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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

NANO-SCALE VISUALIZATION OF LIQUID INTERFACES DURING COALESCENCE AND RAPTURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NANO-SCALE VISUALIZATION OF LIQUID INTERFACES DURING COALESCENCE AND RAPTURE Experiments by Jacob viscosity and interfacial tension) and experimental conditions (shear rate or approach velocity), and nano such as fingering and cavitation, both occurring at the nano- or submicron-scales. The two figures below ­ the first

Akhmedov, Azer

2

Preparation and Analysis of Biomass Lignins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lignin, comprised primarily of three randomly polymerized phenylpropenyl monomers, is, arguably, the second most common organic molecule on earth. In current biorefinery applications, lignin is burned, usually in concentrated pulping or hydrolysis liquor, as a source of process steam and both internal and exported electricity. The aromatic content of lignin makes it a potentially attractive feedstock for highly-valued aromatic chemicals, polymers, and carbon products (graphite, activated carbon, and carbon fiber). Revenue from production of lignin-based chemicals could play a major role in biorefinery profitability if cost-effective methods for lignin separation and purification can be developed. This article presents descriptions of methods for assessing and purifying biorefinery lignins so that they can be evaluated for use as feedstocks for production of chemical products. Areas covered are: 1) initial evaluations of as-received lignin samples (visual, microscopic, separable organics), 2) analysis of common contaminants (bulk and filterable ash and particulate contaminants in liquid and dry lignin samples), 3) preparation of lignins for experimental use as chemical feedstocks (prefiltration, filtration using bench-scale chemical apparatus and larger scale bag filters, one-step lignin precipitation, two-step carbohydrate and lignin precipitation, desalting of dry powdered or precipitated lignin, and lyophilization). These methods have been used successfully at bench-scale to produce the 1 50 kg amounts of wood and grass lignins typically required for bench-scale assessment as chemical feedstocks

Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Redistribution of Lignin Caused by Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Biomass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research conducted at NREL has shown that lignin undergoes a phase transition during thermochemical pretreatments conducted above its glass transition temperature. The lignin coalesces within the plant cell wall and appears as microscopic droplets on cell surfaces. It is clear that pretreatment causes significant changes in lignin distribution in pretreatments at all scales from small laboratory reactors to pilot scale reactors. A method for selectively extracting lignin droplets from the surfaces of pretreated cell walls has allowed us to characterize the chemical nature and molecular weight distribution of this fraction. The effect of lignin redistribution on the digestibility of pretreated solids has also been tested. It is clear that removal of the droplets increases the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The improved digestibility could be due to decreased non-specific binding of enzymes to lignin in the droplets, or because the droplets no longer block access to cellulose.

Johnson, D. K.; Donohoe, B. S.; Katahira, R.; Tucker, M. P.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A newly discovered lignin peroxidase enzyme is provided. The enzyme is obtained from a bacterial source and is capable of degrading the lignin portion of lignocellulose in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is extracellular, oxidative, inducible by lignin, larch wood xylan, or related substrates and capable of attacking certain lignin substructure chemical bonds that are not degradable by fungal lignin peroxidases.

Crawford, Donald L. (Moscow, ID); Ramachandra, Muralidhara (Moscow, ID)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

DNA constructs are provided for the production of Streptomyces lignin peroxidase. The enzyme finds use in the degradation of lignin and oxidation of organic substrates.

Crawford, D.L.; Ramachandra, M.

1993-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

6

Lignin | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lignin Lignin Jump to: navigation, search Lignin.jpg What is Lignin? Lignin is the fiber in our food, the thing that makes vegetables crunchy and firm. It is a polymer found extensively in the cell walls of all woody plants, Lignin, one of the most abundant natural polymers, constitutes one-fourth to one-third of the total dry weight of trees. It combines with hemicellulose materials to help bind the cells together and direct water flow. Lignin is formed by removal of water from sugars to create aromatic structures. These reactions are not reversible. Lignin resists attack by most microorganisms, and anaerobic processes tend not to attack the aromatic rings at all. Aerobic breakdown of lignin is slow and may take many days. Lignin is nature's cement along with hemicellulose to exploit

7

Modulating lignin in plants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

8

Fluorescence analyzer for lignin  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for measuring lignin concentration in a sample of wood pulp or black liquor comprises a light emitting arrangement for emitting an excitation light through optical fiber bundles into a probe which has an undiluted sensing end facing the sample. The excitation light causes the lignin concentration to produce fluorescent emission light which is then conveyed through the probe to analyzing equipment which measures the intensity of the emission light. Measures a This invention was made with Government support under Contract Number DOE: DE-FC05-90CE40905 awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Government has certain rights in this invention.

Berthold, John W. (Salem, OH); Malito, Michael L. (Hubbard, OH); Jeffers, Larry (Alliance, OH)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Lignin blockers and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion and allows for the determination of optimized pretreatment conditions. Additionally, ethanol yields from a Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process are improved 5-25% by treatment with a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

Yang, Bin (West Lebanon, NH); Wyman, Charles E. (Norwich, VT)

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

10

Macromolecular replication during lignin biosynthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Macromolecular Macromolecular replication during lignin biosynthesis Yi-ru Chen, Simo Sarkanen * Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 12 December 2008 Received in revised form 24 October 2009 Available online 4 January 2010 Keywords: Lignin primary structure Replication Template polymerization Density functional theory Dynamical electron correlation a b s t r a c t Lignins play a crucial role in the cell-wall architecture of all vascular plants. They are composed of p- hydroxyphenylpropanoid units interconnected through covalent bonds formed during lignol radical cou- pling between six different pairs of atomic centers. For 50 years, the primary structures of lignins have been thought to be random, but for a number of reasons such an assumption is not tenable. For example, it has been

11

Atomistic Simulations of Metallic Cluster Coalescence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new computational method is introduced to investigate the stresses developed in the island-coalescence stage of polycrystalline film formation during deposition. The method uses molecular dynamics to examine the behavior ...

Takahashi, A. R.

12

Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization  

SciTech Connect

Previous research has shown that addition of lignin-derived liquids to coal stirred in tetralin under mild reaction conditions (375{degree}C and 300--500 psig) results in a marked enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization. A mathematical model was developed to study the kinetics of coal depolymerization in the presence of liquid-derived liquids. In the present study, a reaction pathway was formulated to explain the enhancement in coal depolymerization due to lignin (solid) addition. The model postulated assumes that the products of lignin obtained during thermolysis interact with the reactive moieties present in coal while simultaneous depolymerization of coal occurs. A good fit between the experimental data and the kinetic model was found. The results show that in addition to the enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization, lignin also reacts (and enhances the extent of depolymerization of coal) with those reaction sites in coal that are not susceptible to depolymerization when coal alone is reacted in tetralin under identical reaction conditions. Additional work is being carried out to determine a thorough materials balance on the lignin-assisted coal depolymerization process. A number of liquid samples have been obtained which are being studied for their stability in various environments. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Lalvani, S.B.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

''The control of lignin synthesis''  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this project we tested the hypothesis that regulation of the synthesis of lignin in secondary xylem cells in conifer trees involves the transport of glucosylated lignin monomers to the wall of xylem cells, followed by de-glucosylation in the cell wall by monolignol-specific glucosidase enzymes, which activates the monomers for lignin polymerization. The information we gathered is relevant to the fundamental understanding of how trees make wood, and to the applied goal of more environmentally friendly pulp and paper production. We characterized the complete genomic structure of the Coniferin-specific Beta-glucosidase (CBG) gene family in the conifers loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), and partial genomic sequences were obtained in several other tree species. Both pine species contain multiple CBG genes which raises the possibility of differential regulation, perhaps related to the multiple roles of lignin in development and defense. Subsequent projects will need to include detailed gene expression studies of each gene family member during tree growth and development, and testing the role of each monolignol-specific glucosidase gene in controlling lignin content.

Carlson, John E.

2005-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

14

Inexpensive, Environmentally Friendly and High Permeable Lignin ...  

home \\ technologies \\ lignin based ion exchangers. Technologies: Ready-to-Sign Licenses: Software: Patents: Inexpensive, Environmentally Friendly and High Permeable ...

15

Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

16

Liquid Fuels from Lignins: Annual Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This task was initiated to assess the conversion of lignins into liquid fuels, primarily of lignins relevant to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The task was composed of a literature review of this area and an experimental part to obtain pertinent data on the conversion of lignins germane to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes.

Chum, H. L.; Johnson, D. K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Bunch Coalescing in a Helical Channel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-luminosity Muon Collider requires bunch recombination for optimal luminosity. In this paper, we take advantage of the large slip factor attainable in a helical transport channel (HTC) to coalesce bunches of muons into a single one over a shorter distance than can be achieved over a straight channel.

Neuffer, D.V.; Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Yoshikawa, C.Y.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Coalescence of Pickering emulsion droplets induced by an electric field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combining high-speed photography with electric current measurement, we investigate the electrocoalescence of Pickering emulsion droplets. Under high enough electric field, the originally-stable droplets coalesce via two distinct approaches: normal coalescence and abnormal coalescence. In the normal coalescence, a liquid bridge grows continuously and merges two droplets together, similar to the classical picture. In the abnormal coalescence, however, the bridge fails to grow indefinitely; instead it breaks up spontaneously due to the geometric constraint from particle shells. Such connecting-then-breaking cycles repeat multiple times, until a stable connection is established. In depth analysis indicates that the defect size in particle shells determines the exact merging behaviors: when the defect size is larger than a critical size around the particle diameter, normal coalescence will show up; while abnormal coalescence will appear for coatings with smaller defects.

Guo Chen; Peng Tan; Shuyu Chen; Jiping Huang; Weijia Wen; Lei Xu

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

19

Pyrolysis and gasification of lignin and effect of alkali addition .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Lignin, a byproduct of the chemical pulping can be gasified to produce fuel gas and value-added products. Two lignins, MeadWestvaco (MWV) lignin and Sigma Aldrich… (more)

Kumar, Vipul

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Method of altering lignin in trees  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods of providing and breeding trees having more easily extractable lignin due to the presence of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (Cad) null gene are presented.

MacKay, John (Raleigh, NC); O' Malley, David (Cary, NC); Whetten, Ross (Raleigh, NC); Sederoff, Ronald (Raleigh, NC)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Method of altering lignin in trees  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods of providing and breeding trees having more easily extractable lignin due to the presence of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (Cad) null gene are presented. 16 figs.

MacKay, J.; O`Malley, D.; Whetten, R.; Sederoff, R.

1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

22

New Lignin Separation Method from Ammonia Solutions - Energy ...  

Bio-ethanol plants typically use ammonia to separate lignin from the cellulosic fibers for a more efficient operation. Lignin itself is a byproduct with a variety ...

23

Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is preferably dried and stored until it is used (along with an alkali, an aldehyde and an adhesive filler) in compounding an adhesive of the type generally used in the manufacture of plywood.

Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Ductile damage model with void coalescence  

SciTech Connect

A general model for ductile damage in metals is presented. It includes damage induced by shear stress as well as damage caused by volumetric tension. Spallation is included as a special case. Strain induced damage is also treated. Void nucleation and growth are included and give rise to strain rate effects. Strain rate effects also arise in the model through elastic release wave propagation between damage centers. Underlying physics of the model is the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of voids in a plastically flowing solid. Implementation of the model in hydrocodes is discussed.

Tonks, D.L.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

(Characterization of lignin peroxidases from Phanerochaete)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work has continued on characterizing the kinetics of lignin peroxidases and has now expanded to include the chemistry of Mn peroxidases. Progress in these two area in addition to the authors work on the molecular biology of lignin biodegradation is briefly described below. Copies of two reprints and one preprint which have resulted from the work are attached.

Not Available

1990-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

27

THE DETERMINATION OF EXCESSIVE EMULSIFICATION BY COALESCENCE BEHAVIOR MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

The development of a remotely operated device for determining the coalescence times of plant process streams suspected of containing surfactants such as silicic compounds and fission product zirconium compounds is described. A general correlation between the coalescence times of pilot plant extraction column aluminum nitrate feeds and 3.25 percent tributyl phosphate extractant streams and the observations of column behavior of these streams is demonstrated. The application of the coalescence test to plant streams is given. (auth)

Parrett, O.W.

1959-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

28

A molecular mechanics force field for lignin  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A CHARMM molecular mechanics force field for lignin is derived. Parameterization is based on reproducing quantum mechanical data of model compounds. Partial atomic charges are derived using the RESP electrostatic potential fitting method supplemented by the examination of methoxybenzene:water interactions. Dihedral parameters are optimized by fitting to critical rotational potentials and bonded parameters are obtained by optimizing vibrational frequencies and normal modes. Finally, the force field is validated by performing a molecular dynamics simulation of a crystal of a lignin fragment molecule and comparing simulation-derived structural features with experimental results. Together with the existing force field for polysaccharides, this lignin force field will enable full simulations of lignocellulose.

Petridis, Loukas [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Biomass Lignin Binder for Coal Fines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the production of a waste stream consisting of lignin from a dilute acid hydrolysis process for making ethanol fuel from cellulosic biomass. The lignin waste stream was then evaluated as a possible binder to hold coal fines in a useable form for fuel in a coal-fired power plant. The production and use of a lignin-rich waste stream is of interest because it would enable a biomass energy content in the fuel for the coal-fired power plant, while using waste coal and waste biomass. The ...

2002-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

30

Electron energization during magnetic island coalescence  

SciTech Connect

Radio emission from colliding coronal mass ejection flux ropes in the interplanetary medium suggested the local generation of superthermal electrons. Inspired by those observations, a fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulation of magnetic island coalescence models the magnetic reconnection between islands as a source of energetic electrons. When the islands merge, stored magnetic energy is converted into electron kinetic energy. The simulation demonstrates that a mechanism for electron energization originally applied to open field line reconnection geometries also operates near the reconnection site of merging magnetic islands. The electron heating is highly anisotropic, and it results mainly from an electric field surrounding the reconnection site that accelerates electrons parallel to the magnetic field. A detailed theory predicts the maximum electron energies and how they depend on the plasma parameters. In addition, the global motion of the magnetic islands launches low-frequency waves in the surrounding plasma, which induce large-amplitude, anisotropic fluctuations in the electron temperature.

Le, A.; Egedal, J. [MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Karimabadi, H.; Roytershteyn, V. [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Daughton, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

Computational Design of Lignin Depolymerization Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lignin is a major component of plant cell walls that is typically underutilized in selective conversion strategies for renewable fuels and chemicals. The mechanisms by which thermal and catalytic treatments deconstruct lignin remain elusive, for which quantum mechanical calculations can offer fundamental insights. In this work, a computational approach has been used to elucidate the reductive deconstruction pathway of a ruthenium-catalyzed system. Transition states have been computed to determine the rate-limiting steps for a catalyst that cleaves arylether linkages. Our calculations are supported by experimental synthesis and kinetic and thermodynamic measurements of the deconstruction of model lignin dimers by a ruthenium catalyst with the ultimate objective of designing new catalysts to eventually utilize lignin in biorefineries.

Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Sturgeon, M.; Katahira, R.; Paton, R. S.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

Crawford, Don L. (Moscow, ID); Pometto, III, Anthony L. (Moscow, ID)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Conductivity factor in the electrostatic coalescence of crude oil emulsions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Resolution of emulsions through electrostatic coalescence has been in practice for over fifty years. Through dimensional analysis of a charged droplet under an external field, the electrical conductivity was determined to be an influencing parameter on the rate of coalescence. Using previously established procedures, the potential for enhancement of the electrostatic coalescence rate for oil/water emulsions of highly refined oils and different grades of crude oils was explored using a 2-L vertically-oriented, cylindrical coalescer. The electrical conductivity of each phase of the water-in-oil emulsion was varied to determine their effects on the rate of coalescence. Both light and intermediate grades of crude oil emulsions were modified using conductivity modifiers, formerly used as antistatic addiitvties , to change the conductivity of the oil phase. Addition of the active component of the conductivity modifier in the ppm range increased the coalescence rate from 200% to 500% as compared to the base case (no additive). The refined oil emulsion was varied using water in different conductivity ranges. As anticipated, the rate of coalescence increased with water conductivity of the water. This is at least partially due to the unstable nature of these emulsions.

Nelson, James B

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Carbon Fiber Production from a Kraft Hardwood Lignin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lignin is a renewable resource material that is being evaluated for the low cost production of carbon fiber for automotive and other applications. Solvent extraction of a commercial hardwood lignin product yielded a purified lignin free of the contaminants typical of lignins derived from the Kraft chemical pulping of wood. The purified lignin was highly melt-spinnable into fibers, from which carbon fiber was subsequently produced. The lignin has been evaluated in terms of its rheological properties, fiber melt spinning ability, and potential for manufacture of low cost carbon fiber without the need for plasticizing agents or chemical modifications.

Baker, Darren A [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Structural Stability of the Coalescence/Breakup Equation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis of the structural stability of the coalescence/breakup equation is performed to determine the degree to which changes in the equation's formulation can affect the solution. The work was motivated by speculation in various quarters ...

Philip S. Brown Jr.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Metallic Cluster Coalescence: Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Boundary Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the evaporative deposition of polycrystalline thin films, the development of a tensile stress at small film thicknesses is associated with island coalescence. Several continuum models exist to describe the magnitude ...

Takahashi, A. R.

37

Crack coalescence in rock-like material under cycling loading  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A total of 170 tests (68 tests for monotonic loading, 102 tests for cyclic loading) have been performed to investigate crack initiation, propagation and coalescence. The specimens have two pre-existing flaws which are ...

Ko, Tae Young, 1973-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Crack coalescence in molded gypsum and Carrara marble  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis investigates the fracturing and coalescence behavior in prismatic laboratory molded gypsum and Carrara marble specimens, which consist of either one or two preexisting open flaws, under uniaxial compression. ...

Wong, Ngai Yuen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

On the Relative Efficiency of Coalescence and Riming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Riming growth rates for graupel and frozen raindrops are compared with those of unfrozen drops growing by coalescence. The results indicate that graupel can have a considerable advantage over unfrozen raindrops in regions where the cloud droplets ...

David B. Johnson

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Deconstruction of Lignin Model Compounds and Biomass-Derived Lignin using Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lignin is an underutilized value stream in current biomass conversion technologies because there exist no economic and technically feasible routes for lignin depolymerization and upgrading. Base-catalyzed deconstruction (BCD) has been applied for lignin depolymerization (e.g., the Kraft process) in the pulp and paper industry for more than a century using aqueous-phase media. However, these efforts require treatment to neutralize the resulting streams, which adds significantly to the cost of lignin deconstruction. To circumvent the need for downstream treatment, here we report recent advances in the synthesis of layered double hydroxide and metal oxide catalysts to be applied to the BCD of lignin. These catalysts may prove more cost-effective than liquid-phase, non-recyclable base, and their use obviates downstream processing steps such as neutralization. Synthetic procedures for various transition-metal containing catalysts, detailed kinetics measurements using lignin model compounds, and results of the application of these catalysts to biomass-derived lignin will be presented.

Chmely, S. C.; McKinney, K. A.; Lawrence, K. R.; Sturgeon, M.; Katahira, R.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Collision, Coalescence and Breakup of Raindrops. Part I: Experimentally Established Coalescence Efficiencies and Fragment Size Distributions in Breakup  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The collision, coalescence and breakup of single raindrop pairs were studied at terminal velocities and laboratory pressure (100 kPa) in 761 collision experiments (out of 14 000 attempts). Six size combinations were used with drop pair diameters ...

T. B. Low; Roland List

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Genetics and chemistry of lignin degradation by Streptomyces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our research goal was to define the involvement of lignin peroxidases and other extracellular enzymes in lignin degradation by Streptomyces. We examined the biochemistry and genetics of lignin degrading enzyme production by several strains of Streptomyces. The lignin peroxidase ALiP-P3 of S. viridosporus was characterized kinetically and its activity optimized for oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol and vanillyl-acetone. Sensitive spectrophotometric assays were developed for monitoring oxidation of these substrates. ALiP-P3 reaction chemistry was examined using both spectrophotometric assays and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Results showed that the enzyme oxidizes phenolic lignin substructure models in strong preference to nonphenolic ones. The peroxidase was also shown to depolymerize native lignin. We also cloned the ALip-P3 gene S. lividans in plasmid vector pIJ702. The cloned gene was partially sequenced, We also immunologically characterized the lignin peroxidase of S. viridosporus T7A and showed it to be structurally related to peroxidases produced by other lignin-solubilizing Streptomyces, but not the the H8 lignin peroxidase of P. chrysosporium. Studies with peroxidase deficient mutants of strain T7A showed that lignin peroxidases of S. viridosporus are directly involved in the solubilization of lignin. Additional research showed that other enzymes are also probably involved in lignin solubilization, possibly including extracellular esterases.

Crawford, D.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

Agblevor, F.A.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1-3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof.

Agblevor, Foster A. (Lakewood, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Lignin-blocking treatment of biomass and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion. Cellulase efficiencies are improved by the protein or polypeptide treatment. The treatment may be used in combination with steam explosion and acid prehydrolysis techniques. Hydrolysis yields from lignin containing biomass are enhanced 5-20%, and enzyme utilization is increased from 10% to 50%. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

Yang, Bin (Hanover, NH); Wyman, Charles E. (Norwich, VT)

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

46

Pyrolysis mechanisms of lignin model compounds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The flash vacuum pyrolysis of lignin model compounds was studied under conditions optimized for the production of liquid products to provide mechanistic insight into the reaction pathways that lead to product formation. The major reaction products can be explained by cleavage of the C-O either linkage by a free radial or concerted 1,2-elimination.

Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Cooney, M.J.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Kinetic Model Development for Lignin Pyrolysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignin pyrolysis poses a significant barrier to the formation of liquid fuel products from biomass. Lignin pyrolyzes at higher temperatures than other biomass components (e.g. cellulose and hemi-cellulose) and tends to form radicals species that lead to cross-linking and ultimately char formation. A first step in the advancement of biomass-to-fuel technology is to discover the underlying mechanisms that lead to the breakdown of lignin at lower temperatures into more stable and usable products. We have investigated the thermochemistry of the various inter-linkage units found in lignin (B-O4, a-O4, B-B, B-O5, etc) using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2x/6-311++G(d,p) on a series of dimer model compounds. In addition to bond homolysis reactions, a variety of concerted elimination pathways are under investigation that tend to produce closed-shell stable products. Such a bottom-up approach could aid in the targeted development of catalysts that produce more desirable products under less severe reactor conditions.

Clark, J.; Robichaud, D.; Nimlos, M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Flash vacuum pyrolysis of lignin model compounds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Despite the extensive research into the pyrolysis of lignin, the underlying chemical reactions that lead to product formation are poorly understood. Detailed mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of biomass and lignin under conditions relevant to current process conditions could provide insight into utilizing this renewable resource for the production of chemicals and fuel. Currently, flash or fast pyrolysis is the most promising process to maximize the yields of liquid products (up to 80 wt %) from biomass by rapidly heating the substrate to moderate temperatures, typically 500{degrees}C, for short residence times, typically less than two seconds. To provide mechanistic insight into the primary reaction pathways under process relevant conditions, we are investigating the flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of lignin model compounds that contain a {beta}-ether. linkage and {alpha}- or {gamma}-alcohol, which are key structural elements in lignin. The dominant products from the FVP of PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh (PPE), PhC(OH)HCH{sub 2}OPh, and PhCH{sub 2}CH(CH{sub 2}OH)OPh at 500{degrees}C can be attributed to homolysis of the weakest bond in the molecule (C-O bond) or 1,2-elimination. Surprisingly, the hydroxy-substituent dramatically increases the decomposition of PPE. It is proposed that internal hydrogen bonding is accelerating the reaction.

Cooney, M.J.; Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Computational Mechanistic Studies of Acid-Catalyzed Lignin Model Dimers for Lignin Depolymerization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lignin is a heterogeneous alkyl-aromatic polymer that constitutes up to 30% of plant cell walls, and is used for water transport, structure, and defense. The highly irregular and heterogeneous structure of lignin presents a major obstacle in the development of strategies for its deconstruction and upgrading. Here we present mechanistic studies of the acid-catalyzed cleavage of lignin aryl-ether linkages, combining both experimental studies and quantum chemical calculations. Quantum mechanical calculations provide a detailed interpretation of reaction mechanisms including possible intermediates and transition states. Solvent effects on the hydrolysis reactions were incorporated through the use of a conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) and with cluster models including explicit water molecules in the first solvation shell. Reaction pathways were computed for four lignin model dimers including 2-phenoxy-phenylethanol (PPE), 1-(para-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenoxy-ethanol (HPPE), 2-phenoxy-phenyl-1,3-propanediol (PPPD), and 1-(para-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenoxy-1,3-propanediol (HPPPD). Lignin model dimers with a para-hydroxyphenyl ether (HPPE and HPPPD) show substantial differences in reactivity relative to the phenyl ether compound (PPE and PPPD) which have been clarified theoretically and experimentally. The significance of these results for acid deconstruction of lignin in plant cell walls will be discussed.

Kim, S.; Sturgeon, M. R.; Chmely, S. C.; Paton, R. S.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

A molecular mechanics force field for lignin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molecular Molecular Mechanics Force Field for Lignin LOUKAS PETRIDIS, JEREMY C. SMITH Center for Molecular Biophysics, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 Received 14 February 2008; Revised 8 May 2008; Accepted 12 June 2008 DOI 10.1002/jcc.21075 Published online 1 August 2008 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). Abstract: A CHARMM molecular mechanics force field for lignin is derived. Parameterization is based on reproducing quantum mechanical data of model compounds. Partial atomic charges are derived using the RESP electrostatic potential fitting method supplemented by the examination of methoxybenzene:water interactions. Dihedral parameters are optimized by fitting to critical rotational potentials and bonded parameters are obtained by optimizing vibrational frequencies and normal modes. Finally, the force field is validated

52

p-Hydroxyphenyl (H) Units Lower the Degree of Polymerization in Lignin: Chemical Control in Lignin Biosynthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lignin, composed predominantly of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) subunits, is a major component of plant cell walls that imparts resistance toward chemical and microbial deconstruction of plant biomass, rendering its conversion inefficient and costly. Previous studies have shown that alterating lignin composition, i.e., the relative abundance of H, G and S subunits, promises more efficient extraction of sugars from plant biomass. Smaller and less branched lignin chains are more easily extracted during pretreatment, making cellulose more readily degradable. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we show that the incorporation of H subunits into lignin via b-b and b-5 interunit linkages reduces the degree of polymerization in lignin. Frontier molecular orbital analyses of lignin dimers and trimers show that H as a terminal subunit on a growing lignin polymer linked via b-b and b-5 linkage cannot undergo radical formation, preventing further chain growth by endwise polymerization resulting in lignin polymers with lower degree of polymerization. These results indicate that, for endwise polymerization in lignin synthesis, there exists a chemical control that may lay a significant role in determining the structure of lignin.

Sangha, A. K.; Parks, J. M.; Davis, M. F.; Smith, J. C.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Pseudo-lignin formation and its impact on enzymatic hydrolysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

formation formation and its impact on enzymatic hydrolysis Fan Hu, Seokwon Jung, Arthur Ragauskas ⇑ BioEnergy Science Center, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 10th Street, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 21 November 2011 Received in revised form 5 April 2012 Accepted 10 April 2012 Available online 21 April 2012 Keywords: Poplar Pseudo-lignin Dilute acid pretreatment a-Cellulose Holocellulose a b s t r a c t Pseudo-lignin, which can be broadly defined as aromatic material that yields a positive Klason lignin value and is not derived from native lignin, has been recently reported to form during the dilute acid pre- treatment of poplar holocellulose. To investigate the chemistry of pseudo-lignin formation, GPC, FT-IR and 13 C NMR were utilized to characterize pseudo-lignin

54

Lignin Gels: SOL-GEL NANOPOROUS CARBONS & COMPOSITES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lignin Gels: SOL-GEL NANOPOROUS CARBONS & COMPOSITES FROM RENEWABLE SOURCES FOR SUPERCAPACITOR Supercapacitors," Journal of 104, 014305 (9p) (2008). Contact: Professor Guozhong Cao University of Washington

Cao, Guozhong

55

Method to Increase Stabilization Rate of Lignin for Carbon ...  

Method to Increase Stabilization Rate of Lignin for Carbon Fiber Production Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity.

56

Experimental Study of Mechanistic Acid Deconstruction of Lignin  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignin is a major component of biomass, which remains highly underutilized in selective biomass conversion strategies to renewable fuels and chemicals. Here we are interested in studying the mechanisms related to the acid deconstruction of lignin with a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Quantum mechanical calculations were employed to elucidate possible deconstruction mechanisms with transition state theory. Model dimers, imitating H, S, and G lignins, were synthesized with the most abundant {beta} - O - 4 linkage in lignin. These compounds were then depolymerized using various acids and at different operating conditions. The deconstruction products were analyzed to complement the QM studies and investigate proposed mechanisms.

Sturgeon, M.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Katahira, R.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Available Technologies: Ionic Liquids from Lignin-derived ...  

Researchers at the Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) have developed a technology to convert chemicals derived from lignin into ionic liquids for use in ...

58

Imaging Lignin-Downregulated Alfalfa Using Coherent Anti-Stokes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

modification indeed improves sugar yields during the saccharification processes for bioethanol production. In their study, the lignin biosynthe- sis pathway was downregulated...

59

Bubble coalescence dynamics and supersaturation in electrolytic gas evolution  

SciTech Connect

The apparatus and procedures developed in this research permit the observation of electrolytic bubble coalescence, which heretofore has not been possible. The influence of bubble size, electrolyte viscosity, surface tension, gas type, and pH on bubble coalescence was examined. The Navier-Stokes equations with free surface boundary conditions were solved numerically for the full range of experimental variables that were examined. Based on this study, the following mechanism for bubble coalescence emerges: when two gas bubbles coalesce, the surface energy decreases as the curvature and surface area of the resultant bubble decrease, and the energy is imparted into the surrounding liquid. The initial motion is driven by the surface tension and slowed by the inertia and viscosity of the surrounding fluid. The initial velocity of the interface is approximately proportional to the square root of the surface tension and inversely proportional to the square root of the bubble radius. Fluid inertia sustains the oblate/prolate oscillations of the resultant bubble. The period of the oscillations varies with the bubble radius raised to the 3/2 power and inversely with the square root of the surface tension. Viscous resistance dampens the oscillations at a rate proportional to the viscosity and inversely proportional to the square of the bubble radius. The numerical simulations were consistent with most of the experimental results. The differences between the computed and measured saddle point decelerations and periods suggest that the surface tension in the experiments may have changed during each run. By adjusting the surface tension in the simulation, a good fit was obtained for the 150-{micro}m diameter bubbles. The simulations fit the experiments on larger bubbles with very little adjustment of surface tension. A more focused analysis should be done to elucidate the phenomena that occur in the receding liquid film immediately following rupture.

Stover, R.L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

J/Psi Production by Charm Quark Coalescence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Production of $c\\bar c$ pairs in elementary hadron-hadron collisions is introduced in a simulation of relativistic heavy ion collisions. Coalescence of charmed quarks and antiquarks into various charmonium states is performed and the results are compared to PHENIX J$/\\psi$ Au+Au data. The $\\chi$ and $\\psi$' bound states must be included as well as the ground state J$/\\psi$, given the appreciable feeding from the excited states down to the J$/\\psi$ via gamma decays. Charmonium coalescence is found to take place at relatively late times: generally after $c$($\\bar c$)-medium interactions have ceased. Direct production of charmonia through hadron-hadron interactions, {\\it ie.} without explicit presence of charm quarks, occurring only at early times, is suppressed by collisions with comoving particles and accounts for some $\\sim 5\\%$ of the total J$/\\psi$ production. Coalescence is especially sensitive to the level of open charm production, scaling naively as $n_{c\\bar c}^2$. The J$/\\psi$ transverse momentum distribution is dependent on the charm quark transverse momentum distribution and early charm quark-medium interaction, thus providing a glimpse of the initial collision history.

D. E. Kahana; S. H. Kahana

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A1 CO 2 from Lignin Combustion A11 Existing Biomass A5 A14from the Combustion of Lignin lb/ton biomass A14 CO 2biomass and soil and the carbon dioxide emitted from farming, conversion to ethanol, and the distribution and combustion

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

63

Lignin and lignosulfonates -- From the tree to the battery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lignin is the second most abundant, naturally occurring polymer. It is second only to its partner in the tree, cellulose. The paper-making industry has perfected several ways to economically free the cellulose from nature's glue, the lignin. The different pulping processes yield vastly different lignins. Various wood products, lignins and their derivatives have been used extensively in lead acid batteries. Starting with wood separators used in the early 1920's to specialized lignosulfonates currently used as the organic component of the negative plate expander formulations in lead acid batteries. This paper will give an overview of the two most prevalent routes currently used for pulping by the paper-making industry. This paper will then review the process used by Westvaco Corporation to isolate and modify the resulting lignin. It will conclude with the work done to synthesize and evaluate KRAFTPLEX{trademark}, a new lignosulfonate for use in negative plate expander formulations.

Cosgrove, J.P.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, is sponsoring a research and development program for the development of a real-time, in-situ sensor to measure the concentration of lignin in wood pulp. The program is composed of phase I showing feasibility which is now complete, phase II for development and testing of a Field Prototype, in progress, Phase III commercialization. Phase I work (funded entirely by B&W) demonstrated a correlation between the fluorescence intensity and lignin concentration (as measured by TAPPI procedure, T 236 hm-85 Kappa Number of Pulp) for undiluted wood pulp samples. In Phase II, a laboratory test program directed at characterizing the fluorescence of wood pulp has been conducted as a prelude to the design of a prototype sensor. The current report summarizes the testing completed in Phase I and documents the Phase II laboratory testing completed through December 1991. Future Phase II efforts include additional laboratory testing, design and fabrication of a prototype sensor, and field testing of the prototype sensor. Phase III of the program will concentrate on the incorporation of the sensor into a control system and commercialization of the sensor.

Malito, M.L.; Jeffers, L.A.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, is sponsoring a research and development program for the development of a real-time, in-situ sensor to measure the concentration of lignin in wood pulp. The program is composed of phase I showing feasibility which is now complete, phase II for development and testing of a Field Prototype, in progress, Phase III commercialization. Phase I work (funded entirely by B W) demonstrated a correlation between the fluorescence intensity and lignin concentration (as measured by TAPPI procedure, T 236 hm-85 Kappa Number of Pulp) for undiluted wood pulp samples. In Phase II, a laboratory test program directed at characterizing the fluorescence of wood pulp has been conducted as a prelude to the design of a prototype sensor. The current report summarizes the testing completed in Phase I and documents the Phase II laboratory testing completed through December 1991. Future Phase II efforts include additional laboratory testing, design and fabrication of a prototype sensor, and field testing of the prototype sensor. Phase III of the program will concentrate on the incorporation of the sensor into a control system and commercialization of the sensor.

Malito, M.L.; Jeffers, L.A.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Ductile damage modeling based on void coalescence and percolation theories  

SciTech Connect

A general model for ductile damage in metals is presented. It includes damage induced by shear stress as well as damage caused by volumetric tension. Spallation is included as a special case. Strain induced damage is also treated. Void nucleation and growth are included, and give rise to strain rate effects. Strain rate effects also arise in the model through elastic release wave propagation between damage centers. The underlying physics of the model is the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of voids in a plastically flowing solid. The model is intended for hydrocode based computer simulation. An experimental program is underway to validate the model.

Tonks, D.L.; Zurek, A.K.; Thissell, W.R.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Coalescence model for Theta(c) pentaquark formation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ar X iv :h ep -p h/ 04 09 12 1v 3 1 4 Ja n 20 05 Preprint typeset in JHEP style - PAPER VERSION Cavendish–HEP–04/35 TAUP–2774-04 Coalescence model for ?c pentaquark formation ? Marek Karliner Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0... HE, U.K. and School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel E-mail: marek@proton.tau.ac.il Bryan R. Webber Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE, U.K. E...

Karliner, Marek

68

Explanation of persistent high frequency density structure in coalesced bunches  

SciTech Connect

It has been observed that after the Main Ring rf manipulation of coalescing (where 5 to 13 primary bunches are transferred into a single rf bucket) the new secondary bunch displays evidence of high frequency density structure superimposed on the approximately Gaussian longitudinal bunch length distribution. This structure is persistent over a period of many seconds (hundreds of synchrotron oscillation periods). With the help of multiparticle simulation programs, an explanation of this phenomenon is given in terms of single particle longitudinal phase space dynamics. No coherent effects need be taken into account. 6 refs., 10 figs.

Jackson, Gerald P.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin ...  

Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, ... Wind Energy; Partners (27) Visual Patent Search;

70

Electrostatic coalescence system with independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved electrostatic coalescence system is provided in which independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes are employed to provide more complete dehydration of an oil emulsion. The AC field is produced between an AC electrode array and the water-oil interface wherein the AC electrode array is positioned parallel to the interface which acts as a grounded electrode. The emulsion is introduced into the AC field in an evenly distributed manner at the interface. The AC field promotes drop-drop and drop-interface coalescence of the water phase in the entering emulsion. The continuous oil phase passes upward through the perforated AC electrode array and enters a strong DC field produced between closely spaced DC electrodes in which small dispersed droplets of water entrained in the continuous phase are removed primarily by collection at hydrophilic DC electrodes. Large droplets of water collected by the electrodes migrate downward through the AC electrode array to the interface. All phase separation mechanisms are utilized to accomplish more complete phase separation.

Hovarongkura, A. David (Arlington, VA); Henry, Jr., Joseph D. (Morgantown, WV)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Targeted coherent search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescences  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a method for conducting a targeted, coherent search for compact binary coalescences. The search is tailored to be used as a follow-up to electromagnetic transients such as gamma-ray bursts. We derive the coherent search statistic for Gaussian detector noise and discuss the benefits of a coherent, multidetector search over coincidence methods. To mitigate the effects of nonstationary data, we introduce a number of signal consistency tests, including the null signal-to-noise ratio, amplitude consistency, and several {chi}{sup 2} tests. We demonstrate the search performance on Gaussian noise and on data from LIGO's fourth science run and verify that the signal consistency tests are capable of removing the majority of noise transients, giving the search an efficiency comparable to that achieved in Gaussian noise.

