National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for visualizing lignin coalescence

  1. Coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-01-13

    A bubble merged from two parent bubbles with different size tends to be placed closer to the larger parent. This phenomenon is known as the coalescence preference. Here we demonstrate that the coalescence preference can be blocked inside a densely packed cluster of bubbles. We utilized high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence events inside densely packed microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Thus, the surface energy release theory predicts an exponent of 5 in a relation between the relative coalescence position and the parent size ratio, whereas our observation for coalescence in densely packed microbubbles shows a different exponent of 2. We believe that this result would be important to understand the reality of coalescence dynamics in a variety of packing situations of soft matter.

  2. Coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-01-13

    A bubble merged from two parent bubbles with different size tends to be placed closer to the larger parent. This phenomenon is known as the coalescence preference. Here we demonstrate that the coalescence preference can be blocked inside a densely packed cluster of bubbles. We utilized high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence events inside densely packed microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Thus, the surface energy release theory predicts an exponent of 5 in a relation between the relative coalescence position and the parent size ratio, whereas our observation for coalescence in densely packed microbubblesmore » shows a different exponent of 2. We believe that this result would be important to understand the reality of coalescence dynamics in a variety of packing situations of soft matter.« less

  3. Lignin | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lignin Jump to: navigation, search Lignin.jpg What is Lignin? Lignin is the fiber in our food, the thing that makes vegetables crunchy and firm. It is a polymer found extensively...

  4. Redistribution of Lignin Caused by Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D. K.; Donohoe, B. S.; Katahira, R.; Tucker, M. P.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted at NREL has shown that lignin undergoes a phase transition during thermochemical pretreatments conducted above its glass transition temperature. The lignin coalesces within the plant cell wall and appears as microscopic droplets on cell surfaces. It is clear that pretreatment causes significant changes in lignin distribution in pretreatments at all scales from small laboratory reactors to pilot scale reactors. A method for selectively extracting lignin droplets from the surfaces of pretreated cell walls has allowed us to characterize the chemical nature and molecular weight distribution of this fraction. The effect of lignin redistribution on the digestibility of pretreated solids has also been tested. It is clear that removal of the droplets increases the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The improved digestibility could be due to decreased non-specific binding of enzymes to lignin in the droplets, or because the droplets no longer block access to cellulose.

  5. Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Donald L. (Moscow, ID); Ramachandra, Muralidhara (Moscow, ID)

    1993-01-01

    A newly discovered lignin peroxidase enzyme is provided. The enzyme is obtained from a bacterial source and is capable of degrading the lignin portion of lignocellulose in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is extracellular, oxidative, inducible by lignin, larch wood xylan, or related substrates and capable of attacking certain lignin substructure chemical bonds that are not degradable by fungal lignin peroxidases.

  6. Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, D.L.; Ramachandra, M.

    1993-08-03

    DNA constructs are provided for the production of Streptomyces lignin peroxidase. The enzyme finds use in the degradation of lignin and oxidation of organic substrates.

  7. Lignin nanoparticle synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Cicotte, Kirsten Nicole; Wheeler, David R.; Benko, David A.

    2015-08-11

    A method including reducing a particle size of lignin particles to an average particle size less than 40 nanometers; after reducing the particle size, combining the lignin particles with a polymeric material; and forming a structure of the combination. A method including exposing lignin to a diazonium precursor including a functional group; modifying the lignin by introducing the functional group to the lignin; and combining the modified lignin with a polymeric material to form a composite. An apparatus including a composite of a polymer and lignin wherein the lignin has an average particle size less than 100 micrometers.

  8. Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Donald L. (Moscow, ID); Ramachandra, Muralidhara (Wilmington, DE)

    1993-01-01

    DNA constructs are provided for the production of Streptomyces lignin peroxidase. The enzyme finds use in the degradation of lignin and oxidation of organic substrates.

  9. Lignin Valorization-final-sm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    renewable resource for chemicals Biofuels: Increasing the Value of Lignin Lignin Valorization Current lignocellulose biomass conversion to biofuels requires the breakdown of lignin ...

  10. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu

    2015-01-10

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC4889, and NGC1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production.

  11. Modulating lignin in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  12. Lignin Valorization-final-sm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Discovering effective methods of depolymerizing lignin will improve economics of biorefineries and create a renewable resource for chemicals Biofuels: Increasing the Value of Lignin Lignin Valorization Current lignocellulose biomass conversion to biofuels requires the breakdown of lignin to liberate sugars that can be converted into advanced fuels. The process results in a significant amount of lignin waste product that could be utilized for other byproducts improving the economics for

  13. Fluorescence analyzer for lignin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berthold, John W.; Malito, Michael L.; Jeffers, Larry

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring lignin concentration in a sample of wood pulp or black liquor comprises a light emitting arrangement for emitting an excitation light through optical fiber bundles into a probe which has an undiluted sensing end facing the sample. The excitation light causes the lignin concentration to produce fluorescent emission light which is then conveyed through the probe to analyzing equipment which measures the intensity of the emission light. Measures a This invention was made with Government support under Contract Number DOE: DE-FC05-90CE40905 awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  14. Lignin blockers and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2011-01-25

    Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion and allows for the determination of optimized pretreatment conditions. Additionally, ethanol yields from a Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process are improved 5-25% by treatment with a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

  15. Lignin blockers and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E

    2013-11-12

    Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion and allows for the determination of optimized pretreatment conditions. Additionally, ethanol yields from a Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process are improved 5-25% by treatment with a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein.

  16. Reducing Plant Lignin for Cheaper Biofuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reducing Plant Lignin for Cheaper Biofuels Reducing Plant Lignin for Cheaper Biofuels Print Wednesday, 04 May 2016 12:11 Lignin is a polymer that permeates plant cell walls. ...

  17. Reducing Plant Lignin for Cheaper Biofuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reducing Plant Lignin for Cheaper Biofuels Reducing Plant Lignin for Cheaper Biofuels Print Wednesday, 04 May 2016 12:11 Lignin is a polymer that permeates plant cell walls. Although beneficial to the plant, the lignin must be chemically broken down in a costly pretreatment step before the sugars inside can be released and fermented into useful chemicals and fuels. Previous attempts to silence lignin-producing genes resulted in weak plants with a lower sugar yield. In this work, researchers

  18. Functionalized lignin, rubber containing functionalized lignin and products containing such rubber composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benko, David Andrew; Hahn, Bruce Raymond; Cohen, Martin Paul; Dirk, Shawn Matthew; Cicotte, Kirsten Nicole

    2014-03-04

    The invention relates to functionalized lignin, rubber compositions which contain functionalized lignin and to products which have at least one component comprised of such rubber composition.

  19. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-11-16

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, it has been found that lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein, we discuss the lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure–property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon.

  20. Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalvani, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Previous research has shown that addition of lignin-derived liquids to coal stirred in tetralin under mild reaction conditions (375{degree}C and 300--500 psig) results in a marked enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization. A mathematical model was developed to study the kinetics of coal depolymerization in the presence of liquid-derived liquids. In the present study, a reaction pathway was formulated to explain the enhancement in coal depolymerization due to lignin (solid) addition. The model postulated assumes that the products of lignin obtained during thermolysis interact with the reactive moieties present in coal while simultaneous depolymerization of coal occurs. A good fit between the experimental data and the kinetic model was found. The results show that in addition to the enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization, lignin also reacts (and enhances the extent of depolymerization of coal) with those reaction sites in coal that are not susceptible to depolymerization when coal alone is reacted in tetralin under identical reaction conditions. Additional work is being carried out to determine a thorough materials balance on the lignin-assisted coal depolymerization process. A number of liquid samples have been obtained which are being studied for their stability in various environments. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

    2013-07-30

    A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

  2. Liquid Fuels from Lignins: Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chum, H. L.; Johnson, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    This task was initiated to assess the conversion of lignins into liquid fuels, primarily of lignins relevant to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The task was composed of a literature review of this area and an experimental part to obtain pertinent data on the conversion of lignins germane to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes.

  3. Morphological changes in the cellulose and lignin components of biomass occur at different stages of steam pretreatment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; He, Lilin; Melnichenko, Yuri B.; Urban, Volker S.; Petridis, Loukas; Davison, Brian H.; Langan, Paul

    2014-01-09

    Morphological changes to the different components of lignocellulosic biomass were observed as they occurred during steam pretreatment by placing a pressure reaction cell in a neutron beam and collecting time-resolved neutron scattering data. Changes to cellulose morphology occurred mainly in the heating phase, whereas changes in lignin morphology occurred mainly in the holding and cooling phases. During the heating stage, water is irreversibly expelled from cellulose microfibrils as the elementary fibrils coalesce. During the holding phase lignin aggregates begin to appear and they increase in size most noticeably during the cooling phase. This experiment demonstrates the unique information that inmore » situ small angle neutron scattering studies of pretreatment can provide. This approach is potentially useful in optimizing the heating, holding and cooling stages of pretreatments to allow the exact size and nature of lignin aggregates to be controlled in order to enhance enzyme accessibility to cellulose and therefore the efficiency of biomass conversion.« less

  4. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-11-16

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, it has been found that lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein, we discuss the lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure–property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templatedmore » carbon.« less

  5. Method of altering lignin in trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacKay, J.; O`Malley, D.; Whetten, R.; Sederoff, R.

    1998-10-20

    Methods of providing and breeding trees having more easily extractable lignin due to the presence of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (Cad) null gene are presented. 16 figs.

  6. Method of altering lignin in trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacKay, John; O'Malley, David; Whetten, Ross; Sederoff, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Methods of providing and breeding trees having more easily extractable lignin due to the presence of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (Cad) null gene are presented.

  7. Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin Authors:...

  8. Roles of Small Laccases from Streptomyces in Lignin Degradation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Roles of Small Laccases from Streptomyces in Lignin Degradation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Roles of Small Laccases from Streptomyces in Lignin Degradation Authors: ...

  9. Lignin Based Carbon Materials for Energy Storage Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Book: Lignin Based Carbon Materials for Energy Storage Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lignin Based Carbon Materials for Energy Storage Applications The ...

  10. Generalized Coalescents may be Necessary for Modeling Intrahost...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: HIV Dynamics and Evolution ; 2016-04-24 - 2016-04-27 ; ... Subject: Biological Science; HIV Evolution, coalescent theory Word Cloud More Like This ...

  11. Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence. (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the ... Subject: 42 ENGINEERING; DROPLETS; COALESCENCE; HYDRODYNAMICS; TEST FACILITIES; DESIGN; ...

  12. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is preferably dried and stored until it is used (along with an alkali, an aldehyde and an adhesive filler) in compounding an adhesive of the type generally used in the manufacture of plywood.

  13. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

  14. Method for regulation of plant lignin composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapple, Clint

    1999-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the regulation of lignin composition in plant tissue. Plants are transformed with a gene encoding an active F5H gene. The expression of the F5H gene results in increased levels of syringyl monomer providing a lignin composition more easily degraded with chemicals and enzymes.

  15. Characterization of electrospun lignin based carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poursorkhabi, Vida; Mohanty, Amar; Misra, Manjusri

    2015-05-22

    The production of lignin fibers has been studied in order to replace the need for petroleum based precursors for carbon fiber production. In addition to its positive environmental effects, it also benefits the economics of the industries which cannot take advantage of carbon fiber properties because of their high price. A large amount of lignin is annually produced as the byproduct of paper and growing cellulosic ethanol industry. Therefore, finding high value applications for this low cost, highly available material is getting more attention. Lignin is a biopolymer making about 15 30 % of the plant cell walls and has a high carbon yield upon carbonization. However, its processing is challenging due to its low molecular weight and also variations based on its origin and the method of separation from cellulose. In this study, alkali solutions of organosolv lignin with less than 1 wt/v% of poly (ethylene oxide) and two types of lignin (hardwood and softwood) were electrospun followed by carbonization. Different heating programs for carbonization were tested. The carbonized fibers had a smooth surface with an average diameter of less than 5?m and the diameter could be controlled by the carbonization process and lignin type. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study morphology of the fibers before and after carbonization. Thermal conductivity of a sample with amorphous carbon was 2.31?W/m.K. The electrospun lignin carbon fibers potentially have a large range of application such as in energy storage devices and water or gas purification systems.

  16. SODIUM ALUMINOSILICATE FOULING AND CLEANING OF DECONTAMINATED SALT SOLUTION COALESCERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M; Thomas Peters, T; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

    2008-10-28

    During initial non-radioactive operations at the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the pressure drop across the decontaminated salt solution coalescer reached {approx}10 psi while processing {approx}1250 gallons of salt solution, indicating possible fouling or plugging of the coalescer. An analysis of the feed solution and the 'plugged coalescer' concluded that the plugging was due to sodium aluminosilicate solids. MCU personnel requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate the formation of the sodium aluminosilicate solids (NAS) and the impact of the solids on the decontaminated salt solution coalescer. Researchers performed developmental testing of the cleaning protocols with a bench-scale coalescer container 1-inch long segments of a new coalescer element fouled using simulant solution. In addition, the authors obtained a 'plugged' Decontaminated Salt Solution coalescer from non-radioactive testing in the MCU and cleaned it according to the proposed cleaning procedure. Conclusions from this testing include the following: (1) Testing with the bench-scale coalescer showed an increase in pressure drop from solid particles, but the increase was not as large as observed at MCU. (2) Cleaning the bench-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (11 g of bayerite if all aluminum is present in that form or 23 g of sodium aluminosilicate if all silicon is present in that form). (3) Based on analysis of the cleaning solutions from bench-scale test, the 'dirt capacity' of a 40 inch coalescer for the NAS solids tested is calculated as 450-950 grams. (4) Cleaning the full-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (60 g of aluminum and 5 g of silicon). (5) Piping holdup in the full-scale coalescer system caused the pH to differ from the target value. Comparable hold-up in the facility could lead to less effective

  17. Recent results and persisting problems in modeling flow induced coalescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forteln, I. E-mail: juza@imc.cas.cz; Jza, J. E-mail: juza@imc.cas.cz

    2014-05-15

    The contribution summarizes recent results of description of the flow induced coalescence in immiscible polymer blends and addresses problems that call for which solving. The theory of coalescence based on the switch between equations for matrix drainage between spherical or deformed droplets provides a good agreement with more complicated modeling and available experimental data for probability, P{sub c}, that the collision of droplets will be followed by their fusion. A new equation for description of the matrix drainage between deformed droplets, applicable to the whole range of viscosity ratios, p, of the droplets and matrixes, is proposed. The theory facilitates to consider the effect of the matrix elasticity on coalescence. P{sub c} decreases with the matrix relaxation time but this decrease is not pronounced for relaxation times typical of most commercial polymers. Modeling of the flow induced coalescence in concentrated systems is needed for prediction of the dependence of coalescence rate on volume fraction of droplets. The effect of the droplet anisometry on P{sub c} should be studied for better understanding the coalescence in flow field with high and moderate deformation rates. A reliable description of coalescence in mixing and processing devices requires proper modeling of complex flow fields.

  18. Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Don L.; Pometto, III, Anthony L.

    1984-01-01

    A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

  19. Effect of lignin content on changes occurring in poplar cellulose ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Qining; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Sawada, Daisuke; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O’Neill, Hugh M.; Li, Hongjia; Wyman, Charles E.; Langan, Paul; Ragauskas, Art J.; et al

    2014-10-14

    cellulose microfibril dimensions and crystallite size becomes more apparent. Further, this enlargement of cellulose microfibril dimensions is attributed to specific processes, including the co-crystallization of crystalline cellulose driven by irreversible inter-chain hydrogen bonding (similar to hornification) and/or cellulose annealing that converts amorphous cellulose to paracrystalline and crystalline cellulose. Essentially, lignin acts as a barrier to prevent cellulose crystallinity increase and cellulose fibril coalescence during DAP.« less

  20. Coalescence-controlled and coalescence-free growth regimes during deposition of pulsed metal vapor fluxes on insulating surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L, B.; Mnger, E. P.; Sarakinos, K.

    2015-04-07

    The morphology and physical properties of thin films deposited by vapor condensation on solid surfaces are predominantly set by the processes of island nucleation, growth, and coalescence. When deposition is performed using pulsed vapor fluxes, three distinct nucleation regimes are known to exist depending on the temporal profile of the flux. These regimes can be accessed by tuning deposition conditions; however, their effect on film microstructure becomes marginal when coalescence sets in and erases morphological features obtained during nucleation. By preventing coalescence from being completed, these nucleation regimes can be used to control microstructure evolution and thus access a larger palette of film morphological features. Recently, we derived the quantitative criterion to stop coalescence during continuous metal vapor flux deposition on insulating surfaceswhich typically yields 3-dimensional growthby describing analytically the competition between island growth by atomic incorporation and the coalescence rate of islands [L et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 163107 (2014)]. Here, we develop the analytical framework for entering a coalescence-free growth regime for metal vapor deposition on insulating substrates using pulsed vapor fluxes, showing that there exist three distinct criteria for suppressing coalescence that correspond to the three nucleation regimes of pulsed vapor flux deposition. The theoretical framework developed herein is substantiated by kinetic Monte Carlo growth simulations. Our findings highlight the possibility of using atomistic nucleation theory for pulsed vapor deposition to control morphology of thin films beyond the point of island density saturation.

  1. He bubble coarsening by migration and coalescence in annealed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: He bubble coarsening by migration and coalescence in annealed Pu-Ga alloys Authors: Jeffries, J R ; Wall, M A ; Moore, K T ; Schwartz, A J Publication Date: 2010-09-29 OSTI ...

  2. Genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Vincent Lee; Li, Laigeng

    2004-11-02

    The present invention relates to a novel DNA sequence, which encodes a previously unidentified lignin biosynthetic pathway enzyme, sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that regulates the biosynthesis of syringyl lignin in plants. Also provided are methods for incorporating this novel SAD gene sequence or substantially similar sequences into a plant genome for genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants.

  3. Separation of Alcohols from Solution by Lignin Gels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, William {Bill} L; Compere, A L

    2008-01-01

    Partition relationships of radioisotope labeled ethanol and 1-butanol between aqueous solutions and a hydrated commercial Kraft softwood lignin gel are presented. These initial evaluations indicate that lignin hydrogels preferentially concentrate 1-butanol and, to a lesser extent, ethanol. The process implications and potential use of lignin as an inexpensive extractant are discussed.

  4. Genetics and chemistry of lignin degradation by Streptomyces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Our research goal was to define the involvement of lignin peroxidases and other extracellular enzymes in lignin degradation by Streptomyces. We examined the biochemistry and genetics of lignin degrading enzyme production by several strains of Streptomyces. The lignin peroxidase ALiP-P3 of S. viridosporus was characterized kinetically and its activity optimized for oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol and vanillyl-acetone. Sensitive spectrophotometric assays were developed for monitoring oxidation of these substrates. ALiP-P3 reaction chemistry was examined using both spectrophotometric assays and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Results showed that the enzyme oxidizes phenolic lignin substructure models in strong preference to nonphenolic ones. The peroxidase was also shown to depolymerize native lignin. We also cloned the ALip-P3 gene S. lividans in plasmid vector pIJ702. The cloned gene was partially sequenced, We also immunologically characterized the lignin peroxidase of S. viridosporus T7A and showed it to be structurally related to peroxidases produced by other lignin-solubilizing Streptomyces, but not the the H8 lignin peroxidase of P. chrysosporium. Studies with peroxidase deficient mutants of strain T7A showed that lignin peroxidases of S. viridosporus are directly involved in the solubilization of lignin. Additional research showed that other enzymes are also probably involved in lignin solubilization, possibly including extracellular esterases.

  5. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agblevor, Foster A. (Lakewood, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A process for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1-3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof.

  6. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agblevor, F.A.

    1998-09-15

    A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

  7. Lignin-blocking treatment of biomass and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-10-20

    Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion. Cellulase efficiencies are improved by the protein or polypeptide treatment. The treatment may be used in combination with steam explosion and acid prehydrolysis techniques. Hydrolysis yields from lignin containing biomass are enhanced 5-20%, and enzyme utilization is increased from 10% to 50%. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

  8. Flash vacuum pyrolysis of lignin model compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooney, M.J.; Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III

    1997-03-01

    Despite the extensive research into the pyrolysis of lignin, the underlying chemical reactions that lead to product formation are poorly understood. Detailed mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of biomass and lignin under conditions relevant to current process conditions could provide insight into utilizing this renewable resource for the production of chemicals and fuel. Currently, flash or fast pyrolysis is the most promising process to maximize the yields of liquid products (up to 80 wt %) from biomass by rapidly heating the substrate to moderate temperatures, typically 500{degrees}C, for short residence times, typically less than two seconds. To provide mechanistic insight into the primary reaction pathways under process relevant conditions, we are investigating the flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of lignin model compounds that contain a {beta}-ether. linkage and {alpha}- or {gamma}-alcohol, which are key structural elements in lignin. The dominant products from the FVP of PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh (PPE), PhC(OH)HCH{sub 2}OPh, and PhCH{sub 2}CH(CH{sub 2}OH)OPh at 500{degrees}C can be attributed to homolysis of the weakest bond in the molecule (C-O bond) or 1,2-elimination. Surprisingly, the hydroxy-substituent dramatically increases the decomposition of PPE. It is proposed that internal hydrogen bonding is accelerating the reaction.

  9. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Herbert A.

    1993-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

  10. Economic contribution of lignins to ethanol production from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chum, H.L.; Parker, S.K.; Feinberg, D.A.; Wright, J.D.; Rice, P.A.; Sinclair, S.A.; Glasser, W.G.

    1985-05-01

    Lignin, one of the three major polymeric components of biomass (16% to 33% by weight in wood), has the highest specific heat content. Therefore, it can be burned for process fuel. Compared to coal, its fuel value is 2.2 cents/lb. This report investigates markets for lignin utilization of higher value. After lignin isolation from the process, purchase of replacement fuel (coal was analyzed), lignin sale for the manufacture of solid materials or higher value octane enhancers was evaluated. Polymeric applications evaluated were: surfactants, asphalt, carbon black, adhesives, and lignin plastics; agricultural applications were briefly reviewed. These lignins would generate coproduct credits of 25 cents to 150 cents/gallon of ethanol respectively for 7.5 cents to 60 cents/lb lignin value (isolation and eventual modification costs were taken into account). Overall markets for these polymeric applications were projected at 11 billion lb/year by the year 2000. These projections are intensities of demand and not actual shipments of lignins. In addition, this report investigates the possibility of converting lignins into mixtures of methyls aryl ethers and methyl substituted-aryl ethers which are high value octane enhancers, fully compatible with gasoline. The report intends to show that if fuel ethanol production in the billions of gallons scale occurs lignin markets would not be saturated. 10 refs., 14 figs., 36 tabs.

  11. p-Hydroxyphenyl (H) Units Lower the Degree of Polymerization in Lignin: Chemical Control in Lignin Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangha, A. K.; Parks, J. M.; Davis, M. F.; Smith, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Lignin, composed predominantly of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) subunits, is a major component of plant cell walls that imparts resistance toward chemical and microbial deconstruction of plant biomass, rendering its conversion inefficient and costly. Previous studies have shown that alterating lignin composition, i.e., the relative abundance of H, G and S subunits, promises more efficient extraction of sugars from plant biomass. Smaller and less branched lignin chains are more easily extracted during pretreatment, making cellulose more readily degradable. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we show that the incorporation of H subunits into lignin via b-b and b-5 interunit linkages reduces the degree of polymerization in lignin. Frontier molecular orbital analyses of lignin dimers and trimers show that H as a terminal subunit on a growing lignin polymer linked via b-b and b-5 linkage cannot undergo radical formation, preventing further chain growth by endwise polymerization resulting in lignin polymers with lower degree of polymerization. These results indicate that, for endwise polymerization in lignin synthesis, there exists a chemical control that may lay a significant role in determining the structure of lignin.

  12. Mechanism of lignin inhibition of enzymatic biomass deconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vermaas, Josh V.; Petridis, Loukas; Qi, Xianghong; Schulz, Roland; Lindner, Benjamin; Smith, Jeremy. C.

    2015-12-01

    The conversion of plant biomass to ethanol via enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis offers a potentially sustainable route to biofuel production. However, the inhibition of enzymatic activity in pretreated biomass by lignin severely limits the efficiency of this process. By performing atomic-detail molecular dynamics simulation of a biomass model containing cellulose, lignin, and cellulases (TrCel7A), we elucidate detailed lignin inhibition mechanisms. We find that lignin binds preferentially both to the elements of cellulose to which the cellulases also preferentially bind (the hydrophobic faces) and also to the specific residues on the cellulose-binding module of the cellulase that are critical for cellulose binding of TrCel7A (Y466, Y492, and Y493). In conclusion, lignin thus binds exactly where for industrial purposes it is least desired, providing a simple explanation of why hydrolysis yields increase with lignin removal.

