Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

19 2.3.3. Lignin………………………………………………………. ……………..22 2.3.4.S, Ragauskas A. Pseudo-lignin and pretreatment chemistry.ME, Vinzant TB. Visualizing lignin coalescence and migration

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Preparation and Analysis of Biomass Lignins  

SciTech Connect

Lignin, comprised primarily of three randomly polymerized phenylpropenyl monomers, is, arguably, the second most common organic molecule on earth. In current biorefinery applications, lignin is burned, usually in concentrated pulping or hydrolysis liquor, as a source of process steam and both internal and exported electricity. The aromatic content of lignin makes it a potentially attractive feedstock for highly-valued aromatic chemicals, polymers, and carbon products (graphite, activated carbon, and carbon fiber). Revenue from production of lignin-based chemicals could play a major role in biorefinery profitability if cost-effective methods for lignin separation and purification can be developed. This article presents descriptions of methods for assessing and purifying biorefinery lignins so that they can be evaluated for use as feedstocks for production of chemical products. Areas covered are: 1) initial evaluations of as-received lignin samples (visual, microscopic, separable organics), 2) analysis of common contaminants (bulk and filterable ash and particulate contaminants in liquid and dry lignin samples), 3) preparation of lignins for experimental use as chemical feedstocks (prefiltration, filtration using bench-scale chemical apparatus and larger scale bag filters, one-step lignin precipitation, two-step carbohydrate and lignin precipitation, desalting of dry powdered or precipitated lignin, and lyophilization). These methods have been used successfully at bench-scale to produce the 1 50 kg amounts of wood and grass lignins typically required for bench-scale assessment as chemical feedstocks

Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A newly discovered lignin peroxidase enzyme is provided. The enzyme is obtained from a bacterial source and is capable of degrading the lignin portion of lignocellulose in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is extracellular, oxidative, inducible by lignin, larch wood xylan, or related substrates and capable of attacking certain lignin substructure chemical bonds that are not degradable by fungal lignin peroxidases.

Crawford, Donald L. (Moscow, ID); Ramachandra, Muralidhara (Moscow, ID)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Redistribution of Lignin Caused by Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

Research conducted at NREL has shown that lignin undergoes a phase transition during thermochemical pretreatments conducted above its glass transition temperature. The lignin coalesces within the plant cell wall and appears as microscopic droplets on cell surfaces. It is clear that pretreatment causes significant changes in lignin distribution in pretreatments at all scales from small laboratory reactors to pilot scale reactors. A method for selectively extracting lignin droplets from the surfaces of pretreated cell walls has allowed us to characterize the chemical nature and molecular weight distribution of this fraction. The effect of lignin redistribution on the digestibility of pretreated solids has also been tested. It is clear that removal of the droplets increases the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The improved digestibility could be due to decreased non-specific binding of enzymes to lignin in the droplets, or because the droplets no longer block access to cellulose.

Johnson, D. K.; Donohoe, B. S.; Katahira, R.; Tucker, M. P.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

DNA constructs are provided for the production of Streptomyces lignin peroxidase. The enzyme finds use in the degradation of lignin and oxidation of organic substrates.

Crawford, Donald L. (Moscow, ID); Ramachandra, Muralidhara (Wilmington, DE)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

DNA constructs are provided for the production of Streptomyces lignin peroxidase. The enzyme finds use in the degradation of lignin and oxidation of organic substrates.

Crawford, D.L.; Ramachandra, M.

1993-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

7

Solvent Fractionation of Lignin  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. The major issues for the commercial production of value added high performance lignin products are lignin s physical and chemical heterogenities. To overcome these problems, a variety of procedures have been developed to produce pure lignin suitable for high performace applications such as lignin-derived carbon materials. However, most of the isolation procedures affect lignin s properties and structure. In this chapter, a short review of the effect of solvent fractionation on lignin s properties and structure is presented.

Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Lignin | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lignin Lignin Jump to: navigation, search Lignin.jpg What is Lignin? Lignin is the fiber in our food, the thing that makes vegetables crunchy and firm. It is a polymer found extensively in the cell walls of all woody plants, Lignin, one of the most abundant natural polymers, constitutes one-fourth to one-third of the total dry weight of trees. It combines with hemicellulose materials to help bind the cells together and direct water flow. Lignin is formed by removal of water from sugars to create aromatic structures. These reactions are not reversible. Lignin resists attack by most microorganisms, and anaerobic processes tend not to attack the aromatic rings at all. Aerobic breakdown of lignin is slow and may take many days. Lignin is nature's cement along with hemicellulose to exploit

9

Modulating lignin in plants  

SciTech Connect

Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

10

Coalescence of spheromaks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coalescence of two spheromaks is described using the quasi?ideal model of reconnection. Nonaxisymmetric effects are found to play an important role in general. Possible applications of repeated coalescence are studied including heating the spheromak plasma building up a large spheromak from smaller ones and maintaining a spheromak in steady state. The analysis suggests that coalescence experiments could also provide a valuable method for studying magnetic field relaxation.

Allan Reiman

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RESEARCH Open Access The fate of lignin during hydrothermalbiomass benefits from lignin removal, relocation, and/ormay all influence these lignin changes. To better understand

Trajano, Heather L; Engle, Nancy L; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wyman, Charles E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Evidence supporting dissimilatory and assimilatory lignin degradation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evidence supporting dissimilatory and assimilatory lignin degradation in Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1. Evidence supporting dissimilatory and assimilatory lignin degradation in...

13

Fluorescence analyzer for lignin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for measuring lignin concentration in a sample of wood pulp or black liquor comprises a light emitting arrangement for emitting an excitation light through optical fiber bundles into a probe which has an undiluted sensing end facing the sample. The excitation light causes the lignin concentration to produce fluorescent emission light which is then conveyed through the probe to analyzing equipment which measures the intensity of the emission light. Measures a This invention was made with Government support under Contract Number DOE: DE-FC05-90CE40905 awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Government has certain rights in this invention.

Berthold, John W. (Salem, OH); Malito, Michael L. (Hubbard, OH); Jeffers, Larry (Alliance, OH)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Lignin blockers and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion and allows for the determination of optimized pretreatment conditions. Additionally, ethanol yields from a Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process are improved 5-25% by treatment with a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

Yang, Bin (West Lebanon, NH); Wyman, Charles E. (Norwich, VT)

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

15

Die Chemie des Lignins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... technology of industry, and thus implicitly to the philosophy of the hurhan story, intimately interrelated as it is with that of plant life and evolution. The philosophic note is ... actual or original lignin, the degree of change associated with the reaction mechanism of the process of separation requiring to be estimated, but necessarily by a method which is inconclusive ...

C. F. CROSS

1927-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Lignin blockers and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion and allows for the determination of optimized pretreatment conditions. Additionally, ethanol yields from a Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process are improved 5-25% by treatment with a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein.

Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

17

Lignin Valorization: Improving Lignin Processing in the Biorefinery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...liquid transportation fuels without affecting...ethanol or other fuels (10). Lignin...materials, and fuels, very little of...developments in genetic engineering of lignin to targeted...factors (26), or introduction of engineered enzymes...by-product of biodiesel production from...

Arthur J. Ragauskas; Gregg T. Beckham; Mary J. Biddy; Richard Chandra; Fang Chen; Mark F. Davis; Brian H. Davison; Richard A. Dixon; Paul Gilna; Martin Keller; Paul Langan; Amit K. Naskar; Jack N. Saddler; Timothy J. Tschaplinski; Gerald A. Tuskan; Charles E. Wyman

2014-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

18

Minimizing the sulphur content in Kraft lignin.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The aim of this project is to investigate the possibilities of minimizing the sulphur content in Kraft lignin. Kraft lignin contains about 1.5 to… (more)

Svensson, Sara

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil. Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil. Abstract: Lignin is often the most...

20

Macromolecular replication during lignin biosynthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Macromolecular Macromolecular replication during lignin biosynthesis Yi-ru Chen, Simo Sarkanen * Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 12 December 2008 Received in revised form 24 October 2009 Available online 4 January 2010 Keywords: Lignin primary structure Replication Template polymerization Density functional theory Dynamical electron correlation a b s t r a c t Lignins play a crucial role in the cell-wall architecture of all vascular plants. They are composed of p- hydroxyphenylpropanoid units interconnected through covalent bonds formed during lignol radical cou- pling between six different pairs of atomic centers. For 50 years, the primary structures of lignins have been thought to be random, but for a number of reasons such an assumption is not tenable. For example, it has been

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Functionalized lignin, rubber containing functionalized lignin and products containing such rubber composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to functionalized lignin, rubber compositions which contain functionalized lignin and to products which have at least one component comprised of such rubber composition.

Benko, David Andrew; Hahn, Bruce Raymond; Cohen, Martin Paul; Dirk, Shawn Matthew; Cicotte, Kirsten Nicole

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

22

Searching for gravitational waves from binary coalescence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe the implementation of a search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescences in LIGO and Virgo data. This all-sky, all-time, multidetector search for binary coalescence has been used to search data ...

Vaulin, Ruslan

23

Catalysis of 6? Electrocyclizations & Catalytic Disproportionation of Lignin Model Compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

groups. 13 Finally, the organosolv process extracts ligninWhile a 70% conversion of organosolv lignin to alkanols such

Bishop, Lee

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Unravelling lignin formation and structure  

SciTech Connect

During this study, we established that the Fagaceae exclusively accumulate Z-monolignois/glucosides, and not the E-isomers. Evidence for the presence of a novel E{yields}Z isomerse has been obtained. Our pioneering work in lignin biosynthesis and structure in situ has also progressed smoothly. We established the bonding environments of a woody angiosperm, Leucanea leucocephala, as well as wheat (T. aestivum) and tobacco (N. tabacum). A cell culture system from Pinus taeda was developed which seems ideal for investigating the early stages of lignification. These cultures excrete peroxidase isozymes, considered to be specifically involved in lignin deposition. We also studied the effect of the putative lignin-degrading enzyme, lignin peroxidase, on monolignols and dehydropolymerisates therefrom. In all cases, polymerization was observed, and not degradation; these polymers are identical to that obtained with horseradish peroxidases/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. It seems inconceivable that these enzymes can be considered as being primarily responsible for lignin biodegradation.

Lewis, N.G. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Inst. of Biological Chemistry)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Characterization of trapped lignin-degrading microbes in tropical forest soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermotogae VHS-B5-50 Table S4, cont?d T1 T2 T3 T4 no ligninligninno lignin lignin no lignin lignin no lignin lignin n.d. n.d.

DeAngelis, K.M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

27

Liquid Fuels from Lignins: Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

This task was initiated to assess the conversion of lignins into liquid fuels, primarily of lignins relevant to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The task was composed of a literature review of this area and an experimental part to obtain pertinent data on the conversion of lignins germane to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes.

Chum, H. L.; Johnson, D. K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Supramolecular self-assembled chaos: polyphenolic lignin's barrier to cost-effective lignocellulosic biofuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Attempts  at  isolating  lignin,  analogous  to  specific  bonds  in  lignin-­?carbohydrate  complexes  (a  better  grasp  of  lignin.  Supramolecular  self-­?

Achyuthan, Komandoor

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Coated metal fiber coalescing cell  

SciTech Connect

A cell is described for coalescing oil droplets dispersed in a water emulsion including an elongated perforated tube core into which the emulsion is injected, layers of oleophilic plastic covered metal mat wound about the core through which the emulsion is forced to pass, the fibers of the metal mat being covered by oleophilic plastic such as vinyl, acrylic, polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, the metal being in the form of layers of expanded metal or metal fibers, either aluminum or stainless steel. In manufacturing the cell a helix wound wire is formed around the cylindrical plastic coated metal to retain it in place and resist pressure drop of fluid flowing through the metal fibers. In addition, the preferred arrangement includes the use of an outer sleeve formed of a mat of fibrous material such as polyester fibers, acrylic fibers, modacrylic fibers and mixtures thereof.

Rutz, W.D.; Swain, R.J.

1980-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

30

Article original Apports de lignines et alimentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Article original Apports de lignines et alimentation du lapin en croissance. II. Conséquences sur'étudier les effets respectifs du taux de lignines et de leur nature sur les performances de croissance et la,0 à 7,9%) et l'origine botanique des lignines ont été distribués à volonté depuis le sevrage (entre 28

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

31

RESEARCH Open Access The fate of lignin during hydrothermal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RESEARCH Open Access The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment Heather L Trajano1 lignin removal, relocation, and/or modification during hydrothermal pretreatment. Phase transition, depolymerization/repolymerization, and solubility effects may all influence these lignin changes. To better

California at Riverside, University of

32

LIGNIN BIODEGRADATION AND THE PRODUCTION OF ETHYL ALCOHOL FROM CELLULOSE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Moore, W. E. , Removing lignin from wood with white-rotof carbohydrates on lignin degradation by the white-rotP. and Eriksson, K. -E. , Lignin degradation and utilization

Rosenberg, S.L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Interactions of Lignin and Hemicellulose and Effects on Biomass Deconstruction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cellulase to cellulose and lignin for poplar solids producedB, Keller M, et al. Lignin content in natural Populus15):6300-5. Chen F, Dixon RA. Lignin modification improves

Li, Hongjia

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Catalysis of 6? Electrocyclizations & Catalytic Disproportionation of Lignin Model Compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. D. ; McNally, T. J. Lignin. In Kirk-Othmer EncyclopediaK. ; Gellerstedt, G. Lignin. In Analytical Methods in Woodof a 1-phenylpropane-1,3-diol lignin model compound via ?-

Bishop, Lee

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Lignin studies of transgenic Norway spruce.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??An attractive objective in tree breeding is to reduce the content of lignin, or increase its extractability, to favor delignification during pulping. This study investigates… (more)

Wadenbäck, Johan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Two-Step Process Converts Lignin into Simple Aromatic Compounds...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

developed a highly efficient method to oxidize lignin or lignin subunits (see WARF reference number P130104US01). This work represented the first step towards a greener,...

37

Sandia National Laboratories: Lignin-Feasting Microbe Holds Promise...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ClimateECEnergyRenewable EnergyBiofuelsLignin-Feasting Microbe Holds Promise for Biofuels Lignin-Feasting Microbe Holds Promise for Biofuels Sandian Mark Boslough Featured on NOVA...

38

Selective Conversion of Lignin into Simple Aromatic Compounds...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Lignin into Simple Aromatic Compounds Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Lignin is a major component of...

39

Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is preferably dried and stored until it is used (along with an alkali, an aldehyde and an adhesive filler) in compounding an adhesive of the type generally used in the manufacture of plywood.

Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Development of Lignin-Based Polyurethane Thermoplastics  

SciTech Connect

In our continued effort to develop value-added thermoplastics from lignin, here we report utilizing a tailored feedstock to synthesize mechanically robust thermoplastic polyurethanes at very high lignin contents (75 65 wt %). The molecular weight and glass transition temperature (Tg) of lignin were altered through cross-linking with formaldehyde. The cross-linked lignin was coupled with diisocyanate-based telechelic polybutadiene as a network-forming soft segment. The appearance of two Tg s, around 35 and 154 C, for the polyurethanes indicates the existence of two-phase morphology, a characteristic of thermoplastic copolymers. A calculated Flory-Huggins interaction parameter of 7.71 also suggests phase immiscibility in the synthesized lignin polyurethanes. An increase in lignin loading increased the modulus, and an increase in crosslink-density increased the modulus in the rubbery plateau region of the thermoplastic. This path for synthesis of novel lignin-based polyurethane thermoplastics provides a design tool for high performance lignin-based biopolymers.

Saito, Tomonori [ORNL] [ORNL; Perkins, Joshua H [ORNL] [ORNL; Jackson, Daniel C [ORNL] [ORNL; Trammell, Neil E [ORNL] [ORNL; Hunt, Marcus A [ORNL] [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Method for regulation of plant lignin composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for the regulation of lignin composition in plant tissue. Plants are transformed with a gene encoding an active F5H gene. The expression of the F5H gene results in increased levels of syringyl monomer providing a lignin composition more easily degraded with chemicals and enzymes.

Chapple, Clint (West Lafayette, IN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Memory Coalescing Techniques 1 Accessing Global and Shared Memory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Memory Coalescing Techniques 1 Accessing Global and Shared Memory memory coalescing to global memory avoiding bank conflicts in shared memory 2 Memory Coalescing Techniques accessing global memory for a matrix using shared memory for coalescing 3 Avoiding Bank Conflicts computing consecutive powers MCS 572

Verschelde, Jan

44

On the Inside How Low Can Lignin Go?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On the Inside How Low Can Lignin Go? Reducing the lignin content of plants has long been a goal of plant biotech- nology. Lignin is an unwanted product in the pulp and paper industry because it increases. Moreover, reducing the lignin content of the raw biomass material may allow more efficient hydrolysis

Kachroo, Pradeep

45

Article original Apports de lignines et alimentation du lapin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Article original Apports de lignines et alimentation du lapin en croissance. I. Conséquences sur la) Résumé — L'effet de la teneur et de la nature des lignines sur la digestion et le transit du lapin faible teneur en lignine ADL (RO), et des aliments à taux croissants de lignines provenant pour un tiers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

46

Dosage de la lignine insoluble en milieu acide : influence du prtraitement par hydrolyse acide sur la lignine Kla-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dosage de la lignine insoluble en milieu acide : influence du prétraitement par hydrolyse acide sur la lignine Kla- son de bois et de paille Bernard MONTIES LN.R.A., Laboratoire de Chimie biologique et la lignine insoluble dans l'acide sulfurique concentré, lignine Klason, est décrit : il comporte une

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

47

HPLC Purification of Higher Plant-Dervied Lignin Phenols for Compound Specific Radiocarbon Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

purification scheme for lignin phenol CSRA is feasible. Thebased method are that (1) lignin phenols can be purifiedobtain semipure fractions of lignin phenols. The subsequent

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Vacuum-Ultraviolet Photoionization and Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Lignin Monomers Coniferyl and Sinapyl Alcohols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Biosynthesis of Lignin; Springer?Verlag: Berlin, 1968. (Characterization of Lignin Monomers Coniferyl and Sinapylfragmentation Introduction Lignin is the second most

Takahashi, Lynelle K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes inCharacterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes inCharacterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in

DeAngelis, Kristen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

PATTERNS OF DIFFUSIBILITY OF LIGNIN AND CARBOHYDRATE DEGRADING SYSTEMS IN WOOD-ROTTING FUNGI  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. Biochem. 57: 405-409. lignins by Bacillus megaterium.microorganisms, Berg, B, 1975, Lignin degradation andEffects of microorganisms on lignin. Phytopathol. ~: Kirk.

Rosenberg, S. L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Production of Lignin-Based Phenolic Resins Using De-Polymerized Kraft Lignin and Process Optimization.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Commercialization of Lignin-based phenol formaldehyde resins (LPF) has been limited due to the increase in curing temperatures and decrease in adhesive strength of LPF compared… (more)

Siddiqui, Homaira

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Sequestration and Transport of Lignin Monomeric Precursors  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is the second most abundant terrestrial biopolymer after cellulose. It is essential for the viability of vascular plants. Lignin precursors, the monolignols, are synthesized within the cytosol of the cell. Thereafter, these monomeric precursors are exported into the cell wall, where they are polymerized and integrated into the wall matrix. Accordingly, transport of monolignols across cell membranes is a critical step affecting deposition of lignin in the secondarily thickened cell wall. While the biosynthesis of monolignols is relatively well understood, our knowledge of sequestration and transport of these monomers is sketchy. In this article, we review different hypotheses on monolignol transport and summarize the recent progresses toward the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying monolignol sequestration and transport across membranes. Deciphering molecular mechanisms for lignin precursor transport will support a better biotechnological solution to manipulate plant lignification for more efficient agricultural and industrial applications of cell wall biomass.

Liu, C.J.; Miao, Y.-C.; Zhang, K.-W.

2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

53

Computational Design of Lignin Depolymerization Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is a major component of plant cell walls that is typically underutilized in selective conversion strategies for renewable fuels and chemicals. The mechanisms by which thermal and catalytic treatments deconstruct lignin remain elusive, for which quantum mechanical calculations can offer fundamental insights. In this work, a computational approach has been used to elucidate the reductive deconstruction pathway of a ruthenium-catalyzed system. Transition states have been computed to determine the rate-limiting steps for a catalyst that cleaves arylether linkages. Our calculations are supported by experimental synthesis and kinetic and thermodynamic measurements of the deconstruction of model lignin dimers by a ruthenium catalyst with the ultimate objective of designing new catalysts to eventually utilize lignin in biorefineries.

Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Sturgeon, M.; Katahira, R.; Paton, R. S.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

Crawford, Don L. (Moscow, ID); Pometto, III, Anthony L. (Moscow, ID)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Colloid Coalescence with Focused X Rays  

SciTech Connect

We show direct evidence that focused x rays enable us to merge polymer colloidal particles at room temperature. This phenomenon is ascribed to the photochemical scission of colloids with x rays, reducing the molecular weight, glass transition temperature, surface tension, and viscosity of colloids. The observation of the neck bridge growth with time shows that the x-ray-induced colloid coalescence is analogous to viscoelastic coalescence. This finding suggests a feasible protocol of photonic nanofabrication by sintering or welding of polymers, without thermal damage, using x-ray photonics.

Weon, B. M.; Kim, J. T.; Je, J. H. [X-ray Imaging Center, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, J. M. [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Yongin, Gyeonggi, 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, S.; Lee, W.-K. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Carbon Fiber Production from a Kraft Hardwood Lignin  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is a renewable resource material that is being evaluated for the low cost production of carbon fiber for automotive and other applications. Solvent extraction of a commercial hardwood lignin product yielded a purified lignin free of the contaminants typical of lignins derived from the Kraft chemical pulping of wood. The purified lignin was highly melt-spinnable into fibers, from which carbon fiber was subsequently produced. The lignin has been evaluated in terms of its rheological properties, fiber melt spinning ability, and potential for manufacture of low cost carbon fiber without the need for plasticizing agents or chemical modifications.

Baker, Darren A [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Conductivity factor in the electrostatic coalescence of crude oil emulsions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

vertically-oriented, cylindrical coalescer. The electrical conductivity of each phase of the water-in-oil emulsion was varied to determine their effects on the rate of coalescence. Both light and intermediate grades of crude oil emulsions were modified...

Nelson, James B

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Controlling drop coalescence using nano-engineered surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dynamics of drop coalescence are explored on micro-scale surface features for the first time. Drop coalescence is defined as a process by which two or more droplets, bubbles or particles merge during contact to form a ...

Corral, Manuel, Jr

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Bunch Coalescing in a Helical Channel  

SciTech Connect

A high-luminosity Muon Collider requires bunch recombination for optimal luminosity. In this paper, we take advantage of the large slip factor attainable in a helical transport channel (HTC) to coalesce bunches of muons into a single one over a shorter distance than can be achieved over a straight channel.

Neuffer, D.V.; Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Yoshikawa, C.Y.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Deconstruction of Lignin Model Compounds and Biomass-Derived Lignin using Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is an underutilized value stream in current biomass conversion technologies because there exist no economic and technically feasible routes for lignin depolymerization and upgrading. Base-catalyzed deconstruction (BCD) has been applied for lignin depolymerization (e.g., the Kraft process) in the pulp and paper industry for more than a century using aqueous-phase media. However, these efforts require treatment to neutralize the resulting streams, which adds significantly to the cost of lignin deconstruction. To circumvent the need for downstream treatment, here we report recent advances in the synthesis of layered double hydroxide and metal oxide catalysts to be applied to the BCD of lignin. These catalysts may prove more cost-effective than liquid-phase, non-recyclable base, and their use obviates downstream processing steps such as neutralization. Synthetic procedures for various transition-metal containing catalysts, detailed kinetics measurements using lignin model compounds, and results of the application of these catalysts to biomass-derived lignin will be presented.

Chmely, S. C.; McKinney, K. A.; Lawrence, K. R.; Sturgeon, M.; Katahira, R.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Photoelectron spectroscopy as a tool of lignin chemistry  

SciTech Connect

Many efforts in systematic elucidation of lignin properties start from the properties of the lignin subunits. In this paper, the authors provide the vertical ionization potentials (IP) of a representative set of lignin model compound. Gas phase photoelectron spectroscopy enables them to determine ionization potentials and makes it possible to deduce the electron structure of molecules within the limitations of Koopman's theorem. They discuss reasons why photoelectron spectroscopy might be a valuable method for the study of lignin properties.

Shevchenko, S.M.; Zarubin, M.Y. (Leningrad Forest Technical Academy, 194018 Leningrad (SU))

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Lignin removal and benzene–alcohol extraction effects on lignin measurements of the hydrothermal pretreated bamboo substrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lignin content of hydrothermal pretreated bamboo chips was determined by the two methods: TAPPI standard method (222om-06) and TAPPI standard method without benzene–alcohol extraction (BAE). The results showed that including BAE resulted in lower Klason lignin (KL) and acid soluble lignin (ASL) measurements in the prehydrolyzed substrate, that is to say, BAE removed parts of KL and ASL. Therefore, the TAPPI standard method should be modified by omitting the BAE for lignin measurements of pretreated substrate. The following lignin removal analysis suggested that lignin was removed from the bamboo substrate during pretreatment by a combination of degradation reaction and deconstruction; thereafter the pseudo lignin generated in the hydrothermal pretreatment and condensation reaction between the lignin fragments accounted for the later KL increase.

X.J. Ma; S.L. Cao; X.F. Yang; L. Lin; L.H. Chen; L.L. Huang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Identification of lignin genes and regulatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Identification of lignin genes and regulatory sequences involved analysis revealed 18 lignin isoforms for each species. We also identified five contigs homologous to R2R3 wall formation and lignin deposition. We searched the contigs against public microRNA database

64

How is ferulic acid transported into the Golgi apparatus? Lignin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How is ferulic acid transported into the Golgi apparatus? Lignin polymerization is also influenced]. These ferulic acid residues are thought to initiate lignin polymerization. It is not known how ferulic acid in the cell wall field, but also creates novel opportunities for the manipulation of lignin in crop plants

65

Original article Lignin-carbohydrate complexes in forages  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Original article Lignin-carbohydrate complexes in forages: structure and consequences) Summary ― Lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCCS) are recognised as key structures in forage microorganisms are discussed. lignin-carbohydrate complexes I cell wall I forage I digestibility Résumé

Boyer, Edmond

66

Structural modifications of timothy lignin by in vitro rumen fermentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structural modifications of timothy lignin by in vitro rumen fermentation T Kondo, T Ohshita, T Kyuma Tohoku National Agricultural Experiment Station, Shimokuriyagawa, Morioka 020-01, Japan Lignin degradation of forage fibers. The nutritional effect of forage lignin is closely related to its structure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

67

REGULAR ARTICLE European corn borer injury effects on lignin, carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REGULAR ARTICLE European corn borer injury effects on lignin, carbon and nitrogen in corn tissues herbivores often stimulate lignin deposition in injured plant tissue, but it is not known whether corn (Zea (Bacillus thuringiensis) genetic modifica- tion is also reported to affect lignin in corn. This study

Beaudoin, Georges

68

Carbohydrate Derived-Pseudo-Lignin Can Retard Cellulose Biological Conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ARTICLE Carbohydrate Derived-Pseudo-Lignin Can Retard Cellulose Biological Conversion Rajeev Kumar degradation products, collectively termed as chars and/or pseudo-lignin. In order to understand the factors derived pseudo-lignin on cellulose conversion at the moderate to low enzyme loadings necessary

California at Riverside, University of

69

BSA Treatment to Enhance Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose in Lignin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BSA Treatment to Enhance Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose in Lignin Containing Substrates Bin Yang cellulose and solids containing 56% cellulose and 28% lignin from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn of cellulase and particularly beta-glucosidase on lignin. Of particular note, BSA treatment of pretreated corn

California at Riverside, University of

70

Composition and biological degradability of lignin modified transgenic plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Composition and biological degradability of lignin modified transgenic plants MA Bernard Vailhé, JM The influence of lignin quality on cell wall degradation was studied using, as model plants, control (C matter (DM) and lignin content were determined according to Jarrige (1961, Ann Biol Anim Biophys, 1, 163

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

71

Preserved lignin structures in Miocene-aged lignite lithotypes, Bulgaria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Preserved lignin structures in Miocene-aged lignite lithotypes, Bulgaria M. Stefanova, O. Maman, B, Orleans Cedex 2, France Abstract Contents of preserved lignin structures in Miocene-aged lignite lithotypes were determined. Phenol aldehydes, ketones and acids released from lignin by CuO oxidative

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

72

Nanoparticle coalescence and sintering: molecular dynamics simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are employed to better understand coalescence and sintering processes of gold nanoparticles. During coalescence in the liquid phase, the initial neck growth can be well described by the viscous flow model. With initial temperature right below the single particle melting temperature, the initial neck growth is controlled by viscous flow at first and then, by grain boundary diffusion. At initial temperatures well below melting, the sintering process occurs very rapidly, which may be attributed to a formation of liquid-like neck regions. The sintering of two free Au nanoparticles irradiated by a femtosecond laser pulse is also simulated by combining the two-temperature and MD models. It is shown that by increasing laser input energy, nanoparticles can be melted forming a single larger nanoparticle. The effects of multinanoparticle melting, solidification and sintering are also investigated.

N. Wang; S.I. Rokhlin; D.F. Farson

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

Agblevor, F.A.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Molecular structure and biochemical properties of lignins in relation to possible self-organization of lignin networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular structure and biochemical properties of lignins in relation to possible self-organization of lignin networks B. Monties Laboratoire de Chimie Biologique, INRA (CBAI), Institut National Agronomique recalls chemical data related to the variations in the molecular structure of lignin and mainly discusses

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

75

Lignin-blocking treatment of biomass and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion. Cellulase efficiencies are improved by the protein or polypeptide treatment. The treatment may be used in combination with steam explosion and acid prehydrolysis techniques. Hydrolysis yields from lignin containing biomass are enhanced 5-20%, and enzyme utilization is increased from 10% to 50%. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

Yang, Bin (Hanover, NH); Wyman, Charles E. (Norwich, VT)

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

76

Kinetic Model Development for Lignin Pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Lignin pyrolysis poses a significant barrier to the formation of liquid fuel products from biomass. Lignin pyrolyzes at higher temperatures than other biomass components (e.g. cellulose and hemi-cellulose) and tends to form radicals species that lead to cross-linking and ultimately char formation. A first step in the advancement of biomass-to-fuel technology is to discover the underlying mechanisms that lead to the breakdown of lignin at lower temperatures into more stable and usable products. We have investigated the thermochemistry of the various inter-linkage units found in lignin (B-O4, a-O4, B-B, B-O5, etc) using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2x/6-311++G(d,p) on a series of dimer model compounds. In addition to bond homolysis reactions, a variety of concerted elimination pathways are under investigation that tend to produce closed-shell stable products. Such a bottom-up approach could aid in the targeted development of catalysts that produce more desirable products under less severe reactor conditions.

Clark, J.; Robichaud, D.; Nimlos, M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Lignin Signature of Aquatic Humic Substances  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...hydrology identification Klamath Marsh lakes lignin limnology...source identification, we group these phenols into families...colored stream draining Klamath Marsh (southern Ore-gon...the WR humic substance falls within the range of non-woody...containing vicinal hydroxyl groups are cleaved by CuO oxidation...

JOHN R. ERTEL; JOHN I. HEDGES; EDWARD M. PERDUE

1984-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

78

Computational Mechanistic Studies of Acid-Catalyzed Lignin Model Dimers for Lignin Depolymerization  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is a heterogeneous alkyl-aromatic polymer that constitutes up to 30% of plant cell walls, and is used for water transport, structure, and defense. The highly irregular and heterogeneous structure of lignin presents a major obstacle in the development of strategies for its deconstruction and upgrading. Here we present mechanistic studies of the acid-catalyzed cleavage of lignin aryl-ether linkages, combining both experimental studies and quantum chemical calculations. Quantum mechanical calculations provide a detailed interpretation of reaction mechanisms including possible intermediates and transition states. Solvent effects on the hydrolysis reactions were incorporated through the use of a conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) and with cluster models including explicit water molecules in the first solvation shell. Reaction pathways were computed for four lignin model dimers including 2-phenoxy-phenylethanol (PPE), 1-(para-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenoxy-ethanol (HPPE), 2-phenoxy-phenyl-1,3-propanediol (PPPD), and 1-(para-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenoxy-1,3-propanediol (HPPPD). Lignin model dimers with a para-hydroxyphenyl ether (HPPE and HPPPD) show substantial differences in reactivity relative to the phenyl ether compound (PPE and PPPD) which have been clarified theoretically and experimentally. The significance of these results for acid deconstruction of lignin in plant cell walls will be discussed.

Kim, S.; Sturgeon, M. R.; Chmely, S. C.; Paton, R. S.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Reactions of Lignin Model Compounds in Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect

Lignin, a readily available form of biomass, awaits novel chemistry for converting it to valuable aromatic chemicals. Recent work has demonstrated that ionic liquids are excellent solvents for processing woody biomass and lignin. Seeking to exploit ionic liquids as media for depolymerization of lignin, we investigated reactions of lignin model compounds in these solvents. Using Brønsted acid catalysts in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate at moderate temperatures, we obtained up to 11.6% yield of the dealkylation product guaiacol from the model compound eugenol and cleaved phenethyl phenyl ether, a model for lignin ethers. Despite these successes, acid catalysis failed in dealkylation of the unsaturated model compound 4-ethylguaiacol and did not produce monomeric products from organosolv lignin, demonstrating that further work is required to understand the complex chemistry of lignin depolymerization.

Holladay, John E.; Binder, Joseph B.; Gray, Michel J.; White, James F.; Zhang, Z. Conrad

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Synchrotron Vacuum-Ultraviolet Postionization Mass Spectrometry with Laser and Ion Probes for Intact Molecular Spatial Mapping of Lignin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Biosynthesis of Lignin; Springer-Verlag: Berlin, 1968. (chemical imaging studies of lignin and related compounds.and Alkali and Organosolv Lignins with Synchrotron Vacuum-UV

Takahashi, Lynelle Kazue

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Molecular Evolution and Diversity of Lignin Degrading Heme Peroxidases in the Agaricomycetes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular Evolution and Diversity of Lignin Degrading Heme Peroxidases in the Agaricomycetes Ingo peroxidases, including the lignin degrading enzymes manganese per- oxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (Li Lignin peroxidase Á Versatile peroxidase Á Lignin degradation Á Agaricomycetes Á Fungi Introduction Heme

Hibbett, David S.

83

p-Hydroxyphenyl (H) Units Lower the Degree of Polymerization in Lignin: Chemical Control in Lignin Biosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

Lignin, composed predominantly of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) subunits, is a major component of plant cell walls that imparts resistance toward chemical and microbial deconstruction of plant biomass, rendering its conversion inefficient and costly. Previous studies have shown that alterating lignin composition, i.e., the relative abundance of H, G and S subunits, promises more efficient extraction of sugars from plant biomass. Smaller and less branched lignin chains are more easily extracted during pretreatment, making cellulose more readily degradable. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we show that the incorporation of H subunits into lignin via b-b and b-5 interunit linkages reduces the degree of polymerization in lignin. Frontier molecular orbital analyses of lignin dimers and trimers show that H as a terminal subunit on a growing lignin polymer linked via b-b and b-5 linkage cannot undergo radical formation, preventing further chain growth by endwise polymerization resulting in lignin polymers with lower degree of polymerization. These results indicate that, for endwise polymerization in lignin synthesis, there exists a chemical control that may lay a significant role in determining the structure of lignin.