Harry, I. W.; Fairhurst, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

Aging through hierarchical coalescence in the East model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We rigorously analyze the low temperature non-equilibrium dynamics of the East model, a special example of a one dimensional oriented kinetically constrained particle model, when the initial distribution is different from the reversible one and for times much smaller than the global relaxation time. This setting has been intensively studied in the physics literature to analyze the slow dynamics which follows a sudden quench from the liquid to the glass phase. In the limit of zero temperature (i.e. a vanishing density of vacancies) and for initial distributions such that the vacancies form a renewal process we prove that the density of vacancies, the persistence function and the two-time autocorrelation function behave as staircase functions with several plateaux. Furthermore the two-time autocorrelation function displays an aging behavior. We also provide a sharp description of the statistics of the domain length as a function of time, a domain being the interval between two consecutive vacancies. When the initial renewal process has finite mean our results confirm (and generalize) previous findings of the physicists for the restricted case of a product Bernoulli measure. However we show that a different behavior appears when the initial domain distribution is in the attraction domain of a $\\alpha$-stable law. All the above results actually follow from a more general result which says that the low temperature dynamics of the East model is very well described by that of a certain hierarchical coalescence process, a probabilistic object which can be viewed as a hierarchical sequence of suitably linked coalescence processes and whose asymptotic behavior has been recently studied in [14].

A. Faggionato; F. Martinelli; C. Roberto; C. Toninelli

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

73

Coalescing at 8 GeV in the Fermilab Main Injector  

SciTech Connect

For Project X, it is planned to inject a beam of 3 10{sup 11} particles per bunch into the Main Injector. To prepare for this by studying the effects of higher intensity bunches in the Main Injector it is necessary to perform coalescing at 8 GeV. The results of a series of experiments and simulations of 8 GeV coalescing are presented. To increase the coalescing efficiency adiabatic reduction of the 53 MHz RF is required. This results in {approx}70% coalescing efficiency of 5 initial bunches. Data using wall current monitors has been taken to compare previous work and new simulations for 53 MHz RF reduction, bunch rotations and coalescing, good agreement between experiment and simulation was found. By increasing the number of bunches to 7 and compressing the bunch energy spread a scheme generating approximately 3 10{sup 11} particles in a bunch has been achieved. These bunches will then be used in further investigations.

Scott, D.J.; Capista, D.; Chase, B.; Dye, J.; Kourbanis, I.; Seiya, K.; Yang, M.-J.; /Fermilab

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Thermal Engineering of Lignin for Low-cost Production of Carbon Fiber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lignin, a sustainable, renewable resource material, is being evaluated for the low cost production of carbon fiber for automotive and other applications. We previously reported the successful production of carbon fiber from a solvent extracted lignin [1] and from other lignins [2]. However, it was found that the lignin fiber, produced by the melt spinning of the solvent extracted lignin, was difficult to stabilize (i.e., render infusible) and thus carbonize. The long stabilization time, due to the fiber s low Tg, led to the conclusion that thermal engineering of a lignin feedstock could ultimately raise the Tg of the lignin and thereby of the spun fiber. This would permit a higher temperature of stabilization, which would reduce stabilization time as well as overall processing times. The thermally-engineered lignins were evaluated in terms of their rheological properties, melt spinning ability, morphology, stabilization and carbonization properties, and ultimately mechanical properties of the carbon fibers obtained.

Baker, Darren A [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

ORNL team uses lignin to power green battery | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fred Strohl Communications 865.574.4165 ORNL team uses lignin to power green battery Listen to the audio OAK RIDGE, Tenn., Aug. 16, 2013 -- Lignin is a waste material that is...

76

Eulerian multi-fluid models for the simulation of dynamics and coalescence of particles in solid propellant combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accurate simulation of polydisperse sprays undergoing coalescence in unsteady gaseous flows is a crucial issue. In solid rocket motors, the internal flow depends strongly on the alumina droplet size distribution, which spreads up with coalescence. ... Keywords: Adaptive quadrature for coalescence integrals, Aluminum oxide droplets, CEDRE code, High order Eulerian multi-fluid model, Polydisperse spray, Solid propellant combustion

F. Doisneau; F. Laurent; A. Murrone; J. Dupays; M. Massot

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Preliminary feasibility study of pulping catalyst production from lignin  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary evaluation of the economic feasibility of preparing anthraquinone, a pulping catalyst, from readily available lignin has been performed. The proposed process begins with a fractionation of lignin from a black liquor stream by means of a supercritical fluid or conventional solvent extraction to give a low molecular weight fraction conductive to further chemical treatment. This fraction is sequentially oxidized with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, treated with a diene and dehydrogenated to give anthraquinone. The cost of the proposed process is most dependent on the overall yield of the chemical processing steps with a smaller contribution noted for lignin processing. The projections indicate that anthraquinone could be produced for as low as $1.00--$1.25/lb using this process. Details of the process, chemical reactions and calculations are included.

Power, A.J. (Power (Arthur J.) and Associates, Boulder, CO (USA)); Bozell, J.J.; Chum, H.L. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Evidence for Complex Molecular Architectures for Solvent-Extracted Lignins  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignin, an abundant, naturally occurring biopolymer, is often considered 'waste' and used as a simple fuel source in the paper-making process. However, lignin has emerged as a promising renewable resource for engineering materials, such as carbon fibers. Unfortunately, the molecular architecture of lignin (in vivo and extracted) is still elusive, with numerous conflicting reports in the literature, and knowledge of this structure is extremely important, not only for materials technologies, but also for production of biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol due to biomass recalcitrance. As such, the molecular structures of solvent-extracted (sulfur-free) lignins, which have been modified using various acyl chlorides, have been probed using small-angle X-ray (SAXS) and neutron (SANS) scattering in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution along with hydrodynamic characterization using dilute solution viscometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) in THF. Mass spectrometry shows an absolute molecular weight {approx}18-30 kDa ({approx}80-140 monomers), while GPC shows a relative molecular weight {approx}3 kDa. A linear styrene oligomer (2.5 kDa) was also analyzed in THF using SANS. Results clearly show that lignin molecular architectures are somewhat rigid and complex, ranging from nanogels to hyperbranched macromolecules, not linear oligomers or physical assemblies of oligomers, which is consistent with previously proposed delignification (extraction) mechanisms. Future characterization using the methods discussed here can be used to guide extraction processes as well as genetic engineering technologies to convert lignin into value added materials with the potential for high positive impact on global sustainability.

Rials, Timothy G [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Langan, Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Evidence for Complex Molecular Architectures for Solvent-Extracted Lignins  

SciTech Connect

Lignin, an abundant, naturally occurring biopolymer, is often considered 'waste' and used as a simple fuel source in the paper-making process. However, lignin has emerged as a promising renewable resource for engineering materials, such as carbon fibers. Unfortunately, the molecular architecture of lignin (in vivo and extracted) is still elusive, with numerous conflicting reports in the literature, and knowledge of this structure is extremely important, not only for materials technologies, but also for production of biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol due to biomass recalcitrance. As such, the molecular structures of solvent-extracted (sulfur-free) lignins, which have been modified using various acyl chlorides, have been probed using small-angle X-ray (SAXS) and neutron (SANS) scattering in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution along with hydrodynamic characterization using dilute solution viscometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) in THF. Mass spectrometry shows an absolute molecular weight {approx}18-30 kDa ({approx}80-140 monomers), while GPC shows a relative molecular weight {approx}3 kDa. A linear styrene oligomer (2.5 kDa) was also analyzed in THF using SANS. Results clearly show that lignin molecular architectures are somewhat rigid and complex, ranging from nanogels to hyperbranched macromolecules, not linear oligomers or physical assemblies of oligomers, which is consistent with previously proposed delignification (extraction) mechanisms. Future characterization using the methods discussed here can be used to guide extraction processes as well as genetic engineering technologies to convert lignin into value added materials with the potential for high positive impact on global sustainability.

Rials, Timothy G [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Langan, Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Genetics and chemistry of lignin degradation by Streptomyces. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our research goal was to define the involvement of lignin peroxidases and other extracellular enzymes in lignin degradation by Streptomyces. We examined the biochemistry and genetics of lignin degrading enzyme production by several strains of Streptomyces. The lignin peroxidase ALiP-P3 of S. viridosporus was characterized kinetically and its activity optimized for oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol and vanillyl-acetone. Sensitive spectrophotometric assays were developed for monitoring oxidation of these substrates. ALiP-P3 reaction chemistry was examined using both spectrophotometric assays and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Results showed that the enzyme oxidizes phenolic lignin substructure models in strong preference to nonphenolic ones. The peroxidase was also shown to depolymerize native lignin. We also cloned the ALip-P3 gene S. lividans in plasmid vector pIJ702. The cloned gene was partially sequenced, We also immunologically characterized the lignin peroxidase of S. viridosporus T7A and showed it to be structurally related to peroxidases produced by other lignin-solubilizing Streptomyces, but not the the H8 lignin peroxidase of P. chrysosporium. Studies with peroxidase deficient mutants of strain T7A showed that lignin peroxidases of S. viridosporus are directly involved in the solubilization of lignin. Additional research showed that other enzymes are also probably involved in lignin solubilization, possibly including extracellular esterases.

Crawford, D.L.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

An Example of Supercooled Drizzle Drops Formed through a Collision-Coalescence Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The microphysics associated with observations of supercooled drizzle drops, which formed through a condensation and collision-coalescence process, are reported and discussed. The growth environment was an 1100-m-thick stratiform cloud with cloud-...

Stewart G. Cober; J. Walter Strapp; George A. Isaac

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Searches for Gravitational Waves from Compact Binary Coalescences with the LIGO and Virgo Detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Among the most promising sources of gravitational waves for ground?based detectors are the signals emitted during the coalescence of compact binary systems containing neutron stars or black holes. In recent years

F. Marion; The LIGO Scientific Collaboration; The Virgo Collaboration

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Performance of a Triclass Parameterization for the Collision–Coalescence Process in Shallow Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Focusing on the formation of precipitation in marine stratiform clouds, a two-moment bulk parameterization for three liquid water classes (cloud, drizzle, and rain) is proposed to describe the process of collision–coalescence. Based on the ...

Vivek Sant; Ulrike Lohmann; Axel Seifert

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

A Cloud Physical Parameterization Method Using Movable Basis Functions: Stochastic Coalescence Parcel Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of stochastic coalescence in a parcel framework are presented using a series of distribution functions. The equations governing the distribution parameter tendencies are derived using a variational approach with constraints. ...

Terry L. Clark; W. D. Hall

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Effects of Relative Humidity on the Coalescence of Small Precipitation Drops in Free Fall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of the effects of relative humidity on coalescence are limited to studies using supported drops or streams of drops, and the results are contradictory. In this paper, findings are presented on the effect of high and low relative ...

Harry T. Ochs III; Kenneth V. Beard; Neil F. Laird; Donna J. Holdridge; Daniel E. Schaufelberger

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

The Influence of Charge on the Coalescence of Water Drops in Free Fall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of charge on coalescence was determined in the laboratory for isolated pairs of 340 and 190 ?m water drops failing freely at terminal velocity. A microcomputer-controlled apparatus was used to produce collisions. Drop charges were ...

Robert R. Czys; Harry T. Ochs III

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-yield process for converting lignin into reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline compositions of high quality is provided. The process is a two-stage catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage of the process, a lignin feed material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction, followed by a selective hydrocracking reaction which utilizes a superacid catalyst to produce a high oxygen-content depolymerized lignin product mainly composed of alkylated phenols, alkylated alkoxyphenols, and alkylbenzenes. In the second stage of the process, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to an exhaustive etherification reaction, optionally followed by a partial ring hydrogenation reaction, to produce a reformulated, partially oxygenated/etherified gasoline product, which includes a mixture of substituted phenyl/methyl ethers, cycloalkyl methyl ethers, C.sub.7 -C.sub.10 alkylbenzenes, C.sub.6 -C.sub.10 branched and multibranched paraffins, and alkylated and polyalkylated cycloalkanes.

Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

2001-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

88

Black hole neutron star coalescence as a source of gamma-ray bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the results of hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations showing the coalescence of a black hole with a neutron star to be a promising theoretical source of short duration gamma-ray bursts. The favorable features of the process include rapid onset, millisecond variability, a duration much longer than the dynamical timescale, and a range of outcomes sufficient to allow variety in the properties of individual gamma-ray bursts. Interestingly, the process of coalescence differs rather markedly from past predictions.

W. H. Lee; W. Kluzniak

1997-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

89

Hydrotreating Pyrolytic Lignin to Produce a Refinery Feedstock (Poster)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fast pyrolysis of biomass followed by water separation to produce pyrolytic lignin and hydrotreating of the lignin could be used to produce a stable volatile low-oxygen intermediate liquid. Such a liquid could be converted into a finished motor-fuel in a refinery, taking advantage of the existing infrastructure and economies of scale of refineries. Hydrotreating just the lignin would consume less hydrogen while preserving about half of the energy of the original oil. The aqueous by-products could be reformed to produce the needed hydrogen and would contain much of the unwanted acids and unstable oxygenates. To assess such intermediate liquids, several pyrolytic lignins were prepared by mixing pyrolysis oil with water at 1:1 and 3:1 ratios. The carboxylic acidity in the pyrolytic lignin was reduced to 24 and 10 mg-KOH/g-lignin compared to 81 in the whole oil. These lignins were hydrotreated using Ni-Mo(S)/alumina, Pt/char, or Pd/C(activated) in a semi-batch 1 L stirred autoclave. The oil was stabilized under hydrogen at 150-280 degrees C, then water and light organics were removed by partial depressurization. Hydrodeoxygenation was then performed at 340-400 degrees C. Total pressure was controlled at 70 or 170 bar with hydrogen gas. Organic liquid yields of 39-56% were obtained. For many experiments the organic oxygen content was oil, the volatility was greater than or equal to 94% and, on a carbon basis, the total yield of organic products miscible in hydrocarbons at a 1:10 ratio was over 50%. These properties are probably acceptable to a refinery.The residual liquids left in the reactor at the end of the experiment comprised 60-85% of the organic-phase product while the rest was condensate. 13C-NMR of the residual liquids showed that they were 50-80% aliphatic. 13C-NMR coupled with GC-MS identified phenolic compounds as the main oxygenates in most residual liquids.

French, R. J.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Hydrotreating Pyrolytic Lignin to Produce a Refinery Feedstock (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fast pyrolysis of biomass followed by water separation to produce pyrolytic lignin and hydrotreating of the lignin could be used to produce a stable volatile low-oxygen intermediate liquid. Such a liquid could be converted into a finished motor-fuel in a refinery, taking advantage of the existing infrastructure and economies of scale of refineries. Hydrotreating just the lignin would consume less hydrogen while preserving about half of the energy of the original oil. The aqueous by-products could be reformed to produce the needed hydrogen and would contain much of the unwanted acids and unstable oxygenates. To assess such intermediate liquids, several pyrolytic lignins were prepared by mixing pyrolysis oil with water at 1:1 and 3:1 ratios. The carboxylic acidity in the pyrolytic lignin was reduced to 24 and 10 mg-KOH/g-lignin compared to 81 in the whole oil. These lignins were hydrotreated using Ni-Mo(S)/alumina, Pt/char, or Pd/C(activated) in a semi-batch 1 L stirred autoclave. The oil was stabilized under hydrogen at 150-280 degrees C, then water and light organics were removed by partial depressurization. Hydrodeoxygenation was then performed at 340-400 degrees C. Total pressure was controlled at 70 or 170 bar with hydrogen gas. Organic liquid yields of 39-56% were obtained. For many experiments the organic oxygen content was <7%, acidity was < 7 mg-KOH/g-oil, the volatility was greater than or equal to 94% and, on a carbon basis, the total yield of organic products miscible in hydrocarbons at a 1:10 ratio was over 50%. These properties are probably acceptable to a refinery.The residual liquids left in the reactor at the end of the experiment comprised 60-85% of the organic-phase product while the rest was condensate. 13C-NMR of the residual liquids showed that they were 50-80% aliphatic. 13C-NMR coupled with GC-MS identified phenolic compounds as the main oxygenates in most residual liquids.

French, R. J.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Visual Anecdote  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The discourse on information visualization often remains limited to the exploratory function — its potential for discovering patterns in the data. However, visual representations also have a rhetorical function: they ...

Offenhuber, Dietmar

92

Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Previous research has shown that addition of lignin and lignin-derived liquids to coal stirred in tetralin under mild reaction conditions (375{degrees}C and 300--500 psig) results in a marked enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization. In this quarterly report, overall mass balances on experiments conducted with tetralin, coal, lignin and coal-lignin mixture are reported. Overall mass recoveries of 95--99% of the total mass charged to the reactor were obtained. A number of experiments were conducted on coal, lignin and coal-lignin depolymerization. A careful statistical analysis of the data shows that coal depolymerization is enhanced by 10.4%, due to the lignin addition. The liquids obtained are being examined for their elemental composition, and molecular weight determination by size exclusion chromatography. The stability of the liquid products is being examined in various environments. The gaseous product analyses show that the major gases produced during the course of depolymerization are CO, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2}. When coal and lignin are reacted together, the amount of CO and CH{sub 4}produced respectively 12% and 38% greater than the corresponding amount of gases calculated, based on the weighted average of values obtained for coal and lignin alone. The data obtained show that lignin addition to coal is synergistic in that not only is the extent of coal depolymerization increased, but the gas produced contains higher concentrations of more desirable gaseous products.

Lalvani, S.B.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

NERSC Visualization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Visualization Visualization Visualization jet-sdavid.jpg Visualization facilitates data exploration. It often supports simulation since it allows inspection of the output varying in time or with changes in parameter values, or for the locations of interesting regions in large data sets. The term visualization often is used to describe the rendering of 3D isosurfaces and volumes, whereas the term graphics usually is applied to plots such as scatter plots and histograms. Our mission is to assist researchers in achieving their scientific goals - solving some of the world's most challenging problems in scientific data understanding - through visualization and analytics while simultaneously advancing the state-of-the-art in visualization through our own research. From the standpoint of a user of NERSC, for example, the

94

Electrostatic coalescence of used automotive crankcase oil as an alternative to other separation processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents an initial investigation of using electrostatic coalescence as an alternative to conventional separation processes to purify used automotive crankcase oil. Specific emphasis of this study was the feasibility of this approach, verified by separating and analyzing a used oil emulsion. The metal removal efficiency was compared to that of a five day gravity settling. Separation experiments were performed in a 2.26 L coalescer with a flat parallel insulated electrode configuration. The used oil emulsion, composed of used oil, Isopar M, and water (no noticeable phase separation for 12 hours) followed the electrostatic coalescence characteristic of higher applied voltages or frequencies allowing higher feed rates. Metal removal efficiencies for iron, calcium and zinc were 3.57, 47.1, and 46.7 %, respectively, using Nalco 7715 at a peak a.c. voltage of 7 kV/cm and a frequency of 1000 Hz at the maximum rate of coalescence. For gravity settlement, metal removal efficiencies for iron, calcium and zinc were 11.2, 15.6, and 57.1 %, respectively. Considering the residence time of a moderate emulsion feed rate is a fraction of an hour, electrostatic coalescence offers an advantage over gravity settling. Oil phase water content varied between 0.05 and 7.2 wt %.

Dixon, John Leslie

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Countercurrent Process for Lignin Separation from Biomass Matrix  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall goal of the project was to test the concept of using a twin-screw extruder to conduct autohydrolysis pretreatment of wheat straw in countercurrent fashion, demonstrate in situ solid/liquid separation, and produce a low-lignin cellulose product using ethanol as an extractant. The resultant solid product is suitable for sugar production through enzymatic hydrolysis and for pulp applications. Pilot-scale equipment was used to successfully demonstrate the process both for sugar and pulp applications.

Kiran Kadam; Ed Lehrburger

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

96

Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor. Final report. Draft  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ultimate objective of the DOE-sponsored program discussed in this report is to commercialize an instrument for real-time, in-situ measurement of lignin in wood pulp at a variety of locations in the pulp process stream. The instrument will be used as a primary sensor for process control in the pulp and paper industry. Work done by B&W prior to the initiation of this program had shown: there is a functional relationship between the fluorescence intensity and the Kappa number as measured at the pulp mill laboratory. Kappa number is a standard wet chemical method for determination of the lignin concentration; the relationship is one of decreasing intensity with Kappa number, indicating operation in the quenched fluorescence regime; a great deal of scatter in the data. Because of the preliminary nature of the study, the origin of the scatter was not identified. This report documents the results of laboratory measurements made on a variety of well defined pulp samples to generate the data necessary to: determine the feasibility of an instrument for on-line lignin concentration measurement using laser fluorescence; identify the preferred measurement strategy; define the range of applicability of the instrument; and to provide background information to guide the design of a field-worthy prototype.

Jeffers, L.A.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Mechanistic Study of the Acid Degradation of Lignin Model Compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lignin is a major constituent of biomass, which remains underutilized in selective biomass conversion strategies to renewable fuels and chemicals. Here we are interested in understanding the mechanisms related to the acid deconstruction of lignin with a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Two model dimers with a b-O-4 aryl ether linkage (2-phenoxy-1-phenethanol and 2-phenoxy-1-phenyl-1,3 propanediol) and model dimmers with an a-O-4 aryl ether linkage were synthesized and deconstructed in H2SO4. The major products of the acidolysis of the b-O-4 compounds consisted of phenol and two aldehydes, phenylacetaldehyde and benzaldehyde. Quantum mechanical calculations were employed to elucidate possible deconstruction mechanisms with transition state theory. To confirm proposed mechanisms several possible intermediates were studied under similar acidolysis conditions. Although the resonance time for cleavage was on the order several hours, we have shown that the cleavage of the aryl ether linkage affords phenol and aldehydes. We would next like to utilize our mechanism of aryl ether cleavage in actual lignin.

Sturgeon, M.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of LipidsChapter 18 Emulsion Partial Coalescence and Structure Formation in Dairy Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of Lipids Chapter 18 Emulsion Partial Coalescence and Structure Formation in Dairy Systems Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry   ...

99

Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

DeAngelis, Kristen; Allgaier, Martin; Chavarria, Yaucin; Fortney, Julian; Hugenholtz, Phillip; Simmons, Blake; Sublette, Kerry; Silver, Whendee; Hazen, Terry

2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

100

On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method. 6 figs.

Jeffers, L.A.; Malito, M.L.

1996-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method.

Jeffers, Larry A. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH); Malito, Michael L. (Liberty Township, Trumbull County, OH)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Novel seed coat lignins in the Cactaceae: structure, distribution and implications for the evolution of lignin diversity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

12 12 © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd Received Date : 08-Jul-2012 Revised Date : 30-Aug-2012 Accepted Date : 03-Sep-2012 Article type : Original Article Novel seed coat lignins in the Cactaceae: structure, distribution and implications for the evolution of lignin diversity Fang Chen, 1,3* Yuki Tobimatsu, 2, Lisa Jackson, 1 John Ralph, 2,4 and Richard A. Dixon 1,3* 1 Plant Biology Division, Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, 2510 Sam Noble Parkway, Ardmore, OK 73401, USA; 2 Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Enzyme Institute, 1710 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53726, USA; 3 DOE Bioenergy Sciences Center, Oak Ridge, TN, USA; 4 DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Madison, WI, and Wisconsin Bioenergy

103

Deciphering the Enigma of Lignification: Precursor Transport, Oxidation, and the Topochemistry of Lignin Assembly  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Plant lignification is a tightly regulated complex cellular process that occurs via three sequential steps: the synthesis of monolignols within the cytosol; the transport of monomeric precursors across plasma membrane; and the oxidative polymerization of monolignols to form lignin macromolecules within the cell wall. Although we have a reasonable understanding of monolignol biosynthesis, many aspects of lignin assembly remain elusive. These include the precursors transport and oxidation, and the initiation of lignin polymerization. This review describes our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying monolignol transport and oxidation, discusses the intriguing yet least-understood aspects of lignin assembly, and highlights the technologies potentially aiding in clarifying the enigma of plant lignification.

Liu C. J.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Characterization of trapped lignin-degrading microbes in tropical forest soil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

DeAngelis, K.M.; Allgaier, M.; Chavarria, Y.; Fortney, J.L.; Hugenholz, P.; Simmons, B.; Sublette, K.; Silver, W.L.; Hazen, T.C.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Lignin as Both Fuel and Fusing Binder in Briquetted Anthracite Fines for Foundry Coke Substitute.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Lignin that had been extracted from Kraft black liquor was investigated as a fusing binder in briquetted anthracite fines for a foundry coke substitute. Cupola… (more)

Lumadue, Matthew

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

An improved analytical description of inspiralling and coalescing black-hole binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an analytical formalism, within the Effective-One-Body framework, which predicts gravitational-wave signals from inspiralling and coalescing black-hole binaries that agree, within numerical errors, with the results of the currently most accurate numerical relativity simulations for several different mass ratios. In the equal-mass case, the gravitational wave energy flux predicted by our formalism agrees, within numerical errors, with the most accurate numerical-relativity energy flux. We think that our formalism opens a realistic possibility of constructing a sufficiently accurate, large bank of gravitational wave templates, as needed both for detection and data analysis of (non spinning) coalescing binary black holes.

Thibault Damour; Alessandro Nagar

2009-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

107

Saving energy in LAN switches: New methods of packet coalescing for Energy Efficient Ethernet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Small or home office (SOHO) Ethernet LAN switches consume about 8 TWh per year in the U.S. alone. Despite normally low traffic load and numerous periods of idleness, these switches typically stay fully powered-on at all times. With the standardization ... Keywords: TCP, packet coalescing, energy efficient Ethernet, small office, home office, SOHO, Ethernet LAN switches, low traffic load, Ethernet interfaces, low power idle mode, idle periods, EEE policy, synchronous coalescing, network hosts, edge routers, energy savings, Ethernet PHY, ns-2 simulation model, Internet traffic

M. Mostowfi; K. Christensen

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Visual Breakout  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Visual Breakout of the Cummulative Barrels of Oil Recovered by the Discoverer Enterprise, Q4000 and HP1. Updated through 12:00 AM on July 16, 2010.

109

Final Report: Investigation of Catalytic Pathways for Lignin Breakdown into Monomers and Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignin is a biopolymer that comprises up to 35% of woody biomass by dry weight. It is currently underutilized compared to cellulose and hemicellulose, the other two primary components of woody biomass. Lignin has an irregular structure of methoxylated aromatic groups linked by a suite of ether and alkyl bonds which makes it difficult to degrade selectively. However, the aromatic components of lignin also make it promising as a base material for the production of aromatic fuel additives and cyclic chemical feed stocks such as styrene, benzene, and cyclohexanol. Our laboratory research focused on three methods to selectively cleave and deoxygenate purified lignin under mild conditions: acidolysis, hydrogenation and electrocatalysis. (1) Acidolysis was undertaken in CH2Cl2 at room temperature. (2) Hydrogenation was carried out by dissolving lignin and a rhodium catalyst in 1:1 water:methoxyethanol under a 1 atm H2 environment. (3) Electrocatalysis of lignin involved reacting electrically generated hydrogen atoms at a catalytic palladium cathode with lignin dissolved in a solution of aqueous methanol. In all of the experiments, the lignin degradation products were identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy and flame ionization detection. Yields were low, but this may have reflected the difficulty in recovering the various fractions after conversion. The homogeneous hydrogenation of lignin showed fragmentation into monomers, while the electrocatalytic hydrogenation showed production of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and substituted benzenes. In addition to the experiments, promising pathways for the conversion of lignin were assessed. Three conversion methods were compared based on their material and energy inputs and proposed improvements using better catalyst and process technology. A variety of areas were noted as needing further experimental and theoretical effort to increase the feasibility of lignin conversion to fuels.

Gluckstein, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Kidder, Michelle [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL; Sturgeon, Matthew R [ORNL

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Modelling and real-trace-based evaluation of static and dynamic coalescing for energy efficient ethernet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The IEEE Standard 802.3az, namely Energy Efficient Ethernet (EEE), has been recently introduced to reduce the power consumed in LANs. Since then, researchers have proposed various traffic shaping techniques to leverage EEE in order to boost power saving. ... Keywords: bidirectional gigabit links, dynamic coalescing, energy efficient ethernet

Angelos Chatzipapas, Vincenzo Mancuso

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

[Characterization of lignin and Mn peroxidases from Phanerochaete chrysosporium]. Progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignin peroxidases were investigated with respect to enzyme kinetics and NMR spectroscopy of the heme domain. MN peroxidases were studied with respect to the role of oxalate in enzyme activity, the NMR spectroscopy of the heme domain. Gene expression of both lignin and MN peroxidases were examined as well as expression of site-directed mutants aimed at scale up production of these enzymes.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

Base-Catalyzed Depolymerization of Lignin: Separation of Monomers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In our quest for fractionating lignocellulosic biomass and valorizing specific constitutive fractions, we have developed a strategy for the separation of 12 added value monomers generated during the hydrolytic based-catalyzed depolymerization of a Steam Exploded Aspen Lignin. The separation strategy combines liquid-liquid-extraction (LLE), followed by vacuum distillation, liquid chromatography (LC) and crystallization. LLE, vacuum distillation and flash LC were tested experimentally. Batch vacuum distillation produced up to 4 fractions. Process simulation confirmed that a series of 4 vacuum distillation columns could produce 5 distinct monomer streams, 3 of which require further chromatography and crystallization for purification.

Vigneault, A.; Johnson, D. K.; Chornet, E.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Coalescence kinetics in surfactant stabilized emulsions: Evolution equations from direct numerical simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lattice Boltzmann simulations were used to study the coalescence kinetics in emulsions with amphiphilic surfactant, under neutrally buoyant conditions, and with a significant kinematic viscosity contrast between the phases (emulating water in oil emulsions). The 3D simulation domain was large enough (256 3rd power -- 10 7th power grid points) to obtain good statistics with droplet numbers ranging from a few thousand at early times to a few hundred near equilibrium. Increased surfactant contents slowed down the coalescence rate between droplets due to the Gibbs-Marangoni effect, and the coalescence was driven by a quasi-turbulent velocity field. The kinetic energy decayed at a relatively slow rate at early times, due to conversion of interfacial energy to kinetic energy in the flow during coalescence. Phenomenological, coupled differential equations for the mean droplet diameter D(t) and the number density nd(t) were obtained from the simulation data and from film draining theories. Local (in time) power law exponents for the growth of the mean diameter (and for the concomitant decrease of nd) were established in terms of the instantaneous values of the kinetic energy, coalescence probability, Gibbs elasticity, and interfacial area. The model studies indicated that true power laws for the growth of the droplet size and decrease of the number of droplets with time may not be justified, since the exponents derived using the phenomenological model were time dependent. In contrast to earlier simulation results for symmetric blends with surfactant, we found no evidence for stretched logarithmic scaling of the formD -- [ln (ct)]a for the morphology length, or exponential scalings associated with arrested growth, on the basis of the phenomenological model.

R. Skartlien; E. Sollum; A. Akselsen; P. Meakin; B. Grimes; J. Sjoblom

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

A NEW PROCESS DEVELOPED FOR SEPARATION OF LIGNIN FROM AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE PRETREATMENT SOLUTIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method is described for separating lignin from liquid solutions resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials such as switchgrass with ammonium hydroxide. The method involves a sequence of steps including acidification, evaporation, and precipitation or centrifugation that are performed under defined conditions, and results in a relatively pure, solid lignin product. The method is tested on ammonium hydroxide solutions containing lignin extracted from switchgrass. Experimental results show that the method is capable of recovering between 66-95% of dissolved lignin as a precipitated solid. Cost estimates of pilot-scale and industrial-scale expressions of the process indicate that breakeven lignin prices of $2.36/kg and $0.78/kg, respectively, may be obtainable with this recovery method.

Sherman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Milliken, C.

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

115

Visually Accurate Multi-Field Weather Visualization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Weather visualization is a difficult problem because it comprises volumetric multi-field data and traditional surface-based approaches obscure details of the complex three-dimensional structure of cloud dynamics. Therefore, visually accurate volumetric ... Keywords: Multi-Field Visualization, Visually Accurate Visualization, Weather Visualization

Kirk Riley; David Ebert; Charles Hansen; Jason Levit

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Effect of ionic liquid treatment on the structures of lignins in solutions  

SciTech Connect

The solution structures of three types of isolated lignin - organosolv (OS), Kraft (K), and low sulfonate (LS) - before and after treatment with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate were studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) over a concentration range of 0.3-2.4 wt %. The results indicate that each of these lignins is comprised of aggregates of well-defined basal subunits, the shapes and sizes of which, in D{sub 2}O and DMSO-d{sub 6}, are revealed using these techniques. LS lignin contains a substantial amount of nanometer-scale individual subunits. In aqueous solution these subunits have a well-defined elongated shape described well by ellipsoidal and cylindrical models. At low concentration the subunits are highly expanded in alkaline solution, and the effect is screened with increasing concentration. OS lignin dissolved in DMSO was found to consist of a narrow distribution of aggregates with average radius 200 {+-} 30 nm. K lignin in DMSO consists of aggregates with a very broad size distribution. After ionic liquid (IL) treatment, LS lignin subunits in alkaline solution maintained the elongated shape but were reduced in size. IL treatment of OS and K lignins led to the release of nanometer-scale subunits with well-defined size and shape.

Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Varanasi, Patanjali [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Dibble, Dean [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Simmons, Blake [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Singh, Seema [Joint Bioenergy Institute

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Short Gamma Ray Bursts as possible electromagnetic counterpart of coalescing binary systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coalescing binary systems, consisting of two collapsed objects, are among the most promising sources of high frequency gravitational waves signals detectable, in principle, by ground-based interferometers. Binary systems of Neutron Star or Black Hole/Neutron Star mergers should also give rise to short Gamma Ray Bursts, a subclass of Gamma Ray Bursts. Short-hard-Gamma Ray Bursts might thus provide a powerful way to infer the merger rate of two-collapsed object binaries. Under the hypothesis that most short Gamma Ray Bursts originate from binaries of Neutron Star or Black Hole/Neutron Star mergers, we outline here the possibility to associate short Gamma Ray Bursts as electromagnetic counterpart of coalescing binary systems.

S. Capozziello; M. De Laurentis; I. De Martino; M. Formisano

2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

118

Mechanistic Investigation of Acid-Catalyzed Cleavage of Aryl-Ether Linkages: Implications for Lignin Depolymerization  

SciTech Connect

Carbon-oxygen bonds are the primary inter-monomer linkages lignin polymers in plant cell walls, and as such, catalyst development to cleave these linkages is of paramount importance to deconstruct biomass to its constituent monomers for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. For many decades, acid catalysis has been used to depolymerize lignin. Lignin is a primary component of plant cell walls, which is connected primarily by aryl-ether linkages, and the mechanism of its deconstruction by acid is not well understood, likely due to its heterogeneous and complex nature compared to cellulose. For effective biomass conversion strategies, utilization of lignin is of significant relevance and as such understanding the mechanisms of catalytic lignin deconstruction to constituent monomers and oligomers is of keen interest. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the acid catalysis of a range of dimeric species exhibiting the b-O-4 linkage, the most common inter-monomer linkage in lignin. We demonstrate that the presence of a phenolic species dramatically increases the rate of cleavage in acid at 150 degrees C. Quantum mechanical calculations on dimers with the para-hydroxyl group demonstrate that this acid-catalyzed pathway differs from the nonphenolic dimmers. Importantly, this result implies that depolymerization of native lignin in the plant cell wall will proceed via an unzipping mechanism wherein b-O-4 linkages will be cleaved from the ends of the branched, polymer chains inwards toward the center of the polymer. To test this hypothesis further, we synthesized a homopolymer of b-O-4 with a phenolic hydroxyl group, and demonstrate that it is cleaved in acid from the end containing the phenolic hydroxyl group. This result suggests that genetic modifications to lignin biosynthesis pathways in plants that will enable lower severity processes to fractionate lignin for upgrading and for easier access to the carbohydrate fraction of the plant cell wall.

Sturgeon, M. R.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Molecular simulation as a tool for studying lignin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Simulation Simulation as a Tool for Studying Lignin Amandeep K. Sangha, a,b Loukas Petridis, a,b Jeremy C. Smith, a,b,c Angela Ziebell, d,e and Jerry M. Parks a,b a UT/ORNL Center for Molecular Biophysics, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6309; parksjm@ornl.gov (for correspondence) b BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, TN c Department of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, M407 Walters Life Sciences, 1414 Cumberland Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37996 d National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401-3393; angela.ziebell@nrel.gov (for correspondence) e BioEnergy Science Center, Golden, CO Published online 30 December 2011 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI 10.1002/ep.10628 Lignocellulosic biomass provides a sustainable source of sugars for biofuel and biomaterial production.

120

Numerical Solution to Drop Coalescence/Breakup with a Volume-Conserving, Positive-Definite, and Unconditionally Stable Scheme  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses a new volume- and volume concentration–conserving, positive-definite, unconditionally stable iterative numerical scheme for solving temporary cloud/raindrop coalescence followed by breakup and the coupling of the scheme with ...

M. Z. Jacobson

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

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121

Numerical Investigation of Collision-Induced Breakup of Raindrops. Part II: Parameterizations of Coalescence Efficiencies and Fragment Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results of numerically investigated binary collisions of 32 drop pairs presented in Part I of this study are used to parameterize coalescence efficiencies and size distributions of breakup fragments of large raindrops.