  13. Mechanism of lignin inhibition of enzymatic biomass deconstruction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vermaas, Josh V.; Petridis, Loukas; Qi, Xianghong; Schulz, Roland; Lindner, Benjamin; Smith, Jeremy. C.

    2015-12-01

    The conversion of plant biomass to ethanol via enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis offers a potentially sustainable route to biofuel production. However, the inhibition of enzymatic activity in pretreated biomass by lignin severely limits the efficiency of this process. By performing atomic-detail molecular dynamics simulation of a biomass model containing cellulose, lignin, and cellulases (TrCel7A), we elucidate detailed lignin inhibition mechanisms. We find that lignin binds preferentially both to the elements of cellulose to which the cellulases also preferentially bind (the hydrophobic faces) and also to the specific residues on the cellulose-binding module of the cellulase that are critical for cellulose bindingmore » of TrCel7A (Y466, Y492, and Y493). In conclusion, lignin thus binds exactly where for industrial purposes it is least desired, providing a simple explanation of why hydrolysis yields increase with lignin removal.« less

  14. Selective Conversion of Lignin into Simple Aromatic Compounds - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Selective Conversion of Lignin into Simple Aromatic Compounds Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Lignin is a major component of non-edible biomass (15-30 percent by weight; 40 percent by energy). It is a cheap byproduct of pulp and biofuel production and is one of the few naturally occurring sources of high-volume aromatic compounds. Converting lignin's complex biopolymer structure into simple organic

  15. Hydroxide Catalysts for Lignin Depolymerization - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydroxide Catalysts for Lignin Depolymerization National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Lignin Depolymerization by Nickel Supported Layered-Double Hydroxide Catalysts (3,212 KB) PDF Document Publication Lignin Depolymerization with Nitrate-Intercalated Hydrotalcite Catalysts (2,752 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Biofuels are a major component of a balanced international renewable energy portfolio. Most methods for producing

  16. Modification of Lignin by Protein Cross-linking to Facilitate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 09 BIOMASS FUELS poplar, lignin, biofuels, digestibility, peptide Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image ...

  17. Lignin pyrolysis in heated grid apparatus: Experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avni, L.; Coughlin, R.W.; King, H.H.; Solomon, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    The study of lignin pyrolysis has a vital importance since all lignin conversion processes, namely; combustion, liquefaction and gasification, are initiated by this step. Lignin, a major component of biomass is a potential source of aromatic chemicals through the pyrolysis process. This paper considers the application of a recently developed pyrolysis model of coal pyrolysis applied to a heated grid as well as an entrained flow reactor, to the pyrolysis of lignin. Flash pyrolysis as well as slow heating rate pyrolysis was carried out in a heated grid, in which on-line, in-situ gas and tar analysis is performed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy. The model has proved to be successful in simulating the results of vacuum flash pyrolysis and slow heating rate pyrolysis for a variety of lignins. The experiments have shown that lignin pyrolysis kinetics are insensitive to lignin source or extracting process. Theory and experiment agree well for both slow and fast heating rates, using the given model parameters. The lignin parameters of the model are related to the functional group composition of the lignin.

  18. NREL Overcomes Obstacles in Lignin Valorization (Fact Sheet)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ates), hydroxy acids, and fuel-range alkanes from lignin-derived streams. By coupling metabolic engineering of the biological funneling pathways to chemical catalysis, this...

  19. Modification of Lignin Content of Plant Cell Walls - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Modification of Lignin Content of Plant Cell Walls Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About ...

  20. "Bionic" Liquids from Lignin: Joint BioEnergy Institute Results...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bionic" Liquids from Lignin: Joint BioEnergy Institute Results Pave the Way for ... Combustion Research Facility Joint BioEnergy Institute Research Engineering and ...

  1. Selective aerobic alcohol oxidation method for conversion of lignin into simple aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, Shannon S; Rahimi, Alireza

    2015-03-03

    Described is a method to oxidize lignin or lignin sub-units. The method includes oxidation of secondary benzylic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit to a corresponding ketone in the presence of unprotected primarily aliphatic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit. The optimal catalyst system consists of HNO.sub.3 in combination with another Bronsted acid, in the absence of a metal-containing catalyst, thereby yielding a selectively oxidized lignin or lignin sub-unit. The method may be carried out in the presence or absence of additional reagents including TEMPO and TEMPO derivatives.

  2. Modification of lignin content and composition in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2002-01-01

    Plants and methods of preparing plants having reduced lignin content and/or altered lignin composition are provided. The activities of caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase and/or caffeic acid O-methyltransferase enzymes in the modified plants are reduced.

  3. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shabtai, Joseph S.; Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W.; Chornet, Esteban

    1999-09-28

    A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

  4. Catalytic Hydrolytic Cleavage and Oxy-Cleavage of Lignin Linkages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Guanguang; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2014-07-26

    In this work, new strategies involving organic bases were evaluated to depolymerize lignin to reduced molecular fragments in aqueous medium. NaOH as an inorganic base was also investigated as a reference. Full nature lignin samples are used for the study. As research tools to unravel the complexity of the macro lignin structure and bulky molecular size under this study, size exclusion chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometric analysis, typically used for protein characterizations, were used to follow the progress of lignin depolymerisation by measuring the molecular weight distribution of the products and determining the key molecular fingerprints, respectively. The results show that sodium phenoxide and guanidine carbonate are effective catalysts for lignin depolymerization. It is observed that there exists a synergism between H2O2 and the organic base, which is strongest with guanidine carbonate.

  5. Electrostatic coalescence system with independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hovarongkura, A. David; Henry, Jr., Joseph D.

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrostatic coalescence system is provided in which independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes are employed to provide more complete dehydration of an oil emulsion. The AC field is produced between an AC electrode array and the water-oil interface wherein the AC electrode array is positioned parallel to the interface which acts as a grounded electrode. The emulsion is introduced into the AC field in an evenly distributed manner at the interface. The AC field promotes drop-drop and drop-interface coalescence of the water phase in the entering emulsion. The continuous oil phase passes upward through the perforated AC electrode array and enters a strong DC field produced between closely spaced DC electrodes in which small dispersed droplets of water entrained in the continuous phase are removed primarily by collection at hydrophilic DC electrodes. Large droplets of water collected by the electrodes migrate downward through the AC electrode array to the interface. All phase separation mechanisms are utilized to accomplish more complete phase separation.

  6. Producing a True Lignin Depolymerase for Biobleaching Softwood Kraft Pulp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simo Sarkanen

    2002-02-04

    This project constituted an intensive effort devoted to producing, from the white-rot fungus Tramets Cingulata, a lignin degrading enzyme (lignin depolymerase) that is directly able to biobleach or delignify softwood kraft pulp brownstock. To this end, the solutions in which T. cingulata was grown contained dissolved kraft lignin which fulfilled two functions; it behaved as a lignin deploymerase substrate and it also appeared to act as an inducer of enzyme expression. However, the lignin depolymerase isoenzymes (and other extracellular T. cingulata enzymes) interacted very strongly with both the kraft lignin components and the fungal hypae, so the isolating these proteins from the culture solutions proved to be unexpectedly difficult. Even after extensive experimentation with a variety of protein purification techniques, only one approach appeared to be capable of purifying lignin depolymerases to homogeneity. Unfortunately the procedure was extremely laborious; it involved the iso electric focusing of concentrated buffer-exchanged culture solutions followed by electro-elution of the desired protein bands from the appropriate polyacrylamide gel segments

  7. Potential role of lignin in tomorrow's wood utilization technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glasser, W.G.

    1981-03-01

    Low-grade timber supplies and wood processing residues are presently converted into paper products, used for fuel, or remain totally unused. Competition for this resource will continue to mount, particularly when manufacturers of chemicals and liquid fuels enter the market with new technologies now under development. The type of technology that concentrates on depolymerization of carbohydrates will generate large quantities of lignin-rich residues. The potential of these lignins to contribute to the economic feasibility of new chemical wood process technologies may involve degradative depolymerization to phenols and benzene, or polymer conversion into a wide variety of dispersants, binders, reinforcing and antioxidizing agents, etc. Where lignin's fuel value lies around 3 to 4 cents/lb. (fall of 1979), its raw material value for phenol is reported to be almost 5 cents/lb., and the value of the polymeric materials is estimated to be between 6 and 20 cents/lb. At the lower end of this range of raw material values are ligninsulfonates, which contribute nearly 98 percent to the approximately 1.5 billion lb./yr. U.S. market for lignin products. Kraft lignins are located at the opposite end of this range. Novel bioconversion-type lignins are expected to be more similar in structure and properties to kraft than to sulfite lignins. Whereas application of the dispersant properties of ligninsulfonates in tertiary oil recovery operations is expected to constitute the most significant use of lignin in terms of volume, adhesive and resin applications hold the greatest promise in terms of value. Both utilization schemes seem to require pretreatments in the form of either polymeric fractionation or chemical modification. Potential savings from the use of polymeric lignins in material systems are great.

  8. NREL Overcomes Obstacles in Lignin Valorization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    This NREL Highlight is being produced for the 2015 February Alliance S&T Board meeting, and describes research that shows lignin can be converted into renewable fuels, chemicals, and materials.

  9. Transcription factors for modification of lignin content in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Huanzhong; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

    2015-06-02

    The invention provides methods for modifying lignin, cellulose, xylan, and hemicellulose content in plants, and for achieving ectopic lignification and, for instance, secondary cell wall synthesis in pith cells, by altered regulation of a WRKY transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for altered WRKY-TF expression are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise modified pith cell walls, and lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops.

  10. Plants with modified lignin content and methods for production thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Qiao; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-08-05

    The invention provides methods for decreasing lignin content and for increasing the level of fermentable carbohydrates in plants by down-regulation of the NST transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of NST are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise reduced lignin content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops. Methods for processing plant tissue and for producing ethanol by utilizing such plants are also provided.

  11. Lignin structural alterations in thermochemical pretreatments with limited delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pu, Yunqiao; Hu, Fan; Huang, Fang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-08-02

    Lignocellulosic biomass has a complex and rigid cell wall structure that makes biomass recalcitrant to biological and chemical degradation. Among the three major structural biopolymers (i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in plant cell walls, lignin is considered the most recalcitrant component and generally plays a negative role in the biochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels. The conversion of biomass to biofuels through a biochemical platform usually requires a pretreatment stage to reduce the recalcitrance. Pretreatment renders compositional and structural changes of biomass with these changes ultimately govern the efficiency of the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute acid, hot water, steam explosion, and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatments are among the leading thermochemical pretreatments with a limited delignification that can reduce biomass recalcitrance. Practical applications of these pretreatment are rapidly developing as illustrated by recent commercial scale cellulosic ethanol plants. While these thermochemical pretreatments generally lead to only a limited delignification and no significant change of lignin content in the pretreated biomass, the lignin transformations that occur during these pretreatments and the roles they play in recalcitrance reduction is an important research aspect. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of lignin alterations during these limited delignification thermochemical pretreatments, with emphasis on lignin chemical structures, molecular weights, and redistributions in the pretreated biomass.

  12. Lignin structural alterations in thermochemical pretreatments with limited delignification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pu, Yunqiao; Hu, Fan; Huang, Fang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-08-02

    Lignocellulosic biomass has a complex and rigid cell wall structure that makes biomass recalcitrant to biological and chemical degradation. Among the three major structural biopolymers (i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in plant cell walls, lignin is considered the most recalcitrant component and generally plays a negative role in the biochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels. The conversion of biomass to biofuels through a biochemical platform usually requires a pretreatment stage to reduce the recalcitrance. Pretreatment renders compositional and structural changes of biomass with these changes ultimately govern the efficiency of the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute acid, hot water, steam explosion,more » and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatments are among the leading thermochemical pretreatments with a limited delignification that can reduce biomass recalcitrance. Practical applications of these pretreatment are rapidly developing as illustrated by recent commercial scale cellulosic ethanol plants. While these thermochemical pretreatments generally lead to only a limited delignification and no significant change of lignin content in the pretreated biomass, the lignin transformations that occur during these pretreatments and the roles they play in recalcitrance reduction is an important research aspect. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of lignin alterations during these limited delignification thermochemical pretreatments, with emphasis on lignin chemical structures, molecular weights, and redistributions in the pretreated biomass.« less

  13. Coalescing at 8 GeV in the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, D.J.; Capista, D.; Chase, B.; Dye, J.; Kourbanis, I.; Seiya, K.; Yang, M.-J.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    For Project X, it is planned to inject a beam of 3 10{sup 11} particles per bunch into the Main Injector. To prepare for this by studying the effects of higher intensity bunches in the Main Injector it is necessary to perform coalescing at 8 GeV. The results of a series of experiments and simulations of 8 GeV coalescing are presented. To increase the coalescing efficiency adiabatic reduction of the 53 MHz RF is required. This results in {approx}70% coalescing efficiency of 5 initial bunches. Data using wall current monitors has been taken to compare previous work and new simulations for 53 MHz RF reduction, bunch rotations and coalescing, good agreement between experiment and simulation was found. By increasing the number of bunches to 7 and compressing the bunch energy spread a scheme generating approximately 3 10{sup 11} particles in a bunch has been achieved. These bunches will then be used in further investigations.

  14. Treatment of Lignin Precursors to Improve their Suitability for Carbon Fibers: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, Ryan; Naskar, Amit; Gallego, Nidia; Dai, Xuliang; Hausner, Andrew

    2015-04-17

    Lignin has been investigated as a carbon fiber precursor since the 1960s. Although there have been a number of reports of successful lignin-based carbon fiber production at the lab scale, lignin-based carbon fibers are not currently commercially available. This review will highlight some of the known challenges, and also the reported methods for purifying and modifying lignin to improve it as a precursor. Lignin can come from different sources (e.g. hardwood, softwood, grasses) and extraction methods (e.g. organosolv, kraft), meaning that lignin can be found with a diversity of purity and structure. The implication of these conditions on lignin as carbon fiber precursor is not comprehensively known, especially as the lignin landscape is evolving. The work presented in this review will help guide the direction of a project between GrafTech and ORNL to develop lignin carbon fiber technology, as part of a cooperative agreement with the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office.

  15. Hydroprocessing lignin and lignin model compounds; Products, kinetics, and catalyst aging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Train, P.M. ); Klein, M.T. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports the hydroprocessing reaction of kraft lignin and four of its model compounds, o-hydroxydiphenylmethane (OHD), diphenylmethane (DPM), 4-phenoxyphenol (PP), and 4-methylguaiacol (MG) studied over a sulfided CoMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The reactions of OHD were also studied over sulfided Ni-Mo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni-W/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Ni-Mo/zeolite catalysts. Reaction pathways, kinetics, and catalyst deactivation were resolved. Experiments with the actual kraft lignin substrate showed that catalytic hydroprocessing led to higher yields of single-ring products and lower yields of light gas compared to hydropyrolysis alone. The CoMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst increased the selectivity to non-coking monophenolics and hydrocarbon products. The model compound results permitted interpretation. The hydroxyl substituents on OHD and PP directed bond cleavage strongly. The atom linking the two aromatic rings remained almost exclusively with the unsubstituted ring after cleavage. The substituent increased reactivity by at least an order of magnitude. The catalytic reactions of OHD, DPM, and PP were 10{sup 3}-19{sup 4} times faster than their thermal reactions. Deoxygenation was appreciable in these reactions and in the catalytic hydroprocessing of MG.

  16. Mobility and coalescence of stacking fault tetrahedra in Cu

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martínez, Enrique; Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2015-03-13

    Stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) are ubiquitous defects in face-centered cubic metals. They are produced during cold work plastic deformation, quenching experiments or under irradiation. From a dislocation point of view, the SFTs are comprised of a set of stair-rod dislocations at the (110) edges of a tetrahedron bounding triangular stacking faults. These defects are extremely stable, increasing their energetic stability as they grow in size. At the sizes visible within transmission electron microscope they appear nearly immobile. Contrary to common belief, we show in this report, using a combination of molecular dynamics and temperature accelerated dynamics, how small SFTs canmore » diffuse by temporarily disrupting their structure through activated thermal events. More over, we demonstrate that the diffusivity of defective SFTs is several orders of magnitude higher than perfect SFTs, and can be even higher than isolated vacancies. Finally, we show how SFTs can coalesce, forming a larger defect in what is a new mechanism for the growth of these omnipresent defects.« less

  17. Lignin's potential contribution to the feasibility of biomass conversion to ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, P.C.; Glasser, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    The potential contribution of lignin toward the economic improvement of processes involving the bioconversion of lignocellulosics to liquid fuels such as ethyl alcohol was examined. This improvement in process economics is achieved by the employment of a two-product process scheme whereby lignin-rich residues separated from cellulosics during bioconversion are marketed as polymeric materials. Lignin's utility as a marketable macromolecule was assessed by (a) characterization of structural features in bioconversion lignins with reference to commercial lignin products, (b) by examining lignin in terms of its value as a component in polymer systems such as urethane and phenol-formaldehyde thermosetting adhesives, and (c) by identifying potential high-volume, high-value lignin market categories which could absorb lignin fractions produced in future bioconversion scenarios. 38 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

  18. In situ micro-spectroscopic investigation of lignin in poplar cell walls pretreated by maleic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Yining; Zhao, Shuai; Wei, Hui; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Meilan, Richard; Ding, Shi -You

    2015-08-27

    In higher plant cells, lignin provides necessary physical support for plant growth and resistance to attack by microorganisms. For the same reason, lignin is considered to be a major impediment to the process of deconstructing biomass to simple sugars by hydrolytic enzymes. Furthermore, the in situ variation of lignin in plant cell walls is important for better understanding of the roles lignin play in biomass recalcitrance.

  19. Synthetic Design Microorganisms for Lignin Fuels and Chemicals Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synthetic Design Microorganisms for Lignin Fuels and Chemicals 3/26/2015 Synthetic Biology Joshua S. Yuan Associate Professor and Director Texas A&M University This presentation does contain proprietary information 1 Project Goal: Design of Microorganisms for Lignin Fuel * The proposed research aims to address one of the most challenging issues in biofuel production: the utilization of lignin for fungible fuels. * Project Outcome: A viable biological platform for conversion of lignin into

  20. Genetics and chemistry of lignin degradation by Streptomyces. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-12-31

    Our research goal was to define the involvement of lignin peroxidases and other extracellular enzymes in lignin degradation by Streptomyces. We examined the biochemistry and genetics of lignin degrading enzyme production by several strains of Streptomyces. The lignin peroxidase ALiP-P3 of S. viridosporus was characterized kinetically and its activity optimized for oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol and vanillyl-acetone. Sensitive spectrophotometric assays were developed for monitoring oxidation of these substrates. ALiP-P3 reaction chemistry was examined using both spectrophotometric assays and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Results showed that the enzyme oxidizes phenolic lignin substructure models in strong preference to nonphenolic ones. The peroxidase was also shown to depolymerize native lignin. We also cloned the ALip-P3 gene S. lividans in plasmid vector pIJ702. The cloned gene was partially sequenced, We also immunologically characterized the lignin peroxidase of S. viridosporus T7A and showed it to be structurally related to peroxidases produced by other lignin-solubilizing Streptomyces, but not the the H8 lignin peroxidase of P. chrysosporium. Studies with peroxidase deficient mutants of strain T7A showed that lignin peroxidases of S. viridosporus are directly involved in the solubilization of lignin. Additional research showed that other enzymes are also probably involved in lignin solubilization, possibly including extracellular esterases.

  1. Gravitational Waves from Coalescing Binary Black Holes: Theoretical and Experimental Challenges

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    A network of ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors (LIGO/VIRGO/GEO/...) is currently taking data near its planned sensitivity. Coalescing black hole binaries are among the most promising, and most exciting, gravitational wave sources for these detectors. The talk will review the theoretical and experimental challenges that must be met in order to successfully detect gravitational waves from coalescing black hole binaries, and to be able to reliably measure the physical parameters of the source (masses, spins, ...).

  2. Lignin-derived thermoplastic co-polymers and methods of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naskar, Amit K.; Saito, Tomonori; Pickel, Joseph M.; Baker, Frederick S.; Eberle, Claude Clifford; Norris, Robert E.; Mielenz, Jonathan Richard

    2014-06-10

    The present invention relates to a crosslinked lignin comprising a lignin structure having methylene or ethylene linking groups therein crosslinking between phenyl ring carbon atoms, wherein said crosslinked lignin is crosslinked to an extent that it has a number-average molecular weight of at least 10,000 g/mol, is melt-processible, and has either a glass transition temperature of at least 100.degree. C., or is substantially soluble in a polar organic solvent or aqueous alkaline solution. Thermoplastic copolymers containing the crosslinked lignin are also described. Methods for producing the crosslinked lignin and thermoplastic copolymers are also described.

  3. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-09

    A high-yield process for converting lignin into reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline compositions of high quality is provided. The process is a two-stage catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage of the process, a lignin feed material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction, followed by a selective hydrocracking reaction which utilizes a superacid catalyst to produce a high oxygen-content depolymerized lignin product mainly composed of alkylated phenols, alkylated alkoxyphenols, and alkylbenzenes. In the second stage of the process, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to an exhaustive etherification reaction, optionally followed by a partial ring hydrogenation reaction, to produce a reformulated, partially oxygenated/etherified gasoline product, which includes a mixture of substituted phenyl/methyl ethers, cycloalkyl methyl ethers, C.sub.7 -C.sub.10 alkylbenzenes, C.sub.6 -C.sub.10 branched and multibranched paraffins, and alkylated and polyalkylated cycloalkanes.

  4. Recent Development in Chemical Depolymerization of Lignin: A Review

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Hai; Tucker, Melvin; Ji, Yun

    2013-01-01

    This article reviewed recent development of chemical depolymerization of lignins. There were five types of treatment discussed, including base-catalyzed, acid-catalyzed, metallic catalyzed, ionic liquids-assisted, and supercritical fluids-assisted lignin depolymerizations. The methods employed in this research were described, and the important results were marked. Generally, base-catalyzed and acid-catalyzed methods were straightforward, but the selectivity was low. The severe reaction conditions (high pressure, high temperature, and extreme pH) resulted in requirement of specially designed reactors, which led to high costs of facility and handling. Ionic liquids, and supercritical fluids-assisted lignin depolymerizations had high selectivity, but the high costs of ionic liquids recyclingmore » and supercritical fluid facility limited their applications on commercial scale biomass treatment. Metallic catalyzed depolymerization had great advantages because of its high selectivity to certain monomeric compounds and much milder reaction condition than base-catalyzed or acid-catalyzed depolymerizations. It would be a great contribution to lignin conversion if appropriate catalysts were synthesized.« less

  5. Graphitic biocarbon from metal-catalyzed hydrothermal carbonization of lignin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demir, Muslum; Kahveci, Zafer; Aksoy, Burak; Palapati, Naveen K. R.; Subramanian, Arunkumar; Cullinan, Harry T.; El-Kaderi, Hani M.; Harris, Charles T.; Gupta, Ram B.

    2015-10-09

    Lignin is a high-volume byproduct from the pulp and paper industry and is currently burned to generate electricity and process heat. Moreover, the industry has been searching for high value-added uses of lignin to improve the process economics. In addition, battery manufacturers are seeking nonfossil sources of graphitic carbon for environmental sustainability. In our work, lignin (which is a cross-linked polymer of phenols, a component of biomass) is converted into graphitic porous carbon using a two-step conversion. Lignin is first carbonized in water at 300 °C and 1500 psi to produce biochar, which is then graphitized using a metal nitrate catalyst at 900–1100 °C in an inert gas at 15 psi. Graphitization effectiveness of three different catalysts—iron, cobalt, and manganese nitrates—is examined. The product is analyzed for morphology, thermal stability, surface properties, and electrical conductivity. Both temperature and catalyst type influenced the degree of graphitization. A good quality graphitic carbon was obtained using catalysis by Mn(NO3)2 at 900 °C and Co(NO3)2 at 1100 °C.

  6. Graphitic biocarbon from metal-catalyzed hydrothermal carbonization of lignin

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Demir, Muslum; Kahveci, Zafer; Aksoy, Burak; Palapati, Naveen K. R.; Subramanian, Arunkumar; Cullinan, Harry T.; El-Kaderi, Hani M.; Harris, Charles T.; Gupta, Ram B.