Sangha, A. K.; Parks, J. M.; Davis, M. F.; Smith, J. C.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

A molecular mechanics force field for lignin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molecular Molecular Mechanics Force Field for Lignin LOUKAS PETRIDIS, JEREMY C. SMITH Center for Molecular Biophysics, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 Received 14 February 2008; Revised 8 May 2008; Accepted 12 June 2008 DOI 10.1002/jcc.21075 Published online 1 August 2008 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). Abstract: A CHARMM molecular mechanics force field for lignin is derived. Parameterization is based on reproducing quantum mechanical data of model compounds. Partial atomic charges are derived using the RESP electrostatic potential fitting method supplemented by the examination of methoxybenzene:water interactions. Dihedral parameters are optimized by fitting to critical rotational potentials and bonded parameters are obtained by optimizing vibrational frequencies and normal modes. Finally, the force field is validated

85

Pseudo-lignin formation and its impact on enzymatic hydrolysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

formation formation and its impact on enzymatic hydrolysis Fan Hu, Seokwon Jung, Arthur Ragauskas ⇑ BioEnergy Science Center, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 10th Street, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 21 November 2011 Received in revised form 5 April 2012 Accepted 10 April 2012 Available online 21 April 2012 Keywords: Poplar Pseudo-lignin Dilute acid pretreatment a-Cellulose Holocellulose a b s t r a c t Pseudo-lignin, which can be broadly defined as aromatic material that yields a positive Klason lignin value and is not derived from native lignin, has been recently reported to form during the dilute acid pre- treatment of poplar holocellulose. To investigate the chemistry of pseudo-lignin formation, GPC, FT-IR and 13 C NMR were utilized to characterize pseudo-lignin

86

Lignin Fast Pyrolysis: Results from an International Collaboration  

SciTech Connect

An international study of fast pyrolysis of lignin was undertaken. Fourteen laboratories in eight different countries contributed. Two lignin samples were distributed to the laboratories for analysis and bench-scale process testing in fast pyrolysis. Analyses included proximate and ultimate analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and analytical pyrolysis. The bench-scale test included bubbling fluidized bed reactors and entrained flow systems. Based on the results of the various analyses and tests it was concluded that a concentrated lignin (estimated at about 50% lignin and 50% cellulose) behaved like a typical biomass, producing a slightly reduced amount of a fairly typical bio-oil, while a purified lignin material was difficult to process in the fast pyrolysis reactors and produced a much lower amount of a different kind of bio-oil. It was concluded that for highly concentrated lignin feedstocks new reactor designs will be required other than the typical fluidized bed fast pyrolysis systems.

Nowakowski, Daniel J.; Bridgwater, Anthony V.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Meier, Dietrich; de Wild, Paul

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Bubble Coalescence DOI: 10.1002/anie.201006552  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bubble Coalescence DOI: 10.1002/anie.201006552 Anomalous Stability of Carbon Dioxide in pH-Controlled Bubble Coalescence** Rico F. Tabor, Derek Y. C. Chan, Franz Grieser, and Raymond R. Dagastine* Gas bubbles are formed as cavities in liquids, their pressure, shape, and deformability determined

Chan, Derek Y C

88

DECOMPOSITION OF LIGNIN AND CELLOBIOSE IN RELATION TO THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R. Wilke, "Studies of Lignin-Degrading Fungi and EnzymaticApril 1976). Kirk, T. Kent, "Lignin-degrading Enzyme System"and John M. Harkin, "Lignin Biodegradation and Bioconversion

Yamanaka, Y.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

New Engineered Materials from Biobased Plastics and Lignin .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The blending of lignin as a component in a thermoplastic blend poses a challenge in the form of dispersion and compatibility. Polyesters such as poly(lactic… (more)

Chen, Richard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Experimental Study of Mechanistic Acid Deconstruction of Lignin  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is a major component of biomass, which remains highly underutilized in selective biomass conversion strategies to renewable fuels and chemicals. Here we are interested in studying the mechanisms related to the acid deconstruction of lignin with a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Quantum mechanical calculations were employed to elucidate possible deconstruction mechanisms with transition state theory. Model dimers, imitating H, S, and G lignins, were synthesized with the most abundant {beta} - O - 4 linkage in lignin. These compounds were then depolymerized using various acids and at different operating conditions. The deconstruction products were analyzed to complement the QM studies and investigate proposed mechanisms.

Sturgeon, M.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Katahira, R.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Preparation and characterization of lignin-protein covalent linkages.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Lignin is a natural aromatic polymer that is bio-synthesized in the cell walls of almost all land plants. Great strides have been made in understanding… (more)

Diehl, Brett

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Determination of Structural Carbohydrates and Lignin in Biomass...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Determination of Structural Carbohydrates and Lignin in Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: April 2008 Revision Date: August 2012 (Version 08-03-2012) A....

93

NREL Overcomes Obstacles in Lignin Valorization (Fact Sheet)...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Going forward, this approach can be applied to many different types of biomass feedstocks and combined with a variety of strategies for breaking down lignin, engineering...

94

Phenomenological gravitational waveforms from spinning coalescing binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An accurate knowledge of the coalescing binary gravitational waveform is crucial for experimental searches as the ones performed by the LIGO-Virgo collaboration. Following an earlier paper by the same authors we refine the construction of analytical phenomenological waveforms describing the signal sourced by generically spinning binary systems. The gap between the initial inspiral part of the waveform, described by spin-Taylor approximants, and its final ring-down part, described by damped exponentials, is bridged by a phenomenological phase calibrated by comparison with the dominant spherical harmonic mode of a set of waveforms including both numerical and phenomenological waveforms of different type. All waveforms considered describe equal mass systems. The Advanced LIGO noise-weighted overlap integral between the numerical and phenomenological waveforms presented here ranges between 0.95 and 0.99 for a wide span of mass values.

R. Sturani; S. Fischetti; L. Cadonati; G. M. Guidi; J. Healy; D. Shoemaker; A. Vicere'

2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

95

Modification of lignin content and composition in plants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Plants and methods of preparing plants having reduced lignin content and/or altered lignin composition are provided. The activities of caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase and/or caffeic acid O-methyltransferase enzymes in the modified plants are reduced.

Ye, Zheng-Hua (Athens, GA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Catalytic Hydrolytic Cleavage and Oxy-Cleavage of Lignin Linkages  

SciTech Connect

In this work, new strategies involving organic bases were evaluated to depolymerize lignin to reduced molecular fragments in aqueous medium. NaOH as an inorganic base was also investigated as a reference. Full nature lignin samples are used for the study. As research tools to unravel the complexity of the macro lignin structure and bulky molecular size under this study, size exclusion chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometric analysis, typically used for protein characterizations, were used to follow the progress of lignin depolymerisation by measuring the molecular weight distribution of the products and determining the key molecular fingerprints, respectively. The results show that sodium phenoxide and guanidine carbonate are effective catalysts for lignin depolymerization. It is observed that there exists a synergism between H2O2 and the organic base, which is strongest with guanidine carbonate.

Xia, Guanguang; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Z. Conrad

2014-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

97

Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, is sponsoring a research and development program for the development of a real-time, in-situ sensor to measure the concentration of lignin in wood pulp. The program is composed of phase I showing feasibility which is now complete, phase II for development and testing of a Field Prototype, in progress, Phase III commercialization. Phase I work (funded entirely by B&W) demonstrated a correlation between the fluorescence intensity and lignin concentration (as measured by TAPPI procedure, T 236 hm-85 Kappa Number of Pulp) for undiluted wood pulp samples. In Phase II, a laboratory test program directed at characterizing the fluorescence of wood pulp has been conducted as a prelude to the design of a prototype sensor. The current report summarizes the testing completed in Phase I and documents the Phase II laboratory testing completed through December 1991. Future Phase II efforts include additional laboratory testing, design and fabrication of a prototype sensor, and field testing of the prototype sensor. Phase III of the program will concentrate on the incorporation of the sensor into a control system and commercialization of the sensor.

Malito, M.L.; Jeffers, L.A.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, is sponsoring a research and development program for the development of a real-time, in-situ sensor to measure the concentration of lignin in wood pulp. The program is composed of phase I showing feasibility which is now complete, phase II for development and testing of a Field Prototype, in progress, Phase III commercialization. Phase I work (funded entirely by B W) demonstrated a correlation between the fluorescence intensity and lignin concentration (as measured by TAPPI procedure, T 236 hm-85 Kappa Number of Pulp) for undiluted wood pulp samples. In Phase II, a laboratory test program directed at characterizing the fluorescence of wood pulp has been conducted as a prelude to the design of a prototype sensor. The current report summarizes the testing completed in Phase I and documents the Phase II laboratory testing completed through December 1991. Future Phase II efforts include additional laboratory testing, design and fabrication of a prototype sensor, and field testing of the prototype sensor. Phase III of the program will concentrate on the incorporation of the sensor into a control system and commercialization of the sensor.

Malito, M.L.; Jeffers, L.A.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

The influence of surface tension gradients on drop coalescence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the results of a combined experimental and numerical investigation of the coalescence of a drop with a liquid reservoir of a miscible but distinct fluid. Particular attention is given to elucidating the influence ...

Bush, John W. M.

100

Coalescence of bubbles and drops in an outer fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When two liquid drops touch, a microscopic connecting liquid bridge forms and rapidly grows as the two drops merge into one. Whereas coalescence has been thoroughly studied when drops coalesce in vacuum or air, many important situations involve coalescence in a dense surrounding fluid, such as oil coalescence in brine. Here we study the merging of gas bubbles and liquid drops in an external fluid. Our data indicate that the flows occur over much larger length scales in the outer fluid than inside the drops themselves. Thus we find that the asymptotic early regime is always dominated by the viscosity of the drops, independent of the external fluid. A phase diagram showing the crossovers into the different possible late-time dynamics identifies a dimensionless number that signifies when the external viscosity can be important.

Joseph D. Paulsen; Rémi Carmigniani; Anerudh Kannan; Justin C. Burton; Sidney R. Nagel

2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Modeling of crack initiation, propagation and coalescence in rocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural or artificial fracturing of rock plays a very important role in geologic processes and for engineered structures in and on rock. Fracturing is associated with crack initiation, propagation and coalescence, which ...

Gonçalves da Silva, Bruno Miguel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Producing a True Lignin Depolymerase for Biobleaching Softwood Kraft Pulp  

SciTech Connect

This project constituted an intensive effort devoted to producing, from the white-rot fungus Tramets Cingulata, a lignin degrading enzyme (lignin depolymerase) that is directly able to biobleach or delignify softwood kraft pulp brownstock. To this end, the solutions in which T. cingulata was grown contained dissolved kraft lignin which fulfilled two functions; it behaved as a lignin deploymerase substrate and it also appeared to act as an inducer of enzyme expression. However, the lignin depolymerase isoenzymes (and other extracellular T. cingulata enzymes) interacted very strongly with both the kraft lignin components and the fungal hypae, so the isolating these proteins from the culture solutions proved to be unexpectedly difficult. Even after extensive experimentation with a variety of protein purification techniques, only one approach appeared to be capable of purifying lignin depolymerases to homogeneity. Unfortunately the procedure was extremely laborious; it involved the iso electric focusing of concentrated buffer-exchanged culture solutions followed by electro-elution of the desired protein bands from the appropriate polyacrylamide gel segments

Simo Sarkanen

2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

103

Catalytic C-O Bond Cleavage of 2-Aryloxy-1-arylethanols and Its Application to the Depolymerization of Lignin-Related Polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5) For variations in lignin structure, see: (a) Bunzel, M. ;of native milled wood lignin isolated from M. giganteusas applications to natural lignin and other model systems.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Cellulase-lignin interactions in the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Lignin, a major non-carbohydrate polymer in lignocellulosic plant biomass, restricts the action of hydrolytic enzymes in the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Non-productive enzyme adsorption… (more)

Rahikainen, Jenni

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Sandia National Laboratories: "Bionic" Liquids from Lignin: Joint...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy and ClimateECEnergyRenewable EnergyBiofuels"Bionic" Liquids from Lignin: Joint BioEnergy Institute Results Pave the Way for Closed-Loop Biofuel Refineries "Bionic" Liquids...

106

Molecular simulation as a tool for studying lignin  

SciTech Connect

Lignocellulosic biomass provides a sustainable source of sugars for biofuel and biomaterial production. However, biomass resistance to degradation imposes difficulties for economical conversion of plant carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. One of the key contributors to recalcitrance is lignin. Understanding the properties of lignin macromolecules in the cell wall matrix is useful for manipulating biomass structure to generate more easily degradable biomass. Along with experimental techniques such as 2D-NMR and mass spectrometry, computational techniques can be useful for characterizing the structural and energetic properties of the biomass assembly and its individual constituents. Here, we provide a brief introduction to lignin, review some of the recent, relevant scientific literature, and give our perspectives on the role of molecular simulation in understanding lignin structure.

Sangha, Amandeep K [ORNL; Petridis, Loukas [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Ziebell, Angela L [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Lignin valorization through integrated biological funneling and chemical catalysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...catalytic upgrading. There is significant versatility and modularity in each step, enabling adaptation to different biomass feedstocks and desired fuel and chemical portfolios, thus holding promise toward industrial application. Namely, lignin depolymerization...

Jeffrey G. Linger; Derek R. Vardon; Michael T. Guarnieri; Eric M. Karp; Glendon B. Hunsinger; Mary Ann Franden; Christopher W. Johnson; Gina Chupka; Timothy J. Strathmann; Philip T. Pienkos; Gregg T. Beckham

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Hydrothermal Processing of Lignin for Bio-crude Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. There are a wide range of biomass feedstocks on the globe that can be converted through a variety of technologies of the biomass feedstock when the reactor was at the desired conditions. HTL conversion of Alkali lignin produced

Toor, Saqib

109

NREL Overcomes Obstacles in Lignin Valorization (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This NREL Highlight is being produced for the 2015 February Alliance S&T Board meeting, and describes research that shows lignin can be converted into renewable fuels, chemicals, and materials.

Not Available

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Sorption properties of technical lignins. III. IR-spectral investigation of the sorption capacity of technical lignins and their derivatives in relation to bile acids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It has been established by IR-spectral investigations that the sorption of bile acids by technical lignins takes...

G. N. Dalimova; É. L. Kristallovich

111

Plants with modified lignin content and methods for production thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides methods for decreasing lignin content and for increasing the level of fermentable carbohydrates in plants by down-regulation of the NST transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of NST are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise reduced lignin content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops. Methods for processing plant tissue and for producing ethanol by utilizing such plants are also provided.

Zhao, Qiao; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

112

Label-free in situ imaging of lignification in the cell wall of low lignin transgenic Populus trichocarpa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the cell wall of low lignin transgenic Populus trichocarpaand 1,700 cm ¡1 , diVerences in lignin signal intensity andSpatial heterogeneity in the lignin composition, in particu-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Photochemical and microbial degradation of dissolved lignin phenols: Implications for the fate of terrigenous dissolved organic matter in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photochemical and microbial degradation of dissolved lignin phenols: Implications for the fate level characterizations of dissolved lignin were conducted in Mississippi River plume waters to study degradation were the primary factors affecting lignin concentrations. At salinities >25 psu, photooxidation

Hernes, Peter J.

114

Synchrotron Vacuum-Ultraviolet Postionization Mass Spectrometry with Laser and Ion Probes for Intact Molecular Spatial Mapping of Lignin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alcohol and Alkali and Organosolv Lignins with SynchrotronAlcohol and Alkali and Organosolv Lignins with Synchrotronof ~6.6 MW/cm 2 , (b) organosolv lignin (Sigma Aldrich)

Takahashi, Lynelle Kazue

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Pyrolysis of lignin for phenols with alkaline additive  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study is devoted to investigating the effect of alkaline additives on lignin pyrolysis for producing phenols. The effects of different types and amounts of alkaline additives, i.e., 0–20 wt.% NaOH, KOH, Na2CO3 or K2CO3, on lignin pyrolysis were tested in a fixed bed reactor. The chemicals in the pyrolysis liquid from a commercial alkali lignin with and without alkaline additive were mainly phenols including 2-methoxy-phenol, 2,6-dimethoxy-phenol, alkyl-phenols (free of methoxyl group) and 2-methoxy-4-alkyl-phenols. More vanillin and dimethoxy-benzene appeared in the pyrolysis liquid of alkali lignin and lignin purified from black liquor, respectively. While carbonate additives facilitated the production of methxoy-phenols, more alkyl-phenols were formed with the hydroxide additives. Analysis showed that all the alkaline additives promoted the reactions of decarboxylation or decarbonylation and the removal of unsaturated alkyl branch chains. The strong alkalescence of NaOH and KOH facilitated more deoxygenation of methoxyl groups so that there were more phenols free of methoxyl groups. The pyrolysis of PL resulted in the liquid yields of up to 30 wt.% (dry base), and the content of phenols was above 80% in the liquid.

Cuina Peng; Guangyi Zhang; Junrong Yue; Guangwen Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Realistic event rates for detection of supermassive black hole coalescence by LISA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......maximum coalescence rate for major SMBH mergers...phase. black hole physics|gravitational waves...SMBH coalescence rate depend crucially...interactions with stars that pass within r of the BBH...of our coalescence rate, our calculation...do not assume the physics leading to the absence......

Kirsty J. Rhook; J. Stuart B. Wyithe

2005-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

117

The influence of surface tension gradients on drop coalescence Franois Blanchette,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The influence of surface tension gradients on drop coalescence François Blanchette,1 Laura Messio,2 to elucidating the influence on the coalescence process of a surface tension difference between drop coalescence may occur. Three distinct regimes, depending on the reservoir to drop surface tension ratio, R

Bush, John W.M.

118

Evidence for Complex Molecular Architectures for Solvent-Extracted Lignins  

SciTech Connect

Lignin, an abundant, naturally occurring biopolymer, is often considered 'waste' and used as a simple fuel source in the paper-making process. However, lignin has emerged as a promising renewable resource for engineering materials, such as carbon fibers. Unfortunately, the molecular architecture of lignin (in vivo and extracted) is still elusive, with numerous conflicting reports in the literature, and knowledge of this structure is extremely important, not only for materials technologies, but also for production of biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol due to biomass recalcitrance. As such, the molecular structures of solvent-extracted (sulfur-free) lignins, which have been modified using various acyl chlorides, have been probed using small-angle X-ray (SAXS) and neutron (SANS) scattering in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution along with hydrodynamic characterization using dilute solution viscometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) in THF. Mass spectrometry shows an absolute molecular weight {approx}18-30 kDa ({approx}80-140 monomers), while GPC shows a relative molecular weight {approx}3 kDa. A linear styrene oligomer (2.5 kDa) was also analyzed in THF using SANS. Results clearly show that lignin molecular architectures are somewhat rigid and complex, ranging from nanogels to hyperbranched macromolecules, not linear oligomers or physical assemblies of oligomers, which is consistent with previously proposed delignification (extraction) mechanisms. Future characterization using the methods discussed here can be used to guide extraction processes as well as genetic engineering technologies to convert lignin into value added materials with the potential for high positive impact on global sustainability.

Rials, Timothy G [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Langan, Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Investigation of Lignin Deposition on Cellulose During Hydrothermal Pretreatment, Its Effect on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigation of Lignin Deposition on Cellulose During Hydrothermal Pretreatment, Its Effect Ridge, Tennessee ABSTRACT: In dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, lignin has been shown formed by hydrothermal pretreatment of a mixture of Avicel cellulose and poplar wood showed that lignin

California at Riverside, University of

120

Enhanced Expression and Hydrogen Peroxide Dependence of Lignin Peroxidase from Streptomyces viridosporus T7A  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Enhanced Expression and Hydrogen Peroxide Dependence of Lignin Peroxidase from Streptomyces of Streptomyces viridosporus T7A lignin peroxidase isoform ALiP-P3 were increased by formulating a novel corn analysis. In addition, the lignin peroxidase activity was found to be highly dependent upon

Wood, Thomas K.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Studies on a brittle stem mutant of rice, Oryza sativa L. ; characterization of lignin fractions,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies on a brittle stem mutant of rice, Oryza sativa L. ; characterization of lignin fractions 78850 Thiverva!-Grignon SUMMARY Lignin fractions, associated p-coumaric and ferulic acids and polysaccharides have been characterized in the straw and in three lignin fractions isolated from the rice cultivar

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

122

Early diagenesis of carbohydrates and lignin in mangrove sediments subject to variable redox  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Early diagenesis of carbohydrates and lignin in mangrove sediments subject to variable redox Abstract A comparative study of lignin and neutral carbohydrate compositions, combined with C, N and 13C and lignin in brackish to hypersaline fine-grained mangrove sediments characterized by great changes in redox

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

123

Lignin-degrading peroxidases in Polyporales: an evolutionary survey based on 10 sequenced genomes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lignin-degrading peroxidases in Polyporales: an evolutionary survey based on 10 sequenced genomes genes from the manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP) and versatile peroxidase (VP. Incorporation of an exposed tryptophan residue involved in oxidative degradation of lignin in a short Mn

Hibbett, David S.

124

Lignin degradation in wood-feeding insects Scott M. Geib*, Timothy R. Filley  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lignin degradation in wood-feeding insects Scott M. Geib*, Timothy R. Filley , Patrick G. Hatcher, Deerfield, WI, and approved July 7, 2008 (received for review May 30, 2008) The aromatic polymer lignin lignocellulose degraded passes through arthropod guts, the fate of lignin in these systems is not known. Using

125

Effect of Xylan and Lignin Removal by Batch and Flowthrough Pretreatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of Xylan and Lignin Removal by Batch and Flowthrough Pretreatment on the Enzymatic understand these trade-offs, comparative data are reported on xylan and lignin removal and enzymatic with just water enhanced the xylan dissolution rate, more than doubled total lignin removal, and increased

California at Riverside, University of

126

2,4-Dichlorophenol Degradation Using Streptomyces viridosporus T7A Lignin Peroxidase  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2,4-Dichlorophenol Degradation Using Streptomyces viridosporus T7A Lignin Peroxidase Dennis C. Yee, California 92697-2575 The Streptomyces viridosporus T7A bacterium produces the extracellular lignin from the ping- pong bireactant system that is typically used for horseradish peroxidase and lignin

Wood, Thomas K.

127

Influence de la teneur en lignines des aliments sur la composition des digesta et la production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Note Influence de la teneur en lignines des aliments sur la composition des digesta et la essentiellement par leur teneur en lignines Van Soest : 7,4 ; 12,8 et 16 p. 100. Les contenus de l'estomac, de l trois heures, durant 24 heures. L'accroissement de la teneur en lignines des aliments augmente la teneur

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

128

Author's personal copy Fate of CuO-derived lignin oxidation products during plant combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Author's personal copy Fate of CuO-derived lignin oxidation products during plant combustion natural chars originating from combustion of angiosperm/gymnosperm and woody/non-woody plants. The lignin to study the impact of combustion on lignins and their commonly used parameters. Our results show

Louchouarn, Patrick

129

A comparative genomic analysis of the oxidative enzymes potentially involved in lignin degradation by Agaricus bisporus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A comparative genomic analysis of the oxidative enzymes potentially involved in lignin degradation an important role in lignin degradation. On the other hand, the expression patterns of the related CROs suggest of the global carbon cycle. This substrate is composed of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose and is degraded

Fried, Jeremy S.

130

Lignin biomarkers as tracers of mercury sources in lakes water column  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lignin biomarkers as tracers of mercury sources in lakes water column Jean-Franc¸ois Ouellet � Marc the autochthonous from the allochthonous organic matter (OM), lignin derived biomarker signa- tures [Lambda, S/V, C/V, P/(V ? S), 3,5-Bd/V and (Ad/Al)v] were used. Since lignin is exclusively produced by terrigenous

Long, Bernard

131

A Tomato Peroxidase Involved in the Synthesis of Lignin and Suberin1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Tomato Peroxidase Involved in the Synthesis of Lignin and Suberin1 Mo´nica Quiroga, Consuelo´laga, Spain (A.B.) The last step in the synthesis of lignin and suberin has been proposed to be catalyzed in the synthesis of lignin and suberin, five peroxidases from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) roots, representing

Málaga, Universidad de

132

Radiocarbon Dating of Individual Lignin Phenols: A New Approach for Establishing Chronology of Late  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiocarbon Dating of Individual Lignin Phenols: A New Approach for Establishing Chronology of Late- ered to sediments. We demonstrate that lignin phenols isolated from lake sediments using reversed phase for establishing chronology during the late Quaternary. We developed a procedure to purify lignin phenols, building

Hu, Feng Sheng

133

Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil Kristen M. DeAngelis1 Abstract Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents

Hazen, Terry

134

Rumen microbial degradation of modified lignin plants observed by electron microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rumen microbial degradation of modified lignin plants observed by electron microscopy C Mign6, E-Genès-Champanelle, France The microbial degradation of modified lignin tobacco (Samson variety) plants (homozygous line 40 to the corresponding cinnamyl alcohols which are the direct monomeric precursors of the lignin. Only the stems were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

135

Stability of Supported Ruthenium Catalysts for Lignin Gasification in Supercritical Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

However, low-temperature methods for lignin gasification are desirable, because waste heat available from high-temperature processes in industry can be utilized for energy generation.1 ... The gasification of lignin proceeded in supercritical water, and all lignin was gasified completely over Ru/TiO2 after 180 min during the first use. ... water for gasification technique of wastes. ...

Mitsumasa Osada; Osamu Sato; Kunio Arai; Masayuki Shirai

2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

136

Syringyl Lignin Is Unaltered by Severe Sinapyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Suppression in Tobacco  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...lignification-related CAD genes showing large increases in sinapaldehyde in lignin...Medicago sativa]). To increase the chances of ultimately amplifying...Manipulation of lignin quality by down-regulation of cinnamyl...plants with antisense CAD gene: Wine-red lignin from coniferyl...

Abdellah Barakate; Jennifer Stephens; Alison Goldie; William N. Hunter; David Marshall; Robert D. Hancock; Catherine Lapierre; Kris Morreel; Wout Boerjan; Claire Halpin

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

137

Lignin-derived thermoplastic co-polymers and methods of preparation  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a crosslinked lignin comprising a lignin structure having methylene or ethylene linking groups therein crosslinking between phenyl ring carbon atoms, wherein said crosslinked lignin is crosslinked to an extent that it has a number-average molecular weight of at least 10,000 g/mol, is melt-processible, and has either a glass transition temperature of at least 100.degree. C., or is substantially soluble in a polar organic solvent or aqueous alkaline solution. Thermoplastic copolymers containing the crosslinked lignin are also described. Methods for producing the crosslinked lignin and thermoplastic copolymers are also described.

Naskar, Amit K.; Saito, Tomonori; Pickel, Joseph M.; Baker, Frederick S.; Eberle, Claude Clifford; Norris, Robert E.; Mielenz, Jonathan Richard

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

138

PII S0016-7037(99)00100-3 Lignin biomarkers and pollen in postglacial sediments of an Alaskan lake  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PII S0016-7037(99)00100-3 Lignin biomarkers and pollen in postglacial sediments of an Alaskan lake of lignin polymers and compared their composition with pollen data from the same core to assess lignin from lignin-phenol composition agree with vegetational reconstructions based on pollen assemblages

Hu, Feng Sheng

139

Structural analysis of lignin-derived carbon composite anodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignin-based carbon composite anodes consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous domains are studied to develop a relationship of structural properties such as crystallite size, intracrystallite d spacing, crystalline volume fraction and composite density with their pair distribution functions, as obtained from both molecular dynamics simulation and neutron scattering.

McNutt, N.W.

2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

140

Bio-inspired MOF-based Catalysts for Lignin Valorization.  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is a potentially plentiful source of renewable organics, with ~50Mtons/yr produced by the pulp/paper industry and 200-300 Mtons/yr projected production by a US biofuels industry. This industry must process approximately 1 billion tons of biomass to meet the US Renewable Fuel goals. However, there are currently no efficient processes for converting lignin to value-added chemicals and drop-in fuels. Lignin is therefore an opportunity for production of valuable renewable chemicals, but presents staggering technical and economic challenges due to the quantities of material involved and the strong chemical bonds comprising this polymer. Aggressive chemistries and high temperatures are required to degrade lignin without catalysts. Moreover, chemical non-uniformity among lignins leads to complex product mixtures that tend to repolymerize. Conventional petrochemical approaches (pyrolysis, catalytic cracking, gasification) are energy intensive (400-800 degC), require complicated separations, and remove valuable chemical functionality. Low-temperature (25-200 degC) alternatives are clearly desirable, but enzymes are thermally fragile and incompatible with liquid organic compounds, making them impractical for large-scale biorefining. Alternatively, homogeneous catalysts, such as recently developed vanadium complexes, must be separated from product mixtures, while many heterogenous catalysts involve costly noble metals. The objective of this project is to demonstrate proof of concept that an entirely new class of biomimetic, efficient, and industrially robust synthetic catalysts based on nanoporous Metal- Organic Frameworks (MOFs) can be developed. Although catalytic MOFs are known, catalysis of bond cleavage reactions needed for lignin degradation is completely unexplored. Thus, fundamental research is required that industry and most sponsoring agencies are currently unwilling to undertake. We introduce MOFs infiltrated with titanium and nickel species as catalysts for the C-O bond hydrogenolysis in model compounds, which mimic the b-O-4, a-O-4, and 4-O-5 linkages of natural lignin. The versatile IRMOF-74(n) series is proposed as a platform for creating efficient hydrogenolysis catalysts as it not only displays tunable pore sizes, but also has the required thermal and chemical stability. The catalytic C-O bond cleavage occurs at 10 bar hydrogen pressure and temperatures as low as 120 degC. The conversion efficiency of the aromatic ether substrates into the corresponding hydrocarbons and phenols varies as PhCH 2 CH 2 OPh > PhCH 2 OPh > PhOPh (Ph = phenyl), while the catalytic activity generally follows the following trend Ni%40IRMOF-74>Ti%40IRMOF-74>IRMOF-74. Conversions as high as 80%, coupled with good selectivity for hydrogenolysis vs. hydrogenation, highlight the potential of MOF-based catalysts for the selective cleavage of recalcitrant aryl-ether bonds found in lignin and other biopolymers. This project supports the DOE Integrated Biorefinery Program goals, the objective of which is to convert biomass to fuels and high-value chemicals, by addressing an important technology gap: the lack of low-temperature catalysts suitable for industrial lignin degradation. Biomass, which is ~30 wt% lignin, constitutes a potentially major source of platform chemicals that could improve overall profitability and productivity of all energy-related products, thereby benefiting consumers and reducing national dependence on imported oil. Additionally, DoD has a strong interest in low-cost drop-in fuels (Navy Biofuel Initiative) and has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with DOE and USDA to develop a sustainable biofuels industry.

Allendorf, Mark D.; Stavila, Vitalie; Ramakrishnan, Parthasarathi; Davis, Ryan Wesley

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Fractionation of five technical lignins by selective extraction in green solvents and characterisation of isolated fractions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lignins from softwood, hardwood, grass and wheat straw were fractionated by selective extraction at ambient temperature using green solvents like acetone/water solutions of 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90% (v/v) acetone and ethyl acetate. A comparison between the isolated fractions and unfractionated lignins was made in terms of extraction yield, lignin solubility factor, molecular weight distribution and functional group composition. Low molecular weight (LMW) lignin fractions with narrow dispersity are obtained by extraction with ethyl acetate and acetone–water solution containing 30% acetone, with yields depending on the type and the functional group content of lignins. A significant amount (56%) of the organosolv hardwood lignin with low molecular weight (Mw = 1868 g/mol) and low dispersity was isolated from ethyl acetate. Insoluble fractions with very high molecular weight (Mw between 10 and 17 kg/mol) are obtained in low yield from acetone–water solutions with 50, 70 and 90% acetone. LMW lignins are in general less condensed and have lower aliphatic hydroxyl content than parent lignins while the HMW fractions have a higher content of condensed hydroxyls. Principal component analysis on the chemical composition of lignins and isolated fractions determined from 31P NMR data showed the high heterogeneity of the technical lignins. Partial least squares models based on FT-IR spectral data were developed to predict the functional group content determined by quantitative 31P NMR analysis of technical lignins and lignin fractions. This approach can be used to develop simple, rapid and accurate analytical tools to monitor and control the selective fractionation of lignin.

Carmen G. Boeriu; Firu?a I. Fi?ig?u; Richard J.A. Gosselink; August E. Frissen; Jan Stoutjesdijk; Francisc Peter

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Turning Renewable Resources into Recyclable Polymer: Development of Lignin-Based Thermoplastic  

SciTech Connect

Productive uses of lignin, the third most abundant natural polymer, have been sought for decades. One especially attractive possibility is that of developing value-added products including thermoplastics based on lignin. This possibility warrants special attention due to growth of the modern biofuel industries. However, the polydisperse molecular weight and hyper-branched structure of lignin has hindered the creation of high-performance biopolymers. Here, we report the preparation and characterization of novel lignin-based, partially carbon-neutral thermoplastics. We first altered the molecular weight of lignin, either by fractionation with methanol, or by formaldehyde crosslinking. A crosslinking of lignin increases the molecular weight, exhibiting Mn = 31000 g/mol, whereas that of native lignin is 1840 g/mol. Tuning the molecular weight of lignin enabled successful preparation of novel lignin-derived thermoplastics, when coupled with telechelic polybutadiene soft-segments at proper feed ratios. Characteristic to thermoplastic rubbers, free-standing films of the resulting copolymers exhibit two-phase morphology and associated relaxations in the dynamic mechanical loss spectrum. To our knowledge this article is the first report to demonstrate phase immiscibility, melt-processibility, and biphasic morphology of soft and hard segments in a lignin-based copolymer for all feed ratios of two macromolecular components. The use of higher molecular weight lignin enhanced the resulting shear modulus due to efficient network formation of telechelic polybutadiene bridges. The storage modulus in the rubbery plateau region increased with increasing lignin content. The successful synthesis of novel lignin-based thermoplastics will open a new pathway to biomass utilization and will help conserve petrochemicals.

Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Brown, Rebecca H [ORNL; Hunt, Marcus A [ORNL; Pickel, Deanna L [ORNL; Pickel, Joseph M [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL; Keller, Martin [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Adaptive filters for detection of gravitational waves from coalescing binaries  

SciTech Connect

In this work we propose use of infinite impulse response adaptive line enhancer (IIR ALE) filters for detection of gravitational waves from coalescing binaries. We extend our previous work and define an adaptive matched filter structure. Filter performance is analyzed in terms of the tracking capability and determination of filter parameters. Furthermore, following the Neyman-Pearson strategy, receiver operating characteristics are derived, with closedform expressions for detection threshold, false alarm, and detection probability. Extensive tests demonstrate the effectiveness of adaptive filters both in terms of small computational cost and robustness.

