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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Automated Measurements of Atmospheric Visibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concept of using a solid-state, linear-array imaging device coupled with computerized scene analysis and display to measure daytime atmospheric visibility is described. Computer software is implemented for routine conversion of observed ...

W. Viezee; W. E. Evans

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Intercomparison of Spectroradiometers for Global and Direct Solar Irradiance in the Visible Range  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of the analysis of the spectral, global, and direct solar irradiance measurements in the visible range (400–700 nm) that were made in the framework of the first Iberian UV–visible (VIS) instruments intercomparison. ...

José A. Martínez-Lozano; Maria P. Utrillas; Roberto Pedrós; Fernando Tena; Juan P. Díaz; Francisco J. Expósito; Jerónimo Lorente; Xavier de Cabo; Victoria Cachorro; Ricardo Vergaz; Virgilio Carreńo

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

About ÂŤEffectiveÂŽ Height of the Aerosol Atmosphere in Visible and IR Wavelength Range  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

"Effective" Height of the Aerosol Atmosphere in "Effective" Height of the Aerosol Atmosphere in Visible and IR Wavelength Range V. N. Uzhegov, D. M. Kabanov, M. V. Panchenko, Yu. A. Pkhalagov, and S. M. Sakerin Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction Aerosol component of the atmosphere is one of the important factors affecting the radiation budget of the space - atmosphere - underlying surface system in visible and infrared (IR) wavelength ranges. It is extremely important to take into account the contribution of this component into the extinction of solar radiation under cloudless sky conditions. Sometimes it is important to know not only the total value of the aerosol component of extinction, but also to have the possibility to estimate the "effective" height of

4

Surface Irradiances Consistent with CERES-Derived Top-of-Atmosphere Shortwave and Longwave Irradiances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The estimate of surface irradiance on a global scale is possible through radiative transfer calculations using satellite-retrieved surface, cloud, and aerosol properties as input. Computed top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances, however, do not ...

Seiji Kato; Norman G. Loeb; Fred G. Rose; David R. Doelling; David A. Rutan; Thomas E. Caldwell; Lisan Yu; Robert A. Weller

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Practical Atmospheric Correction Algorithms for a Multi-Spectral Sensor From the Visible Through the Thermal Spectral Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deriving information about the Earth's surface requires atmospheric corrections of the measured top-of-the-atmosphere radiances. One possible path is to use atmospheric radiative transfer codes to predict how the radiance leaving the ground is affected by the scattering and attenuation. In practice the atmosphere is usually not well known and thus it is necessary to use more practical methods. The authors will describe how to find dark surfaces, estimate the atmospheric optical depth, estimate path radiance and identify thick clouds using thresholds on reflectance and NDVI and columnar water vapor. The authors describe a simple method to correct a visible channel contaminated by a thin cirrus clouds.

Borel, C.C.; Villeneuve, P.V.; Clodium, W.B.; Szymenski, J.J.; Davis, A.B.

1999-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

6

A Model for Solar Spectral Irradiance and Radiance at the Bottom and Top of a Cloudless Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple model is presented that, in a cloud-free atmosphere, calculates solar spectral direct and diffuse irradiance and directional radiance at the surface, spectral absorption within the atmosphere and the upward reflected spectral irradiance ...

C. G. Justus; M. V. Paris

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Absorption of Visible Radiation by Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Fog and Cloud Water Residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Light absorption by samples of atmospheric aerosol particles as a function of size was studied using the integrating sphere method. In addition, the optical properties of fog and cloud-water residues were determined. The samples were taken at two ...

Karl Andre; Ralph Dlugi; Gottfried Schnatz

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Introducing an Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer for Improving the Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Measurement (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Advancing climate change research requires accurate and traceable measurement of the atmospheric longwave irradiance. Current measurement capabilities are limited to an estimated uncertainty of larger than +/- 4 W/m2 using the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). WISG is traceable to the Systeme international d'unites (SI) through blackbody calibrations. An Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) is being developed to measure absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to SI using the temperature scale (ITS-90) and the sky as the reference source, instead of a blackbody. The ACP was designed by NREL and optically characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Under clear-sky and stable conditions, the responsivity of the ACP is determined by lowering the temperature of the cavity and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance is then calculated with an uncertainty of +/- 3.96 W/m2 with traceability to SI. The measured irradiance by the ACP was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the WISG. A total of 408 readings was collected over three different clear nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m2 lower than that measured by the two pyrgeometers that are traceable to WISG. Further development and characterization of the ACP might contribute to the effort of improving the uncertainty and traceability of WISG to SI.

Reda, I.; Hansen, L.; Zeng, J.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Measurement and modeling of shortwave irradiance components in cloud-free atmospheres  

SciTech Connect

Atmosphere scatters and absorbs incident solar radiation modifying its spectral content and decreasing its intensity at the surface. It is very useful to classify the earth-atmospheric solar radiation into several components--direct solar surface irradiance (E{sub direct}), diffuse-sky downward surface irradiance (E{sub diffuse}), total surface irradiance, and upwelling flux at the surface and at the top-of-the atmosphere. E{sub direct} depends only on the extinction properties of the atmosphere without regard to details of extinction, namely scattering or absorption; furthermore it can be accurately measured to high accuracy (0.3%) with the aid of an active cavity radiometer (ACR). E{sub diffuse} has relatively larger uncertainties both in its measurement using shaded pyranometers and in model estimates, owing to the difficulty in accurately characterizing pyranometers and in measuring model inputs such as surface reflectance, aerosol single scattering albedo, and phase function. Radiative transfer model simulations of the above surface radiation components in cloud-free skies using measured atmospheric properties show that while E{sub direct} estimates are closer to measurements, E{sub diffuse} is overestimated by an amount larger than the combined uncertainties in model inputs and measurements, illustrating a fundamental gap in the understanding of the magnitude of atmospheric absorption in cloud-free skies. The excess continuum type absorption required to reduce the E{sub diffuse} model overestimate ({approximately}3--8% absorptance) would significantly impact climate prediction and remote sensing. It is not clear at present what the source for this continuum absorption is. Here issues related to measurements and modeling of the surface irradiance components are discussed.

Halthore, R.N.

1999-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

10

The Influence of Meteorological Conditions and Atmospheric Circulation Types on PM10 and Visibility in Tel Aviv  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 3-yr dataset (February 2000–November 2002) of 30-min averages for particulates, visibility, and meteorological data were analyzed to examine the dependence of particulate matter of less than 10 ?m in diameter (PM10) mass concentrations and ...

Uri Dayan; Ilan Levy

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Irradiated atmospheres of accreting magnetic white dwarfs with an application to the polar AM Herculis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a pilot study of atmospheres of accreting magnetic white dwarfs irradiated by intense fluxes at ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths. The model uses a standard LTE stellar atmosphere code which is expanded by introducing an angle-dependent external radiation source. The present results are obtained for an external source with the spectral shape of a 10000K blackbody and a freely adjustable spectral flux. The model provides an explanation for the observed largely filled-up Lyman lines in the prototype polar AM Herculis during its high states. It also confirms the hypotheses (i) that irradiation by cyclotron radiation and other radiation sources is the principle cause for the large heated polar caps surrounding the accretion spots on white dwarfs in polars and (ii) that much of the reprocessed light appears in the far ultraviolet and not in the soft X-ray regime as suggested in the original simple theories. We also briefly discuss the role played by hard X-rays in heating the polar cap.

König, M; Gänsicke, B T

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Irradiated atmospheres of accreting magnetic white dwarfs with an application to the polar AM Herculis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a pilot study of atmospheres of accreting magnetic white dwarfs irradiated by intense fluxes at ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths. The model uses a standard LTE stellar atmosphere code which is expanded by introducing an angle-dependent external radiation source. The present results are obtained for an external source with the spectral shape of a 10000K blackbody and a freely adjustable spectral flux. The model provides an explanation for the observed largely filled-up Lyman lines in the prototype polar AM Herculis during its high states. It also confirms the hypotheses (i) that irradiation by cyclotron radiation and other radiation sources is the principle cause for the large heated polar caps surrounding the accretion spots on white dwarfs in polars and (ii) that much of the reprocessed light appears in the far ultraviolet and not in the soft X-ray regime as suggested in the original simple theories. We also briefly discuss the role played by hard X-rays in heating the polar cap.

M. Koenig; K. Beuermann; B. T. Gaensicke

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

13

Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Uncertainty: Pyrgeometers Compared to an Absolute Sky-Scanning Radiometer, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer, and Radiative Transfer Model Calculations  

SciTech Connect

Because atmospheric longwave radiation is one of the most fundamental elements of an expected climate change, there has been a strong interest in improving measurements and model calculations in recent years. Important questions are how reliable and consistent are atmospheric longwave radiation measurements and calculations and what are the uncertainties? The First International Pyrgeometer and Absolute Sky-scanning Radiometer Comparison, which was held at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's Souther Great Plains site in Oklahoma, answers these questions at least for midlatitude summer conditions and reflects the state of the art for atmospheric longwave radiation measurements and calculations. The 15 participating pyrgeometers were all calibration-traced standard instruments chosen from a broad international community. Two new chopped pyrgeometers also took part in the comparison. And absolute sky-scanning radiometer (ASR), which includes a pyroelectric detector and a reference blackbody source, was used for the first time as a reference standard instrument to field calibrate pyrgeometers during clear-sky nighttime measurements. Owner-provided and uniformly determined blackbody calibration factors were compared. Remarkable improvements and higher pyrgeometer precision were achieved with field calibration factors. Results of nighttime and daytime pyrgeometer precision and absolute uncertainty are presented for eight consecutive days of measurements, during which period downward longwave irradiance varied between 260 and 420 W m-2. Comparisons between pyrgeometers and the absolute ASR, the atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer models LBLRTM and MODTRAN show a surprisingly good agreement of <2 W m-2 for nighttime atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements and calculations.

Philipona, J. R.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Stoffel, T.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Reda, I.; Stifter, Armin; Wendling, Peter; Wood, Norm; Clough, Shepard A.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Anderson, Gail; Revercomb, Henry E.; Shippert, Timothy R.

2001-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

14

SPECTRAL IRRADIANCE CALIBRATION IN THE INFRARED. XVII. ZERO-MAGNITUDE BROADBAND FLUX REFERENCE FOR VISIBLE-TO-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The absolutely calibrated infrared (IR) stellar spectra of standard stars described by Engelke et al. are being extended into the visible and will span a continuous wavelength range from {approx}0.35 {mu}m to 35.0 {mu}m. This paper, which is a continuation of the series on calibration initiated with Cohen et al., presents the foundation of this extension. We find that due to various irregularities Vega ({alpha} Lyr) is not suitable for its traditional role as the primary visible or near-infrared standard star. We therefore define a new zero-point flux that is independent of Vega and, as far as is feasible, uses measured spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and fluxes derived from photometry. The calibrated primary stars now underpinning this zero-point definition are 109 Vir in the visible and Sirius ({alpha} CMa) in the infrared. The resulting zero-point SED tests well against solar analog data presented by Rieke et al. while also maintaining an unambiguous link to specific calibration stars, thus providing a pragmatic range of options for any researcher wishing to tie it to a given set of photometry.

Engelke, Charles W. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02135 (United States); Price, Stephan D.; Kraemer, Kathleen E. [Space Vehicle Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 (United States)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

15

An Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Value-Added Product to Retrieve Optically Thin Cloud Visible Optical Depth using Micropulse Lidar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of the Micropulse Lidar (MPL) Cloud Optical Depth (MPLCOD) Value-Added Product (VAP) is to retrieve the visible (short-wave) cloud optical depth for optically thin clouds using MPL. The advantage of using the MPL to derive optical depth is that lidar is able to detect optically thin cloud layers that may not be detected by millimeter cloud radar or radiometric techniques. The disadvantage of using lidar to derive optical depth is that the lidar signal becomes attenuation limited when ? approaches 3 (this value can vary depending on instrument specifications). As a result, the lidar will not detect optically thin clouds if an optically thick cloud obstructs the lidar beam.

Lo, C; Comstock, JM; Flynn, C

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Meteosat and GOES-East Imager Visible Channel Calibration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a preliminary step to solar irradiance calculations, the Centre de Météorologie Spatiale (CMS) has developed a pragmatic approach to calibrate the visible channels of Meteosat and GOES-East imagers. The responsivity of the Meteosat visible ...

Pierre Le Borgne; Gérard Legendre; Anne Marsouin

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Simple solar spectral model for direct and diffuse irradiance on horizontal and tilted planes at the earth's surface for cloudless atmospheres  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new, simple model for calculating clear-sky direct and diffuse spectral irradiance on horizontal and tilted surfaces is presented. The model is based on previously reported simple algorithms and on comparisons with rigorous radiative transfer calculations and limited outdoor measurements. Equations for direct normal irradiance are outlined; and include: Raleigh scattering; aerosol scattering and absorption; water vapor absorption; and ozone and uniformly mixed gas absorption. Inputs to the model include solar zenith angle, collector tilt angle, atmospheric turbidity, amount of ozone and precipitable water vapor, surface pressure, and ground albedo. The model calculates terrestrial spectra from 0.3 to 4.0 ..mu..m with approximately 10 nm resolution. A major goal of this work is to provide researchers with the capability to calculate spectral irradiance for different atmospheric conditions and different collector geometries using microcomputers. A listing of the computer program is provided.

Bird, R.; Riordan, C.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Southeastern Aerosol and Visibility Study (SEAVS): Concentration and Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols at Look Rock, Tennessee, Ju ly-August 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fine airborne particles with diameters below about 2.5 mm (PM-2.5), contribute to inhalation exposure, deposit on lakes and vegetation, form hazes, and influence the earth's radiative balance. This report describes the results of the Southeastern Aerosol and Visibility Study (SEAVS), which characterizes the concentration and chemical composition of fine particulate matter measured in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park during July-August, 1995. These results provide new insights into the influence of...

1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

19

Lidar-Transmissometer Visibility Comparisons Over Slant and Horizontal Paths  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric visibility has been measured with the lidar technique using the “slope method.” The system is briefly described and some aspects of slant path visibility measurements for aeronautical applications are discussed. Measurements in dense ...

J. L. Gaumet; A. Petitpa

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

The Estimation of Snowfall Rate Using Visibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between liquid equivalent snowfall rate and visibility is investigated using data collected at the National Center for Atmospheric Research Marshall Snowfall Test Site during two winter field seasons and using theoretical ...

Roy M. Rasmussen; Jothiram Vivekanandan; Jeffrey Cole; Barry Myers; Charles Masters

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Photocatalytic splitting of water under visible-light irradiation over the NiOx-loaded Sm{sub 2}InTaO{sub 7} with 4f-d{sup 10}-d{sup 0} configuration  

SciTech Connect

A new visible-light-response photocatalyst Sm{sub 2}InTaO{sub 7} with 4f-d{sup 10}-d{sup 0} configuration crystallized in a cubic system with the space group Fd3m was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. NiOx-loaded Sm{sub 2}InTaO{sub 7} showed high photocatalytic activities for H{sub 2} evolution from pure water under visible light irradiation (lambda>400 nm). Changes in the photocatalytic activity with the calcination temperature of Sm{sub 2}InTaO{sub 7} and the amount of NiOx loaded indicated that the combination of highly crystallized Sm{sub 2}InTaO{sub 7} and a high dispersion of NiOx particles led to high photocatalytic activity. The high photocatalytic performance of NiOx-loaded Sm{sub 2}InTaO{sub 7} supported the existing view that the photocatalytic activity correlated with the lattice distortion. Density functional theory calculation indicated that strong dispersion from the hybridized In 5s 5p orbitals at the bottom of the conduction band was responsible for the high activity of photocatalyst Sm{sub 2}InTaO{sub 7}. - Graphical abstract: A new visible-light-response photocatalyst Sm{sub 2}InTaO{sub 7} with 4f-d{sup 10}-d{sup 0} configuration was developed. DFT calculation indicated that strong dispersion from the hybridized In 5s 5p orbitals was responsible for the high photocatalytic activity.

Tang Xinde, E-mail: txd738011@yahoo.c [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ye Hongqi [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Hui [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ma Chenxia; Zhao Zhi [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

22

Visibility Trends for Coastal Regions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Increased biomass burning (e.g., forest fires, controlled burns, etc.) and anthropogenic emissions into the earth's atmosphere in the past century have led to much debate with regard to greenhouse gases, atmospheric carbon buildup, aerosol increases, and global warming. Atmospheric aerosols are linked to reduced air quality and visibility (V) in many parts of the world. In south-central South Carolina visibility reduction has been responsible for traffic fatalities on public highways, with resulting lawsuits against governmental entities. Congress passed the Clean Air Act in 1963, with amendments in 1970, 1977, and 1990 to improve air quality. The actual implementation of the Clean Air Act has been an intermittent process because of litigation over some provisions of the Act. However, it is reasonable to assume that visibility has improved in the U.S. over the past decades due to implementation of the Clean Air Act's provisions. In this study visibility data have been acquired for seven weather stations along or near the U.S. East Coast to study how conditions have changed from the 1980s to the 1990s.

Weber, A.H.

2003-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

23

Modeling Ultraviolet Radiation at the Earth's Surface. Part I: The Sensitivity of Ultraviolet Irradiances to Atmospheric Changes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A discrete-ordinate radiative transfer model is employed for the prediction of surface UV irradiances. A wide-ranging sensitivity study is undertaken to show how changes to the model input parameters aged UV irradiances at the surface. The ...

Piers M. De F. Forster

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Visibly photoluminescent silica aerogels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Visibly photoluminescent silica aerogels Title Visibly photoluminescent silica aerogels Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1997 Authors Ayers, Michael R., and...

25

Robust epsilon visibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analytic visibility algorithms, for example methods which compute a subdivided mesh to represent shadows, are notoriously unrobust and hard to use in practice. We present a new method based on a generalized definition of extremal stabbing lines, which ... Keywords: 3D visibility, epsilon visibility, illumination, robust visibility predicates, shadow algorithms

Florent Duguet; George Drettakis

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Mesoscale Cloud State Estimation from Visible and Infrared Satellite Radiances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study focuses on cloudy atmosphere state estimation from high-resolution visible and infrared satellite remote sensing measurements and a mesoscale model with explicit cloud prediction. The cloud state is defined as 3D spatially distributed ...

T. Vukicevic; T. Greenwald; M. Zupanski; D. Zupanski; T. Vonder Haar; A. S. Jones

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Posters Mean Fluxes of Visible Solar Radiation in Broken Clouds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 Posters Mean Fluxes of Visible Solar Radiation in Broken Clouds V. E. Zuev, G. A. Titov, T. B. Zhuravleva, and S. Y. Popov Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch...

28

Automated Lightning Flash Detection in Nighttime Visible Satellite Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) nighttime visible channel was designed to detect earth–atmosphere features under conditions of low illumination (e.g., near the solar terminator or via moonlight ...

Richard L. Bankert; Jeremy E. Solbrig; Thomas F. Lee; Steven D. Miller

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

The Use of Visible Data in VAS Temperature Soundings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is developed that makes use of visible reflectance data to provide cloud information from the retrieval of atmospheric vertical soundings from VAS geostationary radiance observations. The technique enables estimates of fractional cloud ...

Gin-Rong Liu; William L. Smith; Thomas H. Achtor

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

DETERMINATION OF CARBON IN ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS BY DEUTERON-INDUCED NUCLEAR REACTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

deuteron irradiation of an atmospheric aerosol sample.CARBON IN ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS BY DEUTERON-INDUCED NUCLEARCARBON IN ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS BY DEUTERON-INDUCED NUCLEAR

Clemenson, Mark

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Atmospheric attenuation of solar radiation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The attenuation of solar radiation by the atmosphere between the heliostat and receiver of a Central Receiver solar energy system has been computed for a number of atmospheric conditions and tower-heliostat distances. The most important atmospheric variable is found to be the atmospheric aerosol content. No dependence of atmospheric water vapor is found and only a weak dependence on solar zenith angle. For a 500 m heliostat-tower distance two to four percent reductions are expected under typical desert conditions (50 to 120 km visibility). The reduction is approximately linear with heliostat-tower distance. A representative value of the attenuation coefficient is 0.051 km/sup -1/.

Randall, C.M.

1977-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

32

Simple Solar Spectral Model for Direct and Diffuse Irradiance on Horizontal and Tilted Planes at the Earth's Surface for Cloudless Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a previous work, we described a simple model for calculating direct normal and diffuse horizontal spectral solar irradiance for cloudless sky conditions. In this paper, we present a new simple model (SPCTRAL2) that incorporates improvements to ...

Richard E. Bird; Carol Riordan

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

The Visible Cement Dataset Homepage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST. The Visible Cement Dataset is a collection of three-dimensional data sets of hydrating cement, Plaster of Paris, and ...

2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

34

Visible Light Photoreduction of CO  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov May 2013 Opportunity Research is currently active on the patent-pending technology "Visible Light Photoreduction of CO 2 Using Heterostructured...

35

Dust Tracking Using Composite Visible/IR Images: A Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Visible and infrared (IR) images from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer are composited to improve the depiction of airborne dust over coastlines. On IR images, wind-raised dust ...

Thomas F. Lee

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Atmospheric Aerosols  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

measuring equipment Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric aerosol research at Berkeley Lab seeks to understand the air quality and climate impacts of particles in the atmosphere. On...

37

Springtime Visibility in the Arctic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the Ptarmigan flights in the 1950s, the springtime visibility reduction in the Arctic has been identified with pollution aerosol. However, observed values of the dry aerosol extinction coefficient are too small to explain the observed ...

F. G. Meyer; J. A. Curry; C. A. Brock; L. F. Radke

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Comparison of Nimbus-7 SMMR and GOES-1 VISSR Atmospheric Liquid Water Content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vertically integrated atmospheric liquid water content derived from Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) brightness temperatures and from GOES-1 Visible and Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (VISSR) radiances in the visible are ...

Jean-Yves Lojou; Robert Frouin; René Bernard

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

ARM - Evaluation Product - Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsAirborne Visible/Infrared Imaging ProductsAirborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) 1997.08.01 - 1997.08.01 Site(s) SGP General Description AVIRIS is an optical sensor that delivers calibrated images of the upwelling spectral radiance in 224 contiguous spectral channels (bands) with wavelengths from 400 to 2500 nanometers. AVIRIS has been flown on two aircraft platforms: a NASA ER-2 jet and the Twin Otter turboprop. The main objective of the AVIRIS project is to identify, measure, and monitor constituents of the Earth's surface and atmosphere based on molecular absorption and particle scattering signatures. Research with

40

Apparatus and method to control atmospheric water vapor composition and concentration during dynamic cooling of biological tissues in conjunction with laser irradiations  

SciTech Connect

Cryogen spray cooling of skin surface with millisecond cryogen spurts is an effective method for establishing a controlled temperature distribution in tissue and protecting the epidermis from nonspecific thermal injury during laser mediated dermatological procedures. Control of humidity level, spraying distance and cryogen boiling point is material to the resulting surface temperature. Decreasing the ambient humidity level results in less ice formation on the skin surface without altering the surface temperature during the cryogen spurt. For a particular delivery nozzle, increasing the spraying distance to 85 millimeters lowers the surface temperature. The methodology comprises establishing a controlled humidity level in the theater of operation of the irradiation site of the biological tissues before and/or during the cryogenic spray cooling of the biological tissue. At cold temperatures calibration was achieved by mounting a thermistor on a thermoelectric cooler. The thermal electric cooler was cooled from from 20.degree. C. to about -20.degree. C. while measuring its infrared emission.

Nelson, J. Stuart (Laguna Niguel, CA); Anvari, Bahman (Houston, TX); Tanenbaum, B. Samuel (Irvine, CA); Milner, Thomas E. (Austin, TX)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Atmospheric Aerosols  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tom Kirchstetter with aerosol measurement instrument Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric aerosol research at LBNL seeks to understand the air quality and climate impacts of particles...

42

Recent variability of the solar spectral irradiance and its impact on climate modelling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The lack of long and reliable time series of solar spectral irradiance (SSI) measurements makes an accurate quantification of solar contributions to recent climate change difficult. Whereas earlier SSI observations and models provided a qualitatively consistent picture of the SSI variability, recent measurements by the SORCE satellite suggest a significantly stronger variability in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range and changes in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) bands in anti-phase with the solar cycle. A number of recent chemistry-climate model (CCM) simulations have shown that this might have significant implications on the Earth's atmosphere. Motivated by these results, we summarize here our current knowledge of SSI variability and its impact on Earth's climate. We present a detailed overview of existing SSI measurements and provide thorough comparison of models available to date. SSI changes influence the Earth's atmosphere, both directly, through changes in shortwave (SW) heating and therefore, temp...

Ermolli, I; de Wit, T Dudok; Krivova, N A; Tourpali, K; Weber, M; Unruh, Y C; Gray, L; Langematz, U; Pilewskie, P; Rozanov, E; Schmutz, W; Shapiro, A; Solanki, S K; Woods, T N

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Solids irradiator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel facility for irradiation of solids embodying pathogens wherein solids are conveyed through an irradiation chamber in individual containers of an endless conveyor.

Morris, Marvin E. (Albuquerque, NM); Pierce, Jim D. (Albuquerque, NM); Whitfield, Willis J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Measuring Spectral Actinic Flux and Irradiance: Experimental Results from the Actinic Flux Determination from Measurements of Irradiance (ADMIRA) Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are presented from the Actinic Flux Determination from Measurements of Irradiance (ADMIRA) campaign to measure spectral global UV irradiance and actinic flux at the ground, beneath an atmosphere well defined by supporting measurements. ...

A. R. Webb; A. F. Bais; M. Blumthaler; G-P. Gobbi; A. Kylling; R. Schmitt; S. Thiel; F. Barnaba; T. Danielsen; W. Junkermann; A. Kazantzidis; P. Kelly; R. Kift; G. L. Liberti; M. Misslbeck; B. Schallhart; J. Schreder; C. Topaloglou

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

The Observed Hemispheric Symmetry in Reflected Shortwave Irradiance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While the concentration of landmasses and atmospheric aerosols on the Northern Hemisphere suggests that the Northern Hemisphere is brighter than the Southern Hemisphere, satellite measurements of top-of-atmosphere irradiances found that both ...

Aiko Voigt; Bjorn Stevens; Jürgen Bader; Thorsten Mauritsen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Gamma-Ray Pulsar Visibility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PSR J0437-4715 is a millisecond pulsar (MSP) thought to be ``pair formation starved'' (having limited pair cascades due to magnetic photon absorption). Fortunately the general relativistic (GR) electrodynamical model under consideration applicable to this pulsar have few free parameters. We model PSR J0437-4715's visibility, using a 3D model which incorporates the variation of the GR E-field over the polar cap (PC), taking different observer and inclination angles into account. Using this pulsar as a case study, one may generalize to conducting a pulsar population visibility study. We lastly comment on the role of the proposed South African SKA (Square Kilometre Array) prototype, KAT (Karoo Array Telescope), for GLAST gamma-ray pulsar identification.

Venter, C

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Gamma-Ray Pulsar Visibility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PSR J0437-4715 is a millisecond pulsar (MSP) thought to be ``pair formation starved'' (having limited pair cascades due to magnetic photon absorption). Fortunately the general relativistic (GR) electrodynamical model under consideration applicable to this pulsar have few free parameters. We model PSR J0437-4715's visibility, using a 3D model which incorporates the variation of the GR E-field over the polar cap (PC), taking different observer and inclination angles into account. Using this pulsar as a case study, one may generalize to conducting a pulsar population visibility study. We lastly comment on the role of the proposed South African SKA (Square Kilometre Array) prototype, KAT (Karoo Array Telescope), for GLAST gamma-ray pulsar identification.

C. Venter; O. C. de Jager; A. Tiplady

2005-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

48

Gamma-Ray Pulsar Visibility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. PSR J0437-4715 is a millisecond pulsar (MSP) thought to be “pair formation starved” (having limited pair cascades due to magnetic photon absorption). Fortunately the general relativistic (GR) electrodynamical model under consideration applicable to this pulsar have few free parameters. We model PSR J0437-4715’s visibility [1], using a 3D model which incorporates the variation of the GR E-field over the polar cap (PC), taking different observer and inclination angles into account. Using this pulsar as a case study, one may generalize to conducting a pulsar population visibility study. We lastly comment on the role of the proposed South African SKA (Square Kilometre Array) prototype, KAT (Karoo Array Telescope), for GLAST ?-ray pulsar identification.

Christo Venter; Ocker C. De Jager; Adrian Tiplady

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Assessing the potential visibility benefits of Clean Air Act Title IV emission reductions  

SciTech Connect

Assessments are made of the benefits of the 1990 Clean Air Act Title IV (COVE), Phase 2, SO2 and NOX reduction provisions, to the visibility in typical eastern and western Class 1 areas. Probable bands of visibility impairment distribution curves are developed for Shenandoah National Park, Smoky Mountain National Park and the Grand Canyon National Park, based on the existing emissions, ``Base Case``, and for the COVE emission reductions, ``CAAA Case``. Emission projections for 2010 are developed with improved versions of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program emission projection models. Source-receptor transfer matrices created with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model are used with existing emission inventories and with the emission projections to calculate atmospheric concentrations of sulfate and nitrate at the receptors of interest for existing and projected emission scenarios. The Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM) is then used to develop distributions of visibility impairment. VASM combines statistics of observed concentrations of particulate species and relative humidity with ASTRAP calculations of the relative changes in atmospheric sulfate and nitrate particulate concentrations in a Monte Carlo approach to produce expected distributions of hourly particulate concentrations and RH. Light extinction relationships developed in theoretical and field studies are then used to calculate the resulting distribution of visibility impairment. Successive Monte Carlo studies are carried out to develop sets of visibility impairment distributions with and without the COVE emission reductions to gain insight into the detectability of expected visibility improvements.

Trexler, E.C. Jr. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Shannon, J.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Smoke and Visible Emissions (New Mexico)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This rule establishes controls on smoke and visible emissions from certain sources.  This rule is not intended to preempt any more stringent controls on smoke and visible emissions provided in any...

51

A grammatical representation of visibly pushdown languages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Model-checking regular properties is well established and a powerful verification technique for regular as well as context-free program behaviours. Recently, through the use of ?-visibly pushdown languages (?VPLs), defined by ?-visibly ...

Joachim Baran; Howard Barringer

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Improved visibility computation on massive grid terrains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the design and engineering of algorithms for computing visibility maps on massive grid terrains. Given a terrain T, specified by the elevations of points in a regular grid, and given a viewpoint v, the visibility ...

Jeremy Fishman; Herman Haverkort; Laura Toma

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Absorption of Solar Radiation by Atmospheric O4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spectroscopic measurements of the atmospheric solar radiation attenuation reveal that the near ultraviolet–visible–near-infrared absorption of the oxygen collision complex (O2)2, thus far omitted from models, is important for the direct heating ...

Klaus Pfeilsticker; Frank Erle; Ulrich Platt

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

A simplified physical model for assessing solar radiation over Brazil using GOES 8 visible imagery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simplified physical model for assessing solar radiation over Brazil using GOES 8 visible imagery; published 30 January 2004. [1] Solar radiation assessment by satellite is constrained by physical.4 and 1.3 MJ mĂ?2 for daily irradiation). A comparison with monthly means from about 80 automatic weather

55

International RADAGAST Experiment in Niamey, Niger: Changes and Drivers of Atmospheric Radiation Balance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Sahara desert is notorious as a source of massive dust storms. This dust dramatically influences the Earth-atmosphere energy budget through reflecting and absorbing the incoming sunlight. However, this budget is poorly understood, and in particular, we lack quantitative understanding of how the diurnal and seasonal variation of meteorological variables and aerosol properties influence the propagation of solar irradiance through the desert atmosphere. To improve our understanding of these influences, coincident and collocated observations of fluxes, measured from both space and the surface, are highly desirable. Recently, the unique capabilities of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) Experiment, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF), the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument, and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) were combined effectively as part of a large international project: the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB data and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST), which took place in Niamey, Niger, in 2006. The RADAGAST objectives, instrumentation, and scientific background are presented in [1]. Initial results from RADAGAST documented the strong radiative impact of a major Saharan dust storm on the Earth’s radiation budget [2]. A special issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research will include a collection of papers with the more complete results from RADAGAST (e.g., [1,3], and references therein). In particular, a year-long time series from RADAGAST are used to investigate (i) the factors that control the radiative fluxes and the divergence of radiation across the atmosphere [3-5], (ii) seasonal changes in the surface energy balance and associated variations in atmospheric constituents (water vapor, clouds, aerosols) [6], and (iii) sensitivity of microphysical, chemical and optical properties of aerosols to their sources and the atmospheric conditions [7]. Here we show retrievals of the aerosol properties from spectrally resolved solar measurements, the simulated and observed radiative fluxes at the surface, and outline factors that control the magnitude and variability of aerosol and radiative properties [8].

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Slingo, A.; Bharmal, N.; Robinson, G. J.; Turner, David D.; Miller, Mark; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Miller, R.