    2015-10-09

    Lignin is a high-volume byproduct from the pulp and paper industry and is currently burned to generate electricity and process heat. Moreover, the industry has been searching for high value-added uses of lignin to improve the process economics. In addition, battery manufacturers are seeking nonfossil sources of graphitic carbon for environmental sustainability. In our work, lignin (which is a cross-linked polymer of phenols, a component of biomass) is converted into graphitic porous carbon using a two-step conversion. Lignin is first carbonized in water at 300 °C and 1500 psi to produce biochar, which is then graphitized using a metal nitratemore » catalyst at 900–1100 °C in an inert gas at 15 psi. Graphitization effectiveness of three different catalysts—iron, cobalt, and manganese nitrates—is examined. The product is analyzed for morphology, thermal stability, surface properties, and electrical conductivity. Both temperature and catalyst type influenced the degree of graphitization. A good quality graphitic carbon was obtained using catalysis by Mn(NO3)2 at 900 °C and Co(NO3)2 at 1100 °C.« less

  7. Hydrotreating Pyrolytic Lignin to Produce a Refinery Feedstock (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, R. J.

    2013-09-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass followed by water separation to produce pyrolytic lignin and hydrotreating of the lignin could be used to produce a stable volatile low-oxygen intermediate liquid. Such a liquid could be converted into a finished motor-fuel in a refinery, taking advantage of the existing infrastructure and economies of scale of refineries. Hydrotreating just the lignin would consume less hydrogen while preserving about half of the energy of the original oil. The aqueous by-products could be reformed to produce the needed hydrogen and would contain much of the unwanted acids and unstable oxygenates. To assess such intermediate liquids, several pyrolytic lignins were prepared by mixing pyrolysis oil with water at 1:1 and 3:1 ratios. The carboxylic acidity in the pyrolytic lignin was reduced to 24 and 10 mg-KOH/g-lignin compared to 81 in the whole oil. These lignins were hydrotreated using Ni-Mo(S)/alumina, Pt/char, or Pd/C(activated) in a semi-batch 1 L stirred autoclave. The oil was stabilized under hydrogen at 150-280 degrees C, then water and light organics were removed by partial depressurization. Hydrodeoxygenation was then performed at 340-400 degrees C. Total pressure was controlled at 70 or 170 bar with hydrogen gas. Organic liquid yields of 39-56% were obtained. For many experiments the organic oxygen content was <7%, acidity was < 7 mg-KOH/g-oil, the volatility was greater than or equal to 94% and, on a carbon basis, the total yield of organic products miscible in hydrocarbons at a 1:10 ratio was over 50%. These properties are probably acceptable to a refinery.The residual liquids left in the reactor at the end of the experiment comprised 60-85% of the organic-phase product while the rest was condensate. 13C-NMR of the residual liquids showed that they were 50-80% aliphatic. 13C-NMR coupled with GC-MS identified phenolic compounds as the main oxygenates in most residual liquids.

  8. Bio-inspired MOF-based Catalysts for Lignin Valorization.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Stavila, Vitalie; Ramakrishnan, Parthasarathi; Davis, Ryan Wesley

    2014-09-01

    Lignin is a potentially plentiful source of renewable organics, with %7E50Mtons/yr produced by the pulp/paper industry and 200-300 Mtons/yr projected production by a US biofuels industry. This industry must process approximately 1 billion tons of biomass to meet the US Renewable Fuel goals. However, there are currently no efficient processes for converting lignin to value-added chemicals and drop-in fuels. Lignin is therefore an opportunity for production of valuable renewable chemicals, but presents staggering technical and economic challenges due to the quantities of material involved and the strong chemical bonds comprising this polymer. Aggressive chemistries and high temperatures are required to degrade lignin without catalysts. Moreover, chemical non-uniformity among lignins leads to complex product mixtures that tend to repolymerize. Conventional petrochemical approaches (pyrolysis, catalytic cracking, gasification) are energy intensive (400-800 degC), require complicated separations, and remove valuable chemical functionality. Low-temperature (25-200 degC) alternatives are clearly desirable, but enzymes are thermally fragile and incompatible with liquid organic compounds, making them impractical for large-scale biorefining. Alternatively, homogeneous catalysts, such as recently developed vanadium complexes, must be separated from product mixtures, while many heterogenous catalysts involve costly noble metals. The objective of this project is to demonstrate proof of concept that an entirely new class of biomimetic, efficient, and industrially robust synthetic catalysts based on nanoporous Metal- Organic Frameworks (MOFs) can be developed. Although catalytic MOFs are known, catalysis of bond cleavage reactions needed for lignin degradation is completely unexplored. Thus, fundamental research is required that industry and most sponsoring agencies are currently unwilling to undertake. We introduce MOFs infiltrated with titanium and nickel species as catalysts

  9. A study of poplar organosolv lignin after melt rheology treatment as carbon fiber precursors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Qining; Khunsupat, Ratayakorn; Akato, Kokouvi; Tao, Jingming; Labbe, Nicole; Gallego, Nidia C.; Bozell, Joseph J.; Rials, Timothy G.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; et al

    2016-06-16

    Lignins from various poplar genotypes were isolated by using organosolv fractionation and subjected to rheological treatment at various temperatures. Physicochemical characterization of the lignin variants shows a broad distribution of glass transition temperatures, melt viscosity, and pyrolysis char residues. Rheological treatment at 170 °C induces lignin repolymerization accompanied with an increase in condensed linkages, molecular weights, and viscosities. In contrast, rheology testing at 190 °C results in the decrease in lignin aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups, β-O-aryl ether linkages, molecular weights, and viscosity values. Lignin under air cooling generates more oxygenated and condensed compounds, but lower amounts of ether linkagesmore » than lignin cooled under nitrogen. Here, lignin with a lower syringyl/guaiacyl ratio tends to form more cross-linkages along with higher viscosity values, higher molecular weight and larger amounts of condensed bonds.« less

  10. Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalvani, S.B.

    1992-08-01

    Previous research has shown that addition of lignin and lignin-derived liquids to coal stirred in tetralin under mild reaction conditions (375{degrees}C and 300--500 psig) results in a marked enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization. In this quarterly report, overall mass balances on experiments conducted with tetralin, coal, lignin and coal-lignin mixture are reported. Overall mass recoveries of 95--99% of the total mass charged to the reactor were obtained. A number of experiments were conducted on coal, lignin and coal-lignin depolymerization. A careful statistical analysis of the data shows that coal depolymerization is enhanced by 10.4%, due to the lignin addition. The liquids obtained are being examined for their elemental composition, and molecular weight determination by size exclusion chromatography. The stability of the liquid products is being examined in various environments. The gaseous product analyses show that the major gases produced during the course of depolymerization are CO, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2}. When coal and lignin are reacted together, the amount of CO and CH{sub 4}produced respectively 12% and 38% greater than the corresponding amount of gases calculated, based on the weighted average of values obtained for coal and lignin alone. The data obtained show that lignin addition to coal is synergistic in that not only is the extent of coal depolymerization increased, but the gas produced contains higher concentrations of more desirable gaseous products.

  11. Lignin Based Carbon Materials for Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori; Rios, Orlando; Johs, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of Li-ion battery technology into electric and hybrid electric vehicles and portable electronic devices such as smart phones, laptops and tablets, creates a demand for efficient, economic and sustainable materials for energy storage. However, the high cost and long processing time associated with manufacturing battery-grade anode and cathode materials are two big constraints for lowering the total cost of batteries and environmentally friendly electric vehicles. Lignin, a byproduct of the pulp and paper industry and biorefinery, is one of the most abundant and inexpensive natural biopolymers. It can be efficiently converted to low cost carbon fibers with optimal properties for use as anode materials. Recent developments in the preparation of lignin precursors and conversion to carbon fiber-based anode materials have created a new class of anode materials with excellent electrochemical characteristics suitable for immediate use in existing Li- or Na-ion battery technologies.

  12. Lignin-Feasting Microbe Holds Promise for Biofuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lignin-Feasting Microbe Holds Promise for Biofuels - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste

  13. Solid Double-Layered Hydroxide Catalysts for Lignin Decomposition - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Solid Double-Layered Hydroxide Catalysts for Lignin Decomposition National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Biomass-based fuel and chemical production has shown significant promise. However, costs and utilization rates of biomass have still been a challenge for large scale commercialization. Through appropriate decomposition and

  14. Inexpensive, Environmentally Friendly and Highly Permeable Lignin-Based Ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exchangers - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Inexpensive, Environmentally Friendly and Highly Permeable Lignin-Based Ion Exchangers Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary For more than 10 years, a partnership between Kazakh and US researchers has led to the synthesis and testing of highly permeable ion-exchangers. These materials possess an increased

  15. Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor. Final report. Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffers, L.A.

    1994-11-01

    The ultimate objective of the DOE-sponsored program discussed in this report is to commercialize an instrument for real-time, in-situ measurement of lignin in wood pulp at a variety of locations in the pulp process stream. The instrument will be used as a primary sensor for process control in the pulp and paper industry. Work done by B&W prior to the initiation of this program had shown: there is a functional relationship between the fluorescence intensity and the Kappa number as measured at the pulp mill laboratory. Kappa number is a standard wet chemical method for determination of the lignin concentration; the relationship is one of decreasing intensity with Kappa number, indicating operation in the quenched fluorescence regime; a great deal of scatter in the data. Because of the preliminary nature of the study, the origin of the scatter was not identified. This report documents the results of laboratory measurements made on a variety of well defined pulp samples to generate the data necessary to: determine the feasibility of an instrument for on-line lignin concentration measurement using laser fluorescence; identify the preferred measurement strategy; define the range of applicability of the instrument; and to provide background information to guide the design of a field-worthy prototype.

  16. Two-Step Process Converts Lignin into Simple Aromatic Compounds - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Two-Step Process Converts Lignin into Simple Aromatic Compounds Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Lignin is a major component of non-edible biomass. It is a cheap byproduct of pulp and biofuel production and is one of the few naturally occurring sources of valuable aromatic compounds. Converting lignin's complex biopolymer structure into simple organic chemicals has attracted major interest. For example,

  17. On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffers, Larry A.; Malito, Michael L.

    1996-01-01

    Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method.

  18. On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jeffers, L.A.; Malito, M.L.

    1996-01-23

    Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method. 6 figs.

  19. Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeAngelis, Kristen; Allgaier, Martin; Chavarria, Yaucin; Fortney, Julian; Hugenholtz, Phillip; Simmons, Blake; Sublette, Kerry; Silver, Whendee; Hazen, Terry

    2011-07-14

    Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

  20. Characterization of trapped lignin-degrading microbes in tropical forest soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeAngelis, K.M.; Allgaier, M.; Chavarria, Y.; Fortney, J.L.; Hugenholz, P.; Simmons, B.; Sublette, K.; Silver, W.L.; Hazen, T.C.

    2011-03-01

    Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

  1. Synthetic Metabolic Pathways for Bioconversion of Lignin Derivatives to Biofuels Presentation for BETO Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synthetic Metabolic Pathways for Bioconversion of Lignin Derivatives to Biofuels WBS: 2.3.2.104 March 25, 2015 Technology Area Review: Biochemical Conversion Principal Investigator: Adam M. Guss Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2 Goal Statement * Goal: Develop microbial biocatalysts to convert lignin-rich streams into value-added products * Relevance: Adding value to the lignin fraction of plant biomass will improve the economics of biorefineries to enable a bioeconomy Fuels +

  2. Structural Transformation of Isolated Poplar and Switchgrass Lignins from Dilute Acid Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Qining; Pu, Yunqiao; Meng, Xianzhi; Wells, Tyrone; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-08-27

    A key step in conversion of cellulosic biomass into sustainable fuels and chemicals is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance. Obtaining an improved understanding of the fundamental chemistry of lignin, the most recalcitrant component of biomass, during pretreatment is critical to the continued development of renewable biofuel production. To examine the intrinsic chemistry of lignin during dilute acid pretreatment (DAP), lignin was isolated from poplar and switchgrass using a cellulolytic enzyme system and then treated under DAP conditions. These results highlight that lignin is subjected to depolymerization reactions within the first 2 min of dilute acid pretreatment and these changes are accompanied by increased generation of aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups of lignin. This is followed by a competing set of depolymerization and repolymerization reactions that lead to a decrease in the content of guaiacyl lignin units and an increase in condensed lignin units as the reaction residence time is extended beyond 5 min. Finally, we showed that a detailed comparison of changes in functional groups and molecular weights of cellulolytic enzyme lignins with different structural parameters, related to the recalcitrant properties of lignin, could be successfully altered during DAP conditions.

  3. ReaxFF Study of the Oxidation of Softwood Lignin in View of Carbon Fiber Production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beste, Ariana

    2014-10-06

    We investigate the oxidative, thermal conversion of softwood lignin by performing molecular dynamics simulations based on a reactive force field (ReaxFF). The lignin samples are constructed from coniferyl alcohol units, which are connected through linkages that are randomly selected from a natural distribution of linkages in softwood. The goal of this work is to simulate the oxidative stabilization step during carbon fiber production from lignin precursor. We find that at simulation conditions where stabilization reactions occur, the lignin fragments have already undergone extensive degradation. The 5-5 linkage shows the highest reactivity towards cyclization and dehydrogenation.

  4. Structural Transformation of Isolated Poplar and Switchgrass Lignins from Dilute Acid Pretreatment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Qining; Pu, Yunqiao; Meng, Xianzhi; Wells, Tyrone; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-08-27

    A key step in conversion of cellulosic biomass into sustainable fuels and chemicals is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance. Obtaining an improved understanding of the fundamental chemistry of lignin, the most recalcitrant component of biomass, during pretreatment is critical to the continued development of renewable biofuel production. To examine the intrinsic chemistry of lignin during dilute acid pretreatment (DAP), lignin was isolated from poplar and switchgrass using a cellulolytic enzyme system and then treated under DAP conditions. These results highlight that lignin is subjected to depolymerization reactions within the first 2 min of dilute acid pretreatment andmore » these changes are accompanied by increased generation of aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups of lignin. This is followed by a competing set of depolymerization and repolymerization reactions that lead to a decrease in the content of guaiacyl lignin units and an increase in condensed lignin units as the reaction residence time is extended beyond 5 min. Finally, we showed that a detailed comparison of changes in functional groups and molecular weights of cellulolytic enzyme lignins with different structural parameters, related to the recalcitrant properties of lignin, could be successfully altered during DAP conditions.« less

  5. ReaxFF Study of the Oxidation of Softwood Lignin in View of Carbon Fiber Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beste, Ariana

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the oxidative, thermal conversion of softwood lignin by performing molecular dynamics simulations based on a reactive force field (ReaxFF). The lignin samples are constructed from coniferyl alcohol units, which are connected through linkages that are randomly selected from a natural distribution of linkages in softwood. The goal of this work is to simulate the oxidative stabilization step during carbon fiber production from lignin precursor. We find that at simulation conditions where stabilization reactions occur, the lignin fragments have already undergone extensive degradation. The 5-5 linkage shows the highest reactivity towards cyclization and dehydrogenation.

  6. HPC Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monroe, Laura Marie

    2015-04-28

    A brief overview of the Los Alamos National Laboratory’s visualization capabilities and how projects benefits from these.

  7. Results of Analysis of Macrobatch 3 Decontaminated Salt Solution Coalescer from May 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-18

    SRNL analyzed the Decontamination Salt Solution (DSS) coalescer from MCU by several analytical methods. This unit was removed from service in May 2010. The results of these analyses indicate that there is very little evidence of fouling via excessive solids, either from the leaching studies or X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis.

  8. Final Report: Investigation of Catalytic Pathways for Lignin Breakdown into Monomers and Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gluckstein, Jeffrey A; Hu, Michael Z.; Kidder, Michelle; McFarlane, Joanna; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Sturgeon, Matthew R

    2010-12-01

    Lignin is a biopolymer that comprises up to 35% of woody biomass by dry weight. It is currently underutilized compared to cellulose and hemicellulose, the other two primary components of woody biomass. Lignin has an irregular structure of methoxylated aromatic groups linked by a suite of ether and alkyl bonds which makes it difficult to degrade selectively. However, the aromatic components of lignin also make it promising as a base material for the production of aromatic fuel additives and cyclic chemical feed stocks such as styrene, benzene, and cyclohexanol. Our laboratory research focused on three methods to selectively cleave and deoxygenate purified lignin under mild conditions: acidolysis, hydrogenation and electrocatalysis. (1) Acidolysis was undertaken in CH2Cl2 at room temperature. (2) Hydrogenation was carried out by dissolving lignin and a rhodium catalyst in 1:1 water:methoxyethanol under a 1 atm H2 environment. (3) Electrocatalysis of lignin involved reacting electrically generated hydrogen atoms at a catalytic palladium cathode with lignin dissolved in a solution of aqueous methanol. In all of the experiments, the lignin degradation products were identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy and flame ionization detection. Yields were low, but this may have reflected the difficulty in recovering the various fractions after conversion. The homogeneous hydrogenation of lignin showed fragmentation into monomers, while the electrocatalytic hydrogenation showed production of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and substituted benzenes. In addition to the experiments, promising pathways for the conversion of lignin were assessed. Three conversion methods were compared based on their material and energy inputs and proposed improvements using better catalyst and process technology. A variety of areas were noted as needing further experimental and theoretical effort to increase the feasibility of lignin conversion to fuels.

  9. Biomass-derived Lignin to Jet Fuel Range Hydrocarbons via Aqueous Phase Hydrodeoxygenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hongliang; Ruan, Hao; Pei, Haisheng; Wang, Huamin; Chen, Xiaowen; Tucker, Melvin P.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-09-14

    A catalytic process, involving the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the dilute alkali extracted corn stover lignin catalysed by noble metal catalyst (Ru/Al2O3) and acidic zeolite (H+-Y), to produce lignin-substructure-based hydrocarbons (C7-C18), primarily C12-C18 cyclic structure hydrocarbons in the jet fuel range, was demonstrated.

  10. A NEW PROCESS DEVELOPED FOR SEPARATION OF LIGNIN FROM AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE PRETREATMENT SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Milliken, C.

    2010-12-14

    A method is described for separating lignin from liquid solutions resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials such as switchgrass with ammonium hydroxide. The method involves a sequence of steps including acidification, evaporation, and precipitation or centrifugation that are performed under defined conditions, and results in a relatively pure, solid lignin product. The method is tested on ammonium hydroxide solutions containing lignin extracted from switchgrass. Experimental results show that the method is capable of recovering between 66-95% of dissolved lignin as a precipitated solid. Cost estimates of pilot-scale and industrial-scale expressions of the process indicate that breakeven lignin prices of $2.36/kg and $0.78/kg, respectively, may be obtainable with this recovery method.

  11. The Paleozoic origin of enzymatic mechanisms for lignin degradation reconstructed using 31 fungal genomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Riley, Robert; Barry, Kerrie; Blanchette, Robert A; Henrissat, Bernard; Martinez, Angel T.; Otillar, Robert; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Yadav, Jagit S.; Aerts, Andrea; Benoit, Isabelle; Boyd, Alex; Carlson, Alexis; Copeland, Alex; Coutinho, Pedro M.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Ferreira, Patricia; Findley, Keisha; Foster, Brian; Gaskell, Jill; Glotzer, Dylan; Gorecki, Pawel; Heitman, Joseph; Hesse, Cedar; Hori, Chiaki; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Jurgens, Joel A.; Kallen, Nathan; Kersten, Phil; Kohler, Annegret; Kues, Ursula; Kumar, T. K. Arun; Kuo, Alan; LaButti, Kurt; Larrondo, Luis F.; Lindquist, Erika; Ling, Albee; Lombard, Vincent; Lucas, Susan; Lundell, Taina; Martin, Rachael; McLaughlin, David J.; Morgenstern, Ingo; Morin, Emanuelle; Murat, Claude; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Nolan, Matt; Ohm, Robin A.; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Rokas, Antonis; Ruiz-Duenas, Francisco J.; Sabat, Grzegorz; Salamov, Asaf; Samejima, Masahiro; Schmutz, Jeremy; Slot, Jason C.; St. John, Franz; Stenlid, Jan; Sun, Hui; Sun, Sheng; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Tsang, Adrian; Wiebenga, Ad; Young, Darcy; Pisabarro, Antonio; Eastwood, Daniel C.; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Hibbett, David S.

    2012-03-12

    Wood is a major pool of organic carbon that is highly resistant to decay, owing largely to the presence of lignin. The only organisms capable of substantial lignin decay are white rot fungi in the Agaricomycetes, which also contains non?lignin-degrading brown rot and ectomycorrhizal species. Comparative analyses of 31 fungal genomes (12 generated for this study) suggest that lignin-degrading peroxidases expanded in the lineage leading to the ancestor of the Agaricomycetes, which is reconstructed as a white rot species, and then contracted in parallel lineages leading to brown rot and mycorrhizal species. Molecular clock analyses suggest that the origin of lignin degradation might have coincided with the sharp decrease in the rate of organic carbon burial around the end of the Carboniferous period.

  12. RESULTS OF ANALYSES OF MACROBATCH 3 DECONTAMINATED SALT SOLUTION (DSS) COALESCER AND PRE-FILTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2012-06-13

    SRNL analyzed the pre-filter and Decontamination Salt Solution (DSS) coalescer from MCU by several analytical methods. The results of these analyses indicate that overall there is light to moderate solids fouling of both the coalescer and pre-filter elements. The majority of the solids contain aluminum, sodium, silicon, and titanium, in oxide and/or hydroxide forms that we have noted before. The titanium is presumably precipitated from leached, dissolved monosodium titanate (MST) or fines from MST at ARP, and the quantity we find is significantly greater than in the past. A parallel report discusses potential causes for the increased leaching rate of MST, showing that increases in free hydroxide concentration of the feed solutions and of chemical cleaning solutions lead to faster leaching of titanium.

  13. THERMAL INSULATION FROM LIGNIN-DERIVED CARBON FIBERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albers, Tracy; Chen, Chong; Eberle, Cliff; Webb, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and GrafTech International Holdings Inc. (GrafTech) have collaborated to develop and demonstrate the performance of high temperature thermal insulation prototypes made from lignin-based carbon fibers (LBCF). This was the first reported production of LBCF or resulting products at scale > 1 kg. The results will potentially lead to the first commercial application of LBCF. The goal of the commercial application is to replace expensive, foreign-sourced isotropic pitch carbon fibers with lower cost carbon fibers made from a domestically sourced, bio-derived (renewable) feedstock. LBCF can help resolve supply chain vulnerability and reduce the production cost for high temperature thermal insulation as well as create US jobs. The performance of the LBCF prototypes was measured and found to be comparable to that of the current commercial product. During production of the insulation prototypes, the project team demonstrated lignin compounding/pelletization, fiber production, heat treatment, and compositing at scales far surpassing those previously demonstrated in LBCF R&D or production.

  14. Matching into the Helical Bunch Coalescing Channel for a High Luminosity Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sy, Amy; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Morozov, Vasiliy; Neuffer, David; Yonehara, Katsuya; Yoshikawa, Cary

    2015-09-01

    For high luminosity in a muon collider, muon bunches that have been cooled in the six-dimensional helical cooling channel (HCC) must be merged into a single bunch and further cooled in preparation for acceleration and transport to the collider ring. The helical bunch coalescing channel has been previously simulated and provides the most natural match from helical upstream and downstream subsystems. This work focuses on the matching from the exit of the multiple bunch HCC into the start of the helical bunch coalescing channel. The simulated helical matching section simultaneously matches the helical spatial period lambda in addition to providing the necessary acceleration for efficient bunch coalescing. Previous studies assumed that the acceleration of muon bunches from p=209.15 MeV/c to 286.816 MeV/c and matching of lambda from 0.5 m to 1.0 m could be accomplished with zero particle losses and zero emittance growth in the individual bunches. This study demonstrates nonzero values for both particle loss and emittance growth, and provides considerations for reducing these adverse effects to best preserve high luminosity.

  15. Recent Progress in Producing Lignin-Based Carbon Fibers for Functional Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, Ryan; Burwell, Deanna; Dai, Xuliang; Naskar, Amit; Gallego, Nidia; Akato, Kokouvi

    2015-10-29

    Lignin, a biopolymer, has been investigated as a renewable and low-cost carbon fiber precursor since the 1960s. Although successful lab-scale production of lignin-based carbon fibers has been reported, there are currently not any commercial producers. This paper will highlight some of the known challenges with converting lignin-based precursors into carbon fiber, and the reported methods for purifying and modifying lignin to improve it as a precursor. Several of the challenges with lignin are related to its diversity in chemical structure and purity, depending on its biomass source (e.g. hardwood, softwood, grasses) and extraction method (e.g. organosolv, kraft). In order to make progress in this field, GrafTech and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are collaborating to develop lignin-based carbon fiber technology and to demonstrate it in functional applications, as part of a cooperative agreement with the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office. The progress made to date with producing lignin-based carbon fiber for functional applications, as well as developing and qualifying a supply chain and value proposition, are also highlighted.