Eleuteri, Antonio; Milano, Leopoldo; De Rosa, Rosario; Garufi, Fabio; Acernese, Fausto; Barone, Fabrizio; Giordano, Lara; Pardi, Silvio [Dip. di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli 'Federico II', via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy) and INFN sez. Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Dip. di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita di Salerno, via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano (Saudi Arabia) (IT) and INFN sez. Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Dip. di Matematica ed Applicazioni, Universita di Napoli 'Federico II', via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy) and INFN sez. Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy)

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

144

Synthesis and Characterization of Transition Metal Complexes Useful for the Catalytic Deconstruction of Lignin  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is an earth-abundant biopolymer that is grossly underutilized as a source of fuels and value-added chemicals. However, lignin is an intractable heteropolymer, which makes it difficult to deconstruct and upgrade in many chemically selective biomass conversion routes. The development of new catalytic routes to depolymerize this recalcitrant biopolymer is required to more effectively utilize lignin. To that end, our group aims to synthesize and characterize a collection of inorganic and organometallic catalysts to promote atom-economical catalytic lignin depolymerization. These catalysts have been screened against a continuum of model compounds and biomass-derived lignin for their usefulness in the deconstruction of these substrates. In addition, we have coupled our experimental efforts with quantum mechanical calculations to elucidate the mechanisms of catalysts to identify the mechanisms of lignin depolymerization. Detailed synthetic procedures, as well as spectroscopic and crystallographic characterization and DFT calculations will be presented.

Chmely, S. C.; Kim, S.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Mechanistic Study of the Acid Degradation of Lignin Model Compounds  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is a major constituent of biomass, which remains underutilized in selective biomass conversion strategies to renewable fuels and chemicals. Here we are interested in understanding the mechanisms related to the acid deconstruction of lignin with a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Two model dimers with a b-O-4 aryl ether linkage (2-phenoxy-1-phenethanol and 2-phenoxy-1-phenyl-1,3 propanediol) and model dimmers with an a-O-4 aryl ether linkage were synthesized and deconstructed in H2SO4. The major products of the acidolysis of the b-O-4 compounds consisted of phenol and two aldehydes, phenylacetaldehyde and benzaldehyde. Quantum mechanical calculations were employed to elucidate possible deconstruction mechanisms with transition state theory. To confirm proposed mechanisms several possible intermediates were studied under similar acidolysis conditions. Although the resonance time for cleavage was on the order several hours, we have shown that the cleavage of the aryl ether linkage affords phenol and aldehydes. We would next like to utilize our mechanism of aryl ether cleavage in actual lignin.

Sturgeon, M.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Electrostatic coalescence system with independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved electrostatic coalescence system is provided in which independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes are employed to provide more complete dehydration of an oil emulsion. The AC field is produced between an AC electrode array and the water-oil interface wherein the AC electrode array is positioned parallel to the interface which acts as a grounded electrode. The emulsion is introduced into the AC field in an evenly distributed manner at the interface. The AC field promotes drop-drop and drop-interface coalescence of the water phase in the entering emulsion. The continuous oil phase passes upward through the perforated AC electrode array and enters a strong DC field produced between closely spaced DC electrodes in which small dispersed droplets of water entrained in the continuous phase are removed primarily by collection at hydrophilic DC electrodes. Large droplets of water collected by the electrodes migrate downward through the AC electrode array to the interface. All phase separation mechanisms are utilized to accomplish more complete phase separation.

Hovarongkura, A. David (Arlington, VA); Henry, Jr., Joseph D. (Morgantown, WV)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Revue sur les mthodes de dosage de la lignine utilises en alimentation animale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Revue sur les méthodes de dosage de la lignine utilisées en alimentation animale Sylvie GIGER I 75231 Paris Cedex 05 Résumé La lignine est un composé pariétal de nature non glucidique dont la lignine dans le contexte de l'alimentation animale sont rares. Avec les données actuellement disponibles

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

148

Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

DeAngelis, Kristen; Allgaier, Martin; Chavarria, Yaucin; Fortney, Julian; Hugenholtz, Phillip; Simmons, Blake; Sublette, Kerry; Silver, Whendee; Hazen, Terry

2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

149

Characterization of trapped lignin-degrading microbes in tropical forest soil  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

DeAngelis, K.M.; Allgaier, M.; Chavarria, Y.; Fortney, J.L.; Hugenholz, P.; Simmons, B.; Sublette, K.; Silver, W.L.; Hazen, T.C.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Utilisation digestive de rations riches en lignines chez le lapin en croissance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Utilisation digestive de rations riches en lignines chez le lapin en croissance: mesures de flux et digestion de la ration sont mal connus chez le lapin. L'effet de hautes teneurs en lignines sur la digestion), caractérisé essentiellement par sa teneur variable en lignines VAN SOEST: 7,4 (lot B) ; 12,8 (lot M) et 16,0 p

Boyer, Edmond

151

Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

DeAngelis, Kristen M.; Allgaier, Martin; Chavarria, Yaucin; Fortney, Julian L.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Simmons, Blake A.; Sublette, Kerry; Silver, Whendee; Hazen, Terry C.

2011-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

152

On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method. 6 figs.

Jeffers, L.A.; Malito, M.L.

1996-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

153

Novel seed coat lignins in the Cactaceae: structure, distribution and implications for the evolution of lignin diversity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

12 12 © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd Received Date : 08-Jul-2012 Revised Date : 30-Aug-2012 Accepted Date : 03-Sep-2012 Article type : Original Article Novel seed coat lignins in the Cactaceae: structure, distribution and implications for the evolution of lignin diversity Fang Chen, 1,3* Yuki Tobimatsu, 2, Lisa Jackson, 1 John Ralph, 2,4 and Richard A. Dixon 1,3* 1 Plant Biology Division, Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, OK 73401, USA; 2 Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Enzyme Institute, 1710 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53726, USA; 3 DOE Bioenergy Sciences Center, Oak Ridge, TN, USA; 4 DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Madison, WI, and Wisconsin Bioenergy

154

LIGNIN UNLOCKING PROCESS IN WOOD-FEEDING TERMITES FOR EFFECTIVE BIOMASS SUGAR RELEASE .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study explored a unique lignin unlocking process in wood-feeding termite (WFT) Coptotermes formosanus (Shiraki) for subsequent effective polysaccharide utilization during the digestion of woody… (more)

[No author

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Lignin biosynthesis in Norway spruce: from a model system to the tree.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Lignin is a hydrophobic polymer that is synthesised in the secondary cell walls of all vascular plants. It enables water conduction through the stem, supports… (more)

Koutaniemi, Sanna

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Optimizing Noncovalent Interactions Between Lignin and Synthetic Polymers to Develop Effective Compatibilizers  

SciTech Connect

Experiments are designed and completed to identify an effective polymeric compatibilizer for lignin polystyrene blends. Copolymers of styrene and vinylphenol are chosen as the structure of the compatibilizer as the VPh unit can readily form intermolecular hydrogen bonds with the lignin molecule. Electron microscopy, thermal analysis, and neutron refl ectivity results demonstrate that among these compatibilizers, a copolymer of styrene and VPh with 20% 30% VPh most readily forms intermolecular interactions with the lignin molecule and results in the most well-dispersed blends with lignin. This behavior is explained by invoking the competition of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding and functional group accessibility in forming intermolecular interactions.

Henry, Nathan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Harper, David [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), Center for Renewable Carbon; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Deciphering the Enigma of Lignification: Precursor Transport, Oxidation, and the Topochemistry of Lignin Assembly  

SciTech Connect

Plant lignification is a tightly regulated complex cellular process that occurs via three sequential steps: the synthesis of monolignols within the cytosol; the transport of monomeric precursors across plasma membrane; and the oxidative polymerization of monolignols to form lignin macromolecules within the cell wall. Although we have a reasonable understanding of monolignol biosynthesis, many aspects of lignin assembly remain elusive. These include the precursors transport and oxidation, and the initiation of lignin polymerization. This review describes our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying monolignol transport and oxidation, discusses the intriguing yet least-understood aspects of lignin assembly, and highlights the technologies potentially aiding in clarifying the enigma of plant lignification.

Liu C. J.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Lignin dynamics in arable soils as determined by 13C natural abundance.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Lignin is the second most abundant polymer in nature after the polysaccharides cellulose and hemicellulose. It is a main component in plant cell walls, where… (more)

Hofmann, A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Effect of raw material and Kraft Pulping Conditions on Characteristics of Dissolved Lignin.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Lignin is one of the main components in wood and during the chemical pulping processes it is degraded and dissolved into the cooking liquor.… (more)

Svärd, Antonia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Lignin as Both Fuel and Fusing Binder in Briquetted Anthracite Fines for Foundry Coke Substitute.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Lignin that had been extracted from Kraft black liquor was investigated as a fusing binder in briquetted anthracite fines for a foundry coke substitute. Cupola… (more)

Lumadue, Matthew

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Forest Biomass and Lignocellulosic Materials Forest-derived biopolymers lignin and cellulose  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Forest Biomass and Lignocellulosic Materials Forest-derived biopolymers lignin and cellulose of sustainable products such as nanocellulose and biocomposites from forest biomass; biorefining to develop high

Li, Mo

162

Heat–transfer effects of coalescence of bubbles from various site distributions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...October 2003 research-article Heat-transfer effects of coalescence of bubbles...FL 32611, USA A boiling-heat-transfer study with controlled coalescence...data-acquisition system, we found that the heat-transfer enhancement rate becomes higher...

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Scaling law in liquid drop coalescence driven by surface tension Mingming Wua)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scaling law in liquid drop coalescence driven by surface tension Mingming Wua) Department experimental results on the coalescence of two liquid drops driven by surface tension. Using a high speed that such scaling law is robust when using fluids of different viscosities and surface tensions. The prefactor

Cubaud, Thomas

164

ABSORPTION TIME AND TREE LENGTH OF THE KINGMAN COALESCENT AND THE GUMBEL DIS-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSORPTION TIME AND TREE LENGTH OF THE KINGMAN COALESCENT AND THE GUMBEL DIS- TRIBUTION M. M¨ohle1 to revisit the moments and central moments of the classical Gumbel distribution. Keywords: absorption time of coalescent processes (restricted to a sample of size n N) such as the number of jumps, the absorption time

Möhle, Martin

165

Updraft Gasification at Pilot Scale of Hydrolytic Lignin Residue  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air at a low equivalence ratio was used as gasification medium. ... Air, oxygen, steam, or mixes of these can be used as gasification media; the gas flow is introduced at the bottom of the gasifier under the grate. ... The coalescence is achieved by means of cartridges of silicate of 0.3 m × 0.07 m in size placed inside the filters (from Pall Corp.). ...

N. Cerone; F. Zimbardi; L. Contuzzi; E. Alvino; M. O. Carnevale; V. Valerio

2014-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

166

Conversion of lignin precursors to carbon fibers with nanoscale graphitic domains  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is one of the most abundant and inexpensive natural biopolymers. It can be efficiently converted to low cost carbon fiber, monolithic structures or powders that could be used directly in the production of anodes for lithium-ion batteries. In this work, we report processing parameters relevant for the conversion of lignin precursors into electrochemically active carbon fibers, the impact of lignin precursor modification on melt processing and the microstructure of the final carbon material. The conversion process encompasses melt spinning of the lignin precursor, oxidative stabilization and a low temperature carbonization step in a nitrogen/hydrogen atmosphere. To assess electrochemical performance, we determined resistivities of individual carbon fiber samples and characterized the microstructure by scanning electron microscopy and neutron diffraction. The chemical modification and subsequent thermomechanical processing methods reported here are effective for conversion into carbon fibers while preserving the macromolecular backbone structure of lignin. Modification of softwood lignin produced functionalities and rheological properties that more closely resemble hardwood lignin thereby enabling the melt processing of softwood lignin in oxidative atmospheres (air). Structural characterization of the carbonized fibers reveals nanoscale graphitic domains that are linked to enhanced electrochemical performance.

Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Jones, Eric B [ORNL; Clingenpeel, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; McKenna, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; McNutt, Nicholas W [ORNL; Keffer, David J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Johs, Alexander [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Influence of Syringyl to Guaiacyl Ratio on the Structure of Natural and Synthetic Lignins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Acid-soluble lignin present in the liquor after the removal of solid Klason lignin was estimated by UV spectrometry at 205 nm (TAPPI useful method UM-250). ... 648 (14), 558 (45), 528 (21), 527 (50), 468 (28), 456 (20), 455 (59), 437 (46), 428 (19), 73 (100) ...

Takao Kishimoto; Wakako Chiba; Kaori Saito; Kazuhiko Fukushima; Yasumitsu Uraki; Makoto Ubukata

2009-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

168

Gamma irradiation effects on the biodegradation of lignin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

parts: biological utilization of irradiated Calcium Lignosulphonate (CLS) and irradiation effects on the composition of CLS. The CLS used in this study was a commercially available lignin compound which is produced by flash evaporation of spent... 4/ X / 2. 0 3. 0 4. 0 5. 0 6. 0 7. 0 Wavelength in microns 8. 0 9. 0 28 CHAPTER VI RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS A commercia I CLS was irradiated in a dry state to various total dose levels of Co-60 gamma rays. The effects on the structure...

Krysinski, Thomas Leon

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Base-Catalyzed Depolymerization of Lignin: Separation of Monomers  

SciTech Connect

In our quest for fractionating lignocellulosic biomass and valorizing specific constitutive fractions, we have developed a strategy for the separation of 12 added value monomers generated during the hydrolytic based-catalyzed depolymerization of a Steam Exploded Aspen Lignin. The separation strategy combines liquid-liquid-extraction (LLE), followed by vacuum distillation, liquid chromatography (LC) and crystallization. LLE, vacuum distillation and flash LC were tested experimentally. Batch vacuum distillation produced up to 4 fractions. Process simulation confirmed that a series of 4 vacuum distillation columns could produce 5 distinct monomer streams, 3 of which require further chromatography and crystallization for purification.

Vigneault, A.; Johnson, D. K.; Chornet, E.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Transformations of 14C lignin cell walls of wheat by a fungus and by bacteria from the rumen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transformations of 14C lignin cell walls of wheat by a fungus and by bacteria from the rumen MA but little is known about the fate of lignins. The aim of this work was to study the transformation of 14C lignins of wheat straw by ruminal bacteria and fungi. Cell walls of wheat straw apical internodes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

171

Origin and diagenesis of lignin and carbohydrates in mangrove sediments of Guadeloupe (French West Indies): Evidence for a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Origin and diagenesis of lignin and carbohydrates in mangrove sediments of Guadeloupe (French West the molecular composition (carbohydrates and lignin-derived phenols) of these organic deposits in relationship synthesized by bacteria. On the other hand, lignin phenols were lost rather slowly, i.e. at a similar or lower

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

172

Bioconversion of Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine Using SPORL: Process Scale-up Design, Lignin Coproduct, and High Solids Fermentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bioconversion of Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine Using SPORL: Process Scale-up Design, Lignin downstream processing but also lignin coproduct potentials.1,4 Several pretreatment processes demonstrated, remains a challenge.9,10 The concentrations of both the soluble lignin and sugar degradation products

173

VIRAL INHIBITION STUDIES ON SULFATED LIGNIN, A CHEMICALLY MODIFIED BIOPOLYMER AND A POTENTIAL MIMIC OF HEPARAN SULFATE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

VIRAL INHIBITION STUDIES ON SULFATED LIGNIN, A CHEMICALLY MODIFIED BIOPOLYMER AND A POTENTIAL MIMIC; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IdoAp, iduronic acid residue; LS, lignin sulfate; MoS, morin sulfate; Keywords: Lignin sulfate; Heparan sulfate mimics; Anti-viral activity; Molecular modeling; HIV; HSV #12

Desai, Umesh R

174

EgMYB2, a new transcriptional activator from Eucalyptus xylem, regulates secondary cell wall formation and lignin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

formation and lignin biosynthesis Monica Goicoechea1, , Eric Lacombe1, , Sylvain Legay1 , Snjezana-localizes with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for lignin content. Recombinant EgMYB2 protein was able to bind specifically the cis-regulatory regions of the promoters of two lignin biosynthetic genes, cinnamoyl

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

175

The Paleozoic origin of enzymatic mechanisms for lignin degradation reconstructed using 31 fungal genomes  

SciTech Connect

Wood is a major pool of organic carbon that is highly resistant to decay, owing largely to the presence of lignin. The only organisms capable of substantial lignin decay are white rot fungi in the Agaricomycetes, which also contains non?lignin-degrading brown rot and ectomycorrhizal species. Comparative analyses of 31 fungal genomes (12 generated for this study) suggest that lignin-degrading peroxidases expanded in the lineage leading to the ancestor of the Agaricomycetes, which is reconstructed as a white rot species, and then contracted in parallel lineages leading to brown rot and mycorrhizal species. Molecular clock analyses suggest that the origin of lignin degradation might have coincided with the sharp decrease in the rate of organic carbon burial around the end of the Carboniferous period.

Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Riley, Robert; Barry, Kerrie; Blanchette, Robert A; Henrissat, Bernard; Martinez, Angel T.; Otillar, Robert; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Yadav, Jagit S.; Aerts, Andrea; Benoit, Isabelle; Boyd, Alex; Carlson, Alexis; Copeland, Alex; Coutinho, Pedro M.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Ferreira, Patricia; Findley, Keisha; Foster, Brian; Gaskell, Jill; Glotzer, Dylan; Gorecki, Pawel; Heitman, Joseph; Hesse, Cedar; Hori, Chiaki; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Jurgens, Joel A.; Kallen, Nathan; Kersten, Phil; Kohler, Annegret; Kues, Ursula; Kumar, T. K. Arun; Kuo, Alan; LaButti, Kurt; Larrondo, Luis F.; Lindquist, Erika; Ling, Albee; Lombard, Vincent; Lucas, Susan; Lundell, Taina; Martin, Rachael; McLaughlin, David J.; Morgenstern, Ingo; Morin, Emanuelle; Murat, Claude; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Nolan, Matt; Ohm, Robin A.; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Rokas, Antonis; Ruiz-Duenas, Francisco J.; Sabat, Grzegorz; Salamov, Asaf; Samejima, Masahiro; Schmutz, Jeremy; Slot, Jason C.; St. John, Franz; Stenlid, Jan; Sun, Hui; Sun, Sheng; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Tsang, Adrian; Wiebenga, Ad; Young, Darcy; Pisabarro, Antonio; Eastwood, Daniel C.; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Hibbett, David S.

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

176

Experimental Investigation of the Kinetics of a Ruthenium-Catalyzed Deconstruction of Lignin Model Compounds  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is a major component of plant cell walls that is typically underutilized in selective conversion strategies for renewable fuels and chemicals. The mechanisms by which thermal and catalytic treatments deconstruct lignin remain elusive. In this work, we have investigated the kinetics of the catalytic deconstruction of lignin model compounds using a ruthenium catalyst reported by Bergman et al. in 2010. A series of investigations using NMR spectroscopy and GC/MS will be presented. In addition, we propose detailed mechanisms for lignin depolymerization with ruthenium catalysts. We have also used DFT to compute transition state geometries of catalytic cycle intermediates and compare the values determined computationally with those observed experimentally. Ultimately, our objective is to apply our methods to the design of new homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for the effective deconstruction and valorization of lignin.

Bu, L.; Nimlos, M. R.; Shirts, M. R.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Estimation de la digestibilit de l'herbe pture par le mouton adulte au moyen de la lignine selon Christian. Essais prliminaires (1)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimation de la digestibilité de l'herbe pâturée par le mouton adulte au moyen de la lignine selon determined in grazing sheep by independent methods : nitrogen and lignin faecal indexes and by the lignin ratio technique (oesophageal fistulas). Lignin determined by Christian's method, was previously shown

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

178

Synthesis and characterization of lignin-based carbon materials with tunable microstructure  

SciTech Connect

Lignin-based carbons can be used as a low-cost alternative to graphite and petroleum-based carbons enabling the production of sustainable, functional carbon materials for various applications. The microstructure development of these carbons can be controlled through chemical modification of the lignin precursor and choice of carbonization parameters. In this work, microstructured carbon materials are synthesized from lignin using a combination of chemical modification and carbon fiber processing techniques. Lignin is modified by incorporating different ester groups which results in a precursor highly compatible with melt processing using the fiber extrusion technique and conversion into microstructured carbons by oxidative stabilization and subsequent carbonization. Furthermore, the impact of esterifications on precursor chemistry and carbonizations is investigated. A nuclear magnetic resonance study of modified lignins shows characteristic spectral changes as a result of esterifications. Ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry shows the modification process does not affect the polymeric character of the lignin backbone. Esterifications result in moderate shifts in O:C and H:C ratios. Thermogravimetric analysis of lignins reveals distinct differences in mass loss trends during oxidations and carbonizations.

Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL] [ORNL; Clingenpeel, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida] [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; McKenna, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida] [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; Rios, Orlando [ORNL] [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Effect of ionic liquid treatment on the structures of lignins in solutions  

SciTech Connect

The solution structures of three types of isolated lignin - organosolv (OS), Kraft (K), and low sulfonate (LS) - before and after treatment with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate were studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) over a concentration range of 0.3-2.4 wt %. The results indicate that each of these lignins is comprised of aggregates of well-defined basal subunits, the shapes and sizes of which, in D{sub 2}O and DMSO-d{sub 6}, are revealed using these techniques. LS lignin contains a substantial amount of nanometer-scale individual subunits. In aqueous solution these subunits have a well-defined elongated shape described well by ellipsoidal and cylindrical models. At low concentration the subunits are highly expanded in alkaline solution, and the effect is screened with increasing concentration. OS lignin dissolved in DMSO was found to consist of a narrow distribution of aggregates with average radius 200 {+-} 30 nm. K lignin in DMSO consists of aggregates with a very broad size distribution. After ionic liquid (IL) treatment, LS lignin subunits in alkaline solution maintained the elongated shape but were reduced in size. IL treatment of OS and K lignins led to the release of nanometer-scale subunits with well-defined size and shape.

Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Varanasi, Patanjali [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Dibble, Dean [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Simmons, Blake [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Singh, Seema [Joint Bioenergy Institute

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization. [Final] technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Liquefaction of an Illinois bituminous and a caustic lignin was studied in an initial hydrogen pressure of 140 psig. Experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 325-375{degree}C in tetralin. The addition of lignin to coal was found to be synergistic in that it significantly improves the quality and yield of the liquid products obtained. Kinetic data for coal conversion enhancement due to lignin addition were obtained. A mathematical model describing the reaction chemistry, using lignin, has been proposed and developed. The analysis of the results indicates that the intermediates produced from lignin were responsible for enhancement in coal depolymerization rate, however, the intermediates are short-lived as compared to the time needed for a significant coal conversion yield. Coal depolymerization rate was found to be a function of time; compared to processing coal alone, it doubled upon reacting coal with lignin at 375{degree}C and after 67 minutes from the beginning of the experiment. Overall mass recoveries of 95--98% of the total mass charged to the reactor were obtained. A careful statistical analysis of the data shows that coal depolymerization yield is enhanced by 11.9% due to the lignin addition. The liquids obtained were examined for their elemental composition, and molecular weight determination by size exclusion chromatography. The stability of liquid products was characterized by determining their solubility in pentane and benzene, and by evaluating the molecular weight.

Lalvani, S.B.; Muchmore, C.B.; Koropchak, J.A.; Kim, Jong Won [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Electrostatic coalescence of used automotive crankcase oil as an alternative to other separation processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents an initial investigation of using electrostatic coalescence as an alternative to conventional separation processes to purify used automotive crankcase oil. Specific emphasis of this study was the feasibility of this approach...

Dixon, John Leslie

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Solving the Fisher-Wright and coalescence problems with a discrete Markov chain analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sci. USA 31, 382–389. [28] Wright, S. (1949). Adaptation andbiology 49, 154–158. [27] Wright, S. (1945). The di?erentialprove Proposition 8. Fisher-Wright and coalescence problems

Buss, Samuel R; Clote, Peter

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Mechanistic Investigation of Acid-Catalyzed Cleavage of Aryl-Ether Linkages: Implications for Lignin Depolymerization  

SciTech Connect

Carbon-oxygen bonds are the primary inter-monomer linkages lignin polymers in plant cell walls, and as such, catalyst development to cleave these linkages is of paramount importance to deconstruct biomass to its constituent monomers for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. For many decades, acid catalysis has been used to depolymerize lignin. Lignin is a primary component of plant cell walls, which is connected primarily by aryl-ether linkages, and the mechanism of its deconstruction by acid is not well understood, likely due to its heterogeneous and complex nature compared to cellulose. For effective biomass conversion strategies, utilization of lignin is of significant relevance and as such understanding the mechanisms of catalytic lignin deconstruction to constituent monomers and oligomers is of keen interest. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the acid catalysis of a range of dimeric species exhibiting the b-O-4 linkage, the most common inter-monomer linkage in lignin. We demonstrate that the presence of a phenolic species dramatically increases the rate of cleavage in acid at 150 degrees C. Quantum mechanical calculations on dimers with the para-hydroxyl group demonstrate that this acid-catalyzed pathway differs from the nonphenolic dimmers. Importantly, this result implies that depolymerization of native lignin in the plant cell wall will proceed via an unzipping mechanism wherein b-O-4 linkages will be cleaved from the ends of the branched, polymer chains inwards toward the center of the polymer. To test this hypothesis further, we synthesized a homopolymer of b-O-4 with a phenolic hydroxyl group, and demonstrate that it is cleaved in acid from the end containing the phenolic hydroxyl group. This result suggests that genetic modifications to lignin biosynthesis pathways in plants that will enable lower severity processes to fractionate lignin for upgrading and for easier access to the carbohydrate fraction of the plant cell wall.

Sturgeon, M. R.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Gravitational Waves from Coalescing Binary Black Holes: Theoretical and Experimental Challenges  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A network of ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors (LIGO/VIRGO/GEO/...) is currently taking data near its planned sensitivity. Coalescing black hole binaries are among the most promising, and most exciting, gravitational wave sources for these detectors. The talk will review the theoretical and experimental challenges that must be met in order to successfully detect gravitational waves from coalescing black hole binaries, and to be able to reliably measure the physical parameters of the source (masses, spins, ...).

None

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

185

Reaction Pathway for Catalytic Gasification of Lignin in Presence of Sulfur in Supercritical Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Generally, very high temperatures of over 1073 K are needed for steam reformation of the lignin in the gasification process.1 Hence, low-temperature methods for lignin gasification are the most desirable, so that the waste heat from high-temperature processes in industry can be utilized for energy generation. ... While in the presence of the Ru/TiO2 catalyst, formaldehyde was completely gasified in supercritical water, similar to the gasification of lignin and 4-propylphenol. ... water for gasification technique of wastes. ...

Mitsumasa Osada; Norihito Hiyoshi; Osamu Sato; Kunio Arai; Masayuki Shirai

2007-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

186

Molecular simulation as a tool for studying lignin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Simulation Simulation as a Tool for Studying Lignin Amandeep K. Sangha, a,b Loukas Petridis, a,b Jeremy C. Smith, a,b,c Angela Ziebell, d,e and Jerry M. Parks a,b a UT/ORNL Center for Molecular Biophysics, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6309; parksjm@ornl.gov (for correspondence) b BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, TN c Department of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, M407 Walters Life Sciences, 1414 Cumberland Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37996 d National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401-3393; angela.ziebell@nrel.gov (for correspondence) e BioEnergy Science Center, Golden, CO Published online 30 December 2011 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI 10.1002/ep.10628 Lignocellulosic biomass provides a sustainable source of sugars for biofuel and biomaterial production.

187

Quantitative Molecular Structure–Pyrolytic Energy Correlation for Hardwood Lignins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

† Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais 36570-000, Brazil ... The use of renewable resources has emerged as a powerful alternative to fossil fuels because not only does it provide a local solution to energy dependence but it also helps to minimize environmental impacts by closing the greenhouse gas (CO2) loop. ... A kinetic anal. of the thermal decompn. of eucalyptus sawdust, cellulose, and eucalyptus kraft lignin was accomplished from temp.-programmed reaction expts., using two different approaches: the 1st assumed an overall reaction model, whereas in the 2nd, pyrolysis was viewed as a process consisting of multiple reactions in parallel and a distribution of activation energies is derived. ...

Teresa Cristina Fonseca Silva; Ricardo Baillerini Santos; Hasan Jameel; Jorge Luiz Colodette; Lucian A. Lucia

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

188

Structural Analysis of Novel Lignin-derived Carbon Composite Anodes  

SciTech Connect

The development of novel lignin-based carbon composite anodes consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous domains motivates the understanding of a relationship of the structural properties characterizing these materials, such as crystallite size, intracrystallite dspacing, crystalline volume fraction and composite density, with their pair distribution functions (PDF), obtained from both molecular dynamics simulation and neutron scattering. A model for these composite materials is developed as a function of experimentally measurable parameters and realized in fifteen composite systems, three of which directly match all parameters of their experimental counterparts. The accurate reproduction of the experimental PDFs using the model systems validates the model. The decomposition of the simulated PDFs provides an understanding of each feature in the PDF and allows for the development of a mapping between the defining characteristics of the PDF and the material properties of interest.

McNutt, Nicholas W [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Feygenson, Mikhail [ORNL; Proffen, Thomas E [ORNL; Keffer, David J [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Coalescing neutron stars -- gravitational waves from polytropic models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dynamics, time evolution of the mass distribution, and gravitational wave signature of coalescing neutron stars described by polytropes are compared with three simulations published previously: (a) ``Run 2'' of Zhuge et al. (1994), (b) ``Model III'' of Shibata et al. (1992), and (c) ``Model A64'' of Ruffert et al. (1996). We aim at studying the differences due to the use of different numerical methods, different implementations of the gravitational wave backreaction, and different equations of state. Comparison (a) confronts the results of our grid-based PPM scheme with those from an SPH code. We found that due to the lower numerical viscosity of the PPM code, the post-merging oscillations and pulsations could be followed for a longer time and lead to larger secondary and tertiary maxima of the gravitational wave luminosity. In case (b) two grid based codes with the same backreaction formalism but differing hydrodynamic integrators and different numerical resolution are compared. Satisfactory agreement of the amplitude of the gravitational wave luminosity is established, although due to the different initial conditions a small time delay develops in the onset of the dynamical instability. In (c) we find that using a polytropic equation of state instead of the high-density equation of state of Lattimer & Swesty (1991) does not change the overall dynamical evolution of the merger and yields agreement of the gravitational wave signature to within 20% accuracy. However, differences of the structure and evolution of the outer layers of the neutron stars are present, which has important implications for questions like mass loss and disk formation during the merging of binary neutron stars.

M. Ruffert; M. Rampp; H. -Th. Janka

1996-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

190

Gasification of Organosolv-lignin Over Charcoal Supported Noble Metal Salt Catalysts in Supercritical Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Charcoal supported metal salt catalysts showed activities for the lignin gasification at 673 K, especially the catalysts without chloride anion showed the complete gasification. The order of activity for the gasification

Aritomo Yamaguchi; Norihito Hiyoshi; Osamu Sato; Masayuki Shirai

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Lignin Modification with Carboxylic Acids and Butyrolactone under Cold Plasma Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The modification of organosolv lignin powder (ALCELL) with different carboxylic acids such as oleic, lactic, and butyric acids and butyrolactone under cold plasma discharge has been performed. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total ...

Oana Chirila; Marian Totolin; Georgeta Cazacu; Marius Dobromir; Cornelia Vasile

2013-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

192

Determination of absolute molecular mass distribution and other structural properties of kraft lignin samples.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Lignin is an aromatic macromolecule present in wood and also a by-product in the process of making paper. For a long time, this by-product… (more)

Chedid, Fadia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Differential detection of genetic loci underlying stem and root lignin content in Populus  

SciTech Connect

For simultaneous applications directed towards improved pulp yields, enhanced bioethanol production and increased carbon sequestration, it would be desirable to reduce lignin in the harvested stem while increasing the lignin content in nonharvested roots. In this study, we established a comprehensive genetic map with a large number of progeny from a three-generation hybrid Populus intercross, and phenotyped the lignin content, S/G ratio and 28 cell wall subcomponents both in stems and roots for the mapping individuals. Phenotypic analysis revealed that lignin content and syringyl-to-guaiacyl (S/G) ratio using pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectroscopy (pyMBMS) varied among mapping individuals. Phenotypic analysis revealed that stem lignin content is significantly higher than that in root and the quantified traits can be classified into four distinct groups, with strong correlations observed among components within organs. Altogether, 179 coordinating QTLs were detected, and they were co-localized into 49 genetic loci, 27 of which appear to be pleiotropic. Many of the detected genetic loci were detected differentially in stem and root. This is the first report of separate genetic loci controlling cell wall phenotypes above and below ground. These results suggest that it may be possible to modify lignin content and composition via breed and/or engineer as a means of simultaneously improving Populus for cellulosic ethanol production and carbon sequestration.

Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL; Zhang, Xinye [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Ranjan, Priya [ORNL; Sykes, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Davis, Dr. Mark F. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Complexes to be Employed in the Catalytic Depolymerization of Lignin Model Compounds  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is an earth-abundant biopolymer that is grossly underutilized as a value stream in current biomass conversion technologies because there exist no economic and technically feasible routes for lignin depolymerization and upgrading to fuels and chemicals. The development of new mild and selective catalytic routes to depolymerize this recalcitrant biopolymer is required to more effectively utilize lignin. To that end, our group aims to synthesize and characterize a collection of organometallic catalysts to promote atom-economical catalytic lignin deconstruction. These catalysts have been screened against dimeric lignin model compounds in order to gain mechanistic insights into their modes of action. In addition, experimental efforts have been coupled with quantum mechanical calculations to elucidate solution behavior of the catalysts as well as the mechanisms of lignin depolymerization. Detailed synthetic procedures, as well as spectroscopic and crystallographic characterization and DFT calculations will be presented.

Chmely, S. C.; Kim, S.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

NERSC Visualization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Visualization Visualization Visualization jet-sdavid.jpg Visualization facilitates data exploration. It often supports simulation since it allows inspection of the output varying in time or with changes in parameter values, or for the locations of interesting regions in large data sets. The term visualization often is used to describe the rendering of 3D isosurfaces and volumes, whereas the term graphics usually is applied to plots such as scatter plots and histograms. Our mission is to assist researchers in achieving their scientific goals - solving some of the world's most challenging problems in scientific data understanding - through visualization and analytics while simultaneously advancing the state-of-the-art in visualization through our own research. From the standpoint of a user of NERSC, for example, the

196

O-Dmthylation et mtabolisme du groupe mthoxyle de l'acide vanillique, monomre modle de la lignine,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lignine, par la bactérie du rumen Syntrophococcus sucromutans J Doré MP Bryant2 1 Laboratoire de Sciences, Urbana, IL 61801, USA Summary ― The O-demethylation of a lignin monomer by washed cells'assurer une des pre- mières étapes de la dégradation des mo- nomères aromatiques dérivés de la lignine : la

Boyer, Edmond

197

Production and field performance of transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) expressing alpha-amylase and manganese-dependent lignin peroxidase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transgenic alfalfa plants expressing Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase and manganese-dependent lignin peroxidase (Mn-P...Phanerochaete chrysosporium were produced using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens...transfor...