Winfried Straub; Klaus Dieter Beheng; Axel Seifert; Jan Schlottke; Bernhard Weigand

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Progress of Visualization: Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Visualization is an interdisciplinary imaging technique devoted to make the invisible visible by the techniques of experimental and computer-aided visualizations. It is applicable to various phenomena such as flow, heat, sound, electromagnetism, chemical ... Keywords: future of visualization, utilization of visualization, visualization, visualization history, visualization technique

Y. Nakayama; K. Aoki

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Lignin biosynthesis perturbations affect secondary cell wall composition and saccharification yield in Arabidopsis thaliana  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Background Second-generation biofuels are generally produced from the polysaccharides in the lignocellulosic plant biomass, mainly cellulose. However, because cellulose is embedded in a matrix of other polysaccharides and lignin, its...

Van Acker, Rebecca; Vanholme, Ruben; Storme, Véronique; Mortimer, Jennifer C; Dupree, Paul; Boerjan, Wout

2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

124

Batch Microreactor Studies of Lignin Depolymerization by Bases. 2. Aqueous Solvents  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass feedstocks contain roughly 15-30% lignin, a substance that can not be converted to fermentable sugars. Hence, most schemes for producing biofuels assume that the lignin coproduct will be utilized as boiler fuel. Yet, the chemical structure of lignin suggests that it will make an excellent high value fuel additive, if it can be broken down into smaller compounds. From Fiscal year 1997 through Fiscal year 2001, Sandia National Laboratories participated in a cooperative effort with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the University of Utah to develop and scale a base catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) process for lignin conversion. SNL's primary role in the effort was to perform kinetic studies, examine the reaction chemistry, and to develop alternate BCD catalyst systems. This report summarizes the work performed at Sandia during Fiscal Year 1999 through Fiscal Year 2001 with aqueous systems. Work with alcohol based systems is summarized in part 1 of this report. Our study of lignin depolymerization by aqueous NaOH showed that the primary factor governing the extent of lignin conversion is the NaOH:lignin ratio. NaOH concentration is at best a secondary issue. The maximum lignin conversion is achieved at NaOH:lignin mole ratios of 1.5-2. This is consistent with acidic compounds in the depolymerized lignin neutralizing the base catalyst. The addition of CaO to NaOH improves the reaction kinetics, but not the degree of lignin conversion. The combination of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and CaO offers a cost saving alternative to NaOH that performs identically to NaOH on a per Na basis. A process where CaO is regenerated from CaCO{sub 3} could offer further advantages, as could recovering the Na as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} or NaHCO{sub 3} by neutralization of the product solution with CO2. Model compound studies show that two types of reactions involving methoxy substituents on the aromatic ring occur: methyl group migration between phenolic groups (making and breaking ether bonds) and the loss of methyl/methoxy groups from the aromatic ring (destruction of ether linkages). The migration reactions are significantly faster than the demethylation reactions, but ultimately demethylation processes predominates.

MILLER, JAMES E.; EVANS, LINDSEY; MUDD, JASON E.; BROWN, KARA A.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Differential detection of genetic loci underlying stem and root lignin content in Populus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For simultaneous applications directed towards improved pulp yields, enhanced bioethanol production and increased carbon sequestration, it would be desirable to reduce lignin in the harvested stem while increasing the lignin content in nonharvested roots. In this study, we established a comprehensive genetic map with a large number of progeny from a three-generation hybrid Populus intercross, and phenotyped the lignin content, S/G ratio and 28 cell wall subcomponents both in stems and roots for the mapping individuals. Phenotypic analysis revealed that lignin content and syringyl-to-guaiacyl (S/G) ratio using pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectroscopy (pyMBMS) varied among mapping individuals. Phenotypic analysis revealed that stem lignin content is significantly higher than that in root and the quantified traits can be classified into four distinct groups, with strong correlations observed among components within organs. Altogether, 179 coordinating QTLs were detected, and they were co-localized into 49 genetic loci, 27 of which appear to be pleiotropic. Many of the detected genetic loci were detected differentially in stem and root. This is the first report of separate genetic loci controlling cell wall phenotypes above and below ground. These results suggest that it may be possible to modify lignin content and composition via breed and/or engineer as a means of simultaneously improving Populus for cellulosic ethanol production and carbon sequestration.

Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL; Zhang, Xinye [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Ranjan, Priya [ORNL; Sykes, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Davis, Dr. Mark F. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

RESULTS FROM ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND STRIP EFFLUENT COALESCER ELEMENTS FROM RADIOACTIVE OPERATIONS OF THE MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coalescer elements for the Strip Effluent (SE) acid within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) experienced elevated differential pressure drop during radioactive operations. Following the end of operations for the first Macrobatch campaign and soon after start of the second Macrobatch campaign, personnel removed the coalescer media and provided to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for diagnostic investigation of the causes of reduced flow. This report summarizes those studies. Two Strip Effluent (SE) coalescers were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). One was removed from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) between processing of Macrobatch 1 and 2 (coalescer 'Alpha'), and the second was removed from MCU after processing of {approx}24,000 gallons of salt solution (coalescer 'Beta'). Both coalescers underwent the same general strip acid flush program to reduce the dose and were delivered to SRNL for analysis of potential occluding solids. Analysis of Coalescer Alpha indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids and aluminosilicate solids, while analysis of Coalescer Beta indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids, but no aluminosilicates. Leaching studies on sections of both coalescers were performed. The results indicate that the coalescers had different amounts of solids present on them at the time of removal. Finally, samples of free liquids retrieved from both coalescers indicate no excessive amounts of CSSX solvent present. Given the strip acid flushing that occurred in the SE coalescers, the solids we detected on the coalescers are probably indicative of a larger quantity of these solids present before the strip acid flushing. Under this scenario, the excessive pressure drops are due to the solids and not from organic fouling.

Peters, T.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

127

Unstable kinetic roughening during the island coalescence stage of sputtered tantalum films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Kinetic roughening of tantalum films during the initial growth stages has been studied by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and dynamic scaling theory. Different from the time-independent scaling behavior for continuous film growth, an intriguing unstable kinetic roughening occurs during island coalescence. In such case, roughness exponent {alpha} increases with growth time, accompanied by lower growth exponent {beta} and higher coarsening exponent {eta}. Detailed analysis of film surface morphology and simple phenomenological models suggests that this unstable behavior is related to the pronounced lateral growth of surface islands, which arises from the combined effect of the formation of grain boundary and the covering of heterogeneous substrate surface.

Yang, J. J.; Tang, J.; Liu, N. [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology, Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Ma, F.; Xu, K. W. [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Tang, W. [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted feed and other by-products. It can be burned as fuel for the plant or can be diverted into higher-value products. One such higher-valued product is pyrolysis oil, a fuel that can be further upgraded into motor gasoline fuels. While pyrolysis of pure lignin is not a good source of pyrolysis liquids, raw lignin containing unconverted feed and by-products may have potential as a feedstock. This report considers only the production of the pyrolysis oil and does not estimate the cost of upgrading that oil into synthetic crude oil or finished gasoline and diesel. A techno-economic analysis for the production of pyrolysis oil from raw lignin was conducted. comparing two cellulosic ethanol fermentation based biorefineries. The base case is the NREL 2002 cellulosic ethanol design report case where 2000 MTPD of corn stover is fermented to ethanol (NREL 2002). In the base case, lignin is separated from the ethanol product, dewatered, and burned to produce steam and power. The alternate case considered in this report dries the lignin, and then uses fast pyrolysis to generate a bio-oil product. Steam and power are generated in this alternate case by burning some of the corn stover feed, rather than fermenting it. This reduces the annual ethanol production rate from 69 to 54 million gallons/year. Assuming a pyrolysis oil value similar to Btu-adjusted residual oil, the estimated ethanol selling price ranges from $1.40 to $1.48 (2007 $) depending upon the yield of pyrolysis oil. This is considerably above the target minimum ethanol selling price of $1.33 for the 2012 goal case process as reported in the 2007 State of Technology Model (NREL 2008). Hence, pyrolysis oil does not appear to be an economically attractive product in this scenario. Further research regarding fast pyrolysis of raw lignin from a cellulosic plant as an end product is not recommended. Other processes, such as high-pressure liquefaction or wet gasification, and higher value products, such as gasoline and diesel from fast pyrolysis oil should be considered in future studies.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Predictions for the Rates of Compact Binary Coalescences Observable by Ground-based Gravitational-wave Detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an up-to-date, comprehensive summary of the rates for all types of compact binary coalescence sources detectable by the Initial and Advanced versions of the ground-based gravitational-wave detectors LIGO and Virgo. Astrophysical estimates for compact-binary coalescence rates depend on a number of assumptions and unknown model parameters, and are still uncertain. The most confident among these estimates are the rate predictions for coalescing binary neutron stars which are based on extrapolations from observed binary pulsars in our Galaxy. These yield a likely coalescence rate of 100 per Myr per Milky Way Equivalent Galaxy (MWEG), although the rate could plausibly range from 1 per Myr per MWEG to 1000 per Myr per MWEG. We convert coalescence rates into detection rates based on data from the LIGO S5 and Virgo VSR2 science runs and projected sensitivities for our Advanced detectors. Using the detector sensitivities derived from these data, we find a likely detection rate of 0.02 per year for Initial LIGO-Virgo interferometers, with a plausible range between 0.0002 and 0.2 per year. The likely binary neutron-star detection rate for the Advanced LIGO-Virgo network increases to 40 events per year, with a range between 0.4 and 400 per year.

LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration; J. Abadie; B. P. Abbott; R. Abbott; M Abernathy; T. Accadia; F. Acernese; C. Adams; R. Adhikari; P. Ajith; B. Allen; G. Allen; E. Amador Ceron; R. S. Amin; S. B. Anderson; W. G. Anderson; F. Antonucci; S. Aoudia; M. A. Arain; M. Araya; M. Aronsson; K. G. Arun; Y. Aso; S. Aston; P. Astone; D. E. Atkinson; P. Aufmuth; C. Aulbert; S. Babak; P. Baker; G. Ballardin; S. Ballmer; D. Barker; S. Barnum; F. Barone; B. Barr; P. Barriga; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; M. A. Barton; I. Bartos; R. Bassiri; M. Bastarrika; J. Bauchrowitz; Th. S. Bauer; B. Behnke; M. G. Beker; M. Benacquista; A. Bertolini; J. Betzwieser; N. Beveridge; P. T. Beyersdorf; S. Bigotta; I. A. Bilenko; G. Billingsley; J. Birch; S. Birindelli; R. Biswas; M. Bitossi; M. A. Bizouard; E. Black; J. K. Blackburn; L. Blackburn; D. Blair; B. Bland; M. Blom; A. Blomberg; C. Boccara; O. Bock; T. P. Bodiya; R. Bondarescu; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bork; M. Born; S. Bose; L. Bosi; M. Boyle; S. Braccini; C. Bradaschia; P. R. Brady; V. B. Braginsky; J. E. Brau; J. Breyer; D. O. Bridges; A. Brillet; M. Brinkmann; V. Brisson; M. Britzger; A. F. Brooks; D. A. Brown; R. Budzy?ski; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; A. Buonanno; J. Burguet--Castell; O. Burmeister; D. Buskulic; R. L. Byer; L. Cadonati; G. Cagnoli; E. Calloni; J. B. Camp; E. Campagna; P. Campsie; J. Cannizzo; K. C. Cannon; B. Canuel; J. Cao; C. Capano; F. Carbognani; S. Caride; S. Caudill; M. Cavaglià; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; C. Cepeda; E. Cesarini; T. Chalermsongsak; E. Chalkley; P. Charlton; E. Chassande-Mottin; S. Chelkowski; Y. Chen; A. Chincarini; N. Christensen; S. S. Y. Chua; C. T. Y. Chung; D. Clark; J. Clark; J. H. Clayton; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; C. N. Colacino; J. Colas; A. Colla; M. Colombini; R. Conte; D. Cook; T. R. Corbitt; C. Corda; N. Cornish; A. Corsi; C. A. Costa; J. -P. Coulon; D. Coward; D. C. Coyne; J. D. E. Creighton; T. D. Creighton; A. M. Cruise; R. M. Culter; A. Cumming; L. Cunningham; E. Cuoco; K. Dahl; S. L. Danilishin; R. Dannenberg; S. D'Antonio; K. Danzmann; A. Dari; K. Das; V. Dattilo; B. Daudert; M. Davier; G. Davies; A. Davis; E. J. Daw; R. Day; T. Dayanga; R. De Rosa; D. DeBra; J. Degallaix; M. del Prete; V. Dergachev; R. DeRosa; R. DeSalvo; P. Devanka; S. Dhurandhar; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; I. Di Palma; M. Di Paolo Emilio; A. Di Virgilio; M. Díaz; A. Dietz; F. Donovan; K. L. Dooley; E. E. Doomes; S. Dorsher; E. S. D. Douglas; M. Drago; R. W. P. Drever; J. C. Driggers; J. Dueck; J. -C. Dumas; T. Eberle; M. Edgar; M. Edwards; A. Effler; P. Ehrens; R. Engel; T. Etzel; M. Evans; T. Evans; V. Fafone; S. Fairhurst; Y. Fan; B. F. Farr; D. Fazi; H. Fehrmann; D. Feldbaum; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; L. S. Finn; I. Fiori; R. Flaminio; M. Flanigan; K. Flasch; S. Foley; C. Forrest; E. Forsi; N. Fotopoulos; J. -D. Fournier; J. Franc; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; M. Frede; M. Frei; Z. Frei; A. Freise; R. Frey; T. T. Fricke; D. Friedrich; P. Fritschel; V. V. Frolov; P. Fulda; M. Fyffe; L. Gammaitoni; J. A. Garofoli; F. Garufi; G. Gemme; E. Genin; A. Gennai; I. Gholami; S. Ghosh; J. A. Giaime; S. Giampanis; K. D. Giardina; A. Giazotto; C. Gill; E. Goetz; L. M. Goggin; G. González; M. L. Gorodetsky; S. Goßler; R. Gouaty; C. Graef; M. Granata; A. Grant; S. Gras; C. Gray; R. J. S. Greenhalgh; A. M. Gretarsson; C. Greverie; R. Grosso; H. Grote; S. Grunewald; G. M. Guidi; E. K. Gustafson; R. Gustafson; B. Hage; P. Hall; J. M. Hallam; D. Hammer; G. Hammond; J. Hanks; C. Hanna; J. Hanson; J. Harms; G. M. Harry; I. W. Harry; E. D. Harstad; K. Haughian; K. Hayama; J. Heefner; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; I. S. Heng; A. Heptonstall; M. Hewitson; S. Hild; E. Hirose; D. Hoak; K. A. Hodge; K. Holt; D. J. Hosken; J. Hough; E. Howell; D. Hoyland; D. Huet; B. Hughey; S. Husa; S. H. Huttner; T. Huynh--Dinh; D. R. Ingram; R. Inta; T. Isogai; A. Ivanov; P. Jaranowski; W. W. Johnson; D. I. Jones; G. Jones; R. Jones; L. Ju; P. Kalmus; V. Kalogera; S. Kandhasamy; J. Kanner; E. Katsavounidis; K. Kawabe; S. Kawamura; F. Kawazoe; W. Kells; D. G. Keppel; A. Khalaidovski; F. Y. Khalili; E. A. Khazanov; C. Kim; H. Kim; P. J. King; D. L. Kinzel; J. S. Kissel; S. Klimenko; V. Kondrashov; R. Kopparapu; S. Koranda; I. Kowalska; D. Kozak; T. Krause; V. Kringel; S. Krishnamurthy; B. Krishnan; A. Królak; G. Kuehn; J. Kullman; R. Kumar; P. Kwee; M. Landry; M. Lang; B. Lantz; N. Lastzka; A. Lazzarini; P. Leaci; J. Leong; I. Leonor; N. Leroy; N. Letendre; J. Li; T. G. F. Li; H. Lin; P. E. Lindquist; N. A. Lockerbie; D. Lodhia; M. Lorenzini; V. Loriette; M. Lormand; G. Losurdo; P. Lu; J. Luan; M. Lubinski; A. Lucianetti; H. Lück; A. Lundgren; B. Machenschalk; M. MacInnis; J. M. Mackowski; M. Mageswaran; K. Mailand; E. Majorana; C. Mak; N. Man; I. Mandel; V. Mandic; M. Mantovani; F. Marchesoni; F. Marion; S. Márka; Z. Márka; E. Maros; J. Marque; F. Martelli

2010-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

130

Void Growth and Coalescence in Dynamic Fracture from the Atomistic Level  

SciTech Connect

An important example of multiscale material response is the fracture of ductile solids. In the process of ductile fracture, voids nucleate, grow and coalesce, and it is this linking process that creates the fracture. Ductile fracture has typically been modeled at the continuum level, in a variety of models that may or may not model voids explicitly. Previously we have studied the plasticity associated with void growth in fcc metals, focusing on copper. In the work discussed here we examine void growth in single crystal and polycrystalline body-centered cubic (bcc) metals (V, Nb, Ta, Mo and W) subjected to tension at a high rate and high triaxiality. Large-scale atomistic models provide detailed information on void nucleation and growth and the plasticity generated as voids coalesce, based solely on the constitutive properties inherent in the interatomic forces. The details of the plasticity may be used to inform dislocation dynamics and continuum plasticity models in order to develop models that scale beyond the nanoscale. We also discuss concurrent multiscale modeling of void growth using Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics.

Rudd, R E

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

131

Extracting the three- and four-graviton vertices from binary pulsars and coalescing binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using a formulation of the post-Newtonian expansion in terms of Feynman graphs, we discuss how various tests of General Relativity (GR) can be translated into measurement of the three- and four-graviton vertices. In problems involving only the conservative dynamics of a system, a deviation of the three-graviton vertex from the GR prediction is equivalent, to lowest order, to the introduction of the parameter beta_{PPN} in the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism, and its strongest bound comes from lunar laser ranging, which measures it at the 0.02% level. Deviation of the three-graviton vertex from the GR prediction, however, also affects the radiative sector of the theory. We show that the timing of the Hulse-Taylor binary pulsar provides a bound on the deviation of the three-graviton vertex from the GR prediction at the 0.1% level. For coalescing binaries at interferometers we find that, because of degeneracies with other parameters in the template such as mass and spin, the effects of modified three- and four-graviton vertices is just to induce an error in the determination of these parameters and, at least in the restricted PN approximation, it is not possible to use coalescing binaries for constraining deviations of the vertices from the GR prediction.

Umberto Cannella; Stefano Foffa; Michele Maggiore; Hillary Sanctuary; Riccardo Sturani

2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

132

EFFECTS OF COFIRING LIGNIN AND BIOSOLIDS WITH COAL ON FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE AND COMBUSTION PRODUCTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignin, derived from municipal solid waste and biosolid feedstocks using Masada Resource Group's patented CES OxyNol{trademark} process, and acidified biosolids were evaluated as supplemental fuels with coal for producing steam and electricity. Tests were conducted in a pilot-scale (550,000-Btu/hr [580-MJ/hr]) combustion system to evaluate the effects of coal characteristics, blend mixture (on a dry wt% basis) and furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) on boiler heat-exchange surface slagging and fouling, NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} production, fly ash characteristics, and combustion efficiency. The effects of blending lignin and acidified biosolids with coal on fuel handling and pulverization characteristics were also addressed. An 80 wt% Colorado--20 wt% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal blend from the Tennessee Valley Authority Colbert Steam Plant, hereafter referred to as the Colbert coal, and a bituminous Pittsburgh No. 8 coal were tested. The lignin and acidified biosolids were characterized by possessing higher moisture content and lower carbon, hydrogen, and heating values relative to the coals. Ash contents of the fuels were similar. The lignin also possessed higher concentrations of TiO{sub 2}, CaO, and SO{sub 3} and lower concentrations of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, K{sub 2}O, and N relative to the coals. The sulfur content of lignin could be reduced through a more thorough washing and drying of the lignin in an efficient commercial-scale dewatering device. Acidified biosolids were distinguished by higher concentrations of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and MgO and lower SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to the other fuels. Trace element concentrations, especially for Cr, Pb, Hg, and Ni, were generally greater in the lignin and acidified biosolid fuels relative to the Colbert coal. Maximum trace element emission factors were calculated for 95:5 Colbert coal--lignin and 90:5:5 Colbert coal--lignin--acidified biosolid blends and compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency emission factors for pulverized coal-fired units that are unequipped with pollution control devices. Calculated maximum trace element emission factors for the fuel blends were generally less than or within the range of those for the uncontrolled coal-fired units, except for Cr and Pb which were greater.

Kevin C. Galbreath

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Previous research has shown that addition of lignin-derived liquids to coal stirred in tetralin under mild reaction conditions (375{degree}C and 300--500 psig) results in a marked enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization. A mathematical model was developed to study the kinetics of coal depolymerization in the presence of liquid-derived liquids. In the present study, a reaction pathway was formulated to explain the enhancement in coal depolymerization due to lignin (solid) addition. The model postulated assumes that the products of lignin obtained during thermolysis interact with the reactive moieties present in coal while simultaneous depolymerization of coal occurs. A good fit between the experimental data and the kinetic model was found. The results show that in addition to the enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization, lignin also reacts (and enhances the extent of depolymerization of coal) with those reaction sites in coal that are not susceptible to depolymerization when coal alone is reacted in tetralin under identical reaction conditions. Additional work is being carried out to determine a thorough materials balance on the lignin-assisted coal depolymerization process. A number of liquid samples have been obtained which are being studied for their stability in various environments. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Lalvani, S.B.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

134

Determining the Effect of Concerted Elimination Reactions in the Pyrolysis of Lignin Using Model Compounds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignin pyrolysis is a significant impediment in forming liquid fuel from biomass. Lignin pyrolyzes at a higher temperature than other biomass components (ie cellulose, hemicellulose) and tends to form radicals which lead to cross linking and ultimately char formation. A primary step in advances biomass-to-fuel technology will be to discover mechanisms that can disassemble lignin at lower temperatures and depolymerize lignin into more stable products. We have investigated the thermochemistry of the various inter-linkage units found in lignin ({beta}-O4, {alpha}-O4, {beta}-{beta}, {beta}-O5, etc) using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2x/6-311++G(d,p) on a series of dimer model compounds. In addition to the usually-assumed bond homolysis reactions, we have investigated a variety of concerted elimination pathways that will tend to produce closed-shell stable products. Such a bottom-up approach could aid in the targeted development of catalysts that produce more desirable products under less severe reactor conditions.

Robichaud, D.; Clark, J.; Nimlos, M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Ray tracing visualization toolkit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Ray Tracing Visualization Toolkit (rtVTK) is a collection of programming and visualization tools supporting visual analysis of ray-based rendering algorithms. rtVTK leverages layered visualization within the spatial domain of computation, enabling ... Keywords: ray tracing, ray-based rendering, visualization

Christiaan Gribble; Jeremy Fisher; Daniel Eby; Ed Quigley; Gideon Ludwig

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Experimental and Computational Methods for the Deconstruction and Valorization of Lignin  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is among the most abundant natural heteropolymers on Earth. While lignin represents an abundant feedstock material for the production of renewable fuels and value-added chemicals, it is an underutilized value stream in current biomass conversion technologies because there exist no economic and technically feasible routes for lignin depolymerization and upgrading. My work at NREL has focused on elucidating deconstruction pathways of this recalcitrant polymer using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. This entails testing putative catalyst species against a library of model compounds as well as using computational modeling of the substrates and catalysts to determine thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. From these preliminary studies, I hope to develop strategies for the selective conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Synthetic techniques applicable to a model compound library, synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of catalyst species, as well as DFT studies of all of the aforementioned will be presented.

Chmely, S. C.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Top Value-Added Chemicals from Biomass - Volume II—Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Biorefinery Lignin  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates lignin’s role as a renewable raw material resource. Opportunities that arise from utilizing lignin fit into one of three categories: 1)power, fuel and syngas (generally near-term opportunities) 2) macromolecules (generally medium-term opportunities) 3) aromatics and miscellaneous monomers (long-term opportunities). Biorefineries will receive and process massive amounts of lignin. For this reason, how lignin can be best used to support the economic health of the biorefinery must be defined. An approach that only considers process heat would be shortsighted. Higher value products present economic opportunities and the potential to significantly increase the amount of liquid transportation fuel available from biomass. In this analysis a list of potential uses of lignin was compiled and sorted into “product types” which are broad classifications (listed above as power—fuel—syngas; macromolecules; and aromatics). In the first “product type” (power—fuel—gasification) lignin is used purely as a carbon source and aggressive means are employed to break down its polymeric structure. In the second “product type” (macromolecules) the opposite extreme is considered and advantage of the macromolecular structure imparted by nature is retained in high-molecular weight applications. The third “product type” (aromatics) lies somewhere between the two extremes and employs technologies that would break up lignin’s macromolecular structure but maintain the aromatic nature of the building block molecules. The individual opportunities were evaluated based on their technical difficulty, market, market risk, building block utility, and whether a pure material or a mixture would be produced. Unlike the “Sugars Top 10” report it was difficult to identify the ten best opportunities, however, the potential opportunities fell nicely into near-, medium- and long-term opportunities. Furthermore, the near-, medium- and long-term opportunities roughly align with the three “product types.” From this analysis a list of technical barriers was developed which can be used to identify research needs. Lignin presents many challenges for use in the biorefinery. Chemically it differs from sugars having a complex aromatic substructure. Unlike cellulose, which has a relatively simple substructure of glucose subunits, lignin has a high degree of variability in its structure which differs both from biomass source and from the recovery process used. In addition to its variability lignin is also reactive and to some degree less stable thermally and oxidatively to other biomass streams. What this means is that integrating a lignin process stream within the biorefinery will require identifying the best method to separate lignin from biomass cost-effectively.

Holladay, John E.; White, James F.; Bozell, Joseph J.; Johnson, David

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

An Efficient Method for Fully Relativistic Simulations of Coalescing Binary Neutron Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The merger of two neutron stars has been proposed as a source of gamma-ray bursts, r-process elements, and detectable gravitational waves. Extracting information from observations of these phenomena requires fully relativistic simulations. Unfortunately, the only demonstrated method for stably evolving neutron stars requires solving elliptic equations at each time step, adding substantially to the computational resources required. In this paper we present a simpler, more efficient method. The key insight is in how we apply numerical diffusion. We perform a number of tests to validate the method and our implementation. We also carry out a very rough simulation of coalescence and extraction of the gravitational waves to show that the method is viable if realistic initial data are provided.

Walter Landry; Saul A. Teukolsky

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Estimating parameters of coalescing compact binaries with a detector network including LIGO Australia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the goals of gravitational-wave astronomy is simultaneous detection of gravitational-wave signals from merging compact-object binaries and the electromagnetic transients from these mergers. With the next generation of advanced ground-based gravitational wave detectors under construction, we examine the benefits of the proposed extension of the detector network to include a fourth site in Australia in addition to the network of Hanford, Livingston and Cascina sites. Using Bayesian parameter-estimation analyses of simulated gravitational-wave signals from a range of coalescing-binary locations and orientations, we study the improvement in parameter estimation. We find that an Australian detector can break degeneracies in several parameters; in particular, the localization of the source on the sky is improved by a factor of ~4, with more modest improvements in distance and binary inclination estimates. This enhanced ability to localize sources on the sky will be crucial in any search for electromagnetic c...

Aylott, Benjamin; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Mandel, Ilya; Raymond, Vivien; Rodriguez, Carl; van der Sluys, Marc; Vecchio, Alberto; Veitch, John

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Comparative results of the combustion of lignin briquettes and black coal  

SciTech Connect

A new type of biofuel - hydrolytic lignin briquettes - was tested as compared with ordinary SS coal from the Kuznetsk Basin in fuel-bed firing in a Universal-6 boiler. It was found that the (total) efficiency of the boiler with the firing of lignin briquettes was 38% higher than that with the use of black coal. Carbon loss in the combustion of briquettes was 1%, whereas it was 48.2% in the combustion of black coal. The emission of harmful gas pollutants into the environment in the combustion of briquettes was lower than that in the combustion of coal by a factor of 4.5.

V.G. Lurii [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis of Lignin Model Compounds: Reaction Pathways of Aromatic Methoxy Groups  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Currently, there is interest in utilizing lignin, a major constituent of biomass, as a renewable source of chemicals and fuels. High yields of liquid products can be obtained from the flash or fast pyrolysis of biomass, but the reaction pathways that lead to product formation are not understood. To provide insight into the primary reaction pathways under process relevant conditions, we are investigating the flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of lignin model compounds at 500 C. This presentation will focus on the FVP of {beta}-ether linkages containing aromatic methoxy groups and the reaction pathways of methoxy-substituted phenoxy radicals.

Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C., III; Martineau, D.R.

1999-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

142

Manipulation Of Lignin Biosynthesis To Maximize Ethanol Production From Populus Feedstocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our research focuses on transgenic strategies for modifying lignification to improve biomass quality, without leading to deleterious effects on plant performance. In order to accomplish this objective, we designed molecular strategies and selected appropriate transgenes for manipulating the expression of lignification-associated genes; we generated poplar engineered for altered lignin content and/or monomer composition, and field-tested them for fitness; we analyzed the impact of these transgenic strategies on metabolism in general and lignin biosynthesis in particular; and evaluated the ease with which cell wall deconstruction can be accomplished using both chemical and enzymatic means using wild-type and high syringyl poplar.

Dr. Clint Chapple; Dr. Rick Lindroth; Dr. Burce Dien; Dr. Glen Stanosz; Dr. Alex Wiedenhoeft; Dr. Fu Zhao; Dr. Duane Wegener; Dr. Janice Kelly; Dr. Leigh Raymond; Dr. Wallace Tyner

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

Black, S.K.; Hames, B.R.; Myers, M.D.

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

144

Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO); Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO); Myers, Michele D. (Dacono, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Coalescent-based method for learning parameters of admixture events from large-scale genetic variation data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detecting and quantifying the timing and the genetic contributions of parental populations to a hybrid population is an important but challenging problem in reconstructing evolutionary histories from genetic variation data. With the advent of high throughput ... Keywords: coalescent, metropolis-hasting, population genetics, population history

Ming-Chi Tsai; Guy Blelloch; Russell Schwartz; R. Ravi

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Batch Microreactor Studies of Lignin Depolymerization by Bases. 1. Alcohol Solvents  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass feedstocks contain roughly 10-30% lignin, a substance that can not be converted to fermentable sugars. Hence, most schemes for producing biofuels (ethanol) assume that the lignin coproduct will be utilized as boiler fuel to provide heat and power to the process. However, the chemical structure of lignin suggests that it will make an excellent high value fuel additive, if it can be broken down into smaller molecular units. From fiscal year 1997 through fiscal year 2001, Sandia National Laboratories was a participant in a cooperative effort with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the University of Utah to develop and scale a base catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) process for lignin conversion. SNL's primary role in the effort was to utilize rapidly heated batch microreactors to perform kinetic studies, examine the reaction chemistry, and to develop alternate catalyst systems for the BCD process. This report summarizes the work performed at Sandia during FY97 and FY98 with alcohol based systems. More recent work with aqueous based systems will be summarized in a second report.

MILLER, JAMES E.; EVANS, LINDSEY; LITTLEWOLF, ALICIA; TRUDELL, DANIEL E.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Genome Sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus Strain T7A ATCC 39115, a Lignin-Degrading Actinomycete  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We announce the availability of the genome sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus strain T7A ATCC 39115, a plant biomass- degrading actinomycete. This bacterium is of special interest because of its capacity to degrade lignin, an underutilized compo- nent of plants in the context of bioenergy. It has a full complement of genes for plant biomass catabolism.

Davis, Jennifer R. [Brown University; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wei, Chia-Lin [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Szeto, Ernest [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Sello, Jason K. [Brown University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Novel mutants optimised for lignin, growth, and biofuel production via re-mutagenesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Novel mutants optimised for lignin, growth, and biofuel production via re-mutagenesis Investigators cell wall properties for more efficient biofuel production. Two approaches are being used towards will be good candidates for manipulation in crops used in biofuel production. Background Although

Nur, Amos

149

On the characterization and spinning of solvent extracted lignin towards the manufacture of low-cost carbon fiber  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT: A Kraft hardwood lignin (HWL) and an organic-purified hardwood lignin (HWL-OP) were evaluated as potential precursors for the production of lowcost carbon fibers. It was found that the unpurified HWL exhibited poor spinnability while the HWL-OP exhibited excellent spinnability characteristics. Fibers of various diameters were obtained from the HWL-OP. Thermostabilization studies showed that oxidative stabilization can only be used to convert HWL-OP-based fibers into carbon fibers if extremely low heating rates are applied. Carbonized lignin-based fibers had tensile strength of 0.51 GPa and tensile modulus of 28.6 GPa. VC

Baker, Darren A [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Estimating parameters of coalescing compact binaries with a detector network including LIGO Australia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the goals of gravitational-wave astronomy is simultaneous detection of gravitational-wave signals from merging compact-object binaries and the electromagnetic transients from these mergers. With the next generation of advanced ground-based gravitational wave detectors under construction, we examine the benefits of the proposed extension of the detector network to include a fourth site in Australia in addition to the network of Hanford, Livingston and Cascina sites. Using Bayesian parameter-estimation analyses of simulated gravitational-wave signals from a range of coalescing-binary locations and orientations, we study the improvement in parameter estimation. We find that an Australian detector can break degeneracies in several parameters; in particular, the localization of the source on the sky is improved by a factor of ~4, with more modest improvements in distance and binary inclination estimates. This enhanced ability to localize sources on the sky will be crucial in any search for electromagnetic counterparts to detected gravitational-wave signals.

Benjamin Aylott; Benjamin Farr; Vassiliki Kalogera; Ilya Mandel; Vivien Raymond; Carl Rodriguez; Marc van der Sluys; Alberto Vecchio; John Veitch

2011-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

151

IIR Adaptive Filters for Detection of Gravitational Waves from Coalescing Binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we propose a new strategy for gravitational waves detection from coalescing binaries, using IIR Adaptive Line Enhancer (ALE) filters. This strategy is a classical hierarchical strategy in which the ALE filters have the role of triggers, used to select data chunks which may contain gravitational events, to be further analyzed with more refined optimal techniques, like the the classical Matched Filter Technique. After a direct comparison of the performances of ALE filters with the Wiener-Komolgoroff optimum filters (matched filters), necessary to discuss their performance and to evaluate the statistical limitation in their use as triggers, we performed a series of tests, demonstrating that these filters are quite promising both for the relatively small computational power needed and for the robustness of the algorithms used. The performed tests have shown a weak point of ALE filters, that we fixed by introducing a further strategy, based on a dynamic bank of ALE filters, running simultaneously, but started after fixed delay times. The results of this global trigger strategy seems to be very promising, and can be already used in the present interferometers, since it has the great advantage of requiring a quite small computational power and can easily run in real-time, in parallel with other data analysis algorithms.

F. Acernese; F. Barone; R. De Rosa; A. Eleuteri; L. Giordano; L. Milano

2004-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

152

Coalescence of binary neutron stars in a scalar-tensor theory of gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We carry out numerical-relativity simulations of coalescing binary neutron stars in a scalar-tensor theory that admits spontaneous scalarization. We model neutron stars with realistic equations of state. We choose the free parameters of the theory taking into account the constraints imposed by the latest observations of neutron-star-- white-dwarf binaries with pulsar timing. We show that even within those severe constraints, scalarization can still affect the evolution of the binary neutron stars not only during the late inspiral, but also during the merger stage. We also confirm that even when both neutron stars have quite small scalar charge at large separations, they can be strongly scalarized dynamically during the final stages of the inspiral. In particular, we identify the binary parameters for which scalarization occurs either during the late inspiral or only after the onset of the merger when a remnant, supramassive or hypermassive neutron star is formed. We also discuss how those results can impact the extraction of physical information on gravitational waves once they are detected.

Masaru Shibata; Keisuke Taniguchi; Hirotada Okawa; Alessandra Buonanno

2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

153

Merger states and final states of black hole coalescences: a numerical-relativity-assisted effective-one-body approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study to what extent the effective-one-body description of the dynamical state of a nonspinning, coalescing binary black hole (considered either at merger, or after ringdown) agrees with numerical relativity results. This comparison uses estimates of the integrated losses of energy and angular momentum during ringdown, inferred from recent numerical-relativity data. We find that the values, predicted by the effective-one-body formalism, of the energy and angular momentum of the system agree at the per mil level with their numerical-relativity counterparts, both at merger and in the final state. This gives a new confirmation of the ability of effective-one-body theory to accurately describe the dynamics of binary black holes even in the strong-gravitational-field regime. Our work also provides predictions (and analytical fits) for the final mass and the final spin of coalescing black holes for all mass ratios

Thibault Damour; Alessandro Nagar; Loic Villain

2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

154

Sensitivity to Gravitational Waves from Compact Binary Coalescences Achieved during LIGO's Fifth and Virgo's First Science Run  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We summarize the sensitivity achieved by the LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors for compact binary coalescence (CBC) searches during LIGO's fifth science run and Virgo's first science run. We present noise spectral density curves for each of the four detectors that operated during these science runs which are representative of the typical performance achieved by the detectors for CBC searches. These spectra are intended for release to the public as a summary of detector performance for CBC searches during these science runs.