  16. Effect of ionic liquid treatment on the structures of lignins in solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Gang; Kent, Michael S; He, Lilin; Varanasi, Patanjali; Dibble, Dean; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Simmons, Blake; Singh, Seema

    2012-01-01

    The solution structures of three types of isolated lignin - organosolv (OS), Kraft (K), and low sulfonate (LS) - before and after treatment with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate were studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) over a concentration range of 0.3-2.4 wt %. The results indicate that each of these lignins is comprised of aggregates of well-defined basal subunits, the shapes and sizes of which, in D{sub 2}O and DMSO-d{sub 6}, are revealed using these techniques. LS lignin contains a substantial amount of nanometer-scale individual subunits. In aqueous solution these subunits have a well-defined elongated shape described well by ellipsoidal and cylindrical models. At low concentration the subunits are highly expanded in alkaline solution, and the effect is screened with increasing concentration. OS lignin dissolved in DMSO was found to consist of a narrow distribution of aggregates with average radius 200 {+-} 30 nm. K lignin in DMSO consists of aggregates with a very broad size distribution. After ionic liquid (IL) treatment, LS lignin subunits in alkaline solution maintained the elongated shape but were reduced in size. IL treatment of OS and K lignins led to the release of nanometer-scale subunits with well-defined size and shape.

  17. Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization. [Final] technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalvani, S.B.; Muchmore, C.B.; Koropchak, J.A.; Kim, Jong Won

    1992-12-31

    Liquefaction of an Illinois bituminous and a caustic lignin was studied in an initial hydrogen pressure of 140 psig. Experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 325-375{degree}C in tetralin. The addition of lignin to coal was found to be synergistic in that it significantly improves the quality and yield of the liquid products obtained. Kinetic data for coal conversion enhancement due to lignin addition were obtained. A mathematical model describing the reaction chemistry, using lignin, has been proposed and developed. The analysis of the results indicates that the intermediates produced from lignin were responsible for enhancement in coal depolymerization rate, however, the intermediates are short-lived as compared to the time needed for a significant coal conversion yield. Coal depolymerization rate was found to be a function of time; compared to processing coal alone, it doubled upon reacting coal with lignin at 375{degree}C and after 67 minutes from the beginning of the experiment. Overall mass recoveries of 95--98% of the total mass charged to the reactor were obtained. A careful statistical analysis of the data shows that coal depolymerization yield is enhanced by 11.9% due to the lignin addition. The liquids obtained were examined for their elemental composition, and molecular weight determination by size exclusion chromatography. The stability of liquid products was characterized by determining their solubility in pentane and benzene, and by evaluating the molecular weight.

  18. Coalescence of GaAs on (001) Si nano-trenches based on three-stage epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Yunrui; Wang, Jun Hu, Haiyang; Wang, Qi; Huang, Yongqing; Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-05-18

    The coalescence of selective area grown GaAs regions has been performed on patterned 1.8 μm GaAs buffer layer on Si via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. We propose a promising method of three-stage epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) to achieve uniform coalescence and flat surface. Rough surface caused by the coalescence of different growth fronts is smoothened by this method. Low root-mean-square surface roughness of 6.29 nm has been obtained on a 410-nm-thick coalesced ELO GaAs layer. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscope study shows that the coalescence of different growth fronts will induce some new dislocations. However, the coalescence-induced dislocations tend to mutually annihilate and only a small part of them reach the GaAs surface. High optical quality of the ELO GaAs layer has been confirmed by low temperature (77 K) photoluminescence measurements. This research promises a very large scale integration platform for the monolithic integration of GaAs-based device on Si.

  19. Expression of a bacterial 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase reduces lignin content and improves biomass saccharification efficiency

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Eudes, Aymerick; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; George, Anthe; Liang, Yan; Yang, Fan; Singh, Seema; Keasling, Jay D.; Simmons, Blake A.; Loqué, Dominique

    2015-01-13

    Lignin confers recalcitrance to plant biomass used as feedstocks in agro-processing industries or as source of renewable sugars for the production of bioproducts. The metabolic steps for the synthesis of lignin building blocks belong to the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways. Genetic engineering efforts to reduce lignin content typically employ gene knockout or gene silencing techniques to constitutively repress one of these metabolic pathways. Recently, new strategies have emerged offering better spatiotemporal control of lignin deposition, including the expression of enzymes that interfere with the normal process for cell wall lignification. In this study, we report that expression of a 3-dehydroshikimatemore » dehydratase (QsuB from Corynebacterium glutamicum) reduces lignin deposition in Arabidopsis cell walls. QsuB was targeted to the plastids to convert 3-dehydroshikimate – an intermediate of the shikimate pathway – into protocatechuate. Compared to wild-type plants, lines expressing QsuB contain higher amounts of protocatechuate, p-coumarate, p-coumaraldehyde and p-coumaryl alcohol, and lower amounts of coniferaldehyde, coniferyl alcohol, sinapaldehyde and sinapyl alcohol. 2D-NMR spectroscopy and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (pyro-GC/MS) reveal an increase of p-hydroxyphenyl units and a reduction of guaiacyl units in the lignin of QsuB lines. Size-exclusion chromatography indicates a lower degree of lignin polymerization in the transgenic lines. Therefore, our data show that the expression of QsuB primarily affects the lignin biosynthetic pathway. Finally, biomass from these lines exhibits more than a twofold improvement in saccharification efficiency. We conclude that the expression of QsuB in plants, in combination with specific promoters, is a promising gain-of-function strategy for spatiotemporal reduction of lignin in plant biomass.« less

  20. Expression of a bacterial 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase reduces lignin content and improves biomass saccharification efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudes, Aymerick; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; George, Anthe; Liang, Yan; Yang, Fan; Singh, Seema; Keasling, Jay D.; Simmons, Blake A.; Loqué, Dominique

    2015-01-13

    Lignin confers recalcitrance to plant biomass used as feedstocks in agro-processing industries or as source of renewable sugars for the production of bioproducts. The metabolic steps for the synthesis of lignin building blocks belong to the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways. Genetic engineering efforts to reduce lignin content typically employ gene knockout or gene silencing techniques to constitutively repress one of these metabolic pathways. Recently, new strategies have emerged offering better spatiotemporal control of lignin deposition, including the expression of enzymes that interfere with the normal process for cell wall lignification. In this study, we report that expression of a 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase (QsuB from Corynebacterium glutamicum) reduces lignin deposition in Arabidopsis cell walls. QsuB was targeted to the plastids to convert 3-dehydroshikimate – an intermediate of the shikimate pathway – into protocatechuate. Compared to wild-type plants, lines expressing QsuB contain higher amounts of protocatechuate, p-coumarate, p-coumaraldehyde and p-coumaryl alcohol, and lower amounts of coniferaldehyde, coniferyl alcohol, sinapaldehyde and sinapyl alcohol. 2D-NMR spectroscopy and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (pyro-GC/MS) reveal an increase of p-hydroxyphenyl units and a reduction of guaiacyl units in the lignin of QsuB lines. Size-exclusion chromatography indicates a lower degree of lignin polymerization in the transgenic lines. Therefore, our data show that the expression of QsuB primarily affects the lignin biosynthetic pathway. Finally, biomass from these lines exhibits more than a twofold improvement in saccharification efficiency. We conclude that the expression of QsuB in plants, in combination with specific promoters, is a promising gain-of-function strategy for spatiotemporal reduction of lignin in plant biomass.

  1. Mechanistic Investigation of Acid-Catalyzed Cleavage of Aryl-Ether Linkages: Implications for Lignin Depolymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturgeon, M. R.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon-oxygen bonds are the primary inter-monomer linkages lignin polymers in plant cell walls, and as such, catalyst development to cleave these linkages is of paramount importance to deconstruct biomass to its constituent monomers for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. For many decades, acid catalysis has been used to depolymerize lignin. Lignin is a primary component of plant cell walls, which is connected primarily by aryl-ether linkages, and the mechanism of its deconstruction by acid is not well understood, likely due to its heterogeneous and complex nature compared to cellulose. For effective biomass conversion strategies, utilization of lignin is of significant relevance and as such understanding the mechanisms of catalytic lignin deconstruction to constituent monomers and oligomers is of keen interest. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the acid catalysis of a range of dimeric species exhibiting the b-O-4 linkage, the most common inter-monomer linkage in lignin. We demonstrate that the presence of a phenolic species dramatically increases the rate of cleavage in acid at 150 degrees C. Quantum mechanical calculations on dimers with the para-hydroxyl group demonstrate that this acid-catalyzed pathway differs from the nonphenolic dimmers. Importantly, this result implies that depolymerization of native lignin in the plant cell wall will proceed via an unzipping mechanism wherein b-O-4 linkages will be cleaved from the ends of the branched, polymer chains inwards toward the center of the polymer. To test this hypothesis further, we synthesized a homopolymer of b-O-4 with a phenolic hydroxyl group, and demonstrate that it is cleaved in acid from the end containing the phenolic hydroxyl group. This result suggests that genetic modifications to lignin biosynthesis pathways in plants that will enable lower severity processes to fractionate lignin for upgrading and for easier access to the carbohydrate fraction of

  2. Controlling porosity in lignin-derived nanoporous carbon for supercapacitor applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jeon, Ju-Won; Zhang, Libing; Lutkenhaus, Jodie L.; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Lemmon, John P.; Choi, Daiwon; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Hashmi, Ali; Xu, Jie; Motkuri, Radha K.; et al

    2015-02-01

    Low-cost renewable lignin has been used as a precursor to produce porous carbons. However, to date, it has not been easy to obtain high surface area porous carbon without activation processes or templating agents. Here, we demonstrate that low molecular weight lignin yields highly porous carbon (1092 m² g⁻¹) with more graphitization through direct carbonization without additional activation processes or templating agents. We found that molecular weight and oxygen consumption during carbonization are critical factors to obtain high surface area, graphitized porous carbons. This highly porous carbon from low-cost renewable lignin sources is a good candidate for supercapacitor electrode materials.

  3. Use and value of reactive lignin. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, M.E.; Mednick, R.L.; Stern, K.M.

    1988-03-01

    New York State has ample reserves of wood that are not suitable for lumber nor paper making. The Energy Authority has several research projects to utilize wood for the production of fuels and energy intensive chemicals. The Energy Authority and Chem Systems set out to characterize the market potential for lignins derived as by-products of wood-to-ethanol processes. Based on these analyses and subsequent ranking of the potential applications, three end uses (Phenol-Formaldehyde resin adhesives, carbon black substitutes and diesel fuel cetane enhancers) were characterized as having a high potential of commercial success. Epoxies were characterized as having a low potential. The prospects of the remaining end uses (activated carbon replacements, polyurethanes, dietary adsorbents, phenol/benzene and asphalt extenders) were classified as intermediate, along with those of the Urea-Formaldehyde resin portion of the adhesive market.

  4. Nessus Visualization

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-10-01

    NV is a visualization tool for exploring vulnerabilities within a network. The data is created with a vulnerability assessment tool, such as Nessus (http://www.tenable.com/products/nessus).

  5. Visual Breakout

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Visual Breakout of the Cummulative Barrels of Oil Recovered by the Discoverer Enterprise, Q4000 and HP1. Updated through 12:00 AM on July 16, 2010.

  6. RESULTS FROM ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND STRIP EFFLUENT COALESCER ELEMENTS FROM RADIOACTIVE OPERATIONS OF THE MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-28

    The coalescer elements for the Strip Effluent (SE) acid within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) experienced elevated differential pressure drop during radioactive operations. Following the end of operations for the first Macrobatch campaign and soon after start of the second Macrobatch campaign, personnel removed the coalescer media and provided to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for diagnostic investigation of the causes of reduced flow. This report summarizes those studies. Two Strip Effluent (SE) coalescers were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). One was removed from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) between processing of Macrobatch 1 and 2 (coalescer 'Alpha'), and the second was removed from MCU after processing of {approx}24,000 gallons of salt solution (coalescer 'Beta'). Both coalescers underwent the same general strip acid flush program to reduce the dose and were delivered to SRNL for analysis of potential occluding solids. Analysis of Coalescer Alpha indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids and aluminosilicate solids, while analysis of Coalescer Beta indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids, but no aluminosilicates. Leaching studies on sections of both coalescers were performed. The results indicate that the coalescers had different amounts of solids present on them at the time of removal. Finally, samples of free liquids retrieved from both coalescers indicate no excessive amounts of CSSX solvent present. Given the strip acid flushing that occurred in the SE coalescers, the solids we detected on the coalescers are probably indicative of a larger quantity of these solids present before the strip acid flushing. Under this scenario, the excessive pressure drops are due to the solids and not from organic fouling.

  7. Lignin Process Design Confirmation and Capitol Cost Evaluation: Report 42002/02 -- Review of Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montague, L.

    2003-10-01

    Harris Group prepared this report on NREL's conceptual design for a process that converts lignin into a hydrocarbon that can be used as a high-octane automobile fuel additive.

  8. Modification of Lignin by Protein Cross-linking to Facilitate Production of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biofuels From Poplar (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Modification of Lignin by Protein Cross-linking to Facilitate Production of Biofuels From Poplar Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modification of Lignin by Protein Cross-linking to Facilitate Production of Biofuels From Poplar The limited supply of fossil fuels and the associated environmental issues associated with their utilization has resulted in much effort put forth to promote renewable resources of energy. Switching to

  9. Genome sequence and description of the anaerobic lignin-degrading bacterium Tolumonas lignolytica sp. nov.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Billings, Andrew F.; Fortney, Julian L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Simmons, Blake; Davenport, Karen W.; Goodwin, Lynne; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Woyke, Tanja; et al

    2015-11-19

    Tolumonas lignolytica BRL6-1T sp. nov. is the type strain of T. lignolytica sp. nov., a proposed novel species of the Tolumonas genus. This strain was isolated from tropical rainforest soils based on its ability to utilize lignin as a sole carbon source. Cells of Tolumonas lignolytica BRL6-1T are mesophilic, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rods that are oxidase and catalase negative. The genome for this isolate was sequenced and returned in seven unique contigs totaling 3.6Mbp, enabling the characterization of several putative pathways for lignin breakdown. Particularly, we found an extracellular peroxidase involved in lignin depolymerization, as well as several enzymes involvedmore » in β-aryl ether bond cleavage, which is the most abundant linkage between lignin monomers. We also found genes for enzymes involved in ferulic acid metabolism, which is a common product of lignin breakdown. Finally, by characterizing pathways and enzymes employed in the bacterial breakdown of lignin in anaerobic environments, this work should assist in the efficient engineering of biofuel production from lignocellulosic material.« less

  10. Genome sequence and description of the anaerobic lignin-degrading bacterium Tolumonas lignolytica sp. nov.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billings, Andrew F.; Fortney, Julian L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Simmons, Blake; Davenport, Karen W.; Goodwin, Lynne; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Woyke, Tanja; DeAngelis, Kristen M.

    2015-11-19

    Tolumonas lignolytica BRL6-1T sp. nov. is the type strain of T. lignolytica sp. nov., a proposed novel species of the Tolumonas genus. This strain was isolated from tropical rainforest soils based on its ability to utilize lignin as a sole carbon source. Cells of Tolumonas lignolytica BRL6-1T are mesophilic, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rods that are oxidase and catalase negative. The genome for this isolate was sequenced and returned in seven unique contigs totaling 3.6Mbp, enabling the characterization of several putative pathways for lignin breakdown. Particularly, we found an extracellular peroxidase involved in lignin depolymerization, as well as several enzymes involved in β-aryl ether bond cleavage, which is the most abundant linkage between lignin monomers. We also found genes for enzymes involved in ferulic acid metabolism, which is a common product of lignin breakdown. Finally, by characterizing pathways and enzymes employed in the bacterial breakdown of lignin in anaerobic environments, this work should assist in the efficient engineering of biofuel production from lignocellulosic material.

  11. General coalescence conditions for the exact wave functions. II. Higher-order relations for many-particle systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurokawa, Yusaku I. E-mail: h.nakatsuji@qcri.or.jp; Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi E-mail: h.nakatsuji@qcri.or.jp

    2014-06-07

    We derived the necessary conditions that must be satisfied by the non-relativistic time-independent exact wave functions for many-particle systems at a two-particle coalescence (or cusp) point. Some simple conditions are known to be Kato's cusp condition (CC) and Rassolov and Chipman's CC. In a previous study, we derived an infinite number of necessary conditions that two-particle wave functions must satisfy at a coalescence point. In the present study, we extend these conditions to many-particle systems. They are called general coalescence conditions (GCCs), and Kato's CC and Rassolov and Chipman's CC are included as special conditions. GCCs can be applied not only to Coulombic systems but also to any system in which the interaction between two particles is represented in a power series of inter-particle distances. We confirmed the correctness of our derivation of the GCCs by applying the exact wave function of a harmonium in electron-electron and electron-nucleus coalescence situations. In addition, we applied the free complement (FC) wave functions of a helium atom to the GCCs to examine the accuracy of the FC wave function in the context of a coalescence situation.

  12. Extracting the three- and four-graviton vertices from binary pulsars and coalescing binaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannella, Umberto; Foffa, Stefano; Maggiore, Michele; Sanctuary, Hillary; Sturani, Riccardo

    2009-12-15

    Using a formulation of the post-Newtonian expansion in terms of Feynman graphs, we discuss how various tests of general relativity (GR) can be translated into measurement of the three- and four-graviton vertices. In problems involving only the conservative dynamics of a system, a deviation of the three-graviton vertex from the GR prediction is equivalent, to lowest order, to the introduction of the parameter {beta}{sub PPN} in the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism, and its strongest bound comes from lunar laser ranging, which measures it at the 0.02% level. Deviation of the three-graviton vertex from the GR prediction, however, also affects the radiative sector of the theory. We show that the timing of the Hulse-Taylor binary pulsar provides a bound on the deviation of the three-graviton vertex from the GR prediction at the 0.1% level. For coalescing binaries at interferometers we find that, because of degeneracies with other parameters in the template such as mass and spin, the effects of modified three- and four-graviton vertices is just to induce an error in the determination of these parameters and, at least in the restricted PN approximation, it is not possible to use coalescing binaries for constraining deviations of the vertices from the GR prediction.

  13. Lipid-Based Nanodiscs as Models for Studying Mesoscale Coalescence A Transport Limited Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Andrew; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Katsaras, John; Xia, Yan; Li, Ming; Nieh, Mu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lipid-based nanodiscs (bicelles) are able to form in mixtures of long- and short-chain lipids. Initially, they are of uniform size but grow upon dilution. Previously, nanodisc growth kinetics have been studied using time-resolved small angle neutron scattering (SANS), a technique which is not well suited for probing their change in size immediately after dilution. To address this, we have used dynamic light scattering (DLS), a technique which permits the collection of useful data in a short span of time after dilution of the system. The DLS data indicate that the negatively charged lipids in nanodiscs play a significant role in disc stability and growth. Specifically, the charged lipids are most likely drawn out from the nanodiscs into solution, thereby reducing interparticle repulsion and enabling the discs to grow. We describe a population balance model, which takes into account Coulombic interactions and adequately predicts the initial growth of nanodiscs with a single parameter i.e., surface potential. The results presented here strongly support the notion that the disc coalescence rate strongly depends on nanoparticle charge density. The present system containing low-polydispersity lipid nanodiscs serves as a good model for understanding how charged discoidal micelles coalesce.

  14. Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-04-01

    Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted feed and other by-products. It can be burned as fuel for the plant or can be diverted into higher-value products. One such higher-valued product is pyrolysis oil, a fuel that can be further upgraded into motor gasoline fuels. While pyrolysis of pure lignin is not a good source of pyrolysis liquids, raw lignin containing unconverted feed and by-products may have potential as a feedstock. This report considers only the production of the pyrolysis oil and does not estimate the cost of upgrading that oil into synthetic crude oil or finished gasoline and diesel. A techno-economic analysis for the production of pyrolysis oil from raw lignin was conducted. comparing two cellulosic ethanol fermentation based biorefineries. The base case is the NREL 2002 cellulosic ethanol design report case where 2000 MTPD of corn stover is fermented to ethanol (NREL 2002). In the base case, lignin is separated from the ethanol product, dewatered, and burned to produce steam and power. The alternate case considered in this report dries the lignin, and then uses fast pyrolysis to generate a bio-oil product. Steam and power are generated in this alternate case by burning some of the corn stover feed, rather than fermenting it. This reduces the annual ethanol production rate from 69 to 54 million gallons/year. Assuming a pyrolysis oil value similar to Btu-adjusted residual oil, the estimated ethanol selling price ranges from $1.40 to $1.48 (2007 $) depending upon the yield of pyrolysis oil. This is considerably above the target minimum ethanol selling

  15. Characterization of Lignin Derived from Water-only and Dilute Acid Flowthrough Pretreatment of Poplar Wood at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Libing; Yan, Lishi; Wang, Zheming; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Swita, Marie S.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Background: Flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives to high-value products, which is vital to enhance the economy of biorefinery plants. Comprehensive understanding of lignin behaviors and solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of providing flexible platform for lignin utilization. Results: In this study, the effects of flowthrough pretreatment conditions on lignin separation from poplar wood were reported as well as the characteristics of three sub-sets of lignin produced from the pretreatment, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL), recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), and recovered soluble lignin in pretreatment liquid (RSL). Both the water-only and 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed at temperatures from 160 to 270°C on poplar wood in a flowthrough reactor system for 2-10 min. Results showed that water-only flowthrough pretreatment primarily removed syringyl (S units). Increased temperature and/or the addition of sulfuric acid enhanced the removal of guaiacyl (G units) compared to water-only pretreatments at lower temperatures, resulting in nearly complete removal of lignin from the biomass. Results also suggested that more RISL was recovered than ReL and RSL in both dilute acid and water-only flowthrough pretreatment at elevated temperatures. NMR spectra of the RISL revealed significant β-O-4 cleavage, α-β deoxygenation to form cinnamyl-like end groups, and slight β-5 repolymerization in both water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatments. Conclusions: Elevated temperature and/or dilute acid greatly enhanced lignin removal to almost 100% by improving G unit removal besides S unit removal in flowthrough system. A new lignin chemistry transformation pathway was proposed and revealed the complexity of lignin structural change

  16. Characterization of lignin derived from water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment of poplar wood at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Libing; Yan, Lishi; Wang, Zheming; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Swita, Marie S.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    In this study, flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives to high-value products, which is vital to enhance the economy of biorefinery plants. Comprehensive understanding of lignin behaviors and solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of providing flexible platform for lignin utilization. In this study, the effects of flowthrough pretreatment conditions on lignin separation from poplar wood were reported as well as the characteristics of three sub-sets of lignin produced from the pretreatment, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL), recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), and recovered soluble lignin in pretreatment liquid (RSL). Both the water-only and 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed at temperatures from 160 to 270°C on poplar wood in a flowthrough reactor system for 2-10 min. Results showed that water-only flowthrough pretreatment primarily removed syringyl (S units). Increased temperature and/or the addition of sulfuric acid enhanced the removal of guaiacyl (G units) compared to water-only pretreatments at lower temperatures, resulting in nearly complete removal of lignin from the biomass. Results also suggested that more RISL was recovered than ReL and RSL in both dilute acid and water-only flowthrough pretreatment at elevated temperatures. NMR spectra of the RISL revealed significant β-O-4 cleavage, α-β deoxygenation to form cinnamyl-like end groups, and slight β-5 repolymerization in both water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatments. In conclusion, elevated temperature and/or dilute acid greatly enhanced lignin removal to almost 100% by improving G unit removal besides S unit removal in flowthrough system. A new lignin chemistry transformation pathway was proposed and revealed the complexity of lignin structural change during

  17. Poly(ethylene oxide)-Assisted Macromolecular Self-Assembly of Lignin in ABS Matrix for Sustainable Composite Applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Akato, Kokouvi M.; Tran, Chau D.; Chen, Jihua; Naskar, Amit K.

    2015-11-05

    Here we report the compatibilization of biomass-derived lignin polymer in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) thermoplastic matrix without loss of mechanical properties via poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-mediated macromolecular self-assembly. ABS was blended with lignin in different concentrations, and blends with 10 wt % PEO (relative to lignin) were prepared. The relative tensile strength improved slightly at low lignin content but diminished rapidly as the lignin content was increased. However, the inclusion of PEO as an interfacial adhesion promoter helped avoid deleterious effects. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that PEO plasticized the hard phase and thus lowered the activation energy (Ea) for its relaxationmore » but caused stiffening of the soft phase and increased its Ea. Microscopy revealed that incorporating lignin in ABS led to the statistical dispersion of discrete lignin domains (300–1000 nm) which, after PEO addition, were reduced to smaller interconnected particles (200–500 nm). The lignin-extended partially renewable ABS resins showed shear-thinning behavior and reduced viscosity compared to neat ABS. The preferred lignin-loaded compositions reinforced with 20 vol % chopped carbon fibers exhibited mechanical performances (77–80 MPa) equivalent to those of reinforced ABS materials reportedly used in 3D printing applications. In conclusion, this approach could lower the cost of ABS while reducing its carbon footprint.« less

  18. Poly(ethylene oxide)-Assisted Macromolecular Self-Assembly of Lignin in ABS Matrix for Sustainable Composite Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akato, Kokouvi M.; Tran, Chau D.; Chen, Jihua; Naskar, Amit K.