S. Austin; E. T. Bingham; D. E. Mathews…

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Statistical simulation of small fatigue crack nucleation and coalescence in a lamellar TiAl alloy  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the possibility of fatigue failure as the result of fatigue crack nucleation and coalescence at stress ranges below the fatigue limit and the large crack threshold where fatigue cracks are expected not to grow. By representing the material as a two-dimensional array of beam elements, the nucleation of nonpropagating small cracks at various material locations is modeled via a statistical approach that considers fatigue crack nucleation by accumulation of damage at randomly distributed weak regions. Once nucleated, the fatigue cracks do not propagate but extend only by linking with fatigue cracks subsequently formed in the contiguous elements. Result of the computer simulation suggests that fatigue failure by crack nucleation and coalescence is feasible, but the cycles-to-coalescence is much longer than the cycles-to-initiation for the first crack. Implications of the results in fatigue life assessment based on the Kitagawa diagram are discussed for TiAl alloys.

Chan, K.S. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Wittowsky, B. [Proctor and Gamble European Service GmbH, Euskirchen (Germany); Pfuff, M. [GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht (Germany)

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

The molecular characterization of the lignin-forming peroxidase  

SciTech Connect

This laboratory is committed to understanding the function of plant peroxidases via a multi-disciplinary approach. We have chosen the lignin-forming peroxidase from tobacco as the first isoenzyme to be subjected to this comprehensive approach. The goals which were set out upon the initiation of this project were as follows: (1) utilize a cDNA clone to the tobacco anionic peroxidase to generate transgenic plants which either over-produced this isoenzyme or specifically under-produced this isoenzyme via antisense RNA, (2) describe any phenotypic changes resulting from altered peroxidase expression, (3) perform morphological, physiological, and biochemical analysis of the above mentioned plants to help in determining the in planta function for this enzyme, and (4) clone and characterize the gene for the tobacco anionic peroxidase. A summary of progress thus far which includes both published and unpublished work will be presented in three sections: generation and characterization of transgenic plants, description of phenotypes, and biochemical and physiological analysis of peroxidase function, and cloning and characterization of the tobacco anionic peroxidase gene.

Lagrimini, L.M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Visualizing data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Visualizing data Violeta Ilik Metadata Cataloging Librarian Texas A&M University Libraries Viewshare open-source visualization platform Viewshare – 3 use cases • Collection ingested in XML (MODS) format • Scientific data set ingested... • Integrating and harvesting multiple data sources with symplectic elements • Customizing visualization platforms to meet (y)our needs VIVO “VIVO is an open community, an information model, and an open source semantic web application supporting...

Ilik, Violeta

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

EFFECTS OF COFIRING LIGNIN AND BIOSOLIDS WITH COAL ON FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE AND COMBUSTION PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect

Lignin, derived from municipal solid waste and biosolid feedstocks using Masada Resource Group's patented CES OxyNol{trademark} process, and acidified biosolids were evaluated as supplemental fuels with coal for producing steam and electricity. Tests were conducted in a pilot-scale (550,000-Btu/hr [580-MJ/hr]) combustion system to evaluate the effects of coal characteristics, blend mixture (on a dry wt% basis) and furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) on boiler heat-exchange surface slagging and fouling, NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} production, fly ash characteristics, and combustion efficiency. The effects of blending lignin and acidified biosolids with coal on fuel handling and pulverization characteristics were also addressed. An 80 wt% Colorado--20 wt% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal blend from the Tennessee Valley Authority Colbert Steam Plant, hereafter referred to as the Colbert coal, and a bituminous Pittsburgh No. 8 coal were tested. The lignin and acidified biosolids were characterized by possessing higher moisture content and lower carbon, hydrogen, and heating values relative to the coals. Ash contents of the fuels were similar. The lignin also possessed higher concentrations of TiO{sub 2}, CaO, and SO{sub 3} and lower concentrations of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, K{sub 2}O, and N relative to the coals. The sulfur content of lignin could be reduced through a more thorough washing and drying of the lignin in an efficient commercial-scale dewatering device. Acidified biosolids were distinguished by higher concentrations of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and MgO and lower SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to the other fuels. Trace element concentrations, especially for Cr, Pb, Hg, and Ni, were generally greater in the lignin and acidified biosolid fuels relative to the Colbert coal. Maximum trace element emission factors were calculated for 95:5 Colbert coal--lignin and 90:5:5 Colbert coal--lignin--acidified biosolid blends and compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency emission factors for pulverized coal-fired units that are unequipped with pollution control devices. Calculated maximum trace element emission factors for the fuel blends were generally less than or within the range of those for the uncontrolled coal-fired units, except for Cr and Pb which were greater.

Kevin C. Galbreath

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Unravelling lignin formation and structure. Final report, April 1, 1988--March 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

During this study, we established that the Fagaceae exclusively accumulate Z-monolignois/glucosides, and not the E-isomers. Evidence for the presence of a novel E{yields}Z isomerse has been obtained. Our pioneering work in lignin biosynthesis and structure in situ has also progressed smoothly. We established the bonding environments of a woody angiosperm, Leucanea leucocephala, as well as wheat (T. aestivum) and tobacco (N. tabacum). A cell culture system from Pinus taeda was developed which seems ideal for investigating the early stages of lignification. These cultures excrete peroxidase isozymes, considered to be specifically involved in lignin deposition. We also studied the effect of the putative lignin-degrading enzyme, lignin peroxidase, on monolignols and dehydropolymerisates therefrom. In all cases, polymerization was observed, and not degradation; these polymers are identical to that obtained with horseradish peroxidases/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. It seems inconceivable that these enzymes can be considered as being primarily responsible for lignin biodegradation.

Lewis, N.G. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Inst. of Biological Chemistry

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

203

Determining the Effect of Concerted Elimination Reactions in the Pyrolysis of Lignin Using Model Compounds  

SciTech Connect

Lignin pyrolysis is a significant impediment in forming liquid fuel from biomass. Lignin pyrolyzes at a higher temperature than other biomass components (ie cellulose, hemicellulose) and tends to form radicals which lead to cross linking and ultimately char formation. A primary step in advances biomass-to-fuel technology will be to discover mechanisms that can disassemble lignin at lower temperatures and depolymerize lignin into more stable products. We have investigated the thermochemistry of the various inter-linkage units found in lignin ({beta}-O4, {alpha}-O4, {beta}-{beta}, {beta}-O5, etc) using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2x/6-311++G(d,p) on a series of dimer model compounds. In addition to the usually-assumed bond homolysis reactions, we have investigated a variety of concerted elimination pathways that will tend to produce closed-shell stable products. Such a bottom-up approach could aid in the targeted development of catalysts that produce more desirable products under less severe reactor conditions.

Robichaud, D.; Clark, J.; Nimlos, M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Influence of Droplet Geometry on the Coalescence of Low Viscosity Drops A. Eddi, K. G. Winkels, and J. H. Snoeijer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Influence of Droplet Geometry on the Coalescence of Low Viscosity Drops A. Eddi, K. G. Winkels involving sprays and print- ing [4,5]. Breakup and coalescence are singular events during which the liquid-off is universal in the sense that it is completely independent of initial conditions. In this regime, viscosity

Snoeijer, Jacco

205

Production of Heavy Clusters with an Expanded Coalescence Model in CEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The production of heavy clusters in nuclear reactions is important in a wide variety of applications: radiation shielding, space engineering and design, medical physics, accelerator design, and more. According to the Cascade Exciton Model (CEM), there are three ways high-energy heavy clusters can be produced. The first way is via coalescence of nucleons produced in the IntraNuclear Cascade (INC). The second way is via the preequilibrium model. The last way is via Fermi breakup. Previous work in CEM examines the impact of expansions of the preequilibrium model and Fermi breakup model on heavy cluster production. The present work studies the impact of expanding the coalescence model on heavy cluster spectra. CEM03.03, the default event generator in the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code version 6 (MCNP6) for intermediate-energy nuclear reactions, is capable of producing light fragments up to He4 in its coalescence model. In the present study, we have expanded the coalescence model to be able to produce up to Be7. Preliminary results are promising.

Leslie M. Kerby; Stepan G. Mashnik

2015-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

206

The Effect of Flow Rate of Very Dilute Sulfuric Acid on Xylan, Lignin, and Total Mass Removal from Corn Stover  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Effect of Flow Rate of Very Dilute Sulfuric Acid on Xylan, Lignin, and Total Mass Removal from mass, xylan, and lignin and increases cellulose digestibility compared to batch operations at otherwise in corn stover at 180 °C. A flow rate of 10 mL/min in a 3.8-mL reactor enhanced xylan removal by about 25

California at Riverside, University of

207

Experimental and Computational Methods for the Deconstruction and Valorization of Lignin  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is among the most abundant natural heteropolymers on Earth. While lignin represents an abundant feedstock material for the production of renewable fuels and value-added chemicals, it is an underutilized value stream in current biomass conversion technologies because there exist no economic and technically feasible routes for lignin depolymerization and upgrading. My work at NREL has focused on elucidating deconstruction pathways of this recalcitrant polymer using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. This entails testing putative catalyst species against a library of model compounds as well as using computational modeling of the substrates and catalysts to determine thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. From these preliminary studies, I hope to develop strategies for the selective conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Synthetic techniques applicable to a model compound library, synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of catalyst species, as well as DFT studies of all of the aforementioned will be presented.

Chmely, S. C.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Magnetic lignin-derived carbonaceous catalyst for the dehydration of fructose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in dimethylsulfoxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A magnetic carbonaceous catalyst was prepared by a simple and inexpensive impregnation–carbonization–sulfonation process using the enzymatic hydrolysis lignin residue as a precursor. The resulting catalyst possessed a porous structure with a high surface area and contained Fe3O4 components and SO3H, COOH and phenolic OH groups, and it showed a good catalytic activity for the dehydration of fructose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). By optimizing the reaction conditions, a high HMF yield of 81.1% with 100% fructose conversion was achieved in the presence of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) at 130 °C for 40 min. More importantly, the magnetic lignin-derived carbonaceous catalyst could be easily separated from the reaction mixture by using an external magnet, and when it was reused 5 successive runs, no obvious decrease in the yield of HMF was observed, indicating that the magnetic lignin-derived carbonaceous catalyst also exhibited an excellent catalytic stability.

Lei Hu; Xing Tang; Zhen Wu; Lu Lin; Jiaxing Xu; Ning Xu; Benlin Dai

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Examination of the thermal decomposition of kraft pine lignin by Fourier transform infrared evolved gas analysis  

SciTech Connect

The thermal decomposition of kraft lignin was examined by Fourier-transform IR evolved-gas analysis, a technique designed for on-the-fly, simultaneous monitoring of multiple vapor-phase species. Initial degradation occurs at 120-300 degrees from bond fragmentation in the phenylpropane side chains as evidenced by the formation of HCO2H, HCHO, CO2, H2O and SO2. The presence of SO2 is supporting evidence that S from the kraft pulping process may be incorporated into the lignin structure in the form of sulfoxide and(or) sulfone linkages. Major decomposition initiates at approximately 300 degrees and extends to 480 degrees at which point half the intital weight has been lost. MeOH 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), and a 2-methoxy-4-alkyl- substituted phenol are the most apparent species evolving in this region and indicate fragmentation of the major chain linkages between the monomeric phenol units in the lignin structure.

Fenner, R.A.; Lephardt, J.O.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Deciphering the impact of land-uses on terrestrial organic matter and mercury inputs to large boreal lakes of central Qubec using lignin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

boreal lakes of central Québec using lignin biomarkers Matthieu Moingt , Marc Lucotte, Serge Paquet in sediment cores. In each core, THg concentrations gradually increased over the recent years. Using lignin a powerful tool to reconstruct both Hg and TOM transfers from the watersheds to the aquatic systems. Lignin

211

Influence of light on labelling of wheat stem lignins using [U14C] phenylalanine or [O14CH3] sinapic acid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Influence of light on labelling of wheat stem lignins using [U14C] phenylalanine or [O14CH3, 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex, France In order to investigate the fate of lignin during lignin in the dark or in the light. Batches of 5 wheat-straw upper internodes (flowery stage) were

Boyer, Edmond

212

Catalytic C-O Bond Cleavage of 2-Aryloxy-1-arylethanols and Its Application to the Depolymerization of Lignin-Related Polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Lignin-Related Polymers Jason M. Nichols, Lee M. Bishop, Robert G. Bergman,* and Jonathan A. Ellman yield. This reaction is applicable to breaking the key ethereal bond found in lignin-related polymers depolymerization of a lignin-related polymer quantitatively yields the corresponding monomer with no added reagent

213

Coalescence kinetics in surfactant stabilized emulsions: Evolution equations from direct numerical simulations  

SciTech Connect

Lattice Boltzmann simulations were used to study the coalescence kinetics in emulsions with amphiphilic surfactant, under neutrally buoyant conditions, and with a significant kinematic viscosity contrast between the phases (emulating water in oil emulsions). The 3D simulation domain was large enough (256 3rd power -- 10 7th power grid points) to obtain good statistics with droplet numbers ranging from a few thousand at early times to a few hundred near equilibrium. Increased surfactant contents slowed down the coalescence rate between droplets due to the Gibbs-Marangoni effect, and the coalescence was driven by a quasi-turbulent velocity field. The kinetic energy decayed at a relatively slow rate at early times, due to conversion of interfacial energy to kinetic energy in the flow during coalescence. Phenomenological, coupled differential equations for the mean droplet diameter D(t) and the number density nd(t) were obtained from the simulation data and from film draining theories. Local (in time) power law exponents for the growth of the mean diameter (and for the concomitant decrease of nd) were established in terms of the instantaneous values of the kinetic energy, coalescence probability, Gibbs elasticity, and interfacial area. The model studies indicated that true power laws for the growth of the droplet size and decrease of the number of droplets with time may not be justified, since the exponents derived using the phenomenological model were time dependent. In contrast to earlier simulation results for symmetric blends with surfactant, we found no evidence for stretched logarithmic scaling of the formD -- [ln (ct)]a for the morphology length, or exponential scalings associated with arrested growth, on the basis of the phenomenological model.

R. Skartlien; E. Sollum; A. Akselsen; P. Meakin; B. Grimes; J. Sjoblom

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Comparative results of the combustion of lignin briquettes and black coal  

SciTech Connect

A new type of biofuel - hydrolytic lignin briquettes - was tested as compared with ordinary SS coal from the Kuznetsk Basin in fuel-bed firing in a Universal-6 boiler. It was found that the (total) efficiency of the boiler with the firing of lignin briquettes was 38% higher than that with the use of black coal. Carbon loss in the combustion of briquettes was 1%, whereas it was 48.2% in the combustion of black coal. The emission of harmful gas pollutants into the environment in the combustion of briquettes was lower than that in the combustion of coal by a factor of 4.5.

V.G. Lurii [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

Black, S.K.; Hames, B.R.; Myers, M.D.

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

216

Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO); Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO); Myers, Michele D. (Dacono, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Comparative results of the combustion of lignin briquettes and black coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new type of biofuel—hydrolytic lignin briquettes—was tested as compared with ordinary SS coal in fuel-bed firing in a Universal-6 boiler. It was found that the (total) efficiency of the boiler with the firin...

V. G. Lurii

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Isolation and Quantification of Dissolved Lignin from Natural Waters Using Solid-Phase Extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) in preparation for CuO oxidation. Capillary GC coupled to selected-ion monitoring mass spectrometry (SIM and quantification of trace levels of lignin in seawater. The low blanks and quick cleanup of C18 cartridges support and diagenetic state of vascular plant material9-11 and thus "fingerprint" riverine DOM. Such "fingerprinting

Louchouarn, Patrick

219

The Growth Reduction Associated with Repressed Lignin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Is Independent of Flavonoids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...negative impacts on forage quality, pulping efficiency, and...been employed to identify or engineer plants with low lignin content...cytochrome P450 enzymes for forage quality improvement in alfalfa (Medicago...lignification, development and forage quality. Phytochemistry 68 : 1521-1529...

Xu Li; Nicholas D. Bonawitz; Jing-Ke Weng; Clint Chapple

2010-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

220

Genome Sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus Strain T7A ATCC 39115, a Lignin-Degrading Actinomycete  

SciTech Connect

We announce the availability of the genome sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus strain T7A ATCC 39115, a plant biomass- degrading actinomycete. This bacterium is of special interest because of its capacity to degrade lignin, an underutilized compo- nent of plants in the context of bioenergy. It has a full complement of genes for plant biomass catabolism.

Davis, Jennifer R. [Brown University; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wei, Chia-Lin [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Szeto, Ernest [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Sello, Jason K. [Brown University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Inheritance, gene expression, and lignin characterization in a mutant pine deficient in cinnamyl alcohol?dehydrogenase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Springer , Berlin ), pp 65 – 70 . 23 Bjorkman A ( 1954 ) Nature (London) 174 : 1057 – 1058 . 24 Effland M J ( 1977 ) Tappi 60 : 143 – 144 . 25 Dence C W ( 1992 ) in Methods in Lignin Chemistry , eds Lin S E Dence C W ( Springer , Berlin ), pp 33...

John J. MacKay; David M. O’Malley; Timothy Presnell; Fitzgerald L. Booker; Malcolm M. Campbell; Ross W. Whetten; Ronald R. Sederoff

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Short Gamma Ray Bursts as possible electromagnetic counterpart of coalescing binary systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coalescing binary systems, consisting of two collapsed objects, are among the most promising sources of high frequency gravitational waves signals detectable, in principle, by ground-based interferometers. Binary systems of Neutron Star or Black Hole/Neutron Star mergers should also give rise to short Gamma Ray Bursts, a subclass of Gamma Ray Bursts. Short-hard-Gamma Ray Bursts might thus provide a powerful way to infer the merger rate of two-collapsed object binaries. Under the hypothesis that most short Gamma Ray Bursts originate from binaries of Neutron Star or Black Hole/Neutron Star mergers, we outline here the possibility to associate short Gamma Ray Bursts as electromagnetic counterpart of coalescing binary systems.

S. Capozziello; M. De Laurentis; I. De Martino; M. Formisano

2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

223

Adaptive Event Horizon Tracking and Critical Phenomena in Binary Black Hole Coalescence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work establishes critical phenomena in the topological transition of black hole coalescence. We describe and validate a computational front tracking event horizon solver, developed for generic studies of the black hole coalescence problem. We then apply this to the Kastor - Traschen axisymmetric analytic solution of the extremal Maxwell - Einstein black hole merger with cosmological constant. The surprising result of this computational analysis is a power law scaling of the minimal throat proportional to time. The minimal throat connecting the two holes obeys this power law during a short time immediately at the beginning of merger. We also confirm the behavior analytically. Thus, at least in one axisymmetric situation a critical phenomenon exists. We give arguments for a broader universality class than the restricted requirements of the Kastor - Traschen solution.

Scott A. Caveny; Richard A. Matzner

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

224

On the characterization and spinning of solvent extracted lignin towards the manufacture of low-cost carbon fiber  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT: A Kraft hardwood lignin (HWL) and an organic-purified hardwood lignin (HWL-OP) were evaluated as potential precursors for the production of lowcost carbon fibers. It was found that the unpurified HWL exhibited poor spinnability while the HWL-OP exhibited excellent spinnability characteristics. Fibers of various diameters were obtained from the HWL-OP. Thermostabilization studies showed that oxidative stabilization can only be used to convert HWL-OP-based fibers into carbon fibers if extremely low heating rates are applied. Carbonized lignin-based fibers had tensile strength of 0.51 GPa and tensile modulus of 28.6 GPa. VC

Baker, Darren A [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Numerical Solution to Drop Coalescence/Breakup with a Volume-Conserving, Positive-Definite, and Unconditionally Stable Scheme  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper discusses a new volume- and volume concentration–conserving, positive-definite, unconditionally stable iterative numerical scheme for solving temporary cloud/raindrop coalescence followed by breakup and the coupling of the scheme with ...

M. Z. Jacobson

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Search for gravitational waves from low mass compact binary coalescence in 186 days of LIGO’s fifth science run  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a search for gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries, of total mass between 2 and 35M[subscript ?], using LIGO observations between November 14, 2006 and May 18, 2007. No gravitational-wave signals ...

Zucker, Michael E.

227

Search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence in LIGO and Virgo data from S5 and VSR1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the results of the first search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence using data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Virgo detectors. Five months of data were collected ...

Barsotti, Lisa

228

Production and field performance of transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) expressing alpha-amylase and manganese-dependent lignin peroxidase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transgenic alfalfa plants expressinBacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase and mangaese-dependent lignin peroxidase (Mn-P...Phanerochaete chrysosporium were produced using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens...transformat...

S. Austin; E. T. Bingham; D. E. Mathews; M. N. Shahan; J. Will; R. R. Burgess

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

An advanced understanding of the specific effects of xylan and surface lignin contents on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, chemical pulping techniques were applied to create a set of biomass substrates with intact lignocellulosic fibers and controlled morphological and chemical properties to allow the investigation of the individual effects of xylan and surface lignin content on enzymatic hydrolysis. A high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique was established for quantifying surface lignin content on lignocellulosic biomass substrates. The results from this study show that, apart from its hindrance effect, xylan can facilitate cellulose fibril swelling and thus create more accessible surface area, which improves enzyme and substrate interactions. Surface lignin has a direct impact on enzyme adsorption kinetics and hydrolysis rate. Advanced understanding of xylan and surface lignin effects provides critical information for developing more effective biomass conversion process.

Xiaohui Ju; Mark Engelhard; Xiao Zhang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Structural changes in switchgrass lignin and hemicelluloses during pretreatments by NMR analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

changes changes in switchgrass lignin and hemicelluloses during pretreatments by NMR analysis Reichel Samuel a, c , Marcus Foston a, c , Nan Jiang a, c , Lenong Allison a, c , Arthur J. Ragauskas a, b, c, * a School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA b Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA c BioEnergy Science Center, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 14 May 2011 Received in revised form 13 August 2011 Accepted 25 August 2011 Available online xxx Keywords: Switchgrass Pretreatment HSQC NMR analysis Lignin a b s t r a c t Switchgrass is currently being developed as a sustainable bio-energy crop due to its broad adaptability, high mass yield and low agricultural input. Its current conversion to biofuels is detrimentally impacted by its native recalcitrance which is typically addressed using

231

A Preliminary Study of Oxidation of Lignin from Rubber Wood to Vanillin in Ionic Liquid Medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, lignin was oxidised to vanillin by means of oxygen in ionic liquid (1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate) medium. The parameters of the oxidation reaction that have been investigated were the following: concentration of oxygen (5, 10, 15 and 20 ft3 h-1), reaction time (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h) and reaction temperature (25, 40, 60, 80 and 100{\\deg}C). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet-visible analyses were used to characterise the product. The results revealed vanillin as the product obtained via the oxidation reaction. The optimum parameters of vanillin production were 20 ft3 h-1 of oxygen for 10 h at 100{\\deg}C. In conclusion, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate could be used as an oxidation reaction medium for the production of vanillin from rubber wood lignin.

Shamsuri, A A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Effect of the Temperature on the Composition of Lignin Pyrolysis Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bioenergy Research Group, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, United Kingdom ... There is a lack of quantitative information on the temperature dependence of the interesting phenolic compounds in the literature, which is important for converting lignin into value-added aromatic compounds through the pyrolysis route. ... The maximum temperature for the PyGC?MS study was set at 800 °C after reviewing the yield of phenolic compounds, which peaked around 600 °C. ...

Guozhan Jiang; Daniel J. Nowakowski; Anthony V. Bridgwater

2010-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

233

Computational Study of Bond Dissociation Enthalpies for Substituted $\\beta$-O-4 Lignin Model Compounds  

SciTech Connect

The biopolymer lignin is a potential source of valuable chemicals. Phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) is representative of the dominant $\\beta$-O-4 ether linkage. Density functional theory (DFT) is used to calculate the Boltzmann-weighted carbon-oxygen and carbon-carbon bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) of substituted PPE. These values are important in order to understand lignin decomposition. Exclusion of all conformers that have distributions of less than 5\\% at 298 K impacts the BDE by less than 1 kcal mol$^{-1}$. We find that aliphatic hydroxyl/methylhydroxyl substituents introduce only small changes to the BDEs (0-3 kcal mol$^{-1}$). Substitution on the phenyl ring at the $ortho$ position substantially lowers the C-O BDE, except in combination with the hydroxyl/methylhydroxyl substituents, where the effect of methoxy substitution is reduced by hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding between the aliphatic substituents and the ether oxygen in the PPE derivatives has a significant influence on the BDE. CCSD(T)-calculated BDEs and hydrogen bond strengths of $ortho$-substituted anisoles when compared with M06-2X values confirm that the latter method is sufficient to describe the molecules studied and provide an important benchmark for lignin model compounds.

Younker, Jarod M [ORNL; Beste, Ariana [ORNL; Buchanan III, A C [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Investigation of Catalytic Pathways and Separations fro Lignin Breakdown into Monomers and Fuels  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the energy and material consumption for three different lignin conversion pathways has been carried out in order to assess their relative promise. Recommendations to allow for improved performance based on the current state of the art have been made, with particular focus on the use of heterogeneous nanocatalysts. Lignin is currently burned for heat and power in industrial processes, but its aromaticity and high energy content make it a good source for fuels and chemical feedstocks. The conversion of lignin to value added products has been the subject of a number of excellent reviews, and it is upon this literature as well as recent publications that the processes were selected. The analysis includes consideration of the thermodynamics of conversion, the technical feasibility of each process, and the energy and material balance. For each of the processes, improvements to future research activities have been suggested to move the processes from the bench-scale to large-scale demonstrations. This analysis is not meant to be comprehensive, in terms of process, feedstock, or selected criteria. However, this work illustrates a path forward following pre-established goals of thermodynamic efficiency, selectivity, and feasibility.

McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Gluckstein, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Kidder, Michelle [ORNL; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL; Sturgeon, Matthew R [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Radical Coupling Reactions in Lignin Synthesis: A Density Functional Theory Study  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is a complex, heterogeneous polymer in plant cell walls that provides mechanical strength to the plant stem and confers resistance to degrading microbes, enzymes, and chemicals. Lignin synthesis initiates through oxidative radical-radical coupling of monolignols, the most common of which are p-coumaryl, coniferyl, and sinapyl alcohols. Here, we use density functional theory to characterize radical-radical coupling reactions involved in monolignol dimerization. We compute reaction enthalpies for the initial self- and cross-coupling reactions of these monolignol radicals to form dimeric intermediates via six major linkages observed in natural lignin. The 8-O-4, 8-8, and 8-5 coupling are computed to be the most favorable, whereas the 5-O-4, 5-5, and 8-1 linkages are less favorable. Overall, p-coumaryl self- and cross-coupling reactions are calculated to be the most favorable. For cross-coupling reactions, in which each radical can couple via either of the two sites involved in dimer formation, the more reactive of the two radicals is found to undergo coupling at its site with the highest spin density.

Sangha, A. K.; Parks, J. M.; Standaert, R. F.; Ziebell, A.; Davis, M.; Smith, J. C.

2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

236

Direct Detection of Soil mRNAs using Targeted Microarrays for Genes Associated with Lignin Degradation  

SciTech Connect

Microarrays have become established tools for describing microbial systems, however the assessment of expression profiles for environmental microbial communities still presents unique challenges. Notably, the concentration of particular transcripts are likely very dilute relative to the pool of total RNA, and PCR-based amplification strategies are vulnerable to amplification biases and the appropriate primer selection. Thus, we apply a signal amplification approach, rather than template amplification, to analyze the expression of genes encoding selected lignin-degrading enzymes in soil. Controls in the form of known amplicons and cDNA from Phanerochaete chrysosporium were included and mixed with the soil cDNA both before and after the signal amplification in order to assess the dynamic range of the microarray. We demonstrate that restored prairie soil expresses a diverse range of genes encoding lignin-degrading enzymes following incubation with lignin substrate, while farmed agricultural soil does not. The mixed additions of control cDNA with soil cDNA does interfere with detection of the low abundance transcripts, nevertheless this microarray approach consistently reports the higher-abundance transcripts which present more robust signals.

Bailey, Vanessa L.; Fansler, Sarah J.; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Smith, Jeff L.; Waters, Katrina M.; Bolton, Harvey

2010-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

237

Improved Wood Properties Through Genetic Manipulation: Engineering of Syringyl Lignin in Softwood Species Through Xylem-Specific Expression of Hardwood Syringyl Monolignol Pathway Genes  

SciTech Connect

Project Objective: Our long-term goal is to genetically engineer higher value raw materials with desirable wood properties to promote energy efficiency, international competitiveness, and environmental responsiveness of the U.S. forest products industry. The immediate goal of this project was to produce the first higher value softwood raw materials engineered with a wide range of syringyl lignin quantities. Summary: The most important wood property affecting directly the levels of energy, chemical and bleaching requirements for kraft pulp production is lignin. Softwoods contain almost exclusively chemically resistant guaiacyl (G) lignin, whereas hardwoods have more reactive or easily degradable lignins of the guaiacyl (G)-syringyl (S) type. It is also well established that the reactive S lignin component is the key factor that permits much lower effective alkali and temperature, shorter pulping time and less bleaching stages for processing hardwoods than for softwoods. Furthermore, our pulping kinetic study explicitly demonstrated that every increase in one unit of the lignin S/G ratio would roughly double the rate of lignin removal. These are clear evidence that softwoods genetically engineered with S lignin are keys to revolutionizing the energy efficiency and enhancing the environmental performance of this industry. Softwoods and hardwoods share the same genetic mechanisms for the biosynthesis of G lignin. However, in hardwoods, three additional genes branch out from the G-lignin pathway and become specifically engaged in regulating S lignin biosynthesis. In this research, we simultaneously transferred aspen S-specific genes into a model softwood, black spruce, to engineer S lignin.

Chandrashekhar P. Joshi; Vincent L. Chiang

2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

238

General coalescence conditions for the exact wave functions. II. Higher-order relations for many-particle systems  

SciTech Connect

We derived the necessary conditions that must be satisfied by the non-relativistic time-independent exact wave functions for many-particle systems at a two-particle coalescence (or cusp) point. Some simple conditions are known to be Kato's cusp condition (CC) and Rassolov and Chipman's CC. In a previous study, we derived an infinite number of necessary conditions that two-particle wave functions must satisfy at a coalescence point. In the present study, we extend these conditions to many-particle systems. They are called general coalescence conditions (GCCs), and Kato's CC and Rassolov and Chipman's CC are included as special conditions. GCCs can be applied not only to Coulombic systems but also to any system in which the interaction between two particles is represented in a power series of inter-particle distances. We confirmed the correctness of our derivation of the GCCs by applying the exact wave function of a harmonium in electron-electron and electron-nucleus coalescence situations. In addition, we applied the free complement (FC) wave functions of a helium atom to the GCCs to examine the accuracy of the FC wave function in the context of a coalescence situation.

Kurokawa, Yusaku I., E-mail: y-kurokawa@qcri.or.jp, E-mail: h.nakatsuji@qcri.or.jp; Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi, E-mail: y-kurokawa@qcri.or.jp, E-mail: h.nakatsuji@qcri.or.jp [Quantum Chemistry Research Institute, Kyodai Katsura Venture Plaza 107, Goryo Oohara 1-36, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8245 (Japan)

2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

239

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates were completed and issued. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility hydrolysis production has been completed to produce lignin for co-fire testing and the lignin fuel was washed and dewatered. Both the lignin and bio-solids fuel materials for co-fire testing were sent to the co-fire facility (EERC) for evaluation and co-firing. EERC has received coal typical of the fuel to the TVA-Colbert boilers. This material was used at EERC as baseline material and for mixing with the bio-fuel for combustion testing. All the combustion and fuel handling tests at EERC have been completed. During fuel preparation EERC reported no difficulties in fuel blending and handling. Preliminary co-fire test results indicate that the blending of lignin and bio-solids with the Colbert coal blend generally reduces NO{sub x} emissions, increases the reactivity of the coal, and increases the ash deposition rate on superheater surfaces. Deposits produced from the fuel blends, however, are more friable and hence easier to remove from tube surfaces relative to those produced from the baseline Colbert coal blend. The final co-fire testing report is being prepared at EERC and will be completed by the end of the second quarter of 2002. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed assessment of steam export impacts on the Colbert boiler system have been completed and a cost estimate for the steam supply system was completed. The cost estimate and output and heat rate impacts have been used to determine a preliminary price for the exported steam. TVA is further evaluating the impacts of adding lignin to the coal fuel blend and how the steam cost is impacted by proximity of the Masada biomass facility.

Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Lipid-Based Nanodiscs as Models for Studying Mesoscale Coalescence A Transport Limited Case  

SciTech Connect

Lipid-based nanodiscs (bicelles) are able to form in mixtures of long- and short-chain lipids. Initially, they are of uniform size but grow upon dilution. Previously, nanodisc growth kinetics have been studied using time-resolved small angle neutron scattering (SANS), a technique which is not well suited for probing their change in size immediately after dilution. To address this, we have used dynamic light scattering (DLS), a technique which permits the collection of useful data in a short span of time after dilution of the system. The DLS data indicate that the negatively charged lipids in nanodiscs play a significant role in disc stability and growth. Specifically, the charged lipids are most likely drawn out from the nanodiscs into solution, thereby reducing interparticle repulsion and enabling the discs to grow. We describe a population balance model, which takes into account Coulombic interactions and adequately predicts the initial growth of nanodiscs with a single parameter i.e., surface potential. The results presented here strongly support the notion that the disc coalescence rate strongly depends on nanoparticle charge density. The present system containing low-polydispersity lipid nanodiscs serves as a good model for understanding how charged discoidal micelles coalesce.

Hu, Andrew [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Fan, Tai-Hsi [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Katsaras, John [ORNL; Xia, Yan [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Li, Ming [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Nieh, Mu-Ping [University of Connecticut, Storrs

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Studies of waveform requirements for intermediate mass-ratio coalescence searches with advanced detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The coalescence of a stellar-mass compact object into an intermediate-mass black hole (intermediate mass-ratio coalescence; IMRAC) is an important astrophysical source for ground-based gravitational-wave interferometers in the so-called advanced configuration. However, the ability to carry out effective matched-filter based searches for these systems is limited by the lack of reliable waveforms. Here we consider binaries in which the intermediate-mass black hole has mass in the range 24 - 200 solar masses with a stellar-mass companion having masses in the range 1.4 - 18.5 solar masses. In addition, we constrain the mass ratios, q, of the binaries to be in the range 1/140 searches could be performed with losses in detection rates L in the range 10% searches based on inspiral-only templates lead to a loss in detection rates in the range 27% < L < 50%$, and (iii) templates that include merger and ringdown are essential to prevent losses in detection rates greater than 50%. We investigate the effectiveness with which the inspiral-only portion of the IMRAC waveform space is covered by comparing several existing waveform families in this regime. Our results reinforce the importance of extensive numerical relativity simulations of IMRACs and the need for further studies of suitable approximation schemes in this mass range.