2009-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

56

A Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Visible Optical Depth Derived from Lidar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Visible Optical Depth Derived from Lidar Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Visible Optical Depth Derived from Lidar Lo, Chaomei Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Comstock, Jennifer Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Flynn, Connor Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Category: Cloud Properties Optically thin clouds (e.g. optical depth < 3) can have a significant impact on radiative heating in the atmosphere, particularly in the cold upper troposphere. Currently, there is no value-added product (VAP) in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program archive that produces thin cloud optical depth, particularly at the Tropical Western Pacific and North Slope of Alaska sites. A VAP is under development to obtain the cirrus cloud visible optical depth from the MPLNOR (Micro Pulse Lidar Normalized

57

Irradiation Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Materials and Fuels for the Current and Advanced Nuclear Reactors II: Irradiation Studies Sponsored by: TMS Structural Materials Division, ...

58

IRRADIANCE THRESHOLDS FOR CHORIORETINAL LESIONS  

SciTech Connect

With use of a high-intensity light source to produce chorioretinal lesions in the eyes of rabbits, cats, and guinea pigs, we determined, at different levels of retinal irradiance, the exposure time which produced an ophthalmoscopically visible lesion it was found that at irradiance levels greater than 2 cal. per square centimeter per second a radiant exposure of 1.0 cal. per square centimeter produced a threshold lesion. At irradiance levels 1ess than 0.7 cal. per square centimeter per second lesions could not be produced at any exposure time through 10 seconds. Histological data on the nature of the lesions and course of healing are presented and discussed. (auth)

DeMott, D.W.; Davis, T.P.

1959-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Vicarious Calibration of the Meteosat Visible Channel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Postlaunch calibration of the Meteosat visible (VIS) channel has been performed with Meteosat-1, Meteosat-2, and Meteosat-4. The radiance at the satellite radiometer aperture has been determined by independent means and has been related to the ...

Karl-Theodor Kriebel; Volker Amann

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

The NOAA Integrated Surface Irradiance Study (ISIS)—A New Surface Radiation Monitoring Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a new radiation monitoring program, the Integrated Surface Irradiance Study (ISIS), that builds upon and takes over from earlier NOAA networks monitoring components of solar radiation [both the visible component (SOLRAD) and ...

B. B. Hicks; J. J. DeLuisi; D. R. Matt

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Irradiation subassembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An irradiation subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which includes a bundle of slender elongated irradiation -capsules or fuel elements enclosed by a coolant tube and having yieldable retaining liner between the irradiation capsules and the coolant tube. For a hexagonal bundle surrounded by a hexagonal tube the yieldable retaining liner may consist either of six segments corresponding to the six sides of the tube or three angular segments each corresponding in two adjacent sides of the tube. The sides of adjacent segments abut and are so cut that metal-tometal contact is retained when the volume enclosed by the retaining liner is varied and Springs are provided for urging the segments toward the center of the tube to hold the capsules in a closely packed configuration. (Official Gazette)

Seim, O.S.; Filewicz, E.C.; Hutter, E.

1973-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

62

Validation of Satellite-Derived Atmospheric Motion Vectors and Analyses around Tropical Disturbances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fields of atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) are routinely derived by tracking features in sequential geostationary satellite infrared, water vapor, and visible-channel imagery. While AMVs produced operationally by global data centers are routinely ...

John Sears; Christopher S. Velden

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Monitoring of Sahelian Aerosol and Atmospheric Water Vapor Content Characteristics from Sun Photometer Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric measurements in two Sahelian sites in West Africa are presented and analyzed. The measurements were performed using a sun photometer with five bands in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum. This instrument ...

C. A. Faizoun; A. Podaire; G. Dedieu

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Estimation of Ultraviolet-B Irradiance under Variable Cloud Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods to estimate the irradiance of ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280–320 nm) radiation are needed to assess biological effects of changes in atmospheric composition. Measurements of the spatial distribution of sky cloud cover, temporal variability of ...

Richard H. Grant; Gordon M. Heisler

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Californium Neutron Irradiation Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Californium Neutron Irradiation Facility. Summary: ... Cf irradiation facility (Photograph by: Neutron Physics Group). Lead Organizational Unit: pml. Staff: ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

66

Twilight Irradiance Reflected by the Earth Estimated from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The upward shortwave irradiance at the top of the atmosphere when the solar zenith angle is greater than 90° (twilight irradiance) is estimated from radiance measurements by the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument on ...

Seiji Kato; Norman G. Loeb

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Hierarchical geometric models for visible surface algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The geometric structure inherent in the definition of the shapes of three-dimensional objects and environments is used not just to define their relative motion and placement, but also to assist in solving many other problems of systems for producing ... Keywords: geometric models, hidden surface algorithms, hierarchical data structures, visible surface algorithms

James H. Clark

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

PROCESS FOR CONTINUOUSLY SEPARATING IRRADIATION PRODUCTS OF THORIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for separating uranium-233 and protactinium from thorium-232 containing compositions which comprises irradiating finely divided particles of said thorium with a neutron flux to form uranium-233 and protactinium, heating the neutron-irradiated composition in a fluorine and hydrogen atmosphere to form volatile fluorides of uranium and protactinium and thereafter separating said volatile fluorides from the thorium.

Hatch, L.P.; Miles, F.T.; Sheehan, T.V.; Wiswall, R.H.; Heus, R.J.

1959-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Probabilistic Parameterizations of Visibility Using Observations of Rain Precipitation Rate, Relative Humidity, and Visibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study analyzes the occurrence of the visibility (Vis) versus precipitation rates (PR) for rain and versus relative humidity (RH) from surface observations that were collected during the Fog Remote Sensing and Modeling (FRAM) field project, ...

I. Gultepe; J. A. Milbrandt

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Visibility analysis on the web using co-visibilities and semantic networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monitoring public attention for a topic is of interest for many target groups like social scientists or public relations. Several examples demonstrate how public attention caused by real-world events is accompanied by an accordant visibility of topics ...

Peter Kiefer; Klaus Stein; Christoph Schlieder

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Visible-wavelength semiconductor lasers and arrays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A visible semiconductor laser. The visible semiconductor laser includes an InAlGaP active region surrounded by one or more AlGaAs layers on each side, with carbon as the sole p-type dopant. Embodiments of the invention are provided as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and as edge-emitting lasers (EELs). One or more transition layers comprised of a substantially indium-free semiconductor alloy such as AlAsP, AlGaAsP, or the like may be provided between the InAlGaP active region and the AlGaAS DBR mirrors or confinement layers to improve carrier injection and device efficiency by reducing any band offsets. Visible VCSEL devices fabricated according to the invention with a one-wavelength-thick (1.lambda.) optical cavity operate continuous-wave (cw) with lasing output powers up to 8 mW, and a peak power conversion efficiency of up to 11%.

Schneider, Jr., Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Crawford, Mary H. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Atmospheric Absorption in the VAS Split-Window Channels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Visible Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (VISSR) Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) split-window channels at 10–12.5 ?m and 12.6–12.8 ?m can be used to give measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) and precipitable water amount in the lower ...

Ian J. Barton

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility | Argonne  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Argonne scientists study climate change 1 of 22 Argonne scientists study climate change The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science provided $60 million in ARRA funding for climate research to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, a DOE national user facility that has been operating climate observing sites around the world for nearly two decades. These sites help scientists study clouds and their influence on the sun's radiant energy, which heats our planet. Above is one of the purchases: the Vaisala Present Weather Detector. It optically measures visibility, present weather, precipitation intensity, and precipitation type. It provides a measure of current weather conditions by combining measurements from three

74

Seeing solar on campus : a visible photovoltaic installation on campus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a methodology for selecting a site on the MIT campus for a visible solar photovoltaic installation. Visibility, solar exposure, advertising potential, aesthetics, interactivity and direct or important ...

Guarda, Daniel Jair Alves

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

The Upper Atmosphere of HD17156b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HD17156b is a newly-found transiting extrasolar giant planet (EGP) that orbits its G-type host star in a highly eccentric orbit (e~0.67) with an orbital semi-major axis of 0.16 AU. Its period, 21.2 Earth days, is the longest among the known transiting planets. The atmosphere of the planet undergoes a 27-fold variation in stellar irradiation during each orbit, making it an interesting subject for atmospheric modelling. We have used a three-dimensional model of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere for extrasolar gas giants in order to simulate the progress of HD17156b along its eccentric orbit. Here we present the results of these simulations and discuss the stability, circulation, and composition in its upper atmosphere. Contrary to the well-known transiting planet HD209458b, we find that the atmosphere of HD17156b is unlikely to escape hydrodynamically at any point along the orbit, even if the upper atmosphere is almost entirely composed of atomic hydrogen and H+, and infrared cooling by H3+ ions is negligible. The nature of the upper atmosphere is sensitive to to the composition of the thermosphere, and in particular to the mixing ratio of H2, as the availability of H2 regulates radiative cooling. In light of different simulations we make specific predictions about the thermosphere-ionosphere system of HD17156b that can potentially be verified by observations.

T. T. Koskinen; A. D. Aylward; S. Miller

2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

76

Visible-wavelength semiconductor lasers and arrays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The visible semiconductor laser includes an InAlGaP active region surrounded by one or more AlGaAs layers on each side, with carbon as the sole p-type dopant. Embodiments of the invention are provided as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and as edge-emitting lasers (EELs). One or more transition layers comprised of a substantially indium-free semiconductor alloy such as AlAsP, AlGaAsP, or the like may be provided between the InAlGaP active region and the AlGaAS DBR mirrors or confinement layers to improve carrier injection and device efficiency by reducing any band offsets. Visible VCSEL devices fabricated according to the invention with a one-wavelength-thick (1{lambda}) optical cavity operate continuous-wave (cw) with lasing output powers up to 8 mW, and a peak power conversion efficiency of up to 11%. 5 figs.

Schneider, R.P. Jr.; Crawford, M.H.

1996-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

77

Visible/Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Sensing of Solids under Controlled Environmental Conditions  

SciTech Connect

We describe the use of a wind tunnel for conducting controlled passive hyperspectral imaging experiments. Passive techniques are potentially useful for detecting explosives, solid-phase chemicals and other materials of interest from a distance so as to provide operator safety. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory operates a wind tunnel facility that can generate and circulate artificial atmospheres to control lighting, humidity, temperature, aerosol burdens, and obscurants. We will present recent results describing optimized sensing of solids over tens of meters distance using both visible and near-infrared cameras, as well as the effects of certain environmental parameters on data retrieval.

Bernacki, Bruce E.; Anheier, Norman C.; Mendoza, Albert; Fritz, Brad G.; Johnson, Timothy J.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

New Visible to Broadband Shortwave Conversions for Deriving Albedos from GOES-8 Over the ARM-SGP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Visible to Broadband Shortwave Conversions for New Visible to Broadband Shortwave Conversions for Deriving Albedos from GOES-8 Over the ARM-SGP V. Chakrapani, D. R. Doelling, and M. M. Khaiyer Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia P. Minnis National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia Introduction The radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is a quantity of fundamental importance to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Thus, it is necessary to measure the radiation budget components, broadband shortwave (SW) albedo and outgoing longwave radiation, as accurately as possible. Measurement of TOA broadband albedos over the ARM surface sites has only been possible since the advent of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES; Wielicki et al.

79

Solar: monthly direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

visible irradiance, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total of the normal or beam...

80

Solar: annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

visible irradiance, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total of the normal or beam...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Visibility graph analysis of solar wind velocity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze in situ measurements of solar wind velocity obtained by Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft and Helios spacecraft during the years 1998-2012 and 1975-1983 respectively. The data belong to mainly solar cycle 23 (1996-2008) and solar cycle 21 (1976-1986) respectively. We use Directed Horizontal Visibility graph (DHVg) algorithm and estimate a graph functional, namely, the degree distance (D) as the Kullback-Leibler divergence (KLD) argument to understand time irreversibility of solar wind time series. We estimate this degree distance irreversibility parameter for these time series at different phases of solar activity cycle. Irreversibility parameter is first established for known dynamical data and then applied for solar wind velocity time series. It is observed that irreversibility in solar wind velocity fluctuations show similar behaviour at 0.3 AU (Helios data) and 1 AU (ACE data). Moreover it changes over the different phases of solar activity cycle.

Suyal, Vinita; Singh, Harinder P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Visible light surface emitting semiconductor laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser is disclosed comprising a laser cavity sandwiched between two distributed Bragg reflectors. The laser cavity comprises a pair of spacer layers surrounding one or more active, optically emitting quantum-well layers having a bandgap in the visible which serve as the active optically emitting material of the device. The thickness of the laser cavity is m .lambda./2n.sub.eff where m is an integer, .lambda. is the free-space wavelength of the laser radiation and n.sub.eff is the effective index of refraction of the cavity. Electrical pumping of the laser is achieved by heavily doping the bottom mirror and substrate to one conductivity-type and heavily doping regions of the upper mirror with the opposite conductivity type to form a diode structure and applying a suitable voltage to the diode structure. Specific embodiments of the invention for generating red, green, and blue radiation are described.

Olbright, Gregory R. (Boulder, CO); Jewell, Jack L. (Bridgewater, NJ)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Atmospheric pressure scanning transmission electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) images of gold nanoparticles (2.1 nm average diameter) at atmospheric pressure have been recorded through a 0.36 mm thick mixture of CO, O2 and He. This was accomplished using a reaction cell consisting of two electron-transparent silicon nitride membranes mounted on a specially designed specimen rod. Gas flow occurred through plastic tubing from the outside of the microscope to the specimen region and back. Gold nanoparticles of a full width half maximum diameter of 1.0 nm were visible above the background noise and the achieved resolution was 0.5 nm in accordance with calculations of the beam broadening.

De Jonge, Niels [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Bigelow, Wilbur C [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Comparison of Diffuse Shortwave Irradiance Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Diffuse Shortwave Diffuse Shortwave Irradiance Measurements J. J. Michalsky and J. Schlemmer Atmospheric Sciences Research Center State University of New York Albany, New York B. C. Bush, S. Leitner, D. Marsden, and F. P. J. Valero Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California R. Dolce and A. Los Kipp & Zonen, Inc. Bohemia, New York and Delft The Netherlands E. G. Dutton Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado M. P. Haeffelin Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Blackburg, Virginia G. Major Budapest University of Economic Sciences and Public Administration Budapest, Hungry J. Hickey The Eppley Laboratory, Inc. Newport, Rhode Island

85

Making infrastructure visible: a case study of home networking .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this dissertation, I examine how making infrastructure visible affects users' engagement with that infrastructure, through the case study of home networking. I present empirical… (more)

Chetty, Marshini

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Visible/infrared radiometric calibration station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have begun construction of a visible/infrared radiometric calibration station that will allow for absolute calibration of optical and IR remote sensing instruments with clear apertures less than 16 inches in diameter in a vacuum environment. The calibration station broadband sources will be calibrated at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and allow for traceable absolute radiometric calibration to within {plus_minus}3% in the visible and near IR (0.4--2.5 {mu}m), and less than {plus_minus}1% in the infrared, up to 12 {mu}m. Capabilities for placing diffraction limited images or for sensor full-field flooding will exist. The facility will also include the calibration of polarization and spectral effects, spatial resolution, field of view performance, and wavefront characterization. The configuration of the vacuum calibration station consists of an off-axis 21 inch, f/3.2, parabolic collimator with a scanning fold flat in collimated space. The sources are placed, via mechanisms to be described, at the focal plane of the off-axis parabola. Vacuum system pressure will be in the 10{sup {minus}6} Torr range. The broadband white-light source is a custom design by LANL with guidance from Labsphere Inc. The continuous operating radiance of the integrating sphere will be from 0.0--0.006 W/cm{sup 2}/Sr/{mu}m (upper level quoted for {approximately}500 nm wavelength). The blackbody source is also custom designed at LANL with guidance from NIST. The blackbody temperature will be controllable between 250--350{degrees}K. Both of the above sources have 4.1 inch apertures with estimated radiometric instability at less than 1%. The designs of each of these units will be described. The monochromator and interferometer light sources are outside the vacuum, but all optical relay and beam shaping optics are enclosed within the vacuum calibration station. These sources are described, as well as the methodology for alignment and characterization.

Byrd, D.A.; Maier, W.B. II; Bender, S.C.; Holland, R.F.; Michaud, F.D.; Luettgen, A.L.; Christensen, R.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); O`Brian, T.R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NML), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Radiometric Physics Div.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

The Boulder Atmospheric Observatory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) is a unique research facility for studying the planetary boundary layer and for testing and calibrating atmospheric sensors. The facility includes a 300 m tower instrumented with fast- and slow-response ...

J. C. Kaimal; J. E. Gaynor

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Observatory (UAO) Pilot Experiment at NYC" - Michael Reynolds, BNL 17:30 "EML Pilot Studies for the Urban Atmospheric Observatory" - Hsi-Na (Sam) Lee, EML 17:40 "A...

89

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

normal irradiance normal irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in broad bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4{mu}m, that comes directly from the Sun without being scattered or absorbed in the atmosphere, passes through a unit area perpendicular to the direction from the Sun. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments

90

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband direct downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

downwelling irradiance downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband direct downwelling irradiance The direct unscattered radiant energy from the Sun, in a narrow band of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passing through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments SOAR : Shipboard Oceanographic and Atmospheric Radiation

91

latitutde tilt irradiance | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

latitutde tilt irradiance latitutde tilt irradiance Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for Bangladesh. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. Source NREL Date Released April 12th, 2005 (9 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor GEF GIS latitutde tilt irradiance NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 35.5 KiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 26.7 KiB) Quality Metrics

92

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband diffuse upwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

upwelling irradiance upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband diffuse upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, that has been scattered in the atmosphere at least once, passes through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments MFR : Multifilter Radiometer

93

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

diffuse downwelling irradiance diffuse downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance The rate at which spectrally resolved radiant energy at wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, that has been scattered in the atmosphere at least once, passes through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments RSS : Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer

94

The Origin of Haze in the Central United States and Its Effect on Solar Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The depletion by atmospheric haze of solar irradiation at the earth's surface in the central United States is estimated and some aspects of the origin of the haze investigated. Observed optical properties of the haze are reviewed and their ...

R. J. Ball; G. D. Robinson

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

A visibility control system for collaborative digital table  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a novel display system that presents information with different levels of visibility to multiple users for enhancing collaborative multi-touch on digital tables by controlling visibility with a revolving polarizer. We first describe the system ... Keywords: CSCW, Display system, Entertainment, Public display

Satoshi Sakurai; Yoshifumi Kitamura; Sriram Subramanian; Fumio Kishino

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Geothermal Exploration with Visible through Long Wave Infrared Imaging  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

with Visible through Long Wave Infrared Imaging with Visible through Long Wave Infrared Imaging Spectrometers Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Geothermal Exploration with Visible through Long Wave Infrared Imaging Spectrometers Abstract Surface minerals of active geothermal systems have been mapped using visible-short wave infrared and mid wave and long wave imaging spectrometers separately. May and June 2008, the Prospectir sensor and SEBASS (Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System) were located on together on a roll compensated mount viewing through the same camera port in a Twin Otter. These two imaging spectrometers have similar Instantaneous Fields of View (IFOV) and together collect over 600 channels of spectral information from the visible to the long wave infrared.

97

A New Operational Model for Satellite-Derived Irradiances: Description and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

A New Operational Model for Satellite-Derived Irradiances: Description and A New Operational Model for Satellite-Derived Irradiances: Description and Validation Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): We present a new simple model capable of exploiting geostationary satellite visible images for the production of site/time specific global and direct irradiances The new model features new clear sky global and direct irradiance functions, a new cloud-index-to-irradiance index function, a new global-to-direct-irradiance conversion model. The model can also exploit operationally available snow cover resource data, while deriving local ground specular reflectance characteristics from the stream of incoming satellite data. Validation against 10 US locations representing a wide range of climatic environments indicates that model performance is

98

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ARM Status - Science ARM Status - Science * Steadily increasing productivity - Poster session - over 220 posters (may need to do something about submissions next year) - Peer-reviewed articles: 2.5 to 3 per year per

99

Solar Irradiance Anomalies Caused by Clear-Sky Transmission Variations above Mauna Loa: 1958–99  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The clear-sky transmission of the atmosphere contributes to determining the amount of solar irradiance that reaches various levels in the atmosphere, which in turn is fundamental to defining the climate of the earth. As of the end of 1999, ...

Ellsworth G. Dutton; Barry A. Bodhaine

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

RMF MEASUREMENTS ON MTR-IRRADIATED EUROPIUM OXIDE  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum capsules with Al inserts and He atmospheres and containing 4 strips of Eu/sub 2/O/sub 3/-stainless steel were measured in the Reactivity Measurement Facility at MTR, both before and after irradiation. (T.R.H.)

Henscheid, J.W.; Fast, E.

1957-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The NPOESS VIIRS Day/Night Visible Sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) will feature the Visible–Infrared Imager–Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), a 22-channel imager that will contribute to nearly half of the NPOESS environmental data records. ...

Thomas E. Lee; Steven D. Miller; F. Joseph Turk; Carl Schueler; Richard Julian; Steve Deyo; Patrick Dills; Sherwood Wang

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

A Parameterization of Broadband Conversion Factors for METEOSAT Visible Radiances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The conversion of radiances measured by the METEOSAT visible channel into broadband radiances can be performed as long as the appropriate conversion factors are known. A simple model allowing a spectral description of the optical properties of ...

J. Stum; B. Pinty; D. Ramond

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Rain Estimation from Infrared and Visible GOES Satellite Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automated statistical pattern recognition technique is presented that uses visible and IR satellite imagery to estimate instantaneous surface rainfall rates. The technique uses both brightness and textural statistics to estimate rainfall in 10 ...

Finbarr O'Sullivan; Carlyle H. Wash; Michael Stewart; Craig E. Motell

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

An Expert System Approach for Prediction of Maritime Visibility Obscuration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An Expert system for Shipboard Obscuration Prediction (AESOP), an artificial intelligence approach to forecasting maritime visibility obscurations, has been designed, developed, and tested. The problem-solving model for AESOP, running within an ...

James E. Peak; Paul M. Tag

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Scientists Build First 'Frequency Comb' To Display Visible ' ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Each visible line or "tooth" is an individual frequency in ... such photos would need to be lined up to ... super-short pulses of high-power light containing ...

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

106

VRCodes : embedding unobtrusive data for new devices in visible light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis envisions a public space populated with active visible surfaces which appear different to a camera than to the human eye. Thus, they can act as general digital interfaces that transmit machine-compatible data ...

Woo, Grace R

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

A Study of Visibility in Eighteen Cities in the Western and Southwestern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airport visibility data for the period 1958–78 or 1979, depending on the availability of data, for 18 cities in the western and southwestern United States are examined. A threshold visibility below which visibility is deemed “poor” is determined ...

P. Stuart Naegele; William D. Sellers

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Ralph: A Visible/Infrared Imager for the New Horizons Pluto/Kuiper Belt Mission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The New Horizons instrument named Ralph is a visible/near infrared multi-spectral imager and a short wavelength infrared spectral imager. It is one of the core instruments on New Horizons, NASA's first mission to the Pluto/Charon system and the Kuiper Belt. Ralph combines panchromatic and color imaging capabilities with IR imaging spectroscopy. Its primary purpose is to map the surface geology and composition of these objects, but it will also be used for atmospheric studies and to map the surface temperature. It is a compact, low-mass (10.5 kg), power efficient (7.1 W peak), and robust instrument with good sensitivity and excellent imaging characteristics. Other than a door opened once in flight, it has no moving parts. These characteristics and its high degree of redundancy make Ralph ideally suited to this long-duration flyby reconnaissance mission.

Reuter, Dennis C; Scherrer, John; Jennings, Donald E; Baer, James; Hanley, John; Hardaway, Lisa; Lunsford, Allen; McMuldroch, Stuart; Moore, Jeffrey; Olkin, Cathy; Parizek, Robert; Reitsma, Harold; Sabatke, Derek; Spencer, John; Stone, John; Throop, Henry; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Weigle, Gerald E; Young, Leslie A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Ralph: A Visible/Infrared Imager for the New Horizons Pluto/Kuiper Belt Mission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The New Horizons instrument named Ralph is a visible/near infrared multi-spectral imager and a short wavelength infrared spectral imager. It is one of the core instruments on New Horizons, NASA's first mission to the Pluto/Charon system and the Kuiper Belt. Ralph combines panchromatic and color imaging capabilities with IR imaging spectroscopy. Its primary purpose is to map the surface geology and composition of these objects, but it will also be used for atmospheric studies and to map the surface temperature. It is a compact, low-mass (10.5 kg), power efficient (7.1 W peak), and robust instrument with good sensitivity and excellent imaging characteristics. Other than a door opened once in flight, it has no moving parts. These characteristics and its high degree of redundancy make Ralph ideally suited to this long-duration flyby reconnaissance mission.

Dennis C. Reuter; S. Alan Stern; John Scherrer; Donald E. Jennings; James Baer; John Hanley; Lisa Hardaway; Allen Lunsford; Stuart McMuldroch; Jeffrey Moore; Cathy Olkin; Robert Parizek; Harold Reitsma; Derek Sabatke; John Spencer; John Stone; Henry Throop; Jeffrey Van Cleve; Gerald E. Weigle; Leslie A. Young

2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

110

Observational Characterization of the Downward Atmospheric Longwave Radiation at the Surface in the City of Săo Paulo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work describes the seasonal and diurnal variations of downward longwave atmospheric irradiance (LW) at the surface in Săo Paulo, Brazil, using 5-min-averaged values of LW, air temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation observed ...

Eduardo Barbaro; Amauri P. Oliveira; Jacyra Soares; Georgia Codato; Maurício J. Ferreira; Primož Mlakar; Marija Z. Božnar; Joăo F. Escobedo

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Equilibrium Response of an Atmosphere–Mixed Layer Ocean Model to Different Radiative Forcing Agents: Global and Zonal Mean Response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The equilibrium response to various forcing agents, including CO2, solar irradiance, tropospheric ozone, black carbon, organic carbon, sulfate, and volcanic aerosols, is investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a ...

Masakazu Yoshimori; Anthony J. Broccoli

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Measurements of the Infrared SpectraLines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurements of the Infrared Spectral Lines Measurements of the Infrared Spectral Lines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures P. Varanasi and Q. Zou Institute for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres State University of New York at Stony Brook Stony Brook, New York Introduction Water vapor is undoubtedly the most dominant greenhouse gas in the terrestrial atmosphere. In the two facets of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program research, atmospheric remote sensing (air-borne as well as Cloud and Radiation Testbed [CART] site-based) and modeling of atmospheric radiation, the spectrum of water vapor, ranging from the microwave to the visible wavelengths, plays a significant role. Its spectrum has been the subject of many studies throughout the last century. Therefore, it is natural to presume it should be fairly well established by now. However, the need for a

113

Ion Irradiation Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 17, 2011 ... Materials Science Challenges for Nuclear Applications: Ion Irradiation Effects Sponsored by: MS&T Organization Program Organizers: Ram ...

114

Irradiation Damage Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...R.L. Klueh, Effect of Neutron Irradiation on Properties of Steels, Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys,

115

Effects of hadron irradiation on scintillating fibers  

SciTech Connect

Trackers based on scintillating-fiber technology are being considered by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration at SSC and the D[phi] collaboration at Fermilab. An important issue is the effect of the radiation existing in the detector cores on fiber properties. Most studies of radiation damage in scintillators have irradiated small bulk samples rather than fibers, and have used X-rays, [sup 60]Co gammas, or electron beams, often at accelerated rates. The authors have irradiated some 600 fibers in the Fermilab Tevatron C[phi] area, thereby obtaining a hadronic irradiation at realistic rates. Four-meter-long samples of ten Bicron polystyrene-based fiber types, maintained in air, dry nitrogen, argon, and vacuum atmospheres within stainless-steel tubes, were irradiated for seven weeks at various distances from the accelerator beam pipes. Maximum doses, measured by thermoluminescence detectors, were about 80 Krad. Fiber properties, particularly light yield and attenuation length, have been measured over a one-year period. A description of the work together with the results is presented. At the doses achieved, corresponding to a few years of actual fiber-tracking detector operation, little degradation is observed. In addition, recovery after several days' exposure to air has been noted. Properties of unirradiated samples kept in darkness show no changes after one year.

Atac, M. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States) Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Buchanan, C.; Chrisman, D.; Cline, D.; Kolonko, J.; Kubic, J.; Park, J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Baumbaugh, A.; Binkley, M.; Bross, A.D.; Finley, D.; Elias, J.; Foster, G.W.; Kephart, R.; Kephart, R.; Kim, C.; Park, H.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Rivetta, C.; Tkaczyk, S.; Wagner, R. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Chung, M.; Goldberg, H.; Jeskik, R.; Margulies, S.; Mendez, H.; Solomon, J.; Vaca, F. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)); Kelley, C. (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, Boston, MA (United States)); Baumbaugh, B.; Bishop, J.; Biswas, N.; Cason, N.; Jacques, J.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M.; Kenney, V.; LoSecco, J.; Ruchti, R.; Shephard, W.; Warchol, J.; Wayne, M.; Marchant, J.; Mountain, R.J. (Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)); Davis, D.; Vandergriff, D. (O

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

Bauer, Roger E. (Kennewick, WA); Straalsund, Jerry L. (Kennewick, WA); Chin, Bryan A. (Auburn, AL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Spectral UV Measurements of Global Irradiance, Solar Radiance, and Actinic Flux in New Zealand: Intercomparison between Instruments and Model Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presented here are the results of a short but intense measurement campaign at Lauder, New Zealand, in which spectral irradiance from instruments operated by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) and Austria/Innsbruck (...

Mario Blumthaler; Barbara Schallhart; Michael Schwarzmann; Richard McKenzie; Paul Johnston; Michael Kotkamp; Hisako Shiona

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Preparation, characterization of the Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activity under visible-light illumination  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a novel catalyst of the Ta-doped ZnO nanocrystals prepared by a modified polymerizable complex method using the water-soluble tantalum precursor as the sources of Ta. The catalysts were characterized by means of various analytical techniques as a function of Ta content (x=0-4 mol%) systematically. A remarkable advantage of the results was confirmed that dopant Ta enhanced the visible-light absorption of ZnO and the low-solubility tantalum doping could restrain the growth of crystal and minish the particle size. The relationship between the physicochemical property and the photocatalytic performance was discussed, and it was found that the photocatalytic activity in the photochemical degradation of methylene blue under visible-light irradiation (lambda>=420 nm) was dependent on the contents of the dopant, which could affect the particle size, concentration of surface hydroxyl groups and active hydrogen-related defect sites, and the visible-light absorption. The highest photocatalytic activity was obtained for the 1.0 mol% Ta-doped ZnO sample. - Graphical abstract: The addition of the tantalum into ZnO prepared by a modified polymerizable complex method not only restrains the growth of crystal, minish the particle size, but also changes the nanocrystal morphology.

Kong Jizhou [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Materials Science and Engineering Department, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li Aidong, E-mail: adli@nju.edu.c [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Materials Science and Engineering Department, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhai Haifa; Gong Youpin; Li Hui; Wu Di [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Materials Science and Engineering Department, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

119

DECONTAMINATION OF NEUTRON-IRRADIATED REACTOR FUEL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pyrometallurgical method of decontaminating neutronirradiated reactor fuel is presented. In accordance with the invention, neutron-irradiated reactor fuel may be decontaminated by countercurrently contacting the fuel with a bed of alkali and alkaine fluorides under an inert gas atmosphere and inductively melting the fuel and tracking the resulting descending molten fuel with induction heating as it passes through the bed. By this method, a large, continually fresh surface of salt is exposed to the descending molten fuel which enhances the efficiency of the scrubbing operation.

Buyers, A.G.; Rosen, F.D.; Motta, E.E.

1959-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

120

The Effects of Ionizing Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. The Effects of Ionizing Irradiation on Liquid, Dried, and Absorbed DNA Extracts ... Page 12. Study Shipped Land Carrier Irradiation ? ...

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Simulation of Atmospheric Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A spectral atmospheric circulation model is time-integrated for approximately 18 years. The model has a global computational domain and realistic geography and topography. The model undergoes an annual cycle as daily values of seasonally varying ...

Syukuro Manabe; Douglas G. Hahn

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Atmospheric Laser Communication  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric laser communication, often referred to as free-space optics (FSO) or free-space laser (FSL) communication, is similar to fiber optic cable in terms of carrier wavelength and bandwidth capability, but data are transmitted directly ...

Kenneth W. Fischer*Michael R. Witiw; Jeffrey A. Baars+; T. R. Oke

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Atmospheric Available Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The total potential energy of the atmosphere is the sum of its internal and gravitational energies. The portion of this total energy available to be converted into kinetic energy is determined relative to an isothermal, hydrostatic, equilibrium ...