    2015-11-05

    Here we report the compatibilization of biomass-derived lignin polymer in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) thermoplastic matrix without loss of mechanical properties via poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-mediated macromolecular self-assembly. ABS was blended with lignin in different concentrations, and blends with 10 wt % PEO (relative to lignin) were prepared. The relative tensile strength improved slightly at low lignin content but diminished rapidly as the lignin content was increased. However, the inclusion of PEO as an interfacial adhesion promoter helped avoid deleterious effects. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that PEO plasticized the hard phase and thus lowered the activation energy (Ea) for its relaxation but caused stiffening of the soft phase and increased its Ea. Microscopy revealed that incorporating lignin in ABS led to the statistical dispersion of discrete lignin domains (300–1000 nm) which, after PEO addition, were reduced to smaller interconnected particles (200–500 nm). The lignin-extended partially renewable ABS resins showed shear-thinning behavior and reduced viscosity compared to neat ABS. The preferred lignin-loaded compositions reinforced with 20 vol % chopped carbon fibers exhibited mechanical performances (77–80 MPa) equivalent to those of reinforced ABS materials reportedly used in 3D printing applications. In conclusion, this approach could lower the cost of ABS while reducing its carbon footprint.

  19. High-Throughput Screening of Recalcitrance Variations in Lignocellulosic Biomass: Total Lignin, Lignin Monomers, and Enzymatic Sugar Release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decker, Stephen R.; Sykes, Robert W.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Lupoi, Jason S.; Doepkke, Crissa; Tucker, Melvin P.; Schuster, Logan A.; Mazza, Kimberly; Himmel, Michael E.; Davis, Mark F.; Gjersing, Erica

    2015-09-15

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels, chemicals, and other commodities has been explored as one possible pathway toward reductions in the use of non-renewable energy sources. In order to identify which plants, out of a diverse pool, have the desired chemical traits for downstream applications, attributes, such as cellulose and lignin content, or monomeric sugar release following an enzymatic saccharification, must be compared. The experimental and data analysis protocols of the standard methods of analysis can be time-consuming, thereby limiting the number of samples that can be measured. High-throughput (HTP) methods alleviate the shortcomings of the standard methods, and permit the rapid screening of available samples to isolate those possessing the desired traits. This study illustrates the HTP sugar release and pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry pipelines employed at the National Renewable Energy Lab. These pipelines have enabled the efficient assessment of thousands of plants while decreasing experimental time and costs through reductions in labor and consumables.

  20. A new class of renewable thermoplastics with extraordinary performance from nanostructured lignin-elastomers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Jihua D.; Keum, Jong Kahk; Naskar, Amit K.; Tran, Chau D.

    2016-03-22

    In this study, a new class of thermoplastic elastomers has been created by introducing nanoscale-dispersed lignin (a biomass-derived phenolic oligomer) into nitrile rubber. Temperature-induced controlled miscibility between the lignin and the rubber during high shear melt-phase synthesis allows tuning the material s morphology and performance. The sustainable product has unprecedented yield stress (15–45 MPa), strain hardens at large deformation, and has outstanding recyclability. The multiphase polymers developed from an equal-mass mixture of a melt-stable lignin fraction and nitrile rubber with optimal acrylonitrile content, using the method described here, show 5–100 nm lignin lamellae with a high-modulus rubbery interphase. Molded ormore » printed elastomeric products prepared from the lignin-nitrile material offer an additional revenue stream to pulping mills and biorefineries. Research was sponsored by the Technology Innovation Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy. TEM (J.C. and C.D.T.) and SAXS (J.K.K.) experiments were conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.« less

  1. Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization. [Quarterly] report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalvani, S.B.; Muchmore, C.B.; Koropchak, J.A.; Kim, Jong Won

    1992-10-01

    In the last report, it was shown that when lignin is added to coal, the rate of coal depolymerization is enhanced. The results,-reported were based upon a number of experiments conducted for the following three reasons: (i) to generate enough quantities of liquid products so that their stability in various environments can be ascertained, (ii) to closely characterize the reaction products, so that individual atomic mass balances can be performed, and (iii) to determine the reproducibility of the experiments conducted. The stability of liquid products was characterized by determining their solubility in pentane and benzene. Exposure of the coal- and coal+lignin-derived liquids to air at 40 and 80{degrees}C led to a decrease in the pentane-soluble and asphaltene fractions with a concomitant enhancement in the benzene insoluble fraction. However, relatively no degradation was observed for the liquid samples exposed to an inert (N{sub 2}) atmosphere. Preliminary data show that the coal+lignin-derived liquids are more stable than that obtained by coal liquefaction. In this quarterly report, individual atomic mass balances on various experiments conducted with coal, lignin and coal+lignin mixtures are also reported. Although the overall mass recoveries of 95--98% of the total mass charged to the reactor were obtained, the atomic mass balance data are somewhat difficult to interpret due to the possible incorporation of tetralin (solvent) in the reaction products.

  2. Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalvani, S.B.

    1991-12-31

    Previous research has shown that addition of lignin-derived liquids to coal stirred in tetralin under mild reaction conditions (375{degree}C and 300--500 psig) results in a marked enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization. A mathematical model was developed to study the kinetics of coal depolymerization in the presence of liquid-derived liquids. In the present study, a reaction pathway was formulated to explain the enhancement in coal depolymerization due to lignin (solid) addition. The model postulated assumes that the products of lignin obtained during thermolysis interact with the reactive moieties present in coal while simultaneous depolymerization of coal occurs. A good fit between the experimental data and the kinetic model was found. The results show that in addition to the enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization, lignin also reacts (and enhances the extent of depolymerization of coal) with those reaction sites in coal that are not susceptible to depolymerization when coal alone is reacted in tetralin under identical reaction conditions. Additional work is being carried out to determine a thorough materials balance on the lignin-assisted coal depolymerization process. A number of liquid samples have been obtained which are being studied for their stability in various environments. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Integration of air separation membrane and coalescing filter for use on an inlet air system of an engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moncelle, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    An intake air separation system suitable for combustion air of an internal combustion engine. An air separation device of the system includes a plurality of fibers, each fiber having a tube with a permeation barrier layer on the outer surface thereof and a coalescing layer on the inner surface thereof, to restrict fluid droplets from contacting the permeation barrier layer.

  4. VISUAL-SOLAR

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003661IBMPC00 Visual-SOLAR: Modeling and Visualization of Solar Radiation Potential on Individual Building Rooftops

  5. Manipulation of lignin composition in plants using a tissue-specific promoter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapple, Clinton C. S.

    2003-08-26

    The present invention relates to methods and materials in the field of molecular biology, the manipulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway and the regulation of proteins synthesis through plant genetic engineering. More particularly, the invention relates to the introduction of a foreign nucleotide sequence into a plant genome, wherein the introduction of the nucleotide sequence effects an increase in the syringyl content of the plant's lignin. In one specific aspect, the invention relates to methods for modifying the plant lignin composition in a plant cell by the introduction there into of a foreign nucleotide sequence comprising at issue specific plant promoter sequence and a sequence encoding an active ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H) enzyme. Plant transformants harboring an inventive promoter-F5H construct demonstrate increased levels of syringyl monomer residues in their lignin, rendering the polymer more readily delignified and, thereby, rendering the plant more readily pulped or digested.

  6. Engineering a monolignol 4-O-methyltransferase with high selectivity for the condensed lignin precursor coniferyl alchohol

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cai, Yuanheng; Shanklin, John; Mohammad -Wadud Bhuiya; Liu, Chang -Jun

    2015-09-16

    Lignin, a rigid biopolymer in plant cell walls, is derived from the oxidative polymerization of three monolignols. The composition of monolignol monomers dictates the degree of lignin condensation, reactivity, and thus the degradability of plant cell walls. Guaiacyl lignin is regarded as the condensed structural unit. Polymerization of lignin is initiated through the deprotonation of the para-hydroxyl group of monolignols. Therefore, preferentially modifying the para-hydroxyl of a specific monolignol to deprive its dehydrogenation propensity would disturb the formation of particular lignin subunits. Here, we test the hypothesis that specific remodeling the active site of a monolignol 4-O-methyltransferase would create anmore » enzyme that specifically methylates the condensed guaiacyl lignin precursor coniferyl alcohol. Combining crystal structural information with combinatorial active site saturation mutagenesis and starting with the engineered promiscuous enzyme, MOMT5 (T133L/E165I/F175I/F166W/H169F), we incrementally remodeled its substrate binding pocket by the addition of four substitutions, i.e. M26H, S30R, V33S, and T319M, yielding a mutant enzyme capable of discriminately etherifying the para-hydroxyl of coniferyl alcohol even in the presence of excess sinapyl alcohol. The engineered enzyme variant has a substantially reduced substrate binding pocket that imposes a clear steric hindrance thereby excluding bulkier lignin precursors. Lastly, the resulting enzyme variant represents an excellent candidate for modulating lignin composition and/or structure in planta.« less

  7. Engineering a monolignol 4-O-methyltransferase with high selectivity for the condensed lignin precursor coniferyl alchohol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Yuanheng; Shanklin, John; Mohammad -Wadud Bhuiya; Liu, Chang -Jun

    2015-09-16

    Lignin, a rigid biopolymer in plant cell walls, is derived from the oxidative polymerization of three monolignols. The composition of monolignol monomers dictates the degree of lignin condensation, reactivity, and thus the degradability of plant cell walls. Guaiacyl lignin is regarded as the condensed structural unit. Polymerization of lignin is initiated through the deprotonation of the para-hydroxyl group of monolignols. Therefore, preferentially modifying the para-hydroxyl of a specific monolignol to deprive its dehydrogenation propensity would disturb the formation of particular lignin subunits. Here, we test the hypothesis that specific remodeling the active site of a monolignol 4-O-methyltransferase would create an enzyme that specifically methylates the condensed guaiacyl lignin precursor coniferyl alcohol. Combining crystal structural information with combinatorial active site saturation mutagenesis and starting with the engineered promiscuous enzyme, MOMT5 (T133L/E165I/F175I/F166W/H169F), we incrementally remodeled its substrate binding pocket by the addition of four substitutions, i.e. M26H, S30R, V33S, and T319M, yielding a mutant enzyme capable of discriminately etherifying the para-hydroxyl of coniferyl alcohol even in the presence of excess sinapyl alcohol. The engineered enzyme variant has a substantially reduced substrate binding pocket that imposes a clear steric hindrance thereby excluding bulkier lignin precursors. Lastly, the resulting enzyme variant represents an excellent candidate for modulating lignin composition and/or structure in planta.

  8. Top Value-Added Chemicals from Biomass - Volume IIResults of Screening for Potential Candidates from Biorefinery Lignin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holladay, John E.; White, James F.; Bozell, Joseph J.; Johnson, David

    2007-10-01

    This report evaluates lignins role as a renewable raw material resource. Opportunities that arise from utilizing lignin fit into one of three categories: 1)power, fuel and syngas (generally near-term opportunities) 2) macromolecules (generally medium-term opportunities) 3) aromatics and miscellaneous monomers (long-term opportunities). Biorefineries will receive and process massive amounts of lignin. For this reason, how lignin can be best used to support the economic health of the biorefinery must be defined. An approach that only considers process heat would be shortsighted. Higher value products present economic opportunities and the potential to significantly increase the amount of liquid transportation fuel available from biomass. In this analysis a list of potential uses of lignin was compiled and sorted into product types which are broad classifications (listed above as powerfuelsyngas; macromolecules; and aromatics). In the first product type (powerfuelgasification) lignin is used purely as a carbon source and aggressive means are employed to break down its polymeric structure. In the second product type (macromolecules) the opposite extreme is considered and advantage of the macromolecular structure imparted by nature is retained in high-molecular weight applications. The third product type (aromatics) lies somewhere between the two extremes and employs technologies that would break up lignins macromolecular structure but maintain the aromatic nature of the building block molecules. The individual opportunities were evaluated based on their technical difficulty, market, market risk, building block utility, and whether a pure material or a mixture would be produced. Unlike the Sugars Top 10 report it was difficult to identify the ten best opportunities, however, the potential opportunities fell nicely into near-, medium- and long-term opportunities. Furthermore, the near-, medium- and long-term opportunities roughly align with the three

  9. Micro-Spectroscopic Imaging of Lignin-Carbohydrate Complexes in Plant Cell Walls and Their Migration During Biomass Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Yining; Zhao, Shuai; Wei, Hui; Tucker, Melvin P.; Johnson, David K.; Himmel, Michael E.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Meilan, Richard; Ding, Shi-You

    2015-04-27

    In lignocellulosic biomass, lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer. In plant cell walls, lignin is associated with polysaccharides to form lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC). LCC have been considered to be a major factor that negatively affects the process of deconstructing biomass to simple sugars by cellulosic enzymes. Here, we report a micro-spectroscopic approach that combines fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and Stimulated Raman Scattering microscopy to probe in situ lignin concentration and conformation at each cell wall layer. This technique does not require extensive sample preparation or any external labels. Using poplar as a feedstock, for example, we observe variation of LCC in untreated tracheid poplar cell walls. The redistribution of LCC at tracheid poplar cell wall layers is also investigated when the chemical linkages between lignin and hemicellulose are cleaved during pretreatment. Our study would provide new insights into further improvement of the biomass pretreatment process.

  10. Cellulose and lignin: biodegradation. January 1978-May 1987 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for January 1978-May 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the biodegradation of waste cellulose, cellulose-containing substances, lignin, and lignin-containing substances. Attention is given to the organisms that decompose cellulose and lignin, and the processes by which this takes place. (This updated bibliography contains 379 citations, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  11. Cellulose and lignin: biodegradation. June 1987-September 1988 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for June 1987-September 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the biodegradation of waste cellulose, cellulose-containing substances, lignin, and lignin-containing substances. Attention is given to the organisms that decompose cellulose and lignin, and the processes by which this takes place. (This updated bibliography contains 65 citations, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  12. Cellulose and lignin: Biodegradation. June 1987-September 1989 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for June 1987-September 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the biodegradation of waste cellulose, cellulose-containing substances, lignin, and lignin-containing substances. Attention is given to the organisms that decompose cellulose and lignin, and the processes by which this takes place. (This updated bibliography contains 120 citations, 46 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  13. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, Stuart K.; Hames, Bonnie R.; Myers, Michele D.

    1998-01-01

    A method for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  14. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, S.K.; Hames, B.R.; Myers, M.D.

    1998-03-24

    A method is described for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  15. Comparative results of the combustion of lignin briquettes and black coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.G. Lurii

    2008-12-15

    A new type of biofuel - hydrolytic lignin briquettes - was tested as compared with ordinary SS coal from the Kuznetsk Basin in fuel-bed firing in a Universal-6 boiler. It was found that the (total) efficiency of the boiler with the firing of lignin briquettes was 38% higher than that with the use of black coal. Carbon loss in the combustion of briquettes was 1%, whereas it was 48.2% in the combustion of black coal. The emission of harmful gas pollutants into the environment in the combustion of briquettes was lower than that in the combustion of coal by a factor of 4.5.

  16. Manipulation Of Lignin Biosynthesis To Maximize Ethanol Production From Populus Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Clint Chapple; Dr. Rick Lindroth; Dr. Burce Dien; Dr. Glen Stanosz; Dr. Alex Wiedenhoeft; Dr. Fu Zhao; Dr. Duane Wegener; Dr. Janice Kelly; Dr. Leigh Raymond; Dr. Wallace Tyner

    2012-05-15

    Our research focuses on transgenic strategies for modifying lignification to improve biomass quality, without leading to deleterious effects on plant performance. In order to accomplish this objective, we designed molecular strategies and selected appropriate transgenes for manipulating the expression of lignification-associated genes; we generated poplar engineered for altered lignin content and/or monomer composition, and field-tested them for fitness; we analyzed the impact of these transgenic strategies on metabolism in general and lignin biosynthesis in particular; and evaluated the ease with which cell wall deconstruction can be accomplished using both chemical and enzymatic means using wild-type and high syringyl poplar.

  17. Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis of Lignin Model Compounds: Reaction Pathways of Aromatic Methoxy Groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C., III; Martineau, D.R.

    1999-03-21

    Currently, there is interest in utilizing lignin, a major constituent of biomass, as a renewable source of chemicals and fuels. High yields of liquid products can be obtained from the flash or fast pyrolysis of biomass, but the reaction pathways that lead to product formation are not understood. To provide insight into the primary reaction pathways under process relevant conditions, we are investigating the flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of lignin model compounds at 500 C. This presentation will focus on the FVP of {beta}-ether linkages containing aromatic methoxy groups and the reaction pathways of methoxy-substituted phenoxy radicals.

  18. New perspective on glycoside hydrolase binding to lignin from pretreated corn stover

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yarbrough, John M.; Mittal, Ashutosh; Mansfield, Elisabeth; Taylor, II, Larry E.; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Sammond, Deanne W.; Bomble, Yannick J.; Crowley, Michael F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Himmel, Michael E.; et al

    2015-12-18

    In this study, non-specific binding of cellulases to lignin has been implicated as a major factor in the loss of cellulase activity during biomass conversion to sugars. It is believed that this binding may strongly impact process economics through loss of enzyme activities during hydrolysis and enzyme recycling scenarios. The current model suggests glycoside hydrolase activities are lost though non-specific/non-productive binding of carbohydrate-binding domains to lignin, limiting catalytic site access to the carbohydrate components of the cell wall.

  19. Lignin-Derived Carbon Fiber as a Co-Product of Refining Cellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langholtz, Matthew H.; Downing, Mark; Graham, Robin Lambert; Baker, Fred S.; Compere, Alicia L.; William L. Griffith; Boeman, Raymond G.; Keller, Martin

    2014-01-15

    Lignin by-products from biorefineries has the potential to provide a low-cost alternative to petroleum-based precursors to manufacture carbon fiber, which can be combined with a binding matrix to produce a structural material with much greater specific strength and specific stiffness than conventional materials such as steel and aluminum. The market for carbon fiber is universally projected to grow exponentially to fill the needs of clean energy technologies such as wind turbines and to improve the fuel economies in vehicles through lightweighting. In addition to cellulosic biofuel production, lignin-based carbon fiber production coupled with biorefineries may provide $2,400 to $3,600 added value dry Mg-1 of biomass for vehicle applications. Compared to producing ethanol alone, the addition of lignin-derived carbon fiber could increase biorefinery gross revenue by 30% to 300%. Using lignin-derived carbon fiber in 15 million vehicles per year in the US could reduce fossil fuel consumption by 2-5 billion liters year-1, reduce CO2 emissions by about 6.7 million Mg year-1, and realize fuel savings through vehicle lightweighting of $700 to $1,600 per Mg biomass processed. The value of fuel savings from vehicle lightweighting becomes economical at carbon fiber price of $6.60 kg-1 under current fuel prices, or $13.20 kg-1 under fuel prices of about $1.16 l-1.

  20. The island coalescence problem: Scaling of reconnection in extended fluid models including higher-order moments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, Jonathan; Huang, Yi -Min; Hakim, Ammar; Bhattacharjee, A.; Stanier, Adam; Daughton, William; Wang, Liang; Germaschewski, Kai

    2015-11-05

    As modeling of collisionless magnetic reconnection in most space plasmas with realistic parameters is beyond the capability of today's simulations, due to the separation between global and kinetic length scales, it is important to establish scaling relations in model problems so as to extrapolate to realistic scales. Furthermore, large scale particle-in-cell simulations of island coalescence have shown that the time averaged reconnection rate decreases with system size, while fluid systems at such large scales in the Hall regime have not been studied. Here, we perform the complementary resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall MHD, and two fluid simulations using a ten-moment model with the same geometry. In contrast to the standard Harris sheet reconnection problem, Hall MHD is insufficient to capture the physics of the reconnection region. Additionally, motivated by the results of a recent set of hybrid simulations which show the importance of ion kinetics in this geometry, we evaluate the efficacy of the ten-moment model in reproducing such results.

  1. The island coalescence problem: Scaling of reconnection in extended fluid models including higher-order moments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, Jonathan; Huang, Yi-Min; Hakim, Ammar; Bhattacharjee, A.; Stanier, Adam; Daughton, William; Wang, Liang; Germaschewski, Kai

    2015-11-15

    As modeling of collisionless magnetic reconnection in most space plasmas with realistic parameters is beyond the capability of today's simulations, due to the separation between global and kinetic length scales, it is important to establish scaling relations in model problems so as to extrapolate to realistic scales. Recently, large scale particle-in-cell simulations of island coalescence have shown that the time averaged reconnection rate decreases with system size, while fluid systems at such large scales in the Hall regime have not been studied. Here, we perform the complementary resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall MHD, and two fluid simulations using a ten-moment model with the same geometry. In contrast to the standard Harris sheet reconnection problem, Hall MHD is insufficient to capture the physics of the reconnection region. Additionally, motivated by the results of a recent set of hybrid simulations which show the importance of ion kinetics in this geometry, we evaluate the efficacy of the ten-moment model in reproducing such results.

  2. The island coalescence problem: Scaling of reconnection in extended fluid models including higher-order moments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ng, Jonathan; Huang, Yi -Min; Hakim, Ammar; Bhattacharjee, A.; Stanier, Adam; Daughton, William; Wang, Liang; Germaschewski, Kai

    2015-11-05

    As modeling of collisionless magnetic reconnection in most space plasmas with realistic parameters is beyond the capability of today's simulations, due to the separation between global and kinetic length scales, it is important to establish scaling relations in model problems so as to extrapolate to realistic scales. Furthermore, large scale particle-in-cell simulations of island coalescence have shown that the time averaged reconnection rate decreases with system size, while fluid systems at such large scales in the Hall regime have not been studied. Here, we perform the complementary resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall MHD, and two fluid simulations using a ten-moment modelmore » with the same geometry. In contrast to the standard Harris sheet reconnection problem, Hall MHD is insufficient to capture the physics of the reconnection region. Additionally, motivated by the results of a recent set of hybrid simulations which show the importance of ion kinetics in this geometry, we evaluate the efficacy of the ten-moment model in reproducing such results.« less

  3. Structural basis of stereospecificity in the bacterial enzymatic cleavage of β-aryl ether bonds in lignin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helmich, Kate E.; Pereira, Jose Henrique; Gall, Daniel L.; Heins, Richard A.; McAndrew, Ryan P.; Bingman, Craig; Deng, Kai; Holland, Keefe C.; Noguera, Daniel R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Sale, Kenneth L.; Ralph, John; Donohue, Timothy J.; Adams, Paul D.; Phillips, George N.

    2015-12-04

    Here, lignin is a combinatorial polymer comprising monoaromatic units that are linked via covalent bonds. Although lignin is a potential source of valuable aromatic chemicals, its recalcitrance to chemical or biological digestion presents major obstacles to both the production of second-generation biofuels and the generation of valuable coproducts from lignin's monoaromatic units. Degradation of lignin has been relatively well characterized in fungi, but it is less well understood in bacteria. A catabolic pathway for the enzymatic breakdown of aromatic oligomers linked via β-aryl ether bonds typically found in lignin has been reported in the bacterium Sphingobium sp. SYK-6. Here, we present x-ray crystal structures and biochemical characterization of the glutathione-dependent β-etherases, LigE and LigF, from this pathway. The crystal structures show that both enzymes belong to the canonical two-domain fold and glutathione binding site architecture of the glutathione S-transferase family. Mutagenesis of the conserved active site serine in both LigE and LigF shows that, whereas the enzymatic activity is reduced, this amino acid side chain is not absolutely essential for catalysis. The results include descriptions of cofactor binding sites, substrate binding sites, and catalytic mechanisms. Because β-aryl ether bonds account for 50–70% of all interunit linkages in lignin, understanding the mechanism of enzymatic β-aryl ether cleavage has significant potential for informing ongoing studies on the valorization of lignin.