R. J. E. Smith; I. Mandel; A. Vecchio

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

242

The detectability of eccentric compact binary coalescences with advanced gravitational-wave detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compact binary coalescences are a promising source of gravitational waves for second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors such as advanced LIGO and advanced Virgo. While most binaries are expected to possess circular orbits, some may be eccentric, for example, if they are formed through dynamical capture. Eccentric orbits can create difficulty for matched filtering searches due to the challenges of creating effective template banks to detect these signals. In previous work, we showed how seedless clustering can be used to detect low-mass ($M_\\text{total}\\leq10M_\\odot$) compact binary coalescences for both spinning and eccentric systems, assuming a circular post-Newtonian expansion. Here, we describe a parameterization that is designed to maximize sensitivity to low-eccentricity ($0\\leq\\epsilon\\leq0.6$) systems, derived from the analytic equations. We show that this parameterization provides a robust and computationally efficient method for detecting eccentric low-mass compact binaries. Based on these results, we conclude that advanced detectors will have a chance of detecting eccentric binaries if optimistic models prove true. However, a null observation is unlikely to firmly rule out models of eccentric binary populations.

Michael Coughlin; Patrick Meyers; Eric Thrane; Jialun Luo; Nelson Christensen

2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

243

Coalescence of Drops Near A Hydrophilic Boundary Leads to Long Range Directed Motion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new mechanism for the passive removal of drop on a horizontal surface is described that does not require pre-fabrication of a surface energy gradient. The method relies upon the preparation of alternate hydrophilic/hydrophobic stripes on a surface. When one side of this surface is exposed to steam, with its other surface convectively cooled with cold water, steam condenses as a continuous film on the hydrophilic stripes but as droplets on the hydrophobic stripes. Coalescence leads to a random motion of the center of mass of the fused drops on the surface, which are readily removed as they reach near the boundary of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic zones thus resulting in a net diffusive flux of the coalesced drops from the hydrophobic to the hydrophilic stripes of the surface. Although an in-situ produced thermal gradient due to differential heat transfer coefficients of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes could provide additional driving force for such a motion, it is, however, not a necessary condition for motion to occur. This method of creating directed motion of drops does not require a pre-existing wettability gradient and may have useful applications in thermal management devices.

Manoj K. Chaudhury; Aditi Chakrabarti; Tapasya Tibrewal

2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

244

Effect of Lignin Removal by Alkaline Peroxide Pretreatment on the Susceptibility of Corn Stover to Purified Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzymes  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment of corn stover with alkaline peroxide (AP) at pH 11.5 resulted in reduction of lignin content in the residual solids as a function of increasing batch temperature. Scanning electron microscopy of these materials revealed notably more textured surfaces on the plant cell walls as a result of the delignifying pretreatment. As expected, digestion of the delignified samples with commercial cellulase preparations showed an inverse relationship between the content of lignin present in the residual solids after pretreatment and the extent of both glucan and xylan conversion achievable. Digestions with purified enzymes revealed that decreased lignin content in the pretreated solids did not significantly impact the extent of glucan conversion achievable by cellulases alone. Not until purified xylanolytic activities were included with the cellulases were significant improvements in glucan conversion realized. In addition, an inverse relationship was observed between lignin content after pretreatment and the extent of xylan conversion achievable in a 24-h period with the xylanolytic enzymes in the absence of the cellulases. This observation, coupled with the direct relationship between enzymatic xylan and glucan conversion observed in a number of cases, suggests that the presence of lignins may not directly occlude cellulose present in lignocelluloses but rather impact cellulase action indirectly by its association with xylan.

Selig, M. J.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Xylan and Lignin Deposition on the Secondary Wall of Fagus Crenata Fibers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABSTRACT The secondary wall ultrastructure of Fagus crenata fibers was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Specimens were treated with sodium chlorite and xylanase to remove lignin and xylan, respectively. Microfibrils were clearly visible at the innermost surface of the differentiating fiber secondary wall and there were no globular substances observed in the control specimen. After delignification or xylanase-degradation, microfibrils remained almost the same size and had the same appearance as controls. Anti-xylan antiserum immunolabeling, however, indicated that the microfibrils were coated with very thin layer of xylan1. Microfibrils were not apparent in the secondary wall of the mature fiber in control specimens. The secondary wall appeared to be a single homogeneous substance. Microfibrils with many globular substances were observed in the delignified specimens and their diameter was larger than that of microfibrils at the surface of the differentiating secondary wall. Following xylanase treatment, the microfibrils had a smooth surface without any globules, indicating that the globular structure is xylan. On the basis of these results, we propose the following mechanism for secondary wall assembly. Cellulose microfibrils synthesized on the plasma membrane are released into the innermost surface of the secondary wall and coated with a very thin layer of xylan that was previously deposited there. Successive deposition of xylan into the cell wall increases the diameter of the microfibrils. The large amount of xylan deposited on the microfibrils has a globular appearance. Lignin deposition occurs simultaneously with xylan deposition and, finally, microfibrils with globular xylan are masked with lignin, resulting in the homogeneous appearance of the cell wall.

Tatsuya Awano; Keiji Takabe; Minoru Fujita

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE-C and -D Are the Primary Genes Involved in Lignin Biosynthesis in the Floral Stem of Arabidopsis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cad-d mutants, and this increase in transcript level seems to...that the signal is of high quality), A (absent, indicating...Manipulation of lignin quality by downregulation of cinnamyl...plants with antisense CAD gene: Wine-red lignin from coniferyl...

Richard Sibout; Aymerick Eudes; Gregory Mouille; Brigitte Pollet; Catherine Lapierre; Lise Jouanin; Armand Séguin

2005-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

247

Continuous on-line measurement of lignin concentration in wood pulp  

SciTech Connect

We are working toward the development of an instrument for the continuous, on-line measurement of the lignin concentration in wood pulp. The instrument is based on laser induced fluorescence of the wood pulp and is to be used as a primary sensor for both feedback control of the pulping and feedforward control of bleaching. We report here the results of a series of laboratory tests that characterized the fluorescence properties of wood pulp and demonstrated a correlation between various fluorescence functions and the Kappa number of the pulps as determined by TAPPI Procedure T236.

Jeffers, L.A.; Roman, G.W.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

J/psi production from charm coalescence in relativistic heavy ion collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J/psi production and collective flow is studied with a coalescence model based on phase space distribution of charm quarks from a multi-phase transport model simulation of relativistic heavy ion collisions. Both the yield and the flow of J/psi particles are sensitive to charm quark final state interactions. As the charm quark rescattering cross section increases from 3 mb to 10 mb, J/psi elliptic flow increases faster than corresponding light hadron elliptic flows. The v_2(p_t) of J/psi crosses that of D mesons to reach a value that is about the peak value of the D meson flow but at a higher p_t. As J/psi elliptic flow has only contributions from charm quarks, it complements D meson elliptic flow in reflecting charm properties in the Quark-Gluon Plasma.

Bin Zhang

2006-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

249

Decline of the current quadrupole moment during the merger phase of binary black hole coalescence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Utilizing the tools of tendex and vortex, we study the highly dynamic plunge and merger phases of several $\\pi$-symmetric binary black hole coalescences. In particular, we observe a decline of the strength of the current quadrupole moment as compared to that of the mass quadrupole moment during the merger phase, contrary to a naive estimate according to the dependence of these moments on the separation between the black holes. We further show that this decline of the current quadrupole moment is achieved through the remnants of the two individual spins becoming nearly aligned or anti-aligned with the total angular momentum. We also speculate on the implication of our observations for achieving a consistency between the electric and magnetic parity quasinormal modes.

Fan Zhang

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

250

Current Biology 19, 169175, January 27, 2009 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2008.12.031 Discovery of Lignin in Seaweed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.cub.2008.12.031 Report Discovery of Lignin in Seaweed Reveals Convergent Evolution of Cell in the evolution of terrestrial plants from aquatic ancestors some 475 million years ago [1­3]. Lignins, complex an erect-growth habit in air. Although ``lignin-like'' compounds have been identi- fied in primitive green

Martone, Patrick T.

251

Coalescing Neutron Stars -- a Step Towards Physical Models. I. Hydrodynamic Evolution and Gravitational-Wave Emission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the dynamics and evolution of coalescing neutron stars. Although the code (Piecewise Parabolic Method) is purely Newtonian, we do include the emission of gravitational waves and their backreaction on the hydrodynamic flow. The properties of neutron star matter are described by the physical equation of state of Lattimer \\& Swesty (1991). Energy loss by all types of neutrinos and changes of the electron fraction due to the emission of electron neutrinos and antineutrinos are taken into account by an elaborate ``neutrino leakage scheme''. We simulate the coalescence of two identical, cool neutron stars with a baryonic mass of $\\approx\\!1.6\\,M_\\odot$ and a radius of $\\approx\\!15$~km and with an initial center-to-center distance of 42~km. The initial distributions of density and electron concentration are given from a model of a cold neutron star in hydrostatic equilibrium (central temperature about $8\\,{\\rm MeV}$). We investigate three cases which differ by the initial velocity distribution in the neutron stars, representing different cases of the neutron star spins relative to the direction of the orbital angular momentum vector. Within about 1~ms the neutron stars merge into a rapidly spinning ($P_{\\rm spin}\\approx 1$~ms), high-density body ($\\rho\\approx 10^{14}$~g/cm$^3$) with a surrounding thick disk of material with densities $\\rho\\approx 10^{10}-10^{12}$~g/cm$^3$ and orbital velocities of~0.3--0.5~c. In this work we evaluate the models in detail with respect to the gravitational wave emission using the quadrupole approximation. In a forthcoming paper we will concentrate on the neutrino emission and implications for gamma-ray bursters. A maximum luminosity in excess of $10^{55}$~erg/s is reached for about 1~ms.

M. Ruffert; H. -Th. Janka; G. Schaefer

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Search for gravitational waves from low mass binary coalescences in the first year of LIGO’s S5 data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have searched for gravitational waves from coalescing low mass compact binary systems with a total mass between 2M[subscript ?] and 35M[subscript ?] and a minimum component mass of 1M[subscript ?] using data from the ...

Zucker, Michael E.

253

Effect of certain admixtures on coalescence of drops in the extraction system TBP-HNO{sub 3} (HCl)  

SciTech Connect

An attempt is made to characterize quantitatively the effect of the TBP hydrolysis products (butanol and dibutyl phosphate) and silica admixtures on the drop coalescene in the two-phase system TBP-HNO{sub 3} (or HCl). Lifetimes of a great number of particular drops on the planar phase boundary were measured, and the lifetime distribution was analyzed. This allowed determination of the coalescence constant and also (using physicochemical properties of the two-phase systems) estimation of depth of the continuous phase layer between the drop and the planar phase boundary at the instant of the drop appearance on the surface, at the point when the coalescence becomes possible as a result of mechanical and thermal fluctuations, and at the point when the coalescence is decelerated by virtue of certain reasons. The coalescence rate at practically the same physical parameters of the system is determined to a great extent by the nature of compounds occurring on the interface. The structural-mechanical barriers due to the occurrence of silica in the surface layer of the aqueous solution containing 3 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.03 M SiO{sub 2} are estimated at the planar phase boundary. In this case, the interface region is sharply different in physical properties from the bulk of the phases.

Sinegribova, O.A.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Chemical Characterization of Lignin and Lipid Fractions in Industrial Hemp Bast Fibers Used for Manufacturing High-Quality Paper Pulps  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Klason lignin was estimated as the residue after sulfuric acid hydrolysis of the pre-extracted material, and neutral sugars from polysaccharide hydrolysis were analyzed as alditol acetates by GC according to Tappi rules T222 om-88 and T249 om85 (14), respectively. ... 57/341/369/437/453/760 ...

Ana Gutiérrez; Isabel M. Rodríguez; José C. del Río

2006-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

255

Conceptual design assessment for the co-firing of bio-refinery supplied lignin project. Quarterly report, June 23--July 1, 2000  

SciTech Connect

The Conceptual Design Assessment for the Co-Firing of Bio-Refinery Supplied Lignin Project was successfully kicked off on July 23, 2000 during a meeting at the TVA-PPI facility in Muscle Shoals, AL. An initial timeline for the study was distributed, issues of concern were identified and a priority actions list was developed. Next steps include meeting with NETL to discuss de-watering and lignin fuel testing, the development of the mass balance model and ethanol facility design criteria, providing TVA-Colbert with preliminary lignin fuel analysis and the procurement of representative feed materials for the pilot and bench scale testing of the hydrolysis process.

Berglund, T.; Ranney, J.T.; Babb, C.L.

2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

256

Active reagents from brown coal and hydrolysis lignin and their interaction with calcium phosphates  

SciTech Connect

A method has been developed for producing active reagents from brown coal and hydrolysis lignin by their oxidation with dilute nitric acid. The products obtained contain up to 30 and 46% respectively of humic acids with active functional groups. Reactions of oxidized and ammoniated coal with mono,- di-, and tricalcium phosphate have also been studied. The variation of the composition and yield of the reaction products with the ratio of the substances taken have been investigated. It has been found that the addition of oxidized coal to mono-, di-, and tricalcium phosphate raised the quantity of the water-soluble P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ froms, i.e., this hinders phosphorous fixation in the soil.

Rubinchik, G.F.; Adylkhodzhaeva, T.A.; Tadzhiev, A.T.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Iodine Treatment of Lignin–Cellulose Acetate Electrospun Fibers: Enhancement of Green Fiber Carbonization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Iodine Treatment of Lignin–Cellulose Acetate Electrospun Fibers: Enhancement of Green Fiber Carbonization ... The chemical composition of the samples were analyzed using an Oxford Instruments X-Max20 energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), Thermo Scientific Nicolet 6700 Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with a GladiATR single reflection ATR accessory (operated between 400 and 4000 cm–1 with a 4 cm–1 resolution averaged over 40 scans), and Renishaw Raman spectrometer operated using a 785 nm near-infrared laser (1100–1900 cm–1 with a 0.8 cm–1 resolution averaged over 3 scans). ... This work presents a systematic study of the ratio between the integrated intensities of the disorder-induced D and G Raman bands (ID/IG) in nanographite samples with different crystallite sizes (La) and using different excitation laser energies. ...

Makoto Schreiber; Singaravelu Vivekanandhan; Amar Kumar Mohanty; Manjusri Misra

2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

258

Rapid Determination of Lignin Content via Direct Dissolution and 1HNMR Analysis of Plant Cell Walls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

02/cssc.201000120 02/cssc.201000120 Rapid Determination of Lignin Content via Direct Dissolution and 1 H NMR Analysis of Plant Cell Walls Nan Jiang, [a, b] Yunqiao Pu, [b] and Arthur J. Ragauskas* [a, b] Increasing societal demand for environmental and economic sustainability is placing a renewed focus on the agro-forest in- dustry. This industry plays an essential role in the development of renewable energy and biofuels, especially in light of grow- ing concerns related to energy security and climate change. [1] The economical transformation of differing sources of biomass into biofuels has become a global research theme, directed at displacing nonrenewable petroluem-based resources to reduce long-term carbon dioxide emissions. [2] Although most current bioethanol and biodiesel plants represent first-generation biorefi- neries, utilizing readily processa- ble bioresources such as

259

Application of Graphics Processing Units to Search Pipeline for Gravitational Waves from Coalescing Binaries of Compact Objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a novel application of graphics processing units (GPUs) for the purpose of accelerating the search pipelines for gravitational waves from coalescing binaries of compact objects. A speed-up of 16 fold has been achieved compared with a single central processing unit (CPU). We show that substantial improvements are possible and discuss the reduction in CPU count required for the detection of inspiral sources afforded by the use of GPUs.

Shin Kee Chung; Linqing Wen; David Blair; Kipp Cannon; Amitava Datta

2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

260

Search for gravitational waves from low mass compact binary coalescence in LIGO’s sixth science run and Virgo’s science runs 2 and 3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a search for gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries using LIGO and Virgo observations between July 7, 2009, and October 20, 2010. We searched for signals from binaries with total mass between 2 ...

Barsotti, Lisa

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

On the use of higher order waveforms in the search for gravitational waves emitted by compact binary coalescences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis concerns the use, in gravitational wave data analysis, of higher order waveform models of the gravitational radiation emitted by compact binary coalescences. We begin with an introductory chapter that includes an overview of the theory of general relativity, gravitational radiation and ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors. We then discuss, in Chapter 2, the gravitational waves emitted by compact binary coalescences, with an explanation of higher order waveforms and how they differ from leading order waveforms; we also introduce the post-Newtonian formalism. In Chapter 3 the method and results of a gravitational wave search for low mass compact binary coalescences using a subset of LIGO's 5th science run data are presented and in the subsequent chapter we examine how one could use higher order waveforms in such analyses. We follow the development of a new search algorithm that incorporates higher order waveforms with promising results for detection efficiency and parameter estimation. In Chapter 5, a new method of windowing time-domain waveforms that offers benefit to gravitational wave searches is presented. The final chapter covers the development of a game designed as an outreach project to raise public awareness and understanding of the search for gravitational waves.

D. J. A. McKechan

2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

262

Measuring coalescing massive binary black holes with gravitational waves: The impact of spin-induced precession  

SciTech Connect

The coalescence of massive black holes generates gravitational waves (GWs) that will be measurable by space-based detectors such as LISA to large redshifts. The spins of a binary's black holes have an important impact on its waveform. Specifically, geodetic and gravitomagnetic effects cause the spins to precess; this precession then modulates the waveform, adding periodic structure which encodes useful information about the binary's members. Following pioneering work by Vecchio, we examine the impact upon GW measurements of including these precession-induced modulations in the waveform model. We find that the additional periodicity due to spin precession breaks degeneracies among certain parameters, greatly improving the accuracy with which they may be measured. In particular, mass measurements are improved tremendously, by one to several orders of magnitude. Localization of the source on the sky is also improved, though not as much--low redshift systems can be localized to an ellipse which is roughly 10-a fewx10 arcminutes in the long direction and a factor of 2 smaller in the short direction. Though not a drastic improvement relative to analyses which neglect spin precession, even modest gains in source localization will greatly facilitate searches for electromagnetic counterparts to GW events. Determination of distance to the source is likewise improved: We find that relative error in measured luminosity distance is commonly {approx}0.1%-0.4% at z{approx}1. Finally, with the inclusion of precession, we find that the magnitude of the spins themselves can typically be determined for low redshift systems with an accuracy of about 0.1%-10%, depending on the spin value, allowing accurate surveys of mass and spin evolution over cosmic time.

Lang, Ryan N.; Hughes, Scott A. [Department of Physics and MIT Kavli Institute, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Computational Analysis of the Pyrolysis of ..beta..-O4 Lignin Model Compounds: Concerted vs. Homolytic Fragmentation  

SciTech Connect

The thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels is a very attractive technology for expanding the utilization of carbon neutral processes and reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources. As with all such emerging technologies, biomass conversion through gasification or pyrolysis has a number of obstacles that need to be overcome to make these processes cost competitive with the refining of fossil fuels. Our current efforts have focused on the investigation of the thermochemistry of the linkages between lignin units using ab initio calculations on dimeric lignin model compounds. All calculations were carried out using M062X density functional theory at the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The M062X method has been shown to be consistent with the CBS-QB3 method while being significantly less computationally expensive. To date we have only completed the study on the b-O4 compounds. The theoretical calculations performed in the study indicate that concerted elimination pathways dominate over bond homolysis reactions under typical pyrolysis conditions. However, this does not mean that concerted elimination will be the dominant loss process for lignin. Bimolecular radical chemistry could very well dwarf the unimolecular pathways investigated in this study. These concerted pathways tend to form stable, reasonably non-reactive products that would be more suited producing a fungible bio-oil for the production of liquid transportation fuels.

Clark, J. M.; Robichaud, D. J.; Nimlos, M. R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

ATP-binding cassette-like transporters are involved in the transport of lignin precursors across plasma and vacuolar membranes  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is a complex biopolymer derived primarily from the condensation of three monomeric precursors, the monolignols. The synthesis of monolignols occurs in the cytoplasm. To reach the cell wall where they are oxidized and polymerized, they must be transported across the cell membrane. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the transport process are unclear. There are conflicting views about whether the transport of these precursors occurs by passive diffusion or is an energized active process; further, we know little about what chemical forms are required. Using isolated plasma and vacuolar membrane vesicles prepared from Arabidopsis, together with applying different transporter inhibitors in the assays, we examined the uptake of monolignols and their derivatives by these native membrane vesicles. We demonstrate that the transport of lignin precursors across plasmalemma and their sequestration into vacuoles are ATP-dependent primary-transport processes, involving ATP-binding cassette-like transporters. Moreover, we show that both plasma and vacuolar membrane vesicles selectively transport different forms of lignin precursors. In the presence of ATP, the inverted plasma membrane vesicles preferentially take up monolignol aglycones, whereas the vacuolar vesicles are more specific for glucoconjugates, suggesting that the different ATP-binding cassette-like transporters recognize different chemical forms in conveying them to distinct sites, and that glucosylation of monolignols is necessary for their vacuolar storage but not required for direct transport into the cell wall in Arabidopsis.

Miao, Y.C.; Liu, C.

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

265

Solution of bubble number density with breakage and coalescence in a bubble column by Least-Squares Method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A steady-state model has been built for an air-water bubble column. The bubble number density constitutive equation has been formulated through integrating the bubble transport equation. Proper kernels for bubble breakage and coalescence rate have been chosen. The momentum balance of the gas phase is included in the model which leads to a set of non-linear differential equations. The model has been successfully solved by using the Least-Squares Method (LSM) with high accuracy and fast convergence. The successive iteration has been applied to the linearised equation set. The model shows excellent agreements with experimental data.

Zhengjie Zhu; Carlos A. Dorao; Hugo A. Jakobsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Rapid prototyping using visual programming tools  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Keywords: AppWare, Prograph, Visual AppBuilder, authoring tools, end-user programming, protyping, visual languages, visual programming

Kurt J. Schmucker

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Visualizing Gyrokinetic Simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The continuing advancement of plasma science is central to realizing fusion as an inexpensive and safe energy source. Gryokinetic simulations of plasmas are fundamental to the understanding of turbulent transport in fusion plasma. This paper discusses ... Keywords: graphics hardware, non-rectilinear mesh, plasma physics, scientific visualization, texture methods, volume visualization

David Crawford; Kwan-Liu Ma; Min-Yu Huang; Scott Klasky; Stephane Ethier

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Thermodynamics for Visual Learners  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamics for Visual Learners ... I have developed several examples for visual learners in the area of thermodynamics and would like to share these with other professors. ... The examples center around the following topics: the second law of thermodynamics, isothermal processes (ideal gas), ideal gas changes of state, and the relationship between internal energy, temperature, and heat. ...

Todd M. Hamilton

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Prospects for joint gravitational-wave and electromagnetic observations of neutron-star--black-hole coalescing binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coalescing neutron-star-black-hole (NS-BH) binaries are a promising source of gravitational-wave (GW) signals detectable with large-scale laser interferometers such as Advanced LIGO and Virgo. They are also one of the main short gamma-ray burst (SGRB) progenitor candidates. If the BH tidally disrupts its companion, an SGRB may be ignited when a sufficiently massive accretion disk forms around the remnant BH. Detecting an NS-BH coalescence both in the GW and electromagnetic (EM) spectrum offers a wealth of information about the nature of the source. How much can actually be inferred from a joint detection is unclear, however, as a mass/spin degeneracy may reduce the GW measurement accuracy. To shed light on this problem and on the potential of joint EM+GW observations, we here combine recent semi-analytical predictions for the remnant disk mass with estimates of the parameter-space portion that is selected by a GW detection. We identify cases in which an SGRB ignition is supported, others in which it can be ex...

Pannarale, Francesco

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Advanced Recombinant Manganese Peroxidase for Biosynthesis of Lignin Bioproducts, Phase I Final Report, STTR Grant #: DE-SC0007503.  

SciTech Connect

The core purpose of this Phase I STTR was to evaluate the feasibility of a new method of producing a recombinant version of manganese peroxidase (MnP) enzyme. MnP is a potentially valuable enzyme for producing high value lignin products and also for industrial de-coloring operations such as biobleaching of pulp and color removal from textile dye effluents. This lignin-modifying enzyme is produced in small amounts by the native host, a white rot fungus. Previous work by Oregon State University developed a secreted recombinant version of the enzyme in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Unfortunately, the expression is barely moderate and the enzyme is heavily glycosylated, which inhibits purification. In this work, the gene for the enzyme is given a tag which targets production of the enzyme to the peroxisome. This is a promising approach since this location is also where heme and hydrogen peroxide are sequestered, which are both necessary cofactors for MnP. More than ten recombinant strains were constructed, verified, and expressed in the Pichia system. Constitutive (GAP) and methanol-induced promoters (AOX) were tried for peroxisomal targeted, cytosolic, and secreted versions of MnP. Only the secreted strains showed activity. The amount of expression was not significantly changed. The degree of glycosylation was lessened using the AOX (methanol) promotoer, but the resulting enzyme was still not able to be purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Additional work beyond the scope of the defined Phase I project was undertaken to construct, verify, and express Pichia strains that mutated the MnP glycosylation sites to inhibit this process. These strains did not show significant activity. The cause is not known, but it is possible that these sites are important to the structure of the enzyme. Also beyond the scope proposed for our Phase I STTR, the team collaborated with AbSci, a startup with a new E. coli based expression system focused on the production of antibodies and enzymes containing disulfide bonds and requiring folding/post-translational modification. With only limited time remaining in the Phase I schedule, a single construct was made to produce MnP with this system. The enzyme was produced in the soluble fraction of the cell lysate, but no activity was measured. MnP from the existing recombinant source was used to act on lignin. The lignin was from a Kraft process and had a molecular weight of about 10,000 Da. Using 1000 Da dialysis membranes and UV-visible spectroscopy, no modification of either lignin was evident in the dialysate or the retentate. Assays using 2,6 dimethoxy phenol (DMP) as a substrate showed consistent activity throughout the project. In summary, these results fell far short of our expectations. A Phase II proposal was not submitted. Possible reasons for the failure of peroxisomal targeting include destruction by native hydrogen peroxide, native proteases, or unforeseen causes. The AbSci system was only lighted tested and further work may yield a strain with active enzyme. The lack of evidence for lignin modification may be due to the techniques employed. NMR or GC-MS studies may reveal evidence of modification.

Beatty, Christopher; Kitner, Joshua; Lajoie, Curtis; McClain, Sean; Potochnik, Steve

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

271

Sisal Fibers: Surface Chemical Modification Using Reagent Obtained from a Renewable Source; Characterization of Hemicellulose and Lignin as Model Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sisal Fibers: Surface Chemical Modification Using Reagent Obtained from a Renewable Source; Characterization of Hemicellulose and Lignin as Model Study ... Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, USP, C.P. 780, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP, Brazil, and Université Bordeaux 1, US2B, UMR 5103 CNRS-INRA-UBx1, F-33405 Talence Cedex, France ... The main advantage of lignocellulosic fibers upon their mineral counterpart is their environmental friendliness, due, for instance, to the CO2 neutral life cycle and possibility of incineration for energy recovery after disposal (3). ...

Jackson D. Megiatto, Jr.; William Hoareau; Christian Gardrat; Elisabete Frollini; Alain Castellan

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

272

Using Visualization Process Graphs to Improve Visualization Exploration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using Visualization Process Graphs to Improve Visualization Exploration T. J. Jankun-Kelly1 University, MS 39762, USA. Email: tjk@acm.org Abstract. Visualization exploration is an iterative process, redundant exploration was quickly identified and eliminated. 1 Introduction During the visualization process

Jankun-Kelly, T. J.

273

Building Data Visualization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Building Data Visualization contour plot Figure 1: Contour plot showing the various operating stages of occupancy sensors described in the case study. Data visualization for buildings is the display of a rich set of variables and parameters that managers can use to verify the energy savings of energy- efficient technology and identify malfunctions in building equipment or problems with operating strategies. Effective data visualization depends on having graphic presentation formats that reveal the phenomena relevant to the building's performance. A research project at the Center for Building Science is aimed at developing data visualization techniques for improved building management. Buildings with energy management control systems as well as dedicated monitoring equipment in the

274

Medical (Visual) Information Retrieval  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This text gives a broad overview of the domain of visual medical information retrieval and medical information analysis/search in general. The goal is to describe the specifics of medical information analysis ...

Henning Müller

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

In situ growth and coalescence of He-filled bi-dimensional defects in Si by H supply  

SciTech Connect

In this work, ion implantations with in situ transmission electron microscopy observations followed by different rates of temperature ramp were performed in (001)-Si to follow the evolution of He-plates under the influence of hydrogen. The JANNUS and MIAMI facilities were used to study the first stages of growth as well as the interactions between co-planar plates. Results showed that under a limited amount of H, the growth of He-plates resulting from a subcritical stress-corrosion mechanism can be fully described by the kinetic model of Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov with effective activation energy of 0.9?eV. Elastic calculations showed that the sudden and non-isotropic coalescence of close He-plates occurs when the out-of-plane tensile stress between them is close to the yield strength of silicon. After hydrogen absorption, surface minimization of final structure occurs.

Vallet, M.; Barbot, J. F., E-mail: jean.francois.barbot@univ-poitiers.fr; Beaufort, M. F. [Department of Material Sciences, Institut Pprime (UPR 3346), CNRS, Université de Poitiers, ENSMA, BP30179, 86962 Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France); Oliviero, E. [CSNSM, CNRS—Université Paris-Sud, Bâtiment 108, Orsay (France); Donnelly, S. E.; Hinks, J. A. [School of Computing and Engineering, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield HD1 3DH (United Kingdom)

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

276

Prospects for joint gravitational-wave and electromagnetic observations of neutron-star--black-hole coalescing binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coalescing neutron-star-black-hole (NS-BH) binaries are a promising source of gravitational-wave (GW) signals detectable with large-scale laser interferometers such as Advanced LIGO and Virgo. They are also one of the main short gamma-ray burst (SGRB) progenitor candidates. If the BH tidally disrupts its companion, an SGRB may be ignited when a sufficiently massive accretion disk forms around the remnant BH. Detecting an NS-BH coalescence both in the GW and electromagnetic (EM) spectrum offers a wealth of information about the nature of the source. How much can actually be inferred from a joint detection is unclear, however, as a mass/spin degeneracy may reduce the GW measurement accuracy. To shed light on this problem and on the potential of joint EM+GW observations, we here combine recent semi-analytical predictions for the remnant disk mass with estimates of the parameter-space portion that is selected by a GW detection. We identify cases in which an SGRB ignition is supported, others in which it can be excluded, and finally others in which the outcome depends on the chosen model for the currently unknown NS equation of state. We pinpoint a range of systems that would allow us to place lower bounds on the equation of state stiffness if both the GW emission and its EM counterpart are observed. The methods we develop can broaden the scope of existing GW detection and parameter-estimation algorithms and could allow us to disregard about half of the templates in an NS-BH search following an SGRB trigger, increasing its speed and sensitivity.

Francesco Pannarale; Frank Ohme

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

277

Complete Proteomic-Based Enzyme Reaction and Inhibition Kinetics Reveal How Monolignol Biosynthetic Enzyme Families Affect Metabolic Flux and Lignin in Populus trichocarpa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...production (V in ) and the rate of its consumption (V out ) (Equation 1). At steady...Tyloses and phenolic deposits in xylem vessels impede water transport in low-lignin...Renewable resources for the production of fuels and chemicals. Science 191 : 773-776...

Jack P. Wang; Punith P. Naik; Hsi-Chuan Chen; Rui Shi; Chien-Yuan Lin; Jie Liu; Christopher M. Shuford; Quanzi Li; Ying-Hsuan Sun; Sermsawat Tunlaya-Anukit; Cranos M. Williams; David C. Muddiman; Joel J. Ducoste; Ronald R. Sederoff; Vincent L. Chiang

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

278

The AmMYB308 and AmMYB330 Transcription Factors from Antirrhinum Regulate Phenylpropanoid and Lignin Biosynthesis in Transgenic Tobacco  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...harvested wood is processed for pulp and papermaking. This process requires the removal of most of the lignin by using harsh...induction and subsequent activity of two groups of metabolically interrelated enzymes Halpin C. Knight M.E. Foxon G.A. Campbell M...

Lodovico Tamagnone; Angel Merida; Adrian Parr; Steve Mackay; Francisco A. Culianez-Macia; Keith Roberts; Cathie Martin

279

CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE-C and -D Are the Primary Genes Involved in Lignin Biosynthesis in the Floral Stem of Arabidopsis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Res. 201, 97-105. Sarkanen, K.V., Chang, H.-M., and Ericsson, B. (1967). Species variation in lignins. TAPPI (Tech. Assoc. Pulp Pap. Ind.) 50, 572-575. Sasaki, T., and Sederoff, R.R. (2003). Genome studies and molecular...

Richard Sibout; Aymerick Eudes; Gregory Mouille; Brigitte Pollet; Catherine Lapierre; Lise Jouanin; Armand Séguin

2005-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

280

Influence of Combustion Conditions on Yields of Solvent-Extractable Anhydrosugars and Lignin Phenols in Chars: Implications for Characterizations of Biomass Combustion Residues  

SciTech Connect

Anhydrosugars, such as levoglucosan and its isomers (mannosan, galactosan), as well as the solvent-extractable lignin phenols (methoxylated phenols) are thermal degradation products of cellulose/hemicellulos and lignin, respectively. These two groups of biomarkers are often used as unique tracers of combusted biomass inputs in diverse environmental media. However, detail characterization of the relative proportion and signatures of these compounds in highly heterogeneous plant-derived chars/charcoals are still scarce. Here we conducted a systematic study to investigate the yields of solvent-extractable anhydrosugars and lignin phenols in twenty-five lab-made chars produced from different plant materials under different combustion conditions. Solvent extractable anhydrosugars and lignin phenols were only observed in chars formed below 350 C and yields were variable across different combustion temperatures. The yields mannosan (M) and galactosan (G) decreased more rapidly than those of levoglucosan (L) under increasing combustion severity (temp. and duration), resulting in variable L/M and L/(M+G) ratios, two diagnostic ratios often used for identification of combustion sources (e.g. hardwoods vs. softwoods vs. grasses). On the other hand, the results of this study suggest that the ratios of the major solvent-extractable lignin phenols (vanillyls (V), syringyls (S), cinnamyls (C)) provide additional source reconstruction potential despite observed variations with combustion temperature. We thus propose using a property property plot (L/M vs. S/V) as an improved means for source characterization of biomass combustion residues. The L/M-S/V plot has shown to be effective in environmental samples (soil organic matter, atmospheric aerosols) receiving substantial inputs of biomass combustion residues.

Kuo, Li-Jung; Louchouarn, Patrick; Herbert, Bruce

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Information Visualization Spring 2008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, cities visited, stock prices, newswires, network resource measures Partially From John Stasko's class news articles about Clinton, 7 news articles about oil, and 2 news about Iraq Day 2, ... Day m Graphs History of Italian post office A. Gabaglio, 1888 #12;12 23 Paper: Visualizing Time

Yang, Jing

282

SOCIAL MEDIA VISUAL IDENTITY GUIDELINES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SOCIAL MEDIA VISUAL IDENTITY GUIDELINES VERSION 1.2 Last updated by Web Strategies on 08 July 2011. Contact: Web Strategies, webadmin@ohsu.edu #12;2 OHSU UNIfIED SITE SOCIAL MEDIA VISUAL IDENTITY GUIDELINES OHSU Web Strategies - www.ohsu.edu/webstrategies/ pURpOSE This document presents the official visual

Chapman, Michael S.

