Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using 72 short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) with well determined spectral data observed by BATSE, we determine their redshift and luminosity by applying the E{sub p} -L{sub p} correlation for SGRBs found by Tsutsui et al. For 53 SGRBs with an observed flux brighter than 4 × 10{sup –6} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, the cumulative redshift distribution up to z = 1 agrees well with that of 22 Swift SGRBs. This suggests that the redshift determination by the E{sub p} -L{sub p} correlation for SGRBs works well. The minimum event rate at z = 0 is estimated as R{sub on?axis}{sup min}=6.3{sub ?3.9}{sup +3.1}× 10{sup ?10} events Mpc{sup ?3} yr{sup ?1}, so that the minimum beaming angle is 0.°6-7.°8 assuming a merging rate of 10{sup –7}- 4 × 10{sup –6} events Mpc{sup –3} yr{sup –1} suggested from the binary pulsar data. Interestingly, this angle is consistent with that for SGRB 130603B of ?4°-8°. On the other hand, if we assume a beaming angle of ?6° suggested from four SGRBs with the observed beaming angle value, then the minimum event rate including off-axis SGRBs is estimated as R{sub all}{sup min}=1.15{sub ?0.66}{sup +0.56} × 10{sup ?7} events Mpc{sup ?3} yr{sup ?1}. If SGRBs are induced by the coalescence of binary neutron stars (NSs) and/or black holes (BHs), then this event rate leads to a minimum gravitational-wave detection rate of 3.8{sub ?2.2}{sup +1.8} (146{sub ?83}{sup +71}) events yr{sup ?1} for an NS-NS (NS-BH) binary, respectively, by a worldwide network with KAGRA, advanced-LIGO, advanced-VIRGO, and GEO.

  12. Coalescence and Chemical Equilibrium in Multifragmentation at...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M. Veselsky, Invited Talk, Fifth International Conference on Dynamical Aspects of Nuclear Fission, Casta-Papiernicka, Slovak Republic (October 2001). VII-2 Fission Time Scales...

  13. Partonic coalescence in relativistic heavy ion collisions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greco, V.; Ko, Che Ming; Levai, P.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transverse momenta, as observed in experimental data at RHIC. A similar dependence of the antikaon to pion ratio on transverse momentum is obtained, but it reaches a smaller value at intermediate transverse momenta. At high transverse momenta, the model...

  14. Elastocapillary coalescence of plates and pillars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhiyan Wei; Tobias Schneider; Jungchul Kim; Ho-Young Kim; Joanna Aizenberg; L. Mahadevan

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    When a fluid-immersed array of lamellae or filaments that is attached to a substrate is dried, evaporation leads to the formation of menisci on the tips of the plates or pillars that bring them together. Similarly, when hair dries it clumps together due to capillary forces induced by the liquid menisci between the flexible hairs. Building on prior experimental observations, we use a combination of theory and computation to understand the nature of this instability and its evolution in both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional setting of the problem. For the case of lamellae, we explicitly derive the interaction torques based on the relevant physical parameters. A Bloch-wave analysis for our periodic mechanical system captures the critical volume of the liquid and the 2-plate-collapse eigenmode at the onset of instability. We study the evolution of clusters and their arrest using numerical simulations to explain the hierarchical cluster formation and characterize the sensitive dependence of the final structures on the initial perturbations. We then generalize our analysis to treat the problem of pillar collapse in 3D, where the fluid domain is completely connected and the interface is a surface with the uniform mean curvature. Our theory and simulations capture the salient features of both previous experimental observations and our own in terms of the key parameters that can be used to control the kinetics of the process.

  15. Ergodic theory and visualization. II. Harmonic mesochronic plots visualize (quasi)periodic sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zoran Levnaji?; Igor Mezi?

    2014-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new method of analysis of measure-preserving dynamical systems, based on frequency analysis and ergodic theory, which extends our earlier work [1]. Our method employs the novel concept of harmonic time average [2], and is realized as a computational algorithms for visualization of periodic and quasi-periodic sets or arbitrary periodicity in the phase space. Besides identifying all periodic sets, our method is useful in detecting chaotic phase space regions with a good precision. The range of method's applicability is illustrated using well-known Chirikov standard map, while its full potential is presented by studying higher-dimensional measure-preserving systems, in particular Froeschl\\'e map and extended standard map.