Peter R. Bannon

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Atmospheric optical calibration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Atmospheric optical calibration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

126

Lighting Retrofit Improving Visibility, Saving Energy | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lighting Retrofit Improving Visibility, Saving Energy Lighting Retrofit Improving Visibility, Saving Energy Lighting Retrofit Improving Visibility, Saving Energy August 27, 2010 - 10:05am Addthis New LED lighting fixtures (right) emit a whiter light than existing high-pressure sodium cobra head streetlights (left) and don't spill light onto nearby houses. | Photos courtesy of the City of Muscatine New LED lighting fixtures (right) emit a whiter light than existing high-pressure sodium cobra head streetlights (left) and don't spill light onto nearby houses. | Photos courtesy of the City of Muscatine Kevin Craft In the small Midwestern town of Muscatine, Iowa-known as the "The Pearl Button Capital of the World" for the millions of pearl buttons produced there in the early 1900s-a lighting retrofit project will bring a new

127

Energy Department Announces Funding to Provide Better Visibility into the  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Funding to Provide Better Visibility Funding to Provide Better Visibility into the Health of the Nation's Electric Grid Energy Department Announces Funding to Provide Better Visibility into the Health of the Nation's Electric Grid September 26, 2013 - 12:06pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 Editor's note: This post has been edited to correct the deadline for application submissions. WASHINGTON - As part of the Administration's commitment to improve the reliability and resiliency of the Nation's electric grid, the Energy Department today announced up to $9 million in funding to facilitate rapid response to abnormal grid conditions. As a result, utilities will be able to better detect and head off potential blackouts, while improving day-to-day grid reliability and helping with the integration of clean

128

Dark/visible parallel universes and Big Bang nucleosynthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We develop a model for visible matter-dark matter interaction based on the exchange of a massive gray boson called herein the Mulato. Our model hinges on the assumption that all known particles in the visible matter have their counterparts in the dark matter. We postulate six families of particles five of which are dark. This leads to the unavoidable postulation of six parallel worlds, the visible one and five invisible worlds. A close study of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), baryon asymmetries, cosmic microwave background (CMB) bounds, galaxy dynamics, together with the Standard Model assumptions, help us to set a limit on the mass and width of the new gauge boson. Modification of the statistics underlying the kinetic energy distribution of particles during the BBN is also discussed. The changes in reaction rates during the BBN due to a departure from the Debye-Hueckel electron screening model is also investigated.

Bertulani, C. A.; Frederico, T.; Fuqua, J.; Hussein, M. S.; Oliveira, O.; Paula, W. de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce, Commerce TX 75429 (United States); Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, DCTA 12.228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce, Commerce TX 75429 (United States); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05314-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, DCTA 12.228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil and Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, DCTA 12.228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

129

Recovery of underwater visibility and structure by polarization analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—Underwater imaging is important for scientific research and technology as well as for popular activities, yet it is plagued by poor visibility conditions. In this paper, we present a computer vision approach that removes degradation effects in underwater vision. We analyze the physical effects of visibility degradation. It is shown that the main degradation effects can be associated with partial polarization of light. Then, an algorithm is presented, which inverts the image formation process for recovering good visibility in images of scenes. The algorithm is based on a couple of images taken through a polarizer at different orientations. As a by-product, a distance map of the scene is also derived. In addition, this paper analyzes the noise sensitivity of the recovery. We successfully demonstrated our approach in experiments conducted in the sea. Great improvements of scene contrast and color correction were obtained, nearly doubling the

Yoav Y. Schechner; Nir Karpel

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

irradiance | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

irradiance irradiance Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Latitude Tilt Irradiance NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005) Parameter: Latitude Tilt Radiation (kWh/m^2/day) Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections online Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords GIS global irradiance latitude mapping NASA renewable energy solar solar PV SWERA TILT UNEP Data text/csv icon Latitude Tilt Radiation (kWh/m^2/day) (csv, 11.8 MiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 5 MiB)

131

THERMALLY DRIVEN ATMOSPHERIC ESCAPE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurately determining the escape rate from a planet's atmosphere is critical for determining its evolution. A large amount of Cassini data is now available for Titan's upper atmosphere and a wealth of data is expected within the next decade on escape from Pluto, Mars, and extra-solar planets. Escape can be driven by upward thermal conduction of energy deposited well below the exobase, as well as by nonthermal processes produced by energy deposited in the exobase region. Recent applications of a model for escape driven by upward thermal conduction, called the slow hydrodynamic escape model, have resulted in surprisingly large loss rates for the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Based on a molecular kinetic simulation of the exobase region, these rates appear to be orders of magnitude too large. Therefore, the slow hydrodynamic model is evaluated here. It is shown that such a model cannot give a reliable description of the atmospheric temperature profile unless it is coupled to a molecular kinetic description of the exobase region. Therefore, the present escape rates for Titan and Pluto must be re-evaluated using the atmospheric model described here.

Johnson, Robert E., E-mail: rej@virginia.ed [Engineering Physics, Thornton Hall B102, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22902 (United States); Physics Department, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2010-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

132

Platform effects on optical variability and prediction of underwater visibility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Platform effects on optical variability and prediction of underwater visibility Grace Chang,1, specifically the breakdown of stratification from mixing by the hull of R/P FLIP. Modeled underwater radiance Successful, rapid identification of underwater tar- gets and accurate underwater imaging are critical

You, Yu

133

Supply chain product visibility: Methods, systems and impacts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Supply chain product visibility may be defined to mean the capacity of the supply chain to have a view of a product's lifecycle, from its conception, manufacturing, distribution, delivery to the end customer, customer's experience of the product, and ... Keywords: Architecture design, RFID, Sensor networks, Tracking and tracing

Ahmed Musa, Angappa Gunasekaran, Yahaya Yusuf

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Improved Information Connectivity and Visibility throughout the Global Supply Base  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although the literature frequently examines achieving an integrated supply chain and participating in information sharing with supply chain partners, there is little guidance given to firms on how to progress to a state where these goals can become reality. ... Keywords: Global Supply Base, Information Sharing, Information Visibility, Supply Chain Integration, Supply Chain Management

Kevin Duffy; William Wilson

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric pressure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

pressure pressure ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric pressure The pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a consequence of gravitational attraction exerted upon the "column" of air lying directly above the point in question. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

136

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

temperature temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric temperature The temperature indicated by a thermometer exposed to the air in a place sheltered from direct solar radiation. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AERI : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

137

Article Atmospheric Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

© The Author(s) 2012. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com csb.scichina.com www.springer.com/scp © The Author(s) 2012. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com csb.scichina.com www.springer.com/scp *Corresponding author (email: luchunsong110@gmail.com) Article Atmospheric Science February 2013 Vol.58 No.4-5: 545  551 doi: 10.1007/s11434-012-5556-6 A method for distinguishing and linking turbulent entrainment mixing and collision-coalescence in stratocumulus clouds LU ChunSong 1,2* , LIU YanGang 2 & NIU ShengJie 1 1 Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Physics and Environment of China Meteorological Administration, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China; 2 Atmospheric Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York 11973, USA

138

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric moisture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

moisture moisture ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric moisture The moisture content of the air as indicated by several measurements including relative humidity, specific humidity, dewpoint, vapor pressure, water vapor mixing ratio, and water vapor density; note that precipitable water is a separate type. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AERI : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer

139

BNL | Atmospheric Systems Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric System Research is a DOE observation-based research program Atmospheric System Research is a DOE observation-based research program created to advance process-level understanding of the key interactions among aerosols, clouds, precipitation, radiation, dynamics, and thermodynamics, with the ultimate goal of reducing the uncertainty in global and regional climate simulations and projections. General areas of research at BNL under this program include studies of aerosol and cloud lifecycles, and cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions. Contact Robert McGraw, 631.344.3086 aerosols Aerosol Life Cycle The strategic focus of the Aerosol Life Cycle research is observation-based process science-examining the properties and evolution of atmospheric aerosols. Observations come from both long-term studies conducted by the

140

Precomputed atmospheric scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new and accurate method to render the atmosphere in real time from any viewpoint from ground level to outer space, while taking Rayleigh and Mie multiple scattering into account. Our method reproduces many effects of the scattering of light, ...

Eric Bruneton; Fabrice Neyret

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Results of the Second Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Results of the Second Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance IOP Results of the Second Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance IOP J. J. Michalsky Air Resources Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado R. Dolce and A. Los Kipp & Zonen, Inc. Bohemia, New York E. G. Dutton and D. A. Nelson Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado M. P. Haeffelin Ecole Polytechnique/ Laboratorie de Meteorologie Dynamique Palaiseau Cedex, France W. Q. Jeffries Yankee Environmental System, Inc. Turners Falls, Massachusetts T. L. Stoffel and I. Reda National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado J. Hickey Eppley Laboratory Inc. Newport, Rhode Island D. Mathias Carter-Scott Design Victoria, Australia L. J. B. McArthur

142

AN ANALYTIC RADIATIVE-CONVECTIVE MODEL FOR PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an analytic one-dimensional radiative-convective model of the thermal structure of planetary atmospheres. Our model assumes that thermal radiative transfer is gray and can be represented by the two-stream approximation. Model atmospheres are assumed to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, with a power-law scaling between the atmospheric pressure and the gray thermal optical depth. The convective portions of our models are taken to follow adiabats that account for condensation of volatiles through a scaling parameter to the dry adiabat. By combining these assumptions, we produce simple, analytic expressions that allow calculations of the atmospheric-pressure-temperature profile, as well as expressions for the profiles of thermal radiative flux and convective flux. We explore the general behaviors of our model. These investigations encompass (1) worlds where atmospheric attenuation of sunlight is weak, which we show tend to have relatively high radiative-convective boundaries; (2) worlds with some attenuation of sunlight throughout the atmosphere, which we show can produce either shallow or deep radiative-convective boundaries, depending on the strength of sunlight attenuation; and (3) strongly irradiated giant planets (including hot Jupiters), where we explore the conditions under which these worlds acquire detached convective regions in their mid-tropospheres. Finally, we validate our model and demonstrate its utility through comparisons to the average observed thermal structure of Venus, Jupiter, and Titan, and by comparing computed flux profiles to more complex models.

Robinson, Tyler D. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Catling, David C., E-mail: robinson@astro.washington.edu [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310 (United States)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

143

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 1- Visible Emissions (Rhode Island)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The regulations state that no person shall emit into the atmosphere from any source any air contaminant for a period or periods aggregating more than three minutes in any one hour which is greater...

144

ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Integrated Column Description An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory The "other" Washington ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Credits to Credits to * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace * Mark Miller * Robin Perez * Dave Turner and the rest of the ARM science team * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace * Mark Miller * Robin Perez * Dave Turner and the rest of the ARM science team ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Outline Outline * A little philosophy

145

PRODUCING SATELLITE-DERIVED IRRADIANCES IN COMPLEX ARID TERRAIN  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ASES 2003, Austin TX and submitted for publication in Solar Energy ASES 2003, Austin TX and submitted for publication in Solar Energy PRODUCING SATELLITE-DERIVED IRRADIANCES IN COMPLEX ARID TERRAIN Richard Perez & Marek Kmiecik ASRC, the University at Albany 251 Fuller Rd. Albany, NY 12203 perez@asrc.cestm.albany.edu Pierre Ineichen, CUEPE, University of Geneva 7 Route de Drize 1227 Carouge, Switzerland Pierre.Ineichen@cuepe.unige.ch Marek Kmiecik, ASRC Kathleen Moore, IED 251 Fuller Rd. Albany, NY 12203 moore@iedat.com David Renne & Ray George NREL 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO 80401 drenne / ray_george@nrel.nrel.gov ABSTRACT This paper describes a methodology to correct satellite- derived irradiances over complex terrain. The correction applies to satellite models using visible images from geostationary satellites. 1. DESCRIPTION OF CURRENT MODEL

146

Electrically injected visible vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Visible laser light output from an electrically injected vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VSCEL) diode is enabled by the addition of phase-matching spacer layers on either side of the active region to form the optical cavity. The spacer layers comprise InAlP which act as charge carrier confinement means. Distributed Bragg reflector layers are formed on either side of the optical cavity to act as mirrors. 5 figs.

Schneider, R.P.; Lott, J.A.

1994-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

147

DESIGN OF VISIBLE DIAGNOSTIC BEAMLINE FOR NSLS2 STORAGE RING  

SciTech Connect

A visible synchrotron light monitor (SLM) beam line has been designed at the NSLS2 storage ring, using the bending magnet radiation. A retractable thin absorber will be placed in front of the first mirror to block the central x-rays. The first mirror will reflect the visible light through a vacuum window. The light is guided by three 6-inch diameter mirrors into the experiment hutch. In this paper, we will describe design work on various optical components in the beamline. The ultra high brightness NSLS-II storage ring is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It will have 3GeV, 500mA electron beam circulating in the 792m ring, with very low emittance (0.9nm.rad horizontal and 8pm.rad vertical). The ring is composed of 30 DBA cells with 15 fold symmetry. Three damping wigglers will be installed in long straight sections 8, 18 and 28 to lower the emittance. While electrons pass through the bending magnet, synchrotron radiation will be generated covering a wide spectrum. There are other insertion devices in the storage ring which will generate shorter wavelength radiation as well. Synchrotron radiation has been widely used as diagnostic tool to measure the transverse and longitudinal profile. Three synchrotron light beam lines dedicated for diagnostics are under design and construction for the NSLS-II storage ring: two x-ray beam lines (pinhole and CRL) with the source points from Cell 22 BM{_}A (first bending in the DBA cell) and Cell22 three-pole wiggler; the third beam line is using visible part of radiation from Cell 30 BM{_}B (second bending magnet from the cell). Our paper focuses on the design of the visible beam line - SLM.

Cheng, W.; Fernandes, H.; Hseuh, H.; Kosciuk, B.; Krinsky, S.; Singh, O.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

148

Producing Satellite-Derived Irradiances in Complex Arid Terrain | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Producing Satellite-Derived Irradiances in Complex Arid Terrain Producing Satellite-Derived Irradiances in Complex Arid Terrain Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): This paper describes a methodology to correct satellite-derived irradiances over complex terrain. The correction applies to satellite models using visible images from geostationary satellites. (Purpose): Solar model documentation Source SUNY Albany Date Released June 26th, 2003 (11 years ago) Date Updated August 29th, 2003 (11 years ago) Keywords methodology solar SWERA UNEP validation Data application/pdf icon Download Report (pdf, 690.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 1999 - 2002 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Please cite publication as follows: Perez, R., Ineichen, P., Moore, K., Kmiecik, M., Renné, D., and George, R. 2002.Producing Satellite-Derived Irradiances in Complex Arid Terrain. ASES 2003, Austin TX and submitted for publication in Solar Energy

149

Visible and Infrared Optical Design for the ITER Upper Ports  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the results of an optical design scoping study of visible-light and infrared optics for the ITER upper ports, performed by LLNL under contract for the US ITER Project Office. ITER is an international collaboration to build a large fusion energy tokamak with a goal of demonstrating net fusion power for pulses much longer than the energy confinement time. At the time of this report, six of the ITER upper ports are planned to each to contain a camera system for recording visible and infrared light, as well as other diagnostics. the performance specifications for the temporal and spatial resolution of this system are shown in the Section II, Functional Specifications. They acknowledge a debt to Y. Corre and co-authors of the CEA Cadarache report ''ITER wide-angle viewing and thermographic and visible system''. Several of the concepts used in this design are derived from that CEA report. The infrared spatial resolution for optics of this design is diffraction-limited by the size of the entrance aperture, at lower resolution than listed in the ITER diagnostic specifications. The size of the entrance aperture is a trade-off between spatial resolution, optics size in the port, and the location of relay optics. The signal-to-noise ratio allows operation at the specified time resolutions.

Lasnier, C; Seppala, L; Morris, K; Groth, M; Fenstermacher, M; Allen, S; Synakowski, E; Ortiz, J

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Hydrostatic Adjustment in Nonisothermal Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The author examines hydrostatic adjustment due to heating in two nonisothermal atmospheres. In the first case both the temperature and lapse rate decrease with height; in the second case the atmosphere consists of a troposphere with constant ...

Dean G. Duffy

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Efficient rendering of atmospheric phenomena  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rendering of atmospheric bodies involves modeling the complex interaction of light throughout the highly scattering medium of water and air particles. Scattering by these particles creates many well-known atmospheric optical phenomena including rainbows, ...

Kirk Riley; David S. Ebert; Martin Kraus; Jerry Tessendorf; Charles Hansen

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Fuel or irradiation subassembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which incorporates a loose bundle of fuel or irradiation pins enclosed within an inner tube which in turn is enclosed within an outer coolant tube and includes a locking comb consisting of a head extending through one side of the inner sleeve and a plurality of teeth which extend through the other side of the inner sleeve while engaging annular undercut portions in the bottom portion of the fuel or irradiation pins to prevent movement of the pins.

Seim, O.S.; Hutter, E.

1975-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

153

FOOD IRRADIATION REACTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An irradiation apparatus is described. It comprises a pressure vessel, a neutronic reactor active portion having a substantially greater height than diameter in the pressure vessel, an annular tank surrounding and spaced from the pressure vessel containing an aqueous indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution of approximately 600 grams per liter concentration, means for circulating separate coolants through the active portion and the space between the annular tank and the pressure vessel, radiator means adapted to receive the materials to be irradiated, and means for flowing the indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution through the radiator means.

Leyse, C.F.; Putnam, G.E.

1961-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

The Ratio of Diffuse to Direct Solar Irradiance (Perpendicular to the Sun's Rays) with Clear Skies—A Conserved Quantity Throughout the Day  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ratio of diffuse irradiance to direct normal is a conserved quantity throughout the day. Though its absolute value depends on the condition of the atmosphere, ground reflection and obstruction of horizon, once this value is established (by a ...

William A. Peterson; Inge Dirmhirn

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric turbulence  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

turbulence turbulence ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric turbulence High frequency velocity fluctuations that lead to turbulent transport of momentum, heat, mositure, and passive scalars, and often expressed in terms of variances and covariances. Categories Atmospheric State, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

156

Differential atmospheric tritium sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

Griesbach, Otto A. (Langhorne, PA); Stencel, Joseph R. (Skillman, NJ)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years.

Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Atmospheric Mercury Research Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a summary and analysis of research findings on utility and environmental mercury from 1997 to 2003. The update categorizes and describes recent work on mercury in utility-burned coal and its route through power plants, the measures for its control, and its fate in the environment following emissions from utility stacks. This fate includes atmospheric chemistry and transport, deposition to land and water surfaces, aquatic cycling, the dynamics of mercury in freshwater fish food webs, and th...

2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

159

Effects of Moisture Released during Forest Burning on Fog Formation and Implications for Visibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Smoke from wildland burning in association with fog has been implicated as a visibility hazard over roadways in the United States. Visibilities at accident sites have been estimated in the range from 1 to 3 m (extinction coefficients between 1000 ...

Gary L. Achtemeier

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Solar Irradiance Variability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Sun has long been considered a constant star, to the extent that its total irradiance was termed the solar constant. It required radiometers in space to detect the small variations in solar irradiance on timescales of the solar rotation and the solar cycle. A part of the difficulty is that there are no other constant natural daytime sources to which the Sun's brightness can be compared. The discovery of solar irradiance variability rekindled a long-running discussion on how strongly the Sun affects our climate. A non-negligible influence is suggested by correlation studies between solar variability and climate indicators. The mechanism for solar irradiance variations that fits the observations best is that magnetic features at the solar surface, i.e. sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network, are responsible for almost all variations (although on short timescales convection and p-mode oscillations also contribute). In spite of significant progress important questions are still open. Thus there is a debat...

Solanki, Sami K

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

ORISE: Climate and Atmospheric Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate and Atmospheric Research Climate and Atmospheric Research Capabilities Overview U.S. Climate Reference Network U.S. Historical Climate Network Contact Us Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education Climate and Atmospheric Research The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) partners with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (ATDD) to conduct climate research focused on issues of national and global importance. Research is performed with personnel support from ORISE's Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification (IEAV) programs, as well as in collaboration with scientists and engineers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and numerous other organizations, government agencies, universities and private research institutions.

162

Water vapour in the atmosphere of a transiting extrasolar planet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water is predicted to be among, if not the most abundant molecular species after hydrogen in the atmospheres of close-in extrasolar giant planets (hot-Jupiters) Several attempts have been made to detect water on an exoplanet, but have failed to find compelling evidence for it or led to claims that should be taken with caution. Here we report an analysis of recent observations of the hot-Jupiter HD189733b taken during the transit, where the planet passed in front of its parent star. We find that absorption by water vapour is the most likely cause of the wavelength-dependent variations in the effective radius of the planet at the infrared wavelengths 3.6, 5.8 and 8 microns. The larger effective radius observed at visible wavelengths may be due to either star variability or the presence of clouds/hazes. We explain the most recent thermal infrared observations of the planet during secondary transit behind the star, reporting a non-detection of water on HD189733b, as being a consequence of the nearly isothermal vertical profile of the planet.s atmosphere. Our results show that water is detectable on extrasolar planets using the primary transit technique and that the infrared should be a better wavelength region than the visible, for such searches.

Giovanna Tinetti; Alfred Vidal-Madjar; Mao-Chang Liang; Jean-Philippe Beaulieu; Yuk Yung; Sean Carey; Robert J. Barber; Jonathan Tennyson; Ignasi Ribas; Nicole Allard; Gilda E. Ballester; David K. Sing; Franck Selsis

2007-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

163

Polarimetric Remote Sensing in the Visible to Near Infrared James R. Shell II  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polarimetric Remote Sensing in the Visible to Near Infrared by James R. Shell II B.S. Physics Title of Dissertation: Polarimetric Remote Sensing in the Visible to Near Infrared I, James R. Shell II Remote Sensing in the Visible to Near Infrared by James R. Shell II Submitted to the Chester F. Carlson

Salvaggio, Carl

164

Definition: Global horizontal irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Normal Irradiance (DNI) and Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance (DIF).1 Related Terms DNI, Solar radiation, Concentrating solar power, Photovoltaics References http:...

165

PNNL: FCSD: Atmospheric Sciences & Global Change: Programs &...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Programs & Facilities Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and ARM Climate Research Facility ARM Aerial Facility Environmental...

166

The second and third NGNP advanced gas reactor fuel irradiation experiments  

SciTech Connect

The United States Dept. of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is currently scheduled to irradiate a total of five low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The irradiations are being accomplished to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas cooled reactors. The experiments will each consist of at least six separate capsules, and will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The effluent sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and completed a very successful irradiation in early November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2) started irradiation in June 2010, and the third and fourth experiments have been combined into a single larger irradiation (AGR-3/4) that is currently being assembled. The design and status of the second through fourth experiments as well as the irradiation results of the second experiment to date are discussed. (authors)

Grover, S. B.; Petti, D. A. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Gamma Irradiation | ORNL Neutron Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma Irradiation Gamma Irradiation Gamma Irradiation Facility Gamma irradiation chamber Gamma irradiation chamber. The HFIR Gamma Irradiation Facility is an experimental facility designed to irradiate materials with gamma radiation from spent fuel elements. The facility chamber is stainless steel and is made of 0.065-thick tubing to maximize the internal dimensions of the chamber. This allows for the largest samples possible that can still fit inside the cadmium post of the spent fuel loading station positions. The interior chamber is approximately 3.75 inches inside diameter and accommodates samples up to 25 inches long. There are two configurations for the chamber assembly, with the only difference being the plugs. The uninstrumented configuration has a top plug that is used for installation of the samples, to support the inert gas

168

ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF SOLIDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for altering physical properties of certain solids, such as enhancing the usefulness of solids, in which atomic interchange occurs through a vacancy mechanism, electron irradiation, and temperature control. In a centain class of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, diffusion or displacement of atoms occurs through a vacancy mechanism, i.e., an atom can only move when there exists a vacant atomic or lattice site in an adjacent position. In the process of the invention highenergy electron irradiation produces additional vacancies in a solid over those normally occurring at a given temperature and allows diffusion of the component atoms of the solid to proceed at temperatures at which it would not occur under thermal means alone in any reasonable length of time. The invention offers a precise way to increase the number of vacancies and thereby, to a controlled degree, change the physical properties of some materials, such as resistivity or hardness.

Damask, A.C.

1959-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

HAPO GRAPHITE IRRADIATION CAPSULES  

SciTech Connect

A summary is presented of the broad field of graphite irradiation capsules. The various capsule designs are considered; they include temperature- controlled and temperature-monitored capsules. The components and materials of the capsules are described. Finally, methods are given for carrying out heat trandsfer calculations in capsule design and neutron spectra calculations for correlation of radiation data from different reactors. (D.L.C.)

Helm, J.W.

1963-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

170

BIOLOGICAL IRRADIATION FACILITY  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A facility for irradiating biological specimens with neutrons is described. It includes a reactor wherein the core is off center in a reflector. A high-exposure room is located outside the reactor on the side nearest the core while a low-exposure room is located on the opposite side. Means for converting thermal neutrons to fast neutrons are movably disposed between the reactor core and the high and low-exposure rooms. (AEC)

McCorkle, W.H.; Cern, H.S.

1962-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

171

Visible light emitting vertical cavity surface emitting lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vertical cavity surface emitting laser that emits visible radiation is built upon a substrate, then having mirrors, the first mirror on top of the substrate; both sets of mirrors being a distributed Bragg reflector of either dielectrics or other materials which affect the resistivity or of semiconductors, such that the structure within the mirror comprises a plurality of sets, each having a thickness of {lambda}/2n where n is the index of refraction of each of the sets; each of the mirrors adjacent to spacers which are on either side of an optically active bulk or quantum well layer; and the spacers and the optically active layer are from one of the following material systems: In{sub z}(Al{sub y}Ga{sub 1{minus}y}){sub 1{minus}z}P, InAlGaAs, AlGaAs, InGaAs, or AlGaP/GaP, wherein the optically active region having a length equal to m {lambda}/2n{sub eff} where m is an integer and n{sub eff} is the effective index of refraction of the laser cavity, and the spacer layer and one of the mirrors being transmissive to radiation having a wavelength of {lambda}/n, typically within the green to red portion of the visible spectrum. 10 figs.

Bryan, R.P.; Olbright, G.R.; Lott, J.A.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.

1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

172

Visible spectroscopy in the DIII-D divertor  

SciTech Connect

Spectroscopy measurements in the DIII-D divertor have been carried out with a survey spectrometer which provides simultaneous registration of the visible spectrum over the region 400--900 nm with a resolution of 0.2 nm. Broad spectral coverage is achieved through use of a fiberoptic transformer assembly to map the curved focal plane of a fast (f/3) Rowland-circle spectrograph into a rastered format on the rectangular sensor area of a two-dimensional CCD camera. Vertical grouping of pixels during CCD readout integrates the signal intensity over the height of each spectral segment in the rastered image, minimizing readout time. For the full visible spectrum, readout time is 50 ms. Faster response time (< 10 ms) may be obtained by selecting for readout just a small number of the twenty spectral segments in the image on the CCD. Simultaneous recording of low charge states of carbon, oxygen and injected impurities has yielded information about gas recycling and impurity behavior at the divertor strike points. Transport of lithium to the divertor region during lithium pellet injection has been studied, as well as cumulative deposition of lithium on the divertor targets from pellet injection over many successive discharges.

Brooks, N.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Fehling, D.; Hillis, D.L.; Klepper, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Naumenko, N. [Inst. of Physics, Minsk (Belarus); Tugarinov, S. [TRINITI Lab., Troitsk (Russian Federation); Whyte, D.G. [INRS-Energie et Materiaux, Varennes, Quebec (Canada)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Installation of a fast framing visible camera on KSTAR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Visible camera technologies have made remarkable progress in recent years, and the fast camera has proven itself to be a capable imaging diagnostic in studies of specific fusion plasma issues such as the start-up physics, plasma wall interactions, edge-localized modes, and disruptions. For the purpose of favorable visible imaging, a fast framing camera has recently been installed on the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device. The camera uses a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor detector with a maximum resolution of 1280x1024 at 1000 frames/s (fps) and a minimum resolution of 1280x16 at 64 kfps. A 2-m-long viewport having a novel optical rail system was installed on a tangential port to view the tokamak interior. The system is fully controlled from the main control room and protected by a shutter from deposits. To verify that the camera electronics are safe from the high magnetic field and its rapid time variation, possible influences are considered theoretically and experimentally. In this work, we present the design and installation of the fast camera system on the KSTAR device with discussions on the field variation effect issues.

Chung, Jinil; Lee, Deok Kyo; Seo, Dongcheol [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahangno 113, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Myoung Choul [Korea Basic Science Institute, 804-1 Ochang, Cheongwon 363-883 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

EFFECTS OF GAMMA IRRADIATION ON EPDM ELASTOMERS (REVISION 1)  

SciTech Connect

Two formulations of EPDM elastomer, one substituting a UV stabilizer for the normal antioxidant in this polymer, and the other the normal formulation, were synthesized and samples of each were exposed to gamma irradiation in initially pure deuterium gas to compare their radiation stability. Stainless steel containers having rupture disks were designed for this task. After 130 MRad dose of cobalt-60 radiation in the SRNL Gamma Irradiation Facility, a significant amount of gas was created by radiolysis; however the composition indicated by mass spectroscopy indicated an unexpected increase in the total amount deuterium in both formulations. The irradiated samples retained their ductility in a bend test. No change of sample weight, dimensions, or density was observed. No change of the glass transition temperature as measured by dynamic mechanical analysis was observed, and most of the other dynamic mechanical properties remained unchanged. There appeared to be an increase in the storage modulus of the irradiated samples containing the UV stabilizer above the glass transition, which may indicate hardening of the material by radiation damage. Revision 1 adds a comparison with results of a study of tritium exposed EPDM. The amount of gas produced by the gamma irradiation was found to be equivalent to about 280 days exposure to initially pure tritium gas at one atmosphere. The glass transition temperature of the tritium exposed EPDM rose about 10 ?C. over 280 days, while no glass transition temperature change was observed for gamma irradiated EPDM. This means that gamma irradiation in deuterium cannot be used as a surrogate for tritium exposure.

Clark, E.

2013-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

175

EMSL: Science: Atmospheric Aerosol Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Atmospheric Aerosol Systems atmospheric logo Nighttime enhancement of nitrogen-containing organic compounds, or NOC Observed nighttime enhancement of nitrogen-containing organic compounds, or NOC, showed evidence of being formed by reactions that transform carbonyls into imines. The Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Science Theme focuses on understanding the chemistry, physics and molecular-scale dynamics of aerosols for model parameterization to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations and develop a predictive understanding of climate. By elucidating the role of natural and anthropogenic regional and global climate forcing mechanisms, EMSL can provide DOE and others with the ability to develop cost-effective strategies to monitor, control and mitigate them.

176

ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH On the parameterization of ice and water substance mixing ratio fields were only strongly altered by turning off the ice phase of these schemes includes ice processes. But in mid- latitudes and also in tropics the ice phase is an important

Moelders, Nicole

177

Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. A 3-D chemistry-transport model has been applied to the Mexico City metropolitan area to investigate the origin of elevated levels of non-fossil (NF) carbonaceous aerosols observed in this highly urbanized region. High time resolution measurements of the fine aerosol concentration and composition, and 12 or 24 h integrated 14 C measurements of aerosol modern carbon have been performed in and near Mexico City during the March 2006 MILAGRO field experiment. The non-fossil carbon fraction (fNF), which is lower than the measured modern fraction (fM) due to the elevated 14 C in the atmosphere caused by nuclear bomb testing, is estimated from the measured fM and the source-dependent information on modern carbon enrichment. The fNF contained in PM1 total carbon analyzed by a US team (f TC

unknown authors

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Atmospheric Corrosion Test Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 27   Some marine-atmospheric corrosion test sites around the world...Zealand Phia Marine 0.2 0.12 15.8 2.4 � � � � Greece Rafina Marine 0.2 0.12 13.6 1.0 � � � � Rhodes Marine 0.2 0.12 14.3 1.5 � � � � Netherlands Schagen Marine 2.4 1.5 17.0 2.0 � � � � Spain Almeria � 0.035 0.022 22.4 1.6 � � � � Cartagena � 0.050 0.031 5.2 1.9 � � � � La Coruña � 0.160 0.1 26.2 1.4...

179

Horizontal Visibility graphs generated by type-II intermittency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this contribution we study the onset of chaos via type-II intermittency within the framework of Horizontal Visibility graph theory. We construct graphs associated to time series generated by an iterated map close to a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation and study, both numerically and analytically, their main topological properties. We find well defined equivalences between the main statistical properties of intermittent series (scaling of laminar trends and Lyapunov exponent) and those of the resulting graphs, and accordingly construct a graph theoretical description of type-II intermittency. We finally recast this theory into a graph-theoretical renormalization group framework, and show that the fixed point structure of RG flow diagram separates regular, critical and chaotic dynamics.

Ángel M. Núńez; José Patricio Gómez; Lucas Lacasa

2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

180

Navajo Generating Station and Air Visibility Regulations: Alternatives and Impacts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pursuant to the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in 2009 its intent to issue rules for controlling emissions from Navajo Generating Station that could affect visibility at the Grand Canyon and at several other national parks and wilderness areas. The final rule will conform to what EPA determines is the best available retrofit technology (BART) for the control of haze-causing air pollutants, especially nitrogen oxides. While EPA is ultimately responsible for setting Navajo Generating Station's BART standards in its final rule, it will be the U.S. Department of the Interior's responsibility to manage compliance and the related impacts. This study aims to assist both Interior and EPA by providing an objective assessment of issues relating to the power sector.

Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Brinkman, G.; Funk, K.; Gelman, R.; Lantz, E.; Larney, C.; Peterson, D.; Worley, C.; Liebsch, E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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181

CO2 SEQUESTRATION AND RECYCLE BY PHOTOCATALYSIS WITH VISIBLE LIGHT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Visible light-photocatalysis could provide a cost-effective route to recycle CO{sub 2} to useful chemicals or fuels. Development of an effective catalyst for the photocatalytic synthesis requires (i) the knowledge of the surface band gap and its relation to the surface structure, (ii) the reactivity of adsorbates and their reaction pathways, and (iii) the ability to manipulate the actives site for adsorption, surface reaction, and electron transfer. The objective of this research is to study the photo-catalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}-base catalyst. A series of TiO{sub 2}-supported metal catalysts were prepared for determining the activity and selectivity for the synthesis of methane and methanol. 0.5 wt% Cu/SrTiO{sub 3} was found to be the most active and selective catalyst for methanol synthesis. The activity of the catalyst decreased in the order: Ti silsesquioxane > Cu/SrTiO{sub 3} > Pt/TiO{sub 2} > Cu/TiO{sub 2} > TiO{sub 2} > Rh/TiO{sub 2}. To further increase the number of site for the reaction, we propose to prepare monolayer and multiplayer TiOx on high surface area mesoporous oxides. These catalysts will be used for in situ IR study in the Phase II research project to determine the reactivity of adsorbates. Identification of active adsorbates and sites will allow incorporation of acid/basic sites to alter the nature of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O adsorbates and with Pt/Cu sites to direct reaction pathways of surface intermediates, enhancing the overall activity and selectivity for methanol and hydrocarbon synthesis. The overall goal of this research is to provide a greater predictive capability for the design of visible light-photosynthesis catalysts by a deeper understanding of the reaction kinetics and mechanism as well as by better control of the coordination/chemical environment of active sites.

Steven S.C. Chuang

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Structural Materials - Irradiation Studies II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 15, 2012 ... Materials and Fuels for the Current and Advanced Nuclear Reactors: Structural Materials - Irradiation Studies II Sponsored by: The Minerals, ...

183

A NEW OPERATIONAL MODEL FOR SATELLITE-DERIVED IRRADIANCES DESCRIPTION AND VALIDATION  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Published in Solar Energy - Vol. 73, 5, pp. 307-317, (2002) Published in Solar Energy - Vol. 73, 5, pp. 307-317, (2002) 1 of 23 A NEW OPERATIONAL MODEL FOR SATELLITE-DERIVED IRRADIANCES DESCRIPTION AND VALIDATION Richard Perez * Pierre Ineichen ** Kathy Moore * Marek Kmiecik * Cyril Chain *** Ray George **** Frank Vignola ***** * ASRC - The University at Albany, Albany, NY, USA ** CUEPE - University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland *** Vaulx-en-Velin, France **** NREL, Golden, CO, USA ***** University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA Published in Solar Energy - Vol. 73, 5, pp. 307-317, (2002) 2 of 23 ABSTRACT We present a new simple model capable of exploiting geostationary satellite visible images for the production of site/time specific global and direct irradiances The new model features new clear sky global and direct irradiance functions, a new

184

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF RETINAL BURNS: PART I. THE IRRADIANCE THRESHOLDS FOR CHORIO-RETINAL LESIONS. PART II. ENTOPTIC SCATTER AS A FUNCTION OF WAVE LENGTH  

SciTech Connect

Using a high intensity light source to produce chorioretinal lesions in the eyes of rabbits, cats, and guinea pigs, the authors determined, at different levels of retinal irradiance, the exposure time which produced an ophthalmoscopically visible lesion. It was found that, at irradiance levels greater than 2 cal/cm/sup 2/sec, a radiant exposure of 1.0 cal/cm/sup 2/ produced a threshold lesion. At irradiance levels less than 0.7 cal/cm/sup 2//sec, lesions could not be produced at any exposure time through ten seconds. Histological data on the nature of the legions and course of healing are presented and discussed. (auth)

Demott, D.W.; Davis, T.P.

1959-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

185

ARM: Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, VISible channel, low-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, VISible channel, low-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

Connor Flynn

186

ARM: Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, VISible channel, high-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, VISible channel, high-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

Connor Flynn

187

ARM: Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, VISible channel, low-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated  

SciTech Connect

Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, VISible channel, low-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

Connor Flynn

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

188

ARM: Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, VISible channel, high-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated  

SciTech Connect

Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, VISible channel, high-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

Connor Flynn

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

189

FORMATION OF ORGANIC MOLECULES AND WATER IN WARM DISK ATMOSPHERES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations from Spitzer and ground-based infrared spectroscopy reveal significant diversity in the molecular emission from the inner few AU of T Tauri disks. We explore theoretically the possible origin of this diversity by expanding on our earlier thermal-chemical model of disk atmospheres. We consider how variations in grain settling, X-ray irradiation, accretion-related mechanical heating, and the oxygen-to-carbon ratio can affect the thermal and chemical properties of the atmosphere at 0.25-40 AU. We find that these model parameters can account for many properties of the detected molecular emission. The column density of the warm (200-2000 K) molecular atmosphere is sensitive to grain settling and the efficiency of accretion-related heating, which may account, at least in part, for the large range in molecular emission fluxes that have been observed. The dependence of the atmospheric properties on the model parameters may also help to explain trends that have been reported in the literature between molecular emission strength and mid-infrared color, stellar accretion rate, and disk mass. We discuss whether some of the differences between our model results and the observations (e.g., for water) indicate a role for vertical transport and freezeout in the disk midplane. We also discuss how planetesimal formation in the outer disk (beyond the snowline) may imprint a chemical signature on the inner few AU of the disk and speculate on possible observational tracers of this process.

Najita, Joan R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Adamkovics, Mate; Glassgold, Alfred E. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

190

Trends in atmospheric haze induced by peat fires in Sumatra Island, Indonesia and El Nin~o phenomenon from 1973 to 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Trends in atmospheric haze induced by peat fires in Sumatra Island, Indonesia and El Nin, Jakarta Timur, Indonesia Received 16 October 2003; revised 10 December 2003; accepted 14 January 2004 by peat fires on the peat land area of the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. Visibility and the anomalies

Field, Robert

191

Status of the NGNP Fuel Experiment AGR-2 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and was completed in November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2), which utilized the same experiment design as well as control and monitoring systems as AGR-1, started irradiation in June 2010 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2013. The design of this experiment and support systems will be briefly discussed, followed by the progress and status of the experiment to date.

Blaine Grover

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Status of the NGNP Graphite Creep Experiments AGC-1 and AGC-2 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six nuclear graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six peripheral stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six peripheral stacks will have different compressive loads applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during irradiation of the experiment. The first experiment, AGC-1, started its irradiation in September 2009, and the irradiation was completed in January 2011. The second experiment, AGC-2, started its irradiation in April 2011 and completed its irradiation in May 2012. This paper will briefly discuss the design of the experiment and control systems, and then present the irradiation results for each experiment to date.

Blaine Grover

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science and Infrastructure Steering Committee CHARTER June 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not

194

Thermal creep of irradiated zircaloy cladding.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of an effort to investigate spent-fuel behavior during dry-cask storage, thermal creep tests are being performed with defueled Zircaloy-4 cladding segments from two pressurized water reactors - Surry at {approx} 36 GWd/MTU burnup and H. B. Robinson at {approx} 67 GWd/MTU burnup, with corresponding fast (E > 1 MeV) fluence levels of 7 x 10{sup 25} and 14 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2}. The Surry rods are particularly relevant because they were stored in an inert-atmosphere (He) cask for 15 years. The Robinson rods were received after reactor discharge and pool storage. Commensurate with their high burnup, the Robinson cladding has significant waterside corrosion and hydrogen uptake. Test results to-date indicate good creep ductility for both claddings in the 360 400 C and 160-250 MPa (hoop-stress) regime. Partial recovery of radiation hardening may have occurred during the long tests at 400 C, which led to improved creep ductility. Creep-rate sensitivity is significant for stress and even more so for temperature. The higher hydrogen content in the Robinson material appears to have no detrimental effect on creep behavior at the test temperature. One Robinson sample, which ruptured in the weld region at 205 C during cooling from 400 C under stress (190 MPa), precipitated all visible hydrides in the radial direction.

Tsai, H.; Billone, M. C.; Energy Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

The Health and Visibility Cost of Air Pollution: A Comparison of Estimation Methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

whether the visibility cost estimates from CVM and HPA aredetermine the overall cost estimates. 6 And the considerableuncertainty in the total cost estimate, as manifested by the

Delucchi, Mark; Murphy, James; McCubbin, Donald

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Reading the (In)visible Race: African-American Subject Representation and Formation in American Literature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exudes visibility. Dr. Flint “springs upon” Jacobs/Brentinvisible. Her “answer” to Dr. Flint does not even appear inand even intangible (Dr. Flint cannot strike her). In this

Hollingsworth, Lauren Colleen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Irradiation Stability of Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ion irradiation of carbon nanotubes is a tool that can be used to achieve modification of the structure. Irradiation stability of carbon nanotubes was studied by ion and electron bombardment of the samples. Different ion species at various energies were used in experiments, and several defect characterization techniques were applied to characterize the damage. Development of dimensional changes of carbon nanotubes in microscopes operated at accelerating voltages of 30 keV revealed that binding energy of carbon atoms in CNs is much lower than in bulk materials. Resistivity measurements during irradiation demonstrated existence of a quasi state of defect creation. Linear relationship between ID/IG ratio and increasing irradiation fluence was revealed by Raman spectroscopy study of irradiated carbon buckypapers. The deviations from linear relationship were observed for the samples irradiated to very high fluence values. Annealing of irradiated samples was able to reduce the value of ID/IG ratio and remove defects. However, annealing could not affect ID/IG ratio and remove defects in amorphized samples. The extracted value of activation energy for irradiated sample was 0.36 ±0.05 eV. The value of activation energy was in good agreement with theoretical studies.

Aitkaliyeva, Assel

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

Hodges, Gary

199

Mountain Forces and the Atmospheric Energy Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although mountains are generally thought to exert forces on the atmosphere, the related transfers of energy between earth and atmosphere are not represented in standard energy equations of the atmosphere. It is shown that the axial rotation of the ...

Joseph Egger

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Definition: Irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Irradiance Irradiance Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Irradiance The direct, diffuse, and reflected solar radiation that strikes a surface. Usually expressed in kilowatts per square meter. Irradiance multiplied by time equals insolation.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Irradiance is the power of electromagnetic radiation per unit area incident on a surface. Radiant emittance or radiant exitance is the power per unit area radiated by a surface. The SI units for all of these quantities are watts per square meter (W/m), while the cgs units are ergs per square centimeter per second (erg·cm·s, often used in astronomy). These quantities are sometimes called intensity, but this usage leads to confusion with radiant intensity, which has different units. All of these

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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201

Baiu rainband termination in atmospheric and atmosphere-ocean models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Baiu rainband is a summer rainband stretching from eastern China through Japan towards the Northwest Pacific. The climatological termination of the Baiu rainband is investigated using Japanese 25-year ReAnalysis (JRA25), a stand-alone atmospheric ...

Akira Kuwano-Yoshida; Bunmei Taguchi; Shang-Ping Xie

202

Optimal measurement of surface shortwave irradiance using current instrumentation -- the ARM experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shortwave (solar) measurements of surface irradiance for clear sky conditions disagree with a number of different models. Betts used the European Center for Medium-range Forecasts (ECMWF) shortwave model to calculate surface irradiance that were 5-10 percent higher than measurements. Wild used a different formulation of the ECMWF shortwave model, but found that the model overpredicted clear-sky shortwave and average of 3 percent. Ding and Wang used data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and found that the GENESIS GCM shortwave model, likewise, overpredicted clear-sky irradiance by about 4 percent. To help resolve the measurement dilemma, reference instruments were deployed in April 1996 at the Southern Great Plains ARM site central facility very near the shortwave measurements. The rest of the paper describes the experiment undertaken to ascertain total horizontal shortwave irradiance at the surface, including a separation of the direct normal and diffuse horizontal components. Results and a discussion of same concludes the paper.

Michalsky, J. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center; Rubes, M. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences; Stoffel, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Wesley, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.; Splitt, M. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States); DeLuisi, J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Krypton-85 in the atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement results are presented on 85Kr content in the atmosphere over the European part of Russia in 1971-1995 based on the analysis of the commercial krypton, which is separated from air by industrial plants. Our results are by 15 per cent lower then 85Kr activites observed over West Europe. According our prediction by 2030 85Kr content in the atmosphere over Europe will amount to 1,5-3 Bq in m3 air. Average 85Kr release to the atmosphere from regeneration of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is estimated, some 180 TBq per a ton SNF. It is advisable to recommence monitoring of 85Kr content within Russia.

A. T. Korsakov; E. G. Tertyshnik

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

204

Krypton-85 in the atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement results are presented on 85Kr content in the atmosphere over the European part of Russia in 1971-1995 based on the analysis of the commercial krypton, which is separated from air by industrial plants. Our results are by 15 per cent lower then 85Kr activites observed over West Europe. According our prediction by 2030 85Kr content in the atmosphere over Europe will amount to 1,5-3 Bq in m3 air. Average 85Kr release to the atmosphere from regeneration of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is estimated, some 180 TBq per a ton SNF. It is advisable to recommence monitoring of 85Kr content within Russia.

Korsakov, A T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Mega-electron-volt proton irradiation on supported and suspended graphene: A Raman spectroscopic layer dependent study  

SciTech Connect

Graphene samples with 1, 2, and 4 layers and 1 + 1 folded bi-layers and graphite have been irradiated with 2 MeV protons at fluences ranging from 1 x 10{sup 15} to 6 x 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2}. The samples were characterized using visible and UV Raman spectroscopy and Raman microscopy. The ion-induced defects were found to decrease with increasing number of layers. Graphene samples suspended over etched holes in SiO{sub 2} have been fabricated and used to investigate the influence of the substrate SiO{sub 2} for defect creation in graphene. While Raman vibrational modes at 1460 cm{sup -1} and 1555 cm{sup -1} have been observed in the visible Raman spectra of substantially damaged graphene samples, these modes were absent in the irradiated-suspended monolayer graphene.

Mathew, S.; Thong, John T. L. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Chan, T. K.; Breese, M. B. H. [Center for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Zhan, D.; Shen, Z. X. [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Gopinadhan, K.; Dhar, S.; Venkatesan, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); NUSNNI-NanoCore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Roy Barman, A. [NUSNNI-NanoCore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

Glossary Term - Composition of the Earth's Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Earth's Atmosphere Source: Definition of the U.S. Standard Atmosphere (1976) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 77th Edition Gas Formula Abundance percent by volume...

207

A Computational Thermodynamic Analysis of Atmospheric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 1, 2001 ... The vacuum atmosphere is typically 0.1 atm. However, the vacuum atmosphere creates two major problems: air leakage and batch operation to ...

208

CO2 SEQUESTRATION AND RECYCLE BY PHOTOCATALYSIS WITH VISIBLE LIGHT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photocatalysis could provide a cost-effective route to recycle CO{sub 2} to useful chemicals or fuels. Development of an effective catalyst for the photocatalytic synthesis requires (i) the knowledge of the surface band gap and its relation to the surface structure, (ii) the reactivity of adsorbates and their reaction pathways, and (iii) the ability to manipulate the actives site for adsorption, surface reaction, and electron transfer. The research tasks accomplished during first six months include setting up a photo-catalytic reactor, optical bench, calibration of gas chromatograph, catalyst preparation, and catalyst screening study. Addition of Pt and Cu on TiO{sub 2} was found to increase the activity of TiO{sub 2} catalysts for the synthesis of methanol and methane. The most active catalysts obtained from this study will be used for mechanistic study. The overall goal of this research is to provide a greater predictive capability for the design of visible light-photosynthesis catalysts by a deeper understanding of the reaction kinetics and mechanism as well as by better control of the coordination/chemical environment of active sites.

Steven S.C. Chuang

1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

209

The Workshop in Atmospheric Predictability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A workshop on the subject of atmospheric predictability was held during 23-25 April 2001 at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. Of primary concern was the nature of forecast uncertainty due to initial conditionuncertainty of ...

Ronald M. Errico; Rolf Langland; David P. Baumhefner

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

(Chemistry of the global atmosphere)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the conference The Chemistry of the Global Atmosphere,'' and presented a paper on the anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to the atmosphere. The conference included meetings of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) programme, a core project of the International Geosphere/Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and the traveler participated in meetings on the IGAC project Development of Global Emissions Inventories'' and agreed to coordinate the working group on CO{sub 2}. Papers presented at the conference focused on the latest developments in analytical methods, modeling and understanding of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMHCs, CFCs, and aerosols.

Marland, G.

1990-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

211

Precursors to atmospheric blocking events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric blocking events disturb synoptic-scale features from their normal eastward progression, causing anomalous weather conditions for the duration of the blocking event. The essence of blocking can be captured by ...

Marino, Garrett P

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

The Navy's Operational Atmospheric Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In January of 1988, significant upgrades were made to the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS). Among these improvements was the implementation of a multivariate optimum interpolation analysis scheme. Since that time, ...

James S. Goerss; Patricia A. Phoebus

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Stochastic Simulation of Atmospheric Trajectories  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods are presented for generating an ensemble of synthetic atmospheric trajectories. These include methods for a set of independent trajectories, and methods for a correlated set of sequential trajectories. The models incorporate first-order ...

Mitchell J. Small; Perry J. Samson

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Atmospheric Water Vapor over China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chinese radiosonde data from 1970 to 1990 are relatively homogeneous in time and are used to examine the climatology, trends, and variability of China’s atmospheric water vapor content. The climatological distribution of precipitable water (PW) ...

Panmao Zhai; Robert E. Eskridge

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

HIGH-PERFORMANCE ALXGA1-XN-BASED UV PHOTODETECTORS FOR VISIBLE/SOLAR-BLIND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HIGH-PERFORMANCE ALXGA1-XN-BASED UV PHOTODETECTORS FOR VISIBLE/SOLAR-BLIND APPLICATIONS-PERFORMANCE ALXGA1-XN-BASED UV PHOTODETECTORS FOR VISIBLE/SOLAR-BLIND APPLICATIONS Necmi Biyikli Ph. D, environmental (ozone layer) monitoring, detection of biological/chemical agents, missile early warning systems

GĂĽrel, Levent

216

On the Insignificance of Photochemical Hydrocarbon Aerosols in the Atmospheres of Close-in Extrasolar Giant Planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The close-in extrasolar giant planets (CEGPs) reside in irradiated environments much more intense than that of the giant planets in our solar system. The high UV irradiance strongly influences their photochemistry and the general current view believed that this high UV flux will greatly enhance photochemical production of hydrocarbon aerosols. In this letter, we investigate hydrocarbon aerosol formation in the atmospheres of CEGPs. We find that the abundances of hydrocarbons in the atmospheres of CEGPs are significantly less than that of Jupiter except for models in which the CH$_4$ abundance is unreasonably high (as high as CO) for the hot (effective temperatures $\\gtrsim 1000$ K) atmospheres. Moreover, the hydrocarbons will be condensed out to form aerosols only when the temperature-pressure profiles of the species intersect with the saturation profiles--a case almost certainly not realized in the hot CEGPs atmospheres. Hence our models show that photochemical hydrocarbon aerosols are insignificant in the atmospheres of CEGPs. In contrast, Jupiter and Saturn have a much higher abundance of hydrocarbon aerosols in their atmospheres which are responsible for strong absorption shortward of 600 nm. Thus the insignificance of photochemical hydrocarbon aerosols in the atmospheres of CEGPs rules out one class of models with low albedos and featureless spectra shortward of 600 nm.

Mao-Chang Liang; Sara Seager; Christopher D. Parkinson; Anthony Y. -T; . Lee; Yuk L. Yung

2004-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

217

AFIP-4 Irradiation Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-4 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. The AFIP-4 test further examine the fuel/clad interface and its behavior under extreme conditions. After irradiation, fission gas retention measurements will be performed during post irradiation (PIE). The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-4 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

Danielle M Perez; Misti A Lillo; Gray S. Chang; Glenn A Roth; Nicolas Woolstenhulme; Daniel M Wachs

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

AFIP-4 Irradiation Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-4 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. The AFIP-4 test further examine the fuel/clad interface and its behavior under extreme conditions. After irradiation, fission gas retention measurements will be performed during post irradiation (PIE)1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-4 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

Danielle M Perez; Misti A Lillo; Gray S. Chang; Glenn A Roth; Nicolas Woolstenhulme; Daniel M Wachs

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, May 1962  

SciTech Connect

This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of May 1962.

1962-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

220

Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium.

Gorman, P.K.

1995-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Comparison of Ocean Surface Solar Irradiance in the GLA General Circulation Model and Satellite-based Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A global, 7-year satellite-based record of ocean surface solar irradiance (SSI) is used to assess the realism of ocean SSI simulated by the nine-layer Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) General Circulation Model (GCM). January and July ...

Beth Chertock; Y. C. Sud

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Calibration of LSST Instrumental and Atmospheric Photometric Passbands  

SciTech Connect

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will continuously image the entire sky visible from Cerro Pachon in northern Chile every 3-4 nights throughout the year. The LSST will provide data for a broad range of science investigations that require better than 1% photometric precision across the sky (repeatability and uniformity) and a similar accuracy of measured broadband color. The fast and persistent cadence of the LSST survey will significantly improve the temporal sampling rate with which celestial events and motions are tracked. To achieve these goals, and to optimally utilize the observing calendar, it will be necessary to obtain excellent photometric calibration of data taken over a wide range of observing conditions - even those not normally considered 'photometric'. To achieve this it will be necessary to routinely and accurately measure the full optical passband that includes the atmosphere as well as the instrumental telescope and camera system. The LSST mountain facility will include a new monochromatic dome illumination projector system to measure the detailed wavelength dependence of the instrumental passband for each channel in the system. The facility will also include an auxiliary spectroscopic telescope dedicated to measurement of atmospheric transparency at all locations in the sky during LSST observing. In this paper, we describe these systems and present laboratory and observational data that illustrate their performance.

Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Axelrod, T.; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.; Barrau, Aurelien; Baumont, Sylvain; /LPSC, Grenoble; Blondin, Stephane; /Marseille, CPPM; Claver, Chuck; /NOAO, Tucson; Gorecki, Alexia; /LPSC, Grenoble; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Krabbendam, Victor; Liang, Ming; Saha, Abhijit; /NOAO, Tucson; Smith, Allyn; /Austin Peay State U.; Smith, R.Chris; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

224

CDIAC Atmospheric Moisture Data Sets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Moisture Atmospheric Moisture CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Atmospheric Moisture Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-2009 (CDIAC NDP-026C) C.J. Hahn, S.G. Warren, and R. Eastman Six-hourly synoptic observations of dew point depression (combined with air temperature) Land 1971-2009; Ocean 1952-2008 Regional Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Six- and Three-Hourly Meteorological Observations from 223 Former U.S.S.R. Stations (CDIAC NDP-048) V. Razuvaev et al. Surface stations; 6- and 3-hourly observations of relative humidity, vapor pressure, humidity deficit, and dew point temperature Varies by station; through 2000

225

atmospheric pressure | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

pressure pressure Dataset Summary Description (Abstract):Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords atmospheric pressure climate NASA SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 46 MiB)

226

CDIAC Atmospheric Pressure Data Sets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric Pressure CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Atmospheric Pressure Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 1 (CDIAC NDP-041) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; through 1990 Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-2009 (CDIAC NDP-026C) C.J. Hahn, S.G. Warren, and R. Eastman Six-hourly synoptic observations of sea-level pressure Land 1971-2009; Ocean 1952-2008 Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 2 (Note: the above link takes you to NOAA's National Climatic Data Center website.) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; some through most recent month

227

National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NARAC TOC NARAC TOC The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center, NARAC, provides tools and services to the Federal Government, that map the probable spread of hazardous material accidentally or intentionally released into the atmosphere. NARAC provides atmospheric plume predictions in time for an emergency manager to decide if taking protective action is necessary to protect the health and safety of people in affected areas. Located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NARAC is a national support and resource center for planning, real-time assessment, emergency response, and detailed studies of incidents involving a wide variety of hazards, including nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological, and natural emissions. In an emergency situation (if lives are at risk), event-specific NARAC

228

Analysis of Lipid OxidationChapter 3 Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry in the Analysis of Lipid Oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of Lipid Oxidation Chapter 3 Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry in the Analysis of Lipid Oxidation Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Books Downloadable pdf of Chapter 3 Ultraviolet-Visible

229

Accumulation of DNA Double-Strand Breaks in Normal Tissues After Fractionated Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: There is increasing evidence that genetic factors regulating the recognition and/or repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are responsible for differences in radiosensitivity among patients. Genetically defined DSB repair capacities are supposed to determine patients' individual susceptibility to develop adverse normal tissue reactions after radiotherapy. In a preclinical murine model, we analyzed the impact of different DSB repair capacities on the cumulative DNA damage in normal tissues during the course of fractionated irradiation. Material and Methods: Different strains of mice with defined genetic backgrounds (SCID{sup -/-} homozygous, ATM{sup -/-} homozygous, ATM{sup +/-}heterozygous, and ATM{sup +/+}wild-type mice) were subjected to single (2 Gy) or fractionated irradiation (5 x 2 Gy). By enumerating gammaH2AX foci, the formation and rejoining of DSBs were analyzed in organs representative of both early-responding (small intestine) and late-responding tissues (lung, kidney, and heart). Results: In repair-deficient SCID{sup -/-} and ATM{sup -/-}homozygous mice, large proportions of radiation-induced DSBs remained unrepaired after each fraction, leading to the pronounced accumulation of residual DNA damage after fractionated irradiation, similarly visible in early- and late-responding tissues. The slight DSB repair impairment of ATM{sup +/-}heterozygous mice was not detectable after single-dose irradiation but resulted in a significant increase in unrepaired DSBs during the fractionated irradiation scheme. Conclusions: Radiation-induced DSBs accumulate similarly in acute- and late-responding tissues during fractionated irradiation, whereas the whole extent of residual DNA damage depends decisively on the underlying genetically defined DSB repair capacity. Moreover, our data indicate that even minor impairments in DSB repair lead to exceeding DNA damage accumulation during fractionated irradiation and thus may have a significant impact on normal tissue responses in clinical radiotherapy.

Ruebe, Claudia E., E-mail: claudia.ruebe@uks.e [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Fricke, Andreas; Wendorf, Juliane; Stuetzel, Annika; Kuehne, Martin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Ong, Mei Fang [Institute of Medical Biometrics, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Lipp, Peter [Institute for Molecular Cell Biology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Ruebe, Christian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

230

Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance with a Simple Two-Stream Radiative Transfer Model Including Vertical Cloud Property Correlations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance with a Simple Two-Stream Radiative Transfer Model Including Vertical Cloud Property Correlations S. Kato Center for Atmospheric Sciences Hampton University Hampton, Virginia Introduction Recent development of remote sensing instruments by Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM?) Program provides information of spatial and temporal variability of cloud structures. However it is not clear what cloud properties are required to express complicated cloud fields in a realistic way and how to use them in a relatively simple one-dimensional (1D) radiative transfer model to compute the domain averaged irradiance. To address this issue, a simple shortwave radiative transfer model that can treat the vertical cloud optical property correlation is developed. The model is based on the gamma-weighted

231

Comparison of Model Estimated and Measured Direct-Normal Solar Irradiance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct-normal solar irradiance (DNSI), the total energy in the solar spectrum incident in unit time on a unit area at the earth's surface perpendicular to the direction to the Sun, depends only on atmospheric extinction of solar energy without regard to the details of the extinction - whether absorption or scattering. Here we report a set of closure experiments performed in north-central Oklahoma in April 1996, under cloud-free conditions, wherein measured atmospheric composition and aerosol optical thickness are input to a radiative transfer model, MODTRAN-3, to estimate DNSI, which is then compared with measured values obtained with normal incidence pyrheliometers and absolute cavity radiometers. Uncertainty in aerosol optical thickness (AOT) dominates the uncertainty in DNSI calculation. AOT measured by an independently calibrated sunphotometer and a rotating Direct-Normal Solar Irradiance - A Closure Experiment, Halthore et al. 2 shadow-band radiometer agree to within the uncerta...

Rangasayi Halthore; Schwartz; S. E.; Michalsky; J. J.; Anderson; G. P.; Gail P. Anderson; Ferrare R. A.; ten Brink H. M; Holben B. N.; Harry M. Ten Brink

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

A Fast Line-by-Line Method for Atmospheric Absorption Computations: The Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A computationally fast line-by-line method for the determination of atmospheric absorption is described. This method is based on the creation of an Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas (4A) covering all possible plausible atmospheric ...

N. A. Scott; A. Chedin

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Large-scale controllable synthesis of dumbbell-like BiVO{sub 4} photocatalysts with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity  

SciTech Connect

The controllable synthesis of novel dumbbell-like BiVO{sub 4} hierarchical nanostructures has been successfully obtained via a simple hydrothermal route. The as-synthesized products were studied by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the nucleation and growth of the nanodumbbells were governed by an oriented aggregation growth mechanism. It is noteworthy that the concentration of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and the volume ratio of H{sub 2}O to CH{sub 3}COOH were crucial to the growth of the final nanoarchitectures. Control experiments were also carried out to investigate the factors which impact on the morphology of the products. Furthermore, the as-prepared BiVO{sub 4} hierarchical nanostructures demonstrated the superior visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency, which is helpful for the separation and recycle considering their promising applications in harmful pollutants disposal. - Graphical Abstract: The controllable synthesis of novel dumbbell-like BiVO{sub 4} hierarchical nanostructures has been successfully obtained via a simple hydrothermal route; the as-prepared BiVO{sub 4} hierarchical nanostructures demonstrated the superior visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dumbbell-like BiVO{sub 4} structures were synthesized and characterized for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The volume ratios of H{sub 2}O to CH{sub 3}COOH were crucial to the final morphologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their photocatalytic activity was up to 90% under visible-light irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dumbbell-like BiVO{sub 4} structures may utilize the pollutant disposal.

Lu Yang [Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China); Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Luo Yongsong, E-mail: ysluo@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China); Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Kong Dezhi; Zhang Deyang; Jia Yonglei; Zhang Xinwei [Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

234

Single phase formation of Co-implanted ZnO thin films by swift heavy ion irradiation: Optical studies  

SciTech Connect

Low temperature photoluminescence and optical absorption studies on 200 MeV Ag{sup +15} ion irradiated Co-implanted ZnO thin films were studied. The Co clusters present in as implanted samples were observed to be dissolved using 200 MeV Ag{sup +15} ion irradiation with a fluence of 1x10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}. The photoluminescence spectrum of pure ZnO thin film was characterized by the I{sub 4} peak due to the neutral donor bound excitons and the broad green emission. The Co-doped ZnO films show three sharp levels and two shoulders corresponding to 3t{sub 2g} and 2e{sub g} levels of crystal field splitted Co d orbitals, respectively. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy also shows the systematic variation of band gap after 200 MeV Ag{sup +15} ion irradiation.

Kumar, Ravi; Singh, Fouran; Angadi, Basavaraj; Choi, Ji-Won; Choi, Won-Kook; Jeong, Kwangho; Song, Jong-Han; Khan, M. Wasi; Srivastava, J. P.; Kumar, Ajay; Tandon, R. P. [Materials Science Division, Inter-University Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box 10502, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Thin Films Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Shincheon-dong 134, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Delhi University, Delhi 110007 (India)

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Parameterization of Runway Visual Range as a Function of Visibility: Implications for Numerical Weather Prediction Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A parameterization of runway visual range (RVR) has been developed using relevant meteorological parameters such as visibility (Vk), relative humidity (RH), temperature (T), precipitation intensity (PI), and precipitation type (PT) measured in ...

Faisal S. Boudala; George A. Isaac; Robert W. Crawford; Janti Reid

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

A New Visibility Parameterization for Warm-Fog Applications in Numerical Weather Prediction Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to suggest a new warm-fog visibility parameterization scheme for numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. In situ observations collected during the Radiation and Aerosol Cloud Experiment, representing boundary ...

I. Gultepe; M. D. Müller; Z. Boybeyi

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

An Automated, Observations-Based System for Short-Term Prediction of Ceiling and Visibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several methods of generating very short term (0–6 h) probabilistic forecasts of ceiling and visibility are investigated: 1) an observations-based (OBS-based) system in which potential predictors consist of weather observations from a network of ...

Robert L. Vislocky; J. Michael Fritsch

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Infrared and Visible Satellite Rain Estimation. Part I: A Grid Cell Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationships between satellite-viewed cloudy (or partly cloudy) grid cells and the variability of the precipitation contained therein are explored. Using a 32 km grid and 30 min interval visible, infrared and radar data, 5 days of the ...

Andrew J. Negri; Robert F. Adler

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Infrared and Visible Satellite Rain Estimation. Part II: A Cloud Definition Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the relationships between satellite infrared clouds and rainfall, and infrared-threshold visible clouds and rainfall. Clouds are defined by the outline of the 253 K isotherm. Cloud infrared area was highly correlated with rain ...

