National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for visible infrared solar-infrared

  1. Geothermal Exploration with Visible through Long Wave Infrared...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wave Infrared Imaging Spectrometers Abstract Surface minerals of active geothermal systems have been mapped using visible-short wave infrared and mid wave and long wave imaging...

  2. Visible and Infrared Photometry of Fourteen Kuiper Belt Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, John Keith

    Visible and Infrared Photometry of Fourteen Kuiper Belt Objects John K. Davies Joint Astronomy\\GammaJ colors of 14 Kuiper Belt objects using new infrared (J) data combined, in most cases, with simultaneous. Kuiper Belt objects exhibit a wide range of V\\GammaJ colors but there is no correlation with heliocentric

  3. Visible and infrared photometry of Kuiper Belt objects: searching for evidence of trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheppard, Scott S.

    Visible and infrared photometry of Kuiper Belt objects: searching for evidence of trends Neil Mc. © 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved. Keywords: Kuiper Belt objects; Photometry; Infrared

  4. Metal oxides for efficient infrared to visible upconversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Etchart, Isabelle

    2010-10-12

    Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy Metal Oxides for Efficient Infrared to Visible Upconversion Isabelle Etchart Corpus Christi College A dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Preface i... to the investigation of lanthanide-doped metal oxide hosts due to their good chemical, thermal and mechanical stabilities. Chapter 1 : General i ntroductio n 4 1 .4 . Previo us w ork In this thesis, we present results obtained on Y 2...

  5. Comparison of multivariate methods for inferential modeling of soil carbon using visible/near-infrared spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grunwald, Sabine

    Comparison of multivariate methods for inferential modeling of soil carbon using visible Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy Visible/near-infrared spectroscopy Multivariate calibration Pre multivariate techniques (stepwise multiple linear regression, principal components regression, partial least

  6. Evaluation of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluation of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Moderate Resolution the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). Key goals were to assess the nature of these relationships as they varied between sensors

  7. Remote sensing of Greenland ice sheet using multispectral near-infrared and visible radiances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Jeff

    .1029/2007JD008742. 1. Introduction [2] The present atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide is about 380Remote sensing of Greenland ice sheet using multispectral near-infrared and visible radiances Petr remote-sensing algorithm that utilizes reflected visible and near-infrared radiation to discriminate

  8. Combustion Control Using Infrared and Visible Light Devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    Economics and overall experience have acted against the installation of infrared carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide analyzers on smaller systems for air fuel ratio control. This paper discusses an interesting control signal which can be derived from...

  9. Cooperative Infrared and Visible Band Tracking V. Deodeshmukh1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Sumantra Dutta

    of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 {vivek@cc, sc@ee, sumantra@ee}.iitb.ac.in Abstract Trackers based on cameras images. We further discuss how to map the motion window from IR image to visible band image and vice

  10. Using Visible and Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy to Characterize and Classify Soil Profiles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, Katrina Margarette

    2011-10-21

    AND NEAR INFRARED DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY TO CHARACTERIZE AND CLASSIFY SOIL PROFILES A Thesis by KATRINA MARGARETTE WILKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2010 Major Subject: Soil Science USING VISIBLE AND NEAR INFRARED DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY TO CHARACTERIZE AND CLASSIFY SOIL PROFILES A Thesis by KATRINA MARGARETTE WILKE Submitted...

  11. Enhanced visible and near-infrared capabilities of the JET mirror-linked divertor spectroscopy system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomanowski, B. A. Sharples, R. M.; Meigs, A. G.; Conway, N. J.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Heesterman, P.; Kinna, D. [EURATOM Collaboration: JET-EFDA Team

    2014-11-15

    The mirror-linked divertor spectroscopy diagnostic on JET has been upgraded with a new visible and near-infrared grating and filtered spectroscopy system. New capabilities include extended near-infrared coverage up to 1875 nm, capturing the hydrogen Paschen series, as well as a 2 kHz frame rate filtered imaging camera system for fast measurements of impurity (Be II) and deuterium D?, D?, D? line emission in the outer divertor. The expanded system provides unique capabilities for studying spatially resolved divertor plasma dynamics at near-ELM resolved timescales as well as a test bed for feasibility assessment of near-infrared spectroscopy.

  12. Optical properties of metallic (III, Mn)V ferromagnetic semiconductors in the infrared to visible range 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hankiewicz, EM; Jungwirth, T.; Dietl, T.; Timm, C.; Sinova, Jairo.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a study of the ac conductivity and magneto-optical properties of metallic ferromagnetic (III, Mn)V semiconductors in the infrared to visible spectrum at zero temperature. Our analysis is based on the successful kinetic exchange model...