The LIGO Scientific Collaboration; the Virgo Collaboration; J. Abadie; B. P. Abbott; R. Abbott; M Abernathy; T. Accadia; F. Acernese; C. Adams; R. Adhikari; P. Ajith; B. Allen; G. Allen; E. Amador Ceron; R. S. Amin; S. B. Anderson; W. G. Anderson; F. Antonucci; S. Aoudia; M. A. Arain; M. Araya; M. Aronsson; K. G. Arun; Y. Aso; S. Aston; P. Astone; D. E. Atkinson; P. Aufmuth; C. Aulbert; S. Babak; P. Baker; G. Ballardin; S. Ballmer; D. Barker; S. Barnum; F. Barone; B. Barr; P. Barriga; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; M. A. Barton; I. Bartos; R. Bassiri; M. Bastarrika; J. Bauchrowitz; Th. S. Bauer; B. Behnke; M. G. Beker; M. Benacquista; A. Bertolini; J. Betzwieser; N. Beveridge; P. T. Beyersdorf; S. Bigotta; I. A. Bilenko; G. Billingsley; J. Birch; S. Birindelli; R. Biswas; M. Bitossi; M. A. Bizouard; E. Black; J. K. Blackburn; L. Blackburn; D. Blair; B. Bland; M. Blom; C. Boccara; O. Bock; T. P. Bodiya; R. Bondarescu; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bork; M. Born; S. Bose; L. Bosi; M. Boyle; S. Braccini; C. Bradaschia; P. R. Brady; V. B. Braginsky; J. E. Brau; J. Breyer; D. O. Bridges; A. Brillet; M. Brinkmann; V. Brisson; M. Britzger; A. F. Brooks; D. A. Brown; R. Budzy?ski; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; A. Buonanno; J. Burguet--Castell; O. Burmeister; D. Buskulic; R. L. Byer; L. Cadonati; G. Cagnoli; E. Calloni; J. B. Camp; E. Campagna; P. Campsie; J. Cannizzo; K. C. Cannon; B. Canuel; J. Cao; C. Capano; F. Carbognani; S. Caride; S. Caudill; M. Cavaglià; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; C. Cepeda; E. Cesarini; T. Chalermsongsak; E. Chalkley; P. Charlton; E. Chassande-Mottin; S. Chelkowski; Y. Chen; A. Chincarini; N. Christensen; S. S. Y. Chua; C. T. Y. Chung; D. Clark; J. Clark; J. H. Clayton; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; C. N. Colacino; J. Colas; A. Colla; M. Colombini; R. Conte; D. Cook; T. R. Corbitt; C. Corda; N. Cornish; A. Corsi; C. A. Costa; J. -P. Coulon; D. Coward; D. C. Coyne; J. D. E. Creighton; T. D. Creighton; A. M. Cruise; R. M. Culter; A. Cumming; L. Cunningham; E. Cuoco; K. Dahl; S. L. Danilishin; R. Dannenberg; S. D'Antonio; K. Danzmann; A. Dari; K. Das; V. Dattilo; B. Daudert; M. Davier; G. Davies; A. Davis; E. J. Daw; R. Day; T. Dayanga; R. De Rosa; D. DeBra; J. Degallaix; M. del Prete; V. Dergachev; R. DeRosa; R. DeSalvo; P. Devanka; S. Dhurandhar; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; I. Di Palma; M. Di Paolo Emilio; A. Di Virgilio; M. Díaz; A. Dietz; F. Donovan; K. L. Dooley; E. E. Doomes; S. Dorsher; E. S. D. Douglas; M. Drago; R. W. P. Drever; J. C. Driggers; J. Dueck; J. -C. Dumas; T. Eberle; M. Edgar; M. Edwards; A. Effler; P. Ehrens; R. Engel; T. Etzel; M. Evans; T. Evans; V. Fafone; S. Fairhurst; Y. Fan; B. F. Farr; D. Fazi; H. Fehrmann; D. Feldbaum; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; L. S. Finn; I. Fiori; R. Flaminio; M. Flanigan; K. Flasch; S. Foley; C. Forrest; E. Forsi; N. Fotopoulos; J. -D. Fournier; J. Franc; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; M. Frede; M. Frei; Z. Frei; A. Freise; R. Frey; T. T. Fricke; D. Friedrich; P. Fritschel; V. V. Frolov; P. Fulda; M. Fyffe; L. Gammaitoni; J. A. Garofoli; F. Garufi; G. Gemme; E. Genin; A. Gennai; I. Gholami; S. Ghosh; J. A. Giaime; S. Giampanis; K. D. Giardina; A. Giazotto; C. Gill; E. Goetz; L. M. Goggin; G. González; M. L. Gorodetsky; S. Goßler; R. Gouaty; C. Graef; M. Granata; A. Grant; S. Gras; C. Gray; R. J. S. Greenhalgh; A. M. Gretarsson; C. Greverie; R. Grosso; H. Grote; S. Grunewald; G. M. Guidi; E. K. Gustafson; R. Gustafson; B. Hage; P. Hall; J. M. Hallam; D. Hammer; G. Hammond; J. Hanks; C. Hanna; J. Hanson; J. Harms; G. M. Harry; I. W. Harry; E. D. Harstad; K. Haughian; K. Hayama; J. Heefner; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; I. S. Heng; A. Heptonstall; M. Hewitson; S. Hild; E. Hirose; D. Hoak; K. A. Hodge; K. Holt; D. J. Hosken; J. Hough; E. Howell; D. Hoyland; D. Huet; B. Hughey; S. Husa; S. H. Huttner; T. Huynh--Dinh; D. R. Ingram; R. Inta; T. Isogai; A. Ivanov; P. Jaranowski; W. W. Johnson; D. I. Jones; G. Jones; R. Jones; L. Ju; P. Kalmus; V. Kalogera; S. Kandhasamy; J. Kanner; E. Katsavounidis; K. Kawabe; S. Kawamura; F. Kawazoe; W. Kells; D. G. Keppel; A. Khalaidovski; F. Y. Khalili; E. A. Khazanov; C. Kim; H. Kim; P. J. King; D. L. Kinzel; J. S. Kissel; S. Klimenko; V. Kondrashov; R. Kopparapu; S. Koranda; I. Kowalska; D. Kozak; T. Krause; V. Kringel; S. Krishnamurthy; B. Krishnan; A. Królak; G. Kuehn; J. Kullman; R. Kumar; P. Kwee; M. Landry; M. Lang; B. Lantz; N. Lastzka; A. Lazzarini; P. Leaci; J. Leong; I. Leonor; N. Leroy; N. Letendre; J. Li; T. G. F. Li; H. Lin; P. E. Lindquist; N. A. Lockerbie; D. Lodhia; M. Lorenzini; V. Loriette; M. Lormand; G. Losurdo; P. Lu; J. Luan; M. Lubinski; A. Lucianetti; H. Lück; A. Lundgren; B. Machenschalk; M. MacInnis; J. M. Mackowski; M. Mageswaran; K. Mailand; E. Majorana; C. Mak; N. Man; I. Mandel; V. Mandic; M. Mantovani; F. Marchesoni; F. Marion; S. Márka; Z. Márka; E. Maros; J. Marque; F. Martelli

2010-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

155

Application of Graphics Processing Units to Search Pipeline for Gravitational Waves from Coalescing Binaries of Compact Objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a novel application of graphics processing units (GPUs) for the purpose of accelerating the search pipelines for gravitational waves from coalescing binaries of compact objects. A speed-up of 16 fold has been achieved compared with a single central processing unit (CPU). We show that substantial improvements are possible and discuss the reduction in CPU count required for the detection of inspiral sources afforded by the use of GPUs.

Shin Kee Chung; Linqing Wen; David Blair; Kipp Cannon; Amitava Datta

2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

156

Guest Editors' Introduction: Ultrascale Visualization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This special issue highlights five articles covering several topics in ultrascale data visualization, including extreme-scale production software, ghost-data generation, biomedical-image segmentation and remote viewing, in situ visualization, and display-rich ... Keywords: computer graphics, graphics and multimedia, ultrascale visualization, visualization, data-parallel visualization, in situ visualization, collaborative visualization

James Ahrens; Han-Wei Shen

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Visualizing geospatial data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This course reviews concepts and highlights new directions in GeoVisualization. We review four levels of integrating geospatial data and geographic information systems (GIS) with scientific and information visualization (VIS) methods. These include:• ...

Theresa Marie Rhyne; Alan MacEachren; Theresa-Marie Rhyne

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Publications on Information Visualization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Cugini, Laskowski, Piatko, "Document Clustering in Concept Space: The NIST Information Retrieval Visualization Engine (NIRVE)", CODATA Euro ...

159

Visualization of Network Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... DiVisa Multi-Dimensional Information Visualization Software. Staff: Cedric Houard; John Hagedorn; Kevin Mills; Judith Terrill, Group Leader.

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

160

Structural changes in switchgrass lignin and hemicelluloses during pretreatments by NMR analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

changes changes in switchgrass lignin and hemicelluloses during pretreatments by NMR analysis Reichel Samuel a, c , Marcus Foston a, c , Nan Jiang a, c , Lenong Allison a, c , Arthur J. Ragauskas a, b, c, * a School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA b Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA c BioEnergy Science Center, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 14 May 2011 Received in revised form 13 August 2011 Accepted 25 August 2011 Available online xxx Keywords: Switchgrass Pretreatment HSQC NMR analysis Lignin a b s t r a c t Switchgrass is currently being developed as a sustainable bio-energy crop due to its broad adaptability, high mass yield and low agricultural input. Its current conversion to biofuels is detrimentally impacted by its native recalcitrance which is typically addressed using

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161

Genetic manipulation of lignin reduces recalcitrance and improves biomass ethanol production from switchgrass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Switchgrass is a leading dedicated bioenergy feedstock because it is a native, high yielding, perennial prairie grass with broad cultivation range and low agronomic input requirements. Biomass conversion research has developed pilot scale processes for production of ethanol and other alcohols but they remain costly primarily due to the intrinsic recalcitrance of biomass. We show here that switchgrass genetic modification can produce normal plants that have reduced thermochemical and enzymatic recalcitrance. Downregulation of the switchgrass caffeic O-methyltransferase gene decreases lignin content modestly, reduces the syringyl to guaiacyl lignin monomer ratio and increases the ethanol yield by up to a third using conventional biomass fermentation processes. The downregulated lines have wild-type biomass yields but require reduced pretreatment severity and 300-400% lower cellulase dosages for equivalent product yields significantly lowering processing costs. Alternately, our modified transgenic switchgrass lines should yield significantly more fermentation chemicals per hectare under identical process conditions.

Hamilton, Choo Yieng [ORNL; Fu, Chunxiang [Noble Foundation; Xiao, Xirong [Noble Foundation; Ge, Yaxin [Noble Foundation; Chen, Fang [Noble Foundation; Bouton, Joseph [Noble Foundation; Foston, Marcus [Georgia Institute of Technology; Dixon, Richard A [Noble Foundation; Wang, Zeng-Yu [Noble Foundation; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Medical (visual) information retrieval  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This text gives a broad overview of the domain of visual medical information retrieval and medical information analysis/search in general. The goal is to describe the specifics of medical information analysis and more specifically of medical visual information ... Keywords: content-based image retrieval, medical information retrieval, medical visual information retrieval

Henning Müller

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE COFIRING OF BIOREFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates were completed. Processing of biosolids and pilot facility hydrolysis production have been completed to produce lignin for cofire testing. EERC had received all the biomass and baseline coal fuels for use in testing. All the combustion and fuel handling tests at EERC have been completed. During fuel preparation EERC reported no difficulties in fuel blending and handling. Preliminary cofire test results indicate that the blending of lignin and biosolids with the Colbert coal blend generally reduces NOx emissions, increases the reactivity of the coal, and increases the ash deposition rate on superheater surfaces. Deposits produced from the fuel blends, however, are more friable and hence easier to remove from tube surfaces relative to those produced from the baseline Colbert coal blend. A draft of the final cofire technical report entitled ''Effects of Cofiring Lignin and Biosolids with Coal on Fireside Performance and Combustion Products'' has been prepared and is currently being reviewed by project team members. A final report is expected by mid-third quarter 2002. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The environmental review, preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing, and assessment of steam export impacts have been completed without major issue. A cost estimate for the steam supply system was also completed. TVA is further evaluating the impacts of adding lignin to the coal fuel blend and how the steam cost is impacted by proximity of the Masada biomass facility. TVA has provided a draft final report that is under review by team members.

David J. Webster; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Jacqueline G. Broder

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates have been completed and issued for review. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility design, equipment selection, and modification were completed during the fourth quarter. Initial pilot facility shakedown was completed during the fourth quarter. During pilot plant shakedown operations, several production batch test runs were performed. These pilot tests were coupled with laboratory testing to confirm pilot results. In initial batches of operations, cellulose to glucose conversions of 62.5% and 64.8% were observed in laboratory hydrolysis. As part of this testing, lignin dewatering was tested using laboratory and vendor-supplied filtration equipment. Dewatering tests reported moisture contents in the lignin of between 50% and 60%. Dewatering parameters and options will continue to be investigated during lignin production. After some unavoidable delays, a suitable representative supply of MSW feed material was procured. Shredding of the feed material was completed and final drying of the feed is expected to be completed by late January. Once feed drying is completed, pilot facility production will begin to produce lignin for co-fire testing. Facility modifications are expected to continue to improve facility operations and performance during the first quarter of 2001. The TVA-Colbert facility continues to make progress in evaluating the co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed assessment of steam export impacts on the Colbert boiler system continues.

Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Differential Expression in Phanerochaete chrysosporium of Membrane-Associated Proteins Relevant to Lignin Degradation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fungal lignin-degrading systems must include membrane-associated proteins that participate in diverse processes such as uptake and oxidation of lignin fragments, secretion of ligninolytic secondary metabolites, and defense of the mycelium against ligninolytic oxidants. Despite their importance, little is known about the nature or regulation of these membrane-associated components. We grew the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium on cellulose or glucose as the carbon source and monitored the mineralization of a 14C-labeled synthetic lignin by these cultures to assess their ligninolytic competence. The results showed that the cellulose-grown cultures were ligninolytic, whereas the glucose-grown ones were not. We isolated microsomal membrane fractions from both types of culture and analyzed tryptic digests of them by shotgun liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the results against the predicted P. chrysosporium proteome showed that a catalase (Joint Genome Institute P. chrysosporium protein I.D. 124398), an alcohol oxidase (126879), two transporters (137220 and 132234), and two cytochrome P450s (5011 and 8912) were up-regulated under ligninolytic conditions. Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays showed that RNA transcripts encoding all of these proteins were also up-regulated in ligninolytic cultures. Catalase 124398, alcohol oxidase 126879, and transporter 137220 were found in a proteomic analysis of partially purified plasma membranes from ligninolytic P. chrysosporium, and are therefore most likely associated with the outer envelope of the fungus.

Shary, Semarjit; Kapich, Alexander N.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Cullen, Dan; Hammel, Ken

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

166

Investigation of Catalytic Pathways and Separations fro Lignin Breakdown into Monomers and Fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis of the energy and material consumption for three different lignin conversion pathways has been carried out in order to assess their relative promise. Recommendations to allow for improved performance based on the current state of the art have been made, with particular focus on the use of heterogeneous nanocatalysts. Lignin is currently burned for heat and power in industrial processes, but its aromaticity and high energy content make it a good source for fuels and chemical feedstocks. The conversion of lignin to value added products has been the subject of a number of excellent reviews, and it is upon this literature as well as recent publications that the processes were selected. The analysis includes consideration of the thermodynamics of conversion, the technical feasibility of each process, and the energy and material balance. For each of the processes, improvements to future research activities have been suggested to move the processes from the bench-scale to large-scale demonstrations. This analysis is not meant to be comprehensive, in terms of process, feedstock, or selected criteria. However, this work illustrates a path forward following pre-established goals of thermodynamic efficiency, selectivity, and feasibility.

McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Gluckstein, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Kidder, Michelle [ORNL; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL; Sturgeon, Matthew R [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates were completed and issued. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility design, equipment selection, and modification were completed during the fourth quarter of 2000. Initial pilot facility shakedown was completed during the fourth quarter. After some unavoidable delays, a suitable representative supply of MSW feed material was procured. During this first quarter of 2001, shredding of the feed material and final feed conditioning were completed. Pilot facility hydrolysis production was completed to produce lignin for co-fire testing. During this quarter, TVA completed the washing and dewatering of the lignin material produced from the MSW hydrolysis. Seven drums of lignin material were washed to recover the acid and sugar from the lignin and provide an improved fuel for steam generation. Samples of both the lignin and bio-solids fuel materials for co-fire testing were sent to the co-fire facility (EERC) for evaluation. After sample evaluation, EERC approved sending the material and all of the necessary fuel for testing was shipped to EERC. EERC has requested and will receive coal typical of the fuel to the TVA-Colbert boilers. This material will be used at EERC as baseline material and for mixing with the bio-fuel for combustion testing. EERC combustion testing of the bio based fuels is scheduled to begin in August of 2001. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate the co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed assessment of steam export impacts on the Colbert boiler system have been completed and a cost estimate for steam supply system was completed. The cost estimate and the output and heat rate impacts will be used to determine a preliminary price for the exported steam. The preliminary steam price will be determined in the next quarter.

Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates were completed and issued. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility hydrolysis production has been completed to produce lignin for co-fire testing and the lignin fuel was washed and dewatered. Both the lignin and bio-solids fuel materials for co-fire testing were sent to the co-fire facility (EERC) for evaluation and co-firing. EERC has received coal typical of the fuel to the TVA-Colbert boilers. This material was used at EERC as baseline material and for mixing with the bio-fuel for combustion testing. All the combustion and fuel handling tests at EERC have been completed. During fuel preparation EERC reported no difficulties in fuel blending and handling. Preliminary co-fire test results indicate that the blending of lignin and bio-solids with the Colbert coal blend generally reduces NO{sub x} emissions, increases the reactivity of the coal, and increases the ash deposition rate on superheater surfaces. Deposits produced from the fuel blends, however, are more friable and hence easier to remove from tube surfaces relative to those produced from the baseline Colbert coal blend. The final co-fire testing report is being prepared at EERC and will be completed by the end of the second quarter of 2002. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed assessment of steam export impacts on the Colbert boiler system have been completed and a cost estimate for the steam supply system was completed. The cost estimate and output and heat rate impacts have been used to determine a preliminary price for the exported steam. TVA is further evaluating the impacts of adding lignin to the coal fuel blend and how the steam cost is impacted by proximity of the Masada biomass facility.

Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Effect of Lignin Removal by Alkaline Peroxide Pretreatment on the Susceptibility of Corn Stover to Purified Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzymes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pretreatment of corn stover with alkaline peroxide (AP) at pH 11.5 resulted in reduction of lignin content in the residual solids as a function of increasing batch temperature. Scanning electron microscopy of these materials revealed notably more textured surfaces on the plant cell walls as a result of the delignifying pretreatment. As expected, digestion of the delignified samples with commercial cellulase preparations showed an inverse relationship between the content of lignin present in the residual solids after pretreatment and the extent of both glucan and xylan conversion achievable. Digestions with purified enzymes revealed that decreased lignin content in the pretreated solids did not significantly impact the extent of glucan conversion achievable by cellulases alone. Not until purified xylanolytic activities were included with the cellulases were significant improvements in glucan conversion realized. In addition, an inverse relationship was observed between lignin content after pretreatment and the extent of xylan conversion achievable in a 24-h period with the xylanolytic enzymes in the absence of the cellulases. This observation, coupled with the direct relationship between enzymatic xylan and glucan conversion observed in a number of cases, suggests that the presence of lignins may not directly occlude cellulose present in lignocelluloses but rather impact cellulase action indirectly by its association with xylan.

Selig, M. J.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence in LIGO and Virgo data from S5 and VSR1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the results of the first search for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence using data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Virgo detectors. Five months of data were collected during the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory's S5 and Virgo's VSR1 science runs. The search focused on signals from binary mergers with a total mass between 2 and 35M{sub {center_dot}}. No gravitational waves are identified. The cumulative 90%-confidence upper limits on the rate of compact binary coalescence are calculated for nonspinning binary neutron stars, black hole-neutron star systems, and binary black holes to be 8.7x10{sup -3} yr{sup -1} L{sub 10}{sup -1}, 2.2x10{sup -3} yr{sup -1} L{sub 10}{sup -1}, and 4.4x10{sup -4} yr{sup -1} L{sub 10}{sup -1}, respectively, where L{sub 10} is 10{sup 10} times the blue solar luminosity. These upper limits are compared with astrophysical expectations.

Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Anderson, S. B.; Araya, M.; Aronsson, M.; Aso, Y.; Ballmer, S.; Betzwieser, J.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.; Cannon, K. C.; Cepeda, C.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Coyne, D. C. [LIGO - California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

Improving the sensitivity of a search for coalescing binary black holes with non-precessing spins in gravitational wave data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate the implementation of a sensitive search pipeline for gravitational waves from coalescing binary black holes whose components have spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum. We study the pipeline recovery of simulated gravitational wave signals from aligned-spin binary black holes added to real detector noise, comparing the pipeline performance with aligned-spin filter templates to the same pipeline with non-spinning filter templates. Our results exploit a three-parameter phenomenological waveform family that models the full inspiral-merger-ringdown coalescence and treats the effect of aligned spins with a single effective spin parameter \\chi. We construct template banks from these waveforms by a stochastic placement method and use these banks as filters in the recently-developed gstlal search pipeline. We measure the observable volume of the analysis pipeline for binary black hole signals with total mass in [15,25] solar masses and \\chi in [0, 0.85]. We find an increase in observable volume of up to 45% for systems with 0.2 Hanford and Livingston detectors in LIGO's fifth observation run.

Stephen Privitera; Satyanarayan R. P. Mohapatra; Parameswaran Ajith; Kipp Cannon; Nickolas Fotopoulos; Melissa A. Frei; Chad Hanna; Alan J. Weinstein; John T. Whelan

2013-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

172

Improving the sensitivity of a search for coalescing binary black holes with non-precessing spins in gravitational wave data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate the implementation of a sensitive search pipeline for gravitational waves from coalescing binary black holes whose components have spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum. We study the pipeline recovery of simulated gravitational wave signals from aligned-spin binary black holes added to real detector noise, comparing the pipeline performance with aligned-spin filter templates to the same pipeline with non-spinning filter templates. Our results exploit a three-parameter phenomenological waveform family that models the full inspiral-merger-ringdown coalescence and treats the effect of aligned spins with a single effective spin parameter \\chi. We construct template banks from these waveforms by a stochastic placement method and use these banks as filters in the recently-developed gstlal search pipeline. We measure the observable volume of the analysis pipeline for binary black hole signals with total mass in [15,25] solar masses and \\chi in [0, 0.85]. We find an increase in observable vol...

Privitera, Stephen; Ajith, Parameswaran; Cannon, Kipp; Fotopoulos, Nickolas; Frei, Melissa A; Hanna, Chad; Weinstein, Alan J; Whelan, John T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates were completed and issued. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility design, equipment selection, and modification were completed during the fourth quarter of 2000. Initial pilot facility shakedown was completed. After some unavoidable delays, a suitable representative supply of MSW feed material was procured. During this first quarter of 2001, shredding of the feed material and final feed conditioning were completed. Pilot facility hydrolysis production was completed to produce lignin for co-fire testing and the lignin fuel was washed and dewatered. Both the lignin and bio-solids fuel materials for co-fire testing were sent to the co-fire facility (EERC) for evaluation and co-firing. EERC has received coal typical of the fuel to the TVA-Colbert boilers. This material will be used at EERC as baseline material and for mixing with the bio-fuel for combustion testing. EERC combustion testing of the bio-based fuels is scheduled to begin in October of 2001. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed assessment of steam export impacts on the Colbert boiler system have been completed and a cost estimate for steam supply system was completed. The cost estimate and the output and heat rate impacts will be used to determine a preliminary price for the exported steam.

Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Lignin-Rich Biorefinery Residues and Algae Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the results of the work performed by PNNL using feedstock materials provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, KL Energy and Lignol lignocellulosic ethanol pilot plants. Test results with algae feedstocks provided by Genifuel, which provided in-kind cost share to the project, are also included. The work conducted during this project involved developing and demonstrating on the bench-scale process technology at PNNL for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of lignin-rich biorefinery residues and algae. A technoeconomic assessment evaluated the use of the technology for energy recovery in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Valkenburg, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

175

Continuous On-Line Measurement of Lignin Concentration in Wood Pulp  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We are working toward the development of an instrument for the continuous, on-line measurement of the lignin concentration in wood pulp. The instrument is based on laser induced fluorescence of the wood pulp and is to be used as a primary sensor for both feedback control of the pulping and feedforward control of bleaching. We report here the results of a series of laboratory tests that characterized the fluorescence properties of wood pulp and demonstrated a correlation between various fluorescence functions and the Kappa number of the pulps as determined by TAPPI Procedure T236.

Jeffers, L. A.; Roman, G. W.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Molecular characterization of the lignin-forming peroxidase: Role in growth, development and response to stress  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This laboratory has continued its comprehensive study of the structure and function of plant peroxidases and their genes. Specifically, we are characterizing the anionic peroxidase of tobacco. During the past year we have completed the nucleotide sequence of the tobacco anionic peroxidase gene, joined the anionic peroxidase promoter to [Beta]-glucuronidase and demonstrated expression in transformed plants, measured lignin, auxin, and ethylene levels in transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing the anionic peroxidase, developed chimeric peroxidase genes to over-or under-express the anionic peroxidase in tissue specific manner in transgenic plants, and over-expressed the tobacco anionic peroxidase in transgenic tomato and sweetgum plants.

Lagrimini, L.M.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Visualizing the stock market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe a new 2-dimensional visualization algorithm capable of presenting detailed information on hundreds of items while emphasizing overall patterns in the data. This display method, which builds on Shneiderman's treemap technique, makes use of ... Keywords: interactive graphics, investing, treemap, visualization

Martin Wattenberg

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

JPALS Visualization Tool  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a visualization system for the Joint Precision Aircraft Landing System (JPALS) that integrates remote sensor data with well-known databases of terrain imagery, elevation, and surveyed aviation locations. This visualization system ... Keywords: JPALS, LAAS, GPS, Virtual World, Distributed, Real time

Scott Nykl; Chad Mourning; Erik Nykl; David Chelberg; Trent Skidmore

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Visual Field Map Clusters in Macaque Extrastriate Visual Cortex  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The macaque visual cortex contains >30 different functional visual areas, yet surprisingly little is known about the underlying organizational principles that structure its components into a complete "visual" unit. A recent ...

Kolster, Hauke

180

Visual Breakout | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Visual Breakout Visual Breakout Visual Breakout of the Cummulative Barrels of Oil Recovered by the Discoverer Enterprise, Q4000 and HP1. Updated through 12:00 AM on July 16, 2010....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Kinetic Study of the Acid Degradation of Lignin Model Compound Intermediates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lignin is a major constituent of biomass, which remains underutilized in selective biomass conversion strategies to renewable fuels and chemicals. Here we are interested in understanding the mechanisms related to the acid deconstruction of lignin with a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Two model dimers with a b-O-4 aryl ether linkage (2-phenoxy-1-phenethanol and 2-phenoxy-1-phenyl-1,3 propanediol) were synthesized and deconstructed in H2SO4. The major products of the acidolysis of the b-O-4 compounds consisted of phenol and two aldehydes, phenylacetaldehyde and benzaldehyde. Quantum mechanical calculations were employed to elucidate possible deconstruction mechanisms with transition state theory. To confirm the proposed mechanisms a kentic study of several possible intermediates was done under similar acidolysis conditions. Epoxystyrene and 1-phenyl-1,2-ethandiol were used as intermediates. 2-phenoxyvinylbenzene was synthesized and subsequently deconstructed in H2SO4. The kinetics and product distribution of these intermediates were then used in confirming our proposed mechanisms.

Sturgeon, M.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Building Data Visualization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Building Data Visualization contour plot Figure 1: Contour plot showing the various operating stages of occupancy sensors described in the case study. Data visualization for buildings is the display of a rich set of variables and parameters that managers can use to verify the energy savings of energy- efficient technology and identify malfunctions in building equipment or problems with operating strategies. Effective data visualization depends on having graphic presentation formats that reveal the phenomena relevant to the building's performance. A research project at the Center for Building Science is aimed at developing data visualization techniques for improved building management. Buildings with energy management control systems as well as dedicated monitoring equipment in the

183

Designing Effective Algorithm Visualizations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Advances in computing technology and the aordability of software and high-performance graphics hardware enabled rapid growth of visual tools. Today, not only very expensive workstations, but also low-cost PCs are capable of running computationally demanding visualization systems. Algorithm visualizations or the graphic depiction of algorithms in execution have been used in explaining, designing and analyzing algorithms since the early 1980s. Although many tools have been developed over the past twenty years, not enough attention has been paid to the analysis of users, their needs, tasks, and goals. This paper provides an overview of algorithm visualization techniques, based on the premise that a rethinking of algorithm animation design is required in order to harness its power for enhancing learning. More information about the topic can be found on the author's web page. 1

Sami Khuri

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Electronic Materials: Visualizations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

VISUALS: Animation of the effect of temperature on conductivity of an n-type ... Animations of the production of a silicon wafer, 0, 897, Cathy Rohrer, 2/12/2007 ...

185

Visualization Design Environment  

SciTech Connect

Improvements in the performance and capabilities of computer software and hardware system, combined with advances in Internet technologies, have spurred innovative developments in the area of modeling, simulation and visualization. These developments combine to make it possible to create an environment where engineers can design, prototype, analyze, and visualize components in virtual space, saving the time and expenses incurred during numerous design and prototyping iterations. The Visualization Design Centers located at Sandia National Laboratories are facilities built specifically to promote the ''design by team'' concept. This report focuses on designing, developing and deploying this environment by detailing the design of the facility, software infrastructure and hardware systems that comprise this new visualization design environment and describes case studies that document successful application of this environment.

Pomplun, A.R.; Templet, G.J.; Jortner, J.N.; Friesen, J.A.; Schwegel, J.; Hughes, K.R.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Observation of light nuclei formation as nuclear coalescence in CC-interactions at 4.2 AGeV/c  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The average multiplicity of light nuclei and pi-mesons, emitted in HeC and CC interactions at 4.2 A GeV/c were studied as a function of number of identified protons. In both interactions, the behavior of average multiplicity of pi- mesons are in agreement with results coming from the Cascade model. The model could not describe the behavior of average multiplicity of light nuclei produced in HeC interactions. In case of CC interactions the model could describe qualitatively the behavior of the average multiplicity of light nuclei. An essential deviation was observed in some of the most central events. We believe that nuclear coalescence effect may be a reason of this deviation.

K. H. Khan; M. K. Suleymanov; M. Ajaz; Ali Zaman; Sh. Khalilova

2013-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

187

Visualization and data analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Talk about Visualization and Data Analysis Current State and Exascale challenges. The goal is to update with colleagues our current status in our research. What challenges we need to face, and what future possibilities. Our goal is to propose to approach the problems with the visualization approach operating on the supercomputing platform. This presentation is about the L2 Milestone, we intend to discuss further possibilities of enhancing our results and optimizing our solutions.

Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodgers, David [SNL; Springmeyer, Becky [LLNL

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

188

Visualization of mobile object environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a system for visualizing mobile object frameworks. In such frameworks, the objects can migrate to remote hosts, along with their state and behavior, while the application is running. An innovative graph-based visualization is used ... Keywords: distributed software visualization, mobile objects, software visualization

Yaniv Frishman; Ayellet Tal

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Conceptual design assessment for the co-firing of bio-refinery supplied lignin project. Quarterly report, June 23--July 1, 2000  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Conceptual Design Assessment for the Co-Firing of Bio-Refinery Supplied Lignin Project was successfully kicked off on July 23, 2000 during a meeting at the TVA-PPI facility in Muscle Shoals, AL. An initial timeline for the study was distributed, issues of concern were identified and a priority actions list was developed. Next steps include meeting with NETL to discuss de-watering and lignin fuel testing, the development of the mass balance model and ethanol facility design criteria, providing TVA-Colbert with preliminary lignin fuel analysis and the procurement of representative feed materials for the pilot and bench scale testing of the hydrolysis process.

Berglund, T.; Ranney, J.T.; Babb, C.L.

2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

190

Visualization for the Physical Sciences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Close collaboration with other scientific fields is an important goal for the visualization community. Yet engaging in a scientific collaboration can be challenging. The physical sciences, namely astronomy, chemistry, earth sciences and physics, exhibit ... Keywords: I.3.8 [Computer Graphics]: Applications–Visualization, I.6.6 [Simulation and Modeling]: Symulation Output Analysis–Visualization, J.2 [Physical Sciences and Engineering]: Astronomy–Visualization, J.2 [Physical Sciences and Engineering]: Chemistry–Visualization, J.2 [Physical Sciences and Engineering]: Earth and atmospheric sciences–Visualization, J.2 [Physical Sciences and Engineering]: Physics–Visualization

Dan R. Lip?a; Robert S. Laramee; Simon J. Cox; Jonathan C. Roberts; Rick Walker; Michelle A. Borkin; Hanspeter Pfister

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

High Performance Computing and Visualization Group ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Performance Computing and Visualization Group. Welcome. The High Performance Computing and Visualization Group. ...

2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

192

Mechanisms of Lignin Biosynthesis During Xylogenesis in Zinnia elegans. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The original plan for this project was to use Zinnia elegans and its xylogenic cell differentiation system to dissect the role(s) played in lignin deposition by the three classes of laccases (p-diphenoloxidases) the authors had previously detected in zinnia stem extracts. The project, was broadly divided into two general areas--biochemistry/enzymology and molecular biology/genetic engineering--each of which was pursued by one of two graduate students. As noted in the attached publication list, DOE funding for this project facilitated the publication of five (5) research papers, and two (2) more papers slated for peer-review publication are currently nearing completion. In addition, our research results were presented at nine(9) national and international scientific meetings over the past four years. Some of the major findings reported in theses papers and presentations are summarized.

Eriksson, Karl-Erik L.; Dean, Jeffrey F.D.

1999-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

193

Rapid Determination of Lignin Content via Direct Dissolution and 1HNMR Analysis of Plant Cell Walls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

02/cssc.201000120 02/cssc.201000120 Rapid Determination of Lignin Content via Direct Dissolution and 1 H NMR Analysis of Plant Cell Walls Nan Jiang, [a, b] Yunqiao Pu, [b] and Arthur J. Ragauskas* [a, b] Increasing societal demand for environmental and economic sustainability is placing a renewed focus on the agro-forest in- dustry. This industry plays an essential role in the development of renewable energy and biofuels, especially in light of grow- ing concerns related to energy security and climate change. [1] The economical transformation of differing sources of biomass into biofuels has become a global research theme, directed at displacing nonrenewable petroluem-based resources to reduce long-term carbon dioxide emissions. [2] Although most current bioethanol and biodiesel plants represent first-generation biorefi- neries, utilizing readily processa- ble bioresources such as

194

Extreme Scale Visual Analytics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

195

Uncharted 3 visual effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For Uncharted 3, Naughty Dog tackled the challenge of rendering multiple environmental effects, such as fire, water, and sand in the game set pieces. The biggest challenge was delivering high-quality visual effects in real time while keeping the strict ...

Mohammed Ikram

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Energetic, Visual and Non-Visual Aspects of Office Lighting.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Light has important visual and non-visual effects on humans and high-quality light should therefore be supplied inside buildings in sufficient quantities. On the other hand,… (more)

Linhart, Friedrich

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Towards a detailed understanding of the structural variability in lignins: A new approach. Progress report, April 1991--June 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This reporting period witnessed a number of exciting and important breakthroughs in the study of lignin synthesis in plants and resulted in a significant deviation from the work plan originally proposed. Taken together, the authors` results reveal an emerging picture of a highly ordered assembly of the lignin polymer at the plasma membrane/cell-wall interface, in contrast to original considerations projecting a random series of coupling reactions. The Progress Report is divided into two sections: the first section reflects the interlocking research completed to date in the laboratories of N.G. Lewis and G.H.N. Towers. In the broadest sense, the Lewis group has focused mainly on woody plants, whereas the Towers laboratory examined similar processes in cereals/grasses. The second section compiles published work, a summary of manuscripts in preparation, and work currently underway for year three of the existing grant.

Lewis, N.G.; Towers, G.H.N.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

Visualization of Solution Gas Drive in Viscous Oil, SUPRI TR-126  

SciTech Connect

Several experimental studies of solution gas drive are available in this report. Almost all of the studies have used light oil. Solution gas drive behavior, especially in heavy oil reservoirs, is poorly understood. Experiments were performed in which pore-scale solution gas drive phenomena were viewed in water/carbon dioxide and viscous oil/carbon dioxide systems. A new pressure vessel was designed and constructed to house silicon-wafer micromodels that previously operated at low (<3 atm) pressure. The new apparatus is used for the visual studies. Several interesting phenomena were viewed. The repeated nucleation of gas bubbles was observed at a gas-wet site occupied by dirt. Interestingly, the dissolution of a gas bubble into the liquid phase was previously recorded at the same nucleation site. Gas bubbles in both systems grew to span one ore more pore bodies before mobilization. Liquid viscosity affected the ease with which gas bubbles coalesced. More viscous solutions result in slower rates of coalescence. The transport of solid particles on gas-liquid interfaces was also observed.

George, D.S.; Kovscek, A.R.

2001-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

199

DARPA Intelligent Collaboration and Visualization ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DARPA Intelligent Collaboration and Visualization. Back to VUG Home. Impetus / How Project Began. ITL was asked by ...

200

Computational Analysis of the Pyrolysis of ..beta..-O4 Lignin Model Compounds: Concerted vs. Homolytic Fragmentation  

SciTech Connect

The thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels is a very attractive technology for expanding the utilization of carbon neutral processes and reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources. As with all such emerging technologies, biomass conversion through gasification or pyrolysis has a number of obstacles that need to be overcome to make these processes cost competitive with the refining of fossil fuels. Our current efforts have focused on the investigation of the thermochemistry of the linkages between lignin units using ab initio calculations on dimeric lignin model compounds. All calculations were carried out using M062X density functional theory at the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The M062X method has been shown to be consistent with the CBS-QB3 method while being significantly less computationally expensive. To date we have only completed the study on the b-O4 compounds. The theoretical calculations performed in the study indicate that concerted elimination pathways dominate over bond homolysis reactions under typical pyrolysis conditions. However, this does not mean that concerted elimination will be the dominant loss process for lignin. Bimolecular radical chemistry could very well dwarf the unimolecular pathways investigated in this study. These concerted pathways tend to form stable, reasonably non-reactive products that would be more suited producing a fungible bio-oil for the production of liquid transportation fuels.