Andrew J. Negri; Robert F. Adler

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

A Methodology for Measuring Cirrus Cloud Visible-to-Infrared Spectral Optical Depth Ratios  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Knowledge of cirrus cloud optical depths is necessary to understand the earth’s current climate and to model the cloud radiation impact on future climate. Cirrus clouds, depending on the ratio of their shortwave “visible” to longwave “infrared” ...

Daniel H. DeSlover; William L. Smith; Paivi K. Piironen; Edwin W. Eloranta

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Use of Enhanced IR/Visible Satellite Imagery to Determine Heavy Snow Areas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interpretation techniques are established which relate heavy snow (100 mm or more in a 12 h period) areas to real-time infrared and visible geostationary satellite imagery. An initial collection of cases totaled about 75 during the period from ...

Samuel K. Beckman

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Photocatalytic Oxidation of Aqueous Organic Contaminants by Semiconductors using Visible Light Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Continuously mixed Light Source · T5 8 watt florescent bulbs · "Daylight Spectrum" · Color Rendering Index 75Photocatalytic Oxidation of Aqueous Organic Contaminants by Semiconductors using Visible Light

Meyers, Steven D.

243

A Fuzzy Logic–Based Analog Forecasting System for Ceiling and Visibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

WIND-3 is an application for aviation weather forecasting that uses the analog method to produce deterministic predictions of cloud ceiling height and horizontal visibility at airports. For data, it uses historical and current airport ...

Bjarne Hansen

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

An Intercalibration of METEOSAT-1 and GOES-2 Visible and Infrared Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An intercomparison between radiative parameters determined from visible and infrared channels of the METEOSAT-1 and GOES-2 geosynchronous satellites has been carried out using data obtained over the central Atlantic Ocean for 5 November 1978. ...

David R. Brooks; Christopher F. England; Carry E. Hunt; Patrick Minnis

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Creating supply chain visibility : a case study on extending Intel's Unit Level Traceability to customers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In an effort to enable supply chain visibility for Intel products, the Customer Unit Level Traceability (ULT) Program was formed to help extend Intel's ULT capability to the customer level. Increased traceability of Intel ...

Kang, Annie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Development of a Statistical Model for Forecasting Episodes of Visibility Degradation in the Denver Metropolitan Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1990, the State of Colorado implemented a visibility standard of 0.076 km?1 of beta extinction for the Denver metropolitan area. Meteorologists with Colorado's Air Pollution Control Division forecast high pollution days associated with ...

P. J. Reddy; D. E. Barbarick; R. D. Osterburg

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Safety, visibility, and performance in a wide-area file system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As mobile clients travel, their costs to reach home filing services change, with serious performance implications. Current file systems mask these performance problems by reducing the safety of updates, their visibility, or both. This is the result of ...

Minkyong Kim; Landon P. Cox; Brian D. Noble

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

The Identification and Verification of Hazardous Convective Cells over Oceans Using Visible and Infrared Satellite Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three algorithms based on geostationary visible and infrared (IR) observations are used to identify convective cells that do (or may) present a hazard to aviation over the oceans. The performance of these algorithms in detecting potentially ...

Michael F. Donovan; Earle R. Williams; Cathy Kessinger; Gary Blackburn; Paul H. Herzegh; Richard L. Bankert; Steve Miller; Frederick R. Mosher

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Delineation of Precipitation Areas by Correlation of Meteosat Visible and Infrared Data with Radar Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods of optimizing the Lovejoy and Austin technique to delineate areas of precipitation using visible and infrared satellite data are investigated. The technique involves training the satellite data by correlation with real-time radar data. ...

M. Cheng; R. Brown

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

The Role of Visible Data in Improving Satellite Rain-Rate Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data from the first Algorithm Intercomparison Project(AIP/1) collected over Japan and surrounding waters in June, July, and August 1989 are used in this study to assess the importance of visible data in satellite rain estimation techniques. The ...

Patrick W. S. King; William D. Hogg; Philip A. Arkin

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Visible-Light Water-Splitting Performance of TiO - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Visible-Light Water-Splitting Performance of TiO2 ... Ammonia Borane for Chemical Hydrogen Storage: Effect of Nano-Confinement ... Thermodynamic Characterization on Hydrogen Absorption and Desorption Reactions of ...

252

Short-Term Probabilistic Forecasts of Ceiling and Visibility Utilizing High-Density Surface Weather Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automated statistical system that utilizes regional high-density surface observations to forecast low ceiling and visibility events in the upper Midwest is presented. The system is based solely upon surface observations as predictors, ...

Stephen M. Leyton; J. Michael Fritsch

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Temporal and Spatial Visibility Variations in the Illinois Vicinity during 1949–80  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in visibility and the occurrence of smoke or haze during the last three decades are identified for eight locations in and around Illinois. The analyses utilize individual daily data and are performed on both seasonal and annual bases. ...

Peter G. Vinzani; Peter J. Lamb

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Quality Assurance in Atmospheric Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarizes a number of best practices associated with the use of numerical models of the atmosphere and is motivated by the rapid growth in the number of model users, who have a range of scientific and technical preparations. An underlying ...

Thomas T. Warner

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Geomagnetic Effects on Atmospheric Neutrinos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geomagnetic effects distort the zenith angle distribution of sub--GeV and few--GeV atmospheric neutrinos, breaking the up--down symmetry that would be present in the absence of neutrino oscillations and without a geomagnetic field. The geomagnetic effects also produce a characteristic azimuthal dependence of the $\

Paolo Lipari; T. K. Gaisser; Todor Stanev

1998-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

256

Generation kinetics of color centers in irradiated poly(4-methyl-1-pentene)  

SciTech Connect

The transient absorbance of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMP) irradiated with gamma rays at elevated temperatures has been investigated. The absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible range increases with gamma ray dose. A bathochromic shift in transmission spectra emerges significantly upon irradiation. A first-order generation model is proposed to analyze the kinetics of color centers during annealing. The activation energy of the color center increases with increasing gamma ray dose. The equilibrium behavior of color centers in PMP is similar to that of vacancies in metals, and the formation energy of color centers in PMP decreases with increasing gamma ray dose. However, annealable color centers are not observed in this study.

Peng, J. S.; Li, C. L.; Lee, Sanboh [Department of Materials Science and Engineering National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chou, K. F. [Department of Biomechanical Engineering Yuanpei University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

257

Wide-band quantum interface for visible-to-telecommunication wavelength conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform the first demonstration of a quantum interface for frequency down-conversion from visible to telecommunication bands by using a nonlinear crystal. This interface has a potential to work over wide bandwidths, leading to a high-speed interface of frequency conversion. We achieve the conversion of a pico-second visible photon at 780 nm to a 1522-nm photon, and observe that the conversion process retain entanglement between the down-converted photon and another photon.

Rikizo Ikuta; Yoshiaki Kusaka; Tsuyoshi Kitano; Hiroshi Kato; Takashi Yamamoto; Masato Koashi; Nobuyuki Imoto

2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

258

Modeling Analysis of the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Particulate sulfate compounds account for approximately half of the particulate matter (PM) during periods of poor visibility at Big Bend National Park (BBNP). Poor visibility is associated with two distinct meteorological regimes -- one dominated by flow from Mexico during spring and summer months and another characterized by transport from regions northeast of BBNP during fall months. Accordingly, the monitoring component of BRAVO took place from July to October 1999. More than 30 sites were establishe...

2004-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

259

HFIR In-Vessel Irradiation Facilities | ORNL Neutron Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home Facilities HFIR In-Vessel Irradiation In-Vessel Irradiation Experiment Facilities The HFIR provides a variety of in-core irradiation facilities, allowing for a...

260

High-energy atmospheric neutrinos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-energy neutrinos, arising from decays of mesons that were produced through the cosmic rays collisions with air nuclei, form unavoidable background noise in the astrophysical neutrino detection problem. The atmospheric neutrino flux above 1 PeV should be supposedly dominated by the contribution of charmed particle decays. These (prompt) neutrinos originated from decays of massive and shortlived particles, $D^\\pm$, $D^0$, $\\bar{D}{}^0$, $D_s^\\pm$, $\\Lambda^+_c$, form the most uncertain fraction of the high-energy atmospheric neutrino flux because of poor explored processes of the charm production. Besides, an ambiguity in high-energy behavior of pion and especially kaon production cross sections for nucleon-nucleus collisions may affect essentially the calculated neutrino flux. There is the energy region where above flux uncertainties superimpose. A new calculation presented here reveals sizable differences, up to the factor of 1.8 above 1 TeV, in muon neutrino flux predictions obtained with usage of known hadronic models, SIBYLL 2.1 and QGSJET-II. The atmospheric neutrino flux in the energy range $10-10^7$ GeV was computed within the 1D approach to solve nuclear cascade equations in the atmosphere, which takes into account non-scaling behavior of the inclusive cross-sections for the particle production, the rise of total inelastic hadron-nucleus cross-sections and nonpower-law character of the primary cosmic ray spectrum. This approach was recently tested in the atmospheric muon flux calculations [1]. The results of the neutrino flux calculations are compared with the Frejus, AMANDA-II and IceCube measurement data.

S. I. Sinegovsky; A. A. Kochanov; T. S. Sinegovskaya

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Laser irradiation of carbon nanotube films: Effects and heat dissipation probed by Raman spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the thermal properties of thin films formed by single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes submitted to laser irradiation using Raman scattering as a probe of both the tube morphology and the local temperature. The nanotubes were submitted to heating/cooling cycles attaining high laser intensities ({approx}1.4 MW/cm{sup 2}) under vacuum and in the presence of an atmosphere, with and without oxygen. We investigate the heat diffusion of the irradiated nanotubes to their surroundings and the effect of laser annealing on their properties. The presence of oxygen during laser irradiation gives rise to an irreversible increase of the Raman efficiency of the carbon nanotubes and to a remarkable increase of the thermal conductivity of multi-walled films. The second effect can be applied to design thermal conductive channels in devices based on carbon nanotube films using laser beams.

Mialichi, J. R.; Brasil, M. J. S. P.; Iikawa, F. [Instituto de Fisica 'Gleb Wataghin,' Unicamp, Campinas, 13083-859 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Verissimo, C.; Moshkalev, S. A. [Centro de Componentes Semicondutores, Unicamp, Campinas, 13083-870 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2013-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

262

Generation of Turbulence by Atmospheric Gravity Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The standard current criterion for the generation of turbulence by atmospheric gravity waves and for the associated limitation on wave growth is based upon the standard criterion for static instability of the unperturbed atmosphere, namely, that ...

Colin O. Hines

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

AMIP: The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) is an international effort to determine the systematic climate errors of atmospheric models under realistic conditions, and calls for the simulation of the climate of the decade 1979–1988 using ...

W. Lawrence Gates

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Retrieval of atmospheric properties of extrasolar planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new method to retrieve molecular abundances and temperature profiles from exoplanet atmosphere photometry and spectroscopy. Our method allows us to run millions of 1-D atmosphere models in order to cover the ...

Nikku, Madhusudhan, 1980-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Interannual Variation of Global Atmospheric Angular Momentum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative atmospheric angular momentum (RAM) integrated over the globe is an explicit variable representing the state of the atmospheric general circulation. After removing the annual, semiannual, and higher-frequency components, the filtered ...

Tsing-Chang Chen; Joseph J. Tribbia; Ming-Cheng Yen

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Statistics Education in the Atmospheric Sciences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analyses of atmospheric sciences data and models are heavily dependent upon statistical and probabilistic reasoning. Statistical methods have played an important role in establishing physical relationships of atmosphere-ocean-land interactions ...

Timothy J. Brown; L. Mark Berliner; Daniel S. Wilks; Michael B. Richman; Christopher K. Wilke

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Atmospheric Control on the Thermohaline Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an attempt to elucidate the role of atmospheric and oceanic processes in setting a vigorous ocean overturning circulation in the North Atlantic but not in the North Pacific, a comparison of the observed atmospheric circulation and net surface ...

Arnaud Czaja

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

The Promise of GPS in Atmospheric Monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for active measurement of the Earth's atmosphere. Microwave radio signals transmitted by GPS satellites are delayed (refracted) by the atmosphere as they ...

Steven Businger; Steven R. Chiswell; Michael Bevis; Jingping Duan; Richard A. Anthes; Christian Rocken; Randolph H. Ware; Michael Exner; T. VanHove; Fredrick S. Solheim

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Testing and Evaluating Atmospheric Climate Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Model validation is a crucial process that underpins model development and gives confidence to the results from running models. This article discusses a range of techniques for validating atmosphere models given that the atmosphere is chaotic and incompletely ...

Vicky Pope; Terry Davies

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Sulfuryl fluoride in the global atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The first calibrated high-frequency, high-precision, in situ atmospheric and archived air measurements of the fumigant sulfuryl fluoride (SO[subscript 2]F[subscript 2]) have been made as part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric ...

Muhle, J.

271

Dynamical Processes of Equatorial Atmospheric Angular Momentum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamical processes that drive intraseasonal equatorial atmospheric angular momentum (EAAM) fluctuations are examined with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis data. ...

Steven B. Feldstein

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

VALDRIFT—A Valley Atmospheric Dispersion Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

VALDRIFT (valley drift) is a valley atmospheric transport, diffusion, and deposition model. The model is phenomenological—that is, the dominant meteorological processes governing the behavior of the valley atmosphere are formulated explicitly in ...

K. Jerry Allwine; Xindi Bian; C. David Whiteman; Harold W. Thistle

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

A Spontaneously Generated Tropical Atmospheric General Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of idealized atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments are presented. These experiments examine whether and how atmospheric deep moist convection, in the absence of meridional gradients in external forcing, interacts with ...

Ben P. Kirtman; Edwin K. Schneider

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Atmospheric Turbidity in the Polar Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis is presented of 800 measurements of atmospheric monochromatic aerosol optical depth made poleward of 65° latitude. The atmosphere of the southern polar region appears to be uncontaminated but is charged with a background aerosol having ...

Glenn E. Shaw

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Advanced Atmospheric Modeling for Emergency Response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric transport and diffusion models are an important part of emergency response systems for industrial facilities that have the potential to release significant quantities of toxic or radioactive material into the atmosphere. An advanced ...

Jerome D. Fast; B. Lance O'steen; Robert P. Addis

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Complex Magnetic Evolution and Magnetic Helicity in the Solar Atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar atmosphere is a single system unified by the presence of large-scale magnetic fields. Topological changes in magnetic fields that occur in one place may have consequences for coronal heating and eruptions for other, even remote locations. Coronal magnetic fields also play role in transport of magnetic helicity from Sun's subphotosphere/upper convection zone to the interplanetary space. We discuss observational evidence pertinent to some aspects of the solar corona being a global interconnected system, i.e., large-scale coronal heating due to new flux emergence, eruption of chromospheric filament resulting from changes in magnetic topology triggered by new flux emergence, sunspots rotation as manifestation of transport of helicity through the photosphere, and potential consequences of re-distribution of energy from solar luminosity to the dynamo for solar cycle variations of solar irradiance.

Pevtsov, Alexei A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical  

SciTech Connect

A method for the quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical comprising: (a) contacting a liquid phase atmospheric sample with a chemiluminescent compound which luminesces on contact with hydroperoxyl radical; (b) determining luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample; and (c) comparing said luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample to a standard luminescence intensity for hydroperoxyl radical. An apparatus for automating the method is also included.

Springston, Stephen R. (Upton, NY); Lloyd, Judith (Westbury, NY); Zheng, Jun (Stony Brook, NY)

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

278

INHIBITION OF METHANE ATMOSPHERIC FLAMES BY ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... atmospheric pressure was studied. The burner temperature was maintained at 65 “C by using a thermostat. The volumetric velocity ...

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

279

North Carolina Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

North Carolina Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

280

Studying defects created by irradiating molybdenum crystals ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by irradiating molybdenum crystals July 16, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint In order to study irradiation damage and inert gas bubble formation and growth behaviors, and to provide results...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Statistical criteria for characterizing irradiance time series.  

SciTech Connect

We propose and examine several statistical criteria for characterizing time series of solar irradiance. Time series of irradiance are used in analyses that seek to quantify the performance of photovoltaic (PV) power systems over time. Time series of irradiance are either measured or are simulated using models. Simulations of irradiance are often calibrated to or generated from statistics for observed irradiance and simulations are validated by comparing the simulation output to the observed irradiance. Criteria used in this comparison should derive from the context of the analyses in which the simulated irradiance is to be used. We examine three statistics that characterize time series and their use as criteria for comparing time series. We demonstrate these statistics using observed irradiance data recorded in August 2007 in Las Vegas, Nevada, and in June 2009 in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Detecting atmospheric rivers in large climate datasets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extreme precipitation events on the western coast of North America are often traced to an unusual weather phenomenon known as atmospheric rivers. Although these storms may provide a significant fraction of the total water to the highly managed western ... Keywords: atmospheric rivers, automatic detection of atmospheric rivers, connected component labeling, extreme climate events

Surendra Byna; Prabhat; Michael F. Wehner; Kesheng John Wu

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Irradiation Performance of Advanced and Model Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 14, 2012 ... Mechanical Performance of Materials for Current and Advanced Nuclear Reactors: Irradiation Performance of Advanced and Model Alloys

284

Electron-Beam Irradiation of Solar Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electron-Beam Irradiation of Solar Cells. Summary: The Dosimetry Group operates a system capable of performing electron ...

2013-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

285

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

286

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Wednesday, 29 June 2005 00:00 Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

287

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while changing organic composition by 13 to 24% per day, an oxidation rate significantly slower than is currently used in atmospheric models. Since oxidation has a strong effect on particle lifetime in the atmosphere, these results will help climate scientists refine the computer models used to predict climate change.

288

Acoustic Waves in the Turbulent Atmosphere: A Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The subject of atmospheric acoustics and its role in atmospheric research and in development of modern methods of ground-based remote sensing of the atmosphere are outlined. A historical overview of investigations of the effect of atmospheric ...

M. A. Kallistratova

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

OSTI Increases Visibility of DOE Science via WorldCat | OSTI, US Dept of  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Increases Visibility of DOE Science via WorldCat Increases Visibility of DOE Science via WorldCat NEWS MEDIA CONTACT: Cathey Daniels, (865) 576-9539 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE May 16, 2006 OSTI Increases Visibility of DOE Science via WorldCat Oak Ridge, TN - Librarians from around the world have a new avenue of access to research results from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). More than 120,000 records for DOE scientific and technical information are now available in WorldCat, a database merging catalogues of more than 50,000 libraries in 96 countries and territories. "The library community will have access to DOE report literature as never before," said Dr. Walter Warnick, director of the DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI). "This is one more way that OSTI makes R&D

290

Oblique Aerial & Ground Visible Band & Thermographic Imaging | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oblique Aerial & Ground Visible Band & Thermographic Imaging Oblique Aerial & Ground Visible Band & Thermographic Imaging Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Oblique Aerial & Ground Visible Band & Thermographic Imaging Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Remote Sensing Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Passive Sensors Parent Exploration Technique: Passive Sensors Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Cost Information Low-End Estimate (USD): 400.0040,000 centUSD 0.4 kUSD 4.0e-4 MUSD 4.0e-7 TUSD / Subject Median Estimate (USD): 450.0045,000 centUSD 0.45 kUSD 4.5e-4 MUSD 4.5e-7 TUSD / Subject High-End Estimate (USD): 6,000.00600,000 centUSD

291

GTL-1 Irradiation Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of the Gas Test Loop (GTL-1) miniplate experiment is to confirm acceptable performance of high-density (i.e., 4.8 g-U/cm3) U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel plates clad in Al-6061 and irradiated under the relatively aggressive Booster Fast Flux Loop (BFFL) booster fuel conditions, namely a peak plate surface heat flux of 450 W/cm2. As secondary objectives, several design and fabrication variations were included in the test matrix that may have the potential to improve the high-heat flux, high-temperature performance of the base fuel plate design.1, 2 The following report summarizes the life of the GTL-1 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis, thermal analysis and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

RERTR-13 Irradiation Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-13 was designed to assess performance of different types of neutron absorbers that can be potentially used as burnable poisons in the low enriched uranium-molybdenum based dispersion and monolithic fuels.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-13 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

FFTF utilization for irradiation testing  

SciTech Connect

FFTF utilization for irradiation testing is beginning. Two Fuels Open Test Assemblies and one Vibration Open Test Assembly, both containing in-core contact instrumentation, are installed in the reactor. These assemblies will be used to confirm plant design performance predictions. Some 100 additional experiments are currently planned to follow these three. This will result in an average core loading of about 50 test assemblies throughout the early FFTF operating cycles.

Corrigan, D.C.; Julyk, L.J.; Hoth, C.W.; McGuire, J.C.; Sloan, W.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Irradiation test program for FFTF  

SciTech Connect

Four unique deisgn features are described which make the Fast Flux Test Facility eminently suitable for irradiation test programs. These features are a fast flux level of 7 x 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//sec, a 36-inch reference (breeder reactor) core height, test volumes suitable for testing of statistical quantities of materials, and the capability for direct (contact) or indirect (proximity) instrumentation of active core experiments.

Corrigan, D.C.; Last, G.A.

1978-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

295

The Next Generation Nuclear Plant/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006, and the second experiment (AGR-2) is currently in the design phase. The design of test trains, as well as the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation will be discussed. In addition, the purpose and differences between the two experiments will be compared and the irradiation results to date on the first experiment will be presented.

S. Blaine Grover

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Regional Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Via Atmospheric Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inversions of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements to determine CO2 sources and sinks are typically limited to coarse spatial and temporal resolution. This limits our ability to evaluate efforts to upscale chamber- and stand-level CO2 flux measurements to regional scales, where coherent climate and ecosystem mechanisms govern the carbon cycle. As a step towards the goal of implementing atmospheric budget or inversion methodology on a regional scale, a network of five relatively inexpensive CO2 mixing ratio measurement systems was deployed on towers in northern Wisconsin. Four systems were distributed on a circle of roughly 150-km radius, surrounding one centrally located system at the WLEF tower near Park Falls, WI. All measurements were taken at a height of 76 m AGL. The systems used single-cell infrared CO2 analyzers (Licor, model LI-820) rather than the siginificantly more costly two-cell models, and were calibrated every two hours using four samples known to within ± 0.2 ppm CO2. Tests prior to deployment in which the systems sampled the same air indicate the precision of the systems to be better than ± 0.3 ppm and the accuracy, based on the difference between the daily mean of one system and a co-located NOAA-ESRL system, is consistently better than ± 0.3 ppm. We demonstrate the utility of the network in two ways. We interpret regional CO2 differences using a Lagrangian parcel approach. The difference in the CO2 mixing ratios across the network is at least 2?3 ppm, which is large compared to the accuracy and precision of the systems. Fluxes estimated assuming Lagrangian parcel transport are of the same sign and magnitude as eddy-covariance flux measurements at the centrally-located WLEF tower. These results indicate that the network will be useful in a full inversion model. Second, we present a case study involving a frontal passage through the region. The progression of a front across the network is evident; changes as large as four ppm in one minute are captured. Influence functions, derived using a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion model driven by the CSU Regional Atmospheric Modeling System and nudged to NCEP reanalysis meteorological fields, are used to determine source regions for the towers. The influence functions are combined with satellite vegetation observations to interpret the observed trends in CO2 concentration. Full inversions will combine these elements in a more formal analytic framework.

Davis, K.J.; Richardson, S.J.; Miles, N.L.

2007-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

297

High-energy atmospheric neutrinos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-energy neutrinos, arising from decays of mesons that were produced through the cosmic rays collisions with air nuclei, form unavoidable background noise in the astrophysical neutrino detection problem. The atmospheric neutrino flux above 1 PeV should be supposedly dominated by the contribution of charmed particle decays. These (prompt) neutrinos originated from decays of massive and shortlived particles, $D^\\pm$, $D^0$, $\\bar{D}{}^0$, $D_s^\\pm$, $\\Lambda^+_c$, form the most uncertain fraction of the high-energy atmospheric neutrino flux because of poor explored processes of the charm production. Besides, an ambiguity in high-energy behavior of pion and especially kaon production cross sections for nucleon-nucleus collisions may affect essentially the calculated neutrino flux. There is the energy region where above flux uncertainties superimpose. A new calculation presented here reveals sizable differences, up to the factor of 1.8 above 1 TeV, in muon neutrino flux predictions obtained with usage of known...

Sinegovsky, S I; Sinegovskaya, T S

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

High Resolution Irradiance Spectrum from 300 to 1000 nm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The FTS scans that made up the Kitt Peak Solar Flux Atlas by Kurucz, Furenlid, Brault, and Testerman (1984) have been re-reduced. An approximate telluric atmospheric model was determined for each FTS scan. Large-scale features produced by O3 and O2 dimer were computed and divided out. The solar continuum level was found by fitting a smooth curve to high points in each scan. The scans were normalized to the fitted continuum to produce a residual flux spectrum for each FTS scan. The telluric line spectrum was computed using HITRAN and other line data for H2O, O2, and CO2. The line parameters were adjusted for an approximate match to the observed spectra. The scans were divided by the computed telluric spectra to produce residual irradiance spectra. Artifacts from wavelength mismatches, deep lines, etc, were removed by hand and replaced by linear interpolation. Overlapping scans were fitted together to make a continuous spectrum from 300 to 1000 nm. All the above steps were iterative. The monochromatic error varies from 0.1 to 1.0 percent. The residual spectrum was calibrated two different ways: First by normalizing it to the continuum of theoretical solar model ASUN (Kurucz 1992), and second, by degrading the spectrum to the resolution of the observed irradiance (Thuillier et al. 2004) to determine a normalization function that was then applied to the high resolution spectrum.

Robert L. Kurucz

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To illustrate the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux, we briefly explain our calculation scheme and important components, such as primary cosmic ray spectra, interaction model, and geomagnetic model. Then, we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site in our calculation scheme. We compare the calculated atmospheric neutrino fluxes predicted at INO with those at other major neutrino detector sites, especially that at SK site.

Honda, Morihiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

300

FUSION OF VISIBLE AND INFRARED IMAGES USING EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION TO IMPROVE FACE RECOGNITION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FUSION OF VISIBLE AND INFRARED IMAGES USING EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION TO IMPROVE FACE of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN-37996 ABSTRACT In this effort, we propose a new image fusion technique, utilizing). In this method, we decompose images from different imaging modalities into their IMFs. Fusion is performed

Koschan, Andreas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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301

The Operational Calibration of Images Taken in the Visible Channel of the Meteosat Series of Satellites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method and its implementation are presented for the automatic calibration of the images taken in the visible channel of the Meteosat series of satellites. The method performs on a daily basis and is based on a statistical analysis of two images:...

Christelle Rigollier; Mireille Lefčvre; Philippe Blanc; Lucien Wald

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Sample based visibility for soft shadows using alias-free shadow maps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces an accurate real-time soft shadow algorithm that uses sample based visibility. Initially, we present a GPU-based alias-free hard shadow map algorithm that typically requires only a single render pass from the light, in contrast ...

Erik Sintorn; Elmar Eisemann; Ulf Assarsson

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Liquid Water Content of Fogs and Hazes from Visible Light Scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method is proposed for measuring the liquid water content of fogs and hazes. It consists of a planar circular light sensor placed perpendicular to and coaxial with a narrow collimated light beam of a visible wavelength. The direct light ...

H. Gerber

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Wavelet-based image watermarking with visibility range estimation based on HVS and neural networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work proposes a wavelet-based image watermarking (WIW) technique, based on the human visible system (HVS) model and neural networks, for image copyright protection. A characteristic of the HVS, which is called the just noticeable difference (JND) ... Keywords: Human visual system, Image watermarking, Just noticeable difference, Neural networks, Wavelet transformation

Hung-Hsu Tsai; Chi-Chih Liu

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Wind Tunnel Experiment for Predicting a Visible Plume Region from a Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Tower  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current paper introduces a wind tunnel experiment to study the effect of the cooling tower of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on the flow and the characteristics of visible plume regions. The relevant characteristics of the flow field near the ...

Guo Dong-peng; Yao Ren-tai; Fan Dan

306

PICOntrol: using a handheld projector for direct control of physical devices through visible light  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Today's environments are populated with a growing number of electric devices which come in diverse form factors and provide a plethora of functions. However, rich interaction with these devices can become challenging if they need be controlled from a ... Keywords: handheld projector, physical devices, visible light communication

Dominik Schmidt; David Molyneaux; Xiang Cao

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

A visibility algorithm for converting 3D meshes into editable 2D vector graphics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Artists often need to import and embellish 3D models coming from CAD-CAM into 2D vector graphics software to produce, e.g., brochures or manuals. Current automatic solutions tend to result, at best, in a 2D triangle soup and artists often have to trace ... Keywords: NPR, geometry processing, vector graphics, visibility

Elmar Eisemann; Sylvain Paris; Frédo Durand

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Earth and Atmospheric Sciences | More Science | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nuclear Forensics Climate & Environment Sensors and Measurements Chemical & Engineering Materials Computational Earth Science Systems Modeling Geographic Information Science and Technology Materials Science and Engineering Mathematics Physics More Science Home | Science & Discovery | More Science | Earth and Atmospheric Sciences SHARE Earth and Atmospheric Sciences At ORNL, we combine our capabilities in atmospheric science, computational science, and biological and environmental systems science to focus in the cross-disciplinary field of climate change science. We use computer models to improve climate change predications and to measure the impact of global warming on the cycling of chemicals in earth systems. Our Climate Change Science Institute uses models to explore connections among atmosphere,

309

Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a non-technical review of the problems associated with atmospheric carbon dioxide and the resulting greenhouse effect. (TEM)

Firestine, M.W. (ed.)

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Atmospheric  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Processing Platform Capabilities Atmospheric Processing Platform Capabilities The Atmospheric Processing platform in the Process Development and Integration Laboratory offers powerful capabilities with integrated tools for depositing, processing, and characterizing photovoltaic materials and devices. In particular, this platform focuses on different methods to deposit ("write") materials onto a variety of substrates and then further process into optoelectronic materials using rapid thermal processing. You can read more on the rationale for developing this platform and its capabilities. Contact Maikel van Hest for more details on these capabilities. The Atmospheric Processing platform will allow deposition in any sequence and is applicable to activities in all Technology Roadmaps, which include

311

Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

small-scale features in ocean winds. Science, 303, Chelton,of the regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model RCAO. Borealstress dependence on ocean surface velocity: implications

Seo, Hyodae

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

small-scale features in ocean winds. Science, 303, Chelton,of the regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model RCAO. Borealstress dependence on ocean surface velocity: implications

Seo, Hyodae

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

FOAM:The Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Models Performance User Resources Publications History Developer's Page FOAM The Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model cup2.jpeg (48474 bytes) Image made by Johan Kellum with Vis5D...

314

12.815 Atmospheric Radiation, Fall 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction to the physics of atmospheric radiation and remote sensing including use of computer codes. Radiative transfer equation including emission and scattering, spectroscopy, Mie theory, and numerical solutions. ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

315

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Convective and Orographically...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Induced Precipitation Study The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is providing the ARM Mobile Facility...

316

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2010 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of...

317

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1-June 30, 2011 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work...

318

Jefferson Lab Science Series - Investigating Earth's Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Byron Meadows - NASALangley Research Center May 14, 1991 Demonstrations of weather forecasting tools and techniques for experiments in the atmosphere and of lasers used to...

319

Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity Former ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Former Corporation/Refiner Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (bbl/cd)a New Corporation/Refiner Date of Sale Table 14. Refinery Sales During 2005

320

Definition: Direct normal irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

normal irradiance normal irradiance (Redirected from Definition:DNI) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Direct normal irradiance the amount of solar radiation received per unit area by a surface perpendicular (normal) to the rays that come in a straight line from the direction of the sun at its current position in the sky.[1] Also Known As DNI Related Terms Solar radiation, Irradiance, Concentrating solar power, Global horizontal irradiance References ↑ http://www.3tier.com/en/support/glossary/#dni Retrie LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. ved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Direct_normal_irradiance&oldid=423379" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Sandia National Laboratories: Research: Facilities: Gamma Irradiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma Irradiation Facility Gamma Irradiation Facility Photo of Gamma Irradiation Facility The Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) provides high-fidelity simulation of nuclear radiation environments for materials and component testing. The low-dose irradiation facility also offers an environment for long-duration testing of materials and electronic components. Such testing may take place over a number of months or even years. Research and other activities The single-structure GIF can house a wide variety of gamma irradiation experiments with various test configurations and at different dose and dose rate levels. Radiation fields at the GIF are produced by high-intensity gamma-ray sources. To induce ionizing radiation effects and damage in test objects, the objects are subjected to high-energy photons from gamma-source

322

Method to Calculate Uncertainty Estimate of Measuring Shortwave Solar Irradiance using Thermopile and Semiconductor Solar Radiometers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The uncertainty of measuring solar irradiance is fundamentally important for solar energy and atmospheric science applications. Without an uncertainty statement, the quality of a result, model, or testing method cannot be quantified, the chain of traceability is broken, and confidence cannot be maintained in the measurement. Measurement results are incomplete and meaningless without a statement of the estimated uncertainty with traceability to the International System of Units (SI) or to another internationally recognized standard. This report explains how to use International Guidelines of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) to calculate such uncertainty. The report also shows that without appropriate corrections to solar measuring instruments (solar radiometers), the uncertainty of measuring shortwave solar irradiance can exceed 4% using present state-of-the-art pyranometers and 2.7% using present state-of-the-art pyrheliometers. Finally, the report demonstrates that by applying the appropriate corrections, uncertainties may be reduced by at least 50%. The uncertainties, with or without the appropriate corrections might not be compatible with the needs of solar energy and atmospheric science applications; yet, this report may shed some light on the sources of uncertainties and the means to reduce overall uncertainty in measuring solar irradiance.