283

High-energy electromagnetic offline follow-up of LIGO-Virgo gravitational-wave binary coalescence candidate events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present two different search methods for electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational-wave events from ground-based detectors using archival NASA high-energy data from the Fermi-GBM and RXTE-ASM instruments. To demonstrate the methods, we use a limited number of representative gravitational-wave background noise events produced by a search for binary neutron star coalescence over the last two months of the LIGO-Virgo S6/VSR3 joint science run. Time and sky location provided by the GW data trigger a targeted search in the high-energy photon data. We use two custom pipelines: one to search prompt gamma-ray counterparts in GBM, and the other to search for a variety of X-ray afterglow model signals in ASM. We measure the efficiency of the joint pipelines to weak gamma-ray burst counterparts, and a family of model X-ray afterglows. By requiring a detectable signal in either EM instrument coincident with a GW event we are able to reject a large majority of GW candidates, which reduces the signal-to-noise of the...

Blackburn, Lindy; Camp, Jordan; Christensen, Nelson; Connaughton, Valerie; Jenke, Peter; Remillard, Ronald A; Veitch, John

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Processing Visual Images  

SciTech Connect

The back of the eye is lined by an extraordinary biological pixel detector, the retina. This neural network is able to extract vital information about the external visual world, and transmit this information in a timely manner to the brain. In this talk, Professor Litke will describe a system that has been implemented to study how the retina processes and encodes dynamic visual images. Based on techniques and expertise acquired in the development of silicon microstrip detectors for high energy physics experiments, this system can simultaneously record the extracellular electrical activity of hundreds of retinal output neurons. After presenting first results obtained with this system, Professor Litke will describe additional applications of this incredible technology.

Litke, Alan (UC Santa Cruz) [UC Santa Cruz

2006-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

285

Expanding the Frontiers of Visual Analytics and Visualization  

SciTech Connect

Expanding the Frontiers of Visual Analytics and Visualization contains international contributions by leading researchers from within the field. Dedicated to the memory of Jim Thomas, the book begins with the dynamics of evolving a vision based on some of the principles that Jim and colleagues established and in which Jim’s leadership was evident. This is followed by chapters in the areas of visual analytics, visualization, interaction, modelling, architecture, and virtual reality, before concluding with the key area of technology transfer to industry.

Dill, John; Earnshaw, Rae; Kasik, David; Vince, John; Wong, Pak C.

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

286

Scientific Visualization, Seeing the Unseeable  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

June 24, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in bo... June 24, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in both experimental and computational sciences. Wes Bethel, who heads the Scientific Visualization Group in the Computational Research Division, presents an overview of visualization and computer graphics, current research challenges, and future directions for the field.

LBNL

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

The molecular characterization of the lignin-forming peroxidase. Progress summary report, April 1, 1989--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This laboratory is committed to understanding the function of plant peroxidases via a multi-disciplinary approach. We have chosen the lignin-forming peroxidase from tobacco as the first isoenzyme to be subjected to this comprehensive approach. The goals which were set out upon the initiation of this project were as follows: (1) utilize a cDNA clone to the tobacco anionic peroxidase to generate transgenic plants which either over-produced this isoenzyme or specifically under-produced this isoenzyme via antisense RNA, (2) describe any phenotypic changes resulting from altered peroxidase expression, (3) perform morphological, physiological, and biochemical analysis of the above mentioned plants to help in determining the in planta function for this enzyme, and (4) clone and characterize the gene for the tobacco anionic peroxidase. A summary of progress thus far which includes both published and unpublished work will be presented in three sections: generation and characterization of transgenic plants, description of phenotypes, and biochemical and physiological analysis of peroxidase function, and cloning and characterization of the tobacco anionic peroxidase gene.

Lagrimini, L.M.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

phi and Omega production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in a dynamical quark coalescence model RID A-2398-2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of ? mesons and #2; baryons are related to those of strange and antistrange quarks is then examined. The dependence of these results on ? and #2; radii as well as on the strange quark mass is also studied. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.73.044903 PACS number(s): 12...PHYSICAL REVIEW C 73, 044903 (2006) ? and #2; production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in a dynamical quark coalescence model Lie-Wen Chen1,2 and Che Ming Ko3 1Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai...

Chen, LW; Ko, Che Ming.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Comments on "Microscale flow visualization"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We make comments on the presentation of Sinton's paper (Microfluidics and Nanofluidics {\\bf 1}: 2, 2004) about the microscale flow visualization since the effects of the roughness along the microfabricated wall upon the current macroflow visualization methods could be significant and cannot be neglected in microdomain and even nanodomain.

A. Kwang-Hua Chu

2005-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

290

Promoting Audio-visual Aids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... a term which is widely misunderstood, being frequently taken to have the same meaning as audio-visual aids. Educational technology involves, not individual aids by themselves, but a system ... The first step is to make teachers familiar with the role and operation of individual audio-visual aids. The next immediate step is to introduce and prepare them for a ...

R. C. WINTON

1968-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

291

Data Analysis & Visualization | Neutron Science | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Neutron Data Analysis and Visualization SHARE Neutron Data Analysis and Visualization As the data sets generated by the increasingly powerful neutron scattering instruments at HFIR...

292

Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Report about the Ocean Thermal...

293

Developing visual associations through filmmaking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Carol LaFayette Committee Members,Karen Hillier Jeff Morris Head of Department,Tim McLaughlin August 2008 Major Subject: Visualization Sciences iii ABSTRACT Developing Visual Associations through Filmmaking. (August... 2008) Vishwanand V. Shetti, B.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Prof. Carol LaFayette Associations are embedded in many aspects of filmmaking. It is this artist’s goal to analyze visual associations in the process and product...

Shetti, Vishwanand Venkatesh

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

294

Biomass Fractionation for the Biorefinery: Heteronuclear Multiple Quantum Coherence–Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Lignin Isolated from Solvent Fractionation of Switchgrass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass Fractionation for the Biorefinery: Heteronuclear Multiple Quantum Coherence–Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Lignin Isolated from Solvent Fractionation of Switchgrass ... Center for Renewable Carbon, Center for Direct Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), University of Tennessee, 2506 Jacob Drive, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, United States ... The results show that solvent fractionation conditions between about 120 °C and 0.1 M H2SO4 and 160 °C and 0.025 M H2SO4 are optimal for separating biomass in the biorefinery to give process streams most suitable for biobased fuel and chemical production. ...

Joseph J. Bozell; C. J. O'Lenick; Stacy Warwick

2011-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

295

Correct Use of the Lifshitz-Slyosov-Wagner Expression for the Calculation of the Average Radius of an Oil-In-Water (o/w) Emulsion Subject to Coalescence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The analytic expression proposed by Lifshitz-Slyozov and Wagner (LSW theory) for the linear variation of the cube average radius (R3) of an emulsion as function of time (t) is commonly used to appraise the effect of Ostwald ripening. However, we proved here both experimentally and theoretically that such approach is incorrect in those cases in which the coalescence of the drops cannot be prevented. In this event, the expression of LSW should be corrected in order to account for the actual average radius of the emulsion at each time, and instead of the radius predicted by the equations of LSW without consideration of the coalescence process.

Kareem Rahn-Chique; German Urbina-Villalba

2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

296

Correct Use of the Lifshitz-Slyosov-Wagner Expression for the Calculation of the Average Radius of an Oil-In-Water (o/w) Emulsion Subject to Coalescence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The analytic expression proposed by Lifshitz-Slyozov and Wagner (LSW theory) for the linear variation of the cube average radius (R3) of an emulsion as function of time (t) is commonly used to appraise the effect of Ostwald ripening. However, we proved here both experimentally and theoretically that such approach is incorrect in those cases in which the coalescence of the drops cannot be prevented. In this event, the expression of LSW should be corrected in order to account for the actual average radius of the emulsion at each time, and instead of the radius predicted by the equations of LSW without consideration of the coalescence process.

Kareem Rahn-Chique; German Urbina-Villalba

2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

297

Network visualization for financial crime detection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Objective: We present a new software system, VisFAN, for the visual analysis of financial activity networks. Methods: We combine enhanced graph drawing techniques to devise novel algorithms and interaction functionalities for the visual exploration of ... Keywords: Financial crime detection, Graph visualization, Information visualization, Social network analysis

Walter Didimo, Giuseppe Liotta, Fabrizio Montecchiani

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

CMSC 436/636 DataVisualization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;OriginalVisualization Visual features Grid marks space Shadow shows overall shape and height Box showsVisualization Baker and Bushnell, 95 #12;RevisitedVisualization Revised features Grid and box de-emphasized Axes Graph shows max Attribute labeled Mini clouds show temporal context Baker and Bushnell, 95 Color

Rheingans, Penny

299

Do visualizations improve synchronous remote collaboration?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Information visualizations can improve collaborative problem solving, but this improvement may depend on whether visualizations promote communication. In an experiment on the effect of network visualizations, remote pairs worked synchronously to identify ... Keywords: collaboration, communication, cscw, distributed work, empirical studies, information visualization

Aruna D. Balakrishnan; Susan R. Fussell; Sara Kiesler

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Visual  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Visual Visual Visual logo. Comprehensive lighting analysis software engineered for demanding interior and exterior applications. Visual lighting design software integrates an advanced 3-D modeling environment with an intuitive interface�providing a unique and powerful extension of the design process. Professional presentation capabilities enable you to quickly develop, analyze, and modify advanced lighting designs. Visual performs direct and interreflected component calculations and provides the ability to quickly compose professional presentations. Screen Shots Keywords lighting, lighting design, roadway lighting, visual, lumen method Validation/Testing The algorithms used by Visual lighting design software to calculate illuminance levels in diffuse architectural models follow commonly accepted

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

To appear in the IEEE Visualization 2002 Proceedings A Model for the Visualization Exploration Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- sualization process is discussed, leading to a general model of the visualization exploration process this end, a model for the visualization exploration process has been developed. Visualization and GraphicsTo appear in the IEEE Visualization 2002 Proceedings A Model for the Visualization Exploration

Jankun-Kelly, T. J.

302

TIGER: A data analysis pipeline for testing the strong-field dynamics of general relativity with gravitational wave signals from coalescing compact binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The direct detection of gravitational waves with upcoming second-generation gravitational wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO and Virgo will allow us to probe the genuinely strong-field dynamics of general relativity (GR) for the first time. We present a data analysis pipeline called TIGER (Test Infrastructure for GEneral Relativity), which is designed to utilize detections of compact binary coalescences to test GR in this regime. TIGER is a model-independent test of GR itself, in that it is not necessary to compare with any specific alternative theory. It performs Bayesian inference on two hypotheses: the GR hypothesis $\\mathcal{H}_{\\rm GR}$, and $\\mathcal{H}_{\\rm modGR}$, which states that one or more of the post-Newtonian coefficients in the waveform are not as predicted by GR. By the use of multiple sub-hypotheses of $\\mathcal{H}_{\\rm modGR}$, in each of which a different number of parameterized deformations of the GR phase are allowed, an arbitrarily large number of 'testing parameters' can be used without having to worry about a model being insufficiently parsimonious if the true number of extra parameters is in fact small. TIGER is well-suited to the regime where most sources have low signal-to-noise ratios, again through the use of these sub-hypotheses. Information from multiple sources can trivially be combined, leading to a stronger test. We focus on binary neutron star coalescences, for which sufficiently accurate waveform models are available that can be generated fast enough on a computer to be fit for use in Bayesian inference. We show that the pipeline is robust against a number of fundamental, astrophysical, and instrumental effects, such as differences between waveform approximants, a limited number of post-Newtonian phase contributions being known, the effects of neutron star spins and tidal deformability on the orbital motion, and instrumental calibration errors.

Michalis Agathos; Walter Del Pozzo; Tjonnie G. F. Li; Chris Van Den Broeck; John Veitch; Salvatore Vitale

2013-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

303

Visualization | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

78 78 Varnish cache server Home Groups Community Central Green Button Applications Developer Utility Rate FRED: FRee Energy Database More Public Groups Private Groups Features Groups Blog posts Content Stream Documents Discussions Polls Q & A Events Notices My stuff Energy blogs 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142234778 Varnish cache server Visualization Home Sfederspiel's picture Submitted by Sfederspiel(5) Member 20 May, 2013 - 13:28 Introducing FRED, Enabling Unique Visualization and Manipulation of Energy Data at Multiple Scales FRED Free Energy Data Map OpenEI Tool Visualization The U.S. Department of Energy, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Planetary Skin Institute recently released a new open platform

304

Visual Arts Safety Plan: 1. Visual Arts Safety Manual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and guidance to help you conduct your work safely and in compliance with environmental health and safety. The Visual Arts Safety plan should be made available to all workers and all persons in your area who work for good practice. The requirements for working with Lasers can be found in SY-17. This Penn State Safety

Maroncelli, Mark

305

Audio visual information fusion for human activity analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

xviii Chapter 1 Audio visual human activity4.2 Person tracking using audio-visual cues . . . . .Probabilistic framework for audio-visual information fusion

Thagadur Shivappa, Shankar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

The visually pervasive augmented world  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we describe several existing Augmented Reality projects that illustrate critical yet currently disparate applications of Augmented Reality. This paper then describes a partially implemented system (the Visually Pervasive Augmented World) ... Keywords: augmented world, mobile services, ubiquitous computing, user creativity

Paul Sassaman; Eric Becker; Fillia Makedon

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

EMPIRICAL RESEARCH METHODS IN VISUALIZATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stephan Diehl #12;My Background The Java Code Clone Detection API #12;Evaluation of Visualization Techniques Analysis of numerical data Goal: exact description of the user behavior Data acquisition: Tests, Tasks technique during ist development · usually qualitative Summative Study · Goal: validate hypotheses · usually

Hong,Seokhee

308

The human activity of visualization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Griffin et al 2006 #12;Human-Computer Interaction: Software of the Mind each user has a setThe human activity of visualization cultural and psychological factors in representation; Gibbon 1998; Marcus 2000) conventions and metaphors of Westerners may not hold worldwide colors

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

309

Video Visualization Gareth Daniel Min Chen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Video Visualization Gareth Daniel Min Chen University of Wales Swansea, UK Abstract Video data, generated by the entertainment industry, security and traffic cameras, video conferencing systems, video a novel methodology for "summarizing" video sequences using volume visualization techniques. We outline

Grant, P. W.

310

Energy Integration Visualization Room (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This two-page fact sheet describes the new Energy Integration Visualization Room in the ESIF and talks about some of the capabilities and unique visualization features of the the room.

Not Available

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Information Visualization for Agile Software Development Teams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Information Visualization for Agile Software Development Teams Julia Paredes Department of Computer software development teams. The results of the systematic mapping show that Agile teams use visualization artifacts amongst team members. Keywords--Agile software development, information visualiza- tion, software

Maurer, Frank

312

Increasing cellulose accessibility is more important than removing lignin: A comparison of cellulose solventbased lignocellulose fractionation and soaking in aqueous ammonia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Increasing Increasing Cellulose Accessibility Is More Important Than Removing Lignin: A Comparison of Cellulose Solvent-Based Lignocellulose Fractionation and Soaking in Aqueous Ammonia Joseph A. Rollin, 1 Zhiguang Zhu, 1 Noppadon Sathitsuksanoh, 1,2 Y.-H. Percival Zhang 1,2,3 1 Biological Systems Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 210-A Seitz Hall, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061; telephone: 1-540-231-7414; fax: þ1- 540-231-3199; e-mail: ypzhang@vt.edu 2 Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Sciences (ICTAS), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 3 DOE BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee Received 18 May 2010; revision received 11 August 2010; accepted 17 August 2010 Published online 1 September 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI 10.1002/bit.22919

313

A review on pyrolysis of biomass constituents: Mechanisms and composition of the products obtained from the conversion of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The conversion of biomass by thermochemical means is very promising for the substitution of fossil materials in many energy applications. Given the complexity of biomass the main challenge in its use is to obtain products with high yield and purity. For a better understanding of biomass thermochemical conversion, many authors have studied in TG analyzer or at bed scale the individual pyrolysis of its main constituents (i.e. cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin). Based on these studies, this original work synthesizes the main steps of conversion and the composition of the products obtained from each constituent. Pyrolysis conversion can be described as the superposition of three main pathways (char formation, depolymerization and fragmentation) and secondary reactions. Lignin, which is composed of many benzene rings, gives the highest char yield and its depolymerization leads to various phenols. The depolymerization of the polysaccharides is a source of anhydro-saccharides and furan compounds. The fragmentation of the different constituents and the secondary reactions produce CO, CO2 and small chain compounds. For temperature higher than 500 °C, the residues obtained from the different constituents present a similar structure, which evolves towards a more condensed polyaromatic form by releasing CH4, CO and H2. As the aromatic rings and their substituent composition have a critical influence on the reactivity of pyrolysis products, a particular attention has been given to their formation. Some mechanisms are proposed to explain the formation of the main products. From the results of this study it is possible to predict the reactivity and energy content of the pyrolysis products and evaluate their potential use as biofuels in renewable applications.

François-Xavier Collard; Joël Blin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Visualizing Brand Associations from Web Community Photos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and visualizing core visual concepts associated with brands, and (ii) localizing the regions of brand in images. With experi- ments on about five millions of images of 48 brands crawled from five popular online photo--Economics Keywords Brand associations, summarization and visualization of mul- timedia data, image segmentation 1

Xing, Eric P.

315

Lipreading and Audio-Visual Speech Perception  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1992 research-article Lipreading and Audio-Visual Speech Perception Quentin Summerfield...understanding the psychology of lipreading and audio-visual speech perception. It considers...vowels? Finally, how should the process of audio-visual integration in speech perception...

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Using Entrez Utilities Web Service with Visual Basic and MS Visual Studio 2008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using Entrez Utilities Web Service with Visual Basic and MS Visual Studio 2008 Entrez Utilities Web to create a Visual Basic project to access the NCBI Entrez Utilities Web Service using MS Visual Studio 2005.wsdl or path to local file (for example, C: \\SOAP\\eUtils\\v2.0\\eutils.wsdl) if you downloaded eUtils WSDL

Levin, Judith G.

317

Visual discrimination pretraining facilitates subsequent visual-cue-toxicosis conditioning in rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to visually-novel foods. We found that rats which had been pretrained to use visual features of their foodVisual discrimination pretraining facilitates subsequent visual-cue-toxicosis conditioning in rats, Colorado 80309 #12;Abstract The present experiments were undertaken to determine whether rats, pre trained

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

318

An Instability due to the Nonlinear Coupling of p-modes to g-modes: Implications for Coalescing Neutron Star Binaries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A weakly nonlinear fluid wave propagating within a star can be unstable to three-wave interactions. The resonant parametric instability is a well-known form of three-wave interaction in which a primary wave of frequency ? a excites a pair of secondary waves of frequency ? b + ? c ? a . Here we consider a nonresonant form of three-wave interaction in which a low-frequency primary wave excites a high-frequency p-mode and a low-frequency g-mode such that ? b + ? c ? a . We show that a p-mode can couple so strongly to a g-mode of similar radial wavelength that this type of nonresonant interaction is unstable even if the primary wave amplitude is small. As an application, we analyze the stability of the tide in coalescing neutron star binaries to p-g mode coupling. We find that the equilibrium tide and dynamical tide are both p-g unstable at gravitational wave frequencies f gw 20 Hz and drive short wavelength p-g mode pairs to significant energies on very short timescales (much less than the orbital decay time due to gravitational radiation). Resonant parametric coupling to the tide is, by contrast, either stable or drives modes at a much smaller rate. We do not solve for the saturation of the p-g instability and therefore we cannot say precisely how it influences the evolution of neutron star binaries. However, we show that if even a single daughter mode saturates near its wave breaking amplitude, the p-g instability of the equilibrium tide will (1) induce significant orbital phase errors (? 1 radian) that accumulate primarily at low frequencies (f gw 50 Hz) and (2) heat the neutron star core to a temperature of T ~ 1010 K. Since there are at least ~100 unstable p-g daughter pairs, ? and T are potentially much larger than these values. Tides might therefore significantly influence the gravitational wave signal and electromagnetic emission from coalescing neutron star binaries at much larger orbital separations than previously thought.

Nevin N. Weinberg; Phil Arras; Joshua Burkart

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Visualizing Cyber Security: Usable Workspaces  

SciTech Connect

An environment that supports cyber analytics work should enable multiple, simultaneous investigations, information foraging, and provide a solution space for organizing data. We describe our study of cyber security professionals and visualizations in a large, high-resolution display work environment. We discuss the tasks and needs of analysts that such an environment can support and present several prototypes designed to support these needs. We conclude with a usability evaluation of the prototypes and additional lessons learned.

Fink, Glenn A.; North, Christopher L.; Endert, Alexander; Rose, Stuart J.

2009-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

320

Cognitive Foundations for Visual Analytics  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we provide an overview of scientific/technical literature on information visualization and VA. Topics discussed include an update and overview of the extensive literature search conducted for this study, the nature and purpose of the field, major research thrusts, and scientific foundations. We review methodologies for evaluating and measuring the impact of VA technologies as well as taxonomies that have been proposed for various purposes to support the VA community. A cognitive science perspective underlies each of these discussions.

Greitzer, Frank L.; Noonan, Christine F.; Franklin, Lyndsey

2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

What Is Visualization? Torsten Mller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Visualization 4 #12;Torsten MöllerEuroVis June 2012 Vis timeline 5 Early Bertin Tukey Cleveland #12;Torsten MöllerEuroVis June 2012 Vis timeline 5 Early Bertin Tukey Cleveland 1987 NSF #12;Torsten MöllerEuroVis June 2012 Vis timeline 7 Early Bertin Tukey Cleveland 1987 NSF #12;Torsten MöllerEuroVis June 2012 Vis

Li, Ze-Nian

322

Visualization and Modeling Working Group  

SciTech Connect

During the 2005 Hurricane season, many consequence predictions were available from 36 to 96 hours before landfalls, via the Department of Energy’s Visualization and Modeling Working Group (VMWG). Real-time data can be tapped by local officials and utilities, and can also be accessed for post-event regulatory audits. An overview of VMWG’s models, results and uses will be presented.

Fernandez, S.J. (LANL); Dodrill, K.A.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Horizon-absorption effects in coalescing black-hole binaries: An effective-one-body study of the non-spinning case  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the horizon absorption of gravitational waves in coalescing, circularized, nonspinning black hole binaries. The horizon absorbed fluxes of a binary with a large mass ratio (q=1000) obtained by numerical perturbative simulations are compared with an analytical, effective-one-body (EOB) resummed expression recently proposed. The perturbative method employs an analytical, linear in the mass ratio, effective-one-body (EOB) resummed radiation reaction, and the Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli (RWZ) formalism for wave extraction. Hyperboloidal (transmitting) layers are employed for the numerical solution of the RWZ equations to accurately compute horizon fluxes up to the late plunge phase. The horizon fluxes from perturbative simulations and the EOB-resummed expression agree at the level of a few percent down to the late plunge. An upgrade of the EOB model for nonspinning binaries that includes horizon absorption of angular momentum as an additional term in the resummed radiation reaction is then discussed. The effect of this term on the waveform phasing for binaries with mass ratios spanning 1 to 1000 is investigated. We confirm that for comparable and intermediate-mass-ratio binaries horizon absorbtion is practically negligible for detection with advanced LIGO and the Einstein Telescope (faithfulness greater than or equal to 0.997).

Sebastiano Bernuzzi; Alessandro Nagar; Anil Zenginoglu

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

324

SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of difficulty and complexity in determining requirements in adapting existing data communication highways to support the subsurface visual alarm system. These requirements would include such things as added or new communication cables, added Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Inputs and Outputs (I/O), and communication hardware components, and human machine interfaces and their software operating system. (4) Select the best data communication highway system based on this review of adapting or integrating with existing data communication systems.

D.W. Markman

2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

325

Visual Analysis of Weblog Content  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, one of the advances of the World Wide Web is social media and one of the fastest growing aspects of social media is the blogosphere. Blogs make content creation easy and are highly accessible through web pages and syndication. With their growing influence, a need has arisen to be able to monitor the opinions and insight revealed within their content. In this paper we describe a technical approach for analyzing the content of blog data using a visual analytic tool, IN-SPIRE, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We highlight the capabilities of this tool that are particularly useful for information gathering from blog data.

Gregory, Michelle L.; Payne, Deborah A.; McColgin, Dave; Cramer, Nick O.; Love, Douglas V.

2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

326

Visual Analytics and Storytelling through Video  

SciTech Connect

This paper supplements a video clip submitted to the Video Track of IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization 2005. The original video submission applies a two-way storytelling approach to demonstrate the visual analytics capabilities of a new visualization technique. The paper presents our video production philosophy, describes the plot of the video, explains the rationale behind the plot, and finally, shares our production experiences with our readers.

Wong, Pak C.; Perrine, Kenneth A.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Foote, Harlan P.; Thomas, Jim

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

327

Towards a Visual Turing Challenge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As language and visual understanding by machines progresses rapidly, we are observing an increasing interest in holistic architectures that tightly interlink both modalities in a joint learning and inference process. This trend has allowed the community to progress towards more challenging and open tasks and refueled the hope at achieving the old AI dream of building machines that could pass a turing test in open domains. In order to steadily make progress towards this goal, we realize that quantifying performance becomes increasingly difficult. Therefore we ask how we can precisely define such challenges and how we can evaluate different algorithms on this open tasks? In this paper, we summarize and discuss such challenges as well as try to give answers where appropriate options are available in the literature. We exemplify some of the solutions on a recently presented dataset of question-answering task based on real-world indoor images that establishes a visual turing challenge. Finally, we argue despite the success of unique ground-truth annotation, we likely have to step away from carefully curated dataset and rather rely on 'social consensus' as the main driving force to create suitable benchmarks. Providing coverage in this inherently ambiguous output space is an emerging challenge that we face in order to make quantifiable progress in this area.

Mateusz Malinowski; Mario Fritz

2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

328

Gas visualization of industrial hydrocarbon emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gases leaking from a polyethene plant and a cracker plant were visualized with the gas-correlation imaging technique. Ethene escaping from flares due to incomplete or erratic...

Sandsten, Jonas; Edner, Hans; Svanberg, Sune

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Data Analytics and Visualization at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a yet large intersection in terms of their functions. Visualization Analytics Visit Matlab Paraview Mathematica Python AVS R Python tools - Numpy, Scipy, iPython, matplotlib...

330

Strategies for Choosing Analytics and Visualization Software...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in mind that their functions may be interchangeable. Visualization Analytics Visit Matlab Python tools: Numpy, Scipy, iPython, matplotlib Paraview Mathematica Perl IDL Python...

331

Neutron Data Analysis & Visualization | More Science | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Data Analysis and Visualization As the data sets generated by the increasingly powerful neutron scattering instruments at HFIR and SNS grow ever more massive, the facilities'...

332

Graph Visualization API Library for Application Builders  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Founded in 1991, Tom Sawyer Software produces quality graph-based architectures for application developers. These technologies include graph management, graph layout, graph diagramming, and graph visualization...

François Bertault; Wendy Feng; Uli Föµeier; Gabe Grigorescu…

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Data Analysis & Visualization | Neutron Science | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Data Analysis and Visualization As the data sets generated by the increasingly powerful neutron scattering instruments at HFIR and SNS grow ever more massive, the facilities'...

334

Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited OCEAN THERMAL EXTRACTABLE ENERGY VISUALIZATION Award DE-EE0002664 October 28, 2012 Final Technical Report Prepared by...

335

Automated Audio-visual Activity Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Current computer vision techniques can effectively monitor gross activities in sparse environments. Unfortunately, visual stimulus is often not sufficient for reliably discriminating between many types of activity. In ...

Stauffer, Chris

2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

336

Evolving Visual Metaphors and Dynamic Tools for Bioinformatics Visualization Panel Organizer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

researchers have applied hyperbolic projection and information mural methods to genomic sequence data. Web the creation of a visual metaphor. How do we handle data mining of genomic information where the visual genomic discovery. As information and scientific visualization practitioners we have a responsibility

337

Luminance: a New Visual Feature for Visual Christophe Collewet and Eric Marchand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 5 Luminance: a New Visual Feature for Visual Servoing Christophe Collewet and Eric Marchand and that no Christophe Collewet and Eric Marchand INRIA, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes, France, e-mail: {christophe.collewet,eric. marchand}@inria.fr 73 inria-00548937,version1-20Dec2010 Author manuscript, published in "Visual Servoing

Boyer, Edmond

338

Visualization of longitudinal student data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We use visualization to find patterns in educational data. We represent student scores from high-stakes exams as flow vectors in fluids, define two types of streamlines and trajectories, and show that differences between streamlines and trajectories are due to regression to the mean. This issue is significant because it determines how quickly changes in long-term educational patterns can be deduced from score changes in consecutive years. To illustrate our methods, we examine a policy change in Texas that put increased pressure on public school students to pass several exams, and gave them resources to accomplish it. The response to this policy is evident from the changes in trajectories, although previous evaluation had concluded the program was ineffective. We pose the question of whether increased expenditure on education should be expected to correspond to improved student scores, or whether it should correspond to an increased rate of improvement in student scores.

Anthony J. Bendinelli and M. Marder

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

339

Occam's razor and petascale visual data analysis  

SciTech Connect

One of the central challenges facing visualization research is how to effectively enable knowledge discovery. An effective approach will likely combine application architectures that are capable of running on today's largest platforms to address the challenges posed by large data with visual data analysis techniques that help find, represent, and effectively convey scientifically interesting features and phenomena.

Bethel, E Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Johnson, Chris [University of Utah; Ahern, Sean [ORNL; Bell, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Bremer, Peer-Timo [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Childs, Hank [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Cormier-Michel, E [unknown; Day, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Deines, E. [University of California, Davis; Fogal, T. [University of Utah; Garth, Christoph [unknown; Geddes, C.G.R. [unknown; Hagen, H [unknown; Hamann, Bernd [unknown; Hansen, Charles [University of Utah; Jacobsen, Janet [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Joy, Kenneth [University of California, Davis; Kruger, J. [University of Utah; Meredith, Jeremy S [ORNL; Messmer, P [unknown; Ostrouchov, George [ORNL; Pascucci, Valerio [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Potter, K. [University of Utah; Prabhat, [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Pugmire, Dave [ORNL; Ruebel, O [unknown; Sanderson, Allen [University of Utah; Silva, C. [University of Utah; Ushizima, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Weber, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Whitlock, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Wu, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Simulation and Formal Analysis of Visual Attention  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a simulation model for visual attention is discussed and formally analysed. The model is part of the design of the situation in the field. A case study is described in which the model is used to simulate a human subject these specifications. Keywords: Visual attention, ambient intelligence, cognitive modeling, simulation, philosophical

Treur, Jan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

A Visual Language for Authorization Modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(2)Universit Via Allende (3)Odyssey Research Associates We present a visual language for the high level specification of authorization policies in automated environments. In order to accomplish the task, the visual language needs to provide an intuitive ... Keywords: Authorization step, authorization policy, dependency, metaphor, temporal relation, spatial relation, temporal propagation.

S. K. Chang(1); Giuseppe Polese(2); Roshan Thomas (3); Souvik Das(3)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Visual Stimulation and Electroencephalogram under Scotopic Vision  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract --We tested the visual sensitivity of 15 healthy subjects under scotopic vision using flickering stimulus on the Liquid crystal display (LCD) with a light-emitting diode (LED) backlight (LED-LCD) panel. This test was made to know; 1) if LED-LCD ... Keywords: Scotopic vision, Light emission display, Visually evoked potential (VEP), Optimization, component, formatting

Wuon-Shik Kim; Hye-Rim Oh; Hyoung-Min Choi; Ji-Soo Hwang; Seong Nam Park; Hyun Kyoon Lim

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

MODELING AND VISUALIZATION OF SYNTHETIC GENETIC CIRCUITS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. INTRODUCTION In 1977 a group of researchers managed to modify the DNA of the E. coli bacteria and were able to make it to produce the human hormone somatostatin [1]. Since that time genetic engineers have leveraged on Visualization of Genetic Circuits will give an overview on the use and effectiveness of the new visualization

Myers, Chris J.

344

RAMS/HYPACT Evaluation and Visualization Utilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REVU RAMS/HYPACT Evaluation and Visualization Utilities Version 2.3.1 User's Guide August 20, 2001 and Visualization Utilities (REVU), which is the standard supported package for generating graphical representations data in one of several available formats (e.g. Vis5D, GrADS, GRIB). REVU utilizes NCAR Graphics

Gohm, Alexander

345

Visualizing Brand Associations from Web Community Photos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the regions of brand in the images. With experi- ments on about five millions of images of 48 brands crawled and visualization of mul- timedia data; image segmentation 1. INTRODUCTION Brand equity describes a set of valuesVisualizing Brand Associations from Web Community Photos Gunhee Kim Carnegie Mellon University

Xing, Eric P.

346

Thematic Maps 9 Thematic Maps: Visualizing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thematic Maps 9 Thematic Maps: Visualizing Spatial Variability and Shared Benefits SSSSSpatial Agreements Figure 5. GIS and visualization: from bottom to top -- topography, social water stress index and Mexico..... By superimposing several different data sets within a Geographic Information System (GIS

Wolf, Aaron

347

Evolving Visual Routines Michael Patrick Johnson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evolving Visual Routines by Michael Patrick Johnson B.S., Computer Science Massachusetts Institute Routines by Michael Patrick Johnson Submitted to the Program in Media Arts and Sciences, School by NSF grant number IRI­92056688. 2 #12; Evolving Visual Routines by Michael Patrick Johnson

Fernandez, Thomas

348

Conference on Audio-Visual Education  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... AUDIO-VISUAL education and the part it must play in the schools of Hertfordshire were discussed ... provided by Metalair, Dufay Chromex, and a Hertfordshire school which has been specializing in audio-visual education. The Conference, he said, was the outcome of work done during ...

1945-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

349

E-Print Network 3.0 - activates peripheral visual Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ruth Rosenholtz* Summary: of visual tasks, including peripheral identification, visual search, and visual cognition of complex... applications such as information visualization....