  4. Structural basis of stereospecificity in the bacterial enzymatic cleavage of β-aryl ether bonds in lignin

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Helmich, Kate E.; Pereira, Jose Henrique; Gall, Daniel L.; Heins, Richard A.; McAndrew, Ryan P.; Bingman, Craig; Deng, Kai; Holland, Keefe C.; Noguera, Daniel R.; Simmons, Blake A.; et al

    2015-12-04

    Here, lignin is a combinatorial polymer comprising monoaromatic units that are linked via covalent bonds. Although lignin is a potential source of valuable aromatic chemicals, its recalcitrance to chemical or biological digestion presents major obstacles to both the production of second-generation biofuels and the generation of valuable coproducts from lignin's monoaromatic units. Degradation of lignin has been relatively well characterized in fungi, but it is less well understood in bacteria. A catabolic pathway for the enzymatic breakdown of aromatic oligomers linked via β-aryl ether bonds typically found in lignin has been reported in the bacterium Sphingobium sp. SYK-6. Here, wemore » present x-ray crystal structures and biochemical characterization of the glutathione-dependent β-etherases, LigE and LigF, from this pathway. The crystal structures show that both enzymes belong to the canonical two-domain fold and glutathione binding site architecture of the glutathione S-transferase family. Mutagenesis of the conserved active site serine in both LigE and LigF shows that, whereas the enzymatic activity is reduced, this amino acid side chain is not absolutely essential for catalysis. The results include descriptions of cofactor binding sites, substrate binding sites, and catalytic mechanisms. Because β-aryl ether bonds account for 50–70% of all interunit linkages in lignin, understanding the mechanism of enzymatic β-aryl ether cleavage has significant potential for informing ongoing studies on the valorization of lignin.« less

  5. Reductive deconstruction of organosolv lignin catalyzed by zeolite supported nickel nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasakov, Stanislav; Shi, Hui; Camaioni, Donald M.; Zhao, Chen; Barath, Eszter; Jentys, Andreas; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-11-01

    Mechanistic aspects of deconstruction and hydrodeoxygenation of organosolv lignin using supported Ni catalysts with (Ni/HZSM-5 and Ni/HBEA) and without Brønsted acid sites (Ni/SiO2) are reported. Lignin was deconstructed and converted to saturated cyclic hydrocarbons ranging from C5 to C14. In the one-stage reaction, full conversion with total yield of 70 ± 5 wt.% saturated hydrocarbons was achieved at 593 K and 20 bar H2. The organosolv lignin used consists of seven to eight monolignol subunits and has an average molecular weight of ca. 1200 g mol-1. The monolignols were mainly guaiacyl, syringyl and phenylcoumaran, randomly interconnected through β-O-4, 4-O-5, β-1, 5-5’ and β-β ether bonds. In situ IR spectroscopy was used to follow the changes in lignin constituents during reaction. The proposed reaction pathways for the catalytic transformation of this organosolv lignin to alkanes start with the hydrogenolysis of aryl alkyl ether bonds, followed by hydrogenation of the aromatic compounds on Ni to cyclic alcohols. Oxygen is removed from the alcohols via dehydration on Brønsted acid sites to yield cyclic alkenes that are further hydrogenated to alkanes. Formation of condensation products may occur via intermolecular recombination of aromatic monomers or alkylation of aromatic compounds by alkenes. The financial support from TUM-PNNL cooperation project “Development of new methods for in situ characterization in liquid phase reactions” (CN-177939) is highly appreciated. The work by S.K., H.S., and J.A.L was partially supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences.

  6. Adsorption of Clostridium thermocellum cellulases onto pretreated mixed hardwood, avicel, and lignin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernardez, T.D.; Lyford, K.; Hogsett, D.A.; Lynd, L.R. . Thayer School of Engineering)

    1993-09-20

    Adsorption of Avicel-hydrolyzing activity was examined with respect to: mixed hardwood flour pretreated with 1% sulfuric acid for 9 s at 220C (PTW220), lignin prepared from PTW220 by either acid or enzymatic hydrolysis, and Avicel. Experiments were conducted at 60C for all materials, and also at 25C for PTW220. Based on transient adsorption results and reaction rates, times were selected at which to characterize adsorption at 60C as follows: PTW220, 1 min; lignin, 30 min; and Avicel, 45 min. Similar results were obtained for adsorption of cellulase activity to PTW220 at 25 and 60C, and for lignin prepared by enzymatic and acid hydrolysis. For all materials, adsorption was described well by a Langmuir equation, although the reversibility of adsorption was not investigated. Langmuir affinity constants (L/g) were: PTW220, 109; lignin, 17.9; Avicel, 4.3; cellulose from PTW220, [ge]187. Langmuir capacity constants were 760 for PTW220 and 42 for Avicel; the cellulase binding capacity of lignin appeared to be very high under the conditions examined, and could not be determined. At low and moderate cellulase loadings at least, the majority of cellulase activity adsorbed to PTVV220 is bound to the cellulosic component. The results indicate that PTW220, and its cellulose component in particular, differ radically from Avicel with respect to adsorption. Avicel-hydrolyzing activity and CMC-hydrolyzing activities were found to bind to Avicel with a constant ratio of essentially one, consistent with adsorption of a multi-activity complex.

  7. Cellulose and lignin: Biodegradation. January 1985-May 1989 (Citations from the Biobusiness data base). Report for January 1985-May 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the biodegradation of materials containing cellulose and lignin components. Natural wood decay and sludge digestion are considered. Detailed chemical and physical mechanisms of degradation and research on microorganisms involved are discussed for a variety of cellulose and lignin containing materials including straw, municipal wastes, living trees, paper, lumber, and grasses. Genetic engineering studies regarding the isolation, preparation, and characterization of suitable microorganisms for cellulose and lignin degradation are included. (Contains 87 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  8. Characterization of lignin derived from water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment of poplar wood at elevated temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Libing; Yan, Lishi; Wang, Zheming; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Swita, Marie S.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    In this study, flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives to high-value products, which is vital to enhance the economy of biorefinery plants. Comprehensive understanding of lignin behaviors and solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of providing flexible platform for lignin utilization. In this study, the effects of flowthrough pretreatment conditions on lignin separation from poplar wood were reported as well as the characteristics of three sub-sets of lignin produced from the pretreatment, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL),more » recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), and recovered soluble lignin in pretreatment liquid (RSL). Both the water-only and 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed at temperatures from 160 to 270°C on poplar wood in a flowthrough reactor system for 2-10 min. Results showed that water-only flowthrough pretreatment primarily removed syringyl (S units). Increased temperature and/or the addition of sulfuric acid enhanced the removal of guaiacyl (G units) compared to water-only pretreatments at lower temperatures, resulting in nearly complete removal of lignin from the biomass. Results also suggested that more RISL was recovered than ReL and RSL in both dilute acid and water-only flowthrough pretreatment at elevated temperatures. NMR spectra of the RISL revealed significant β-O-4 cleavage, α-β deoxygenation to form cinnamyl-like end groups, and slight β-5 repolymerization in both water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatments. In conclusion, elevated temperature and/or dilute acid greatly enhanced lignin removal to almost 100% by improving G unit removal besides S unit removal in flowthrough system. A new lignin chemistry transformation pathway was proposed and revealed the complexity of lignin structural change

  9. Characterization of solids deposited on the modular caustic-side solvent extraction unit (MCU) coalescer media removed in May and October 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F. F.

    2015-10-01

    During routine maintenance, the coalescers utilized in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) processing of Salt Batch 6 and a portion of Salt Batch 7 were sampled and submitted to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization, for the purpose of identifying solid phase constituents that may be accumulating in these coalescers. Specifically, two samples were received and characterized: A decontaminated salt solution (DSS) coalescer sample and a strip effluent (SE) coalescer sample. Aliquots of the samples were analyzed by XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, SEM, and EDS. Other aliquots of the samples were leached in acid solution, and the leachates were analyzed by ICP-AES. In addition, modeling was performed to provide a basis for comparison of the analytical results.

  10. Computational inference of the structure and regulation of the lignin pathway in Panicum virgatum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Faraji, Mojdeh; Fonseca, Luis L.; Escamilla-Treviño, Luis; Dixon, Richard A.; Voit, Eberhard O.

    2015-09-17

    Switchgrass is a prime target for biofuel production from inedible plant parts and has been the subject of numerous investigations in recent years. Yet, one of the main obstacles to effective biofuel production remains to be the major problem of recalcitrance. Recalcitrance emerges in part from the 3-D structure of lignin as a polymer in the secondary cell wall. Lignin limits accessibility of the sugars in the cellulose and hemicellulose polymers to enzymes and ultimately decreases ethanol yield. Monolignols, the building blocks of lignin polymers, are synthesized in the cytosol and translocated to the plant cell wall, where they undergomore » polymerization. The biosynthetic pathway leading to monolignols in switchgrass is not completely known, and difficulties associated with in vivo measurements of these intermediates pose a challenge for a true understanding of the functioning of the pathway. In this study, a systems biological modeling approach is used to address this challenge and to elucidate the structure and regulation of the lignin pathway through a computational characterization of alternate candidate topologies. The analysis is based on experimental data characterizing stem and tiller tissue of four transgenic lines (knock-downs of genes coding for key enzymes in the pathway) as well as wild-type switchgrass plants. These data consist of the observed content and composition of monolignols. The possibility of a G-lignin specific metabolic channel associated with the production and degradation of coniferaldehyde is examined, and the results support previous findings from another plant species. The computational analysis suggests regulatory mechanisms of product inhibition and enzyme competition, which are well known in biochemistry, but so far had not been reported in switchgrass. By including these mechanisms, the pathway model is able to represent all observations. In conclusion, the results show that the presence of the coniferaldehyde channel is

  11. Chapter 8: Pyrolysis Mechanisms of Lignin Model Compounds Using a Heated Micro-Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robichaud, David J.; Nimlos, Mark R.; Ellison, G. Barney

    2015-10-03

    Lignin is an important component of biomass, and the decomposition of its thermal deconstruction products is important in pyrolysis and gasification. In this chapter, we investigate the unimolecular pyrolysis chemistry through the use of singly and doubly substituted benzene molecules that are model compounds representative of lignin and its primary pyrolysis products. These model compounds are decomposed in a heated micro-reactor, and the products, including radicals and unstable intermediates, are measured using photoionization mass spectrometry and matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy. We show that the unimolecular chemistry can yield insight into the initial decomposition of these species. At pyrolysis and gasification severities, singly substituted benzenes typically undergo bond scission and elimination reactions to form radicals. Some require radical-driven chain reactions. For doubly substituted benzenes, proximity effects of the substituents can change the reaction pathways.

  12. Genetic manipulation of lignin reduces recalcitrance and improves biomass ethanol production from switchgrass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Fu, Chunxiang; Xiao, Xirong; Ge, Yaxin; Chen, Fang; Bouton, Joseph; Foston, Marcus; Dixon, Richard A; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Mielenz, Jonathan R

    2011-01-01

    Switchgrass is a leading dedicated bioenergy feedstock because it is a native, high yielding, perennial prairie grass with broad cultivation range and low agronomic input requirements. Biomass conversion research has developed pilot scale processes for production of ethanol and other alcohols but they remain costly primarily due to the intrinsic recalcitrance of biomass. We show here that switchgrass genetic modification can produce normal plants that have reduced thermochemical and enzymatic recalcitrance. Downregulation of the switchgrass caffeic O-methyltransferase gene decreases lignin content modestly, reduces the syringyl to guaiacyl lignin monomer ratio and increases the ethanol yield by up to a third using conventional biomass fermentation processes. The downregulated lines have wild-type biomass yields but require reduced pretreatment severity and 300-400% lower cellulase dosages for equivalent product yields significantly lowering processing costs. Alternately, our modified transgenic switchgrass lines should yield significantly more fermentation chemicals per hectare under identical process conditions.

  13. Lignin-modifying enzymes of the white rot basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D Merritt, C.S.; Reddy, C.A.

    1999-12-01

    Ganoderma lucidum, a white rot basidiomycete widely distributed worldwide, was studied for the production of the lignin-modifying enzymes laccase, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP). Laccase levels observed in high-nitrogen shaken cultures were much greater than those seen in low-nitrogen, malt extract, or wool-grown cultures and those reported for most other white rot fungi to date. Laccase production was readily seen in cultures grown with pine or poplar as the sole carbon and energy source. Cultures containing both pine and poplar showed 5- to 10-fold-higher levels of laccase than cultures containing pine or poplar alone. Since syringyl units are structural components important in poplar lignin and other hardwoods but much less so in pine lignin and other softwoods, pine cultures were supplemented with syringic acid, and this resulted in laccase levels comparable to those seen in pine-plus-poplar cultures. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of concentrated extracellular culture fluid from HM cultures showed two laccase activity bands, where as isoelectric focusing revealed five major laccase activity bands with estimated pIs of 3.0, 4.25, 4.5, and 5.1. Low levels of MnP activity were detected in poplar-grown cultures but not in cultures grown with pine, with pine plus syringic acid, or in HN medium. No LiP activity was seen in any of the media tested; however, probing the genomic DNA with the LiP cDNA (CLG4) from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium showed distinct hybridization bands suggesting the presence of lip-like sequences in G. lucidum.

  14. Determination of Structural Carbohydrates and Lignin in Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) (Revised July 2011)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determination of Structural Carbohydrates and Lignin in Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: April 2008 Revision Date: August 2012 (Version 08-03-2012) A. Sluiter, B. Hames, R. Ruiz, C. Scarlata, J. Sluiter, D. Templeton, and D. Crocker Technical Report NREL/TP-510-42618 Revised August 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National

  15. "Bionic" Liquids from Lignin: Joint BioEnergy Institute Results Pave

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Way for Closed-Loop Biofuel Refineries Bionic" Liquids from Lignin: Joint BioEnergy Institute Results Pave the Way for Closed-Loop Biofuel Refineries - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure

  16. Radical Coupling Reactions in Lignin Synthesis: A Density Functional Theory Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangha, A. K.; Parks, J. M.; Standaert, R. F.; Ziebell, A.; Davis, M.; Smith, J. C.

    2012-04-26

    Lignin is a complex, heterogeneous polymer in plant cell walls that provides mechanical strength to the plant stem and confers resistance to degrading microbes, enzymes, and chemicals. Lignin synthesis initiates through oxidative radical-radical coupling of monolignols, the most common of which are p-coumaryl, coniferyl, and sinapyl alcohols. Here, we use density functional theory to characterize radical-radical coupling reactions involved in monolignol dimerization. We compute reaction enthalpies for the initial self- and cross-coupling reactions of these monolignol radicals to form dimeric intermediates via six major linkages observed in natural lignin. The 8-O-4, 8-8, and 8-5 coupling are computed to be the most favorable, whereas the 5-O-4, 5-5, and 8-1 linkages are less favorable. Overall, p-coumaryl self- and cross-coupling reactions are calculated to be the most favorable. For cross-coupling reactions, in which each radical can couple via either of the two sites involved in dimer formation, the more reactive of the two radicals is found to undergo coupling at its site with the highest spin density.

  17. Differential Expression in Phanerochaete chrysosporium of Membrane-Associated Proteins Relevant to Lignin Degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shary, Semarjit; Kapich, Alexander N.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Cullen, Dan; Hammel, Ken

    2008-10-02

    Fungal lignin-degrading systems must include membrane-associated proteins that participate in diverse processes such as uptake and oxidation of lignin fragments, secretion of ligninolytic secondary metabolites, and defense of the mycelium against ligninolytic oxidants. Despite their importance, little is known about the nature or regulation of these membrane-associated components. We grew the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium on cellulose or glucose as the carbon source and monitored the mineralization of a 14C-labeled synthetic lignin by these cultures to assess their ligninolytic competence. The results showed that the cellulose-grown cultures were ligninolytic, whereas the glucose-grown ones were not. We isolated microsomal membrane fractions from both types of culture and analyzed tryptic digests of them by shotgun liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the results against the predicted P. chrysosporium proteome showed that a catalase (Joint Genome Institute P. chrysosporium protein I.D. 124398), an alcohol oxidase (126879), two transporters (137220 and 132234), and two cytochrome P450s (5011 and 8912) were up-regulated under ligninolytic conditions. Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays showed that RNA transcripts encoding all of these proteins were also up-regulated in ligninolytic cultures. Catalase 124398, alcohol oxidase 126879, and transporter 137220 were found in a proteomic analysis of partially purified plasma membranes from ligninolytic P. chrysosporium, and are therefore most likely associated with the outer envelope of the fungus.

  18. Computational Study of Bond Dissociation Enthalpies for Substituted $\\beta$-O-4 Lignin Model Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younker, Jarod M; Beste, Ariana; Buchanan III, A C

    2011-01-01

    The biopolymer lignin is a potential source of valuable chemicals. Phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) is representative of the dominant $\\beta$-O-4 ether linkage. Density functional theory (DFT) is used to calculate the Boltzmann-weighted carbon-oxygen and carbon-carbon bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) of substituted PPE. These values are important in order to understand lignin decomposition. Exclusion of all conformers that have distributions of less than 5\\% at 298 K impacts the BDE by less than 1 kcal mol$^{-1}$. We find that aliphatic hydroxyl/methylhydroxyl substituents introduce only small changes to the BDEs (0-3 kcal mol$^{-1}$). Substitution on the phenyl ring at the $ortho$ position substantially lowers the C-O BDE, except in combination with the hydroxyl/methylhydroxyl substituents, where the effect of methoxy substitution is reduced by hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding between the aliphatic substituents and the ether oxygen in the PPE derivatives has a significant influence on the BDE. CCSD(T)-calculated BDEs and hydrogen bond strengths of $ortho$-substituted anisoles when compared with M06-2X values confirm that the latter method is sufficient to describe the molecules studied and provide an important benchmark for lignin model compounds.

  19. Pinoresinol reductase 1 impacts lignin distribution during secondary cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Qiao; Zeng, Yining; Yin, Yanbin; Pu, Yunqiao; Jackson, Lisa A.; Engle, Nancy L.; Martin, Madhavi Z.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ding, Shi-You; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; et al

    2014-08-05

    In this paper, pinoresinol reductase (PrR) catalyzes the conversion of the lignan (-)-pinoresinol to (-)-lariciresinol in Arabidopsis thaliana, where it is encoded by two genes, PrR1 and PrR2, that appear to act redundantly. PrR1 is highly expressed in lignified inflorescence stem tissue, whereas PrR2 expression is barely detectable in stems. Co-expression analysis has indicated that PrR1 is co-expressed with many characterized genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis, whereas PrR2 expression clusters with a different set of genes. The promoter of the PrR1 gene is regulated by the secondary cell wall related transcription factors SND1 and MYB46. The loss-of-function mutantmore » of PrR1 shows, in addition to elevated levels of pinoresinol, significantly decreased lignin content and a slightly altered lignin structure with lower abundance of cinnamyl alcohol end groups. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy analysis indicated that the lignin content of the prr1-1 loss-of-function mutant is similar to that of wild-type plants in xylem cells, which exhibit a normal phenotype, but is reduced in the fiber cells. Finally, together, these data suggest an association of the lignan biosynthetic enzyme encoded by PrR1 with secondary cell wall biosynthesis in fiber cells.« less

  20. ESnet Visualization Widgets

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-07-01

    The ESnet Visualization widgets are various data visualization widgets for use in web browsers to aid in the visualization of computer networks. In particular the widgets are targetted at displaying timeseries and topology data. They were developed for use in the MyESnet portal but are general enough to be used other places. The widgets are built using the d3.js library.

  1. Effect of Lignin Removal by Alkaline Peroxide Pretreatment on the Susceptibility of Corn Stover to Purified Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzymes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selig, M. J.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    Pretreatment of corn stover with alkaline peroxide (AP) at pH 11.5 resulted in reduction of lignin content in the residual solids as a function of increasing batch temperature. Scanning electron microscopy of these materials revealed notably more textured surfaces on the plant cell walls as a result of the delignifying pretreatment. As expected, digestion of the delignified samples with commercial cellulase preparations showed an inverse relationship between the content of lignin present in the residual solids after pretreatment and the extent of both glucan and xylan conversion achievable. Digestions with purified enzymes revealed that decreased lignin content in the pretreated solids did not significantly impact the extent of glucan conversion achievable by cellulases alone. Not until purified xylanolytic activities were included with the cellulases were significant improvements in glucan conversion realized. In addition, an inverse relationship was observed between lignin content after pretreatment and the extent of xylan conversion achievable in a 24-h period with the xylanolytic enzymes in the absence of the cellulases. This observation, coupled with the direct relationship between enzymatic xylan and glucan conversion observed in a number of cases, suggests that the presence of lignins may not directly occlude cellulose present in lignocelluloses but rather impact cellulase action indirectly by its association with xylan.

  2. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Lignin-Rich Biorefinery Residues and Algae Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.

    2009-11-03

    This report describes the results of the work performed by PNNL using feedstock materials provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, KL Energy and Lignol lignocellulosic ethanol pilot plants. Test results with algae feedstocks provided by Genifuel, which provided in-kind cost share to the project, are also included. The work conducted during this project involved developing and demonstrating on the bench-scale process technology at PNNL for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of lignin-rich biorefinery residues and algae. A technoeconomic assessment evaluated the use of the technology for energy recovery in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant.

  3. Genome Sequence of Halomonas sp. Strain KO116, an Ionic Liquid- Tolerant Marine Bacterium Isolated from a Lignin-Enriched Seawater Microcosm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dell, Kaela; Woo, Hannah L.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Brown, Steven D.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2015-05-07

    Halomonas sp. strain KO116 was isolated from Nile Delta Mediterranean Sea surface water enriched with insoluble organosolv lignin. It was further screened for growth on alkali lignin minimal salts medium agar. The strain tolerates the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Its complete genome sequence is presented in this report.

  4. Visual Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Visual Resources Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleVisualResources&oldid612333...

  5. Restricting lignin and enhancing sugar deposition in secondary cell walls enhances monomeric sugar release after low temperature ionic liquid pretreatment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scullin, Chessa; Cruz, Alejandro G.; Chuang, Yi -De; Simmons, Blake A.; Loque, Dominique; Singh, Seema

    2015-07-04

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a major source of renewable sugar for biofuel production. Before enzymatic hydrolysis, biomass must first undergo a pretreatment step in order to be more susceptible to saccharification and generate high yields of fermentable sugars. Lignin, a complex, interlinked, phenolic polymer, associates with secondary cell wall polysaccharides, rendering them less accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis. Herein, we describe the analysis of engineered Arabidopsis lines where lignin biosynthesis was repressed in fiber tissues but retained in the vessels, and polysaccharide deposition was enhanced in fiber cells with little to no apparent negative impact on growth phenotype.