Clark, J. M.; Robichaud, D. J.; Nimlos, M. R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Visual Search Jeremy M. Wolfe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

10 Visual Search Jeremy M. Wolfe Abstract This chapter considers the range of visual search tasks, from those involving very brief- ly presented stimuli to those involving search processes that extend over many days. Most of the discussion centers on "classic" visual search tasks, as studied in the lab

202

Field Force Data Visualization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the development of a prototype data visualization app for utility workers. By using commercially available tablet technology, open standards, and open source software, utilities may be able to improve data capabilities of deployed field crews with modest investment in technology.BackgroundUtilities have been investing heavily in communications and information technology (IT) infrastructure in the past several years.  While strides are being ...

2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

203

Search for Gravitational Waves from Low Mass Compact Binary Coalescence in LIGO's Sixth Science Run and Virgo's Science Runs 2 and 3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a search for gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries using LIGO and Virgo observations between July 7, 2009 and October 20, 2010. We searched for signals from binaries with total mass between 2 and 25 solar masses; this includes binary neutron stars, binary black holes, and binaries consisting of a black hole and neutron star. The detectors were sensitive to systems up to 40 Mpc distant for binary neutron stars, and further for higher mass systems. No gravitational-wave signals were detected. We report upper limits on the rate of compact binary coalescence as a function of total mass, including the results from previous LIGO and Virgo observations. The cumulative 90%-confidence rate upper limits of the binary coalescence of binary neutron star, neutron star- black hole and binary black hole systems are 1.3 x 10^{-4}, 3.1 x 10^{-5} and 6.4 x 10^{-6} Mpc^{-3}yr^{-1}, respectively. These upper limits are up to a factor 1.4 lower than previously derived limits. We also report on results from a blind injection challenge.

the LIGO Scientific Collaboration; the Virgo Collaboration; J. Abadie; B. P. Abbott; R. Abbott; T. D. Abbott; M. Abernathy; T. Accadia; F. Acernese; C. Adams; R. Adhikari; C. Affeldt; M. Agathos; P. Ajith; B. Allen; G. S. Allen; E. Amador Ceron; D. Amariutei; R. S. Amin; S. B. Anderson; W. G. Anderson; K. Arai; M. A. Arain; M. C. Araya; S. M. Aston; P. Astone; D. Atkinson; P. Aufmuth; C. Aulbert; B. E. Aylott; S. Babak; P. Baker; G. Ballardin; S. Ballmer; D. Barker; F. Barone; B. Barr; P. Barriga; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; M. A. Barton; I. Bartos; R. Bassiri; M. Bastarrika; A. Basti; J. Batch; J. Bauchrowitz; Th. S. Bauer; M. Bebronne; B. Behnke; M. G. Beker; A. S. Bell; A. Belletoile; I. Belopolski; M. Benacquista; J. M. Berliner; A. Bertolini; J. Betzwieser; N. Beveridge; P. T. Beyersdorf; I. A. Bilenko; G. Billingsley; J. Birch; R. Biswas; M. Bitossi; M. A. Bizouard; E. Black; J. K. Blackburn; L. Blackburn; D. Blair; B. Bland; M. Blom; O. Bock; T. P. Bodiya; C. Bogan; R. Bondarescu; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bonnand; R. Bork; M. Born; V. Boschi; S. Bose; L. Bosi; B. Bouhou; S. Braccini; C. Bradaschia; P. R. Brady; V. B. Braginsky; M. Branchesi; J. E. Brau; J. Breyer; T. Briant; D. O. Bridges; A. Brillet; M. Brinkmann; V. Brisson; M. Britzger; A. F. Brooks; D. A. Brown; A. Brummit; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; A. Buonanno; J. Burguet--Castell; O. Burmeister; D. Buskulic; C. Buy; R. L. Byer; L. Cadonati; G. Cagnoli; E. Calloni; J. B. Camp; P. Campsie; J. Cannizzo; K. Cannon; B. Canuel; J. Cao; C. D. Capano; F. Carbognani; S. Caride; S. Caudill; M. Cavaglià; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; C. Cepeda; E. Cesarini; O. Chaibi; T. Chalermsongsak; E. Chalkley; P. Charlton; E. Chassande-Mottin; S. Chelkowski; Y. Chen; A. Chincarini; A. Chiummo; H. Cho; N. Christensen; S. S. Y. Chua; C. T. Y. Chung; S. Chung; G. Ciani; F. Clara; D. E. Clark; J. Clark; J. H. Clayton; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; P. -F. Cohadon; C. N. Colacino; J. Colas; A. Colla; M. Colombini; A. Conte; R. Conte; D. Cook; T. R. Corbitt; M. Cordier; N. Cornish; A. Corsi; C. A. Costa; M. Coughlin; J. -P. Coulon; P. Couvares; D. M. Coward; D. C. Coyne; J. D. E. Creighton; T. D. Creighton; A. M. Cruise; A. Cumming; L. Cunningham; E. Cuoco; R. M. Cutler; K. Dahl; S. L. Danilishin; R. Dannenberg; S. D'Antonio; K. Danzmann; V. Dattilo; B. Daudert; H. Daveloza; M. Davier; G. Davies; E. J. Daw; R. Day; T. Dayanga; R. De Rosa; D. DeBra; G. Debreczeni; J. Degallaix; W. Del Pozzo; M. del Prete; T. Dent; V. Dergachev; R. DeRosa; R. DeSalvo; S. Dhurandhar; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; I. Di Palma; M. Di Paolo Emilio; A. Di Virgilio; M. Díaz; A. Dietz; J. DiGuglielmo; F. Donovan; K. L. Dooley; S. Dorsher; M. Drago; R. W. P. Drever; J. C. Driggers; Z. Du; J. -C. Dumas; S. Dwyer; T. Eberle; M. Edgar; M. Edwards; A. Effler; P. Ehrens; G. Endröczi; R. Engel; T. Etzel; K. Evans; M. Evans; T. Evans; M. Factourovich; V. Fafone; S. Fairhurst; Y. Fan; B. F. Farr; W. Farr; D. Fazi; H. Fehrmann; D. Feldbaum; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; L. S. Finn; I. Fiori; R. P. Fisher; R. Flaminio; M. Flanigan; S. Foley; E. Forsi; L. A. Forte; N. Fotopoulos; J. -D. Fournier; J. Franc; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; M. Frede; M. Frei; Z. Frei; A. Freise; R. Frey; T. T. Fricke; D. Friedrich; P. Fritschel; V. V. Frolov; P. J. Fulda; M. Fyffe; M. Galimberti; L. Gammaitoni; M. R. Ganija; J. Garcia; J. A. Garofoli; F. Garufi; M. E. Gáspár; G. Gemme; R. Geng; E. Genin; A. Gennai; L. Á. Gergely; S. Ghosh; J. A. Giaime; S. Giampanis; K. D. Giardina; A. Giazotto; C. Gill; E. Goetz; L. M. Goggin; G. González; M. L. Gorodetsky; S. Goßler; R. Gouaty; C. Graef; M. Granata; A. Grant; S. Gras; C. Gray; N. Gray; R. J. S. Greenhalgh; A. M. Gretarsson; C. Greverie; R. Grosso; H. Grote; S. Grunewald; G. M. Guidi; C. Guido; R. Gupta; E. K. Gustafson; R. Gustafson; T. Ha; B. Hage; J. M. Hallam; D. Hammer; G. Hammond; J. Hanks; C. Hanna; J. Hanson; A. Hardt; J. Harms; G. M. Harry; I. W. Harry; E. D. Harstad; M. T. Hartman; K. Haughian; K. Hayama; J. -F. Hayau; J. Heefner; A. Heidmann; M. C. Heintze; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; M. A. Hendry; I. S. Heng; A. W. Heptonstall; V. Herrera; M. Hewitson; S. Hild; D. Hoak; K. A. Hodge; K. Holt; T. Hong; S. Hooper; D. J. Hosken; J. Hough; E. J. Howell; B. Hughey; S. Husa; S. H. Huttner; T. Huynh-Dinh; D. R. Ingram; R. Inta; T. Isogai; A. Ivanov; K. Izumi; M. Jacobson; H. Jang; P. Jaranowski; W. W. Johnson; D. I. Jones; G. Jones; R. Jones; L. Ju; P. Kalmus; V. Kalogera; I. Kamaretsos; S. Kandhasamy; G. Kang; J. B. Kanner; E. Katsavounidis; W. Katzman; H. Kaufer; K. Kawabe; S. Kawamura; F. Kawazoe; W. Kells; D. G. Keppel; Z. Keresztes; A. Khalaidovski; F. Y. Khalili; E. A. Khazanov; B. Kim; C. Kim; D. Kim; H. Kim; K. Kim; N. Kim; Y. -M. Kim; P. J. King; M. Kinsey; D. L. Kinzel; J. S. Kissel; S. Klimenko; K. Kokeyama; V. Kondrashov; R. Kopparapu; S. Koranda

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

204

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates have been completed and issued for review. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility design, equipment selection, and modification were completed during the fourth quarter of 2000. Initial pilot facility shakedown was completed during the fourth quarter. After some unavoidable delays, a suitable representative supply of municipal solid waste (MSW) feed material was procured. During this quarter (first quarter of 2001), shredding of the feed material was completed and final feed conditioning was completed. Pilot facility hydrolysis production was completed to produce lignin for co-fire testing. Pilot facility modifications continued to improve facility operations and performance during the first quarter of 2001. Samples of the co-fire fuel material were sent to the co-fire facility for evaluation. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate the co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed assessment of steam export impacts on the Colbert boiler system have been completed and a cost estimate for steam supply system is being developed.

Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

OpenEI Community - Visualization Graph  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

http:en.openei.orgcommunitytaxonomyterm700 en New Gapminder Visualizations Added http:en.openei.orgcommunityblognew-gapminder-visualizations-added

 <...

206

NSF Announces Visualization Challenge - Materials Technology ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 11, 2009 ... Interactive Media: Dynamic web visualization or animation designed for ... Non- Interactive Media: Multimedia, visualizations, and animations ...

207

Collaborative Visualization and the Analysis Pipeline | Argonne...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science & Engineering Applications Collaborative Visualization and the Analysis Pipeline Collaborative Visualization and the Analysis Pipeline Integration of Access Grid and...

208

Expanding the Frontiers of Visual Analytics and Visualization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Expanding the Frontiers of Visual Analytics and Visualization contains international contributions by leading researchers from within the field. Dedicated to the memory of Jim Thomas, the book begins with the dynamics of evolving a vision based on some of the principles that Jim and colleagues established and in which Jim’s leadership was evident. This is followed by chapters in the areas of visual analytics, visualization, interaction, modelling, architecture, and virtual reality, before concluding with the key area of technology transfer to industry.

Dill, John; Earnshaw, Rae; Kasik, David; Vince, John; Wong, Pak C.

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

209

An Assessment of Visual Testing  

SciTech Connect

In response to increasing interest from nuclear utilities in replacing some volumetric examinations of nuclear reactor components with remote visual testing, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has examined the capabilities of remote visual testing for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report describes visual testing and explores the visual acuities of the camera systems used to examine nuclear reactor components. The types and sizes of cracks typically found in nuclear reactor components are reviewed. The current standards in visual testing are examined critically, and several suggestions for improving these standards are proposed. Also proposed for future work is a round robin test to determine the effectiveness of visual tests and experimental studies to determine the values for magnification and resolution needed to reliably image very tight cracks.

Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Anderson, Michael T.; Doctor, Steven R.

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Advanced Recombinant Manganese Peroxidase for Biosynthesis of Lignin Bioproducts, Phase I Final Report, STTR Grant #: DE-SC0007503.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The core purpose of this Phase I STTR was to evaluate the feasibility of a new method of producing a recombinant version of manganese peroxidase (MnP) enzyme. MnP is a potentially valuable enzyme for producing high value lignin products and also for industrial de-coloring operations such as biobleaching of pulp and color removal from textile dye effluents. This lignin-modifying enzyme is produced in small amounts by the native host, a white rot fungus. Previous work by Oregon State University developed a secreted recombinant version of the enzyme in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Unfortunately, the expression is barely moderate and the enzyme is heavily glycosylated, which inhibits purification. In this work, the gene for the enzyme is given a tag which targets production of the enzyme to the peroxisome. This is a promising approach since this location is also where heme and hydrogen peroxide are sequestered, which are both necessary cofactors for MnP. More than ten recombinant strains were constructed, verified, and expressed in the Pichia system. Constitutive (GAP) and methanol-induced promoters (AOX) were tried for peroxisomal targeted, cytosolic, and secreted versions of MnP. Only the secreted strains showed activity. The amount of expression was not significantly changed. The degree of glycosylation was lessened using the AOX (methanol) promotoer, but the resulting enzyme was still not able to be purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Additional work beyond the scope of the defined Phase I project was undertaken to construct, verify, and express Pichia strains that mutated the MnP glycosylation sites to inhibit this process. These strains did not show significant activity. The cause is not known, but it is possible that these sites are important to the structure of the enzyme. Also beyond the scope proposed for our Phase I STTR, the team collaborated with AbSci, a startup with a new E. coli based expression system focused on the production of antibodies and enzymes containing disulfide bonds and requiring folding/post-translational modification. With only limited time remaining in the Phase I schedule, a single construct was made to produce MnP with this system. The enzyme was produced in the soluble fraction of the cell lysate, but no activity was measured. MnP from the existing recombinant source was used to act on lignin. The lignin was from a Kraft process and had a molecular weight of about 10,000 Da. Using 1000 Da dialysis membranes and UV-visible spectroscopy, no modification of either lignin was evident in the dialysate or the retentate. Assays using 2,6 dimethoxy phenol (DMP) as a substrate showed consistent activity throughout the project. In summary, these results fell far short of our expectations. A Phase II proposal was not submitted. Possible reasons for the failure of peroxisomal targeting include destruction by native hydrogen peroxide, native proteases, or unforeseen causes. The AbSci system was only lighted tested and further work may yield a strain with active enzyme. The lack of evidence for lignin modification may be due to the techniques employed. NMR or GC-MS studies may reveal evidence of modification.

Beatty, Christopher; Kitner, Joshua; Lajoie, Curtis; McClain, Sean; Potochnik, Steve

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

211

Kinetics/Phase Transformations: Visualizations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

VISUALS: Animation and video of solidification of solid crystals from a liquid ... JOM article including phase field and level set model animations, 0, 710, Cathy ...

212

Knowledge Assisted Visualization: Knowledge-assisted visualization of seismic data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present novel techniques for knowledge-assisted annotation and computer-assisted interpretation of seismic data for oil and gas exploration. We describe the existing procedure for oil and gas search which consists of manually extracting information ... Keywords: 2D textures, 3D textures, Illustrative visualization, Knowledge-assisted visualization, Rapid interpretation, Seismic interpretation

Daniel Patel; Øyvind Sture; Helwig Hauser; Christopher Giertsen; M. Eduard Gröller

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Data Visualization Perceiving and Representing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Data Visualization Perceiving and Representing Structured Information using Objects #12;Data #12;Data Visualization Image Based vs Structure Theories s Template theories based on 2D image processing s In structural theories we extract the structure of a scene in terms of 3D primitives #12;Data

Chi, Ed Huai-hsin

214

Live visuals tutorial: part III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this part of the course, we give a tutorial on how to compose live visuals. First, we talk about hardware and software setup needed for a live visual performance. Then we present concepts to prepare and organize huge media libraries allowing for instant ...

Pascal Mueller

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Examples of in transit visualization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the most pressing issues with petascale analysis is the transport of simulation results data to a meaningful analysis. Traditional workflow prescribes storing the simulation results to disk and later retrieving them for analysis and visualization. ... Keywords: in situ, in transit, parallel scientific visualization, staging

Kenneth Moreland; Ron Oldfield; Pat Marion; Sebastien Jourdain; Norbert Podhorszki; Venkatram Vishwanath; Nathan Fabian; Ciprian Docan; Manish Parashar; Mark Hereld; Michael E. Papka; Scott Klasky

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Visual secret sharing for multiple secrets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conventional visual secret sharing schemes are designed for a single secret image so it is inefficient to generate numerous share images for multiple secret images simultaneously. Therefore, a novel visual secret sharing scheme for multiple secret images ... Keywords: Multiple secret sharing, Visual cryptography, Visual pattern, Visual secret sharing

Jen-Bang Feng; Hsien-Chu Wu; Chwei-Shyong Tsai; Ya-Fen Chang; Yen-Ping Chu

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Determining Progression in Glaucoma Using Visual Fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The standardized visual field assessment, which measures visual function in 76 locations of the central visual area, is an important diagnostic tool in the treatment of the eye disease glaucoma. It helps determine whether the disease is stable or progressing ...

Andrew Turpin; Eibe Frank; Mark Hall; Ian H. Witten; Chris A. Johnson

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Toolkits for visualizing co-authorship graph  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Visualization eases insight into complex systems such as co-authorship networks. We present an initial deployment of an author navigator application for convenient visual examination of JCDL and LANL co--authorship networks. Keywords: co-authorship, visualization

Xiaoming Liu; Johan Bollen; Michael L. Nelson; Herbert Van de Sompel; Jeremy Hussell; Rick Luce; Linn Marks

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Solutions for Data Visualization and Image Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 7, 2007 ... The link provided accesses an interactive index of computation, data analysis, and visualization tools by ITT Visual Information Solutions.

220

Visualization of Microearthquake Data from Enhanced Geothermal...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Visualization Microearthquake Visualization of Microearthquake Data from Enhanced Geothermal Systems microearthquake.png We are working with geophysicists in the Earth Sciences...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

NREL: Energy Systems Integration - Visualization of Electric...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Visualization of Electric Power System Information Workshop The Energy Systems Integration Facility workshop, Visualization of Electric Power System Information, was held September...

222

Dynamic visualization of data streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

One embodiment of the present invention includes a data communication subsystem to receive a data stream, and a data processing subsystem responsive to the data communication subsystem to generate a visualization output based on a group of data vectors corresponding to a first portion of the data stream. The processing subsystem is further responsive to a change in rate of receipt of the data to modify the visualization output with one or more other data vectors corresponding to a second portion of the data stream as a function of eigenspace defined with the group of data vectors. The system further includes a display device responsive to the visualization output to provide a corresponding visualization.

Wong, Pak Chung (Richalnd, WA); Foote, Harlan P. (Richland, WA); Adams, Daniel R. (Kennewick, WA); Cowley, Wendy E. (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA)

2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

223

Visualization of truth tables - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nov 19, 1997 ... Visualization of truth tables. The Figures are computer-generated tables that show the value 1 as being represented by a black pixel and 0 by a ...

224

Visualization and data analysis outbrief  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Talk about Visualization and Data Analysis Current State and Exascale challenges. The goal is to update with colleagues our current status in our research. What challenges we need to face, and what future possibilities. Our goal is to propose to approach the problems with the visualization approach operating on the supercomputing platform. This presentation is about the L2 Milestone, we intend to discuss further possibilities of enhancing our results and optimizing our solutions.

Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Monroe, Laura M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tomlinson, Robert D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodgers, David [SNL; Springmeyer, Becky [LLNL; Harrison, Cyrus [LLNL; Pavlakos, Dino [SNL

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

225

Influence of Combustion Conditions on Yields of Solvent-Extractable Anhydrosugars and Lignin Phenols in Chars: Implications for Characterizations of Biomass Combustion Residues  

SciTech Connect

Anhydrosugars, such as levoglucosan and its isomers (mannosan, galactosan), as well as the solvent-extractable lignin phenols (methoxylated phenols) are thermal degradation products of cellulose/hemicellulos and lignin, respectively. These two groups of biomarkers are often used as unique tracers of combusted biomass inputs in diverse environmental media. However, detail characterization of the relative proportion and signatures of these compounds in highly heterogeneous plant-derived chars/charcoals are still scarce. Here we conducted a systematic study to investigate the yields of solvent-extractable anhydrosugars and lignin phenols in twenty-five lab-made chars produced from different plant materials under different combustion conditions. Solvent extractable anhydrosugars and lignin phenols were only observed in chars formed below 350 C and yields were variable across different combustion temperatures. The yields mannosan (M) and galactosan (G) decreased more rapidly than those of levoglucosan (L) under increasing combustion severity (temp. and duration), resulting in variable L/M and L/(M+G) ratios, two diagnostic ratios often used for identification of combustion sources (e.g. hardwoods vs. softwoods vs. grasses). On the other hand, the results of this study suggest that the ratios of the major solvent-extractable lignin phenols (vanillyls (V), syringyls (S), cinnamyls (C)) provide additional source reconstruction potential despite observed variations with combustion temperature. We thus propose using a property property plot (L/M vs. S/V) as an improved means for source characterization of biomass combustion residues. The L/M-S/V plot has shown to be effective in environmental samples (soil organic matter, atmospheric aerosols) receiving substantial inputs of biomass combustion residues.

Kuo, Li-Jung; Louchouarn, Patrick; Herbert, Bruce

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Mondrian: an agile information visualization framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data visualization is the process of representing data as pictures to support reasoning about the underlying data. For the interpretation to be as easy as possible, we need to be as close as possible to the original data. As most visualization tools ... Keywords: graph visualization, model transformation, software visualization

Michael Meyer; Tudor Gîrba; Mircea Lungu

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

VisIOn: an interactive visualization ontology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

VisIOn (Interactive Visualization Ontology) is a web application designed to categorize and store information about Software Visualization (SV) systems, in a way that can be easily searched and used for comparison. VisIOn will allow users and developers ... Keywords: algorithm animation, effectiveness, ontology, program visualization, repository, software visualization, taxonomy

Philippa Rhodes; Eileen Kraemer; Bina Reed

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

A python based 4d visualization environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the challenges in 4D math visualization is to develop an interactive and integrated computational environment to quick-prototype, simulate, and experiment with the abstract mathematical concepts. We have investigated several areas in 4D visualization ... Keywords: 4D visualization, Python, math visualization

Lin Jing; Xipei Huang; Yiwen Zhong; Yin Wu; Hui Zhang

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Visual Analytics at the Pacific Northwest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

customers. The success of PNNL's information visualization software, such as IN-SPIRETM and StarlightTM, and publications in top visualization journals and conference proceedings are the results of PNNL researchers with a focus on analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces. PNNL's visual analytics team

230

Research into the pyrolysis of pure cellulose, lignin, and birch wood flour in the China Lake entrained-flow reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This experimental program used the China Lake entrained-flow pyrolysis reactor to briefly investigate the pyrolysis of pure cellulose, pure lignin, and birch wood flour. The study determined that the cellulose and wood flour do pyrolyze to produce primarily gaseous products containing significant amounts of ethylene and other useful hydrocarbons. During attempts to pyrolyze powdered lignin, the material melted and bubbled to block the reactor entrance. The pure cellulose and wood flour produced C/sub 2/ + yields of 12% to 14% by weight, which were less than yields from an organic feedstock derived from processed municipal trash. The char yields were 0.1% by weight from cellulose and 1.5% from birch wood flour - one to two orders of magnitude less than were produced from the trash-derived feedstock. In scanning electron microscope photographs, most of the wood flour char had a sintered and agglomerated appearance, although some particles retained the gross cell characteristics of the wood flour. The appearance of the char particles indicated that the material had once been molten and possibly vapor before it formed spheroidal particles about 1 ..mu..m diameter which agglomerated to form larger char particles. The ability to completely melt or vaporize lignocellulosic materials under conditions of high heating rates has now been demonstrated in a continuous flow reactor and promises new techniques for fast pyrolysis. This char was unexpectedly attracted by a magnet, presumably because of iron contamination from the pyrolysis reactor tube wall. The production of water-insoluble tars was negligible compared to the tars produced from trash-derived feedstock. The production of water-soluble organic materials was fairly low and qualitatively appeared to vary inversely with temperature. This study was of a preliminary nature and additional studies are necessary to optimize ethylene production from these feedstocks.

Diebold, J.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

TIGER: A data analysis pipeline for testing the strong-field dynamics of general relativity with gravitational wave signals from coalescing compact binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The direct detection of gravitational waves with upcoming second-generation gravitational wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO and Virgo will allow us to probe the genuinely strong-field dynamics of general relativity (GR) for the first time. We present a data analysis pipeline called TIGER (Test Infrastructure for GEneral Relativity), which is designed to utilize detections of compact binary coalescences to test GR in this regime. TIGER is a model-independent test of GR itself, in that it is not necessary to compare with any specific alternative theory. It performs Bayesian inference on two hypotheses: the GR hypothesis $\\mathcal{H}_{\\rm GR}$, and $\\mathcal{H}_{\\rm modGR}$, which states that one or more of the post-Newtonian coefficients in the waveform are not as predicted by GR. By the use of multiple sub-hypotheses of $\\mathcal{H}_{\\rm modGR}$, in each of which a different number of parameterized deformations of the GR phase are allowed, an arbitrarily large number of 'testing parameters' can be used without having to worry about a model being insufficiently parsimonious if the true number of extra parameters is in fact small. TIGER is well-suited to the regime where most sources have low signal-to-noise ratios, again through the use of these sub-hypotheses. Information from multiple sources can trivially be combined, leading to a stronger test. We focus on binary neutron star coalescences, for which sufficiently accurate waveform models are available that can be generated fast enough on a computer to be fit for use in Bayesian inference. We show that the pipeline is robust against a number of fundamental, astrophysical, and instrumental effects, such as differences between waveform approximants, a limited number of post-Newtonian phase contributions being known, the effects of neutron star spins and tidal deformability on the orbital motion, and instrumental calibration errors.

Michalis Agathos; Walter Del Pozzo; Tjonnie G. F. Li; Chris Van Den Broeck; John Veitch; Salvatore Vitale

2013-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

232

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Visual  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Visual Visual Visual logo. Comprehensive lighting analysis software engineered for demanding interior and exterior applications. Visual lighting design software integrates an advanced 3-D modeling environment with an intuitive interface�providing a unique and powerful extension of the design process. Professional presentation capabilities enable you to quickly develop, analyze, and modify advanced lighting designs. Visual performs direct and interreflected component calculations and provides the ability to quickly compose professional presentations. Screen Shots Keywords lighting, lighting design, roadway lighting, visual, lumen method Validation/Testing The algorithms used by Visual lighting design software to calculate illuminance levels in diffuse architectural models follow commonly accepted

233

Visualization | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

78 78 Varnish cache server Home Groups Community Central Green Button Applications Developer Utility Rate FRED: FRee Energy Database More Public Groups Private Groups Features Groups Blog posts Content Stream Documents Discussions Polls Q & A Events Notices My stuff Energy blogs 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142234778 Varnish cache server Visualization Home Sfederspiel's picture Submitted by Sfederspiel(5) Member 20 May, 2013 - 13:28 Introducing FRED, Enabling Unique Visualization and Manipulation of Energy Data at Multiple Scales FRED Free Energy Data Map OpenEI Tool Visualization The U.S. Department of Energy, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Planetary Skin Institute recently released a new open platform

234

VCAT: Visual Crosswalk Analysis Tool  

SciTech Connect

VCAT is a knowledge modeling and analysis tool. It was synthesized from ideas in functional analysis, business process modeling, and complex network science. VCAT discovers synergies by analyzing natural language descriptions. Specifically, it creates visual analytic perspectives that capture intended organization structures, then overlays the serendipitous relationships that point to potential synergies within an organization or across multiple organizations.

Cleland, Timothy J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Forslund, David W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cleland, Catherine A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

235

Microsoft Visual C# 2005 Unleashed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Setting the standard for a premium C# reference, Microsoft Visual C# 2005 Unleashed provides practical examples for virtually every aspect of the C# programming language. The book is structured for progressive learning, so it can be read cover-to-cover ...

Kevin Hoffman

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Visualizing processes on the web  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we describe 3WPS, a framework to build distributed systems that are able to monitor and interact with a process through a 3D interface that is accessible via the World Wide Web (WWW). The 3WPS is easily configurable, easily adaptable to ... Keywords: Monitoring, VRML, Visualization systems

Delfina Malandrino; Giuseppina Palmieri; Vittorio Scarano

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Interferometric Visualization of Jet Flames  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents visualizations of reacting, round jets of the premixed and nonpremixed type realized by using interferometry and, complementarily, direct photography. The available interferometer, proposed by Carlomagno (1986), employs low-cost components ... Keywords: coherent structures, combustion, destabilization, interferometry, jet flames

A. Stella; G. Guj; A. Mataloni

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Visualization components for persistent conversations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An appropriately designed interface to persistent, threaded conversations could reinforce socially beneficial behavior by prominently featuring how frequently and to what degree each user exhibits such behaviors. Based on the data generated by the Netscan ... Keywords: Usenet, asynchronous threaded discussions, newsgroup, persistent conversation, social cyberspaces, visualization

Marc A. Smith; Andrew T. Fiore

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Rhythm modeling, visualizations and applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

People use their awareness of others' temporal patterns to plan work activities and communication. This paper presents algorithms for programatically detecting and modeling temporal patterns from a record of online presence data. We describe analytic ... Keywords: CMC, CSCW, awareness, context-aware computing, instant messaging, rhythms, user modeling, visualization

James "Bo" Begole; John C. Tang; Rosco Hill

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Energy Integration Visualization Room (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This two-page fact sheet describes the new Energy Integration Visualization Room in the ESIF and talks about some of the capabilities and unique visualization features of the the room.

Not Available

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

A Framework for Visualizing Hierarchical Computations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, VTK, and one of its interpretive interfaces, Tcl/Tk. In addition to creating a visualization tool, we the Visualization Toolkit, VTK [18], and one of its interpretive interfaces, Tcl/Tk [16]. By using VTK we have been

Hamann, Bernd

242

Massive model visualization techniques: course notes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interactive display and visualization of large geometric and textured models is becoming a fundamental capability. There are numerous application areas, including games, movies, CAD, virtual prototyping, and scientific visualization. One of observations ...

David Kasik; Andreas Dietrich; Enrico Gobbetti; Fabio Marton; Dinesh Manocha; Philipp Slusallek; Abe Stephens; Sung-Eui Yoon

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Visualization in Medicine: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Visualization in Medicine is the first book on visualization and its application to problems in medical diagnosis, education, and treatment. The book describes the algorithms, the applications and their validation (how reliable are the results?), ... Keywords: Computer Graphics

Bernhard Preim; Dirk Bartz

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Computer-Aided Light Sheet Flow Visualization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A computer-aided flow visualization process has been developed to analyze video images acquired from rotating and translating light sheet visualization systems.The computer process integrates a mathematical model for image reconstruction, advanced computer ...

Stacy Kathryn; Severance Kurt; Childers Brooks A.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Visually Impaired Transcript for Math Handbook Video  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

VISUALLY IMPAIRED TRANSCRIPT for Math Handbook Video. ... Hand stops on the NIST Handbook of Mathematical Functions as it is mentioned. ...

246

Computer simulation and scientific visualization  

SciTech Connect

The simulation of processes in engineering and the physical sciences has progressed rapidly over the last several years. With rapid developments in supercomputers, parallel processing, numerical algorithms and software, scientists and engineers are now positioned to quantitatively simulate systems requiring many billions of arithmetic operations. The need to understand and assimilate such massive amounts of data has been a driving force in the development of both hardware and software to create visual representations of the underling physical systems. In this paper, and the accompanying videotape, the evolution and development of the visualization process in scientific computing will be reviewed. Specific applications and associated imaging hardware and software technology illustrate both the computational needs and the evolving trends. 6 refs.

Weber, D.P.; Moszur, F.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

An interpersonal multimedia visualization system  

SciTech Connect

Media View is a computer program that provides a generic infrastructure for authoring and interacting with multimedia documents. Among its many applications is the ability to furnish a user with a comprehensive environment for analysis and visualization. With MediaView the user produces a document'' that contains mathematics, datasets and associated visualizations. From the dataset or embedded mathematics animated sequences can be produced in situ. The mathematical content of the document'' can be explored through manipulation with Mathematica {trademark}. Since the document'' is all digital, it can be shared with a co-worker on a local network or mailed electronically to a colleague at a distant site. Animations and any other substructure of the document'' persist through the mailing process and can be awakened at the destination by the recipient. 5 refs., 4 figs.

Phillips, R.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Microsoft VisualBasic.Net Professional Projects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From the Publisher:Incorporating five hands-on projects, Microsoft Visual Basic .NET Professional Projects is your key to unlocking the power of Visual Basic .NET. Each project focuses on a specific Visual Basic .NET concept and is based on a real-world ...

Kuljit Kaur; Pooja Bembey

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Flexible information design for business process visualizations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Profound understanding of business processes is a key success factor for Business Process Management (BPM). As more and more analytical information like runtime data from process execution or statistical data from business intelligence are available, ... Keywords: Data visualization,Business,Visualization,Monitoring,Concrete,Computational modeling,Service-oriented Architecture,Business Process Management,Process Visualization,Process Analysis

Alexander Nowak, Dimka Karastoyanova, Frank Leymann, Andrej Rapoport, David Schumm

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Visualization of Salt-Induced Stress Perturbations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An important challenge encountered during post-processing of finite element analyses is the visualizing of three-dimensional fields of real-valued second-order tensors. Namely, as finite element meshes become more complex and detailed, evaluation and ... Keywords: Mohry's circles, finite element codes and simulations, tensor field visualization, visual debugging

Patricia Crossno; David H. Rogers; Rebecca M. Brannon; David Coblentz

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Interactive visual supports for children with autism  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interventions to support children with autism often include the use of visual supports, which are cognitive tools to enable learning and the production of language. Although visual supports are effective in helping to diminish many of the challenges ... Keywords: Assistive technology, Autism, Capture and access, Education, Visual supports

Gillian R. Hayes; Sen Hirano; Gabriela Marcu; Mohamad Monibi; David H. Nguyen; Michael Yeganyan

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Cognitive Foundations for Visual Analytics  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we provide an overview of scientific/technical literature on information visualization and VA. Topics discussed include an update and overview of the extensive literature search conducted for this study, the nature and purpose of the field, major research thrusts, and scientific foundations. We review methodologies for evaluating and measuring the impact of VA technologies as well as taxonomies that have been proposed for various purposes to support the VA community. A cognitive science perspective underlies each of these discussions.

Greitzer, Frank L.; Noonan, Christine F.; Franklin, Lyndsey

2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

253

Operational dose rate visualization techniques  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of the gamma ray dose rate in the vicinity of a radiation source can be greatly aided by the use of recent state-of-the-art visualization techniques. The method involves calculating dose rates at thousands of locations within a complex geometry system. This information is then processed to create contour plots of the dose rate. Additionally, when these contour plots are created, animations can be created that dynamically display the dose rate as the shields or sources are moved.

Schwarz, R.A.; Morford, R.J.; Carter, L.L.; Jones, G.B.; Greenborg, J.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Visualizing the protein sequence universe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modern biology is experiencing a rapid increase in data volumes that challenges our analytical skills and existing cyberinfrastructure. Exponential expansion of the Protein Sequence Universe (PSU), the protein sequence space, together with the costs ... Keywords: azure, blast, cog, computational bioinformatics, data visualization, data-enabled life sciences, delsa, em, hadoop, hive, mapreduce, mpi, multidimensional scaling, needleman-wunsch, protein annotation, protein sequence universe, psu, sammon, sequence similarity, twister, uniprot, uniref

Larissa Stanberry, Roger Higdon, Winston Haynes, Natali Kolker, William Broomall, Saliya Ekanayake, Adam Hughes, Yang Ruan, Judy Qiu, Eugene Kolker, Geoffrey Fox

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Visualization and Modeling Working Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the 2005 Hurricane season, many consequence predictions were available from 36 to 96 hours before landfalls, via the Department of Energy’s Visualization and Modeling Working Group (VMWG). Real-time data can be tapped by local officials and utilities, and can also be accessed for post-event regulatory audits. An overview of VMWG’s models, results and uses will be presented.

Fernandez, S.J. (LANL); Dodrill, K.A.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Visualizing Gene Expression In Situ  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Visualizing bacterial cells and describing their responses to the environment are difficult tasks. Their small size is the chief reason for the difficulty, which means that we must often use many millions of cells in a sample in order to determine what the average response of the bacteria is. However, an average response can sometimes mask important events in bacterial physiology, which means that our understanding of these organisms will suffer. We have used a variety of instruments to visualize bacterial cells, all of which tell us something different about the sample. We use a fluorescence activated cell sorter to sort cells based on the fluorescence provided by bioreporter genes, and these can be used to select for particular genetic mutations. Cells can be visualized by epifluorescent microscopy, and sensitive photodetectors can be added that allow us to find a single bacterial cell that is fluorescent or bioluminescent. We have also used standard photomultipliers to examine cell aggregates as field bioreporter microorganisms. Examples of each of these instruments show how our understanding of bacterial physiology has changed with the technology.

Burlage, R.S.

1998-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

257

Visualization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The IVR systems take advantage of human skills at pattern recognition by providing a more natural environment where a stereoscopic display ...

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

258

SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of difficulty and complexity in determining requirements in adapting existing data communication highways to support the subsurface visual alarm system. These requirements would include such things as added or new communication cables, added Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Inputs and Outputs (I/O), and communication hardware components, and human machine interfaces and their software operating system. (4) Select the best data communication highway system based on this review of adapting or integrating with existing data communication systems.