350

Jumpshot: Performance Visualization Tool | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Jumpshot: Performance Visualization Tool Jumpshot: Performance Visualization Tool Jumpshot: Performance Visualization Tool Jumpshot is a Java-based visualization tool for performing postmortem performance analysis. Using Java instead of Tcl/Tk (used in some older visualization tools) improves the portability, maintainability and functionalities of the tools. Jumpshot-4 is the latest viewer and is a total redesign of the graphical tool for SLOG-2. The new scalable logfile format allows the viewer to provide functionalities never made possible before. Level-of-detail support through preview drawables provides high-level abstraction of the details without reading in huge amount of data into the graphical display engine. The new Jumpshot allows seamless scrolling from the begining to the end of the logfile at any zoom-level. In addition, new functionlities like

351

Visualization and Analytics Software at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analytics Analytics Visualization and Analytics AVS/Express AVS/Express includes functionality for data visualization and analysis, image processing and data display. It uses a graphical application development environment. Read More » VisIt - 3D Scientific Visualization VisIt is a point-and-click 3D scientific visualization application that supports most common visualization techniques (e.g., isocontouring and volume rendering) on structured and unstructured grids. Due to its distributed and parallel architecture, VisIt is able to handle very large datasets interactively. In addition, VisIt is extensible, allowing users to add data loaders or additional analysis tools to VisIt. The NERSC Analytics Group has developed extensions to VisIt to support NERSC user applications,

352

Visual Patent Search | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Visual Patent Search Visual Patent Search Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Visual Patent Search Agency/Company /Organization: United States Department of Energy Sector: Energy Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: techportal.eere.energy.gov/ Country: United States Web Application Link: techportal.eere.energy.gov/VPS/index.html Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Tools UN Region: Northern America Language: English Visual Patent Search Screenshot References: Energy Innovation Portal[1] Visually explore patents with Dept. of Energy funding. This tool helps you easily browse the over 16,000 issued U.S. patents and published U.S. patent applications for Energy Department-funded

353

HIV classification using coalescent theory  

SciTech Connect

Algorithms for subtype classification and breakpoint detection of HIV-I sequences are based on a classification system of HIV-l. Hence, their quality highly depend on this system. Due to the history of creation of the current HIV-I nomenclature, the current one contains inconsistencies like: The phylogenetic distance between the subtype B and D is remarkably small compared with other pairs of subtypes. In fact, it is more like the distance of a pair of subsubtypes Robertson et al. (2000); Subtypes E and I do not exist any more since they were discovered to be composed of recombinants Robertson et al. (2000); It is currently discussed whether -- instead of CRF02 being a recombinant of subtype A and G -- subtype G should be designated as a circulating recombination form (CRF) nd CRF02 as a subtype Abecasis et al. (2007); There are 8 complete and over 400 partial HIV genomes in the LANL-database which belong neither to a subtype nor to a CRF (denoted by U). Moreover, the current classification system is somehow arbitrary like all complex classification systems that were created manually. To this end, it is desirable to deduce the classification system of HIV systematically by an algorithm. Of course, this problem is not restricted to HIV, but applies to all fast mutating and recombining viruses. Our work addresses the simpler subproblem to score classifications of given input sequences of some virus species (classification denotes a partition of the input sequences in several subtypes and CRFs). To this end, we reconstruct ancestral recombination graphs (ARG) of the input sequences under restrictions determined by the given classification. These restritions are imposed in order to ensure that the reconstructed ARGs do not contradict the classification under consideration. Then, we find the ARG with maximal probability by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The probability of the most probable ARG is interpreted as a score for the classification. To our knowledge, this particular problem was not addressed up to now. The software package Lamarc Kuhner et al. (2000) allows for sampling ARGs, but it assumes that recombination events only involve one breakpoint. However, in HIV recombinants usually have more than one breakpoint. Moreover, Lamarc does not perform an explicit breakpoint detection, but tries to find them by chance. Although this approach is suitable for most situations, it will not lead to satisfying results in case of highly recombining viruses with multiple breakpoints.

Zhang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letiner, Thomas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

3D Representations for Software Visualization Andrian Marcus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

research from software analysis, information visualization, human-computer interaction, and cognitive, texture, abstraction mechanism, and by supporting new manipulation techniques and user interfaces.2 [Information Interfaces and Presentation] User Interfaces Keywords: Software visualization, 3D visualization

355

64 _____________________________________Math & Computational Sciences Division High Performance Computing and Visualization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

64 _____________________________________Math & Computational Sciences Division High Performance Computing and Visualization Research and Development in Visual Analysis Judith Devaney Terrence Griffin John

Perkins, Richard A.

356

Geographic Information System for Visualization of PHEV Fleet...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Geographic Information System for Visualization of PHEV Fleet Data Geographic Information System for Visualization of PHEV Fleet Data 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

357

Individualized audio-visual tutorial methods in undergraduate chemistry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Individualized audio-visual tutorial methods in undergraduate chemistry ... This paper discusses the application of individual audio-visual tutorial methods in teaching large undergraduate classes. ...

D. A. Humphreys

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

A visual simulation playground for engineering dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A VISUAL SIMULATION PLAYGROUND FOR ENGINEERING DYNAMICS A Thesis by DONALD BRIAN FONG Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2008 Major... Subject: Visualization Sciences A VISUAL SIMULATION PLAYGROUND FOR ENGINEERING DYNAMICS A Thesis by DONALD BRIAN FONG Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

Fong, Donald Brian

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

359

Visual Resource Analysis to Identify and Mitigate Visual Impacts of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Visual Impacts of Energy Facilities Visual Impacts of Energy Facilities The potential visual effects of utility-scale energy facilities on the nation's scenic, cultural, and historic resources have become a factor in slowing or halting energy and electric transmission projects. Concerns about the potential visual effects of utility-scale energy facilities on the nation's scenic, cultural, and historic resources have become a factor in slowing or halting energy and electric transmission projects. Because these projects are so important to the nation's energy supply, their potential visual impacts need to be identified and mitigated. The EVS Division has undertaken a number of studies to analyze visual resources. Detailed information about this work is online at http://visualimpact.anl.gov/.

360

Visualization Clusters | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Eureka Eureka Analytics and Visualization Visualization Clusters Tukey Tukey is the ALCF's newest analysis and visualization cluster. Equipped with state-of-the-art graphics processing units (GPUs), Tukey converts computational data from Mira into high-resolution visual representations. The resulting images, videos, and animations help users to better analyze and understand the data generated by Mira. Tukey can also be used for statistical analysis, helping to pinpoint trends in the simulation data. Additionally, the system is capable of preprocessing efforts, such as meshing, to assist users preparing for Mira simulations. Tukey shares the Mira network and parallel file system, enabling direct access to Mira-generated results. Configuration Two 2 GHz 8-core AMD Opteron CPUs per node

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Automated visual inspection of rolled metal surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A prototype for an automated visual on-line metal strip inspection system is described. The system is capable of both detecting and classifying surface defects in copper alloy strips, and it has been installed...

Timo Piironen; Olli Silven; Matti Pietikäinen…

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Visualization of vibration experienced in offshore platforms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I design and evaluate methods to optimize the visualization of vortex-induced vibration (VIV) in marine risers. VIV is vibration experienced by marine risers in offshore drilling platforms due to ocean ...

Patrikalakis, Alexander Marinos Charles

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Visualization of Microearthquake Data from Enhanced Geothermal...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

site operators - and the public - to see where microearthquakes are occurring as geothermal energy is produced at a site. The 3D visualizations are being made available via a Web...

364

Tailored displays to compensate for visual aberrations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce tailored displays that enhance visual acuity by decomposing virtual objects and placing the resulting anisotropic pieces into the subject's focal range. The goal is to free the viewer from needing wearable ...

Pamplona, Vitor F.

365

Geometric Aspects of Visual Object Recognition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents there important results in visual object recognition based on shape. (1) A new algorithm (RAST; Recognition by Adaptive Sudivisions of Tranformation space) is presented that has lower average-case ...

Breuel, Thomas M.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Exploration of Climate Data Using Interactive Visualization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In atmospheric and climate research, the increasing amount of data available from climate models and observations provides new challenges for data analysis. The authors present interactive visual exploration as an innovative approach to handle ...

Florian Ladstädter; Andrea K. Steiner; Bettina C. Lackner; Barbara Pirscher; Gottfried Kirchengast; Johannes Kehrer; Helwig Hauser; Philipp Muigg; Helmut Doleisch

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

A study of temporal visual composition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the rapid growth of digital art, the temporal dimension is becoming a more and more important aspect of visual creations. This thesis is an effort to contribute to the construction of a disciplined basis for the ...

Sun, Xiaohua, 1972-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Processing of Audio-Visual Collections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DECEMBER 2012 Processing of AUDIO-VISUAL COLLECTIONS A sof June, 15 of the audio and video collections San FranciscoBay Area. The audio recordings provide broadcasts and talk

Diaz, Angel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Improving NCC-based direct visual tracking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Direct visual tracking can be impaired by changes in illumination if the right choice of similarity function and photometric model is not made. Tracking using the sum of squared differences, for instance, often needs to be coupled with a photometric ...

Glauco Garcia Scandaroli; Maxime Meilland; Rogério Richa

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Computer visualization tools for sculpture design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and content by: Alan Stacell ( air of Committee) Rodney Hill (Member) Thomas Woo (Member) Julius Gribou (Head of Department) May 1996 Major Subject: Visualization Sciences ABSTRACT Computer Visualization Tools for Sculpture Design. (May 1996... are directed at how the sculptor new to the computer might apply this technology. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Professor Alan Stacell, Dr. Rodney Hill and Profes- sor Thomas Woodfin, my thesis committee members, for their assistance throughout...

Goldman, Jeremy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

371

Evaluating user behavior and strategy during visual exploration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Visualization practitioners have traditionally focused on evaluating the outcome of the visual analytic process, as opposed to studying how that process unfolds. Since user strategy would likely influence the outcome of visual analysis and the nature ... Keywords: exploratory visual analysis, insight-based evaluation

Khairi Reda, Andrew E. Johnson, Jason Leigh, Michael E. Papka

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Visualization and Analysis in Support of Fusion Science  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of the award for “Visualization and Analysis in Support of Fusion Science.” With this award our main efforts have been to develop and deploy visualization and analysis tools in three areas 1) magnetic field line analysis 2) query based visualization and 3) comparative visualization.

Sanderson, Allen R. [Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute] [Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Unintended Effects: Varying Icon Spacing Changes Users' Visual Search Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unintended Effects: Varying Icon Spacing Changes Users' Visual Search Strategy Sarah P. Everett control items, such as buttons and icons. Because this is so ubiquitous, it is important that the visual understanding of how the visual spacing between icons affects visual search times. We constructed an experiment

Byrne, Mike

374

Visual tools for creating and reinforcing the USC Viterbi Brand.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Visual tools for creating and reinforcing the USC Viterbi Brand. VISUAL IDENTITY SYSTEM #12;The Importance of the Brand. Why Is the Identity System Important? A strong, coherent visual identity Visual Identity System to continue building our public image, increase awareness of our many

Wang, Hai

375

Deploying web-based visual exploration tools on the grid  

SciTech Connect

We discuss a web-based portal for the exploration, encapsulation, and dissemination of visualization results over the Grid. This portal integrates three components: an interface client for structured visualization exploration, a visualization web application to manage the generation and capture of the visualization results, and a centralized portal application server to access and manage grid resources. We demonstrate the usefulness of the developed system using an example for Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) data visualization.

Jankun-Kelly, T.J.; Kreylos, Oliver; Shalf, John; Ma, Kwan-Liu; Hamann, Bernd; Joy, Kenneth; Bethel, E. Wes

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Using image gradient as a visual feature for visual servoing Eric Marchand, Christophe Collewet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using image gradient as a visual feature for visual servoing Eric Marchand, Christophe Collewet degrees of freedom are considered. Eric Marchand is with Universit´e de Rennes 1, IRISA UMR 6074, INRIA Rennes-Bretagne Atlantique, Lagadic research group, email: Eric.Marchand@irisa.fr, Christophe Collewet

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

377

CRADA Final Report: Materials Development For Pulp and Paper Mills, Task 9 Proof of Commercial Concept: Commodity Carbon Fibers From Weyerhaeuser Lignin Based Fibers  

SciTech Connect

Tasks were assigned to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers for the development of lignin-based carbon fiber from a specific precursor that was produced by the Participant (Weyerhaeuser Corporation). These tasks included characterization of precursor polymers and fibers; and the development of conversion parameters for the fibers. ORNL researchers provided recommendations for in-house characterization of the precursor at the participant's laboratory. During the early stage of the precursor fiber production trials of various spools of fibers with varied compositions were produced. Some of those samples were sent to ORNL (by the Participant) for the development of conversion protocol. The trial tow samples were oxidized at ORNL's precursor evaluation system (PES), a bench-scale facility consisting of an oven, filament winder, tension controller, and a let off creel. The PES is a modular tool useful for the development of precursor conversion protocol. It can handle a single filament to a large single tow (50k filaments). It can also offer precise tensioning for few-filament tows. In the PES, after oxidation, fibers are typically carbonized first at low temperature, {le} 600 C, and subsequently at a higher temperature, {le} 1200 C with controlled residence time. ORNL has recently installed a new carbonization furnace with 1700 C limit and a furnace with 2500 C capacity is under installation. A protocol for the oxidation and carbonization of the trial precursor fibers was developed. Oxidized fiber with a density of 1.46 g/cc (oxidation time: 90 min) shows qualitative flame retardancy via simple flame test (fibers do not catch fire or shrink when exposed to flame). Oxidized and carbonized filaments of the Weyerhaeuser precursor fibers show moderate mechanical properties and 47-51 % carbon yield (based on oxidized fiber mass) after carbonization between 1000-1400 C. The properties of fibers from nonoptimized composition and processing parameters indicate the potential of low-cost, low-end carbon fibers based on renewable resource materials. Further work is necessary to produce high quality precursor and the corresponding carbonized filaments of superior properties.

Paulauskas, Felix L [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Gorog, John Peter [Weyerhaeuser Company

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Visualizing Electric Vehicle Sales | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Visualizing Electric Vehicle Sales Visualizing Electric Vehicle Sales Visualizing Electric Vehicle Sales July 25, 2013 - 2:48pm Addthis Data compiled by Yan (Joann) Zhou at Argonne National Laboratory. (*) Sales from the second quarter of 2013 for Tesla Model S are based off of estimates provided by the Hybrid Market Dashboard. Data updated 9/25/2013. Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Integration Specialist More on eGallon: Read more about electric vehicle sales and eGallon's continued consistency. Check out our first blog post on the eGallon launch. Read the eGallon Q&A to learn more about the new tool. Last week, we reported on how electric vehicle sales have taken off in the last few months as prices have dropped and more manufacturers install fast charging stations across the country. Using the data we released last week, we created an interactive chart that

379

Visualizing Electric Vehicle Sales | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Visualizing Electric Vehicle Sales Visualizing Electric Vehicle Sales Visualizing Electric Vehicle Sales July 25, 2013 - 2:48pm Addthis Data compiled by Yan (Joann) Zhou at Argonne National Laboratory. (*) Sales from the second quarter of 2013 for Tesla Model S are based off of estimates provided by the Hybrid Market Dashboard. Data updated 9/25/2013. Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Integration Specialist More on eGallon: Read more about electric vehicle sales and eGallon's continued consistency. Check out our first blog post on the eGallon launch. Read the eGallon Q&A to learn more about the new tool. Last week, we reported on how electric vehicle sales have taken off in the last few months as prices have dropped and more manufacturers install fast charging stations across the country. Using the data we released last week, we created an interactive chart that

380

Beyond Control Panels: Direct Manipulation for Visual Analytics  

SciTech Connect

Information Visualization strives to provide visual representations through which users can think about and gain insight into information. By leveraging the visual and cognitive systems of humans, complex relationships and phenomena occurring within datasets can be uncovered by exploring information visually. Interaction metaphors for such visualizations are designed to enable users direct control over the filters, queries, and other parameters controlling how the data is visually represented. Through the evolution of information visualization, more complex mathematical and data analytic models are being used to visualize relationships and patterns in data – creating the field of Visual Analytics. However, the expectations for how users interact with these visualizations has remained largely unchanged – focused primarily on the direct manipulation of parameters of the underlying mathematical models. In this article we present an opportunity to evolve the methodology for user interaction from the direct manipulation of parameters through visual control panels, to interactions designed specifically for visual analytic systems. Instead of focusing on traditional direct manipulation of mathematical parameters, the evolution of the field can be realized through direct manipulation within the visual representation – where users can not only gain insight, but also interact. This article describes future directions and research challenges that fundamentally change the meaning of direct manipulation with regards to visual analytics, advancing the Science of Interaction.

Endert, Alexander; Bradel, Lauren; North, Chris

2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Lignin Valorization: Improving Lignin Processing in the Biorefinery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...OBP), Biomass Multi-Year Program Plan , ( 2014 ); www1.eere.energy.gov/bioenergy/pdfs/mypp_april_2011.pdf. 5...science.1137016 17289988 10.1126/science.1137016 8www1.eere.energy.gov/bioenergy/integrated_biorefineries.html...

Arthur J. Ragauskas; Gregg T. Beckham; Mary J. Biddy; Richard Chandra; Fang Chen; Mark F. Davis; Brian H. Davison; Richard A. Dixon; Paul Gilna; Martin Keller; Paul Langan; Amit K. Naskar; Jack N. Saddler; Timothy J. Tschaplinski; Gerald A. Tuskan; Charles E. Wyman

2014-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

382

Visualizing operators of coupled spin systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The state of quantum systems, their energetics, and their time evolution is modeled by abstract operators. How can one visualize such operators for coupled spin systems? A general approach is presented which consists of several shapes representing linear combinations of spherical harmonics. It is applicable to an arbitrary number of spins and can be interpreted as a generalization of Wigner functions. The corresponding visualization transforms naturally under non-selective spin rotations as well as spin permutations. Examples and applications are illustrated for the case of three spins 1/2.

Ariane Garon; Robert Zeier; Steffen J. Glaser

2014-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

383

A distributed computing environment for volume visualization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Visualization The goal of this thesis is to provide a computing environment for volume visual- ization, with special attention given to its application in medical imaging. The com- puting environment is designed around an nCUBE 2 parallel computer which... in volume rendering when using a parallel computer. The parallel computer used was a 64 processor configured nCUBE 2, of which 32 processors were used in this study. A match to this parallel computer was provided by the inherent parallel nature of the ray...

Barua, Sandip Pannalal

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

384

E-Print Network 3.0 - aging visual system Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

76 To appear in the IEEE Visualization 2002 Proceedings A Model for the Visualization Exploration Process Summary: , visualization models, visuali- zation systems, scientific...

385

Visual Navigation for Mobile Robots: A Survey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mobile robot vision-based navigation has been the source of countless research contributions, from the domains of both vision and control. Vision is becoming more and more common in applications such as localization, automatic map construction, autonomous ... Keywords: Mobile robots, Visual navigation

Francisco Bonin-Font; Alberto Ortiz; Gabriel Oliver

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Master's Degree in Visual Anthropology AARHUS MOESGAARD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

site of Moesgaard will provide a window through which students, film- and exhibition-makers can enter hands-on workshops in the production of anthropological film, photography and exhibitions, students of a thesis comprised of a visual anthropological product (film, photography, museum installation, multimedia

387

POSITION OPENING Position Title: Data Visualization Specialist  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

projects � Prepare visualizations for publication in online and print media (academic and popular) as well as at exhibitions � Create animations and videos based on data provided from research projects Minimum requirements � Proficiency with HTML5 � Knowledge of statistics and statistical software packages, such as R or Matlab

Gabrieli, John

388

Information Visualization 11(4) 339359  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Article Information Visualization 11(4) 339­359 � The Author(s) 2012 Reprints and permission to support crisis management: Information foraging for geo-historical context Brian Tomaszewski1 and Alan M MacEachren2 Abstract Information foraging and sense-making with heterogeneous information are context

Maroncelli, Mark

389

Spatial Data Authentication Using Mathematical Visualization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spatial Data Authentication Using Mathematical Visualization Vert, G., Harris, F., Nasser, S. Dept has become an increasingly compromised method to transmit any type of data including spatial data. Due to the criticality of spatial data in decision making processes that range from military targeting to urban planning

Harris Jr., Frederick C.

390

Visualization of Ant Pheromone Based Path Following  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis develops a simulation and visualization of a path finding algorithm based on ant pheromone paths created in 3D space. The simulation is useful as a demonstration of a heuristic approach to NP-complete problems and as an educational tool...

Sutherland, Benjamin T.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

391

Connectome of the fly visual circuitry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......reviews the recent study of connectomics in a brain of the fruit fly Drosophila and highlights...Diagram of horizontal section of the fly's brain and visual system. Fly's optic lobe...the inputs to a particular neuron or a brain region more quickly by skeletonizing neurons......

Shin-ya Takemura

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Visualization for Non-Destructive Testing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Amirkhanov 10 #12;Visualization of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers Reh, A., Plank, B., Kastner, J., Gröller(12): 2906­2915, 2013. #12;#12;#12;Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) Fiber bundles with a twill-weave pattern #12;Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) Fiber bundles with a twill-weave pattern Epoxy resin

Tanaka, Jiro

393

Computation and Visualization of Risk Assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computation and Visualization of Risk Assessment in Deep Brain Stimulation Planning Alexandre Research Centre Abstract. Deep Brain Stimulation is a neurosurgical approach for the treatment part of the brain. To safely reach the target of interest, care- ful planning must be performed

Recanati, Catherine

394

Visual Perception Slide 2 Aditi Majumder, UCI  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 PERCEIVING MOVEMENT Visual Perception Slide 2 Aditi Majumder, UCI Ways to create movement Perception More than one ways to create the sense of movement Real movement is only one of them #12;2 Slide 3, follow conversations Slide 4 Aditi Majumder, UCI Real Movement Movement is not the only criteria

Majumder, Aditi

395

Developing Guidelines for Assessing Visual Analytics Environments  

SciTech Connect

Visual analytic systems can be evaluated from a user perspective with quantitative metrics (i.e., time to complete the analysis or the accuracy of the solution found). However, qualitative measures are also useful in a user assessment. These include such measures as the utility of the interactive visualizations in the analysis process and the user's assessment of the efficiency of the analytic process. Quantitative measures can be found if data sets with embedded ground truth are used for analysis. Qualitative measures are more elusive. In this paper we report on an experiment with professional analysts who ranked five of submissions to the VAST 2009 Challenge and provided the rationale for their rankings. Their comments were used in conjunction with a meta-analysis of the 2009 VAST Challenge reviews to produce a set of guidelines for visual analytic systems. As visual analytic software is expected to eventually help in all aspects of analysis, we expect to see future systems provide more help with generating the final report. Hence, researchers also need to have an understanding of what makes a good analytic product. Therefore we asked the analysts to rank the situational assessments of four grand challenge entries and to provide comments on those assessments. We used these comments to produce guidelines for researchers to use in evaluating their analytic reports.

Scholtz, Jean

2011-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

396

Silhouette: visual language for meaningful shape  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Programmers use many views of their code to assess its structure and behavior: call graphs, data-flow diagrams, structural diagrams, etc. The motivation for using such views is that the semantics of textual code is difficult to "stand back and assess": ... Keywords: lateral design, visual programming

Clayton Myers; Elisa Baniassad

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Semantic comparison of structured visual dataflow programs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The diff utility is an important basic tool, providing a foundation for many of the fundamental practices of software development, such as source code management. While there are many file differencing tools for textual programming languages, including ... Keywords: code management, graph isomorphism, heuristic search, semantic difference, structured dataflow, visual programming language

Philip T. Cox; Anh Dang

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Spirograph inspired visualization of ecological networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ecological networks are directed weighted graphs for representing direct and indirect relationships between species in ecosystems. These complex cyclic networks play an important role in understanding an ecosystem's dynamics. In this paper, we present ... Keywords: ecological network, visualization, weighted directed graph

Katayoon Etemad; Sheelagh Carpendale; Faramarz Samavati

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Visual-based methods in compliant mechanism optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this research is to generate visual-based methods for optimizing compliant mechanisms (CMs). Visual-based optimization methods use graphical representations (3-D plots) of CM performance to convey design ...

Timm, Richard W. (Richard William)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Visual Search and Dual Tasks Reveal Two Distinct Attentional Resources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most theories of visual processing assume that a target will "pop out" from an array of distractors ("parallel" visual search, e.g., color or orientation discrimination) if targets and distractors can be discriminated without attention. When the discrimination ...

Rufin Vanrullen; Lavanya Reddy; Christof Koch

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

A Mission-Centric Visualization Tool for Cybersecurity Situation Awareness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Mission-Centric Visualization Tool for Cybersecurity Situation Awareness Nichole Stockman Four tool that provides high- level situation awareness for cybersecurity scenarios. Our visualization tool competition, which was designed to mirror general cybersecurity scenar- ios that would be encountered

California at Santa Barbara, University of

402

An Interactive Visual Analytics Framework for Multi-Field Data...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Interactive Visual Analytics Framework for Multi-Field Data in a Geo-Spatial Context. An Interactive Visual Analytics Framework for Multi-Field Data in a Geo-Spatial Context....

403

Visualization for high-order discontinuous Galerkin CFD results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis demonstrates a technique that reduces the perceived error introduced in the visualization of higher-order DG solutions with traditional tools. Most visualization techniques work by using the solution at the ...

Walfisch, David

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

View-Dependent Visualization for Analysis of Large Datasets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to the impressive capabilities of human visual processing, interactive visualization methods have become essential tools for scientists to explore and analyze large, complex datasets. However, traditional approaches do not account...

Overby, Derek Robert

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

405

ALS Data Visualization Lab Serves Up Computing Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ALS Data Visualization Lab Serves Up Computing Power ALS Data Visualization Lab Serves Up Computing Power Print Even though the ALS has been in shutdown mode for almost two months,...

406

Module name: Advanced topic: Visual Computing Abbreviation: SVC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

visualization (registration and segmentation of computer tomography measurement data), digital image generationModule name: Advanced topic: Visual Computing Abbreviation: SVC Study semester: 3rd semester (WS Recommended prerequisites: Geometric Modeling, Interactive Computer Graphics Learning goals: Technological

Ahlers, Volker - Fakultät IV

407

Visualizing OpenEI Data | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Visualizing OpenEI Data Visualizing OpenEI Data Home > Groups > OpenEI Community Central Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(1992) Super contributor 24 July, 2012 - 09:48 imported OpenEI Want to create a visualization like the one on the new OpenEI front page? There are several online tools that make organizing and visualizing data free and easy. OpenEI uses Google to visualize data in scatterplots, bar charts, and in the form of motion charts like that on the front page. However, many more tools exist to help visualize data. OpenEI would love to see some of your visualizations. Refer to this great article on data visualization Groups: OpenEI Community Central Graham7781's blog Latest blog posts Jweers New Robust References! Posted: 7 Aug 2013 - 18:23 by Jweers

408

Vector Field Visual Data Analysis Technologies for Petascale Computational Science  

SciTech Connect

State-of-the-art computational science simulations generate large-scale vector field data sets. Visualization and analysis is a key aspect of obtaining insight into these data sets and represents an important challenge. This article discusses possibilities and challenges of modern vector field visualization and focuses on methods and techniques developed in the SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) and deployed in the open-source visualization tool, VisIt.

Garth, Christoph; Deines, Eduard; Joy, Kenneth I.; Bethel, E. Wes; Childs, Hank; Weber, Gunther; Ahern, Sean; Pugmire, Dave; Sanderson, Allen; Johnson, Chris

2009-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

409

Multidimensional structured data visualization method and apparatus, text visualization method and apparatus, method and apparatus for visualizing and graphically navigating the world wide web, method and apparatus for visualizing hierarchies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of displaying correlations among information objects includes receiving a query against a database; obtaining a query result set; and generating a visualization representing the components of the result set, the visualization including one of a plane and line to represent a data field, nodes representing data values, and links showing correlations among fields and values. Other visualization methods and apparatus are disclosed.

Risch, John S. (Kennewick, WA); Dowson, Scott T. (West Richland, WA)

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

410

GeneVis: visualization tools for genetic regulatory network dynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

GeneVis provides a visual environment for exploring the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks. At present time, genetic regulation is the focus of intensive research worldwide, and computational aids are being called for to help in the research of ... Keywords: biological visualization, focus and context, genetic networks, lenses, multirepresentation, visualization

C. A. H Baker; M. S. T Carpendale; P. Prusinkiewicz; M. G. Surette

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Dancing hamsters and marble statues: characterizing student visualizations of algorithms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Algorithm visualization research for computer science education has primarily focused on expert-created visualizations. However, constructionist and situated theories of learning suggest that students should develop and share their own diverse understandings ... Keywords: algorithms, empirical studies, learning, multimedia, representation, visualization

Teresa Hübscher-Younger; N. Hari Narayanan

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Using Visualization Techniques and Gamification to Involve Users in Requirements Elicitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using Visualization Techniques and Gamification to Involve Users in Requirements Elicitation Diogo of visualization techniques and gamification. Requirements visualizations are used to stimulate stakeholders and increase their awareness about requirements. Social visualization and gamification of the elicitation

da Silva, Alberto Rodrigues

413

Argonne TTRDC - Engines - Combustion Visualization - emissions,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustion Visualization Combustion Visualization Exploring Combustion Using Advanced Imaging Techniques In the photo, the GM diesel test cell is shown with vehicle exhaust aftertreatment hardware (diesel particulate filtration and diesel oxidation catalyst) along with other advanced technology-such as a variable geometry turbocharger, cooled exhaust gas recirculation and a common-rail fuel injection system. Fig. 1. The GM diesel test cell is shown with vehicle exhaust aftertreatment hardware (diesel particulate filtration and diesel oxidation catalyst) along with other advanced technology-such as a variable geometry turbocharger, cooled exhaust gas recirculation and a common-rail fuel injection system. Two-dimensional image of hydrogen combustion OH chemiluminescence. Fig. 2. Two-dimensional image of hydrogen combustion OH chemiluminescence.

414

Visualizing Brain Metals in Health and Disease  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Visualizing Brain Metals in Health and Visualizing Brain Metals in Health and Disease figure 1 Fig. 1. Rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence mapping ex perimental setup. Synchrotron x-rays at 11 keV passed through a 50 µm aperture (Ap). The beam intensity was monitored with a N2-filled ion chamber (I0). The brain slice was mounted vertically on a motorized stage (St) at 45° to the incident x-ray beam and raster scanned in the beam. A 13-element Ge detector (Ge) was positioned at a 90° angle to the beam. We all require iron, copper and zinc for normal brain function but metal metabolism becomes dysregulated in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Metals accumulate in Alzheimer's dementia and Parkinson's disease and are deficient in Menkes disease. Whether excess metals appear as a cause or a

415

Automated visual direction : LDRD 38623 final report.  

SciTech Connect

Mobile manipulator systems used by emergency response operators consist of an articulated robot arm, a remotely driven base, a collection of cameras, and a remote communications link. Typically the system is completely teleoperated, with the operator using live video feedback to monitor and assess the environment, plan task activities, and to conduct the operations via remote control input devices. The capabilities of these systems are limited, and operators rarely attempt sophisticated operations such as retrieving and utilizing tools, deploying sensors, or building up world models. This project has focused on methods to utilize this video information to enable monitored autonomous behaviors for the mobile manipulator system, with the goal of improving the overall effectiveness of the human/robot system. Work includes visual servoing, visual targeting, utilization of embedded video in 3-D models, and improved methods of camera utilization and calibration.

Anderson, Robert J.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Visualizations for Real-time Pricing Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the visualization tools created for monitoring the operations of a real-time pricing demonstration system that runs at a distribution feeder level are presented. The information these tools provide gives insights into demand behavior from automated price responsive devices, distribution feeder characteristics, impact of weather on system’s development, and other significant dynamics. Given the large number of devices that bid into a feeder-level real-time electricity market, new techniques are explored to summarize the present state of the system and contrast that with previous trends as well as future projections. To better understand the system behavior and correctly inform decision-making procedures, effective visualization of the data is imperative.

Marinovici, Maria C.; Hammerstrom, Janelle L.; Widergren, Steven E.; Dayley, Greg K.

2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

417

Target Visualization at the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

As the National Ignition Facility continues its campaign to achieve ignition, new methods and tools will be required to measure the quality of the targets used to achieve this goal. Techniques have been developed to measure target surface features using a phase-shifting diffraction interferometer and Leica Microsystems confocal microscope. Using these techniques we are able to produce a detailed view of the shell surface, which in turn allows us to refine target manufacturing and cleaning processes. However, the volume of data produced limits the methods by which this data can be effectively viewed by a user. This paper introduces an image-based visualization system for data exploration of target shells at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It aims to combine multiple image sets into a single visualization to provide a method of navigating the data in ways that are not possible with existing tools.

Potter, D

2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

418

Presented by High-Performance Visualization of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Bhaduri_HPC_GIS_Viz_SC10 Geographic information-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Bhaduri_HPC_GIS_Viz_SC10 GIS and high-performance computing: Incentives ­ Data mining and visual exploratory methods ­ Simulation models #12;4 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S

419

CONTENTS IN BRIEF PART I VISUALIZATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Density Estimation xxvi I.4 Plan of the Book xxvii I.5 Web Page and the Code xxvii I.6 Bibliographic Notes 67 2.2.1 Density Type Visualizations 68 #12;CONTENTS ix 2.2.2 Distribution Function Type.6.1 Morse Theory 118 4.6.2 Reeb Graphs 122 Exercises 123 5 Shape Trees 127 5.1 Functions and Sets 128 5

Klemelä, Jussi

420

Vision of a Visualization Tool for Commissioning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Meyers, S., E. Mills, A. Chen, and L. Demsetz, Building Data Visualization for Diagnostics, Operator Feedback, and Performance Optimization, ASHRAE Journal, 1996, June, pp. 63-73. ( http://eetd.lbl.gov/CBS/pubs/dv/data_vis.html#3.1 ) 4. Piette, M..., USA, 1999, Report LBNL 44453, http://EETD.LBL.gov/EA/IIT/diag/ 5. Friedman, Hannah and Mary Ann Piette. Comparative Guide to Emerging Diagnostic Tools for Large Commercial HVAC Systems LBNL 2001.Report 48629. http://eetd.lbl...

Isakson, P.; Eriksson, J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

A Model for the Visualization Exploration Process T.J. Jankun-Kelly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Model for the Visualization Exploration Process T.J. Jankun-Kelly Kwan-Liu Ma Michael Gertz of the visualization exploration process. The model, based upon a new parameter derivation calculus, can be used the visualization process to further data exploration. Keywords: visualization process, visualization models, visual

Ma, Kwan-Liu

422

Vision Loss: Visual Impairment and Vision Impairment | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vision Loss: Visual Impairment and Vision Impairment Vision Loss: Visual Impairment and Vision Impairment Vision Loss: Visual Impairment and Vision Impairment Visual impairment or vision impairment is vision loss that constitutes a significant limitation of visual capability resulting from disease, trauma, or a congenital or degenerative condition that cannot be corrected by conventional means, including refractive correction, medication, or surgery. Low Vision Anyone with non-correctable reduced vision is considered to be visually impaired, and can have a wide range of causes. Blindness Blindness is the condition of lacking visual perception due to physiological or psychological factors. Hearing Impairment Hearing impairment is a full or partial decrease in the ability to detect or understand sounds. Losing the ability to detect some frequencies, or

423

Multimedia and Visualization Innovations for Science | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Multimedia and Visualization Innovations for Science Multimedia and Visualization Innovations for Science Multimedia and Visualization Innovations for Science February 9, 2011 - 11:45am Addthis Multimedia and Visualization Innovations for Science Brian Hitson Associate Director of Administration & Information Services, OSTI I once saw a demonstration of the human brain's capacity to absorb massive amounts of visually-displayed information. "A picture's worth a thousand words" might have been an understatement. Think about what is probably the most famous graph in history, Charles Joseph Minard's visual depiction of Napoleon's disastrous Russian campaign of 1812. Now think about advances in the technology of visualization and multimedia since Minard's time. ScienceCinema is a new multimedia search engine aimed at

424

Visualizations of the Exclusive Central Diffraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The case of the low invariant mass exclusive central diffractive production is considered in the general theoretical framework. It is shown that diffractive patterns (differential cross-sections on variables like transfer momenta squared, the azimuthal angle between final hadrons and their combinations) can serve as a unique tool to explore the picture of the $pp$ interaction and falsify theoretical models. Basic kinematical and dynamical properties of the process are considered in detail. As an example, visualizations of diffractive patterns in the model with three pomerons for processes $p+p\\to p+R+p$ and $p+p\\to p+\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}+p$ are presented.