  6. Loss of function of folylpolyglutamate synthetase 1 reduces lignin content and improves cell wall digestibility in Arabidopsis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Srivastava, Avinash C.; Chen, Fang; Ray, Tui; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Peña, Maria J.; Avci, Utku; Li, Hongjia; Huhman, David V.; Backe, Jason; Urbanowicz, Breeanna; et al

    2015-12-21

    One-carbon (C1) metabolism is important for synthesizing a range of biologically important compounds that are essential for life. In plants, the C1 pathway is crucial for the synthesis of a large number of secondary metabolites, including lignin. Tetrahydrofolate and its derivatives, collectively referred to as folates, are crucial co-factors for C1 metabolic pathway enzymes. Given the link between the C1 and phenylpropanoid pathways, we evaluated whether folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS), an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a glutamate tail to folates to form folylpolyglutamates, can be a viable target for reducing cell wall recalcitrance in plants. Consistent with its rolemore » in lignocellulosic formation, FPGS1 was preferentially expressed in vascular tissues. Total lignin was low in fpgs1 plants leading to higher saccharification efficiency of the mutant. The decrease in total lignin in fpgs1 was mainly due to lower guaiacyl (G) lignin levels. Glycome profiling revealed subtle alterations in the cell walls of fpgs1. Further analyses of hemicellulosic polysaccharides by NMR showed that the degree of methylation of 4-O-methyl glucuronoxylan was reduced in the fpgs1 mutant. Microarray analysis and real-time qRT-PCR revealed that transcripts of a number of genes in the C1 and lignin pathways had altered expression in fpgs1 mutants. Consistent with the transcript changes of C1-related genes, a significant reduction in S-adenosyl-l-methionine content was detected in the fpgs1 mutant. The modified expression of the various methyltransferases and lignin-related genes indicate possible feedback regulation of C1 pathway-mediated lignin biosynthesis. In conclusion, our observations provide genetic and biochemical support for the importance of folylpolyglutamates in the lignocellulosic pathway and reinforces previous observations that targeting a single FPGS isoform for down-regulation leads to reduced lignin in plants. Because fpgs1 mutants had no dramatic

  7. Loss of function of folylpolyglutamate synthetase 1 reduces lignin content and improves cell wall digestibility in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Avinash C.; Chen, Fang; Ray, Tui; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Peña, Maria J.; Avci, Utku; Li, Hongjia; Huhman, David V.; Backe, Jason; Urbanowicz, Breeanna; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Bedair, Mohamed; Wyman, Charles E.; Sumner, Lloyd W.; York, William S.; Hahn, Michael G.; Dixon, Richard A.; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Tang, Yuhong

    2015-12-21

    One-carbon (C1) metabolism is important for synthesizing a range of biologically important compounds that are essential for life. In plants, the C1 pathway is crucial for the synthesis of a large number of secondary metabolites, including lignin. Tetrahydrofolate and its derivatives, collectively referred to as folates, are crucial co-factors for C1 metabolic pathway enzymes. Given the link between the C1 and phenylpropanoid pathways, we evaluated whether folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS), an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a glutamate tail to folates to form folylpolyglutamates, can be a viable target for reducing cell wall recalcitrance in plants. Consistent with its role in lignocellulosic formation, FPGS1 was preferentially expressed in vascular tissues. Total lignin was low in fpgs1 plants leading to higher saccharification efficiency of the mutant. The decrease in total lignin in fpgs1 was mainly due to lower guaiacyl (G) lignin levels. Glycome profiling revealed subtle alterations in the cell walls of fpgs1. Further analyses of hemicellulosic polysaccharides by NMR showed that the degree of methylation of 4-O-methyl glucuronoxylan was reduced in the fpgs1 mutant. Microarray analysis and real-time qRT-PCR revealed that transcripts of a number of genes in the C1 and lignin pathways had altered expression in fpgs1 mutants. Consistent with the transcript changes of C1-related genes, a significant reduction in S-adenosyl-l-methionine content was detected in the fpgs1 mutant. The modified expression of the various methyltransferases and lignin-related genes indicate possible feedback regulation of C1 pathway-mediated lignin biosynthesis. In conclusion, our observations provide genetic and biochemical support for the importance of folylpolyglutamates in the lignocellulosic pathway and reinforces previous observations that targeting a single FPGS isoform for down-regulation leads to reduced lignin in plants. Because fpgs1 mutants had no dramatic defects in

  8. Restricting lignin and enhancing sugar deposition in secondary cell walls enhances monomeric sugar release after low temperature ionic liquid pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scullin, Chessa; Cruz, Alejandro G.; Chuang, Yi -De; Simmons, Blake A.; Loque, Dominique; Singh, Seema

    2015-07-04

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a major source of renewable sugar for biofuel production. Before enzymatic hydrolysis, biomass must first undergo a pretreatment step in order to be more susceptible to saccharification and generate high yields of fermentable sugars. Lignin, a complex, interlinked, phenolic polymer, associates with secondary cell wall polysaccharides, rendering them less accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis. Herein, we describe the analysis of engineered Arabidopsis lines where lignin biosynthesis was repressed in fiber tissues but retained in the vessels, and polysaccharide deposition was enhanced in fiber cells with little to no apparent negative impact on growth phenotype.

  9. PROSPECTS FOR JOINT GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE AND ELECTROMAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS OF NEUTRON-STAR-BLACK-HOLE COALESCING BINARIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pannarale, Francesco; Ohme, Frank E-mail: frank.ohme@ligo.org

    2014-08-10

    Coalescing neutron-star-black-hole (NS-BH) binaries are a promising source of gravitational-wave (GW) signals detectable with large-scale laser interferometers such as the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Virgo. They are also one of the main short gamma-ray burst (SGRB) progenitor candidates. If the black hole (BH) tidally disrupts its companion, an SGRB may be ignited when a sufficiently massive accretion disk forms around the remnant BH. Detecting an NS-BH coalescence both in the GW and electromagnetic (EM) spectrum offers a wealth of information about the nature of the source. How much can actually be inferred from a joint detection is unclear, however, as a mass/spin degeneracy may reduce the GW measurement accuracy. To shed light on this problem and on the potential of joint EM+GW observations, we here combine recent semi-analytical predictions for the remnant disk mass with estimates of the parameter-space portion that is selected by a GW detection. We identify cases in which an SGRB ignition is supported, others in which it can be excluded, and finally others in which the outcome depends on the chosen model for the currently unknown NS equation of state. We pinpoint a range of systems that would allow us to place lower bounds on the equation of state stiffness if both the GW emission and its EM counterpart are observed. The methods we develop can broaden the scope of existing GW detection and parameter-estimation algorithms and could allow us to disregard about half of the templates in an NS-BH search following an SGRB trigger, increasing its speed and sensitivity.

  10. Lignin Utilization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Evaluating four established process technologies in FY13 - Clean Fractionation (Organosolv... identifies the primary cost-drivers in organosolv-based pretreatment options" 4. ...

  11. Conceptual design assessment for the co-firing of bio-refinery supplied lignin project. Quarterly report, June 23--July 1, 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berglund, T.; Ranney, J.T.; Babb, C.L.

    2000-07-27

    The Conceptual Design Assessment for the Co-Firing of Bio-Refinery Supplied Lignin Project was successfully kicked off on July 23, 2000 during a meeting at the TVA-PPI facility in Muscle Shoals, AL. An initial timeline for the study was distributed, issues of concern were identified and a priority actions list was developed. Next steps include meeting with NETL to discuss de-watering and lignin fuel testing, the development of the mass balance model and ethanol facility design criteria, providing TVA-Colbert with preliminary lignin fuel analysis and the procurement of representative feed materials for the pilot and bench scale testing of the hydrolysis process.

  12. Cellulose and lignin: Biodegradation. December 1985-May 1990 (A Bibliography from the Biobusiness data base). Report for December 1985-May 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the biodegradation of materials containing cellulose and lignin components. Natural wood decay and sludge digestion are considered. Detailed chemical and physical mechanisms of degradation and research on microorganisms involved are discussed for a variety of cellulose and lignin containing materials including straw, municipal wastes, living trees, paper, lumber, and grasses. Genetic engineering studies regarding the isolation, preparation, and characterization of suitable microorganisms for cellulose and lignin degradation are included. (This updated bibliography contains 135 citations, 48 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  13. Lignin-based active anode materials synthesized from low-cost renewable resources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rios, Orlando; Tenhaeff, Wyatt Evan; Daniel, Claus; Dudney, Nancy Johnston; Johs, Alexander; Nunnery, Grady Alexander; Baker, Frederick Stanley

    2016-06-07

    A method of making an anode includes the steps of providing fibers from a carbonaceous precursor, the carbon fibers having a glass transition temperature T.sub.g. In one aspect the carbonaceous precursor is lignin. The carbonaceous fibers are placed into a layered fiber mat. The fiber mat is fused by heating the fiber mat in the presence of oxygen to above the T.sub.g but no more than 20% above the T.sub.g to fuse fibers together at fiber to fiber contact points and without melting the bulk fiber mat to create a fused fiber mat through oxidative stabilization. The fused fiber mat is carbonized by heating the fused fiber mat to at least 650.degree. C. under an inert atmosphere to create a carbonized fused fiber mat. A battery anode formed from carbonaceous precursor fibers is also disclosed.

  14. Visualization of electronic density

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grosso, Bastien; Cooper, Valentino R.; Pine, Polina; Hashibon, Adham; Yaish, Yuval; Adler, Joan

    2015-04-22

    An atom’s volume depends on its electronic density. Although this density can only be evaluated exactly for hydrogen-like atoms, there are many excellent numerical algorithms and packages to calculate it for other materials. 3D visualization of charge density is challenging, especially when several molecular/atomic levels are intertwined in space. We explore several approaches to 3D charge density visualization, including the extension of an anaglyphic stereo visualization application based on the AViz package to larger structures such as nanotubes. We will describe motivations and potential applications of these tools for answering interesting questions about nanotube properties.

  15. Visualization of electronic density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grosso, Bastien; Cooper, Valentino R.; Pine, Polina; Hashibon, Adham; Yaish, Yuval; Adler, Joan

    2015-04-22

    An atoms volume depends on its electronic density. Although this density can only be evaluated exactly for hydrogen-like atoms, there are many excellent numerical algorithms and packages to calculate it for other materials. 3D visualization of charge density is challenging, especially when several molecular/atomic levels are intertwined in space. We explore several approaches to 3D charge density visualization, including the extension of an anaglyphic stereo visualization application based on the AViz package to larger structures such as nanotubes. We will describe motivations and potential applications of these tools for answering interesting questions about nanotube properties.

  16. Visualizations Image Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Act NIMROD 1 NIMROD Simulation 744889477276295a0862c.jpg A new Approach to Water Desalination map800-600.jpg Planck Cosmic Microwave Background electrons0000.png Visualization ...

  17. Notes for Visualization Requirememnts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Notes for Vis Requirements Notes for Visualization Requirememnts Notes from June 5, 2002, Visualization Requirements for DOE-Sponsored Computational Science and Engineering Applications A DOE Workshop to Be Held 
at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,
Berkeley, California, June 5, 2002 Workshop Co-organizers: Bernd Hamann 
University of California-Davis Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. E. Wes Bethel 
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. Horst D. Simon
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab.

  18. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steed, Chad A; Potok, Thomas E; Pullum, Laura L; Ramanathan, Arvind; Shipman, Galen M; Thornton, Peter E; Potok, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Given the scale and complexity of today s data, visual analytics is rapidly becoming a necessity rather than an option for comprehensive exploratory analysis. In this paper, we provide an overview of three applications of visual analytics for addressing the challenges of analyzing climate, text streams, and biosurveilance data. These systems feature varying levels of interaction and high performance computing technology integration to permit exploratory analysis of large and complex data of global significance.

  19. TRANSIMS Visualizations at TRACC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Visualizations at TRACC TRACC is currently actively developing two separate visualization applications. One of these applications is 'Metropolis', developed by NCSA (the National Center for Supercomputing Applications), targets an interactive model that allows a modeler to navigate in three-dimensional space and time while displaying moving vehicles, dynamic volumes on the links, and many more such dynamic network features. The software is being developed based on OpenGL, and is comparable to

  20. Base-Catalyzed Depolymerization of Lignin with Heterogeneous Catalysts: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-513

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckham, Gregg T.

    2015-08-04

    We will synthesize and screen solid catalysts for the depolymerization of lignin to monomeric and oligomeric oxygenated species, which could be fractionated and integrated into refinery intermediate streams for selective upgrading, or catalytically upgraded to fuels and chemicals. This work will primarily focus on the synthesis and application of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for depolymerization of lignin model compounds and softwood lignin. LDHs have been shown in our group to offer good supports and catalysts to promote base-catalyzed depolymerization of lignin model compounds and in preliminary experiments for the depolymerization of lignin from an Organosolv process. We will also include additional catalyst supports such as silica, alumina, and carbon as identified in ongoing and past efforts at NREL. This work will consist of two tasks. Overall, this work will be synergistic with ongoing efforts at NREL, funded by the DOE Biomass Program, on the development of catalysts for lignin depolymerization in the context of biochemical and thermochemical conversion of corn stover and other biomass feedstocks to advanced fuels and chemicals.

  1. Computational Analysis of the Pyrolysis of ..beta..-O4 Lignin Model Compounds: Concerted vs. Homolytic Fragmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, J. M.; Robichaud, D. J.; Nimlos, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    The thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels is a very attractive technology for expanding the utilization of carbon neutral processes and reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources. As with all such emerging technologies, biomass conversion through gasification or pyrolysis has a number of obstacles that need to be overcome to make these processes cost competitive with the refining of fossil fuels. Our current efforts have focused on the investigation of the thermochemistry of the linkages between lignin units using ab initio calculations on dimeric lignin model compounds. All calculations were carried out using M062X density functional theory at the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The M062X method has been shown to be consistent with the CBS-QB3 method while being significantly less computationally expensive. To date we have only completed the study on the b-O4 compounds. The theoretical calculations performed in the study indicate that concerted elimination pathways dominate over bond homolysis reactions under typical pyrolysis conditions. However, this does not mean that concerted elimination will be the dominant loss process for lignin. Bimolecular radical chemistry could very well dwarf the unimolecular pathways investigated in this study. These concerted pathways tend to form stable, reasonably non-reactive products that would be more suited producing a fungible bio-oil for the production of liquid transportation fuels.

  2. Coalescing Wind Turbine Wakes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Sirnivas, S.; Moriarty, P.; Nielsen, F. G.; Skaare, B.; Byklum, E.

    2015-06-18

    A team of researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Statoil used large-eddy simulations to numerically investigate the merging wakes from upstream offshore wind turbines. Merging wakes are typical phenomena in wind farm flows in which neighboring turbine wakes consolidate to form complex flow patterns that are as yet not well understood. In the present study, three 6-MW turbines in a row were subjected to a neutrally stable atmospheric boundary layer flow. As a result, the wake from the farthest upstream turbine conjoined the downstream wake, which significantly altered the subsequent velocity deficit structures, turbulence intensity, and the globalmore » meandering behavior. The complexity increased even more when the combined wakes from the two upstream turbines mixed with the wake generated by the last turbine, thereby forming a "triplet" structure. Although the influence of the wake generated by the first turbine decayed with downstream distance, the mutated wakes from the second turbine continued to influence the downstream wake. Two mirror-image angles of wind directions that yielded partial wakes impinging on the downstream turbines yielded asymmetric wake profiles that could be attributed to the changing flow directions in the rotor plane induced by the Coriolis force. In conclusion, the turbine wakes persisted for extended distances in the present study, which is a result of low aerodynamic surface roughness typically found in offshore conditions« less

  3. Coalescing Wind Turbine Wakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Sirnivas, S.; Moriarty, P.; Nielsen, F. G.; Skaare, B.; Byklum, E.

    2015-06-18

    A team of researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Statoil used large-eddy simulations to numerically investigate the merging wakes from upstream offshore wind turbines. Merging wakes are typical phenomena in wind farm flows in which neighboring turbine wakes consolidate to form complex flow patterns that are as yet not well understood. In the present study, three 6-MW turbines in a row were subjected to a neutrally stable atmospheric boundary layer flow. As a result, the wake from the farthest upstream turbine conjoined the downstream wake, which significantly altered the subsequent velocity deficit structures, turbulence intensity, and the global meandering behavior. The complexity increased even more when the combined wakes from the two upstream turbines mixed with the wake generated by the last turbine, thereby forming a "triplet" structure. Although the influence of the wake generated by the first turbine decayed with downstream distance, the mutated wakes from the second turbine continued to influence the downstream wake. Two mirror-image angles of wind directions that yielded partial wakes impinging on the downstream turbines yielded asymmetric wake profiles that could be attributed to the changing flow directions in the rotor plane induced by the Coriolis force. In conclusion, the turbine wakes persisted for extended distances in the present study, which is a result of low aerodynamic surface roughness typically found in offshore conditions

  4. Visualization of Solution Gas Drive in Viscous Oil, SUPRI TR-126

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, D.S.; Kovscek, A.R.

    2001-07-23

    Several experimental studies of solution gas drive are available in this report. Almost all of the studies have used light oil. Solution gas drive behavior, especially in heavy oil reservoirs, is poorly understood. Experiments were performed in which pore-scale solution gas drive phenomena were viewed in water/carbon dioxide and viscous oil/carbon dioxide systems. A new pressure vessel was designed and constructed to house silicon-wafer micromodels that previously operated at low (<3 atm) pressure. The new apparatus is used for the visual studies. Several interesting phenomena were viewed. The repeated nucleation of gas bubbles was observed at a gas-wet site occupied by dirt. Interestingly, the dissolution of a gas bubble into the liquid phase was previously recorded at the same nucleation site. Gas bubbles in both systems grew to span one ore more pore bodies before mobilization. Liquid viscosity affected the ease with which gas bubbles coalesced. More viscous solutions result in slower rates of coalescence. The transport of solid particles on gas-liquid interfaces was also observed.

  5. Studies on Supercapacitor Electrode Material from Activated Lignin-Derived Mesoporous Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saha, Dipendu; Li, Yunchao; Bi, Zhonghe; Chen, Jihua; Keum, Jong Kahk; Hensley, Dale K; Grappe, Hippolyte A.; Meyer III, Harry M; Dai, Sheng; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Naskar, Amit K

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized mesoporous carbon from pre-cross-linked lignin gel impregnated with a surfactant as the pore-forming agent, and then activated the carbon through physical and chemical methods to obtain activated mesoporous carbon. The activated mesoporous carbons exhibited 1.5- to 6-fold increases in porosity with a maximum BET specific surface area of 1148 m2/g and a pore volume of 1.0 cm3/g. Slow physical activation helped retain dominant mesoporosity; however, aggressive chemical activation caused some loss of the mesopore volume fraction. Plots of cyclic voltammetric data with the capacitor electrode made from these carbons showed an almost rectangular curve depicting the behavior of ideal double-layer capacitance. Although the pristine mesoporous carbon exhibited the same range of surface-area-based capacitance as that of other known carbon-based supercapacitors, activation decreased the surface-area-based specific capacitance and increased the gravimetric-specific capacitance of the mesoporous carbons. Surface activation lowered bulk density and electrical conductivity. Warburg impedance as a vertical tail in the lower frequency domain of Nyquist plots supported good supercapacitor behavior for the activated mesoporous carbons. Our work demonstrated that biomass-derived mesoporous carbon materials continue to show potential for use in specific electrochemical applications.

  6. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Visualization

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Visualization is the software that supports the user interface. It uses the RIK-C software to communicate information to and from the robot. The RIK-V illustrates the data in a 3D display and provides an operating picture wherein the user can task the robot.

  7. Visualization | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Enabling Unique Visualization and Manipulation of Energy Data at Multiple Scales FRED Free Energy Data Map OpenEI Tool Visualization The U.S. Department of Energy, the Pacific...

  8. Advanced Recombinant Manganese Peroxidase for Biosynthesis of Lignin Bioproducts, Phase I Final Report, STTR Grant #: DE-SC0007503.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beatty, Christopher; Kitner, Joshua; Lajoie, Curtis; McClain, Sean; Potochnik, Steve

    2012-12-13

    The core purpose of this Phase I STTR was to evaluate the feasibility of a new method of producing a recombinant version of manganese peroxidase (MnP) enzyme. MnP is a potentially valuable enzyme for producing high value lignin products and also for industrial de-coloring operations such as biobleaching of pulp and color removal from textile dye effluents. This lignin-modifying enzyme is produced in small amounts by the native host, a white rot fungus. Previous work by Oregon State University developed a secreted recombinant version of the enzyme in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Unfortunately, the expression is barely moderate and the enzyme is heavily glycosylated, which inhibits purification. In this work, the gene for the enzyme is given a tag which targets production of the enzyme to the peroxisome. This is a promising approach since this location is also where heme and hydrogen peroxide are sequestered, which are both necessary cofactors for MnP. More than ten recombinant strains were constructed, verified, and expressed in the Pichia system. Constitutive (GAP) and methanol-induced promoters (AOX) were tried for peroxisomal targeted, cytosolic, and secreted versions of MnP. Only the secreted strains showed activity. The amount of expression was not significantly changed. The degree of glycosylation was lessened using the AOX (methanol) promotoer, but the resulting enzyme was still not able to be purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Additional work beyond the scope of the defined Phase I project was undertaken to construct, verify, and express Pichia strains that mutated the MnP glycosylation sites to inhibit this process. These strains did not show significant activity. The cause is not known, but it is possible that these sites are important to the structure of the enzyme. Also beyond the scope proposed for our Phase I STTR, the team collaborated with AbSci, a startup with a new E. coli based expression system focused on the production of

  9. Effects of fungal degradation on the CuO oxidation products of lignin: A controlled laboratory study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedges, J.I.; Weliky, K.; Devol, A.H. ); Blanchette, R.A. )

    1988-11-01

    Duplicate samples of birch wood were degraded for 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks by the white-rot fungus, Phlebia tremellosus, and for 12 weeks by 6 other white-rot and brown-rot fungi. P. tremellosus caused progressive weight losses and increased the H/C and O/C of the remnant wood by preferentially degrading the lignin component of the middle lamellae. Total yields of syringyl phenols were decreased 1.5 times as fast as total vanillyl phenol yields. Within both phenol families, aldehyde precursors were degraded faster than precursors of the corresponding ketones, which were obtained in constant proportion to the total phenol yield. Although two other white-rot fungi caused similar lignin compositional trends, a fourth white-rot species, Coriolus versicolor, simultaneously eroded all cell wall components and did not concentrate polysaccharides in the remnant wood. The brown-rot fungi also preferentially attacked syringyl structural units, but degraded all phenol precursors at a much slower rate than the white-rotters and did not produce excess vanillic acid. Degradation by P. tremellosus linearly increased the vanillic acid/vanillin ratio, (Ad/Al)v, of the remnant birch wood throughout the 12 week degradation study and exponentially decreased the absolute yields of total vanillyl phenols, total syringyl phenols and the syringyl/vanillyl phenol ratio, S/V. At the highest (Ad/Al)v of 0.50 total yields of syringyl and vanillyl phenols were decreased by 65% and 80%, respectively, with a resulting reduction of 40% in the original S/V. Many of the diagenetically related compositional trends that have been previously reported for lignins in natural environments can be explained by white-rot fungal degradation.

  10. Top Value-Added Chemicals from Biomass - Volume II„Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Biorefinery Lignin

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Top Value-Added Chemicals from Biomass Volume II-Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Biorefinery Lignin 1 JE Holladay 2 JJ Bozell 1 JF White 3 D Johnson 1 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 2 University of Tennessee 3 National Renewable Energy Laboratory October 2007 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 PNNL-16983 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the

  11. Consolidated bioprocessing of Populus using Clostridium (Ruminiclostridium) thermocellum: a case study on the impact of lignin composition and structure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dumitrache, Alexandru; Akinosho, Hannah; Rodriguez, Miguel; Meng, Xianzhi; Yoo, Chang Geun; Natzke, Jace; Engle, Nancy L.; Sykes, Robert W.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Muchero, Wellington; et al

    2016-02-04

    Background: Higher ratios of syringyl-to-guaiacyl (S/G) lignin components of Populus were shown to improve sugar release by enzymatic hydrolysis using commercial blends. Cellulolytic microbes are often robust biomass hydrolyzers and may offer cost advantages; however, it is unknown whether their activity can also be significantly influenced by the ratio of different monolignol types in Populus biomass. Hydrolysis and fermentation of autoclaved, but otherwise not pretreated Populus trichocarpa by Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 was compared using feedstocks that had similar carbohydrate and total lignin contents but differed in S/G ratios. Results: Populus with an S/G ratio of 2.1 was converted moremore » rapidly and to a greater extent compared to similar biomass that had a ratio of 1.2. For either microbes or commercial enzymes, an approximate 50% relative difference in total solids solubilization was measured for both biomasses, which suggests that the differences and limitations in the microbial breakdown of lignocellulose may be largely from the enzymatic hydrolytic process. Unexpectedly, the reduction in glucan content per gram solid in the residual microbially processed biomass was similar (17–18%) irrespective of S/G ratio, pointing to a similar mechanism of solubilization that proceeded at different rates. Fermentation metabolome testing did not reveal the release of known biomass-derived alcohol and aldehyde inhibitors that could explain observed differences in microbial hydrolytic activity. Biomass-derived p-hydroxybenzoic acid was up to ninefold higher in low S/G ratio biomass fermentations, but was not found to be inhibitory in subsequent test fermentations. Cellulose crystallinity and degree of polymerization did not vary between Populus lines and had minor changes after fermentation. However, lignin molecular weights and cellulose accessibility determined by Simons’ staining were positively correlated to the S/G content. Conclusions: Higher

  12. Methods of visualizing graphs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Perrine, Kenneth A.; Foote, Harlan P.; Thomas, James J.

    2008-12-23

    Methods for visualizing a graph by automatically drawing elements of the graph as labels are disclosed. In one embodiment, the method comprises receiving node information and edge information from an input device and/or communication interface, constructing a graph layout based at least in part on that information, wherein the edges are automatically drawn as labels, and displaying the graph on a display device according to the graph layout. In some embodiments, the nodes are automatically drawn as labels instead of, or in addition to, the label-edges.

  13. An Assessment of Visual Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Anderson, Michael T.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2004-11-01

    In response to increasing interest from nuclear utilities in replacing some volumetric examinations of nuclear reactor components with remote visual testing, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has examined the capabilities of remote visual testing for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report describes visual testing and explores the visual acuities of the camera systems used to examine nuclear reactor components. The types and sizes of cracks typically found in nuclear reactor components are reviewed. The current standards in visual testing are examined critically, and several suggestions for improving these standards are proposed. Also proposed for future work is a round robin test to determine the effectiveness of visual tests and experimental studies to determine the values for magnification and resolution needed to reliably image very tight cracks.

  14. Scientific Visualization, Seeing the Unseeable

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    LBNL

    2009-09-01

    June 24, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in bo... June 24, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in both experimental and computational sciences. Wes Bethel, who heads the Scientific Visualization Group in the Computational Research Division, presents an overview of visualization and computer graphics, current research challenges, and future directions for the field.