D.W. Markman

2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

259

Image-based Visual Servoing Image-based Visual Servoing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With "standard" cameras Basics x IL IR CL CR xL xR eL eR CR RCL ,CR tCL E Hartley (2003) #12;Image-based VisualR eL eR CR RCL ,CR tCL E Coordinate transformation: CR x =CR RCL CL x +CR tCL Epipolar plane: (oCL , oCR , x) CR x CR tCL Ã?CR RCL CL x = 0 Projection (in camera coordinates!) Ci x = fi Ci z Ci x with i {L

Moeller, Ralf

260

Visualization Tools for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data  

SciTech Connect

Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations that must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR visualization research and tools and describe how VisIt currently handles AMR data.

Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vincent E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki,Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes

2007-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Visualization of Scalar Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data  

SciTech Connect

Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective computation method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations, which must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR grids as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR scalar data visualization research.

VACET; Weber, Gunther; Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vince E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki, Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes

2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

262

Study on Advanced Visualization Tools In Network Monitoring Platform  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Visualization tools have emerged as a critical component, especially in medical, education, engineering, military and environmental management. These fields have applied the visualization techniques to improve decision making and organization management ... Keywords: data visualization, network traffic visualization, network monitoring

Doris Wong Hooi Ten; Selvakumar Manickam; Sureswaran Ramadass; Hussein A. Al Bazar

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

A geoscience perspective on immersive 3D gridded data visualization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe visualization software, Visualizer, that was developed specifically for interactive, visual exploration in immersive virtual reality (VR) environments. Visualizer uses carefully optimized algorithms and data structures to support the high ... Keywords: 3D data visualization, Immersive visualization, Interactive exploration, Virtual reality

Magali I. Billen; Oliver Kreylos; Bernd Hamann; Margarete A. Jadamec; Louise H. Kellogg; Oliver Staadt; Dawn Y. Sumner

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Visual-servoing optical microscopy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods and devices for the knowledge-based discovery and optimization of differences between cell types. In particular, the present invention provides visual servoing optical microscopy, as well as analysis methods. The present invention provides means for the close monitoring of hundreds of individual, living cells over time; quantification of dynamic physiological responses in multiple channels; real-time digital image segmentation and analysis; intelligent, repetitive computer-applied cell stress and cell stimulation; and the ability to return to the same field of cells for long-term studies and observation. The present invention further provides means to optimize culture conditions for specific subpopulations of cells.

Callahan, Daniel E. (Martinez, CA); Parvin, Bahram (Mill Valley, CA)

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

265

Visual-servoing optical microscopy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods and devices for the knowledge-based discovery and optimization of differences between cell types. In particular, the present invention provides visual servoing optical microscopy, as well as analysis methods. The present invention provides means for the close monitoring of hundreds of individual, living cells over time: quantification of dynamic physiological responses in multiple channels; real-time digital image segmentation and analysis; intelligent, repetitive computer-applied cell stress and cell stimulation; and the ability to return to the same field of cells for long-term studies and observation. The present invention further provides means to optimize culture conditions for specific subpopulations of cells.

Callahan, Daniel E. (Martinez, CA); Parvin, Bahram (Hercules, CA)

2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

266

Advanced LIGO's ability to detect apparent violations of the cosmic censorship conjecture and the no-hair theorem through compact binary coalescence detections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the ability of the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (aLIGO) to detect apparent violations of the cosmic censorship conjecture and the no-hair theorem. The cosmic censorship conjecture, which is believed to be true in the theory of general relativity, limits the spin-to-mass-squared ratio of a Kerr black hole. The no-hair theorem, which is also believed to be true in the theory of general relativity, suggests a particular value for the tidal Love number of a non-rotating black hole. Using the Fisher matrix formalism, we examine the measurability of the spin and tidal deformability of compact binary systems involving at least one putative black hole. Using parameter measurement errors and correlations obtained from the Fisher matrix, we determine the smallest detectable violation of bounds implied by the cosmic censorship conjecture and the no-hair theorem. We examine the effect of excluding unphysical areas of parameter space when determining the smallest detectable apparent violations, and we examine the effect of different post-Newtonian corrections to the amplitude of the compact binary coalescence gravitational waveform. In addition, we perform a brief study of how the recently calculated 3.0 pN and 3.5 pN spin-orbit corrections to the phase affect spin and mass parameter measurability. We find that physical priors on the symmetric mass ratio and higher harmonics in the gravitational waveform could significantly affect the ability of aLIGO to investigate cosmic censorship and the no-hair theorem for certain systems.

Madeline Wade; Jolien D. E. Creighton; Evan Ochsner; Alex B. Nielsen

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

267

The influence of the instruction of visual design principles on improving pre-service teachers' visual literacy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigated whether the instruction of visual design principles had an influence on pre-service teachers' perception and analysis (interpretation) of visual materials. In addition, the relationships between pre-service teachers' visual intelligence ... Keywords: Educational technology course, Pre-service teachers, Visual design principles, Visual literacy, Visual literacy training

Hsin-Te Yeh; Yi-Chia Cheng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Designing Educationally Effective Algorithm Visualizations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite the intuitively compelling adage "a picture is worth a thousand words," attempts over the past decade to use animations to explain algorithms to students have produced disappointing results. In most cases interesting algorithm animations were designed, but no formal, systematic evaluations were conducted. When such evaluations were performed the results were mixed, with compelling evidence for the instructional superiority of algorithm animations failing to emerge. It is in this context that we embarked on a research program to develop educationally effective algorithm visualizations. This program was based on the premise that animations needed to be embedded in a knowledge and context providing hypermedia environment in order to effectively harness their power to enhance learning. This paper describes the architecture of the resulting Hypermedia Algorithm Visualization system HalVis. Four empirical studies with HalVis are described, which demonstrated that the extent of learning exhibited by students who used HalVis was significantly greater than that of students who used means of traditional instruction or a typical algorithm animation.

Steven Hansen; N. Hari Narayanan; Mary Hegarty

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Molecular characterization of the lignin-forming peroxidase: Role in growth, development and response to stress. Progress summary report, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This laboratory has continued its comprehensive study of the structure and function of plant peroxidases and their genes. Specifically, we are characterizing the anionic peroxidase of tobacco. During the past year we have completed the nucleotide sequence of the tobacco anionic peroxidase gene, joined the anionic peroxidase promoter to {Beta}-glucuronidase and demonstrated expression in transformed plants, measured lignin, auxin, and ethylene levels in transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing the anionic peroxidase, developed chimeric peroxidase genes to over-or under-express the anionic peroxidase in tissue specific manner in transgenic plants, and over-expressed the tobacco anionic peroxidase in transgenic tomato and sweetgum plants.

Lagrimini, L.M.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Visual Analytics and Storytelling through Video  

SciTech Connect

This paper supplements a video clip submitted to the Video Track of IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization 2005. The original video submission applies a two-way storytelling approach to demonstrate the visual analytics capabilities of a new visualization technique. The paper presents our video production philosophy, describes the plot of the video, explains the rationale behind the plot, and finally, shares our production experiences with our readers.

Wong, Pak C.; Perrine, Kenneth A.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Foote, Harlan P.; Thomas, Jim

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

271

Visually Impaired Transcript for Transtac Video  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... VISUAL: Fade up from black to scene from the Star Trek television series. Captain Kirk is speaking to an alien energy being using a universal ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

272

Visually Impaired Transcript for Firefighter Video  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... VISUAL: Firefighters are seen in front of the door to the NIST Fire Test House getting ready to conduct a performance test. ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

273

Visual Patent Search - Energy Innovation Portal  

Welcome to the Energy Innovation Portal's Visual Patent Search tool. This tool is designed to provide a facilitated search of the patent content ...

274

VERDE: Visualizing Energy Resources Dynamically on Earth ...  

Technology Marketing Summary VERDE is a software application utilizing the Google Earth(c) platform to provide real time visualization of the electric ...

275

Shelling Out Evidence Visually Impaired Transcript  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... VISUAL: Dissolve to credits (five pages). Text on screens read as follows: Still images, animations and video used with permission by: ...

2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

276

Collaboration Topics - Visualization | National Nuclear Security...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog The National Nuclear Security Administration Collaboration Topics - Visualization Home > About Us > Our...

277

Visual Patent Search - Energy Innovation Portal  

Welcome to the Energy Innovation Portal's Visual Patent Search tool. This tool is designed to provide a facilitated search of the patent content contained in the ...

278

NERSC "Visualization Greenbook" Future visualization needs of the DOE computational science community hosted at NERSC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NERSC “Visualization Greenbook” Future Visualization NeedsScience Community Hosted at NERSC Report Prepared by: BerndDavis E. Wes Bethel, LBNL/NERSC Horst Simon, LBNL/NERSC Juan

Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes; Simon, Horst; Meza, Juan

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Visually simulating realistic fluid motion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis we investigate various methods for visually simulating fluid flow. The focus is on implementing effective fluid simulation within an interactive animation system. Two implementations have been developed based on derivations and simplifications of the Navier-Stokes' equations. The first implementation is the most accurate and follows the physics of fluid dynamics more closely. However, the high computation times incurred by this implementation make it inappropriate as an interactive method. The second approach is not as accurate as the first one, however it incurs lower computation times. This second method is only able to model a subset of the total fluid behavior. The second method has been integrated into an interactive modeling and animation environment. Several examples are included.

Naithani, Priyanka

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Visualization of a Deterministic Radiation Transport Model Using Standard Visualization Tools  

SciTech Connect

Output from a deterministic radiation transport code running on a CRAY SV1 is imported into a standard distributed, parallel, visualization tool for analysis. Standard output files, consisting of tetrahedral meshes, are imported to the visualization tool through the creation of a application specific plug-in module. Visualization samples are included, providing visualization of steady state results. Different plot types and operators are utilized to enhance the analysis and assist in reporting the results of the analysis.

James A. Galbraith; L. Eric Greenwade

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

GPU-accelerated 2D point cloud visualization using smooth splines for visual analytics applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We develop an efficient point cloud visualization framework. For efficient navigation in the visualization, we introduce a spline-based technique for the smooth approximation of discrete distance field data. Implemented on the GPU, the approximation ... Keywords: hardware acceleration, point cloud visualization, spline approximation, transfer function

Thomas Kalbe; Tatiana Tekušová; Tobias Schreck; Frank Zeilfelder

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Visualization for modeling and simulation: problems of visualization of technological processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with problems of visualization of dynamic phenomena. An effort to develop new visualization schemes has been described. The main idea is to extend approaches used in the case of visualization of phenomena of static nature into an environment ...

Pavel Slavik; Marek Gayer; Frantisek Hrdlicka; Ondrej Kubelka

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Occam's razor and petascale visual data analysis  

SciTech Connect

One of the central challenges facing visualization research is how to effectively enable knowledge discovery. An effective approach will likely combine application architectures that are capable of running on today's largest platforms to address the challenges posed by large data with visual data analysis techniques that help find, represent, and effectively convey scientifically interesting features and phenomena.

Bethel, E Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Johnson, Chris [University of Utah; Ahern, Sean [ORNL; Bell, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Bremer, Peer-Timo [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Childs, Hank [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Cormier-Michel, E [unknown; Day, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Deines, E. [University of California, Davis; Fogal, T. [University of Utah; Garth, Christoph [unknown; Geddes, C.G.R. [unknown; Hagen, H [unknown; Hamann, Bernd [unknown; Hansen, Charles [University of Utah; Jacobsen, Janet [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Joy, Kenneth [University of California, Davis; Kruger, J. [University of Utah; Meredith, Jeremy S [ORNL; Messmer, P [unknown; Ostrouchov, George [ORNL; Pascucci, Valerio [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Potter, K. [University of Utah; Prabhat, [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Pugmire, Dave [ORNL; Ruebel, O [unknown; Sanderson, Allen [University of Utah; Silva, C. [University of Utah; Ushizima, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Weber, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Whitlock, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Wu, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

PQuad: Visualization of Predicted Peptides and Proteins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New high-throughput proteomic techniques generate data faster than biologists can analyze it. Hidden within this massive and complex data are answers to basic questions about how cells function. The data afford an opportunity to take a global or systems ... Keywords: visualization, metaphor, context, proteomics, differential proteomics, difference visualization

Susan L. Havre; Mudita Singhal; Deborah A. Payne; Bobbie-Jo M. Webb-Robertson

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Taking scientific visualization to the masses  

SciTech Connect

The paper offers the premise that scientific visualization capabilities are generally available only to a limited subset of scientists. Several reasons for this are presented. The paper describes a collaborative project between scientists of the Defense Nuclear Agency and computer scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This project's goal is to get visualization capabilities into the hands of many more scientists.

Vigil, M.; Bouchier, S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

The Evolving Leadership Path of Visual Analytics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is a requested book chapter for an internationally authored book on visual analytics and related fields, coordianted by a UK university and to be published by Springer in 2012. This chapter is an overview of the leadship strategies that PNNL's Jim Thomas and other stakeholders used to establish visual analytics as a field, and how those strategies may evolve in the future.

Kluse, Michael; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Gracio, Deborah K.

2012-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

287

Beginning Visual Basic 2010, 1st edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book is designed to teach you how to write useful programs in Visual Basic 2010 as quickly and easily as possible. There are two kinds of beginners for whom this book is ideal: You're a beginner to programming and you've chosen Visual Basic 2010 ...

Thearon Willis; Bryan Newsome

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

The 9th Asian Symposium on Visualization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 9th Asian Symposium on Visualization (9ASV) was successfully held in Hong Kong from 4th to 8th June 2007. The total number of 191 participants from 14 countries/regions attended the Symposium, of which 174 were foreign participants worldwide outside ... Keywords: Asian Symposium, HKUST, Hong Kong, Visualization

C. T. Hsu; H. H. Qiu

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Visualization and Diagnostics of Thermal Plasma Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flow visualization is a key tool for the study of thermal plasma flows. Because of their high temperature and associated self emission, standard and high speed photography is commonly used for flow and temperature field visualization. Tracer techniques ... Keywords: d.c. plasma jet, enthalpy probe techniques, induction plasma, laser strobe, photographic techniques, schlieren, thermal plasma flows

M. I. Boulos

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Field Guide: Visual Inspection of Polymer Insulators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Field Guide: Visual Inspection of Polymer Insulators visually catalogs the various condition issues that commonly affect transmission line polymer insulators (also known as composite or non-ceramic insulators (NCIs)). The guide is conveniently organized according to the portion of the polymer insulator affected, and includes a section on failure modes, indicating the key features and root ...

2013-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

291

Refining visualization reference model for context information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Context-awareness can be used to decrease the need for interaction with a mobile device. This is increasingly important since the functionality of mobile devices and personal digital assistants gets more and more complex while the input and output capabilities ... Keywords: Context awareness, Hand-held devices, Information visualization, Mobile phones, Visualization reference model

Antti Aaltonen; Juha Lehikoinen

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Scale and complexity in visual analytics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fundamental problem that we face is that a variety of large-scale problems in security, public safety, energy, ecology, health care and basic science all require that we process and understand increasingly vast amounts and variety of data. There ... Keywords: analytics, scalability, visual analytics, visualization

George Robertson; David Ebert; Stephen Eick; Daniel Keim; Ken Joy

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Visual Stimulation and Electroencephalogram under Scotopic Vision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract --We tested the visual sensitivity of 15 healthy subjects under scotopic vision using flickering stimulus on the Liquid crystal display (LCD) with a light-emitting diode (LED) backlight (LED-LCD) panel. This test was made to know; 1) if LED-LCD ... Keywords: Scotopic vision, Light emission display, Visually evoked potential (VEP), Optimization, component, formatting

Wuon-Shik Kim; Hye-Rim Oh; Hyoung-Min Choi; Ji-Soo Hwang; Seong Nam Park; Hyun Kyoon Lim

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Visual simulation of ice crystal growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The beautiful, branching structure of ice is one of the most striking visual phenomena of the winter landscape. Yet there is little study about modeling this effect in computer graphics. In this paper, we present a novel approach for visual simulation ...

Theodore Kim; Ming C. Lin

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Occam's Razor and Petascale Visual Data Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the central challenges facing visualization research is how to effectively enable knowledge discovery. An effective approach will likely combine application architectures that are capable of running on today?s largest platforms to address the challenges posed by large data with visual data analysis techniques that help find, represent, and effectively convey scientifically interesting features and phenomena.

Bethel, E. Wes; Johnson, Chris; Ahern, Sean; Bell, John; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Childs, Hank; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Day, Marc; Deines, Eduard; Fogal, Tom; Garth, Christoph; Geddes, Cameron; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Hansen, Charles; Jacobsen, Janet; Joy, Ken; Kruger, Jens; Meredith, Jeremy; Messmer, Peter; Ostrouchov, George; Pascucci, Valerio; Potter, Kristi; Prabhat, D.; Pugmire, David; Rubel, Oliver; Sanderson, Allen; Silva, Claudio; Ushizima, Daniela; Weber, Gunther; Whitlock, Brad; Wu, Kesheng

2009-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

296

Visualization and Data Analysis at the Exascale  

SciTech Connect

The scope of our working group is scientific visualization and data analysis. Scientific visualization refers to the process of transforming scientific simulation and experimental data into images to facilitate visual understanding. Data analysis refers to the process of transforming data into an information-rich form via mathematical or computational algorithms to promote better understanding. We share scope on data management with the Storage group. Data management refers to the process of tracking, organizing and enhancing the use of scientific data. The purpose of our work is to enable scientific discovery and understanding. Visualization and data analysis has a broad scope as an integral part of scientific simulations and experiments, it is also a distinct separate service for scientific discovery and documentation purposes. Our scope includes an exascale software and hardware infrastructure that effectively supports visualization and data analysis.

Ahrens, James P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Jumpshot: Performance Visualization Tool | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Jumpshot: Performance Visualization Tool Jumpshot: Performance Visualization Tool Jumpshot: Performance Visualization Tool Jumpshot is a Java-based visualization tool for performing postmortem performance analysis. Using Java instead of Tcl/Tk (used in some older visualization tools) improves the portability, maintainability and functionalities of the tools. Jumpshot-4 is the latest viewer and is a total redesign of the graphical tool for SLOG-2. The new scalable logfile format allows the viewer to provide functionalities never made possible before. Level-of-detail support through preview drawables provides high-level abstraction of the details without reading in huge amount of data into the graphical display engine. The new Jumpshot allows seamless scrolling from the begining to the end of the logfile at any zoom-level. In addition, new functionlities like

298

Visualization and Analytics Software at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analytics Analytics Visualization and Analytics AVS/Express AVS/Express includes functionality for data visualization and analysis, image processing and data display. It uses a graphical application development environment. Read More » VisIt - 3D Scientific Visualization VisIt is a point-and-click 3D scientific visualization application that supports most common visualization techniques (e.g., isocontouring and volume rendering) on structured and unstructured grids. Due to its distributed and parallel architecture, VisIt is able to handle very large datasets interactively. In addition, VisIt is extensible, allowing users to add data loaders or additional analysis tools to VisIt. The NERSC Analytics Group has developed extensions to VisIt to support NERSC user applications,

299

Visual Patent Search | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Visual Patent Search Visual Patent Search Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Visual Patent Search Agency/Company /Organization: United States Department of Energy Sector: Energy Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: techportal.eere.energy.gov/ Country: United States Web Application Link: techportal.eere.energy.gov/VPS/index.html Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Tools UN Region: Northern America Language: English Visual Patent Search Screenshot References: Energy Innovation Portal[1] Visually explore patents with Dept. of Energy funding. This tool helps you easily browse the over 16,000 issued U.S. patents and published U.S. patent applications for Energy Department-funded

300

First Generation ASCI Production Visualization Environments  

SciTech Connect

The delivery of the first one tera-operations/sec computer has significantly impacted production data visualization, affecting data transfer, post processing, and rendering. Terascale computing has motivated a need to consider the entire data visualization system; improving a single algorithm is not sufficient. This paper presents a systems approach to decrease by a factor of four the time required to prepare large data sets for visualization.For daily production use, all stages in the processing pipeline from physics simulation code to pixels on a screen, must be balanced to yield good overall performance. Also, to complete the data path from screen to the analyst's eye, user display systems for individuals and teams are examined. Performance of the initial visualization system is compared with recent improvements. Lessons learned from the coordinated deployment of improved algorithms are also discussed, including the need for 64 bit addressing and a fully parallel data visualization pipeline.

Heermann, P.D.

1999-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

First Generation ASCI Production Visualization Environments  

SciTech Connect

The delivery of the first one tera-operations/sec computer has significantly impacted production data visualization, affecting data transfer, post processing, and rendering. Terascale computing has motivated a need to consider the entire data visualization system; improving a single algorithm is not sufficient. This paper presents a systems approach to decrease by a factor of four the time required to prepare large data sets for visualization.For daily production use, all stages in the processing pipeline from physics simulation code to pixels on a screen, must be balanced to yield good overall performance. Also, to complete the data path from screen to the analyst's eye, user display systems for individuals and teams are examined. Performance of the initial visualization system is compared with recent improvements. Lessons learned from the coordinated deployment of improved algorithms are also discussed, including the need for 64 bit addressing and a fully parallel data visualization pipeline.

Heermann, P.D.

1999-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

302

MUVA: a flexible visualization architecture for multiple client platforms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information visualization techniques are invaluable tools in numerous applications such as those involving large databases and document collections. Ubiquitous usage of such techniques can provide universal access to complex information. The main goal ... Keywords: data visualization, multiplatform, visualization architecture

Lea Skorin-Kapov; Hrvoje Komericki; Maja Matijasevic; Igor Pandzic; Miran Mosmondor

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Modeling interactive, 3-dimensional information visualizations supporting information seeking behaviors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information visualization and knowledge visualization use comparable techniques and methods. Based on mapping rules, resource objects are translated into visual objects as meaningful representations, offering easy and comprehensive access. Whereas information ...

Gerald Jaeschke; Martin Leissler; Matthias Hemmje

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

VisFiles: the next surge of visualization research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been twenty years since the surge of visualization research following the publication of the report on Visualization in Scientific Computing by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in 1987. Visualization has become a mature discipline, and ...

Kwan-Liu Ma

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

3D visualization of port simulation.  

SciTech Connect

Affordable and realistic three dimensional visualization technology can be applied to large scale constructive simulations such as the port simulation model, PORTSIM. These visualization tools enhance the experienced planner's ability to form mental models of how seaport operations will unfold when the simulation model is implemented and executed. They also offer unique opportunities to train new planners not only in the use of the simulation model but on the layout and design of seaports. Simulation visualization capabilities are enhanced by borrowing from work on interface design, camera control, and data presentation. Using selective fidelity, the designers of these visualization systems can reduce their time and efforts by concentrating on those features which yield the most value for their simulation. Offering the user various observational tools allows the freedom to simply watch or engage in the simulation without getting lost. Identifying the underlying infrastructure or cargo items with labels can provide useful information at the risk of some visual clutter. The PortVis visualization expands the PORTSIM user base which can benefit from the results provided by this capability, especially in strategic planning, mission rehearsal, and training. Strategic planners will immediately reap the benefits of seeing the impact of increased throughput visually without keeping track of statistical data. Mission rehearsal and training users will have an effective training tool to supplement their operational training exercises which are limited in number because of their high costs. Having another effective training modality in this visualization system allows more training to take place and more personnel to gain an understanding of seaport operations. This simulation and visualization training can be accomplished at lower cost than would be possible for the operational training exercises alone. The application of PORTSIM and PortVis will lead to more efficient planning overall and ultimately increase port utilization and throughput, decreasing the amount of time required to transport cargo from its origin to its final destination.

Horsthemke, W. H.; Macal, C. M.; Nevins, M. R.

1999-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

306

Gates/filters in Flow Cytometry Data Visualization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The flowViz package provides tools for visualization of flow cytometry data. This document describes the support for visualizing gates (a.k.a. filters). 1

unknown authors

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Gates/filters in Flow Cytometry Data Visualization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The flowViz package provides tools for visualization of flow cytometry data. This document describes the support for visualizing gates (a.k.a. filters). 1

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

64 _____________________________________Math & Computational Sciences Division High Performance Computing and Visualization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

64 _____________________________________Math & Computational Sciences Division High Performance Computing and Visualization Research and Development in Visual Analysis Judith Devaney Terrence Griffin John

Perkins, Richard A.

309

Widget:Motion Chart Visualizations | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Motion Chart Visualizations Jump to: navigation, search Widget to display Google motion charts on OpenEI. Usage: Widget:Motion Chart Visualizations |configgeneralunitedstates...

310

Visualization Clusters | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Eureka Eureka Analytics and Visualization Visualization Clusters Tukey Tukey is the ALCF's newest analysis and visualization cluster. Equipped with state-of-the-art graphics processing units (GPUs), Tukey converts computational data from Mira into high-resolution visual representations. The resulting images, videos, and animations help users to better analyze and understand the data generated by Mira. Tukey can also be used for statistical analysis, helping to pinpoint trends in the simulation data. Additionally, the system is capable of preprocessing efforts, such as meshing, to assist users preparing for Mira simulations. Tukey shares the Mira network and parallel file system, enabling direct access to Mira-generated results. Configuration Two 2 GHz 8-core AMD Opteron CPUs per node

311

A technique for creating new visual phenomena  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper outlines a technique for creating new visual phenomena by proposing a systematic method of using existing media in novel manners. The technique involve s the random and purposeful manipulation of person-media ...

Ritter, Donald

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Bio-Synthetic Wall Systems Visualization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bio-Synthetic Wall Systems Visualization Speaker(s): Maria-Paz Gutierrez Date: December 16, 2008 - 10:00am Location: 90-3075 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Michael Donn...

313

Visual Tracking of Real World Objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the progress made towards tracking an object visually using a PIN diode attached to a dual mirror deflection system which enables the PIN diode to "optically point" to any position in two-space. A ...

Speckert, Glen

314

Exploration of Climate Data Using Interactive Visualization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In atmospheric and climate research, the increasing amount of data available from climate models and observations provides new challenges for data analysis. The authors present interactive visual exploration as an innovative approach to handle ...

Florian Ladstädter; Andrea K. Steiner; Bettina C. Lackner; Barbara Pirscher; Gottfried Kirchengast; Johannes Kehrer; Helwig Hauser; Philipp Muigg; Helmut Doleisch

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Ontology-enriched Visualization of Human Anatomy  

SciTech Connect

The project focuses on the problem of presenting a human anatomical 3D model associated with other types of human systemic information ranging from physiological to anatomical information while navigating the 3D model. We propose a solution that integrates a visual 3D interface and navigation features with the display of structured information contained in an ontology of anatomy where the structures of the human body are formally and semantically linked. The displayed and annotated anatomy serves as a visual entry point into a patient's anatomy, medical indicators and other information. The ontology of medical information provides labeling to the highlighted anatomical parts in the 3D display. Because of the logical organization and links between anatomical objects found in the ontology and associated 3D model, the analysis of a structure by a physician is greatly enhanced. Navigation within the 3D visualization and between this visualization and objects representing anatomical concepts within the model is also featured.

Pouchard, LC

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

316

3D Data Visualization on the Web  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper explains the advantage of using low-cost, configurable, data visualization components, which can be embedded and distributed in electronic documents and reports. With the increasing use of electronic documents, distributed by Intranet and ...

Mikael Jern

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Visualization & Engineering Design Graphics with Augmented Reality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Visualization and Engineering Design Graphics with Augmented Reality is designed as a learning tool to help the aspiring engineer learn the language of engineering graphics. In this regard, this book is hardly unique, as there have been literally hundreds ...

Jorge Dorribo Camba, Jeffrey Otey, Manuel Contero, Mariano Alcaniz

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Introducing FRED, Enabling Unique Visualization and Manipulation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Member 20 May, 2013 - 14:28 FRED Free Energy Data Map OpenEI Tool Visualization The U.S. Department of Energy, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Planetary...

319

Visualization of vibration experienced in offshore platforms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I design and evaluate methods to optimize the visualization of vortex-induced vibration (VIV) in marine risers. VIV is vibration experienced by marine risers in offshore drilling platforms due to ocean ...

Patrikalakis, Alexander Marinos Charles

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Visualizing Multiple Measures of Forecast Quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for visually representing multiple measures of dichotomous (yes–no) forecast quality (probability of detection, false alarm ratio, bias, and critical success index) in a single diagram is presented. Illustration of the method is provided ...

Paul J. Roebber

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Interindividual Variation in Human Visual Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The responses of 20 young adult emmetropes with normal color vision were measured on a battery of visual performance tasks. Using previously documented tests of known reliability, we evaluated orientation discrimination, contrast sensitivity, wavelength ...

Scott D. Halpern; Timothy J. Andrews; Dale Purves

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Comparing visual features for morphing based recognition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a method of object classification using the idea of deformable shape matching. Three types of visual features, geometric blur, C1 and SIFT, are used to generate feature descriptors. These feature ...

Wu, Jia Jane

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Tailored displays to compensate for visual aberrations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce tailored displays that enhance visual acuity by decomposing virtual objects and placing the resulting anisotropic pieces into the subject's focal range. The goal is to free the viewer from needing wearable ...

Pamplona, Vitor F.

324

Visual Resource Analysis to Identify and Mitigate Visual Impacts of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Visual Impacts of Energy Facilities Visual Impacts of Energy Facilities The potential visual effects of utility-scale energy facilities on the nation's scenic, cultural, and historic resources have become a factor in slowing or halting energy and electric transmission projects. Concerns about the potential visual effects of utility-scale energy facilities on the nation's scenic, cultural, and historic resources have become a factor in slowing or halting energy and electric transmission projects. Because these projects are so important to the nation's energy supply, their potential visual impacts need to be identified and mitigated. The EVS Division has undertaken a number of studies to analyze visual resources. Detailed information about this work is online at http://visualimpact.anl.gov/.

325

Building Adoption of Visual Analytics Software  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adoption of technology is always difficult. Issues such as having the infrastructure necessary to support the technology, training for users, integrating the technology into current processes and tools, and having the time, managerial support, and necessary funds need to be addressed. In addition to these issues, the adoption of visual analytics tools presents specific challenges that need to be addressed. This paper discusses technology adoption challenges and approaches for visual analytics technologies.

Chinchor, Nancy; Cook, Kristin A.; Scholtz, Jean

2012-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

326

Hypertools in image and volume visualization  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes our experience in image and volume visualization at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. After an introduction on visualization issues, we present a new software approach to the analysis and visualization of images and volumes. The efficiency of the visualization process is improved by letting the user combine small and reusable applications by the means of a machine-independent interpreted language such as Tcl/Tk. These hypertools can communicate with each other over a network, which has a direct impact on the design of graphical interfaces. We first describe the implementation of a flexible gray-scale image widget that can handle large data sets, provides complete control of the color palette and allows for manual and semi-interactive segmentation. This visualization tool can be embedded in a data-flow image processing environment to assess the quality of acquisition, preprocessing and filtering of raw data. This approach combines the simplicity of visual programming with the power of a high-level interpreted language. We show how hypertools can be used in surface and volume rendering and how they increase the interaction efficiency by performing complex or tedious tasks automatically. One biomedical application is presented.

Bossart, P.L.

1996-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

327

Increasing cellulose accessibility is more important than removing lignin: A comparison of cellulose solventbased lignocellulose fractionation and soaking in aqueous ammonia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Increasing Increasing Cellulose Accessibility Is More Important Than Removing Lignin: A Comparison of Cellulose Solvent-Based Lignocellulose Fractionation and Soaking in Aqueous Ammonia Joseph A. Rollin, 1 Zhiguang Zhu, 1 Noppadon Sathitsuksanoh, 1,2 Y.-H. Percival Zhang 1,2,3 1 Biological Systems Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 210-A Seitz Hall, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061; telephone: 1-540-231-7414; fax: þ1- 540-231-3199; e-mail: ypzhang@vt.edu 2 Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Sciences (ICTAS), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 3 DOE BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee Received 18 May 2010; revision received 11 August 2010; accepted 17 August 2010 Published online 1 September 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI 10.1002/bit.22919

328

Visualization of parallel molecular dynamics simulation on a remote visualization platform  

SciTech Connect

Visualization requires high performance computers. In order to use these shared high performance computers located at national centers, the authors need an environment for remote visualization. Remote visualization is a special process that uses computing resources and data that are physically distributed over long distances. In their experimental environment, a parallel raytracer is designed for the rendering task. It allows one to efficiently visualize molecular dynamics simulations represented by three dimensional ball-and-stick models. Different issues encountered in creating their platform are discussed, such as I/O, load balancing, and data distribution.

Lee, T.Y.; Raghavendra, C.S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Nicholas, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States). Molecular Science Research Center

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Visualizing DIII-D Tokamak magnetic field lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: graphics hardware, haloed lines, illuminated lines, interactive visualization, magentic field, plasma physics, tokamak

Greg Schussman; Kwan-Liu Ma; David Schissel; Todd Evans

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

A CAD model based tracking system for visually guided microassembly  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a visual feedback method for closed loop control of automated microassembly. A CAD model based multi-camera visual tracking system that is well suited for flexible automation and assembly of complex 3D geometries was developed. The system ... Keywords: CAD, Microassembly, Micromanipulation, Visual servoing, Visual tracking

Kemal Berk Yesin; Bradley J. Nelson

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Past Project on Visualization and Virtual Reality for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NAME: Visualization and Virtual Reality for Manufacturing CONTACT: Sandy Ressler, sandy.ressler@nist.gov IMPETUS ...

332

High Performance Visualization using Query-Driven Visualizationand Analytics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Query-driven visualization and analytics is a unique approach for high-performance visualization that offers new capabilities for knowledge discovery and hypothesis testing. The new capabilities akin to finding needles in haystacks are the result of combining technologies from the fields of scientific visualization and scientific data management. This approach is crucial for rapid data analysis and visualization in the petascale regime. This article describes how query-driven visualization is applied to a hero-sized network traffic analysis problem.

Bethel, E. Wes; Campbell, Scott; Dart, Eli; Shalf, John; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Visualizing Electric Vehicle Sales | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Visualizing Electric Vehicle Sales Visualizing Electric Vehicle Sales Visualizing Electric Vehicle Sales July 25, 2013 - 2:48pm Addthis Data compiled by Yan (Joann) Zhou at Argonne National Laboratory. (*) Sales from the second quarter of 2013 for Tesla Model S are based off of estimates provided by the Hybrid Market Dashboard. Data updated 9/25/2013. Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Integration Specialist More on eGallon: Read more about electric vehicle sales and eGallon's continued consistency. Check out our first blog post on the eGallon launch. Read the eGallon Q&A to learn more about the new tool. Last week, we reported on how electric vehicle sales have taken off in the last few months as prices have dropped and more manufacturers install fast charging stations across the country. Using the data we released last week, we created an interactive chart that

334

Visualizing Electric Vehicle Sales | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Visualizing Electric Vehicle Sales Visualizing Electric Vehicle Sales Visualizing Electric Vehicle Sales July 25, 2013 - 2:48pm Addthis Data compiled by Yan (Joann) Zhou at Argonne National Laboratory. (*) Sales from the second quarter of 2013 for Tesla Model S are based off of estimates provided by the Hybrid Market Dashboard. Data updated 9/25/2013. Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Integration Specialist More on eGallon: Read more about electric vehicle sales and eGallon's continued consistency. Check out our first blog post on the eGallon launch. Read the eGallon Q&A to learn more about the new tool. Last week, we reported on how electric vehicle sales have taken off in the last few months as prices have dropped and more manufacturers install fast charging stations across the country. Using the data we released last week, we created an interactive chart that

335

NV: Nessus Vulnerability Visualization for the Web  

SciTech Connect

Network vulnerability is a critical component of network se- curity. Yet vulnerability analysis has received relatively lit- tle attention from the security visualization community. In this paper we describe nv, a web-based Nessus vulnerability visualization. Nv utilizes treemaps and linked histograms to allow system administrators to discover, analyze, and man- age vulnerabilities on their networks. In addition to visual- izing single Nessus scans, nv supports the analysis of sequen- tial scans by showing which vulnerabilities have been fixed, remain open, or are newly discovered. Nv was also designed to operate completely in-browser, to avoid sending sensitive data to outside servers. We discuss the design of nv, as well as provide case studies demonstrating vulnerability analysis workflows which include a multiple-node testbed and data from the 2011 VAST Challenge.

Harrison, Lane [University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Spahn, Riley B [ORNL; Iannacone, Michael D [ORNL; Downing, Evan P [ORNL; Goodall, John R [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Visual Specification of Complex Database Actions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper presents an approach to specify in an integrated way by visual, diagrammatic languages the structural and behavioural aspects of database applications. Hereby, well-known extended Entity-Relationship diagrams are employed to specify the structural aspects. The behavioural aspects of a database application are specified by using ViAL (Visual Action Language). ViAL specifications are a special kind of data (or better object) flow diagrams, where so-called elementary actions are used as basic building blocks. These elementary actions are automatically derived from a given EER diagram. They guarantee that after finishing their execution all inherent integrity constraints are fulfilled. The paper explains the features of the language ViAL and gives some illustrating examples. 1 Introduction Nowadays, semantic data models are regarded as convenient means to specify database applications [11]. Most of these approaches offer corresponding visual specification languages which eases b...

Gregor Engels; Perdita Löhr

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Variable Interactions in Query-Driven Visualization  

SciTech Connect

One fundamental element of scientific inquiry is discoveringrelationships, particularly the interactions between different variablesin observed or simulated phenomena. Building upon our prior work in thefield of Query-Driven Visualization, where visual data analysisprocessing is focused on subsets of large data deemed to be"scientifically interesting," this new work focuses on a novel knowledgediscovery capability suitable for use with petascale class datasets. Itenables visual presentation of the presence or absence of relationships(correlations) between variables in data subsets produced by Query-Drivenmethodologies. This technique holds great potential for enablingknowledge discovery from large and complex datasets currently emergingfrom SciDAC and INCITE projects. It is sufficiently generally to beapplicable to any time of complex, time-varying, multivariate data fromstructured, unstructured or adaptive grids.

Bethel, E. Wes; Gosink, Luke J.; Anderson, John C.; Joy, Kenneth I.