Reda, I.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Internal Versus SST-Forced Atmospheric Variability as Simulated by an Atmospheric General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The variability of atmospheric flow is analyzed by separating it into an internal part due to atmospheric dynamics only and an external (or forced) part due to the variability of sea surface temperature forcing. The two modes of variability are ...

Ali Harzallah; Robert Sadourny

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Transient Response of a Global Ocean-Atmosphere Model to a Doubling of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transient response of climate to an instantaneous increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has been investigated by a general circulation model of the coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system with global geography and annual ...

Syukuro Manabe; Kirk Bryan; Michael J. Spelman

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Measurements of Atmospheric Methane and 13C/12C of Atmospheric...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methane and 13C12C, Flask Air Samples Measurements of Atmospheric Methane and 13C12C of Atmospheric Methane from Flask Air Samples (1999) data Data Investigators Paul Quay and...

326

Response of the Middle Atmosphere to CO2 Doubling: Results from the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM) has been used to examine the middle atmosphere response to CO2 doubling. The radiative-photochemical response induced by doubling CO2 alone and the response produced by changes in prescribed SSTs are ...

V. I. Fomichev; A. I. Jonsson; J. de Grandpré; S. R. Beagley; C. McLandress; K. Semeniuk; T. G. Shepherd

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Characterization of Fast Reactor Irradiated Stainless Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the overall effort to understand the role of different material and environmental variables on irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in light water reactor (LWR) components, the Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR-II) Program has conducted irradiation experiments in the BOR-60 fast reactor near Dimitrovgrad, Russia. This project was a continuation of research on characterization of microstructure and microchemistry of stainless steel heats irradiated in the BOR-60 fast reactor, do...

2008-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

328

A New Solar Irradiance Reference Spectrum  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A New Solar Irradiance Reference Spectrum Pilewskie, Peter University of Colorado Fontenla, Juan LASP University of Colorado Harder, Jerry LASP University of Colorado Category:...

329

Estimating solar irradiance using a geostationary satellite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RAM 3.1.2 Compute clearness index 3.1.2 Compute global horizontal irradiance complete Performed to reduce duplicate steps when an analysis

Urquhart, Bryan Glenn

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Definition: Direct normal irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Direct normal irradiance the amount of solar radiation received per unit area by a surface perpendicular (normal) to the rays...

331

ABSTRACT: Electron Irradiation Induced Transformation of ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 27, 2007 ... Crystallochemical changes of (Pb5Ca5)(VO4)6F2 apatite under electron irradiation were examined by transmission electron microscopy.

332

Computational Modeling of Defect Evolution under Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 14, 2012 ... Radiation Effects in Ceramic Oxide and Novel LWR Fuels: Computational Modeling of Defect Evolution under Irradiation Sponsored by: The ...

333

Irradiation Performance - Nuclear Engineering Division (Argonne...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of irradiated fuel, cladding and fueled-cladding were conducted in the Alpha-Gamma Hot Cell Facility (AGHCF), while mechanical properties of defueled cladding and structural...

334

NIST Lunar spectral irradiance and radiance (LUSI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... However, a spectrally resolved model that allows trending at the 0.1 % level ... of the lunar irradiance and radiance at reflected solar wavelengths. ...

2013-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

335

Microstructural Characterization of Test Reactor Irradiated RPV ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Microstructural Characterization of Test Reactor Irradiated RPV ... Evolution in High Purity Reference V-4Cr-4Ti Alloy for Fusion Reactor.

336

Correlation between Irradiation Hardening and Microstructural ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Correlation between Irradiation Hardening and Microstructural Evolution in High Purity Reference V-4Cr-4Ti Alloy for Fusion Reactor.

337

Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious Disease Transmission Speaker(s): Peng Xu Date: February 19, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 The transmission of...

338

Shortwave, Clear-sky Diffuse Irradiance in the 350 to 1050 nm Range: Comparison of Models with RSS Measurements at the Southern Great Plains ARM Site in September/October 2001  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shortwave, Clear-Sky Diffuse Irradiance in the Shortwave, Clear-Sky Diffuse Irradiance in the 350 to 1050 nm Range: Comparison of Models with RSS Measurements at the Southern Great Plains ARM Site in September/October 2001 J. J. Michalsky, P. W. Kiedron, Q.-L. Min, and L. C. Harrison Atmospheric Sciences Research Center State University of New York Albany, New York J. J. Michalsky Surface Radiation Research Branch Air Resources Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado Abstract A rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) operating in the spectral range between 350 to 1050 nm obtained measurements of direct and diffuse components of spectral irradiance during the first diffuse irradiance IOP in the autumn of 2001. Independent measurements of the primary inputs to spectral

339

Improving the Ni I atomic model for solar and stellar atmospheric models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neutral nickel (Ni I) is abundant in the solar atmosphere and is one of the important elements that contribute to the emission and absorption of radiation in the spectral range between 1900 and 3900 A. Previously, the Solar Radiation Physical Modeling (SRPM) models of the solar atmosphere considered only few levels of this species. Here we improve the Ni I atomic model by taking into account 61 levels and 490 spectral lines. We compute the populations of these levels in full NLTE using the SRPM code and compare the resulting emerging spectrum with observations. The present atomic model improves significantly the calculation of the solar spectral irradiance at near-UV wavelengths that are important for Earth atmo spheric studies, and particularly for ozone chemistry.

Vieytes, Mariela C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Impact of Aerosols on Atmospheric Attenuation Loss in Central Receiver Systems: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric attenuation loss between the heliostat field and receiver has been recognized as a significant source of loss in Central Receiver Systems. In clear sky situations, extinction of Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) is primarily by aerosols in the atmosphere. When aerosol loading is high close to the surface the attenuation loss between heliostat and receivers is significantly influenced by the amount of aerosols present on a particular day. This study relates measured DNI to aerosol optical depths close to the surface of the earth. The model developed in the paper uses only measured DNI to estimate the attenuation between heliostat and receiver in a central receiver system. The requirement that only a DNI measurement is available potentially makes the model a candidate for widespread use.

Sengupta, M.; Wagner, M. J.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Visible structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All architecture is the interplay between structure, surface and ornament. Traditionally, ornament adorned structure thereby giving it its meaning. A society with its intellectual foundations resting in faith or the abstract ...

Conway, Helene Marie

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

High C/O Ratio and Weak Thermal Inversion in the Very Hot Atmosphere of Exoplanet WASP-12b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in a planet provides critical information about its primordial origins and subsequent evolution. A primordial C/O greater than 0.8 causes a carbide-dominated interior as opposed to a silicate-dominated composition as found on Earth, and the atmospheres can also differ from those in the Solar System. The solar C/O is 0.54. Here we report an analysis of dayside multi-wavelength photometry of the transiting hot-Jupiter WASP-12b that reveals C/O >= 1 in its atmosphere. The atmosphere is abundant in CO. It is depleted in water vapor and enhanced in methane by over two orders of magnitude each compared to a solar-abundance chemical-equilibrium model at the expected temperatures. We also find that the extremely irradiated atmosphere (T > 2,500 K) of WASP-12b lacks a prominent thermal inversion, or a stratosphere, and has very efficient day- night energy circulation. The absence of a strong thermal inversion is in stark contrast to theoretical predictions for the most highly irradiate...

Madhusudhan, Nikku; Stevenson, Kevin B; Nymeyer, Sarah; Campo, Christopher J; Wheatley, Peter J; Deming, Drake; Blecic, Jasmina; Hardy, Ryan A; Lust, Nate B; Anderson, David R; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Britt, Christopher B T; Bowman, William C; Hebb, Leslie; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre F L; Pollacco, Don; West, Richard G

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Human effects on the global atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

This review considers whether human activities can significantly change important functions of the global atmosphere by altering the amount or distribution of certain trace species. It deals with three specific topics: stratopheric ozone, the role of species other than carbon dioxide on the greenhouse effect, and certain recently recognized atmospheric consequences of a large scale nuclear war. 64 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

Johnston, H.S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Overwater Atmospheric Diffusion: Measurements and Parameterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of ten atmospheric tracer experiments provided 62 hours of overwater atmospheric dispersion data. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was released as the tracer gas at a height of 13 m from a ship positioned about 7 km off the central California ...

Walter F. Dabberdt

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Measurements of Atmospheric Nanoparticles (1875–1980)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmosphere contains a large variety of particles, ranging in size from near molecular (~1 nm) to larger than 10,000 nm. The total number concentration N of particles is dominated by nanoparticles ? 100 nm in diameter. Discovery of atmospheric ...

Volker Mohnen; George M. Hidy

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Earth's early atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Ideas about atmospheric composition and climate on the early Earth have evolved considerably over the last 30 years, but many uncertainties still remain. It is generally agreed that the atmosphere contained little or no free oxygen initially and that oxygen concentrations increased markely near 2.0 billion years ago, but the precise timing of and reasons for its rise remain unexplained. Likewise, it is usually conceded that the atmospheric greenhouse effect must have been higher in the past to offset reduced solar luminosity, but the levels of atmospheric carbon cioxide and other greenhouse gases required remain speculative. A better understanding of past atmospheric evolution is important to understanding the evolution of life and to predicting whether Earth-like planets might exist elsewhere in the galaxy.

Kasting, J.F. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

1993-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

347

THE ROLE OF DRAG IN THE ENERGETICS OF STRONGLY FORCED EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES  

SciTech Connect

In contrast to the Earth, where frictional heating is typically negligible, we show that drag mechanisms could act as an important heat source in the strongly forced atmospheres of some exoplanets, with the potential to alter the circulation. We modify the standard formalism of the atmospheric energy cycle to explicitly track the loss of kinetic energy and the associated frictional (re)heating, for application to exoplanets such as the asymmetrically heated 'hot Jupiters' and gas giants on highly eccentric orbits. We establish that an understanding of the dominant drag mechanisms and their dependence on local atmospheric conditions is critical for accurate modeling, not just in their ability to limit wind speeds, but also because they could possibly change the energetics of the circulation enough to alter the nature of the flow. We discuss possible sources of drag and estimate the strength necessary to significantly influence the atmospheric energetics. As we show, the frictional heating depends on the magnitude of kinetic energy dissipation as well as its spatial variation, so that the more localized a drag mechanism is, the weaker it can be and still affect the circulation. We also use the derived formalism to estimate the rate of numerical loss of kinetic energy in a few previously published hot Jupiter models with and without magnetic drag and find it to be surprisingly large, at 5%-10% of the incident stellar irradiation.

Rauscher, Emily [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th St., New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

348

Post-Deposition Induced Conductivity in Pulsed Laser Irradiated Metal Doped Zinc Oxide Films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The optical and electrical properties of doped solution-deposited and rf sputter-deposited thin metal oxide films were investigated following post deposition pulsed laser irradiation. Solution deposited films were annealed at 450 şC. Following the heating regiment, the transparent metal oxide films were subjected to 355 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation (4 nsec pulsewidth) at fluences between 5 and 150 mJ/cm2. Irradiation times at pulse frequencies of 30 Hz ranged from seconds to tens of minutes. Film densification, index change and a marked increase in conductivity were observed following irradiation in air and under vacuum of Al:ZnO (AZO), Ga:ZnO (GZO), and In:ZnO (IZO) films deposited on silica substrates. Despite the measured increase in conductivity, all films continued to show high transparency on the order of 90% at wavelengths from the band edge well into the near infrared region of the spectrum. Laser energies required for turning on the conductivity of these films varied depending upon the dopant. Irradiations in air yielded resistivity measurements on the order of 16 ?.cm. Resistivities of films irradiated under vacuum were on the order of 0.1 ?.cm. The increase in conductivity can be attributed to the formation of oxygen vacancies and subsequent promotion of free carriers into the conduction band. All irradiated films become insulating after around 24 hours. Oxygen atoms in air become reduced by electrons in the metal conduction band and diffuse into the vacancies in the lattice. The rate of this reduction process depends on the type of dopant. This work also sheds light on the damage threshold, correlating the optical properties with the presence of free carriers that have been introduced into the conduction band. All films were characterized by means of UV-VIS-NIR transmission spectroscopy, visible and UV Raman spectroscopy and Hall measurements. Analysis of interference fringes in measured transmission spectra allowed film density and refractive index to be evaluated while the Raman measurements showed an increase in LO mode intensity with respect to the TO mode intensity as the films became more conducting. Results of this study are not only important for the continued development of transparent conducting oxide films that find use in photovoltaic cells and solid state lighting modules, but also provide evidence for the role of free carriers in initiating the laser damage process in these wide bandgap metal oxide films.

Wang, Lisa J.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

2009-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

349

Irradiation-induced phenomena in carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1.4.6 Irradiation-induced defects in multi-walled nanotubes and nanotube bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1.5.2 Irradiation-induced links between single-walled carbon nan- otubes in bundles tubes, as the gap in the latter is quite small, around 1 eV. It should be pointed out that applications

Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

350

Design and Status of the NGNP Fuel Experiment AGR-3/4 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and was completed in November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2) started irradiation in June 2010 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2013. The third and fourth experiments have been combined into a single experiment designated AGR-3/4, which started its irradiation in December 2011 and is currently scheduled to be completed in November 2013. Since the purpose of this experiment is to provide data on fission product migration and retention in the NGNP reactor, the design of this experiment is significantly different from the first two experiments, though the control and monitoring systems are very similar. The purpose and design of this experiment will be discussed followed by its progress and status to date.

Blaine Grover

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite Creep Experiments for Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six gas reactor graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These graphite irradiations are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain seven separate stacks of graphite specimens. Six of the specimen stacks will have half of their graphite specimens under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six stacks will be organized into pairs with a different compressive load being applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks. The seventh stack will not have a compressive load on the graphite specimens during irradiation. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be the capability of sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during initial start-up of the experiment. The final design phase for the first experiment was completed in September 2008, and the fabrication and assembly of the experiment test train as well as installation and testing of the control and support systems that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation are being completed in early calendar 2009. The first experiment is scheduled to be ready for insertion in the ATR by April 30, 2009. This paper will discuss the design of the experiment including the test train and the temperature and compressive load monitoring, control, and data collection systems.

S. Blaine Grover

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Growth and depth dependence of visible luminescence in wurtzite InN epilayers  

SciTech Connect

We present detailed investigation of growth and depth dependence of visible ({approx}1.9 eV) photoluminescence (PL) in wurtzite InN epilayers grown by magnetron sputtering. For normal surface incidence, PL peak was found to redshift with increasing growth temperatures. Cross-sectional PL measurements were able to separate contributions from the InN epilayers and sapphire substrates, which not only demonstrated the visible luminescence in InN but also revealed the blueshift of the PL peak with laser spot focusing from epilayer surface toward the interface. The results have been well explained by the growth mechanism and residual strain along growth direction of InN epilayers.

Pu, X.D.; Shen, W.Z.; Zhang, Z.Q.; Ogawa, H.; Guo, Q.X. [Laboratory of Condensed Matter Spectroscopy and Opto-Electronic Physics, Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

2006-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

353

Tunable Transmittance of Near-infrared and Visible Light in Reconstructed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tunable Transmittance of Near-infrared and Visible Light in Reconstructed Tunable Transmittance of Near-infrared and Visible Light in Reconstructed Nanocrystal-in-Glass Composite Films Thursday, October 31, 2013 The bonding arrangement in amorphous materials plays a dominant role in determining their electrochemical, optical and transport properties. However, it remains a challenge to manipulate amorphous structures in a controlled manner. Recently, scientists at the Molecular Foundry at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed synthetic protocols for incorporating well-defined nanocrystals into amorphous materials [1,2]. This "nanocrystal-in-glass" approach not only allows combining two functional components in one material, but it could also provide a handle, by virtue of the interfacial covalent bond, for manipulating the glass

354

Cloud Properties Derived from Visible and Near-infrared Reflectance in the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cloud Properties Derived from Visible and Near-infrared Reflectance in the Cloud Properties Derived from Visible and Near-infrared Reflectance in the Presence of Aerosols Hofmann, Odele University of Colorado at Boulder Pilewskie, Peter University of Colorado Gore, Warren NASA Ames Research Center Russell, Phil NASA Ames Research Center Livingston, John SRI International Redemann, Jens BAERI/NASA Ames Research Center Bergstrom, Robert Bay Area Environmental Research Institute Platnick, Steven NASA-GSFC Daniel, John NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory Category: Cloud Properties The New England Air Quality Study - Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (NEAQS-ITCT) experiment conducted in July-August 2004 included objectives on the effects of urban-industrial pollution aerosols on cloud radiative properties, the so-called indirect effect. Measurements

355

Bayesian estimation of Zeff in the TEXTOR tokamak from visible bremsstrahlung and CXRS measurements  

SciTech Connect

The determination of Zeff in a fusion plasma is associated with many difficulties. Several diagnostic methods exist for this purpose, each with its specific weaknesses. Here we consider the derivation of Zeff from bremsstrahlung measurements in the visible and from a weighted summation of individual impurity densities, calculated from CXRS intensities. In a first approach towards an improved estimation of Zeff, which is consistent with both measurement sets, we combine in a single model the measurement of visible bremsstrahlung emissivities and carbon densities obtained from CXRS. Together with Zeff, the electron density ne is estimated using a hybrid Gibbs-Metropolis-Hastings MCMC algorithm. Some first results are presented and some improvements in and extensions of the employed model are discussed.

Verdoolaege, G.; Oost, G. van [Nuclear Fusion group, Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Ichir, M.M.; Mohammad-Djafari, A. [Laboratoire des Signaux et Systemes (L2S), CNRS-Supelec-UPS, Supelec, Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Hellermann, M.G. von [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

2005-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

356

Irradiation Performance - Nuclear Engineering Division (Argonne)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Testing > Materials Testing > Irradiation Performance Capabilities Materials Testing Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) of Reactor Materials Corrosion Performance/Metal Dusting Irradiated Materials Overview Light Water Reactor Materials Other Current Activities Future Directions Steam Generator Tube Integrity Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Irradiation Performance Bookmark and Share The activities of the Irradiation Performance Section (IPS) are aimed at determining and assessing normal-operation and accident behavior of neutron-irradiated material throughout the life cycle of the materials. The conditions of interest are normal in-reactor operation, design-basis accidents, intermediate storage in pools and dry casks, and ultimate

357

direct normal irradiance | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

normal irradiance normal irradiance Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. Source NREL Date Released July 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords direct normal irradiance DNI GEF GHI GIS global horizontal irradiance insolation latitutde tilt irradiance NASA NREL South America SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile and Cell Maps (zip, 13.9 MiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 3.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

358

Modeling of Irradiation Hardening of Polycrystalline Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High energy particle irradiation of structural polycrystalline materials usually produces irradiation hardening and embrittlement. The development of predict capability for the influence of irradiation on mechanical behavior is very important in materials design for next generation reactors. In this work a multiscale approach was implemented to predict irradiation hardening of body centered cubic (bcc) alpha-iron. The effect of defect density, texture and grain boundary was investigated. In the microscale, dislocation dynamics models were used to predict the critical resolved shear stress from the evolution of local dislocation and defects. In the macroscale, a viscoplastic self-consistent model was applied to predict the irradiation hardening in samples with changes in texture and grain boundary. This multiscale modeling can guide performance evaluation of structural materials used in next generation nuclear reactors.

Li, Dongsheng; Zbib, Hussein M.; Garmestani, Hamid; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

359

Conducting Well-Controlled Ion Irradiations To Understand Neutron Irradiation Effects In Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A firm understanding of the effect of radiation on materials is required to develop predictive models of materials behavior in-reactor and provide a foundation for creating new, more radiation-tolerant materials. Ion irradiation can serve this purpose for nuclear reactor components and is becoming a key element of materials development for advanced nuclear reactors. Ion irradiations can be conducted quickly, at low cost, and with precise control over irradiation temperature, temperature uniformity, dose rate, dose uniformity and total dose. During proton irradiations the 2{sigma}(twice the standard deviation) of the sample temperature is generally below {approx}7 deg. C, the dose rate variation {approx}3%, the dose uncertainty {approx}3%, and there is an excellent temperature and dose uniformity across the irradiated area. In this article, we describe the experimental setup and irradiation procedure used to conduct well-controlled ion irradiations at the University of Michigan.

Naab, F. U.; West, E. A.; Toader, O. F.; Was, G. S. [Department of Engineering and Radiological Sciences, College of Engineering, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Components of disaster-tolerant computing: analysis of disaster recovery, IT application downtime and executive visibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides a review of disaster-tolerant Information Technology (IT). The state of traditional disaster recovery approaches is outlined. The risks of IT application downtime attributable to the increasing dependence on critical information ... Keywords: IT application availability, IT application downtime, business continuity, complex infrastructure systems, criticality-driven, disaster recovery, disaster tolerance, disaster-tolerant computing, emergency management, executive visibility, information technology, interaction, interdependent, survivability

Chad M. Lawler; Michael A. Harper; Stephen A. Szygenda; Mitchell A. Thornton

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

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361

Congressional Addressees Subject: Air Pollution: Air Quality, Visibility, and the Potential Impacts of Coal-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

east-central Nevada and is home to diverse geologic, topographic, and wildlife resources—including ancient bristlecone pines, the world’s longest living tree species. The park was created to preserve a representative segment of the Great Basin Region and receives about 80,000 visitors annually. The park features numerous scenic areas with views of the surrounding landscape, which includes both deserts and mountains. The National Park Service (NPS), within the Department of the Interior, is responsible for managing the park, and the park’s management plan lists both air quality and visibility as outstanding resources. This plan identifies threats to air quality and visibility—including air pollution from the possible development of coal-fired power plants in the region—and states that even slight increases in air pollution could cause major decreases in visibility. In 2004 and 2006, two companies each initiated the process to build new coal-fired power plants about 55 miles northwest of Great Basin National Park, near the city of Ely, Nevada. 1 While the development of these new power plants would provide jobs,

Great Basin; National Park

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

RERTR-7 Irradiation Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-7A, was designed to test several modified fuel designs to target fission densities representative of a peak low enriched uranium (LEU) burnup in excess of 90% U-235 at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a peak surface heat flux of approximately 300 W/cm2. The RERTR-7B experiment was designed as a high power test of 'second generation' dispersion fuels at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a surface heat flux on the order of 230 W/cm2.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-7A and RERTR-7B experiments through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analyses, thermal analyses and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Synoptic Reorganization of Atmospheric Flow during the Last Glacial Maximum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coupled global atmosphere–ocean model of intermediate complexity is used to study the influence of glacial boundary conditions on the atmospheric circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum in a systematical manner. A web of atmospheric ...

Flávio Justino; Axel Timmermann; Ute Merkel; Enio P. Souza

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

The NCAR Atmosphere-Surface Turbulent Exchange Research (ASTER) Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Atmosphere-Surface Turbulent Exchange Research (ASTER) facility developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) will support observational research on the structure of the atmospheric surface layer. ASTER will provide state-...

J. A. Businger; W. F. Dabberdt; A. C. Delany; T. W. Horst; C. L. Martin; S. P. Oncley; S. R. Semmer

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Estimating the Meridional Energy Transports in the Atmosphere and Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The poleward energy transports in the atmosphere–ocean system are estimated for the annual mean and the four seasons based on satellite measurements of the net radiation balance at the top of the atmosphere, atmospheric transports of energy at ...

B. C. Carissimo; A. H. Oort; T. H. Vonder Haar

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Biogenic Hydrocarbons in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer: A Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nonmethane hydrocarbons are ubiquitous trace atmospheric constituents yet they control the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere. Both anthropogenic and biogenic processes contribute to the release of hydrocarbons to the atmosphere. In this ...

J. D. Fuentes; L. Gu; M. Lerdau; R. Atkinson; D. Baldocchi; J. W. Bottenheim; P. Ciccioli; B. Lamb; C. Geron; A. Guenther; T. D. Sharkey; W. Stockwell

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Vacillations in a Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are presented from a 35-year integration of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Both ocean and atmosphere are two-level, nonlinear primitive equations models. The global atmospheric model is forced by a steady, zonally symmetric Newtonian ...

Paul S. Schopf; Max J. Suarez

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Rainfall and Radiative Heating Rates from TOGA COARE Atmospheric Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric heat and moisture budgets are used to determine rainfall and radiative heating rates over the western Pacific warm pool during the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE). Results are ...

Richard H. Johnson; Paul E. Ciesielski

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Including Atmospheric Layers in Vegetation and Urban Offline Surface Schemes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A formulation to include prognostic atmospheric layers in offline surface schemes is derived from atmospheric equations. Whereas multilayer schemes developed previously need a complex coupling between atmospheric-model levels and surface-scheme ...

Valéry Masson; Yann Seity

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Homoclinic Dynamics: A Scenario for Atmospheric Ultralow-Frequency Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a link will be established between atmospheric ultralow-frequency variability (ULFV) and the occurrence of homoclinic dynamics in models of large-scale atmospheric flow. It is known that uncoupled atmosphere models possess ...

Daan T. Crommelin

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Development of a Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility for Long...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility for Long Term Animal Exposures at Colorado State University Michael Weil Colorado State University Abstract A low dose rate irradiation facility...

372

Helium Behaviour in Ferritic/Martensitic Steels Irradiated in a ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eurofer97 and F82H steels were irradiated in spallation conditions of STIP-II, the ... experiment of the irradiation program of Swiss Neutron Spallation Source.

373

Workshop on a National Irradiation Sciences User Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2009 * SNS * Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Materials Irradiation Home Materials Irradiation & HFIR Agenda Registration Hotel Registration CommitteeContacts Workshop on a National...

374

Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee and Hanford Site, Richland, Washington Lead Test Assembly Irradiation and Analysis Watts Bar Nuclear...

375

Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer to Measure the Absolute Outdoor Longwave Irradiance with Traceability to International System of Units, SI  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a method of measuring the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance using an absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP), U.S. Patent application no. 13/049, 275. The ACP consists of domeless thermopile pyrgeometer, gold-plated concentrator, temperature controller, and data acquisition. The dome was removed from the pyrgeometer to remove errors associated with dome transmittance and the dome correction factor. To avoid thermal convection and wind effect errors resulting from using a domeless thermopile, the gold-plated concentrator was placed above the thermopile. The concentrator is a dual compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) with 180{sup o} view angle to measure the outdoor incoming longwave irradiance from the atmosphere. The incoming irradiance is reflected from the specular gold surface of the CPC and concentrated on the 11 mm diameter of the pyrgeometer's blackened thermopile. The CPC's interior surface design and the resulting cavitation result in a throughput value that was characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The ACP was installed horizontally outdoor on an aluminum plate connected to the temperature controller to control the pyrgeometer's case temperature. The responsivity of the pyrgeometer's thermopile detector was determined by lowering the case temperature and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The responsivity is then used to calculate the absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance with an uncertainty estimate (U{sub 95}) of {+-}3.96 W m{sup 02} with traceability to the International System of Units, SI. The measured irradiance was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the Interim World Infrared Standard Group, WISG. A total of 408 readings were collected over three different nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m{sup 2} lower than that measured by the two pyrgeometers that are traceable to WISG, with a standard deviation of {+-}0.7 W m{sup -2}. These results suggest that the ACP design might be used for addressing the need to improve the international reference for broadband outdoor longwave irradiance measurements.

Reda, I.; Zeng, J.; Scheuch, J.; Hanssen, L.; Wilthan, B.; Myers, D.; Stoffel, T.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Atmospheric Circulation Response to an Instantaneous Doubling of Carbon Dioxide. Part II: Atmospheric Transient Adjustment and Its Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamical mechanisms underlying the transient circulation adjustment in the extratropical atmosphere after the instantaneous doubling of carbon dioxide are investigated using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere ...

Yutian Wu; Richard Seager; Tiffany A. Shaw; Mingfang Ting; Naomi Naik

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and...

378

A U. S. Department of Energy User Facility Atmospheric Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

S. Department of Energy User Facility Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program DOESC-ARM...

379

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH ANNUAL REPORT 1975-76  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this room ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH -RECEIVED •I.AWSSKCEDIVISION ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH ANNUAL REPORTMass and Composition of Aerosol as a Function of Time,

Novakov, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH, ANNUAL REPORT 1976-77  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIVISION ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH ANNUAL REPORTLow-Z Elements in Atmospheric Aerosol Particles by Nuclearof sulfur dioxide by aerosols of manganese sulfate," Ind.

Novakov, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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381

Prediction and measurement of direct-normal solar irradiance: A closure experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct-normal solar irradiance (DNSI), the total energy in the solar spectrum incident on a plane perpendicular to the Sun`s direction on a unit area at the earth`s surface in unit time, depends only on the atmospheric extinction of sunlight without regard to the details of extinction--whether absorption or scattering. Here the authors describe a set of closure experiments performed in north-central Oklahoma, wherein measured atmospheric composition is input to a radiative transfer model, MODTRAN-3, to predict DNSI, which is then compared to measured values. Thirty six independent comparisons are presented; the agreement between predicted and measured values falls within the combined uncertainties in the prediction (2%) and measurement (0.2%) albeit with a slight bias ({approximately} 1% overprediction) that is independent of the solar zenith angle. Thus these results establish the adequacy of current knowledge of the solar spectrum and atmospheric extinction as embodied in MODTRAN-3 for use in climate models. An important consequence is the overwhelming likelihood that the atmospheric clear-sky absorption is accurately described to within comparable uncertainties.

Halthore, R.N.; Schwartz, S.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Michalsky, J.J. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States); Anderson, G.P. [Hanscomb AFB (United States); Ferrare, R.A. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Ten Brink, H.M. [Energy Research Inst. (Netherlands)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

AGC-1 Post Irradiation Examination Status  

SciTech Connect

The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite R&D program is currently measuring irradiated material property changes in several grades of nuclear graphite for predicting their behavior and operating performance within the core of new Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment consisting of six irradiation capsules will generate this irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. All six AGC capsules in the experiment will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), disassembled in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF), and examined at the INL Research Center (IRC) or Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This is the first in a series of status reports on the progress of the AGC experiment. As the first capsule, AGC1 was irradiated from September 2009 to January 2011 to a maximum dose level of 6-7 dpa. The capsule was removed from ATR and transferred to the HFEF in April 2011 where the capsule was disassembled and test specimens extracted from the capsules. The first irradiated samples from AGC1 were shipped to the IRC in July 2011and initial post irradiation examination (PIE) activities were begun on the first 37 samples received. PIE activities continue for the remainder of the AGC1 specimen as they are received at the IRC.

David Swank

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

AGR-1 Irradiation Experiment Test Plan  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document presents the current state of planning for the AGR-1 irradiation experiment, the first of eight planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The objectives of the AGR-1 experiment are: 1. To gain experience with multi-capsule test train design, fabrication, and operation with the intent to reduce the probability of capsule or test train failure in subsequent irradiation tests. 2. To irradiate fuel produced in conjunction with the AGR fuel process development effort. 3. To provide data that will support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-1 experiment will be irradiated in the B-10 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The test will contain six independently controlled and monitored capsules. Each capsule will contain a single type, or variant, of the AGR coated fuel. The irradiation is planned for about 700 effective full power days (approximately 2.4 calendar years) with a time-averaged, volume-average temperature of approximately 1050 °C. Average fuel burnup, for the entire test, will be greater than 17.7 % FIMA, and the fuel will experience fast neutron fluences between 2.4 and 4.5 x 1025 n/m2 (E>0.18 MeV).

John T. Maki

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Shortwave Transport in the Cloudy Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shortwave Transport in the Cloudy Atmosphere Shortwave Transport in the Cloudy Atmosphere by Anomalous/Lévy Diffusion: New Diagnostics Using FORTÉ Lightning Data A. B. Davis Los Alamos National Laboratory Space & Remote Sensing Sciences Group Los Alamos, New Mexico D. M. Suszcynsky Los Alamos National Laboratory Space & Atmospheric Sciences Group Los Alamos, New Mexico A. Marshak National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland Introduction Anomalous photon diffusion can be described as an ad hoc modification of the popular 2-stream approximation, specifically the δ-Eddington/diffusion version, for monochromatic radiative transfer in a scattering plane-parallel atmosphere. In the physical picture that describes the standard diffusion (hence

385

Atmospheric considerations for central receiver power plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the results of a study of the effects of atmospheric attenuation, turbulent scattering, and the use of cooling towers on the performance of solar thermal central receiver power plants.

Henderson, R.G.; Pitter, R.L.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Spectral Preconditioners for Nonhydrostatic Atmospheric Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The elliptic problems in semi-implicit nonhydrostatic atmospheric models are difficult. Typically, they are poorly conditioned, nonseparable, contain cross-derivative terms, and are often nonsymmetric. Here, the resulting linear system is solved ...