  15. Data visualization methods, data visualization devices, data visualization apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Alan E.; Crow, Vernon L.; Payne, Deborah A.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Cook, Kristin A.; Cowley, Wendy E.

    2015-06-30

    Data visualization methods, data visualization devices, data visualization apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a data visualization method includes accessing a plurality of initial documents at a first moment in time, first processing the initial documents providing processed initial documents, first identifying a plurality of first associations of the initial documents using the processed initial documents, generating a first visualization depicting the first associations, accessing a plurality of additional documents at a second moment in time after the first moment in time, second processing the additional documents providing processed additional documents, second identifying a plurality of second associations of the additional documents and at least some of the initial documents, wherein the second identifying comprises identifying using the processed initial documents and the processed additional documents, and generating a second visualization depicting the second associations.

  16. Visualization Contest Applications due August 3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Visualization Contest Applications due August 3 Visualization Contest Applications due August 3 June 22, 2012 by Francesca Verdier In support of the IEEE Symposium on Large-Scale Data Analysis and Visualization (LDAV) 2012's visualization contest, LDAV organizers are offering compute time to participants through a NERSC allocation awarded by ASCR. The LDAV Visualization Contest focuses on the area of visualization of extremely large datasets. The goal is to devise a visualization or a

  17. High-energy particle acceleration during the implosion driven by three-dimensional X-type current loop coalescence in solar flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakai, Junichi )

    1990-12-01

    A model for high-energy solar flares is presented to explain prompt proton and electron acceleration within 1 sec to relativistic energies. The three-dimensional X-type current loop coalescence, where two crossed flux tubes interact in one point, is a fundamemtally new process as compared to the one- and two-dimensional cases studied earlier. It is shown that the strong implosion can be driven by the magnetic pinch in the region where two current loops interact. The strong inductive electric field can be excited during the implosion. A test-particle orbit under the EM fields derived from the MHD equations is studied. It is also shown that both protons and electrons can be promptly accelerated to about 100 GeV and 100 MeV, respectively. 26 refs.

  18. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Springer, Nathan M.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F.; McCann, Maureen C.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2014-06-27

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 x 3 Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282- member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. Finally, these results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass.

  19. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; et al

    2014-06-27

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 x 3 Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yieldmore » was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282- member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. Finally, these results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass.« less

  20. Visual Sample Plan

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-10-25

    VSP selects the appropriate number and location of environmental samples to ensure that the results of statistical tests performed to provide input to risk decisions have the required confidence and performance. VSP Version 5.0 provides sample-size equations or algorithms needed by specific statistical tests appropriate for specific environmental sampling objectives. It also provides data quality assessment and statistical analysis functions to support evaluation of the data and determine whether the data support decisions regarding sitesmore » suspected of contamination. The easy-to-use program is highly visual and graphic. VSP runs on personal computers with Microsoft Windows operating systems (98, NT, 2000, Millennium Edition, CE, and XP) Designed primarily for project managers and users without expertise in statistics, VSP is applicable to two- and three-dimensional populations to be sampled (e.g., rooms and buildings, surface soil, a defined layer of subsurface soil, water bodies, and other similar applications) for studies of environmental quality. VSP is also applicable for designing sampling plans for assessing chem./rad/bio threat and hazard identification within rooms and buildings, and for designing geophysical surveys for UXO identification.« less

  1. Research into the pyrolysis of pure cellulose, lignin, and birch wood flour in the China Lake entrained-flow reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diebold, J.

    1980-06-01

    This experimental program used the China Lake entrained-flow pyrolysis reactor to briefly investigate the pyrolysis of pure cellulose, pure lignin, and birch wood flour. The study determined that the cellulose and wood flour do pyrolyze to produce primarily gaseous products containing significant amounts of ethylene and other useful hydrocarbons. During attempts to pyrolyze powdered lignin, the material melted and bubbled to block the reactor entrance. The pure cellulose and wood flour produced C/sub 2/ + yields of 12% to 14% by weight, which were less than yields from an organic feedstock derived from processed municipal trash. The char yields were 0.1% by weight from cellulose and 1.5% from birch wood flour - one to two orders of magnitude less than were produced from the trash-derived feedstock. In scanning electron microscope photographs, most of the wood flour char had a sintered and agglomerated appearance, although some particles retained the gross cell characteristics of the wood flour. The appearance of the char particles indicated that the material had once been molten and possibly vapor before it formed spheroidal particles about 1 ..mu..m diameter which agglomerated to form larger char particles. The ability to completely melt or vaporize lignocellulosic materials under conditions of high heating rates has now been demonstrated in a continuous flow reactor and promises new techniques for fast pyrolysis. This char was unexpectedly attracted by a magnet, presumably because of iron contamination from the pyrolysis reactor tube wall. The production of water-insoluble tars was negligible compared to the tars produced from trash-derived feedstock. The production of water-soluble organic materials was fairly low and qualitatively appeared to vary inversely with temperature. This study was of a preliminary nature and additional studies are necessary to optimize ethylene production from these feedstocks.

  2. Enhancing muconic acid production from glucose and lignin-derived aromatic compounds via increased protocatechuate decarboxylase activity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnson, Christopher W.; Salvachua, Davinia; Khanna, Payal; Smith, Holly; Peterson, Darren J.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-04-22

    The conversion of biomass-derived sugars and aromatic molecules to cis,cis-muconic acid (referred to hereafter as muconic acid or muconate) has been of recent interest owing to its facile conversion to adipic acid, an important commodity chemical. Metabolic routes to produce muconate from both sugars and many lignin-derived aromatic compounds require the use of a decarboxylase to convert protocatechuate (PCA, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate) to catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene), two central aromatic intermediates in this pathway. Several studies have identified the PCA decarboxylase as a metabolic bottleneck, causing an accumulation of PCA that subsequently reduces muconate production. A recent study showed that activity of the PCAmore » decarboxylase is enhanced by co-expression of two genetically associated proteins, one of which likely produces a flavin-derived cofactor utilized by the decarboxylase. Using entirely genome-integrated gene expression, we have engineered Pseudomonas putida KT2440-derived strains to produce muconate from either aromatic molecules or sugars and demonstrate in both cases that co-expression of these decarboxylase associated proteins reduces PCA accumulation and enhances muconate production relative to strains expressing the PCA decarboxylase alone. In bioreactor experiments, co-expression increased the specific productivity (mg/g cells/h) of muconate from the aromatic lignin monomer p-coumarate by 50% and resulted in a titer of >15 g/L. In strains engineered to produce muconate from glucose, co-expression more than tripled the titer, yield, productivity, and specific productivity, with the best strain producing 4.92+/-0.48 g/L muconate. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that overcoming the PCA decarboxylase bottleneck can increase muconate yields from biomass-derived sugars and aromatic molecules in industrially relevant strains and cultivation conditions.« less

  3. Collaboration Topics - Visualization | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) Visualization This collaboration area focuses on visualization and data analysis and centers on the open source development of the Visualization Toolkit (VTK), which forms the basis of our customized visualization and analysis tools (ParaView, VisIt and LOVE). We are partnering on common VTK needs and working on methods for visualizing and analyzing data on advanced architectures that are memory and I/O constrained. Accomplishments 1) Portions of the CEA visualization

  4. NREL: Energy Systems Integration Facility - Visualization of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Visualization of Electric Power System Information Workshop The Energy Systems Integration Facility workshop, Visualization of Electric Power System Information, was held September...

  5. Visual Design Group | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Visual Design Group Ames Laboratory Logos You are here Home Visual Design Group Graphics Services supports the design, printing and production needs of the Ames Laboratory. For...

  6. Visualization Gallery from the Computational Research Division...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Visualization Gallery from the Computational Research Division at Lawrence Berkeley ... Data from Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 3) PointCloudXplore: Visualization and ...

  7. Visualizing Individual Carbon Nanotubes with Optical Microscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: Visualizing Individual Carbon Nanotubes with Optical Microscopy Title: Visualizing Individual Carbon Nanotubes with Optical Microscopy Authors: Novak, Michael A. ...

  8. Visualization of Bacterial Microcompartment Facet Assembly Using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Visualization of Bacterial Microcompartment Facet Assembly Using High-Speed Atomic Force Microscopy Prev Next Title: Visualization of Bacterial Microcompartment Facet ...

  9. Visual Design Group | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Visual Design Group alternative text alternative text alternative text alternative text alternative text alternative text alternative text alternative text The Visual Design Group ...

  10. Visualization Gallery from the Computational Research Division...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Particle Acceleration Data; 2) Visualization of Microearthquake Data from Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 3) PointCloudXplore: Visualization and Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data; ...

  11. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Report about the Ocean Thermal ...

  12. Dynamic visualization of data streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak Chung; Foote, Harlan P.; Adams, Daniel R.; Cowley, Wendy E.; Thomas, James J.

    2009-07-07

    One embodiment of the present invention includes a data communication subsystem to receive a data stream, and a data processing subsystem responsive to the data communication subsystem to generate a visualization output based on a group of data vectors corresponding to a first portion of the data stream. The processing subsystem is further responsive to a change in rate of receipt of the data to modify the visualization output with one or more other data vectors corresponding to a second portion of the data stream as a function of eigenspace defined with the group of data vectors. The system further includes a display device responsive to the visualization output to provide a corresponding visualization.

  13. Structure and Biochemestry of Laccases from the Lignin-Degrading Basidiomycete, Ganoderma lucidum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.A.Reddy, PI

    2005-06-30

    G. lucidum is one of the most important and widely distributed ligninolytic white rot fungi from habitats such as forest soils, agricultural soils, and tropical mangrove ecosystems and produce laccases as an important family of lignin modifying enzymes. Biochemically, laccases are blue multi copper oxidases that couple four electron reduction of molecular oxygen to water. There is a growing interest in the use of laccases for a variety of industrial applications such as bio-pulping and biobleaching as well as in their ability to detoxify a wide variety of toxic environmental pollutants. These key oxidative enzymes are found in all the three domains of life: Eukaryota. Prokarya, and Archaea. Ganoderma lucidum (strain no.103561) produces laccase with some of the highest activity (17,000 micro katals per mg of protein) reported for any laccases to date. Our results showed that this organism produces at least 11 different isoforms of laccase based on variation in mol. weight and/or PI. Our Studies showed that the presence of copper in the medium yields 15- to 20-fold greater levels of enzyme by G. lucidum. Dialysation of extra cellular fluid of G. lucidum against 10mM sodium tartrate (pH5.5) gave an additional 15 to 17 fold stimulation of activity with an observed specific activity of 17,000 {micro}katals/mg protein. Dialysis against acetate buffer gave five fold increase in activity while dialysis against glycine showed inhibition of activity. Purification by FPLC and preparative gel electrophoresis gave purified fractions that resolved into eleven isoforms as separated by isoelectric focusing, and the PI,s were 4.7, 4.6, 4.5, 4.3, 4.2, 4.1, 3.8, 3.7, 3.5, 3.4 and 3.3. Genomic clones of laccase were isolated using G. lucidum DNA as a template and using inverse PCR and forward/reverse primers corresponding to the sequences of the conserved copper binding region in the N-terminal domain of one of the laccases of this organism. Inverse PCR amplication of HindIII digested

  14. Data mining and visualization techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak Chung; Whitney, Paul; Thomas, Jim

    2004-03-23

    Disclosed are association rule identification and visualization methods, systems, and apparatus. An association rule in data mining is an implication of the form X.fwdarw.Y where X is a set of antecedent items and Y is the consequent item. A unique visualization technique that provides multiple antecedent, consequent, confidence, and support information is disclosed to facilitate better presentation of large quantities of complex association rules.

  15. High-throughput prediction of Acacia and eucalypt lignin syringyl/guaiacyl content using FT-Raman spectroscopy and partial least squares modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Healey, Adam; Singh, Seema; Sykes, Robert; Davis, Mark; Lee, David J.; Shepherd, Merv; Simmons, Blake A.; Henry, Robert J.

    2015-01-16

    High-throughput techniques are necessary to efficiently screen potential lignocellulosic feedstocks for the production of renewable fuels, chemicals, and bio-based materials, thereby reducing experimental time and expense while supplanting tedious, destructive methods. The ratio of lignin syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) monomers has been routinely quantified as a way to probe biomass recalcitrance. Mid-infrared and Raman spectroscopy have been demonstrated to produce robust partial least squares models for the prediction of lignin S/G ratios in a diverse group of Acacia and eucalypt trees. The most accurate Raman model has now been used to predict the S/G ratio from 269 unknown Acaciamore » and eucalypt feedstocks. This study demonstrates the application of a partial least squares model composed of Raman spectral data and lignin S/G ratios measured using pyrolysis/molecular beam mass spectrometry (pyMBMS) for the prediction of S/G ratios in an unknown data set. The predicted S/G ratios calculated by the model were averaged according to plant species, and the means were not found to differ from the pyMBMS ratios when evaluating the mean values of each method within the 95 % confidence interval. Pairwise comparisons within each data set were employed to assess statistical differences between each biomass species. While some pairwise appraisals failed to differentiate between species, Acacias, in both data sets, clearly display significant differences in their S/G composition which distinguish them from eucalypts. In conclusion, this research shows the power of using Raman spectroscopy to supplant tedious, destructive methods for the evaluation of the lignin S/G ratio of diverse plant biomass materials.« less

  16. High-throughput prediction of Acacia and eucalypt lignin syringyl/guaiacyl content using FT-Raman spectroscopy and partial least squares modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Healey, Adam; Singh, Seema; Sykes, Robert; Davis, Mark; Lee, David J.; Shepherd, Merv; Simmons, Blake A.; Henry, Robert J.

    2015-01-16

    High-throughput techniques are necessary to efficiently screen potential lignocellulosic feedstocks for the production of renewable fuels, chemicals, and bio-based materials, thereby reducing experimental time and expense while supplanting tedious, destructive methods. The ratio of lignin syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) monomers has been routinely quantified as a way to probe biomass recalcitrance. Mid-infrared and Raman spectroscopy have been demonstrated to produce robust partial least squares models for the prediction of lignin S/G ratios in a diverse group of Acacia and eucalypt trees. The most accurate Raman model has now been used to predict the S/G ratio from 269 unknown Acacia and eucalypt feedstocks. This study demonstrates the application of a partial least squares model composed of Raman spectral data and lignin S/G ratios measured using pyrolysis/molecular beam mass spectrometry (pyMBMS) for the prediction of S/G ratios in an unknown data set. The predicted S/G ratios calculated by the model were averaged according to plant species, and the means were not found to differ from the pyMBMS ratios when evaluating the mean values of each method within the 95 % confidence interval. Pairwise comparisons within each data set were employed to assess statistical differences between each biomass species. While some pairwise appraisals failed to differentiate between species, Acacias, in both data sets, clearly display significant differences in their S/G composition which distinguish them from eucalypts. In conclusion, this research shows the power of using Raman spectroscopy to supplant tedious, destructive methods for the evaluation of the lignin S/G ratio of diverse plant biomass materials.

  17. Pyrolysis reaction networks for lignin model compounds: unraveling thermal deconstruction of β-O-4 and α-O-4 compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Yong S.; Singh, Rahul; Zhang, Jing; Balasubramanian, Ganesh; Sturgeon, Matthew R.; Katahira, Rui; Chupka, Gina; Beckham, Gregg T.; Shanks, Brent H.

    2016-01-01

    Although lignin is one of the main components of biomass, its pyrolysis chemistry is not well understood due to complex heterogeneity. To gain insights into this chemistry, the pyrolysis of seven lignin model compounds (five ..beta..-O-4 and two ..alpha..-O-4 linked molecules) was investigated in a micropyrolyzer connected to GC-MS/FID. According to quantitative product mole balance for the reaction networks, concerted retro-ene fragmentation and homolytic dissociation were strongly suggested as the initial reaction step for ..beta..-O-4 compounds and ..alpha..-O-4 compounds, respectively. The difference in reaction pathway between compounds with different linkages was believed to result from thermodynamics of the radical initiation. The rate constants for the different reaction pathways were predicted from ab initio density functional theory calculations and pre-exponential literature values. The computational findings were consistent with the experiment results, further supporting the different pyrolysis mechanisms for the ..beta..-ether linked and ..alpha..-ether linked compounds. A combination of the two pathways from the dimeric model compounds was able to describe qualitatively the pyrolysis of a trimeric lignin model compound containing both ..beta..-O-4 and ..alpha..-O-4 linkages.

  18. Kinetic analysis of the phenyl-shift reaction in $\\beta$-O-4 lignin model compounds: A computational study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beste, Ariana; Buchanan III, A C

    2011-01-01

    The phenyl-shift reaction in $\\beta$-phenethyl phenyl ether ($\\beta - \\rm PhCH_2CH_2OPh$, $\\beta$-PPE) is an integral step in the pyrolysis of PPE, which is a model compound for the $\\beta$-O-4 linkage in lignin. We investigated the influence of natural occurring substituents (hydroxy, methoxy) on the reaction rate by calculating relative rate constant using density functional theory in combination with transition state theory, including anharmonic correction for low-frequency modes. The phenyl-shift reaction proceeds through an intermediate and the overall rate constants were computed invoking the steady-state approximation (its validity was confirmed). Substituents on the phenethyl group have only little influence on the rate constants. If a methoxy substituent is located in para position of the phenyl ring adjacent to the ether oxygen, the energies of the intermediate and second transition state are lowered, but the overall rate constant is not significantly altered. This is a consequence of the dominating first transition from pre-complex to intermediate in the overall rate constant. {\\it O}- and di-{\\it o}-methoxy substituents accelerate the phenyl-migration rate compared to $\\beta$-PPE.

  19. Data sonification and sound visualization.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.; Wiebel, E.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Illinois

    1999-07-01

    Sound can help us explore and analyze complex data sets in scientific computing. The authors describe a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis (Diass) and a program to visualize sounds in a virtual reality environment (M4Cave). Both are part of a comprehensive music composition environment that includes additional software for computer-assisted composition and automatic music notation.

  20. VCAT: Visual Crosswalk Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cleland, Timothy J.; Forslund, David W.; Cleland, Catherine A.

    2012-08-31

    VCAT is a knowledge modeling and analysis tool. It was synthesized from ideas in functional analysis, business process modeling, and complex network science. VCAT discovers synergies by analyzing natural language descriptions. Specifically, it creates visual analytic perspectives that capture intended organization structures, then overlays the serendipitous relationships that point to potential synergies within an organization or across multiple organizations.

  1. Energy Integration Visualization Room (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    This two-page fact sheet describes the new Energy Integration Visualization Room in the ESIF and talks about some of the capabilities and unique visualization features of the the room.

  2. Visualization Graph | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    8 August, 2012 - 12:37 New Gapminder Visualizations Added EIA Energy data Gapminder OECD OpenEI SEDS Visualization Graph OpenEI now features some cool new Gapminder...

  3. Visualization Contest Applications due August 3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contest Applications due August 3 June 22, 2012 by Francesca Verdier In support of the IEEE Symposium on Large-Scale Data Analysis and Visualization (LDAV) 2012's visualization...

  4. HIV classification using coalescent theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ming; Letiner, Thomas K; Korber, Bette T

    2008-01-01

    Algorithms for subtype classification and breakpoint detection of HIV-I sequences are based on a classification system of HIV-l. Hence, their quality highly depend on this system. Due to the history of creation of the current HIV-I nomenclature, the current one contains inconsistencies like: The phylogenetic distance between the subtype B and D is remarkably small compared with other pairs of subtypes. In fact, it is more like the distance of a pair of subsubtypes Robertson et al. (2000); Subtypes E and I do not exist any more since they were discovered to be composed of recombinants Robertson et al. (2000); It is currently discussed whether -- instead of CRF02 being a recombinant of subtype A and G -- subtype G should be designated as a circulating recombination form (CRF) nd CRF02 as a subtype Abecasis et al. (2007); There are 8 complete and over 400 partial HIV genomes in the LANL-database which belong neither to a subtype nor to a CRF (denoted by U). Moreover, the current classification system is somehow arbitrary like all complex classification systems that were created manually. To this end, it is desirable to deduce the classification system of HIV systematically by an algorithm. Of course, this problem is not restricted to HIV, but applies to all fast mutating and recombining viruses. Our work addresses the simpler subproblem to score classifications of given input sequences of some virus species (classification denotes a partition of the input sequences in several subtypes and CRFs). To this end, we reconstruct ancestral recombination graphs (ARG) of the input sequences under restrictions determined by the given classification. These restritions are imposed in order to ensure that the reconstructed ARGs do not contradict the classification under consideration. Then, we find the ARG with maximal probability by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The probability of the most probable ARG is interpreted as a score for the classification. To our knowledge, this particular problem was not addressed up to now. The software package Lamarc Kuhner et al. (2000) allows for sampling ARGs, but it assumes that recombination events only involve one breakpoint. However, in HIV recombinants usually have more than one breakpoint. Moreover, Lamarc does not perform an explicit breakpoint detection, but tries to find them by chance. Although this approach is suitable for most situations, it will not lead to satisfying results in case of highly recombining viruses with multiple breakpoints.

  5. Research Challenges for Visualization Software. (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Challenges for Visualization Software. Citation ... IEEE Computer Magazine. Research Org: Sandia National Laboratories Sponsoring Org: USDOE National Nuclear Security ...

  6. Visual Patent Search - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Visual Patent Search Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Visual Patent Search Read the Energy.gov Article Visual Patent

  7. Visualization Clusters | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analytics and Visualization Visualization Cluster Cooley The primary purpose of Cooley is to analyze and visualize data produced on Mira. Equipped with state-of-the-art graphics processing units (GPUs), Cooley converts computational data from Mira into high-resolution visual representations. The resulting images, videos, and animations help users to better analyze and understand the data generated by Mira. Cooley can also be used for statistical analysis, helping to pinpoint trends in the

  8. An interpersonal multimedia visualization system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Media View is a computer program that provides a generic infrastructure for authoring and interacting with multimedia documents. Among its many applications is the ability to furnish a user with a comprehensive environment for analysis and visualization. With MediaView the user produces a document'' that contains mathematics, datasets and associated visualizations. From the dataset or embedded mathematics animated sequences can be produced in situ. The mathematical content of the document'' can be explored through manipulation with Mathematica {trademark}. Since the document'' is all digital, it can be shared with a co-worker on a local network or mailed electronically to a colleague at a distant site. Animations and any other substructure of the document'' persist through the mailing process and can be awakened at the destination by the recipient. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Bed Agglomeration During the Steam Gasification of a High Lignin Corn Stover Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) Digester Residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howe, Daniel T.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Saraf, Laxmikant; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2015-11-13

    This research investigates the bed agglomeration phenomena during the steam gasification of a high lignin residue produced from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corn stover in a bubbling fluidized bed. The studies were conducted at 895°C using alumina as bed material. Biomass was fed at 1.5 kg/hr, while steam was fed to give a velocity equal to 2.5 times the minimum fluidization velocity, with a steam/carbon ratio of 0.9. The pelletized feedstock was co-fed with a cooling nitrogen stream to mitigate feed line plugging issues. Tar production was high at 50.3 g/Nm3, and the fraction of C10+ compounds was greater than that seen in the gasification of traditional lignocellulosic feedstocks. Carbon closures over 94 % were achieved for all experiments. Bed agglomeration was found to be problematic, indicated by pressure drop increases observed below the bed and upstream of the feed line. Two size categories of solids were recovered from the reactor, +60 mesh and -60 mesh. After a 2.75-hour experiment, 61.7 wt % was recovered as -60 mesh particles and 38.2 wt% of the recovered reactor solids were +60 mesh. A sizeable percentage, 31.8 wt%, was +20 mesh. The -60 mesh particles were mainly formed by the initial bed material (Al2O3). Almost 50 wt. % of the + 20 mesh particles was found to be formed by organics. The unreacted carbon remaining in the reactor resulted in a low conversion rate to product gas. ICP-AES, SEM, SEM-EDS, and XRD confirmed that the large agglomerates (+ 20 mesh) were not encapsulated bed material but rather un-gasified feedstock pellets with sand particles attached to it.

  10. Visualizing Cyber Security: Usable Workspaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, Glenn A.; North, Christopher L.; Endert, Alexander; Rose, Stuart J.

    2009-10-11

    An environment that supports cyber analytics work should enable multiple, simultaneous investigations, information foraging, and provide a solution space for organizing data. We describe our study of cyber security professionals and visualizations in a large, high-resolution display work environment. We discuss the tasks and needs of analysts that such an environment can support and present several prototypes designed to support these needs. We conclude with a usability evaluation of the prototypes and additional lessons learned.