2007-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

338

CAD-driven microassembly and visual servoing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes current research and development on a robotic visual servoing system for assembly of LIGA (Lithography Galvonoforming Abforming) parts. The workcell consists of an AMTI robot, precision stage, long working distance microscope, and LIGA fabricated tweezers for picking up the parts. Fourier optics methods are used to generate synthetic microscope images from CAD drawings. These synthetic images are used off-line to test image processing routines under varying magnifications and depths of field, They also provide reference image features which are used to visually servo the part to the desired position.

Feddema, J.T.; Simon, R.W.

1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

339

Tool Support for Visualizing CSP in UML  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose an approach to translating UML to CSP that allows one to utilize both UML and CSP in a system design. To do so, we divide the visualization task based on three aspects of CSP: (i) the dynamics behavior, (ii) the static architecture, ... Keywords: CSP, UML, class diagram, state diagram

Muan Yong Ng; Michael J. Butler

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Visualizing Motion in Potential Wells* Pratibha Jolly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Visualizing Motion in Potential Wells* Pratibha Jolly Department of Physics, University of Delhi well potential diagrams using either the velocity data and assuming conservation of energy or the force wells on the one hand and establishing the relationship between the operative forces and the potential

Zollman, Dean

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Interactive Visualization of Mobile Network Simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the segmentation and quantificationof brain tumor volumes. The purpose of this report is to detail the work I have1 Interactive Visualization of Mobile Network Simulations & 3D Segmentation and Quantification. J. P. Brockway 08 May 2002 #12;2 Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction 1-2 Chapter 2

Subramanian, Kalpathi R.

342

Adding parallelism to visual data flow programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Programming in parallel is an error-prone and complex task compounded by the lack of tool support for both programming and debugging. Recent advances in compiler-directed shared memory APIs, such as OpenMP, have made shared-memory parallelism more widely ... Keywords: data flow, parallel, visual language

Philip Cox; Simon Gauvin; Andrew Rau-Chaplin

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Using decision trees to recognize visual events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a classifier-based approach to recognize events in video surveillance sequences. The aim of this work is to propose a generic event recognition system that can be used without relying on a long-term tracking procedure. It is composed ... Keywords: activity recognition, automated visual surveillance system, randomized decision trees

Cedric Simon; Jerome Meessen; Christophe De Vleeschouwer

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

A Visual Language for Data Mapping  

SciTech Connect

I discuss a visual programming language and environment for doing data mapping between textual data files. Our experience using the environment is documented, as well as many of the constructs we used in the environment. I relate problems and solutions, and pose some questions to the readers of this document and the workshop.

Carlson, J

2001-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

345

Future trends in oil and gas visualization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The question that this panel wishes to explore is: What are the future visualization trends and requirements for the oil and gas industry to efficiently handle and explore the ever-increasing volume and variety of available data?It has been proven many ...

Francine Evans; William Volz; Geoffrey Dorn; Bernd Fröhlich; David M Roberts

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Developing Guidelines for Assessing Visual Analytics Environments  

SciTech Connect

Visual analytic systems can be evaluated from a user perspective with quantitative metrics (i.e., time to complete the analysis or the accuracy of the solution found). However, qualitative measures are also useful in a user assessment. These include such measures as the utility of the interactive visualizations in the analysis process and the user's assessment of the efficiency of the analytic process. Quantitative measures can be found if data sets with embedded ground truth are used for analysis. Qualitative measures are more elusive. In this paper we report on an experiment with professional analysts who ranked five of submissions to the VAST 2009 Challenge and provided the rationale for their rankings. Their comments were used in conjunction with a meta-analysis of the 2009 VAST Challenge reviews to produce a set of guidelines for visual analytic systems. As visual analytic software is expected to eventually help in all aspects of analysis, we expect to see future systems provide more help with generating the final report. Hence, researchers also need to have an understanding of what makes a good analytic product. Therefore we asked the analysts to rank the situational assessments of four grand challenge entries and to provide comments on those assessments. We used these comments to produce guidelines for researchers to use in evaluating their analytic reports.

Scholtz, Jean

2011-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

347

MCSD TestPrep: Visual Basic 6  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From the Publisher:MCSD TestPrep: Visual Basic 6 provides study questions, in-depth and focused review, and test-taking strategies. Chapters are organized by the objective areas on the exam. Individual objective sections open with an explanation ...

David Panagrosso; Owen Williams; Mary Foote

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Visualizing structural properties of irregular parallel computations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An important task in parallel programming is the appropriate distribution of work on the processors. This distribution is usually dynamically changing and hard to predict, further it is very sensitive to the change of parameters. Even with advanced analysis ... Keywords: interactive performance tuning, visualization of parallel execution graphs

Wolfgang Blochinger; Michael Kaufmann; Martin Siebenhaller

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Bioinformatic Insights from Metagenomics through Visualization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cutting-edge biological and bioinformatics research seeks a systems perspective through the analysis of multiple types of high-throughput and other experimental data for the same sample. Systems-level analysis requires the integration and fusion of such ... Keywords: bioinformatics, visualization, metagenomics, categorical, nominal

Susan L. Havre; Bobbie-Jo Webb-Robertson; Anuj Shah; Christian Posse; Banu Gopalan; Fred J. Brockman

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Field Guide: Visual Inspection of Steel Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This EPRI report, one in a series of practical guides designed as reference aids for utility personnel working in the field, visually catalogs the various condition issues that commonly affect transmission line steel structures. The scope includes steel poles, lattice structures, connections, foundations, weathering steel, and coatings.ObjectiveStructural conditions commonly encountered by utility personnel in the field ...

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

351

Semantic distances for technology landscape visualization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a novel approach to the visualization of research domains in science and technology. The proposed methodology is based on the use of bibliometrics; i.e., analysis is conducted using information regarding trends and patterns ... Keywords: Clustering, Data mining, Semantic distance, Technology forecasting

Wei Lee Woon; Stuart Madnick

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Electronic poster: visualizing multiscale simulation data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurately modeling many physical and biological systems requires simulating at multiple scales. This results in large and heterogeneous data sets on vastly differing scales, both physical and temporal. Here we look specifically at blood flow in a patient-specific ... Keywords: modeling, multi-scale, visualization

Joseph A. Insley; Leopold Grinberg; Michael E. Papka; George Karniadakis

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Consistent visual words mining with adaptive sampling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

State-of-the-art large-scale object retrieval systems usually combine efficient Bag-of-Words indexing models with a spatial verification re-ranking stage to improve query performance. In this paper we propose to directly discover spatially verified visual ...

Pierre Letessier; Olivier Buisson; Alexis Joly

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Challenge: mobile optical networks through visual MIMO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mobile optical communications has so far largely been limited to short ranges of about ten meters, since the highly directional nature of optical transmissions would require costly mechanical steering mechanisms. Advances in CCD and CMOS imaging technology ... Keywords: computer vision, line of sight(los), optical communication, rf communication, visual mimo

Ashwin Ashok; Marco Gruteser; Narayan Mandayam; Jayant Silva; Michael Varga; Kristin Dana

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

A Visual Agent for Performance Graphics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Visual Agents are software entities which assist people in performing graphical tasks. One useful and interesting graphical task is to make a textand -graphic record of a group meeting. When the recording is done live in view of the group on a large display, such as on a whiteboard, it is a performing art which can be called "Group Graphics. " During group graphics, collaboration is enhanced because the group members can see the record as it is being made, offering suggestions and corrections. And if graphic recording of this kind takes place on a large computer display, then visual agents can be brought into play. Presented in this paper is a visual agent which acts as a whiteboard assistant for group graphics, helping a person to graphically record the conversation and concepts of a working group on a large display. 1 Context: Performance Text-Graphics on the Big Screen The long term goal of this work has been to construct a visual medium which will support the improvisational crea...

Fred Lakin

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Visual exploration of academic career paths  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Online bibliographic databases have become widely available and are important resources to scientific researchers. These databases store rich information and many evolve into digital libraries. Using a bibliographic database of a specific discipline, ... Keywords: bibliographic database, citation network, coauthor network, dispute network, information visualization, social network analysis, trend discovery and analysis

Meng Qi Yelena Wu, Robert Faris, Kwan-Liu Ma

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Enhancing Law Enforcement Using Data & Visual Analytics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Authority of New York and New Jersey (PA NY/NJ), Pacific Northwest National Labs (PNNL), Intuidex will integrate visual analytics methods developed at PNNL to mine valuable links between entities in order Authority of New York and New Jersey (PA NY/NJ) · Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) · Intuidex

358

Toward visual analysis of ensemble data sets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rapid and continuing increase in available high-performance computing resources has driven simulation-based science in two directions. First, the simulations themselves are growing more complex, whether in the fidelity of the models, spatiotemporal ... Keywords: Delphi theory, ensemble data sets, parallel databases, scientific data management, statistics, visualization

Andrew T. Wilson; Kristin C. Potter

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Visual Reasoning With Graphs Yusuf Pisan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a number of areas: to explain complex mechanical and dynamic systems[5,2,6,8], to solve geometry to understand and reason using diagrams to communicate effectively with people. This paper explains how line]. Diagrams serve both as devices to aid in visualization of the situation[14] and as short-term fast access

Forbus, Kenneth D.

360

Outdoor Visual Position Estimation for Planetary Rovers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes (1) a novel, effective algorithm for outdoor visual position estimation; (2) the implementation of this algorithm in the Viper system; and (3) the extensive tests that have demonstrated the superior accuracy and speed of ... Keywords: computer vision, mobile robots, position estimation, space robotics

Fabio Cozman; Eric Krotkov; Carlos Guestrin

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Musique concrète thinking in visual music practice: Audiovisual silence and noise, reduced listening and visual suspension  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article is based on my creative practice as an electroacoustic composer who has developed a practice of audiovisual composition broadly sited within the field of visual music. A brief contextual survey sites my work by first presenting a personal ...

Joseph Hyde

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Scientific visualization as an interpretive and expressive medium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a powerful technique for the visual representation of complex data, scientific visualization offers the potential to help secondary school science students learn through active inquiry. Over a period of several years, we have been conducting research ...

Douglas N. Gordin; Daniel C. Edelson; Louis M. Gomez

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Proceedings of the 2005 ACM symposium on Software visualization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Welcome to SoftVis 05.Welcome to St. Louis for the second bi-annual ACM Symposium on Software Visualization. Software visualization encompasses the development and evaluation of methods for graphically representing different aspects of software, including ...

Tom Naps; Wim De Pauw

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Interactive visualization of grid monitoring data on multiple client platforms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most current Grid monitoring systems provide a visual user interface. With recent advances in multimedia capabilities in user terminals, there is a strong trend towards interactive, multi-modal and multi-platform visualization. In this paper we describe ...

Lea Skorin-Kapov; Igor Pandži?; Maja Matijaševi?; Hrvoje Komeri?ki; Miran Mošmondor

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

An immersive system for browsing and visualizing surveillance video  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HouseFly is an interactive data browsing and visualization system that synthesizes audio-visual recordings from multiple sensors, as well as the meta-data derived from those recordings, into a unified viewing experience. ...

DeCamp, Philip James

366

3D Visualization of Water Transport in Ferns  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3D Visualization of Water Transport in Ferns 3D Visualization of Water Transport in Ferns Print Monday, 08 April 2013 00:00 Plants transport water through elongated cells called...

367

Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Ultrascale Visualization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The output from leading-edge scientific simulations is so voluminous and complex that advanced visualization and analysis techniques are necessary to examine and interpret the computed results. Even though visualization technology has progressed significantly ...

Kwan-Liu Ma, Venkatram Vishwanath, Hongfeng Yu

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Gaze-Contingent Visual Presentation Based on Remote Saccade Detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pursuing new display techniques based on insights into human visual perception can reveal new possibilities for visual information devices. Here, we propose a novel information presentation technique that exploits the perceptional features during rapid ...

Junji Watanabe; Hideyuki Ando; Taro Maeda; Susumu Tachi

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Temporally Scalable Visual SLAM using a Reduced Pose Graph  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we demonstrate a system for temporally scalable visual SLAM using a reduced pose graph representation. Unlike previous visual SLAM approaches that use keyframes, our approach continually uses new measurements ...

Johannsson, Hordur

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

370

Visualizing OpenEI Data | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Visualizing OpenEI Data Visualizing OpenEI Data Home > Groups > OpenEI Community Central Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(1992) Super contributor 24 July, 2012 - 09:48 imported OpenEI Want to create a visualization like the one on the new OpenEI front page? There are several online tools that make organizing and visualizing data free and easy. OpenEI uses Google to visualize data in scatterplots, bar charts, and in the form of motion charts like that on the front page. However, many more tools exist to help visualize data. OpenEI would love to see some of your visualizations. Refer to this great article on data visualization Groups: OpenEI Community Central Graham7781's blog Latest blog posts Jweers New Robust References! Posted: 7 Aug 2013 - 18:23 by Jweers

371

Conceptual design assessment for the co-firing of bio-refinery supplied lignin project. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 2000  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The initial design criteria of the MSW to ethanol facility have been completed along with preliminary site identification and layouts for the processing facility. These items are the first step in evaluating the feasibility of this co-located facility. Pilot facility design and modification are underway for the production and dewatering of the lignin fuel. Major process equipment identification has been completed and several key unit operations will be accomplished on rental equipment. Equipment not available for rental or at TVA has been ordered and facility modification and shakedown will begin in October. The study of the interface and resulting impacts on the TVA Colbert facility are underway. The TVA Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply for the proposed Masada waste processing facility. The preferred supply location in the Colbert steam cycle has been identified as have possible steam pipeline routes to the Colbert boundary. Additional analysis is underway to fully predict the impact of the steam supply on Colbert plant performance and to select a final steam pipeline route.

Berglund, T.; Ranney, J.T.; Babb, C.L.

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

VISUALIZATION OF NANO-TO-MICRO SCALE WATER ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

visualization of nano-to-Micro scale water dropLET growth dynamics during condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces. ...

373

Visualizing Space-Based Interactions Among Distributed Agents ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Heidelberg 2006. Visualizing Space-Based Interactions Among Distributed ..... Knowledge Generation, Frame Problem, Cognitive Mapping. Lecture Notes in ...

374

A visual language for color-based painting retrieval  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The availability of large image databases is emphasizing the relevance of filters, which permit one to focus on a small subset of data. Visual specification of such filters provides a natural way to express content-oriented queries. To support a high ... Keywords: art, color arrangement, color quality, color semantics, color-based painting retrieval, content-oriented queries, data subsets, expressiveness, filters, grammar, large image databases, symbolic representation, visual language, visual querying paradigm, visual specification

J. M. Corridoni; A. Del Bimbo; S. De Magistris; E. Vicario

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Visualizing Brain Metals in Health and Disease  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Visualizing Brain Metals in Health and Visualizing Brain Metals in Health and Disease figure 1 Fig. 1. Rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence mapping ex perimental setup. Synchrotron x-rays at 11 keV passed through a 50 µm aperture (Ap). The beam intensity was monitored with a N2-filled ion chamber (I0). The brain slice was mounted vertically on a motorized stage (St) at 45° to the incident x-ray beam and raster scanned in the beam. A 13-element Ge detector (Ge) was positioned at a 90° angle to the beam. We all require iron, copper and zinc for normal brain function but metal metabolism becomes dysregulated in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Metals accumulate in Alzheimer's dementia and Parkinson's disease and are deficient in Menkes disease. Whether excess metals appear as a cause or a

376

Argonne TTRDC - Engines - Combustion Visualization - emissions,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustion Visualization Combustion Visualization Exploring Combustion Using Advanced Imaging Techniques In the photo, the GM diesel test cell is shown with vehicle exhaust aftertreatment hardware (diesel particulate filtration and diesel oxidation catalyst) along with other advanced technology-such as a variable geometry turbocharger, cooled exhaust gas recirculation and a common-rail fuel injection system. Fig. 1. The GM diesel test cell is shown with vehicle exhaust aftertreatment hardware (diesel particulate filtration and diesel oxidation catalyst) along with other advanced technology-such as a variable geometry turbocharger, cooled exhaust gas recirculation and a common-rail fuel injection system. Two-dimensional image of hydrogen combustion OH chemiluminescence. Fig. 2. Two-dimensional image of hydrogen combustion OH chemiluminescence.

377

A Stereographic Visualization Environment and its Applications  

SciTech Connect

The data visualization activity at Brookhaven National Laboratory is rooted in programs extending back several decades to develop, evaluate and deploy imaging instruments. Several of these developments, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology, were targeted for medical imaging. Other applications made use of images derived from larger, general purpose scientific instruments such as the Laboratory's nuclear reactors and particle accelerators. The most recent impetus to the program has been from a cooperative research and development project between BNL and two industrial companies, GTE and Mobil Oil involving microtomographic imaging of oil reservoir rock, which included development of a novel stereoscopic visualization theatre. This 'Vis Theatre' has been subsequently used for research in other scientific disciplines, and has attracted considerable attention in both the technical literature and even the popular press.

Peskin, A.M.; Andrews, A.B.

1999-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

378

A Coprocessor for Accelerating Visual Information Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Visual information processing will play an increasingly important role in future electronics systems. In many applications, e.g. video surveillance cameras, data throughput of microprocessors is not sufficient and power consumption is too high. Instruction profiling on a typical test algorithm has shown that pixel address calculations are the dominant operations to be optimized. Therefore AddressLib, a structured scheme for pixel addressing was developed, that can be accelerated by AddressEngine, a coprocessor for visual information processing. In this paper, the architectural design of AddressEngine is described, which in the first step supports a subset of the AddressLib. Dataflow and memory organization are optimized during architectural design. AddressEngine was implemented in a FPGA and was tested with MPEG-7 Global Motion Estimation algorithm. Results on processing speed and circuit complexity are given and compared to a pure software implementation. The next step will be the support for the full Addres...

Stechele, W; Herrmann, S; Simon, J Lidon

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Target Visualization at the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

As the National Ignition Facility continues its campaign to achieve ignition, new methods and tools will be required to measure the quality of the targets used to achieve this goal. Techniques have been developed to measure target surface features using a phase-shifting diffraction interferometer and Leica Microsystems confocal microscope. Using these techniques we are able to produce a detailed view of the shell surface, which in turn allows us to refine target manufacturing and cleaning processes. However, the volume of data produced limits the methods by which this data can be effectively viewed by a user. This paper introduces an image-based visualization system for data exploration of target shells at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It aims to combine multiple image sets into a single visualization to provide a method of navigating the data in ways that are not possible with existing tools.

Potter, D

2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

380

Topological Cacti: Visualizing Contour-based Statistics  

SciTech Connect

Contours, the connected components of level sets, play an important role in understanding the global structure of a scalar field. In particular their nestingbehavior and topology-often represented in form of a contour tree-have been used extensively for visualization and analysis. However, traditional contour trees onlyencode structural properties like number of contours or the nesting of contours, but little quantitative information such as volume or other statistics. Here we use thesegmentation implied by a contour tree to compute a large number of per-contour (interval) based statistics of both the function defining the contour tree as well asother co-located functions. We introduce a new visual metaphor for contour trees, called topological cacti, that extends the traditional toporrery display of acontour tree to display additional quantitative information as width of the cactus trunk and length of its spikes. We apply the new technique to scalar fields ofvarying dimension and different measures to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

Weber, Gunther H.; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Pascucci, Valerio

2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Visualizing Energy Resources Dynamically on Earth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the North American hurricane season, in partnership with the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and working with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, we have developed a capability that helps visualize the status of the electric transmission system infrastructure. The capability toolkit, called VERDE - Visualizing Energy Resources Dynamically on Earth, takes advantage of the Google Earth platform to display spatiotemporally informed power grid and related data. Custom libraries describe the electrical transmission network in the Eastern United States and the dynamic status of each transmission line. Standard Google Earth layers provide additional spatial context. In addition to live status, VERDE provides a framework and mechanism to ingest and intuitively present predictive models, data from different sources, and response needs.

Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL; Stovall, John P [ORNL; Sorokine, Alexandre [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; King Jr, Thomas J [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Visualization of salt-induced stress perturbations.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An important challenge encountered during post-processing of finite element analyses is the visualizing of three-dimensional fields of real-valued second-order tensors. Namely, as finite element meshes become more complex and detailed, evaluation and presentation of the principal stresses becomes correspondingly problematic. In this paper, we describe techniques used to visualize simulations of perturbed in-situ stress fields associated with hypothetical salt bodies in the Gulf of Mexico. We present an adaptation of the Mohr diagram, a graphical paper and pencil method used by the material mechanics community for estimating coordinate transformations for stress tensors, as a new tensor glyph for dynamically exploring tensor variables within three-dimensional finite element models. This interactive glyph can be used as either a probe or a filter through brushing and linking.

Crossno, Patricia Joyce; Brannon, Rebecca Moss; Coblentz, David D.; Rogers, David H.

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Automated visual direction : LDRD 38623 final report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mobile manipulator systems used by emergency response operators consist of an articulated robot arm, a remotely driven base, a collection of cameras, and a remote communications link. Typically the system is completely teleoperated, with the operator using live video feedback to monitor and assess the environment, plan task activities, and to conduct the operations via remote control input devices. The capabilities of these systems are limited, and operators rarely attempt sophisticated operations such as retrieving and utilizing tools, deploying sensors, or building up world models. This project has focused on methods to utilize this video information to enable monitored autonomous behaviors for the mobile manipulator system, with the goal of improving the overall effectiveness of the human/robot system. Work includes visual servoing, visual targeting, utilization of embedded video in 3-D models, and improved methods of camera utilization and calibration.

Anderson, Robert J.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Configurable model for real-time crane erection visualization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed simulation and visualization of crane activities have been recently introduced to help engineers identify potential problems with critical erection tasks; however, the development of real-time erection visualizations for different types of cranes ... Keywords: Cooperative, Crane, Erection, Multibody, Physics Engine, Simulation, Visualization

Wei-Han Hung, Shih-Chung Kang

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Visualization of the Operating Boundaries (VOB) 1.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Visualization of the Operating Boundaries (VOB) 1.0 provides visualization of power system operating boundaries and margins.Benefits & ValueImprove situational awarenessOperator-friendly graphical user interface (GUI)Consolidate of multiple data sources for visualizationOperating SystemWindows XP/Vista/7Internet Explorer 8 or ...

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

386

Minimum explanation complexity for MOD based visual concept detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Visual concept detection in images has been a challenging task for many years. The recently proposed MIRFLICKR-25000 dataset has set the standards even higher as the wide variety of images and annotations require new techniques to tackle the visual concept ... Keywords: feature extraction, local distinctiveness, salient points, visual concept detection

Ard Oerlemans; Michael S. Lew

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Rule-based visualization in the Discover computational steering collaboratory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we introduce the concept of rule-based visualization for a computational steering collaboratory and show how these rules can be used to steer the behaviors of the visualization subsystem. Rules define high-level policies and are used to ... Keywords: Computational steering, Feature tracking, Rule-based visualization

Hua Liu; Lian Jiang; Manish Parashar; Deborah Silver

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Immersive Visualization Architectures and Situated Embodiments of Culture and Heritage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a series of transdisciplinary research projects in five large-scale, interactive visualization architectures. These immersive architectures and their associated visual, sonic and algorithmic techniques offer compelling means for ... Keywords: augmented reality, immersive architecture, interaction, kinaesthetic, post-processural archaeology, museums, situated media, narrative, cultural heritage, visual analytics

Sarah Kenderdine

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Cultural Data Sculpting: Omnispatial Visualization for Cultural Datasets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents four research projects currently underway to develop new omni spatial visualization strategies for the collaborative interrogation of large-scale heterogeneous cultural datasets using the worlds' first 360-degree stereoscopic visualization ... Keywords: 3D, immersive, information visualization, interactive narrative, museum collections, archaeology, corpora

Sarah Kenderdine; Oscar Kin Chung Au; Jeffrey Shaw

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Double visual feedback in the rehabilitation of upper limb  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stroke patients may have limb paralysis or disturbance of consciousness. In the rehabilitation system, the main task of human-computer interaction focused on visual interaction. In this study, it has been confirmed that the visual feedback system in ... Keywords: consciousness, rehabilitation, visual feedback

Liu Enchen; Sui Jianfeng; Christopher Young; Ji Linhong

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Inductive Reasoning and Programming Visualization, an Experiment Proposal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We lay down plans to study how Inductive Reasoning Ability (IRA) affects the analyzing and understanding of Program Visualization (PV) systems. Current PV systems do not take into account the abilities of the user but show always the same visualization ... Keywords: Adaptive systems, Inductive reasoning, Program visualization, User modelling

Andrés Moreno; Niko Myller; Erkki Sutinen; Taiyu Lin; Kinshuk

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Multidimensional structured data visualization method and apparatus, text visualization method and apparatus, method and apparatus for visualizing and graphically navigating the world wide web, method and apparatus for visualizing hierarchies  

SciTech Connect

A method of displaying correlations among information objects includes receiving a query against a database; obtaining a query result set; and generating a visualization representing the components of the result set, the visualization including one of a plane and line to represent a data field, nodes representing data values, and links showing correlations among fields and values. Other visualization methods and apparatus are disclosed.

Risch, John S. (Kennewick, WA); Hart, Michelle L. (Richland, WA); Dowson, Scott T. (West Richland, WA)

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

393

Multidimensional structured data visualization method and apparatus, text visualization method and apparatus, method and apparatus for visualizing and graphically navigating the world wide web, method and apparatus for visualizing hierarchies  

SciTech Connect

A method of displaying correlations among information objects comprises receiving a query against a database; obtaining a query result set; and generating a visualization representing the components of the result set, the visualization including one of a plane and line to represent a data field, nodes representing data values, and links showing correlations among fields and values. Other visualization methods and apparatus are disclosed.

Risch, John S. (Kennewick, WA); Dowson, Scott T. (West Richland, WA); Hart, Michelle L. (Richland, WA); Hatley, Wes L. (Kennewick, WA)

2008-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

394

Visual separation in mobile multi-display environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Projector phones, handheld game consoles and many other mobile devices increasingly include more than one display, and therefore present a new breed of mobile Multi-Display Environments (MDEs) to users. Existing studies illustrate the effects of visual ... Keywords: eye tracking, handheld devices, mobile multi-display environment, mobile projection, visual search, visual separation

Jessica R. Cauchard; Markus Löchtefeld; Pourang Irani; Johannes Schoening; Antonio Krüger; Mike Fraser; Sriram Subramanian

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Technical Section: Visual computing for medical diagnosis and treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diagnostic algorithms and efficient visualization techniques are of major importance for preoperative decisions, intra-operative imaging and image-guided surgery. Complex diagnostic decisions are characterized by a high information flow and fast decisions, ... Keywords: Collision detection, Diffusion tensor imaging, Image-guided surgery, Intra-operative imaging, Medical visualization, Occlusion handling, Vessel visualization, Virtual and mixed reality, Volume rendering

Jan Klein; Ola Friman; Markus Hadwiger; Bernhard Preim; Felix Ritter; Anna Vilanova; Gabriel Zachmann; Dirk Bartz

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

A Visualization Architecture for Collaborative Analytical and Data Provenance Activities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When exploring noisy or visually complex data, such as seismic data from the oil and gas industry, it is often the case that algorithms cannot completely identify features of interest. Human intuition must complete the process. Given the nature of intuition, ... Keywords: geospatial visualization, data acquisition and management, provenance, data exploration, query-driven visualization

Aqeel Al-Naser, Masroor Rasheed, Duncan Irving, John Brooke

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Vortex flow visualization using tetrahedral cell subdivision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proposes an effective technique for searching for critical points, which are points at which the velocity vector is zero. The previous method, using tetrahedral-cell subdivision, often generates multiple critical points in a hexahedral cell, and this ... Keywords: Newton's method, critical point searching technique, hexahedral cell, linear interpolation function, multiple critical points, numerical integration scheme, precise position calculation, tetrahedral cell subdivision, trilinear interpolation function, velocity vector, vortex flow visualization, vortices

A. Doi; S. Suzuki; K. Koyamada; S. Sannakanishi

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

APPLYING SIMPLE TECHNOLOGY ACCOMPLISHES VISUAL INSPECTION CHALLENGES  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the successful implementation of simple video technologies at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to perform complex visual inspection, monitoring, and surveillance tasks. Because SRS facilities are similar to those of an industrial plant, the environmental and accessibility considerations for remote viewing are the primary determining factors in the selection of technology. The constraints and challenges associated with remote viewing are discussed, and examples of applications are given.

Robinson, C

2007-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

399

Field Guide: Visual Inspection of Wood Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Field Guide: Visual Inspection of Wood Structures is a catalog of photographs illustrating various conditions and factors that commonly affect transmission line wood structures, along with their likely causes, a Maintenance Priority Rating, and suggested actions to be taken by utility personnel. Poles, cross-arms, cross-arm braces, X-braces, brackets, anchor rods, guy wires, and direct imbedded foundations are covered. Other sections include types of wood structures, the anatomy of wood ...

2013-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

400

Framework for a visual energy use system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goals of this research include developing and identifying software technologies, which facilitate the use of buildings described in Building Information Modeling (BIM) tools in both a simulation and visualization. The study focused on the development of a tool to fulfill the visualization needs of a Visual Energy Use System. To accomplish this, the study identified an open BIM file standard, the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). The study also identified a video game based 3D virtual environment, the Doom 3 Engine. A tool developed during the study, IFCtoMAP, converts IFC data into the .MAP file format understood by the Doom 3 Engine. Finally, the study identified the IFCtoIDF utility, which translates IFC data into a format understood by the building energy simulation program EnergyPlus. Data from the Building Information Modeling tool Revit Building exports to the .IFC file format, which in turn drives the two conversion utilities IFCtoMAP and IFCtoIDF. The output of the IFCtoIDF tool consists of an .IDF file that EnergyPlus uses to perform an energy simulation. The output of the IFCtoMAP tool consists of a .MAP file, which the Doom 3 game engine uses to display three dimensional first person perspective visualization. The result of the study was the successful creation of an automated tool that converts building geometry found in .IFC files into the .MAP file format understood by Doom 3 game engine. This document details the methods employed by the IFCtoMAP software along with a brief discussion of the IFCtoIDF conversion utility.

McDonald, Christopher Ernest

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Visual Analytics for Roof Savings Calculator Ensembles  

SciTech Connect

The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for DOE as an industry-consensus, web-based tool for easily running complex building energy simulations. These simulations allow both homeowners and experts to determine building-specific cost and energy savings for modern roof and attic technologies. Using a database of over 3 million RSC simulations for different combinations of parameters, we have built a visual analytics tool to assist in the exploration and identification of features in the data. Since the database contains multiple variables, both categorical and continuous, we employ a coordinated multi-view approach that allows coordinated feature exploration through multiple visualizations at once. The main component of our system, a parallel coordinates view, has been adapted to handle large-scale, mixed data types as are found in RSC simulations. Other visualizations include map coordinated plots, high dynamic range (HDR) line plot rendering, and an intuitive user interface. We demonstrate these techniques with several use cases that have helped identify software and parametric simulation issues.

Jones, Chad [University of California, Davis; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL; Ma, Kwan-Liu [University of California, Davis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Mobile visual examination and repackaging (MOVER) system  

SciTech Connect

Process engineering and waste technology teams at LOS Alamos National Laboratory delivered a prototype Mobile Visual Examination and Repackaging (MOVER) system to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) outside of Carlsbad, NM in October, 2000. This system was developed in response to compliance issues with legacy waste that was packaged in 55 gallons drums prior to release of WIPP's waste acceptance criteria (WAC). A statistical percentage of these 55 gallon drums will be opened and visually examined (VE) as part of re-characterization using Non-destructive examination (NDE) procedures. VE is an intrusive technique since the drum is opened, and as a result, there are more risks in spreading contamination. Hence, VE is performed in a glovebox to protect the workers and the environment. During VE, waste is pulled out of one drum, visually examined, the amount of plutonium measured if necessary, and the waste repackaged into one or more drums. MOVER can perform all these operations, along with having the capability to house the glovebox operations and all support equipment in a 40-foot-long container that can be transported to a site on a semi-trailer. This container is divided into three rooms, providing the level of safety and containment of a fixed facility. A key asset of mobile systems is the inherent need for modular design that reduces infrastructure costs and overhead. A mobile system like MOVER represents a technology base aimed at meeting DOE schedules to accelerate decommissioning of many sites.

Los Alamos National Laboratory

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Multimedia and Visualization Innovations for Science | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Multimedia and Visualization Innovations for Science Multimedia and Visualization Innovations for Science Multimedia and Visualization Innovations for Science February 9, 2011 - 11:45am Addthis Multimedia and Visualization Innovations for Science Brian Hitson Associate Director of Administration & Information Services, OSTI I once saw a demonstration of the human brain's capacity to absorb massive amounts of visually-displayed information. "A picture's worth a thousand words" might have been an understatement. Think about what is probably the most famous graph in history, Charles Joseph Minard's visual depiction of Napoleon's disastrous Russian campaign of 1812. Now think about advances in the technology of visualization and multimedia since Minard's time. ScienceCinema is a new multimedia search engine aimed at

404

Vision Loss: Visual Impairment and Vision Impairment | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vision Loss: Visual Impairment and Vision Impairment Vision Loss: Visual Impairment and Vision Impairment Vision Loss: Visual Impairment and Vision Impairment Visual impairment or vision impairment is vision loss that constitutes a significant limitation of visual capability resulting from disease, trauma, or a congenital or degenerative condition that cannot be corrected by conventional means, including refractive correction, medication, or surgery. Low Vision Anyone with non-correctable reduced vision is considered to be visually impaired, and can have a wide range of causes. Blindness Blindness is the condition of lacking visual perception due to physiological or psychological factors. Hearing Impairment Hearing impairment is a full or partial decrease in the ability to detect or understand sounds. Losing the ability to detect some frequencies, or

405

Visualization of information with an established order  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Among the embodiments of the present invention is a system including one or more processors operable to access data representative of a biopolymer sequence of monomer units. The one or more processors are further operable to establish a pattern corresponding to at least one fractal curve and generate one or more output signals corresponding to a number of image elements each representative of one of the monomer units. Also included is a display device responsive to the one or more output signals to visualize the biopolymer sequence by displaying the image elements in accordance with the pattern.

Wong, Pak Chung (Richland, WA); Foote, Harlan P. (Richmond, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wong, Kwong-Kwok (Sugar Land, TX)

2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

406

Dose rate visualization of radioisotope thermoelectric generators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advanced visualization techniques can be used to investigate gamma ray and neutron dose rates around complex dose rate intensive operations. A method has been developed where thousands of dose points are calculated using the MCNP(Monte Carlo N-Particle) computer code and then displayed to create color contour plots of the dose rate for complex geometries. Once these contour plots are created, they are sequenced together creating an animation to dynamically show how the dose rate changes with changes in the geometry or source over time.

Schwarz, R.A.; Kessler, S.F.; Tomaszewski, T.A.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Visualization Development Environments 2000 Proceedings Implementing a Visualization Tool for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

directly supported visualizing AMR data, we chose to extend one, VTK, via its Tcl/Tk interface. This AMR Tcl/Tk [Tcl/Tk] interface. First, we give some context, define the problem we faced, and discuss why Tcl/Tk interface. 1.2 Overall Problem Before we describe the specific structure of the ANAG AMR data

408

Interacting with Microseismic Visualizations Microseismic visualization systems present complex 3D  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that information. Author Keywords 3D microseismic visualizations; proxemic interactions ACM Classification Keywords and orientation-aware environment. In ACM ITS '10, (USA, 2010), 121-130. [2] Lee, C.-H., Liu, C.-L., Chen, Y.-A., and Chen, Y.-S. Painting in the air with wii remote. Expert Syst. Appl. 38, 12 (2011), 14668-14678. [3

Greenberg, Saul

409

Visualization Tools for Lattice QCD - Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Our research project is about the development of visualization tools for Lattice QCD. We developed various tools by extending existing libraries, adding new algorithms, exposing new APIs, and creating web interfaces (including the new NERSC gauge connection web site). Our tools cover the full stack of operations from automating download of data, to generating VTK #12;files (topological charge, plaquette, Polyakov lines, quark and meson propagators, currents), to turning the VTK #12;files into images, movies, and web pages. Some of the tools have their own web interfaces. Some Lattice QCD visualization have been created in the past but, to our knowledge, our tools are the only ones of their kind since they are general purpose, customizable, and relatively easy to use. We believe they will be valuable to physicists working in the #12;field. They can be used to better teach Lattice QCD concepts to new graduate students; they can be used to observe the changes in topological charge density and detect possible sources of bias in computations; they can be used to observe the convergence of the algorithms at a local level and determine possible problems; they can be used to probe heavy-light mesons with currents and determine their spatial distribution; they can be used to detect corrupted gauge configurations. There are some indirect results of this grant that will benefit a broader audience than Lattice QCD physicists.

Massimo Di Pierro

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

From Question Answering to Visual Exploration  

SciTech Connect

Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

2006-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

411

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Visualize-IT Energy Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Visualize-IT Energy Information and Analysis Tool Visualize-IT Energy Information and Analysis Tool Visualize-IT Energy Information and Analysis Tool logo. Designed to explore, summarize and analyze time series interval data. Visualize-IT has been developed specifically for electric and gas load data, but it is equally useful as a general purpose data visualization tool for other time series measurements such as weather, industrial process control, and water quality. Screen Shots Keywords energy analysis, rate comparison, load profiles, interval data Validation/Testing N/A Expertise Required Basic knowledge of energy data analysis and concepts. Users Over 100 users internationally. Audience Load Researchers, Building Simulation Engineers, Facilities Managers, Energy Account Managers. Input Any type of interval (primarily load) data. Visualize-IT can analyze other

412

Scientific Visualization in Astronomy: Towards the Petascale Astronomy Era  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Astronomy is entering a new era of discovery, coincident with the establishment of new facilities for observation and simulation that will routinely generate petabytes of data. While an increasing reliance on automated data analysis is anticipated, a critical role will remain for visualization-based knowledge discovery. We have investigated scientific visualization applications in astronomy through an examination of the literature published during the last two decades. We identify the two most active fields for progress - visualization of large-N particle data and spectral data cubes - discuss open areas of research, and introduce a mapping between astronomical sources of data and data representations used in general purpose visualization tools. We discuss contributions using high performance computing architectures (e.g: distributed processing and GPUs), collaborative astronomy visualization, the use of workflow systems to store metadata about visualization parameters, and the use of advanced interaction dev...