  16. Visual Data Analysis as an Integral Part of Environmental Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Joerg; Bethel, E. Wes; Horsman, Jennifer L.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Krishnan, Harinarayan; Romosan,, Alexandru; Keating, Elizabeth H.; Monroe, Laura; Strelitz, Richard; Moore, Phil; Taylor, Glenn; Torkian, Ben; Johnson, Timothy C.; Gorton, Ian

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) currently supports an effort to understand and predict the fate of nuclear contaminants and their transport in natural and engineered systems. Geologists, hydrologists, physicists and computer scientists are working together to create models of existing nuclear waste sites, to simulate their behavior and to extrapolate it into the future. We use visualization as an integral part in each step of this process. In the first step, visualization is used to verify model setup and to estimate critical parameters. High-performance computing simulations of contaminant transport produces massive amounts of data, which is then analyzed using visualization software specifically designed for parallel processing of large amounts of structured and unstructured data. Finally, simulation results are validated by comparing simulation results to measured current and historical field data. We describe in this article how visual analysis is used as an integral part of the decision-making process in the planning of ongoing and future treatment options for the contaminated nuclear waste sites. Lessons learned from visually analyzing our large-scale simulation runs will also have an impact on deciding on treatment measures for other contaminated sites.

  17. Accelerating Network Traffic Analytics Using Query-DrivenVisualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bethel, E. Wes; Campbell, Scott; Dart, Eli; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu,Kesheng

    2006-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Realizing operational analytics solutions where large and complex data must be analyzed in a time-critical fashion entails integrating many different types of technology. This paper focuses on an interdisciplinary combination of scientific data management and visualization/analysis technologies targeted at reducing the time required for data filtering, querying, hypothesis testing and knowledge discovery in the domain of network connection data analysis. We show that use of compressed bitmap indexing can quickly answer queries in an interactive visual data analysis application, and compare its performance with two alternatives for serial and parallel filtering/querying on 2.5 billion records worth of network connection data collected over a period of 42 weeks. Our approach to visual network connection data exploration centers on two primary factors: interactive ad-hoc and multiresolution query formulation and execution over n dimensions and visual display of then-dimensional histogram results. This combination is applied in a case study to detect a distributed network scan and to then identify the set of remote hosts participating in the attack. Our approach is sufficiently general to be applied to a diverse set of data understanding problems as well as used in conjunction with a diverse set of analysis and visualization tools.

  18. High Performance Multivariate Visual Data Exploration for Extremely Large Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubel, Oliver; Wu, Kesheng; Childs, Hank; Meredith, Jeremy; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Ahern, Sean; Weber, Gunther H.; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes; Prabhat,

    2008-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the central challenges in modern science is the need to quickly derive knowledge and understanding from large, complex collections of data. We present a new approach that deals with this challenge by combining and extending techniques from high performance visual data analysis and scientific data management. This approach is demonstrated within the context of gaining insight from complex, time-varying datasets produced by a laser wakefield accelerator simulation. Our approach leverages histogram-based parallel coordinates for both visual information display as well as a vehicle for guiding a data mining operation. Data extraction and subsetting are implemented with state-of-the-art index/query technology. This approach, while applied here to accelerator science, is generally applicable to a broad set of science applications, and is implemented in a production-quality visual data analysis infrastructure. We conduct a detailed performance analysis and demonstrate good scalability on a distributed memory Cray XT4 system.

  19. Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT): Semi-Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, D N

    2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work carried out by the Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT) Team for the period of July 1, 2011 through December 31, 2011. It discusses highlights, overall progress, period goals, and collaborations and lists papers and presentations. The UV-CDAT team is positioned to address the following high-level visualization requirements: (1) Alternative parallel streaming statistics and analysis pipelines - Data parallelism, Task parallelism, Visualization parallelism; (2) Optimized parallel input/output (I/O); (3) Remote interactive execution; (4) Advanced intercomparison visualization; (5) Data provenance processing and capture; and (6) Interfaces for scientists - Workflow data analysis and visualization construction tools, Visualization interfaces.

  20. Visualization experiments on steam injection in Hele-Shaw cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, Xianli; Haghighi, M.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow visualization experiments have been successfully employed in reservoir engineering research for many years. They involve 2-D geometries in transparent Hele-Shaw cells and glass micromodels. Although much work has been done on immiscible flows (drainage or imbibition), visualization of steamfloods, which constitute a major part of current EOR methods, has not been attempted to data. In this paper, we present experimental results on steam injection in a transparent, pyrex glass Hele-Shaw cell. Both synthetic (Dutrex 739) and natural heavy oils were used under a variety of conditions, including effects of gravity.