R. A. Ryutin

2014-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

425

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Visualize-IT Energy Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Visualize-IT Energy Information and Analysis Tool Visualize-IT Energy Information and Analysis Tool Visualize-IT Energy Information and Analysis Tool logo. Designed to explore, summarize and analyze time series interval data. Visualize-IT has been developed specifically for electric and gas load data, but it is equally useful as a general purpose data visualization tool for other time series measurements such as weather, industrial process control, and water quality. Screen Shots Keywords energy analysis, rate comparison, load profiles, interval data Validation/Testing N/A Expertise Required Basic knowledge of energy data analysis and concepts. Users Over 100 users internationally. Audience Load Researchers, Building Simulation Engineers, Facilities Managers, Energy Account Managers. Input Any type of interval (primarily load) data. Visualize-IT can analyze other

426

Audio Visual Room Equipment Summary Portable equipment (including projectors, laptops, media players, recorders, amplifiers) is available from the Audio Visual department. Please book using the AV request  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Audio Visual Room Equipment Summary Portable equipment (including projectors, laptops, media players, recorders, amplifiers) is available from the Audio Visual department. Please book using the AV

Sheldon, Nathan D.

427

Visualization of a changing dose field.  

SciTech Connect

To help visualize the results of dose modeling for nuclear materials processing opcrations, we have developed an integrated model that uses a simple dosc calculation tool to obtain estimates of the dose field in a complex geomctry and then post-process the data to produce a video of the now time-dependent data. We generate two-dimensional radiation fields within an existing physical cnvironment and then analyze them using three-dimensional visualization techniques. The radiation fields are generated for both neutrons and photons. Standard monoenergetic diffusion theory is used to estimate the neutron dosc fields. The photon dose is estimated using a point-kernel formalism, with photon shielding effects and buildup taken into account. The radiation field dynamics are analyzed by interleaving individual 3D graphic 'snapshots' into a smoothed, lime dependent, video-based display. In-the-room workers are 'seen' in the radiation fields via a graphical, 3D fly-through rendering of the room. Worker dose levels can reveal surprising dependencies on operational source placement, source types, worker alignment, shielding alignments, and indirect operations from external workers.

Helm, T. M (Terry M.); Kornreich, D. E. (Drew E.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Visual Analytics for Power Grid Contingency Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Contingency analysis is the process of employing different measures to model scenarios, analyze them, and then derive the best response to remove the threats. This application paper focuses on a class of contingency analysis problems found in the power grid management system. A power grid is a geographically distributed interconnected transmission network that transmits and delivers electricity from generators to end users. The power grid contingency analysis problem is increasingly important because of both the growing size of the underlying raw data that need to be analyzed and the urgency to deliver working solutions in an aggressive timeframe. Failure to do so may bring significant financial, economic, and security impacts to all parties involved and the society at large. The paper presents a scalable visual analytics pipeline that transforms about 100 million contingency scenarios to a manageable size and form for grid operators to examine different scenarios and come up with preventive or mitigation strategies to address the problems in a predictive and timely manner. Great attention is given to the computational scalability, information scalability, visual scalability, and display scalability issues surrounding the data analytics pipeline. Most of the large-scale computation requirements of our work are conducted on a Cray XMT multi-threaded parallel computer. The paper demonstrates a number of examples using western North American power grid models and data.

Wong, Pak C.; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Mackey, Patrick S.; Jin, Shuangshuang

2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

429

From Question Answering to Visual Exploration  

SciTech Connect

Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

2006-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

430

Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Report about the Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization project, which focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy from the world’s ocean thermal resources.

431

A Novel Visualization Technique for Electric Power Grid Analytics  

SciTech Connect

The application of information visualization holds tremendous promise for the electric power industry, and yet its potential has not been sufficiently exploited by the visualization community. Prior work on visualizing electric power systems has been limited to depicting raw or processed information on top of a geographic layout. Little effort has been devoted to maximize the analytical strengths naturally gained by the visualization itself. This paper introduces a visualization system prototype, known as GreenGrid, that explores the planning and monitoring of the North American Electricity Infrastructure. For the purposes of visualization, the power infrastructure can be described as a network of nodes and links. The nodes represent the electrical buses where generators and loads are connected, while the links represent the transmission lines that interconnect the buses. This paper focuses mainly on a customized technique within GreenGrid that is designed to visually identify abnormal characteristics of the electricity infrastructure. In particular, we examine an extreme event that occurred within the Western United States power grid on August 10, 1996. We compare our study results with the conclusion of the post-disturbance analysis and find that many of the disturbance characteristics can be readily identified with the proper form of visualization. The paper includes a lessons learned discussion to evaluate the visualization application.

Wong, Pak C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Foote, Harlan P.; Chin, George; Guttromson, Ross T.; Thomas, James J.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Virtual reality - improving the fidelity of architectural visualization.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??With the rise of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software, digital media have been applied ubiquitously to architectural design. CAD not only works as a visualization… (more)

Wu, Hao

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Visualizing Storms from NCAR's Atmosphere Model at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmosphere Model Visualizing Storms from NCAR's Atmosphere Model CCSM-sprabhat.png Global warming will likely change the statistics of tropical cyclones and hurricanes. In this...

434

Capturing and Using Knowledge about the Use of Visualization Toolkits  

SciTech Connect

When constructing visualization pipelines using toolkits such as Visualization Toolkit (VTK) and Generic Mapping Tools (GMT), developers must understand (1) what toolkit operators will transform their data from its raw state to some required view state and (2) what viewers are available to present the generated view. Traditionally, developers learn about how to construct visualization pipelines by reading documentation and inspecting code examples, which can be costly in terms of the time and effort expended. Once an initial pipeline is constructed, developers may still have to undergo a trial and error process before a satisfactory visualization is generated. This paper presents the Visualization Knowledge Project (VisKo) that is built on a knowledge base of visualization toolkit operators and how they can be piped together to form visualization pipelines. Developers may now rely on VisKo to guide them when constructing visualization pipelines and in some cases, when VisKo has complete knowledge about some set of operators (i.e., sequencing and parameter settings), automatically generate a fully functional visualization pipeline.

Del Rio, Nicholas R.; Pinheiro da Silva, Paulo

2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

435

Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium Deposition by in situ Electrochemical Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium...

436

Variable Grid Method for Visualizing Uncertainty Associated with...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

This Return to Search Variable Grid Method for Visualizing Uncertainty Associated with Spatial Data A decision-making tool for industry,government, academia, and scientists...

437

Visualizing Assembling Everything (2010 JGI/ANL HPC Workshop)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

David Jaffe and Sante Gnerre of the Broad Institute give a presentation on "Visualizing assembling everything" at the JGI/Argonne HPC Workshop on January 25, 2010.

Jaffe, David; Gnerre, Sante

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

438

Nano, photonic research gets boost from new 3-D visualization...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

imaging (CSSI) data. An image as 2-D coherent surface scattering imaging (CSSI) data. Nano, photonic research gets boost from new 3-D visualization technology By Tona Kunz *...

439

DOE's SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies -- Strategy for Petascale Visual Data Analysis Success  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this article is on how one group of researchersthe DOE SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies (VACET) is tackling the daunting task of enabling knowledgediscovery through visualization and analytics on some of the world slargest and most complex datasets and on some of the world's largestcomputational platforms. As a Center for Enabling Technology, VACET smission is the creation of usable, production-quality visualization andknowledge discovery software infrastructure that runs on large, parallelcomputer systems at DOE's Open Computing facilities and that providessolutions to challenging visual data exploration and knowledge discoveryneeds of modern science, particularly the DOE sciencecommunity.

Bethel, E. Wes; Johnson, Chris; Aragon, Cecilia; Prabhat, ???; Rubel, Oliver; Weber, Gunther; Pascucci, Valerio; Childs, Hank; Bremer,Peer-Timo; Whitlock, Brad; Ahern, Sean; Meredith, Jeremey; Ostrouchov,George; Joy, Ken; Hamann, Bernd; Garth, Christoph; Cole, Martin; Hansen,Charles; Parker, Steven; Sanderson, Allen; Silva, Claudio; Tricoche, Xavier

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Visualizing Type Ia Supernova Explosions at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Supernova Explosions Supernova Explosions Visualizing Type Ia Supernova Explosions Childs1a-Supernovasm.png Deep inside a dying star in a galaxy far, far away, a carbon fusion flame ignites. Ignition may happen in the middle or displaced slightly to one side, but this simulation explores the consequences of central ignition. In a localized hot spot, represented here by a deformed sphere with an average radius of 100 km, carbon is assumed to have already fused to iron, producing hot ash (~10 billion K) with a density about 20% less than its surroundings. As the burning progresses, this hot buoyant ash rises up and interacts with cold fuel. Rayleigh-Taylor fingers give rise to shear and turbulence, which interacts with the flame, causing it to move faster. In about 2 seconds, the energy released blows the entire white dwarf star up,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Visual Observability of the Cassiopeia A Supernova  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is generally believed that the explosion which gave birth to the Cassiopeia A supernova remmant resulted from core collapse of a hydrogen-deficient star. A progenitor that has lost all its hydrogen envelope and part of its helium envelope would lead to an explosion with the optical properties of a Type Ic supernova. There is evidence, if not general agreement, that Flamsteed observed the Cas A supernova as a sixth magnitude object in August, 1680. If an explosion with a typical SNIc light curve at the position and distance of Cas A attained maximum luminosity during the winter of 1679-1680, it would at that time have been poorly situated for visual observation, as its upper culmination would have taken place during daylight, while in August, between 170-200 days after peak luminosity, it would have been a sixth magnitude star.

J. A. Morgan

2007-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

442

Visualizing infrared phenomena with a webcam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concept of light (electromagnetic radiation) outside of the visible spectrum is an abstract concept for students in an introductory science class. When students are presented with demonstrations or experiments meant to explore this portion of the spectrum the equipment involved often hides the phenomena. A simple modification to a standard inexpensive web camera (webcam) can take advantage of the sensitivity of the charged-coupled-device (CCD) to the infrared (IR) portion of the spectrum allowing students to visualize many IR phenomena. This note reports how such a modified webcam can be used in lecture demonstrations and laboratory activities to study infrared phenomena including an IR light emitting diode(LED) the IR component of different light sources IR spectroscopy and blackbody radiation. As a final example the modified camera can be employed to view the charcoal under-drawing of a “painting” created for this paper and used in our classroom demonstrations.

N. A. Gross; M. Hersek; A. Bansil

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Using Provenance to Streamline Data Exploration through Visualization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the visualization process can be used to streamline the data exploration process and reduce the time to insight process. #12;Using Provenance to Streamline Data Exploration through Visualization Steven P. Callahan be used to streamline the data exploration process and reduce the time to in- sight. This model enables

Utah, University of

444

Visual toolkit for network security experiment specification and data analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The increasing availability of network testbeds and the benefits of visualization-based security study call for the emergence of supporting tools for network security research. In this article we present ESVT, an integrated experiment specification and ... Keywords: animated topology, experiment specification, testbed, visual toolkit

L. Li; P. Liu; G. Kesidis

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

FireViz : a personal firewall visualizing tool  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I present FireViz, a personal firewall visualizing tool. FireViz visually displays activities of a personal firewall in real time. The primary goal of FireViz is to educate typical computer users of the ...

Sharma, Nidhi

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Identify and Visualize Differences in Traffic Data Zhonghua Xi*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Identify and Visualize Differences in Traffic Data Zhonghua Xi* , Jyh-Ming Lien* , Yi-Chang Chiu visualization is developed to automatically search for events of interest using quantitative metrics, while also relies on traffic analysis. Traffic analysis can be approached as a problem of searching for trends

Lien, Jyh-Ming

447

A Knowledge-based System with Audio-Visual Aids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......December 1989 research-article Articles A Knowledge-based System with Audio-Visual Aids...0298-52-4326. Email: tabata@ulis.ac.jp A Knowledge-based System with Audio-Visual Aids (KS/AV) is presented. KS/AV is a knowledge-based system that has multiple types......

Koichi Tabata; Shigeo Sugimoto

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

High-Resolution, Parallel Visualization of Turbomachinery Flowelds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-Resolution, Parallel Visualization of Turbomachinery Flowelds Michael G. List , Mark G Turbomachinery post- and co-processing and visualization tools are under development. The result has been in the analysis of turbomachinery. It has always been the way of the CFD analyst to expand and resolve simulations

Cincinnati, University of

449

MATLAB and GAMS: Interfacing Optimization and Visualization Software  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MATLAB and GAMS: Interfacing Optimization and Visualization Software Michael C. Ferris May 26 is assumed to have already. The soft- ware gives MATLAB users the ability to use all the optimization ca- pabilities of GAMS, and allows visualization of GAMS models directly within MATLAB. The most recent version

Ferris, Michael C.

450

MATLAB and GAMS: Interfacing Optimization and Visualization Software  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MATLAB and GAMS: Interfacing Optimization and Visualization Software #3; Michael C. Ferris y August the user is assumed to have already. The soft- ware gives MATLAB users the ability to use all the optimization ca- pabilities of GAMS, and allows visualization of GAMS models directly within MATLAB. The most

Ferris, Michael C.

451

The Information Mural: Increasing Information Bandwidth in Visualizations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Information Mural: Increasing Information Bandwidth in Visualizations Dean F. Jerding and John Abstract Information visualizations must allow users to browse information spaces and focus quickly on items of interest. Being able to see some representation of the entire information space provides

Stasko, John T.

452

Spatial ordering and encoding for geographic data mining and visualization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spatial ordering and encoding for geographic data mining and visualization Diansheng Guo & Mark, sales, or income). It is a challenging problem in spatial data mining and visualization to take possible. The ordering can then be used to spatially sort temporal or multivariate data series and thus

453

Visualization of Anatomic Covariance Tensor Fields Gordon L. Kindlmann1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Utah, UT 2 Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, Brain Mapping Division, Department of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine, CA Abstract-- The computation, visualization, and interpretation of brain variability remains. The resulting visual- izations support a more detailed characterization of population variability of brain

Utah, University of

454

Modelling the heart and visualization of simulated Roman Durikovic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modelling the heart and visualization of simulated wavefronts Roman Durikovic Daming Wei Department summarizes our experience in working with an anisotropic computer heart model. We propose the heart rotating- ing of the unknown mechanisms of heart disease. Keywords: heart model, heart visualization 1

Durikovic, Roman

455

Extending Visual OLAP for Handling Irregular Dimensional Hierarchies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dimension, and 2) dimensional hierarchies are balanced trees [5]. At the level of visual interfacesExtending Visual OLAP for Handling Irregular Dimensional Hierarchies Svetlana Mansmann and Marc H.Scholl}@uni-konstanz.de Abstract. Comprehensive data analysis has become indispensable in a variety of environments. Standard OLAP

Reiterer, Harald

456

Building Highly-Coordinated Visualizations in Improvise Chris Weaver  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

activi- ties are integrated in a single, live user interface that lets users alter visualizations quickly with coordination, users gain precise control over how navigation and selection in a visualization affects--User Interfaces; H.2.3 [Information Systems]: Database Management--Languages; H.5.2 [Information Systems

Klippel, Alexander

457

Dynamic Multiscale Visualization of Flight Data Tijmen Klein1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the Netherlands t.r.klein@student.rug.nl, {m.a.t.van.der.zwan, a.c.telea}@rug.nl Keywords: flight visualizationDynamic Multiscale Visualization of Flight Data Tijmen Klein1 , Matthew van der Zwan1 and Alexandru

Telea, Alexandru C.

458

Visual Speech Recognition Using Image Moments and Multiresolution Wavelet Images  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes a new technique for recognizing speech using visual speech information. The video data of the speaker's mouth is represented using grayscale images named as motion history image (MHI). MHI is generated by applying accumulative image ... Keywords: visual speech recognition, motion history image, image moments, discrete stationary wavelet transform

Wai C. Yau; Dinesh K. Kumar; Sridhar P. Arjunan; Sanjay Kumar

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Visual Data Analysis as an Integral Part of Environmental Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Visual Data Analysis as an Integral Part of Environmental Management J¨org Meyer, E. Wes Bethel). This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management, Office of Environmental of California. ii #12;Visual Data Analysis as an Integral Part of Environmental Management Joerg Meyer, E. Wes

460

DEVELOPING GIS VISUALIZATION WEB SERVICES FOR GEOPHYSICAL APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DEVELOPING GIS VISUALIZATION WEB SERVICES FOR GEOPHYSICAL APPLICATIONS A. Sayar a,b. *, M. Pierce Commission II, WG II/2 KEY WORDS: GIS, Geophysics, Visualization, Internet/Web, Interoperability, Networks Information System (GIS) community. In this paper we will describe our group's efforts to implement GIS

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Visual Wavelength Discrimination by the Loggerhead Turtle, Caretta caretta  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Visual Wavelength Discrimination by the Loggerhead Turtle, Caretta caretta MORGAN YOUNG1 MICHAEL Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, North Carolina 28516 Abstract. Marine turtles are visual animals, yet we was to determine whether log- gerhead turtles could discriminate between objects on the basis of color. We used

Milton, Sarah

462

ISFV13 -13th International Symposium on Flow Visualization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OF AN UNSTABLE WAKE VORTEX BENDING MODE VIA HELIUM-BUBBLE VISUALIZATION Brian M. Babie, Robert C. Nelson University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA KEYWORDS: Main subject(s): wake vortex stability Fluid: air Visualization method(s): helium-bubble injection Other keywords: trailing vortices, Crow

Nelson, Robert C.

463

Gravi++: Interactive Information Visualization of Highly Structured Temporal Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tasks or computer tomography visualizations. In the field of medical treatment planning different kindsGravi++: Interactive Information Visualization of Highly Structured Temporal Data Klaus Hinum1, Vienna University of Technology Vienna, Austria, http://ieg.ifs.tuwien.ac.at/projects/in2vis/ Abstract

464

An Application-Independent System for Visualizing User Operation History  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Application-Independent System for Visualizing User Operation History Toshio Nakamura Department conventional interactive systems provide the user operation history only as a list of text commands. The text have been proposed. For example, the Chimera system [17] visualizes an operation history as a sequence

Igarashi, Takeo

465

CONDENSING COMPUTABLE SCENES USING VISUAL COMPLEXITY AND FILM SYNTAX ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONDENSING COMPUTABLE SCENES USING VISUAL COMPLEXITY AND FILM SYNTAX ANALYSIS Hari Sundaram Shih, sfchang}@ctr.columbia.edu ABSTRACT In this paper, we present a novel algorithm to condense computable, lighting and sound. We attempt to condense such scenes in two ways. First, we define visual complexity

Chang, Shih-Fu

466

Extra-mural Work and Audio-visual Aids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... reply to a further question, Mr. Hogg stated that members of the Committee on Audio -Visual Aids in teaching and research would be visiting the United States in April, ... achieve a reasonably early report, but there was no intention to prejudice possible use of audio-visual aids in other fields of higher education. Four American professors in Britain had ...

1964-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

467

Renewable energy visual impact best management practices [EVS News]  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Best practices guide for mitigating visual impacts of utility-scale wind, Best practices guide for mitigating visual impacts of utility-scale wind, solar, and geothermal energy facilities November 1, 2013 Working with the U.S. Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Land Management (BLM), EVS has developed a comprehensive guide to best management practices (BMPs) for mitigating the visual impacts associated with utility-scale wind, solar, and geothermal energy facilities. The guide, titled Best Management Practices for Reducing Visual Impacts of Renewable Energy Facilities on BLM-Administered Lands (PDF, 14 MB), presents 120 BMPs for avoiding or reducing potential visual impacts associated with the siting, design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of utility-scale renewable energy generation facilities - wind, solar, and geothermal.

468

Definition: Wide Area Monitoring, Visualization, & Control | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wide Area Monitoring, Visualization, & Control Wide Area Monitoring, Visualization, & Control Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Wide Area Monitoring, Visualization, & Control Wide area monitoring and visualization requires time synchronized sensors, communications, and information processing that make it possible for the condition of the bulk power system to be observed and understood in real-time so that protective, preventative, or corrective action can be taken.[1] Related Terms Wide area, bes emergency, sustainability, smart grid References ↑ SmartGrid.gov 'Description of Functions' An inl LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. ine Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Wide_Area_Monitoring,_Visualization,_%26_Control&oldid=502579

469

Using R-trees for Interactive Visualization of Large Multidimensional Datasets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for large dimensionalities and large datasets since standard visualization interfaces are constrained, multidimensional datasets are difficult to visualize and analyze. Visualization interfaces are constrained Introduction As measuring instruments advance technologically, datasets increase in both dimension and quantity

Rosenbaum, Rene

470

Coherence in nervous system design: the visual system of Pantodon buchholzi  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...by S. P. Collin and N. J. Marshall Coherence in nervous system design: the visual...fusiform cell|Pantodon buchholzi | Coherence in nervous system design: the visual...Relationship Vision, Ocular physiology Coherence in nervous system design: the visual...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

E-Print Network 3.0 - agudeza visual baja Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

que existe cierto margen de mejora de la agudeza visual en luz... subjetiva de LCA. - Medida de agudeza visual en verde ... Source: Ribak, Erez - Physics Department,...

472

E-Print Network 3.0 - agudeza visual primer Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

que existe cierto margen de mejora de la agudeza visual en luz... subjetiva de LCA. - Medida de agudeza visual en verde ... Source: Ribak, Erez - Physics Department,...

473

E-Print Network 3.0 - automated visual fields Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biology and Medicine 6 APS Division of Plasma Physics October 29, 2001 1 Three Dimensional Visualization Summary: to visualize the magnetic field structure Use...

474

Ultrafast X-ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ultrafast X-ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection Process and Diesel Sprays Ultrafast X-ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection...

475

Applications of the pipeline environment for visual informatics and genomics computations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for visual informatics and genomics computations. BMCfor visual informatics and genomics computations Ivo D DinovContemporary informatics and genomics research require

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Visual Comfort Analysis of Innovative Interior and Exterior Shading Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Visual Comfort Analysis of Innovative Interior and Exterior Shading Systems Visual Comfort Analysis of Innovative Interior and Exterior Shading Systems for Commercial Buildings using High Resolution Luminance Images Title Visual Comfort Analysis of Innovative Interior and Exterior Shading Systems for Commercial Buildings using High Resolution Luminance Images Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-4417E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Konis, Kyle, Eleanor S. Lee, and Robert D. Clear Call Number LBNL-4417E Abstract The objective of this study was to explore how calibrated high dynamic range (HDR) images (luminance maps) acquired in real world daylit environments can be used to characterize, evaluate, and compare visual comfort conditions of innovative facade shading and light-redirecting systems. Detailed (1536 x 1536 pixel) luminance maps were time-lapse acquired from two view positions in an unoccupied full scale testbed facility. These maps were analyzed using existing visual comfort metrics to quantify how innovative interior and exterior shading systems compare to conventional systems under real sun and sky conditions over a solstice-to-solstice test interval. The results provide a case study in the challenges and potential of methods of visualizing, evaluating and summarizing daily and seasonal variation of visual comfort conditions computed from large sets of image data.

477

Visualization of high-dimensional clusters using nonlinear magnification  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a cluster visualization system used for data-mining fraud detection. The system can simultaneously show 6 dimensions of data, and a unique technique of 3D nonlinear magnification allows individual clusters of data points to be magnified while still maintaining a view of the global context. The author first describes the fraud detection problem, along with the data which is to be visualized. Then he describes general characteristics of the visualization system, and shows how nonlinear magnification can be used in this system. Finally he concludes and describes options for further work.

Keahey, T.A.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

478

Geographic Visualization of the 1993 Midwest Flood Water Balance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

proper). 3 2. Geographic Visualization Until very recently, the output from a GIS-based analysis was often a series of static map products. Even time-dependent data sets investigated using GIS technology were prone to a reduction in utility... and methodologies in the geosciences. 2.1 Visualization and Map Representation Visualization in scientific computing (ViSC) was first formalized in a National Science Foundation report by McCormick and others (1987; known informally as the "McCormick Report...

White, W. Scott; Ridd, Merrill K.; Mizgalewicz, Pawel J.; Maidment, David R.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Visualization of High Resolution Spatial Mass Spectrometric Data during Acquisition  

SciTech Connect

Mass Spectrometric Imaging (IMS) allows the generation of 2D ion density maps that help visualize molecules present in sections of tissues and cells. The combination of spatial and mass resolution results in large and complex data sets that require powerful and efficient analysis and interpretation. In this paper, a graphical user interface (GUI) that can visualize the large data during data acquisition itself is presented. The program also has the ability to perform processing and analysis of the dataset. The various functions of the GUI including visualization of mass spectra, generation of 2D maps for selected species, manipulation of the heat maps, and peak identification are also presented.

Thomas, Mathew; Heath, Brandi S.; Laskin, Julia; Li, Dongsheng; Liu, Ellen C.; Hui, Katrina L.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Carson, James P.

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

480

Guided Text Search Using Adaptive Visual Analytics  

SciTech Connect

This research demonstrates the promise of augmenting interactive visualizations with semi- supervised machine learning techniques to improve the discovery of significant associations and insights in the search and analysis of textual information. More specifically, we have developed a system called Gryffin that hosts a unique collection of techniques that facilitate individualized investigative search pertaining to an ever-changing set of analytical questions over an indexed collection of open-source documents related to critical national infrastructure. The Gryffin client hosts dynamic displays of the search results via focus+context record listings, temporal timelines, term-frequency views, and multiple coordinate views. Furthermore, as the analyst interacts with the display, the interactions are recorded and used to label the search records. These labeled records are then used to drive semi-supervised machine learning algorithms that re-rank the unlabeled search records such that potentially relevant records are moved to the top of the record listing. Gryffin is described in the context of the daily tasks encountered at the US Department of Homeland Security s Fusion Center, with whom we are collaborating in its development. The resulting system is capable of addressing the analysts information overload that can be directly attributed to the deluge of information that must be addressed in the search and investigative analysis of textual information.

Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Symons, Christopher T [ORNL; Senter, James K [ORNL; DeNap, Frank A [ORNL

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Partonic coalescence in relativistic heavy ion collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

significantly the spectr Elliptic flows of phi mesons and baryons such as protons evaluated from partons with elliptic flows extracted fro predicted proton and lambda elliptic flows are consisten DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.68.034904 I. INTRODUCTION Recently...d M e? r parton a th e transvers e ffec a PHYSICAL REVIEW C 68, 034904 ~2003! yields and their ratios, these new studies were more con- cerned with observables related to collective dynamics and production of hadrons with relatively...

Greco, V.; Ko, Che Ming; Levai, P.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Natural Selection and Coalescent Theory John Wakeley  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of inheritance at the beginning of the 20th century by Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns, and Erich von Tschermak the nature of evolutionarily important variation and the importance of natural selection. One camp maintained mutations, while the other camp asserted that it moved via gradual modification of continuous characters

483

Coalescence and Chemical Equilibrium in Multifragmentation at...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Talk, International Union of Pure and Applied Physics Working Group 9 Meeting, Bonn, Germany (August, 2009). The U. S. Nuclear PhysicsNuclear Astrophysics Program into the Next...

484

Coalescence and Chemical Equilibrium in Multifragmentation at...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

talk, LX International Conference on Nuclear Physics "Nucleus 2010," St Petersburg, Russia (July 2010). Are beta-decay half-lives affected by external conditions? J.C. Hardy,...

485

Entrainment in two coalescing axisymmetric turbulent plumes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

process in environmental and indus- trial applications. The air circulation in a ventilated enclosure with multiple heat sources, e.g. offices with electronic equipment and humans, is regulated by the dynamics of tur- bulent buoyant plumes that rise... disturbances near the free surface) and a long weir was positioned near the free surface to keep it at the same location throughout the experiment. A pump withdrew water at the bottom of the tank. The two plume sources were located in the upper part of the tank...

Cenedese, Claudia; Linden, P. F.

2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

486

Elastocapillary coalescence of plates and pillars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When a fluid-immersed array of lamellae or filaments that is attached to a substrate is dried, evaporation leads to the formation of menisci on the tips of the plates or pillars that bring them together. Similarly, when hair dries it clumps together due to capillary forces induced by the liquid menisci between the flexible hairs. Building on prior experimental observations, we use a combination of theory and computation to understand the nature of this instability and its evolution in both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional setting of the problem. For the case of lamellae, we explicitly derive the interaction torques based on the relevant physical parameters. A Bloch-wave analysis for our periodic mechanical system captures the critical volume of the liquid and the 2-plate-collapse eigenmode at the onset of instability. We study the evolution of clusters and their arrest using numerical simulations to explain the hierarchical cluster formation and characterize the sensitive dependence of the final structures on the initial perturbations. We then generalize our analysis to treat the problem of pillar collapse in 3D, where the fluid domain is completely connected and the interface is a surface with the uniform mean curvature. Our theory and simulations capture the salient features of both previous experimental observations and our own in terms of the key parameters that can be used to control the kinetics of the process.

Zhiyan Wei; Tobias Schneider; Jungchul Kim; Ho-Young Kim; Joanna Aizenberg; L. Mahadevan

2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

487

Lunar Rivers or Coalesced Chain Craters?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...depressions with ir-regular floors and opposing walls that are mirror images of each other, that is, like (), rather than the...observed limit Gmi c2r = fa2 compared to GM!c2r = 1 2 for the Schwarzschild limit. The fine struc-ture constant thus emerges from astro-nomicalimeasurements...

S. A. Schumm; D. B. Simons; Richard E. Lingenfelter; Gerald Schubert; Stanton J. Peale

1969-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

488

Coalescence and Chemical Equilibrium in Multifragmentation at...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

31, 2007 Inelastic 6 Li Scattering Studies of the ISGMR - Prospects with Radioactive Beams, D.H. Youngblood, Invited Talk, NSCL User Workshop on, East Lansing, Michigan, (May...

489

Mathematical Properties of the Deep Coalescence Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and computationally efficient. Here, in order to better understand the MDC method, we investigate some properties, meaning that a cluster (i.e., the leaf set of a subtree) that appears in every input gene tree must also tree branch lengths, the MDC criterion does not identify the correct species tree topology when gene

Rosenberg, Noah

490

Coalescence and Chemical Equilibrium in Multifragmentation at...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Physics of the APS, Chicago, Illinois, (October 2004). TRIUMF Weak Interaction Symmetry Test, J.R. Musser (for the TWIST Collaboration), 2004 Spring Meeting of the APS, Denver,...

491

Coalescence and Chemical Equilibrium in Multifragmentation at...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to Superallowed Beta Decay, I.S. Towner, Invited Talk, Fourth ArgonneINTMSUJINA RIA Theory Workshop on Rare Isotopes and Fundamental Symmetries, Institute for Nuclear...

492

Coalescence and Chemical Equilibrium in Multifragmentation at...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

XVIth Particles and Nuclei International Conference (PANIC02), referred, Osaka, Japan (September 2002). Spin Physics and Ultra-Peripheral Collisions at STAR, C. A....

493

X-rays from Coalescing Atoms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...even in superheavy quasimolecules (6). Figure 9c shows an oscillating fine struc-ture in the anisotropy; at present this is unexplained...histone complexes. These so-called "particles-on-a-string" or "nu" bodies constitute the primary level of folding...

Walter E. Meyerhof

1976-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

494

New Gapminder Visualizations Added! | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

New Gapminder Visualizations Added! New Gapminder Visualizations Added! Home > Groups > OpenEI Community Central Wzeng's picture Submitted by Wzeng(50) Contributor 8 August, 2012 - 12:37 EIA Energy data Gapminder OECD OpenEI SEDS Visualization Graph OpenEI now features some cool new Gapminder Visualizations for users to browse and discover interesting trends. This dynamic chart, also called a motion chart, allows users to view changing data over time with four different axis, all changeable with a click of the mouse. The data ranges from state data on energy consumption published by the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) and international data on renewable and total energy production from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). To begin, go to OpenEI's Plugin Not Found and select a

495

Visualization of World Energy Supply | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Visualization of World Energy Supply Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Visualization of World Energy Supply Agency/Company /Organization: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) Sector: Energy Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: en.openei.org/wiki/Visualization_of_World_Energy_Supply Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): Community Generated Language: English References: OECD[1] Motion chart visualization of the world energy supply from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The default view shows how much percent of energy produced is renewable energy and how much total energy is produced by each country.

496

Visualizing the Future of Scientific Discovery - NERSC Science News June  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Visualizing the Visualizing the Future of Scientific Discovery Visualizing the Future of Scientific Discovery June 11, 2009 snVolRender-3.png A SUPERNOVA'S VOLUME: This volume rendering of supernova simulation data was generated by running the VisIt application on 32,000 processors on Franklin, a Cray XT4 supercomputer at NERSC. As computational scientists are confronted with increasingly massive datasets from supercomputing simulations and experiments, one of the biggest challenges is having the right tools to gain scientific insight from the data. A team of Department of Energy (DOE) researchers recently ran a series of experiments to determine whether VisIt, a leading scientific visualization application, is up to the challenge. Running on some of the world's most powerful supercomputers, VisIt achieved unprecedented levels of performance

497

New NASA Visualizations Show Two Futures of Climate Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NASA Visualizations Show Two Futures of Climate Change Print E-mail NASA Visualizations Show Two Futures of Climate Change Print E-mail Thursday, July 25, 2013 By Tara Failey Climate Scenarios Project Temperature and Precipitation in the U.S. through 2100 Curious to 'see' how different greenhouse gas emission scenarios are expected to impact the United States? Two recently released animated NASA visualizations developed to support the forthcoming third US National Climate Assessment show projections of Earth's temperature and precipitation patterns from today through the year 2100-revealing how "low" versus "high" emission scenarios would impact the planet's climate. "These visualizations communicate a picture of the impacts of climate change in a way that words do not," said Allison Leidner, Ph.D., a scientist who coordinates NASA's involvement in the National Climate Assessment. "When I look at the scenarios for future temperature and precipitation, I really see how dramatically our Nation's climate could change."

498

Visualization & Controls Program Peer Review | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Visualization & Controls Program Peer Review Visualization & Controls Program Peer Review Visualization & Controls Program Peer Review With mounting evidence suggesting an increased probability that malicious attacks may be launched against energy control systems, there is a critical need to understand specific cyber vulnerabilities and corresponding mitigation strategies. This need is being addressed by SCADA/ Energy Management System (EMS) Cyber Security Assessments conducted at the National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) facility at INL and at on-site field installations of control systems. Visualization & Controls Program Peer Review More Documents & Publications DOE/OE National SCADA Test Bed Fiscal Year 2009 Work Plan DOE National SCADA Test Bed Program Multi-Year Plan Vulnerability Analysis of Energy Delivery Control Systems - 2011

499

Scientific Visualization Applications in Oil & Gas Exploration and Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scientific Visualization Applications in Oil & Gas Exploration and Production SIBGRAPI 2009 #12 Property cross plots #12;Oil and gas production analysis and optimization SIBGRAPI 2009 Structural maps with property distributions Well schematics Production network Gas injection optimization Reservoir slices #12

Lewiner, Thomas (Thomas Lewiner)

500

Avogadro: an advanced semantic chemical editor, visualization, and analysis platform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Avogadro project has developed an advanced molecule editor and visualizer designed for cross-platform use in computational chemistry, molecular modeling, ... Avogadro seeks to enhance the semantic accessibili...

Marcus D Hanwell; Donald E Curtis; David C Lonie…

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z