Hassan, Amr

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Query-Driven Network Flow Data Analysis and Visualization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document is the final report for a WFO agreement between LBNL and the National Visualization and Analytics Center at PNNL. The document lists project milestones, their completion date, research results and findings. In brief, the project focuses on testing the hypothesis that the duty cycle in scientific discovery can be reduced by combining visual analytics interfaces, novel visualization techniques and scientific data management technology.

Bethel, E. Wes

2006-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

414

Visualization of Electric Power System Information: Workshop Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the workshop entitled: Visualization of Electric Power System Information. The workshop was held on September 11, 2012 on NREL's campus in Golden, Colorado.

Kroposki, B.; Komomua, C.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Pettisville Appendix B - Visualization and Shadow Flicker Analysis...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2010: Conserve First LLC Attachment 1, Appendix C Page 1 of 24 Pettisville Local Schools Wind Turbine Project Turbine Visualization and Photo Analysis Prepared for: Pettisville...

416

APPENDIX B: VISUALIZATION, PHOTO ANALYSIS & SHADOW FLICKER ANALYSIS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

27 Archbold Area Schools Wind Turbine Project Turbine Visualization and Photo Analysis Prepared for: Archbold Area Schools Prepared by: The Renaissance Group, a Conserve First LLC...

417

9.036 The Visual System, Spring 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The organization of the mammalian visual system and the manner in which shape, color, texture, motion, and depth are processed. Alternate years.

Schiller, Peter H.

418

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: VisualDOE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

files generated by VisualDOE. Contact Company: Address: 142 Minna Street, Second Floor San Francisco, California 94105 United States Telephone: (415) 957-1977 Facsimile: (415)...

419

Capturing and Using Knowledge about the Use of Visualization Toolkits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When constructing visualization pipelines using toolkits such as Visualization Toolkit (VTK) and Generic Mapping Tools (GMT), developers must understand (1) what toolkit operators will transform their data from its raw state to some required view state and (2) what viewers are available to present the generated view. Traditionally, developers learn about how to construct visualization pipelines by reading documentation and inspecting code examples, which can be costly in terms of the time and effort expended. Once an initial pipeline is constructed, developers may still have to undergo a trial and error process before a satisfactory visualization is generated. This paper presents the Visualization Knowledge Project (VisKo) that is built on a knowledge base of visualization toolkit operators and how they can be piped together to form visualization pipelines. Developers may now rely on VisKo to guide them when constructing visualization pipelines and in some cases, when VisKo has complete knowledge about some set of operators (i.e., sequencing and parameter settings), automatically generate a fully functional visualization pipeline.

Del Rio, Nicholas R.; Pinheiro da Silva, Paulo

2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

420

Video Aims to Answer "What is NIST?" Visual Text Description  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... VISUAL: Cylinder gets small and goes to center ... Finished turbine gets smaller and artist's hand draws ... hand draws kitchen with appliances, father at ...

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Functional Organization of Human Visual Cortex in Occipital Polymicrogyria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

retinotopic representations in human visual cortex revealed by fMRI. Acta Psychol 107:229­247. Ono M, Kubic S

Dumoulin, Serge O.

422

New NASA Visualizations Show Two Futures of Climate Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

News International News Health News New NASA Visualizations Show Two Futures of Climate Change Print E-mail Thursday, July 25, 2013 By Tara Failey Climate Scenarios...

423

Power-Rate-Distortion Analysis Of Wireless Visual Sensor Network.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The emergence of low-cost and mature technologies in wireless communication, visual sensor devices, and digtial signal processing, facilitates the potential of wirelss sensor networks (WSN).… (more)

Shaw, William

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Visualization for Runner System Design in Die Casting.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The research focuses on the development of a die casting runner system design process, and the visualization of this process. It provides a simple and… (more)

Ning, Zhaohui

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

SCIENCE ON SATURDAY-"Visualizing the Atomic World" | Princeton...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

photo ID is necessary to gain access to the Laboratory for anyone over 18 years of age. "Visualizing the Atomic World" video platform video management video solutionsvideo...

426

VISMASHUP: streamlining the creation of custom visualization applications  

SciTech Connect

Visualization is essential for understanding the increasing volumes of digital data. However, the process required to create insightful visualizations is involved and time consuming. Although several visualization tools are available, including tools with sophisticated visual interfaces, they are out of reach for users who have little or no knowledge of visualization techniques and/or who do not have programming expertise. In this paper, we propose VISMASHUP, a new framework for streamlining the creation of customized visualization applications. Because these applications can be customized for very specific tasks, they can hide much of the complexity in a visualization specification and make it easier for users to explore visualizations by manipulating a small set of parameters. We describe the framework and how it supports the various tasks a designer needs to carry out to develop an application, from mining and exploring a set of visualization specifications (pipelines), to the creation of simplified views of the pipelines, and the automatic generation of the application and its interface. We also describe the implementation of the system and demonstrate its use in two real application scenarios.

Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Santos, Emanuele [UNIV OF UTAH; Lins, Lauro [UNIV OF UTAH; Freire, Juliana [UNIV OF UTAH; Silva, Cl' audio T [UNIV OF UTAH

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Visual Sample Plan (VSP) 6.0 - Available Technologies - PNNL  

Summary. Visual Sample Plan—or VSP—is a software tool that helps users determine where sampling should be conducted and how many samples are needed ...

428

Black Philanthropy in the Visual Arts: A Contemporary Perspective.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper is intended as a contribution to a contemporary analysis of Black Philanthropy in the visual arts. Its purpose is to answer the central… (more)

Word, Tanekeya S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Data System Sciences & Engineering Group - Visual Analytics Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Risk Analysis Chemical Security Assessment Tool (Fact Sheet) Delivering CSAT Business Intelligence Information Analysis and Visualization Facility Fallout Planning Tool LandScan...

430

Attention capacity and task difficulty in visual search  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1980). The demonstration of capacity limitation. Cognitiveof automatic detection: Capacity and scanning in visualD. L. (1984). Central capacity limits in consistent mapping

Huang, L Q; Pashler, Harold

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Overview Report: Normal and Emergency Operation Visualization  

SciTech Connect

This is an overview report to document and illustrate methods used in a project entitled “Normal and Emergency Operations Visualization” for a utility company, conducted in 2009-2010 timeframe with funding from the utility company and the U.S. Department of Energy. The original final report (about 180 pages) for the project is not available for distribution because it alludes to findings that assessed the design of an operational system that contained proprietary information; this abridged version contains descriptions of methods and some findings to illustrate the approach used, while avoiding discussion of sensitive or proprietary information. The client has approved this abridged version of the report for unlimited distribution to give researchers and collaborators the benefit of reviewing the research concepts and methods that were applied in this study.

Greitzer, Frank L.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Visualizing Type Ia Supernova Explosions at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Supernova Explosions Supernova Explosions Visualizing Type Ia Supernova Explosions Childs1a-Supernovasm.png Deep inside a dying star in a galaxy far, far away, a carbon fusion flame ignites. Ignition may happen in the middle or displaced slightly to one side, but this simulation explores the consequences of central ignition. In a localized hot spot, represented here by a deformed sphere with an average radius of 100 km, carbon is assumed to have already fused to iron, producing hot ash (~10 billion K) with a density about 20% less than its surroundings. As the burning progresses, this hot buoyant ash rises up and interacts with cold fuel. Rayleigh-Taylor fingers give rise to shear and turbulence, which interacts with the flame, causing it to move faster. In about 2 seconds, the energy released blows the entire white dwarf star up,

433

Visual Conceptualizations and Models of Science  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This Journal of Informetrics special issue aims to improve our understanding of the structure and dynamics of science by reviewing and advancing existing conceptualizations and models of scholarly activity. Several of these conceptualizations and models have visual manifestations supporting the combination and comparison of theories and approaches developed in different disciplines of science. Subsequently, we discuss challenges towards a theoretically grounded and practically useful science of science and provide a brief chronological review of relevant work. Then, we exemplarily present three conceptualizations of science that attempt to provide frameworks for the comparison and combination of existing approaches, theories, laws, and measurements. Finally, we discuss the contributions of and interlinkages among the eight papers included in this issue. Each paper makes a unique contribution towards conceptualizations and models of science and roots this contribution in a review and comparison with existing w...

Boerner, Katy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

CRADA Final Report: Materials Development For Pulp and Paper Mills, Task 9 Proof of Commercial Concept: Commodity Carbon Fibers From Weyerhaeuser Lignin Based Fibers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tasks were assigned to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers for the development of lignin-based carbon fiber from a specific precursor that was produced by the Participant (Weyerhaeuser Corporation). These tasks included characterization of precursor polymers and fibers; and the development of conversion parameters for the fibers. ORNL researchers provided recommendations for in-house characterization of the precursor at the participant's laboratory. During the early stage of the precursor fiber production trials of various spools of fibers with varied compositions were produced. Some of those samples were sent to ORNL (by the Participant) for the development of conversion protocol. The trial tow samples were oxidized at ORNL's precursor evaluation system (PES), a bench-scale facility consisting of an oven, filament winder, tension controller, and a let off creel. The PES is a modular tool useful for the development of precursor conversion protocol. It can handle a single filament to a large single tow (50k filaments). It can also offer precise tensioning for few-filament tows. In the PES, after oxidation, fibers are typically carbonized first at low temperature, {le} 600 C, and subsequently at a higher temperature, {le} 1200 C with controlled residence time. ORNL has recently installed a new carbonization furnace with 1700 C limit and a furnace with 2500 C capacity is under installation. A protocol for the oxidation and carbonization of the trial precursor fibers was developed. Oxidized fiber with a density of 1.46 g/cc (oxidation time: 90 min) shows qualitative flame retardancy via simple flame test (fibers do not catch fire or shrink when exposed to flame). Oxidized and carbonized filaments of the Weyerhaeuser precursor fibers show moderate mechanical properties and 47-51 % carbon yield (based on oxidized fiber mass) after carbonization between 1000-1400 C. The properties of fibers from nonoptimized composition and processing parameters indicate the potential of low-cost, low-end carbon fibers based on renewable resource materials. Further work is necessary to produce high quality precursor and the corresponding carbonized filaments of superior properties.

Paulauskas, Felix L [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Gorog, John Peter [Weyerhaeuser Company

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Visual Debugging of Visualization Software: A Case Study for Particle Systems  

SciTech Connect

Visualization systems are complex dynamic software systems. Debugging such systems is difficult using conventional debuggers because the programmer must try to imagine the three-dimensional geometry based on a list of positions and attributes. In addition, the programmer must be able to mentally animate changes in those positions and attributes to grasp dynamic behaviors within the algorithm. In this paper we shall show that representing geometry, attributes, and relationships graphically permits visual pattern recognition skills to be applied to the debugging problem. The particular application is a particle system used for isosurface extraction from volumetric data. Coloring particles based on individual attributes is especially helpful when these colorings are viewed as animations over successive iterations in the program. Although we describe a particular application, the types of tools that we discuss can be applied to a variety of problems.

Angel, Edward; Crossno, Patricia

1999-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

436

A survey of visual, mixed, and augmented reality gaming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Visual mixed and augmented realities have historically been applied to the gaming application domain. This article provides a survey of visual mixed and augmented reality gaming in both the academic and commercial contexts. There is an exploration of ... Keywords: Augmented reality, and wearable computers, computer games, entertainment computing, mixed reality

Bruce H. Thomas

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Lifecycle building card: toward paperless and visual lifecycle management tools  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a novel vision of paperless and visual lifecycle building management tools based on the coupling between Building Information Models (BIM) and Augmented Reality (AR) called Lifecycle Building Card. As the use of BIM increases within ... Keywords: augmented reality, building information model, building lifecycle, visual simulation

Holger Graf; Souheil Soubra; Guillaume Picinbono; Ian Keough; Alex Tessier; Azam Khan

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

An interactive sensemaking framework for mobile visual analytics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing mobility for modern life requires people to access information and make decisions "on the go". Mobil applications place special constraints that challenge the existing ways of visual analytic design where relatively stable and interaction-rich ... Keywords: mobile visual analytics, navigation interface design, spatial information sensemaking

Anna Wu; Xiaolong(Luke) Zhang; Guoray Cai

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Visualization framework of thermal comfort for architects (WIP)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For a successful integration of building energy simulation tools into the architectural workflow there is a need for better communication of the information obtained through simulation. One appropriate way of communicating that information to the technically ... Keywords: architecture, building energy simulation, information visualization, thermal comfort, visualization

Pascal Goffin; Arno Schlueter

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Visualization of records classified with the 1998 ACM CCS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a visualization scheme for large-scale collections of documents organized hierarchically. The scheme provides a concise and customizable view of OAI-PMH records. We assume that records are classified with a hierarchical algorithm ... Keywords: OAI-PMH protocol, document collections, information visualization, scalable vector graphics

María Auxilio Medina; J. Alfredo Sánchez; Jorge de la C. Mora; Antonio Benítez Ruiz

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Research Report Chronic morphine exposure affects the visual response properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027, P.R. China b State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100101, P.R. China Accepted 18 August 2005-like drugs decreased visual sensitivity in humans [41], and affected visual discrimination performance

Zhou, Yi-Feng

442

Visual search applications for connecting published works to digital material  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Visual search connects physical (offline) objects with (online) digital media. Using objects from the environment, like newspapers, magazines, books and posters, we can retrieve supplemental information from the online world. In this demonstration, ... Keywords: augmented reality, mobile application, publishing, tangible interface, visual search

Jamey Graham; Jorge Moraleda; Jonathan J. Hull; Timothee Bailloeul; Xu Liu; Andrea Mariotta

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Pitfalls of information access with visualizations in remote collaborative analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a world of widespread information access, information can overwhelm collaborators, even with visualizations to help. We extend prior work to study the effect of shared information on collaboration. We analyzed the success and discussion process of ... Keywords: computer-mediated communication, confirmation bias, empirical studies, experiment, information overload, information sharing, information visualization

Aruna D. Balakrishnan; Susan R. Fussell; Sara Kiesler; Aniket Kittur

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Three-dimensional visualization of reactive flows in complex geometries  

SciTech Connect

The visualization of fluid flows has become more challenging, as recent advancements in computational methods have increased the complexity and size of simulations. Our objective is to develop a flexible flow visualization tool for fluid simulations that include the full physics and geometrical complexities found in modeling practical combustion systems, such as internal combustion engines. The challenges to flow visualization come from: (1) the large simulation output, especially when using massively parallel computers; (2) the increasingly complex geometries that include moving surfaces such as pistons and valves; (3) the complex physical phenomena in realistic problems of fuel injection, combustion fronts, boundary flows, and large scale turbulence; and (4) the numerical complexity of indirect addressing of computational elements, variable mesh connectivity, distorted elements, and moving meshes. We have developed a visualization program that addresses these complexities. The program was developed as a post-processor to the KIVA family of codes for reactive flow simulations. Because of the complexity of the KIVA codes, the visualization program is very versatile and applicable to any code with meshes of arbitrary hexahedrons. No comparable commercial visualization package could be found. To visualize the fluid flow, we use mass-less tracer particles that follow the movement of the fluid as determined from output files from the simulation. The movement of the tracer particles is based on a second-order spatial and temporal interpolation of the fluid velocities from successive simulation output files. The visualization program runs on a Silicon Graphics IRIS GTX workstation.

Fairfield, M.S.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Data Management/Visualization on the Grid at PPPL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Data Management/Visualization on the Grid at PPPL Scott A. Klasky Stephane Ethier Ravi Samtaney #12;The Problem · Simulations at NERSC generate GB's ­ TB's of data. · The transfer time for practical visualization is too long. ­ Using "standard" ftp, we get 600 KB/s. ­ GTC data is over 3TB, transfer time = 2

446

Visualization of gridded scalar data with uncertainty in geosciences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characterization of the earth's subsurface involves the construction of 3D models from sparse data and so leads to simulation results that involve some degree of uncertainty. This uncertainty is often neglected in the subsequent visualization, due to ... Keywords: 3D, Monte carlo simulation, Scalar fields, Uncertainty, Visualisation, Visualization

Björn Zehner; Norihiro Watanabe; Olaf Kolditz

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Applications of virtual reality for visually impaired people  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes in detail the development and applications of a Virtual Reality Simulator for Visually Impaired People. It makes an auditory representation of the virtual environment, rendering the virtual world entirely through the hearing. The ... Keywords: electromagnetic position tracker, spatial sound, virtual reality, visually impaired

M. A. Torres-Gil; O. Casanova-Gonzalez; J. L. Gonzalez-Mora

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Investigative analysis across documents and drawings: visual analytics for archaeologists  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the invention and rapid improvement of data-capturing devices, such as satellite imagery and digital cameras, the information that archaeologists must manage in their everyday's activities has rapidly grown in complexity and amount. In this work ... Keywords: information visualization, investigative analysis, rock art archaeology, visual analytics

V. Deufemia; L. Paolino; G. Tortora; A. Traverso; V. Mascardi; M. Ancona; M. Martelli; N. Bianchi; H. De Lumley

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Big data visual analytics for exploratory earth system simulation analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rapid increases in high performance computing are feeding the development of larger and more complex data sets in climate research, which sets the stage for so-called ''big data'' analysis challenges. However, conventional climate analysis techniques ... Keywords: Big data, Climate, Data intensive computing, Data mining, Multivariate, Parallel coordinates, Sensitivity analysis, Statistical visualization, Visualization

Chad A. Steed, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Galen Shipman, Brian Smith, Peter E. Thornton, Dali Wang, Xiaoying Shi, Dean N. Williams

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Towards a more discriminative and semantic visual vocabulary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a novel method for constructing a visual vocabulary that takes into account the class labels of images, thus resulting in better recognition performance and more efficient learning. Our method consists of two stages: Cluster Precision Maximisation ... Keywords: Bag-of-Words, Category-level object recognition, Cluster precision, Correlation clustering, Reciprocal Nearest Neighbours, Visual vocabulary

R. J. López-Sastre; T. Tuytelaars; F. J. Acevedo-Rodríguez; S. Maldonado-Bascón

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Optimal (k, n) visual cryptographic schemes for general k  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In (k, n) visual cryptographic schemes (VCS), a secret image is encrypted into n pages of cipher text, each printed on a transparency sheet, which are distributed among n participants. The image can be visually decoded ... Keywords: 05B05, 94A60, Block design, Kronecker algebra, L1-norm, Pixel expansion, Progressive optimality, Relative contrast, Unbalanced VCS

Mausumi Bose; Rahul Mukerjee

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Ultrascale Collaborative Visualization Using a Display-Rich Global Cyberinfrastructure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Scalable Adaptive Graphics Environment (SAGE) is high-performance graphics middleware that enables ultrascale collaborative visualization using a display-rich global cyberinfrastructure. Distributed ultraresolution displays and high-performance-computing ... Keywords: visualization systems and software, distributed and networked graphics, remote systems, computer graphics, graphics and multimedia

Byungil Jeong; Jason Leigh; Andrew Johnson; Luc Renambot; Maxine Brown; Ratko Jagodic; Sungwon Nam; Hyejung Hur

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Distribution of visual attention in head-worn displays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With head-worn displays, information can be presented in addition to the real surround. But, the virtual information is self-illuminating, has an unclear depth, and, depending on the visual background, the signal-noise ratio and the brightness contrast ... Keywords: head-worn displays, optical see-through displays, visual search

Anke Huckauf; Mario H. Urbina; Fabina Doil; Johannes Tümler; Rüdiger Mecke

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

CommentSpace: structured support for collaborative visual analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Collaborative visual analysis tools can enhance sensemaking by facilitating social interpretation and parallelization of effort. These systems enable distributed exploration and evidence gathering, allowing many users to pool their effort as they discuss ... Keywords: asynchronous collaboration, information visualization, social data analysis, tagging

Wesley Willett; Jeffrey Heer; Joseph Hellerstein; Maneesh Agrawala

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Zooming, Multiple Windows, and Visual Working Memory Matthew Plumlee  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Zooming, Multiple Windows, and Visual Working Memory Matthew Plumlee Department of Computer, USA E-mail: colinw@cisunix.unh.edu ABSTRACT Zooming and multiple windows are two techniques designed windows comes in the way they aid visual working memory. The task to which we apply our model

New Hampshire, University of

456

Automatic visual guidance of a forklift engaging a pallet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the development of a prototype vision-guided forklift system for the automatic engagement of pallets. The system is controlled using the visual guidance method of mobile camera-space manipulation, which is capable of achieving a high ... Keywords: Machine vision, Mobile manipulation, Visual guidance

Michael Seelinger; John-David Yoder

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

In Situ Visualization for Large-Scale Combustion Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As scientific supercomputing moves toward petascale and exascale levels, in situ visualization stands out as a scalable way for scientists to view the data their simulations generate. This full picture is crucial particularly for capturing and understanding ... Keywords: in situ visualization, large-scale simulation, parallel rendering, supercomputing, scalability, computer graphics, graphics and multimedia

Hongfeng Yu; Chaoli Wang; Ray W. Grout; Jacqueline H. Chen; Kwan-Liu Ma

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Renewable energy visual impact best management practices [EVS News]  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Best practices guide for mitigating visual impacts of utility-scale wind, Best practices guide for mitigating visual impacts of utility-scale wind, solar, and geothermal energy facilities November 1, 2013 Working with the U.S. Department of the InteriorÂ’s Bureau of Land Management (BLM), EVS has developed a comprehensive guide to best management practices (BMPs) for mitigating the visual impacts associated with utility-scale wind, solar, and geothermal energy facilities. The guide, titled Best Management Practices for Reducing Visual Impacts of Renewable Energy Facilities on BLM-Administered Lands (PDF, 14 MB), presents 120 BMPs for avoiding or reducing potential visual impacts associated with the siting, design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of utility-scale renewable energy generation facilities - wind, solar, and geothermal.

459

Spatio-temporal Visualization for Environmental Decision Support  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Traditional visualization of earth surface features has been addressed through visual exploration, analysis, synthesis, and presentation of observable geospatial data. However, characterizing the changes in their observable and unobservable properties of geospatial features is critical for planning and policy formulation. Recent approaches are addressing modeling and visualization of the temporal dynamics that describe observed and/or predicted physical and socioeconomic processes using vast volumes of earth observation (imagery and other geophysical) data from remote sensor networks. This paper provides an overview of selected geospatial modeling and simulation, exploratory analysis of earth observation data, and high performance visualization research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for developing novel data driven approaches for geospatial knowledge discovery and visualization relevant to environmental decision support.

Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL; Sorokine, Alexandre [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Definition: Wide Area Monitoring, Visualization, & Control | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wide Area Monitoring, Visualization, & Control Wide Area Monitoring, Visualization, & Control Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Wide Area Monitoring, Visualization, & Control Wide area monitoring and visualization requires time synchronized sensors, communications, and information processing that make it possible for the condition of the bulk power system to be observed and understood in real-time so that protective, preventative, or corrective action can be taken.[1] Related Terms Wide area, bes emergency, sustainability, smart grid References ↑ SmartGrid.gov 'Description of Functions' An inl LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. ine Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Wide_Area_Monitoring,_Visualization,_%26_Control&oldid=502579

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Interactive remote large-scale data visualization via prioritized multi-resolution streaming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The simulations that run on petascale and future exascale supercomputers pose a difficult challenge for scientists to visualize and analyze their results remotely. They are limited in their ability to interactively visualize their data mainly due to ... Keywords: data intensive supercomputing, distance visualization, large scale data, remote visualization, visualization systems

James P. Ahrens; Jonathan Woodring; David E. DeMarle; John Patchett; Mathew Maltrud

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Lignin-Based Carbon Fiber.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study was undertaken in support of the Biorefinery concept applicable to hardwood Kraft mills. The “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” uses sodium carbonate and… (more)

Luo, Jie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

A Four Channel 250 MHz Visual Counter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A visual counter rated at 250 mhz. with a pulse-pair resolution of 2.6 nanoseconds for nuclear instrument module (NIM) signals has been designed. Pulse widths for NIM signals must be equal to or greater than 2 ns. The counter has a separate input for transistor-transistor logic (TTL) signals and for this logic level it operates at rates equal to or less than 190 mhz. TTL pulses must be greater than 4 ns. The design was implemented on a printed circuit card. Four of these cards were packaged into a single unit resulting in a four channel device that can be mounted into a 19 inch rack. Seven units were built; they are presently used in the experimental area and in the Main Control Room of the Bevalac. The counter accepts well defined NIM or TTL signals internally terminated with 50 ohms. All the controls and the signal input connectors are located on the front panel. An Overflow output, Gate, and Reset inputs are located on the back panel. The counters have 8 Light Emitting Diode digit displays which are 20.3 mm high with a viewing distance rating of 10 meters. Light filters are used for the LED displays greatly enhancing their visibility.

Flores, I.; Blando, P.; Crawford, H.; Engelage, J.; Greiner, L.; Ko, S.; Krebs, G.; Visser, G.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

From Mesh Generation to Scientific Visualization:  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parallel supercomputing has typically focused on the inner kernel of scientific simulations: the solver. The front and back ends of the simulation pipeline---problem description and interpretation of the output---have taken a back seat to the solver when it comes to attention paid to scalability and performance, and are often relegated to offline, sequential computation. As the largest simulations move beyond the realm of the terascale and into the petascale, this decomposition in tasks and platforms becomes increasingly untenable. We propose an end-to-end approach in which all simulation components---meshing, partitioning, solver, and visualization---are tightly coupled and execute in parallel with shared data structures and no intermediate I/O. We present our implementation of this new approach in the context of octree-based finite element simulation of earthquake ground motion. Performance evaluation on up to 2048 processors demonstrates the ability of the end-toend approach to overcome the scalability bottlenecks of the traditional approach.

An End-To-End Approach; Tiankai Tu; Hongfeng Yu; Leonardo Ramirez-guzman; Jacobo Bielak; Omar Ghattas; Kwan-liu Ma; David R. O’hallaron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Guided Text Search Using Adaptive Visual Analytics  

SciTech Connect

This research demonstrates the promise of augmenting interactive visualizations with semi- supervised machine learning techniques to improve the discovery of significant associations and insights in the search and analysis of textual information. More specifically, we have developed a system called Gryffin that hosts a unique collection of techniques that facilitate individualized investigative search pertaining to an ever-changing set of analytical questions over an indexed collection of open-source documents related to critical national infrastructure. The Gryffin client hosts dynamic displays of the search results via focus+context record listings, temporal timelines, term-frequency views, and multiple coordinate views. Furthermore, as the analyst interacts with the display, the interactions are recorded and used to label the search records. These labeled records are then used to drive semi-supervised machine learning algorithms that re-rank the unlabeled search records such that potentially relevant records are moved to the top of the record listing. Gryffin is described in the context of the daily tasks encountered at the US Department of Homeland Security s Fusion Center, with whom we are collaborating in its development. The resulting system is capable of addressing the analysts information overload that can be directly attributed to the deluge of information that must be addressed in the search and investigative analysis of textual information.

Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Symons, Christopher T [ORNL; Senter, James K [ORNL; DeNap, Frank A [ORNL

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Guided Text Analysis Using Adaptive Visual Analytics  

SciTech Connect

This paper demonstrates the promise of augmenting interactive visualizations with semi-supervised machine learning techniques to improve the discovery of significant associations and insight in the search and analysis of textual information. More specifically, we have developed a system called Gryffin that hosts a unique collection of techniques that facilitate individualized investigative search pertaining to an ever-changing set of analytical questions over an indexed collection of open-source publications related to national infrastructure. The Gryffin client hosts dynamic displays of the search results via focus+context record listings, temporal timelines, term- frequency views, and multiple coordinated views. Furthermore, as the analyst interacts with the display, the interactions are recorded and used to label the search records. These labeled records are then used to drive semi-supervised machine learning algorithms that re-rank the unlabeled search records such that potentially relevant records are moved to the top of the record listing. Gryffin is described in the context of the daily tasks encountered at the Department of Homeland Securitys Fusion Centers, with whom we are collaborating in its development. The resulting system is capable of addressing the analysts information overload that can be directly attributed to the deluge of information that must be addressed in search and investigative analysis of textual information.

Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Symons, Christopher T [ORNL; DeNap, Frank A [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Visual Comfort Analysis of Innovative Interior and Exterior Shading Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Visual Comfort Analysis of Innovative Interior and Exterior Shading Systems Visual Comfort Analysis of Innovative Interior and Exterior Shading Systems for Commercial Buildings using High Resolution Luminance Images Title Visual Comfort Analysis of Innovative Interior and Exterior Shading Systems for Commercial Buildings using High Resolution Luminance Images Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-4417E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Konis, Kyle, Eleanor S. Lee, and Robert D. Clear Call Number LBNL-4417E Abstract The objective of this study was to explore how calibrated high dynamic range (HDR) images (luminance maps) acquired in real world daylit environments can be used to characterize, evaluate, and compare visual comfort conditions of innovative facade shading and light-redirecting systems. Detailed (1536 x 1536 pixel) luminance maps were time-lapse acquired from two view positions in an unoccupied full scale testbed facility. These maps were analyzed using existing visual comfort metrics to quantify how innovative interior and exterior shading systems compare to conventional systems under real sun and sky conditions over a solstice-to-solstice test interval. The results provide a case study in the challenges and potential of methods of visualizing, evaluating and summarizing daily and seasonal variation of visual comfort conditions computed from large sets of image data.

468

Tche a visual Environment for the Lua language Andr Filipe Lessa Carregal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

environments such as Visual Basic, ACE, Smalltalk, Oberon, SELF and Tcl/Tk, and briefly discuss the solutions This section introduces other visual environments such as Visual Basic, ACE, Smalltalk, Oberon, SELF and Tcl/Tk

Ierusalimschy, Roberto

469

Web application for thermal comfort visualization and calculation according to ASHRAE Standard 55  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

uc/item/4db4q37h Web app. for thermal comfort visualizationWeb application for thermal comfort visualization andtool based on an open web-based weather data visualization

Schiavon, Stefano; Hoyt, Tyler; Piccioli, Alberto

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Is visualization usable for displaying web search results in an exploratory search context?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information visualization is defined as an interactive and graphic amplifying cognition. Moreover, the field of information retrieval is the original scope of information visualization. Nevertheless, many problems remain. The exploratory research information ... Keywords: clustering, exploratory search, information visualization, usability

Aline Crédeville; Dominic Forest

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Visual Outcome in Meningiomas Around Anterior Visual Pathways Treated With Linear Accelerator Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Meningiomas threatening the anterior visual pathways (AVPs) and not amenable for surgery are currently treated with multisession stereotactic radiotherapy. Stereotactic radiotherapy is available with a number of devices. The most ubiquitous include the gamma knife, CyberKnife, tomotherapy, and isocentric linear accelerator systems. The purpose of our study was to describe a case series of AVP meningiomas treated with linear accelerator fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) using the multiple, noncoplanar, dynamic conformal rotation paradigm and to compare the success and complication rates with those reported for other techniques. Patients and Methods: We included all patients with AVP meningiomas followed up at our neuro-ophthalmology unit for a minimum of 12 months after FSRT. We compared the details of the neuro-ophthalmologic examinations and tumor size before and after FSRT and at the end of follow-up. Results: Of 87 patients with AVP meningiomas, 17 had been referred for FSRT. Of the 17 patients, 16 completed >12 months of follow-up (mean 39). Of the 16 patients, 11 had undergone surgery before FSRT and 5 had undergone FSRT as first-line management. Tumor control was achieved in 14 of the 16 patients, with three meningiomas shrinking in size after RT. Two meningiomas progressed, one in an area that was outside the radiation field. The visual function had improved in 6 or stabilized in 8 of the 16 patients (88%) and worsened in 2 (12%). Conclusions: Linear accelerator fractionated RT using the multiple noncoplanar dynamic rotation conformal paradigm can be offered to patients with meningiomas that threaten the anterior visual pathways as an adjunct to surgery or as first-line treatment, with results comparable to those reported for other stereotactic RT techniques.

Stiebel-Kalish, Hadas, E-mail: kalishhadas@gmail.com [Neuro-Ophthalmology Unit, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva (Israel); Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Reich, Ehud [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Department of Ophthalmology, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva (Israel); Gal, Lior [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Rappaport, Zvi Harry [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Department of Neurosurgery, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva (Israel); Nissim, Ouzi [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Stereotactic Radiosurgery Unit, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Department of Neurosurgery, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Pfeffer, Raphael [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Stereotactic Radiosurgery Unit, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Spiegelmann, Roberto [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Stereotactic Radiosurgery Unit, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Department of Neurosurgery, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Visualization of Force Fields in Protein StructurePrediction  

SciTech Connect

The force fields used in molecular computational biology are not mathematically defined in such a way that their mathematical representation would facilitate the straightforward application of volume visualization techniques. To visualize energy, it is necessary to define a spatial mapping for these fields. Equipped with such a mapping, we can generate volume renderings of the internal energy states in a molecule. We describe our force field, the spatial mapping that we used for energy, and the visualizations that we produced from this mapping. We provide images and animations that offer insight into the computational behavior of the energy optimization algorithms that we employ.

Crawford, Clark; Kreylos, Oliver; Hamann, Bernd; Crivelli, Silvia

2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

473

Querying for Feature Extraction and Visualization in Climate Modeling  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of data visualization is to clearly portray features relevant to the problem being studied. This goal can be realized only if users can effectively communicate to the visualization software what features are of interest. To this end, we describe in this paper two query languages used by scientists to locate and visually emphasize relevant data in both space and time. These languages offer descriptive feedback and interactive refinement of query parameters, which are essential in any framework supporting queries of arbitrary complexity. We apply these languages to extract features of interest from climate model results and describe how they support rapid feature extraction from large datasets.

Johnson, C. Ryan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Glatter, Markus [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kendall, Wesley [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Huang, Jian [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Visualization of High Resolution Spatial Mass Spectrometric Data during Acquisition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mass Spectrometric Imaging (IMS) allows the generation of 2D ion density maps that help visualize molecules present in sections of tissues and cells. The combination of spatial and mass resolution results in large and complex data sets that require powerful and efficient analysis and interpretation. In this paper, a graphical user interface (GUI) that can visualize the large data during data acquisition itself is presented. The program also has the ability to perform processing and analysis of the dataset. The various functions of the GUI including visualization of mass spectra, generation of 2D maps for selected species, manipulation of the heat maps, and peak identification are also presented.

Thomas, Mathew; Heath, Brandi S.; Laskin, Julia; Li, Dongsheng; Liu, Ellen C.; Hui, Katrina L.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Carson, James P.

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

475

Visual Analytics: Building a Vibrant and Resilient National Science  

SciTech Connect

Five years after the science of visual analytics was formally established, we attempt to use two different studies to assess the current state of the community and evaluate the progress the community has made in the past few years. The first study involves a comparison analysis of intellectual and scholastic accomplishments recently made by the visual analytics community. The second one aims to measure the degree of community reach and internet penetration of visual-analytics-related resources. This paper describes our efforts to harvest the study data, conduct analysis, and make interpretations based on parallel comparisons with five other established computer science areas.

Wong, Pak C.; Thomas, James J.

2009-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

476

Because It's Not There: Verbal Visuality and the Threat of Graphics in Interactive Fiction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the power of computer graphics, text still has access tothat are unavailable in graphics – including visual effects.Visuality and the Threat of Graphics in Interactive Fiction

Kashtan, Aaron

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Applications of the Pipeline Environment for Visual Informatics and Genomics Computations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for visual informatics and genomics computations. BMCfor visual informatics and genomics computations Ivo D DinovContemporary informatics and genomics research require

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Visual Patent Search: An Easy Way to Find Patents for Innovative ...  

Wind Energy; Partners (27) Visual Patent ... Visual Patent Search: An Easy Way to Find Patents for Innovative Technologies. April 23, 2012 .. Skip footer ...

479

New NASA Visualizations Show Two Futures of Climate Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NASA Visualizations Show Two Futures of Climate Change Print E-mail NASA Visualizations Show Two Futures of Climate Change Print E-mail Thursday, July 25, 2013 By Tara Failey Climate Scenarios Project Temperature and Precipitation in the U.S. through 2100 Curious to 'see' how different greenhouse gas emission scenarios are expected to impact the United States? Two recently released animated NASA visualizations developed to support the forthcoming third US National Climate Assessment show projections of Earth's temperature and precipitation patterns from today through the year 2100-revealing how "low" versus "high" emission scenarios would impact the planet's climate. "These visualizations communicate a picture of the impacts of climate change in a way that words do not," said Allison Leidner, Ph.D., a scientist who coordinates NASA's involvement in the National Climate Assessment. "When I look at the scenarios for future temperature and precipitation, I really see how dramatically our Nation's climate could change."

480

Visualization & Controls Program Peer Review | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Visualization & Controls Program Peer Review Visualization & Controls Program Peer Review Visualization & Controls Program Peer Review With mounting evidence suggesting an increased probability that malicious attacks may be launched against energy control systems, there is a critical need to understand specific cyber vulnerabilities and corresponding mitigation strategies. This need is being addressed by SCADA/ Energy Management System (EMS) Cyber Security Assessments conducted at the National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) facility at INL and at on-site field installations of control systems. Visualization & Controls Program Peer Review More Documents & Publications DOE/OE National SCADA Test Bed Fiscal Year 2009 Work Plan DOE National SCADA Test Bed Program Multi-Year Plan Vulnerability Analysis of Energy Delivery Control Systems - 2011

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visualizing lignin coalescence" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.