Stephen J. Thomas; Joshua P. Hacker; Piotr K. Smolarkiewicz; Roland B. Stull

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Toward a Fully Lagrangian Atmospheric Modeling System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved treatment of advection is essential for atmospheric transport and chemistry models. Eulerian treatments are generally plagued with instabilities, unrealistic negative constituent values, diffusion, and dispersion errors. A higher-...

Jahrul M. Alam; John C. Lin

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Filtering of Gravity Modes in Atmospheric Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of gravity modes in atmospheric model predictions is assessed quantitatively by comparing integrations with a normal mode initialized primitive equation model and its corresponding pseudogeostrophic form to document some generally ...

F. Baer; J. J. Tribbia

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Stochastic Dynamics of the Midlatitude Atmospheric Jet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The innate tendency of the background straining field of the midlatitude atmospheric jet to preferentially amplify a subset of disturbances produces a characteristic response to stochastic perturbation whether the perturbations are internally ...

Brian F. Farrell; Peteros J. Ioannou

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Removal of Atmospheric Effects prom AVHRR Albedos  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on numerical simulations, coefficients are determined to be used in a linear relationship between clear-sky planetary albedo and surface albedo. Thew coefficients are given as functions of solar zenith angle and atmospheric parameters for ...

Peter Koepke

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

HYPERsensarium : an archive of atmospheric conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HYPERsensarium proposes a tangible interface of atmospheres for public experience through an archive of historical and projected weathers. While architecture's purpose has long been to act as the technical boundary between ...

Shaw, Kelly E. (Kelly Evelyn)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Exploring Atmospheric Aerosols by Twilight Photometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The instrument twilight photometer was designed, developed, and installed at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, India (18°43?N, 73°51?E), to monitor the vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosols. The instrument, based ...

B. Padma Kumari; S. H. Kulkarni; D. B. Jadhav; A. L. Londhe; H. K. Trimbake

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Carbon Dioxide Variability and Atmospheric Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hourly values of the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) formed the basis for an investigation of concentration fluctuations on daily to monthly time scales. In agreement with earlier studies we found no ...

James C. Sadler; Colin S. Ramage; Arnold M. Hori

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Potential Vorticity in a Moist Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential vorticity principle for a nonhydrostatic, moist, precipitating atmosphere is derived. An appropriate generalization of the well-known (dry) Ertel potential vorticity is found to be P = ??1(2? + × u)?·???, where ? is the total ...

Wayne H. Schubert; Scott A. Hausman; Matthew Garcia; Katsuyuki V. Ooyama; Hung-Chi Kuo

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Nonlinear Atmospheric Adjustment to Thermal Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nonlinear, numerical model of a compressible atmosphere is used to simulate the hydrostatic and geostrophic adjustment to a localized prescribed heating applied over five minutes with a size characteristic of an isolated, deep, cumulus cloud. ...

Paul F. Fanelli; Peter R. Bannon

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Effect of Nonlinearity on Atmospheric Gravity Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The weakly nonlinear limit of two-dimensional gravity waves in an incompressible, inviscid and stably stratified atmosphere is studied. The three-wave resonant interaction theory indicates an energy cascade from a vertically propagating wave (...

Mostafa M. Ibrahim

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Shear Excitation of Atmospheric Gravity Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Unstable Velocity shears are a Common source of vertically propagating gravity waves in the atmosphere. However, the growth rates of unstable modes predicted by linear theory cannot always amount for their observed importance.

David C. Fritts

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Dynamic Stabilization of Atmospheric Single Column Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single column models (SCMs) provide an economical framework for assessing the sensitivity of atmospheric temperature and humidity to natural and imposed perturbations, and also for developing improved representations of diabatic processes in ...

John W. Bergman; Prashant D. Sardeshmukh

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Intraseasonal Variability in a Dry Atmospheric Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A long integration of a primitive equation dry atmospheric model with time-independent forcing under boreal winter conditions is analyzed. A variety of techniques such as time filtering, space–time spectral analysis, and lag regressions are used ...

Hai Lin; Gilbert Brunet; Jacques Derome

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

The Atmospheric Mesoscale Dispersion Modeling System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mesoscale dispersion modeling system (MDMS) described herein is under development as a simulation tool to investigate atmospheric flow and pollution dispersion over complex terrain for domains up to several hundred kilometers. The system ...

Marek Uliasz

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Atmospheric Entropy. Part I: Climate Dissipation Structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric entropy and its association with climate dissipation are investigated. The balance equation for entropy is derived through the mean and transient thermal and moisture equations. The entropy production contains the internal and external ...

Jiangnan Li; Petr Chylek

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Atmospheric Turbidity over Central North Carolina  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some 8500 observations of atmospheric turbidity, taken at Raleigh, North Carolina from July 1969 to July 1975 are analyzed for within-day and day-to-day variations and their dependence on meteorological parameters. The annual average turbidity of ...

James T. Peterson; Edwin C. Flowers; Guillermo J. Berri; Cheryl L. Reynolds; John H. Rudisill

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Meteorological Tracer Techniques for Parameterizing Atmospheric Dispersion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although tracer materials have been used in atmospheric dispersion studies for decades, basic information about meteorological tracer techniques is scattered among a number of different sources. This paper attempts to pull together this ...

Warren B. Johnson

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Linear Baroclinic Instability in the Martian Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The linear baroclinic instability of zonal-mean flows like those in the wintertime Martian atmosphere under both relatively nondusty and highly dusty conditions is examined using a spherical quasi-geostrophic model. The basic states are idealized,...

Jeffrey R. Barnes

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

State-Space Modeling for Atmospheric Pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two different aspect concerning the state-space modeling for atmospheric pollution are dealt with separately in this paper: (i) the treatment of the advection-diffusion equation and (ii) the use of time series analysis.

E. Hernández; F. Martín; F. Valero

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Resonant Planetary Waves in a Spherical Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A global model of planetary wave propagation in a spherical atmosphere is used to examine the spectrum of free or resonant planetary waves of the solstitial stratosphere. These free modes are located by forcing the model with a weak periodic ...

Mark R. Schoeberl; John H. E. Clark

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

The Flywheel Effect in the Middle Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the requirement of geostrophic balance, mechanical inertia can affect the thermal response of the atmosphere to transient heating. We examine some very simple linear models of this “flywheel effect,” and discuss their possible ...

Roelof K. Snieder; Stephen B. Fels

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Atmosphere–Ocean Modeling Exploiting Fluid Isomorphisms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mathematical isomorphisms between the hydrostatic equations that govern the evolution of a compressible atmosphere and an incompressible ocean are described and exploited to guide the design of a hydrodynamical kernel for simulation of either ...

John Marshall; Alistair Adcroft; Jean-Michel Campin; Chris Hill; Andy White

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Basic Meteorological Observations for Schools: Atmospheric Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article addresses measurement of atmospheric surface pressure using economical instruments. It is intended to provide members of the Society with a ready reference to respond to inquiries from earth and physical science teachers at the ...

John T. Snow; Michelle E. Akridge; Shawn B. Harley

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

A Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development is described of a Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS)—the result of a cooperative project to collect global weather observations taken near the ocean's surface since 1854, primarily from merchant ships, into a compact and ...

Scott D. Woodruff; Ralph J. Slutz; Roy L. Jenne; Peter M. Steurer

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence on Ballistic Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of atmospheric turbulence on munition target scatter are determined from numerical simulations of ballistic trajectories through many realizations of realistic simulated turbulent wind fields. A technique is evaluated for correcting ...

Rod Frehlich; Robert Sharman; Charles Clough; Michael Padovani; Kelly Fling; Ward Boughers; W. Scott Walton

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Mars Atmosphere Pressure Periodicities from Viking Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first martian year of pressure data taken by the Viking landers on Mars is subjected to power spectrum analysis. The analysis suggests that strong periodicities are present in the martian atmosphere, especially at the high-latitude (48°N) ...

R. D. Sharman; J. A. Ryan

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Pierre Auger Atmosphere-Monitoring Lidar System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fluorescence-detection techniques of cosmic-ray air-shower experiments require precise knowledge of atmospheric properties to reconstruct air-shower energies. Up to now, the atmosphere in desert-like areas was assumed to be stable enough so that occasional calibration of atmospheric attenuation would suffice to reconstruct shower profiles. However, serious difficulties have been reported in recent fluorescence-detector experiments causing systematic errors in cosmic ray spectra at extreme energies. Therefore, a scanning backscatter lidar system has been constructed for the Pierre Auger Observatory in Malargue, Argentina, where on-line atmospheric monitoring will be performed. One lidar system is already deployed at the Los Leones fluorescence detector site and the second one is currently (April 2003) under construction at the Coihueco site. Next to the established ones, a novel analysis method with assumption on horizontal invariance, using multi-angle measurements is shown to unambiguously measure optical depth, as well as absorption and backscatter coefficient.

A. Filipcic; M. Horvat; D. Veberic; D. Zavrtanik; M. Zavrtanik; M. Chiosso; R. Mussa; G. Sequeiros; M. A. Mostafa; M. D. Roberts

2003-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

414

Profiling atmospheric aerosols | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a number of instruments that use low power lasers (the instrument is called Micropulse Lidar, MPL) to measure the turbidity of the atmosphere above the ground. For the first time,...

415

Reducing the atmospheric impact of wet slaking  

SciTech Connect

Means of reducing the atmospheric emissions due to the wet slaking of coke are considered. One option, investigated here, is to remove residual active silt and organic compounds from the biologically purified wastewater sent for slaking, by coagulation and flocculation.

B.D. Zubitskii; G.V. Ushakov; B.G. Tryasunov; A.G.Ushakov [Kuznetsk Basin State Technical University, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

Lookup tables to compute high energy cosmic ray induced atmospheric ionization and changes in atmospheric chemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A variety of events such as gamma-ray bursts and supernovae may expose the Earth to an increased flux of high-energy cosmic rays, with potentially important effects on the biosphere. Existing atmospheric chemistry software does not have the capability of incorporating the effects of substantial cosmic ray flux above 10 GeV . An atmospheric code, the NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center two-dimensional (latitude, altitude) time-dependent atmospheric model (NGSFC), is used to study atmospheric chemistry changes. Using CORSIKA, we have created tables that can be used to compute high energy cosmic ray (10 GeV - 1 PeV) induced atmospheric ionization and also, with the use of the NGSFC code, can be used to simulate the resulting atmospheric chemistry changes. We discuss the tables, their uses, weaknesses, and strengths.

Dimitra Atri; Adrian L. Melott; Brian C. Thomas

2008-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

417

Quantum light in the turbulent atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nonclassical properties of light propagating through the turbulent atmosphere are studied. We demonstrate by numerical simulation that the probability distribution of the transmission coefficient, which characterizes the effects of the atmosphere on the quantum state of light, can be reconstructed by homodyne detection. Nonclassical photon-statistics and, more generally, nonclassical Glauber-Sudarshan functions appear to be more robust against turbulence for weak light fields rather than for bright ones.

A. A. Semenov; W. Vogel

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

418

RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Atmospheric Neutrinos in the MINOS Far Detector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The phenomenon of flavour oscillations of neutrinos created in the atmosphere was first reported by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration in 1998 and since then has been confirmed by Soudan 2 and MACRO. The MINOS Far Detector is the first magnetized neutrino detector able to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Although it was designed to detect neutrinos from the NuMI beam, it provides a unique opportunity to measure the oscillation parameters for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos independently. The MINOS Far Detector was completed in August 2003 and since then has collected 2.52 kton-years of atmospheric data. Atmospheric neutrino interactions contained within the volume of the detector are separated from the dominant background from cosmic ray muons. Thirty seven events are selected with an estimated background contamination of less than 10%. Using the detector's magnetic field, 17 neutrino events and 6 anti-neutrino events are identified, 14 events have ambiguous charge. The neutrino oscillation parameters for {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} are studied using a maximum likelihood analysis. The measurement does not place constraining limits on the neutrino oscillation parameters due to the limited statistics of the data set analysed. However, this thesis represents the first observation of charge separated atmospheric neutrino interactions. It also details the techniques developed to perform atmospheric neutrino analyses in the MINOS Far Detector.

Howcroft, Caius L.F.; /Cambridge U.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

The Birth and Life of Our Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Birth and Life of Our Atmosphere Birth and Life of Our Atmosphere Nature Bulletin No. 554-A February 15, 1975 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE BIRTH AND LIFE OF OUR ATMOSPHERE In Bulletin No. 542-A we described the atmosphere that surrounds the earth, held there by the pull of gravity, including the canopy of air immediately above us. That canopy is responsible for our weather and climates, shields us from the killing rays of the sun, and furnishes substances necessary for all life: oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. Astronomers believe that none of the other planets -- excepting Mars, perhaps -- has an atmosphere anything like ours. The principal elements, free nitrogen (78 percent) and free oxygen (21 percent), apparently are rare in the universe. On the other hand, the earth's atmosphere contains only traces of free hydrogen and helium -- the two lightest gases -- whereas they are by far the most common elements elsewhere in the universe.

422

Effect of H and He Irradiation on Cavity Formation and Blistering in Ceramics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Single- or poly-crystalline specimens of SiC, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} were implanted with 0.4-1 MeV H{sup +} or He{sup +} ion beams at room temperature and 650 C up to fluences of {approx}1 x 10{sup 22}/m{sup 2}. This produced peak implanted gas and displacement damage levels as high as {approx}50 at.% and 34 displacements per atom (dpa). The specimens were subsequently examined optically, and in cross-section using transmission electron microscopy. Subsurface blistering occurred for specimens irradiated to H or He fluences greater than about 3 x 10{sup 21}/m{sup 2} ({approx}15 at.% peak implanted gas concentration), and surface exfoliation occurred for fluences above {approx}1 x 10{sup 22}/m{sup 2} ({approx}40 at.% implanted gas). Both helium and hydrogen had comparable effectiveness for inducing blistering and exfoliation on an atomic basis. The threshold blistering and exfoliation fluences for both ions were weakly dependent on temperature between 25 and 650 C. Both H and He were found to be very effective in inducing matrix cavity formation, due to their low solubility in these ceramics. The implanted gas concentrations that resulted in visible cavity formation generally ranged from 1 to 5 at.%. Visible cavity formation was readily induced during room temperature irradiation despite the limited vacancy mobility in these ceramics at room temperature. Three general types of cavity morphologies were observed: isolated cavities, clusters of small cavities (typically associated with dislocation loops), and two-dimensional platelets. Cavity formation was observed to initiate at the periphery of dislocation loops in some cases. During elevated temperature irradiation, cavity formation was often observed to be preferentially associated with certain low-index habit planes, particularly if the habit plane was oriented nearly parallel to the irradiated surface: (0001) and {l_brace}1{bar 1}00{r_brace} for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, (0001) for a-SiC, {l_brace}001{r_brace} and {l_brace}110{r_brace} for MgO, and {l_brace}110{r_brace} and {l_brace}111{r_brace} for MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The bubble formation and blistering behavior of the ceramics was similar to that observed in other studies of metals irradiated at comparable homologous temperatures. Ionization-induced diffusion effects associated with dual-beam light ion irradiation appeared to exert only a weak effect on cavity and dislocation loop growth compared to the single ion irradiation conditions.

Zinkle, Steven J [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Nonhydrostatic, Mesobeta-Scale Model Simulations of Cloud Ceiling and Visibility for an East Coast Winter Precipitation Event  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experiments are described that provide an example of the baseline skill level for the numerical prediction of cloud ceiling and visibility, where application to aviation-system safety and efficiency is emphasized. Model simulations of a light, ...

Mark T. Stoelinga; Thomas T. Warner

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

First Results from the On-Orbit Calibrations of the Visible and Infrared Scanner for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work presents the first on-orbit calibration results using the Moon, the Sun, and cold deep space as inputs to the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The authors have ...

Cheng-Hsuan Lyu; William L. Barnes; Robert A. Barnes

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

A Parameterization of the Visible Extinction Coefficient of Ice Clouds in Terms of the Ice/Water Content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes a parameterization of the visible extinction coefficient of cirrus and frontal ice cloud in terms of the ice/water content. The parameterization is based on the discovery that the ice cloud particle size spectra from a ...

C. Martin R. Platt

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Inference of Cirrus Cloud Properties Using Satellite-observed Visible and Infrared Radiances. Part I: Parameterization of Radiance Fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current techniques for deriving cirrus optical depth and altitude from visible (0.65 ?m) and infrared (11.5 ?m) satellite data use radiative transfer calculations based on scattering phase functions of spherical water droplets. This study ...

Patrick Minnis; Kuo-Nan Liou; Yoshihide Takano

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

diffuse downwelling irradiance diffuse downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance All of the solar radiation, across the wavelength range of 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, coming directly from the sky except for solar radiation coming directly from the sun and the circumsolar irradiance within approximately three degrees of the sun. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments

428

global horizontal irradiance | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

horizontal irradiance horizontal irradiance Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Global Horizontal IrradianceNASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005) Parameter: Insolation Incident On A Horizontal Surface (kWh/m^2/day) Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections online Note 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords GHI GIS global horizontal irradiance NASA solar

429

Heat pipe thermal control of irradiation capsules  

SciTech Connect

From 1st international heat pipe conference; Stuttgart, F.R. Germany (15 Oct 1973). The use of heat pipes to control the temperature of irradiation capsules containing fast breeder reactor structural materials is discussed. (TFD)

Deverall, J.E.

1974-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

430

IRRADIATION METHOD OF CONVERTING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for changing the distribution of organic compounds from that produced by the irradiation of bulk alkane hydrocarbons. This method consists of depositing an alkane hydrocarbon on the surface of a substrate material and irradiating with gamma radiation at a dose rate of more than 100,000 rads. The substrate material may be a metal, metal salts, metal oxides, or carbons having a surface area in excess of 1 m/sup 2//g. The hydrocarbons are deposited in layers of from 0.1 to 10 monolayers on the surfaces of these substrates and irradiated. The product yields are found to vary from those which result from the irradiation of bulk hydrocarbons in that there is an increase in the quantity of branched hydrocarbons.

Allen, A.O.; Caffrey, J.M. Jr.

1960-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

431

Cloud Optical Thickness Estimation from Irradiance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative transfer algorithms are developed to estimate the optical thickness of clouds using an irradiance detector located above, deep within, and beneath a cloud. Both monodirectional and diffuse illumination cases are considered. For each ...

H. C. Yi; N. J. McCormick; R. Sanchez

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Visible and dark matter in M 31 - II. A dynamical model and dark matter density distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the present paper we derive the density distribution of dark matter (DM) in a well-observed nearby disc galaxy, the Andromeda galaxy. From photometrical and chemical evolution models constructed in the first part of the study (Tamm, Tempel & Tenjes 2007 (arXiv:0707.4375), hereafter Paper I) we can calculate the mass distribution of visible components (the bulge, the disc, the stellar halo, the outer diffuse stellar halo). In the dynamical model we calculate stellar rotation velocities along the major axis and velocity dispersions along the major, minor and intermediate axes of the galaxy assuming triaxial velocity dispersion ellipsoid. Comparing the calculated values with the collected observational data, we find the amount of DM, which must be added to reach an agreement with the observed rotation and dispersion data. We conclude that within the uncertainties, the DM distributions by Moore, Burkert, Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) and the Einasto fit with observations nearly at all distances. The NFW and Einasto density distributions give the best fit with observations. The total mass of M 31 with the NFW DM distribution is 1.19*10^12 M_sun, the ratio of the DM mass to the visible mass is 10.0. For the Einasto DM distribution, these values are 1.28*10^12 M_sun and 10.8. The ratio of the DM mass to the visible mass inside the Holmberg radius is 1.75 for the NFW and the Einasto distributions. For different cuspy DM distributions, the virial mass is in a range 6.9-7.9*10^11 M_sun and the virial radius is ~150 kpc. The DM mean densities inside 10 pc for cusped models are 33 and 16 M_sun pc^-3 for the NFW and the Einasto profiles, respectively. For the cored Burkert profile, this value is 0.06 M_sun pc^-3.

Elmo Tempel; Antti Tamm; Peeter Tenjes

2007-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

433

Gamma irradiation effects in W films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the van Der Pauw methodology, the surface resistivity of irradiated tungsten films deposited on Silicon substrate was measured. The films were exposed to {gamma} radiation using a isotopic {sup 60}Co source in three irradiation stages attaining 40.35 kGy in total dose. The obtained results for superficial resistivity display a time annealing features and their values are proportional to the total dose.

Claro, Luiz H. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv, Rod. dos Tamoios, km 5,5, CEP: 12228-840, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil) and Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco - FATESF, Av. Siqueira Campos, 1174, CEP: 12207-000, Jacarei (Brazil); Santos, Ingrid A. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv, Rod. dos Tamoios, km 5,5, CEP: 12228-840, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, Cassia F. [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco - FATESF, Av. Siqueira Campos, 1174, CEP: 12207-000, Jacarei, SP (Brazil)

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

434

Xenon ion laser-induced fluorescence using a visible tunable diode laser near 680 nm  

SciTech Connect

Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements have been performed for the first time in a low temperature (T{sub e}{approx_equal}0.6 eV) Xe plasma using a tunable diode laser in the visible range of wavelengths. The transition in Xe II involved the ({sup 3}P{sub 1})5d[3]{sub 7/2} metastable state and the excitation wavelength was found to be 680.570{+-}0.001 nm (air). LIF measurements of I{sub 2} in a room temperature iodine gas cell were used to monitor the wavelength of the laser during the measurements.

Severn, Greg; Lee, Dongsoo; Hershkowitz, Noah [Department of Physics, University of San Diego, San Diego, California 92110 (United States); Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Concept development for the ITER equatorial port visible/infrared wide angle viewing system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ITER equatorial port visible/infrared wide angle viewing system concept is developed from the measurement requirements. The proposed solution situates 4 viewing systems in the equatorial ports 3, 9, 12, and 17 with 4 views each (looking at the upper target, the inner divertor, and tangentially left and right). This gives sufficient coverage. The spatial resolution of the divertor system is 2 times higher than the other views. For compensation of vacuum-vessel movements, an optical hinge concept is proposed. Compactness and low neutron streaming is achieved by orienting port plug doglegs horizontally. Calibration methods, risks, and R and D topics are outlined.

Reichle, R.; Beaumont, B.; Boilson, D.; Bouhamou, R.; Direz, M.-F.; Encheva, A.; Henderson, M.; Kazarian, F.; Lamalle, Ph.; Lisgo, S.; Mitteau, R.; Patel, K. M.; Pitcher, C. S.; Pitts, R. A.; Prakash, A.; Raffray, R.; Schunke, B.; Snipes, J.; Diaz, A. Suarez; Udintsev, V. S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

436

3D atmospheric modeling based on MODTRAN4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All the factors of atmospheric environment that influence the transmission of infrared radiation were analyzed in detail in the paper. Taking horizontally varying atmospheric property into consideration, a 3D model of atmospheric transmission of infrared ... Keywords: MODTRAN4, infrared radiation, model, path radiation, ratio of atmospheric transmission, simulation, single scatter solar radiation

Ge Li; Zhifeng Lu; Gang Guo; Kedi Huang

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

East Coast (PADD 1) Gross Inputs to Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast (PADD 1) Gross Inputs to Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Units (Thousand Barrels per Day)

438

Guam Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Guam Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

439

Refining District New Mexico Gross Inputs to Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District New Mexico Gross Inputs to Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Units (Thousand Barrels per Day)

440

The Visibility of Galactic Bars and Spiral Structure At High Redshifts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the visibility of galactic bars and spiral structure in the distant Universe by artificially redshifting 101 B-band CCD images of local spiral galaxies from the Ohio State University Bright Spiral Galaxy Survey. Our artificially redshifted images correspond to Hubble Space Telescope I-band observations of the local galaxy sample seen at z=0.7, with integration times matching those of both the very deep Northern Hubble Deep Field data, and the much shallower Flanking Field observations. The expected visibility of galactic bars is probed in two ways: (1) using traditional visual classification, and (2) by charting the changing shape of the galaxy distribution in "Hubble space", a quantitative two-parameter description of galactic structure that maps closely on to Hubble's original tuning fork. Both analyses suggest that over 2/3 of strongly barred luminous local spirals i.e. objects classified as SB in the Third Reference Catalog) would still be classified as strongly barred at z=0.7 in the Hubbl...

Van den Bergh, S; Whyte, L F; Merrifield, M R; Eskridge, P B; Frogel, J A; Pogge, R W; Bergh, Sidney van den; Abraham, Roberto G.; Whyte, Laura F.; Merrifield, Michael R.; Eskridge, Paul; Frogel, Jay A.; Pogge, Richard

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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441

Fabrication and characterization of the source grating for visibility improvement of neutron phase imaging with gratings  

SciTech Connect

The fabrication of gratings including metal deposition processes for highly neutron absorbing lines is a critical issue to achieve a good visibility of the grating-based phase imaging system. The source grating for a neutron Talbot-Lau interferometer is an array of Gadolinium (Gd) structures that are generally made by sputtering, photo-lithography, and chemical wet etching. However, it is very challenging to fabricate a Gd structure with sufficient neutron attenuation of approximately more than 20 {mu}m using a conventional metal deposition method because of the slow Gd deposition rate, film stress, high material cost, and so on. In this article, we fabricated the source gratings for neutron Talbot-Lau interferometers by filling the silicon structure with Gadox particles. The new fabrication method allowed us a very stable and efficient way to achieve a much higher Gadox filled structure than a Gd film structure, and is even more suitable for thermal polychromatic neutrons, which are more difficult to stop than cold neutrons. The newly fabricated source gratings were tested at the polychromatic thermal neutron grating interferometer system of HANARO at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, and the visibilities and images from the neutron phase imaging system with the new source gratings were compared with those fabricated by a Gd deposition method.

Kim, Jongyul [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Nuclear and Quantum Engineering Department, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kye Hong; Lim, Chang Hwy; Kim, Taejoo [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Chi Won [Nano Fusion Technology Division, National Nanofab Center, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Gyuseong [Nuclear and Quantum Engineering Department, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Wook [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

Band-engineered SrTiO{sub 3} nanowires for visible light photocatalysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have theoretically investigated the structural, electronic, and optical properties of perovskite SrTiO{sub 3} nanowires for use in visible light photocatalytic applications using pseudopotential density-functional theory calculations. The electronic structure calculations show that the band gap is modified in the SrTiO{sub 3} nanowires compared with that of the bulk. For TiO{sub 2}-terminated nanowires, the mid-band states induced by the combination of oxygen and strontium atoms on the surface lead to a shift in the valence band toward the conduction band without interference from the edge of the conduction band, which reduces the band gap. On the contrary, the electronic states induced by the combination of oxygen and strontium atoms on the surface of SrO-terminated nanowires lead to a shift in the conduction band toward the valence band. The calculated optical results indicate that the absorption edge of the nanowires shift towards the red-light region. These theoretical results suggest that perovskite SrTiO{sub 3} nanowires are promising candidates for use in visible light photocatalytic processes such as solar-assisted water splitting reactions.

Fu, Q.; He, T.; Li, J. L.; Yang, G. W. [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Institute of Optoelectronic and Functional Composite Materials, Nanotechnology Research Center, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

443

High Resolution Irradiance Spectrum from 300 to 1000 nm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The FTS scans that made up the Kitt Peak Solar Flux Atlas by Kurucz, Furenlid, Brault, and Testerman (1984) have been re-reduced. An approximate telluric atmospheric model was determined for each FTS scan. Large-scale features produced by O3 and O2 dimer were computed and divided out. The solar continuum level was found by fitting a smooth curve to high points in each scan. The scans were normalized to the fitted continuum to produce a residual flux spectrum for each FTS scan. The telluric line spectrum was computed using HITRAN and other line data for H2O, O2, and CO2. The line parameters were adjusted for an approximate match to the observed spectra. The scans were divided by the computed telluric spectra to produce residual irradiance spectra. Artifacts from wavelength mismatches, deep lines, etc, were removed by hand and replaced by linear interpolation. Overlapping scans were fitted together to make a continuous spectrum from 300 to 1000 nm. All the above steps were iterative. The monochromatic error var...

Kurucz, R L

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

The Incorporation of Atmospheric Variability into DIRSIG  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. BNL-63555 CLOSURE EXPERIMENT ­ MODTRAN-3 PREDICTION than calibration uncertainty may be important. The radiative transfer model MODTRAN-3 is used the MODTRAN-3 predicted value with the direct-normal short-wave irradiance measured by a calibrated

Salvaggio, Carl

445

Atmospheric and Climate Science | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric and Climate Science Atmospheric and Climate Science Argonne research in aerosols, micro-meteorology, remote sensing, and atmospheric chemistry combined with our scalable, portable, high-performance climate and weather applications offer a unique look at the complexities of a dynamic planet. Changes in climate can affect biodiversity, the cost of food, our health, and even whole economies. Argonne is developing computational models and tools designed to shed light on complex biological processes and their economic, social, and health effects. Research spans the molecular level to whole organisms and their interaction with climate, the ecosystem, and human activities. The goal is to improve our understanding of the world around us while increasing the accuracy of regional climate models to

446

Atmospheric Delta 14C Record from Wellington  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Isotopes » Carbon Isotopes » δ14C from Wellington Atmospheric δ14C Record from Wellington graphics Graphics data Data Investigators M.R. Manning, W.H. Melhuish National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Ltd., Climate Division, Gracefield Road, Gracefield, P.O. Box 31-311, Lower Hutt, New Zealand Period of Record 1954-93 Methods Trays containing ~2 L of 5 normal NaOH carbonate-free solution are typically exposed for intervals of 1-2 weeks, and the atmospheric CO2 absorbed during that time is recovered by acid evolution. Considerable fractionation occurs during absorption into the NaOH solution, and the standard fractionation correction (Stuiver and Polach 1977) is used to determine a δ 14C value corrected to δ 13C = -25 per mil. Some samples reported here were taken using BaOH solution or with extended

447

atmospheric water vapor | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

atmospheric water vapor atmospheric water vapor Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. Source NREL Date Released July 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor Carribean Islands Central America DNI GIS Mexico NREL GEF solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 247.8 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 370.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

448

Our Dusty Atmosphere | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dusty Atmosphere Dusty Atmosphere Our Dusty Atmosphere September 6, 2011 - 4:26pm Addthis A heavy layer of air pollution, a mix of aerosol particles and vapors, obscures the view over Mexico City. Two studies by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show the importance of including the small-scale effects of aerosols in climate modeling. | Image courtesy of PNNL A heavy layer of air pollution, a mix of aerosol particles and vapors, obscures the view over Mexico City. Two studies by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show the importance of including the small-scale effects of aerosols in climate modeling. | Image courtesy of PNNL Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What are the key facts? Researchers are developing a better understanding of the effects of

449

Our Dusty Atmosphere | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Our Dusty Atmosphere Our Dusty Atmosphere Our Dusty Atmosphere September 6, 2011 - 4:26pm Addthis A heavy layer of air pollution, a mix of aerosol particles and vapors, obscures the view over Mexico City. Two studies by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show the importance of including the small-scale effects of aerosols in climate modeling. | Image courtesy of PNNL A heavy layer of air pollution, a mix of aerosol particles and vapors, obscures the view over Mexico City. Two studies by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show the importance of including the small-scale effects of aerosols in climate modeling. | Image courtesy of PNNL Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What are the key facts? Researchers are developing a better understanding of the effects of

450

Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Irradiation Embritlement in Alloy HT-­9  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HT-9 steel is a candidate structural and cladding material for high temperature lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors. In typical advanced fast reactor designs fuel elements will be irradiated for an extended period of time, reaching up to 5-7 years. Significant displacement damage accumulation in the steel is expected (> 200 dpa) when exposed to dpa-rates of 20-30 dpa{sub Fe}/y and high fast flux (E > 0.1 MeV) {approx}4 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}s. Core temperatures could reach 400-560 C, with coolant temperatures at the inlet as low as 250 C, depending on the reactor design. Mechanical behavior in the presence of an intense fast flux and high dose is a concern. In particular, low temperature operation could be limited by irradiation embrittlement. Creep and corrosion effects in liquid metal coolants could set a limit to the upper operating temperature. In this report, we focus on the low temperature operating window limit and describe HT-9 embrittlement experimental findings reported in the literature that could provide supporting information to facilitate the consideration of a Code Case on irradiation effects for this class of steels in fast reactor environments. HT-9 has an extensive database available on irradiation performance, which makes it the best choice as a possible near-term candidate for clad, and ducts in future fast reactors. Still, as it is shown in this report, embrittlement data for very low irradiation temperatures ( 150 dpa) is scarce. Experimental findings indicate a saturation of DBTT shifts as a function of dose, which could allow for long lifetime cladding operation. However, a strong increase in DBTT shift with decreasing irradiation temperature could compromise operation at low service temperatures. Development of a deep understanding of the physics involved in the radiation damage mechanisms, together with multiscale computer simulation models of irradiation embrittlement will provide the basis to derive trendlines and quantitative engineering predictions.

Serrano De Caro, Magdalena [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

452

TiO{sub 2}/carbon nanotube hybrid nanostructures: Solvothermal synthesis and their visible light photocatalytic activity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

MWCNT/TiO{sub 2} hybrid nanostructures were prepared via solvothermal synthesis and sol-gel method with benzyl alcohol as a surfactant. As-prepared hybrid materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that MWCNTs were uniformly decorated with anatase nanocrystals in solvothermal condition, but MWCNTs were embedded in a majority of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles by sol-gel method. When the weight ratio of MWCNTs to TiO{sub 2} was 20%, MWCNT/TiO{sub 2} hybrid nanostructures prepared by solvothermal synthesis exhibited higher visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity than that prepared by sol-gel method. Post-annealing of MWCNT/TiO{sub 2} nanostructures at 400 deg. C resulted in the formation of the carbonaceous Ti-C bonds on the interface between TiO{sub 2} and MWCNTs, which enhanced the photoabsorbance of the hybrid materials in the visible light region and improved the visible-light degradation efficiency of methylene blue. - Graphical abstract: MWCNT/TiO{sub 2} nanostructures have been prepared by solvothermal method, which exhibited higher visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity than that prepared by sol-gel method. The carbonaceous Ti-C bonds on the interface between TiO{sub 2} and MWCNTs enhanced the photoabsorbance of the hybrid materials in the visible light region. Highlights: > Anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were anchored on CNTs surface uniformly via solvothermal method {yields} The morphology facilitated the electron transfer between CNTs and TiO{sub 2} {yields} Ti-C bonds extended the absorption of MWCNT/TiO{sub 2} to the whole visible light region. > The hybrid nanostructures showed enhanced visible-light induced photocatalytic activity.

Tian Lihong [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Ye Liqun [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Deng Kejian [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zan Ling, E-mail: irlab@whu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

453

Monthly average clear-sky broadband irradiance database for worldwide solar heat gain and building cooling load calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper establishes the formulation of a new clear-sky solar radiation model appropriate for algorithms calculating cooling loads in buildings. The aim is to replace the ASHRAE clear-sky model of 1967, whose limitations are well known and are reviewed. The new model is derived in two steps. The first step consists of obtaining a reference irradiance dataset from the REST2 model, which uses a high-performance, validated, two-band clear-sky algorithm. REST2 requires detailed inputs about atmospheric conditions such as aerosols, water vapor, ozone, and ground albedo. The development of global atmospheric datasets used as inputs to REST2 is reviewed. For the most part, these datasets are derived from space observations to guarantee universality and accuracy. In the case of aerosols, point-source terrestrial measurements were also used as ground truthing of the satellite data. The second step of the model consists of fits derived from a REST2-based reference irradiance dataset. These fits enable the derivation of compact, but relatively accurate expressions, for beam and diffuse clear-sky irradiance. The fitted expressions require the tabulation of only two pseudo-optical depths for each month of the year. The resulting model, and its tabulated data, are expected to be incorporated in the 2009 edition of the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. (author)

Gueymard, Christian A. [Solar Consulting Services, P.O. Box 392, Colebrook, NH 03576 (United States); Thevenard, Didier [Numerical Logics Inc., 498 Edenvalley Cres., Waterloo, Ont. (Canada)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

454

A Community Atmosphere Model with Superparameterized Clouds  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) scientists Wojciech Grabowski and Piotr Smolarkiewicz created a "multiscale" atmospheric model in which the physical processes associated with clouds were represented by running a simple high-resolution model within each grid column of a lowresolution global model. In idealized experiments, they found that the multiscale model produced promising simulations of organized tropical convection, which other models had struggled to produce. Inspired by their results, Colorado State University (CSU) scientists Marat Khairoutdinov and David Randall created a multiscale version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). They removed the cloud parameterizations of the CAM, and replaced them with Khairoutdinov's high-resolution cloud model. They dubbed the embedded cloud model a "super-parameterization," and the modified CAM is now called the "SP-CAM." Over the next several years, many scientists, from many institutions, have explored the ability of the SP-CAM to simulate tropical weather systems, the day-night changes of precipitation, the Asian and African monsoons, and a number of other climate processes. Cristiana Stan of the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions found that the SP-CAM gives improved results when coupled to an ocean model, and follow-on studies have explored the SP-CAM's utility when used as the atmospheric component of the Community Earth System Model. Much of this research has been performed under the auspices of the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes, a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center for which the lead institution is CSU.

Randall, David; Branson, Mark; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Craig, Cheryl; Gettelman, A.; Edwards, Jim

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

455

Atmospheric Correction Algorithm for Hyperspectral Imagery  

SciTech Connect

In December 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established a Center of Excellence (Hyperspectral-Multispectral Algorithm Research Center, HyMARC) for promoting the research and development of algorithms to exploit spectral imagery. This center is located at the DOE Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, and is operated for the DOE by Bechtel Nevada. This paper presents the results to date of a research project begun at the center during 1998 to investigate the correction of hyperspectral data for atmospheric aerosols. Results of a project conducted by the Rochester Institute of Technology to define, implement, and test procedures for absolute calibration and correction of hyperspectral data to absolute units of high spectral resolution imagery will be presented. Hybrid techniques for atmospheric correction using image or spectral scene data coupled through radiative propagation models will be specifically addressed. Results of this effort to analyze HYDICE sensor data will be included. Preliminary results based on studying the performance of standard routines, such as Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption and Nonlinear Least Squares Spectral Fit, in retrieving reflectance spectra show overall reflectance retrieval errors of approximately one to two reflectance units in the 0.4- to 2.5-micron-wavelength region (outside of the absorption features). These results are based on HYDICE sensor data collected from the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site during overflights conducted in July of 1997. Results of an upgrade made in the model-based atmospheric correction techniques, which take advantage of updates made to the moderate resolution atmospheric transmittance model (MODTRAN 4.0) software, will also be presented. Data will be shown to demonstrate how the reflectance retrieval in the shorter wavelengths of the blue-green region will be improved because of enhanced modeling of multiple scattering effects.

R. J. Pollina

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Estimating solar irradiance using a geostationary satellite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

altitude, solar zenith/azimuth, earth -sun radius into RAM1.1.1 Solar Spectrum and the Atmosphere The sun‘s radiationthe solar position and satellite position the sun-satellite

Urquhart, Bryan Glenn

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows TDM - Karma Sawyer Robert C. Tenent National Renewable Energy Laboratory robert.tenent@nrel.gov 303-384-6775 4/4/2013 Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) Glass Transparent Conductor (TC) Active Electrode Counter Electrode Ion Conductor 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose and Objectives * Expense - Current market price of $50-$100/ft 2 - Projections indicate under $20/ft 2 needed - A new production paradigm is required * Aesthetics - Architects hesitant to adopt "smurf glass"

458

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows TDM - Karma Sawyer Robert C. Tenent National Renewable Energy Laboratory robert.tenent@nrel.gov 303-384-6775 4/4/2013 Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) Glass Transparent Conductor (TC) Active Electrode Counter Electrode Ion Conductor 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose and Objectives * Expense - Current market price of $50-$100/ft 2 - Projections indicate under $20/ft 2 needed - A new production paradigm is required * Aesthetics - Architects hesitant to adopt "smurf glass"

459

Observations of the impact of a major Saharan dust storm on the atmospheric radiation balance  

SciTech Connect

Saharan dust storms transport large quantities of material across the African continent and beyond, causing widespread disruption and hazards to health. The dust may be deposited into the Atlantic Ocean, where it provides an important source of nutrients1, and may be carried as far as the West Indies. Such events may also influence the growth of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Satellite observations have enabled estimates to be made of the effect of the dust on the radiation budget seen from space, but only limited in situ observations have hitherto been made at the surface. Here we present the first simultaneous and continuous observations of the effect of a major dust storm in March 2006 on the radiation budget both at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface. We combine data from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) broadband radiometer and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on the Meteosat-8 weather satellite with remote sensing and in situ measurements from a new Mobile Facility located in Niamey, Niger (13{sup o} 29'N, 2{sup o} 10'E), operated by the US Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. We show that the dust produced major perturbations to the radiation budget seen from space and from the surface. By combining the two datasets, we estimate the impact on the radiation budget of the atmosphere itself. Using independent data from the Mobile Facility, we derive the optical properties of the dust and input these and other information into radiation codes to simulate the radiative fluxes. Comparisons with the observed fluxes provides a stringent test of the ability of the codes to represent the radiative properties of this important component of the global aerosol burden.

Slingo, A.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Allan, R. P.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Robinson, G. J.; Barnard, James C.; Miller, Mark; Harries, J. E.; Russell, J. E.; Dewitte, S.

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Atmospheric Gravity Waves and Aircraft Turbulence Encounters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe aircraft turbulence-atmospheric gravity wave events which occurred during a 2-day period over the Continental Divide. The waves are observed by two microbarograph networks an each side of the divide and last for several hours at a ...

A. J. Bedard Jr.; F. Canavero; F. Einaudi

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Heat Budget of Tropical Ocean and Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat budget estimates for the global tropics are derived from recent calculations of the oceanic heat budget and satellite measurements of net radiation at the top of the atmosphere. Annual mean heat export from the zone 30°N–30°S amounts to 101 ...

Stefan Hastenrath

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Temperature stratification of the atmosphere of Arcturus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A brief overview of the results of the investigations of the red giant star Arcturus is given. One-dimensional LTE modeling of the atmospheres of Arcturus and the Sun as a star is carried out on the basis of synthesis of the extended wings of the H and K Ca II lines. It is found that the local continuum in this spectral region is underestimated by an average of 12% in the atlases of Arcturus. The average deficit in UV absorption amounts to 43% for Arcturus whereas it is 9% for the Sun. For Arcturus the correction factor to the continuum opacity at the wavelengths of 390.0, 392.5, 395.0, 398.0, and 400.0 nm equals 2.20, 1.90, 1.70, 1.55, and 1.45. The model atmosphere of Arcturus obtained from the best-fit of the wings of the H and K Ca II lines corresponds to the model atmosphere with the fundamental parameters T_eff = 4286 K, log g = 1.66, and [Fe/H]=-0.52 derived by Ramirez and Allende Prieto (2011). The temperature stratification of Arcturus' atmosphere is presented in tabular form. To obtain more accurate...

Sheminova, V A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Atmospheric Heat Engines on Earth and Mars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The character of the Earth's atmospheric heat engine depends, inter alia, on the relatively tight linkage between surface fluxes of energy and of H20. On Mars, on the other hand, H2O-based latent heat fluxes are only a trivial fraction of total ...

J. R. Philip

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Analysis methods for Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three different analysis techniques for Atmospheric Imaging System are presented. The classical Hillas parameters based technique is shown to be robust and efficient, but more elaborate techniques can improve the sensitivity of the analysis. A comparison of the different analysis techniques shows that they use different information for gamma-hadron separation, and that it is possible to combine their qualities.

Mathieu de Naurois

2006-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

465

Profiling Atmospheric Water Vapor by Microwave Radiometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-altitude microwave radiometric observations at frequencies near 92 and 183.3 GHz were used to study the potential of retrieving atmospheric water vapor profiles over both land and water. An algorithm based on an extended Kaiman-Bucy filter ...

J. R. Wang; J. L. King; T. T. Wilheit; G. Szejwach; L. H. Gesell; R. A. Nieman; D. S. Niver; B. M. Krupp; J. A. Gagliano

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Baroclinic Modons as Prototypes for Atmospheric Blocking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-layer quasi-geostrophic channel model on a ?-plane is used to investigate the properties of dipole eddies which may be relevant models for atmospheric blocking. It is shown that quasi-stationary equivalent barotropic dipole eddies, similar ...

K. Haines

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Accuracy of Atmospheric Energy Budgets from Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Issues relevant to achieving an accuracy of better than 10 W m?2 on 250-km scales for monthly means in the atmospheric energy balance are explored from the standpoint of the formulation and computational procedures using the National Centers for ...

Kevin E. Trenberth; David P. Stepaniak; Julie M. Caron

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

The Mathematics of Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Gaussian plume model is a standard approach for studying the transport of airborne contaminants due to turbulent diffusion and advection by the wind. This paper reviews the assumptions underlying the model, its derivation from the advection-diffusion ... Keywords: Gaussian plume solution, advection-diffusion equation, atmospheric dispersion, contaminant transport, inverse problem, linear least squares

John M. Stockie

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

upwelling irradiance upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passes through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments MFR : Multifilter Radiometer Field Campaign Instruments RAD-AIR : Airborne Radiometers

470

ARM - Measurement - Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

downwelling irradiance downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance The total diffuse and direct radiant energy, at wavelengths longer than approximately 4 {mu}m, that is being emitted downwards. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments BSRN : Baseline Solar Radiation Network BRS : Broadband Radiometer Station CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems

471

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

downwelling irradiance downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passes through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments MFRSR : Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer NFOV : Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer

472

ARM - Measurement - Net broadband total irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsNet broadband total irradiance govMeasurementsNet broadband total irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Net broadband total irradiance The difference between upwelling and downwelling, covering longwave and shortwave radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments EBBR : Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station SEBS : Surface Energy Balance System External Instruments ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model

473

Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL) | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory May 30, 2013 The Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL) was initially designed and constructed to permit the safe handling of increasing levels of radiation in the chemical, physical, and metallurgical examination of nuclear reactor fuel elements and reactor parts. The IFEL was constructed in 1963 and is a two-story brick building with a partial basement. The front or northern-most section is a single-story office area. The two story area to the immediate rear houses the cell complex, the operating areas, and other supporting activities. The office area is isolated from the main part of the building, so the office area can be excluded from the secondary containment zone. The facility has a gross floor area of about 27,000 ft2.

474

ARM - Measurement - Longwave narrowband upwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

narrowband upwelling irradiance narrowband upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave narrowband upwelling irradiance The total radiant energy, in a narrow band of wavelengths longer than approximately 4 {mu}m, passing through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments OTTER : Twin Otter UAV-EGRETT : UAV-Egrett Value-Added Products LBTM-MINNIS : Minnis Cloud Products Using LBTM Algorithm (Process)

475

Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious Disease  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious Disease Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious Disease Transmission Speaker(s): Peng Xu Date: February 19, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 The transmission of tuberculosis (TB) and other infectious diseases in health-care buildings has been a recognized hazard for decades. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) of upper room air is used as an engineering control method to prevent the spread of airborne infectious disease. Under full-scale conditions, the efficacy of UVGI for inactivating airborne bacterial spores and active cells was evaluated. A test room fitted with a modern UVGI system was used to conduct bio-aerosol inactivation experiments. UVGI efficacy can be affected by environmental factors such as relative humidity (RH), and air mixing

476

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

downwelling irradiance downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance The total diffuse and direct radiant energy that comes from some continuous range of directions, at wavelengths between 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, that is being emitted downwards. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AMC : Ameriflux Measurement Component BSRN : Baseline Solar Radiation Network

477

Irradiation effects on borosilicate waste glasses  

SciTech Connect

The effects of alpha decay on five borosilicate glasses containing simulated nuclear high-level waste oxides were studied. Irradiations carried out at room temperature were achieved by incorporating 1 to 8 wt % /sup 244/Cm/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in the glasses. Density changes and stored-energy build-up saturated at doses less than 2 x 10/sup 21/ alpha decays/kg. Damage manifested by stored energy was completely annealed at 633/sup 0/K. Positive and negative density changes were observed which never exceeded 1%. Irradiation had very little effect on mechanical strength or on chemical durability as measured by aqueous leach rates. Also, no effects were observed on the microstructure for vitreous waste glasses, although radiation-induced microcracking could be achieved on specimens that had been devitrified prior to irradiation.

Roberts, F.P.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Detecting Drizzle in Marine Warm Clouds Using Visible, Infrared, and Microwave Satellite Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Drizzle in Marine Warm Clouds Drizzle in Marine Warm Clouds Using Visible, Infrared, and Microwave Satellite Data H. Shao and G. Liu Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida Introduction Determining the radiative effects of aerosols is one of the most important areas in climate research. There are observational evidences showing that aerosols can affect the radiative balance of the earth indirectly - as the number of aerosols increases, water in the cloud spreads over many more particles. Large concentrations of small droplets not only make the cloud more reflective, but also reduce the probability of rainfall and prolong cloud lifetime, because small droplets have less efficiency of coalescence (e.g., Albrecht 1989, Rosenfeld 2000). Since precipitation is a key component in

479

Argonne CNM Highlight: Gold nanoparticles create visible-light catalysis in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Silver chloride-gold nanoparticles Gold-coated silver chloride (AgCl) nanowires at the microscopic level. In the News United Press International | PhysOrg.com | R&D Magazine| Nanotechnology Now | Photonics.com Gold nanoparticles create visible-light catalysis in nanowires A two-step approach has been developed within the Nanophotonics Group to synthesize AgCl nanowires decorated with gold nanoparticles by using silver nanowires as chemical templates. In the first step, the silver nanowires are chemically oxidized and converted to AgCl nanowires. In the second step, ions generated in the first step reduce gold precursors (e.g., NaAuCl4) to deposit gold nanoparticles on the AgCl nanowire surfaces, resulting in the formation of AgCl:gold composite nanowires. Because of the

480

Single-photon detection timing jitter in a visible light photon counter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Visible light photon counters (VLPCs) offer many attractive features as photon detectors, such as high quantum efficiency and photon number resolution. We report measurements of the single-photon timing jitter in a VLPC, a critical performance factor in a time-correlated single-photon counting measurement, in a fiber-coupled closed-cycle cryocooler. The measured timing jitter is 240 ps full-width-at-half-maximum at a wavelength of 550 nm, with a dark count rate of 25 000 counts per second. The timing jitter increases modestly at longer wavelengths to 300 ps at 1000 nm, and increases substantially at lower bias voltages as the quantum efficiency is reduced.

Burm Baek; Kyle S. McKay; Martin J. Stevens; Jungsang Kim; Henry H. Hogue; Sae Woo Nam

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "visible irradiance atmospheric" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Integrated System Of White Led Visible-Light Communication And Power-Line Communication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

White LEDs offer advantageous properties such as high brightness, reliability, lower power consumption and long lifetime. The biggest potential application for white LEDs will be general illumination and lighting. Indoor wireless optical communication systems employing white LED lighting have been proposed. This system will enable high QoS by the high power from this lighting equipment. But, it is difficult for existing offices communication using existing power-line is proposed. This system is emitted as visible-light from LED lighting according to the transmitted signal waveform without demodulating the signal from the power-line. This system is expected to be applicable from the existing illuminant easily like exchanging electric bulbs. This integrated system will surely have a big impact as a new signal transmission system and its economical effect will be great. The basic performance of this system is analyzed. The actual system is built and its feasibility is shown through experiments.

Toshihiko Komine; Masao Nakagawa

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Shocktube driven BiF visible chemical laser. I - Numerical modeling of combustion driven shocktube experiments  

SciTech Connect

Calculations to determine the utility of an HF combustion-driven shocktube in the development of BiF(A-X) visible chemical lasers are presented. The calculations were performed with a one-dimensional reactive-flow Euler solver. The Euler solver uses a time-step split algorithm to advance the calculation over a time interval. A robust design can be developed that will simulate the heating produced in the FN3/TMB/He laser-gas mixture by a CO2 laser. Small amounts of water need to be included in the H2/F2/He driver gas mixture to assist in the thermalization of the vibrationally hot HF. 8 refs.

Smith, W.; Acebal, R.; Benard, D.J.; Graves, B. (Science Applications International Corp., Marietta, GA (United States) Rockwell International Science Center, Thousand Oaks, CA (United States) U.S. Army, Missile Command, Redstone Arsenal, AL (United States))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Two-photon (VUV + visible) resonance ionization spectroscopy of molecular hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two-photon transitions have been examined in molecular hydrogen using coherent vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons at a fixed wavelength of 118 nm and a tunable photon from a dye laser. Though the VUV intensity is very weak (/approximately/100 nJ per pulse) it was utilized very efficiently since most VUV photons in the ionoization region were absorbed. This is the first time that coherent VUV light has been employed with tunable visible light for the production of two-photon spectra and the measurement of two-photon rates. A new parameter is proposed for direct comparison of the data from various two-photon experiments. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

McCann, M.P.; Chen, C.H.; Payne, M.G.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Low cost alternative of high speed visible light camera for tokamak experiments  

SciTech Connect

We present design, analysis, and performance evaluation of a new, low cost and high speed visible-light camera diagnostic system for tokamak experiments. The system is based on the camera Casio EX-F1, with the overall price of approximately a thousand USD. The achieved temporal resolution is up to 40 kHz. This new diagnostic was successfully implemented and tested at the university tokamak GOLEM (R = 0.4 m, a = 0.085 m, B{sub T} < 0.5 T, I{sub p} < 4 kA). One possible application of this new diagnostic at GOLEM is discussed in detail. This application is tomographic reconstruction for estimation of plasma position and emissivity.

Odstrcil, T.; Grover, O.; Svoboda, V. [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Brehova 7, CZ-115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic); Odstrcil, M.; Duran, I.; Mlynar, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Brehova 7, CZ-115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic); Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association Euratom-IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, CZ-182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

485

Solvothermal synthesis of designed nonstoichiometric strontium titanate for efficient visible-light photocatalysis  

SciTech Connect

SrTiO{sub 3} powders with various Sr/Ti atomic ratios were synthesized by microwave-assisted solvothermal reactions of SrCl{sub 2} and Ti(OC{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 4} in KOH aqueous solutions. The nanoparticles of perovskite type SrTiO{sub 3} structure with the particle size of 30-40 nm were synthesized. The photocatalytic activity was determined by deNO{sub x} ability using light emitting diode lamps of various wavelengths such as 627 nm (red), 530 nm (green), 445 nm (blue), and 390 nm (UV). The photocatalytic activity significantly changed depending on the Sr/Ti atomic ratio, i.e., the strontium rich sample (Sr/Ti atomic ratio>1) showed excellent visible light responsive photocatalytic activity for the oxidative destruction of NO.

Sulaeman, Uyi; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2010-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

486

Laboratory Studies of Processing of Carbonaceous Aerosols by Atmospheric Oxidants/Hygroscopicity and CCN Activity of Secondary & Processed Primary Organic Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmosphere is composed of a complex mixture of gases and suspended microscopic aerosol particles. The ability of these particles to take up water (hygroscopicity) and to act as nuclei for cloud droplet formation significantly impacts aerosol light scattering and absorption, and cloud formation, thereby influencing air quality, visibility, and climate in important ways. A substantial, yet poorly characterized component of the atmospheric aerosol is organic matter. Its major sources are direct emissions from combustion processes, which are referred to as primary organic aerosol (POA), or in situ processes in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are oxidized in the atmosphere to low volatility reaction products that subsequent condense to form particles that are referred to as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). POA and VOCs are emitted to the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural (biogenic) sources. The overall goal of this experimental research project was to conduct laboratory studies under simulated atmospheric conditions to investigate the effects of the chemical composition of organic aerosol particles on their hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity, in order to develop quantitative relationships that could be used to more accurately incorporate aerosol-cloud interactions into regional and global atmospheric models. More specifically, the project aimed to determine the products, mechanisms, and rates of chemical reactions involved in the processing of organic aerosol particles by atmospheric oxidants and to investigate the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles (as represented by molecule sizes and the specific functional groups that are present) and the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of oxidized POA and SOA formed from the oxidation of the major classes of anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs that are emitted to the atmosphere, as well as model hydrocarbons. The general approach for this project was to carry out reactions of representative anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs and organic particles with ozone (O3), and hydroxyl (OH), nitrate (NO3), and chlorine (Cl) radicals, which are the major atmospheric oxidants, under simulated atmospheric conditions in large-volume environmental chambers. A combination of on-line and off-line analytical techniques were used to monitor the chemical and physical properties of the particles including their hygroscopicity and CCN activity. The results of the studies were used to (1) improve scientific understanding of the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles and their hygroscopicity and CCN activity, (2) develop an improved molecular level theoretical framework for describing these relationships, and (3) establish a large database that is being used to develop parameterizations relating organic aerosol chemical properties and SOA sources to particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity for use in regional and global atmospheric air quality and climate models.

Ziemann, P.J.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Petters, M.D.

2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

487

Atmosphere Feedbacks during ENSO in a Coupled GCM with a Modified Atmospheric Convection Scheme  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The too diverse representation of ENSO in a coupled GCM limits one’s ability to describe future change of its properties. Several studies pointed to the key role of atmosphere feedbacks in contributing to this diversity. These feedbacks are ...

Eric Guilyardi; Pascale Braconnot; Fei-Fei Jin; Seon Tae Kim; Michel Kolasinski; Tim Li; Ionela Musat

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Atmospheric Energetics in the Wavelet Domain. Part II: Time-Averaged Observed Atmospheric Blocking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wavelet energetics (WE) is a useful generalization of traditional wavenumber energetics, for analyzing atmospheric dynamics. WE is doubly indexed by wavenumber band j and location k. The interpretation is that 2 to the jth power is proportional ...

Aimé Fournier

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Characteristics of Atmospheric Transport Using Three Numerical Formulations for Atmospheric Dynamics in a Single GCM Framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the sensitivity of a number of important archetypical tracer problems to the numerical method used to solve the equations of tracer transport and atmospheric dynamics. The tracers' scenarios were constructed to exercise the ...

Philip J. Rasch; Danielle B. Coleman; Natalie Mahowald; David L. Williamson; Shian-Jiann Lin; Byron A. Boville; Peter Hess

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

STUDY OF A CASE OF CHRONIC PROFESSIONAL IRRADIATION. PROVISIONAL DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF THIS IRRADIATION  

SciTech Connect

The case of a chemist submitted to professional chronic irradiation, in the absence of a physical check doses received, was studied to estimate the deleterious effects of this irradiation on the patient and his descent. No connection was found between the observed symptoms and this irradiation. The health of the patient did not seem to be affected in any important way. The only objective symptom, a depression of the spermatogenesis, was followed by spectacular recuperation. In the absence of objective symptoms, it is felt that there is no reason to fear genetic consequences neither for the patient nor for his offspring. (auth)

Minet, P.

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Accurate top of the atmosphere albedo determination from multiple views of the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) instrument  

SciTech Connect

Changes in the Earth`s surface albedo impact the atmospheric and global energy budget and contribute to the global climate change. It is now recognized that multispectral and multiangular views of the Earth`s top of the atmosphere (TOA) albedo are necessary to provide information on albedo changes. In this paper we describe four semi- empirical bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) models which are inverted for two and three unknowns. The retrieved BRF parameters are then used to compute the TOA spectral albedo for clear sky conditions. Using this approach we find that the albedo can be computed with better than one percent error in the visible and one and a half percent in the near infrared (NIR) for most surface types. Global monitoring of the earth radiation budget is one of the main goals in global change research programs. Thus global measurements of the TOA albedo are important. Our goals is to compute the TOA spectral albedo for clear sky conditions.

Borel, C.C.; Gerstl, S.A.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tornow, C. [German Aerospace Research Establishment, Berlin (Germany)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Understanding the Irradiation Behavior of Zirconium Carbide  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for utilization in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels in deep-burn TRISO fuel. Zirconium carbide possesses a cubic B1-type crystal structure with a high melting point, exceptional hardness, and good thermal and electrical conductivities. The use of ZrC as part of the TRISO fuel requires a thorough understanding of its irradiation response. However, the radiation effects on ZrC are still poorly understood. The majority of the existing research is focused on the radiation damage phenomena at higher temperatures (>450{degree}C) where many fundamental aspects of defect production and kinetics cannot be easily distinguished. Little is known about basic defect formation, clustering, and evolution of ZrC under irradiation, although some atomistic simulation and phenomenological studies have been performed. Such detailed information is needed to construct a model describing the microstructural evolution in fast-neutron irradiated materials that will be of great technological importance for the development of ZrC- based fuel. The goal of the proposed project is to gain fundamental understanding of the radiation-induced defect formation in zirconium carbide and irradiation response (ZrC) by using a combination of state-of-the-art experimental methods and atomistic modeling. This project will combine (1) in situ ion irradiation at a specialized facility at a national laboratory, (2) controlled temperature proton irradiation on bulk samples, and (3) atomistic modeling to gain a fundamental understanding of defect formation in ZrC. The proposed project will cover the irradiation temperatures from cryogenic temperature to as high as 800{degree}C, and dose ranges from 0.1 to 100 dpa. The examination of this wide range of temperatures and doses allows us to obtain an experimental data set that can be effectively used to exercise and benchmark the computer calculations of defect properties. Combining the examination of radiation-induced microstructures mapped spatially and temporally, microstructural evolution during post-irradiation annealing, and atomistic modeling of defect formation and transport energetics will provide new, critical understanding about property changes in ZrC. The behavior of materials under irradiation is determined by the balance between damage production, defect clustering, and lattice response. In order to predict those effects at high temperatures so targeted testing can be expanded and extrapolated beyond the known database, it is necessary to determine the defect energetics and mobilities as these control damage accumulation and annealing. In particular, low-temperature irradiations are invaluable for determining the regions of defect mobility. Computer simulation techniques are particularly useful for identifying basic defect properties, especially if closely coupled with a well-constructed and complete experimental database. The close coupling of calculation and experiment in this project will provide mutual benchmarking and allow us to glean a deeper understanding of the irradiation response of ZrC, which can then be applied to the prediction of its behavior in reactor conditions.

Motta, Arthur; Sridharan, Kumar; Morgan, Dane; Szlufarska, Izabela

2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

493

High temperature post-irradiation performance of spent pressurized-water-reactor fuel rods under dry-storage conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Post-irradiation studies on failure mechanisms of well characterized PWR rods were conducted for up to a year at 482, 510 and 571/sup 0/C in unlimited air and inert gas atmospheres. No cladding breaches occurred even though the tests operated many orders of magnitude longer in time than the lifetime predicted by Blackburn's analyses. The extended lifetime is due to significant creep strain of the Zircaloy cladding which decreases the internal rod pressures. The cladding creep also contributes to radial cracks, through the external oxide and internal FCCI layers, which propagated into and arrested in an oxygen stabilized ..cap alpha..-Zircaloy layer. There were no signs of either additional cladding hydriding, stress-corrosion cracking or fuel pellet degradation. Using the Larson-Miller formulization, a conservative maximum storage temperature of 400/sup 0/C is recommended to ensure a 1000-year cladding lifetime. This accounts for crack propagation and assumes annealing of the irradiation-hardened cladding.

Einziger, R.E.; Atkin, S.D.; Stellrecht, D.E.; Pasupathi, V.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of Initial Activities Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of Initial Activities Irradiation is known to have a significant impact on the properties and performance of Zircaloy cladding and structural materials (material degradation processes, e.g., effects of hydriding). This UFD study examines the behavior and performance of unirradiated cladding and actual irradiated cladding through testing and simulation. Three capsules containing hydrogen-charged Zircaloy-4 cladding material have been placed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Irradiation of the capsules was conducted for post-irradiation examination (PIE) metallography. Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of

495

Spatial Variability of Shortwave Irradiance for Snowmelt in Forests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spatial variation of melt energy can influence snow cover depletion rates and in turn be influenced by the spatial variability of shortwave irradiance to snow. The spatial variability of shortwave irradiance during melt under uniform and ...

John Pomeroy; Chad Ellis; Aled Rowlands; Richard Essery; Janet Hardy; Tim Link; Danny Marks; Jean Emmanuel Sicart

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

High accuracy diffuse horizontal irradiance measurements without a shadowband  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The standard method for measuring diffuse horizontal irradiance uses a fixed shadowband to block direct solar radiation. This method requires a correction for the excess skylight blocked by the band, and this correction varies with sky conditions. Alternately, diffuse horizontal irradiance may be calculated from total horizontal and direct normal irradiance. This method is in error because of angular (cosine) response of the total horizontal pyranometer to direct beam irradiance. This paper describes an improved calculation of diffuse horizontal irradiance from total horizontal and direct normal irradiance using a predetermination of the angular response of the total horizontal pyranometer. We compare these diffuse horizontal irradiance calculations with measurements made with a shading-disk pyranometer that shields direct irradiance using a tracking disk. Results indicate significant improvement in most cases. Remaining disagreement most likely arises from undetected tracking errors and instrument leveling.

Schlemmer, J.A; Michalsky, J.J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

497

Direct Solar Spectral Irradiance Measurements and Updated Simple Transmittance Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A set of 509 direct solar irradiance spectra, carefully measured over one year, is checked against spectral irradiances computed from five updated transmittance models. The wavelengths under investigation range from 290 to 900 nm, with a 5- or 10-...

A. de La Casiničre; A. I. Bokoye; T. Cabot

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Land–Atmosphere Coupling Strength in the Global Forecast System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The operational coupled land–atmosphere forecast model from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is evaluated for the strength and characteristics of its coupling in the water cycle between land and atmosphere. Following the ...

Li Zhang; Paul A. Dirmeyer; Jiangfeng Wei; Zhichang Guo; Cheng-Hsuan Lu

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Atmospheric Response to the Gulf Stream: Seasonal Variations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmospheric response to the Gulf Stream front in sea surface temperature is investigated using high-resolution data from satellite observations and operational analysis and forecast. Two types of atmospheric response are observed with ...

Shoshiro Minobe; Masato Miyashita; Akira Kuwano-Yoshida; Hiroki Tokinaga; Shang-Ping Xie

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

500