  13. Through-Plane Water Transport Visualization in a PEMFC by Visible and Infrared Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Through-Plane Water Transport Visualization in a PEMFC by Visible and Infrared Imaging M. M. Daino and thermal profile in the through-plane direction of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) gas membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is widely studied due to its impact on performance.1­4 A variety of imaging

  14. FUSION OF VISIBLE AND INFRARED IMAGES USING EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION TO IMPROVE FACE RECOGNITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koschan, Andreas

    FUSION OF VISIBLE AND INFRARED IMAGES USING EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION TO IMPROVE FACE of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN-37996 ABSTRACT In this effort, we propose a new image fusion technique, utilizing). In this method, we decompose images from different imaging modalities into their IMFs. Fusion is performed

  15. Electrically tunable selective reflection of light from ultraviolet to visible and infrared by heliconical cholesterics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, Jie; Li, Quan; Paterson, Daniel A; Storey, John M D; Imrie, Corrie T; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2015-01-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals with helicoidal molecular architecture are known for their ability to selectively reflect light with the wavelength that is determined by the periodicity of molecular orientations. Here we demonstrate that by using a cholesteric with oblique helicoidal(heliconical) structure, as opposed to the classic right-angle helicoid, one can vary the wavelength of selectively reflected light in a broad spectral range, from ultraviolet to visible and infrared (360-1520 nm for the same chemical composition) by simply adjusting the electric field applied parallel to the helicoidal axis. The effect exists in a wide temperature range (including the room temperatures) and thus can enable many applications that require dynamically controlled transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves, from energy-saving smart windows to tunable organic lasers, reflective color display, and transparent see-through displays.

  16. Electrically tunable selective reflection of light from ultraviolet to visible and infrared by heliconical cholesterics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jie Xiang; Yannian Li; Quan Li; Daniel A. Paterson; John M. D. Storey; Corrie T. Imrie; Oleg D. Lavrentovich

    2015-03-30

    Cholesteric liquid crystals with helicoidal molecular architecture are known for their ability to selectively reflect light with the wavelength that is determined by the periodicity of molecular orientations. Here we demonstrate that by using a cholesteric with oblique helicoidal(heliconical) structure, as opposed to the classic right-angle helicoid, one can vary the wavelength of selectively reflected light in a broad spectral range, from ultraviolet to visible and infrared (360-1520 nm for the same chemical composition) by simply adjusting the electric field applied parallel to the helicoidal axis. The effect exists in a wide temperature range (including the room temperatures) and thus can enable many applications that require dynamically controlled transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves, from energy-saving smart windows to tunable organic lasers, reflective color display, and transparent see-through displays.

  17. A versatile femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy setup with tunable pulses in the visible to near infrared

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Liangdong [Department of Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Liu, Weimin [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Fang, Chong, E-mail: Chong.Fang@oregonstate.edu [Department of Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate a versatile and efficient setup to perform femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS). Technical innovations are implemented to achieve the wavelength tunability for both the picosecond narrowband Raman pump pulse and femtosecond broadband Raman probe pulse. Using a simplified one-grating scheme in a home-built second harmonic bandwidth compressor followed by a two-stage noncollinear optical parametric amplifier, we tune the Raman pump pulse from ca. 480 to 750?nm. To generate the suitable Raman probe pulse in tandem, we rely on our recently demonstrated broadband up-converted multicolor array technique that readily provides tunable broadband laser sidebands across the visible to near-infrared range. This unique setup has unparalleled flexibility for conducting FSRS. We measure the ground-state Raman spectra of a cyclohexane standard using tunable pump-probe pairs at various wavelengths across the visible region. The best spectral resolution is ?12?cm{sup ?1}. By tuning the pump wavelength closer to the electronic absorption band of a photoacid pyranine in water, we observe the pre-resonantly enhanced Raman signal. The stimulated Raman gain of the 1627?cm{sup ?1} mode is increased by over 15 times.

  18. Infrared-Transparent Visible-Opaque Fabrics for Wearable Personal Thermal Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Jonathan K; Boriskina, Svetlana V; Loomis, James; Xu, Yanfei; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Personal cooling technologies locally control the temperature of an individual rather than a large space, thus providing personal thermal comfort while supplementing cooling loads in thermally regulated environments. This can lead to significant energy and cost savings. In this study, a new approach to personal cooling was developed using an infrared-transparent visible-opaque fabric (ITVOF), which provides passive cooling via the transmission of thermal radiation emitted by the human body directly to the environment. Here, we present a conceptual framework to thermally and optically design an ITVOF. Using a heat transfer model, the fabric was found to require a minimum infrared (IR) transmittance of 0.644 and a maximum IR reflectance of 0.2 to ensure thermal comfort at ambient temperatures as high as 26.1oC (79oF). To meet these requirements, an ITVOF design was developed using synthetic polymer fibers with an intrinsically low IR absorptance. These fibers were then structured to minimize IR reflection via w...

  19. CHARACTERISTIC SIZE OF FLARE KERNELS IN THE VISIBLE AND NEAR-INFRARED CONTINUA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Yan; Jing, Ju; Wang, Haimin [Space Weather Research Lab, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Blvd, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Cao, Wenda, E-mail: yx2@njit.edu [Big Bear Solar Observatory, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Blvd, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    In this Letter, we present a new approach to estimate the formation height of visible and near-infrared emission of an X10 flare. The sizes of flare emission cores in three wavelengths are accurately measured during the peak of the flare. The source size is the largest in the G band at 4308 A and shrinks toward longer wavelengths, namely the green continuum at 5200 A and NIR at 15600 A, where the emission is believed to originate from the deeper atmosphere. This size-wavelength variation is likely explained by the direct heating model as electrons need to move along converging field lines from the corona to the photosphere. Therefore, one can observe the smallest source, which in our case is 0.''65 {+-} 0.''02 in the bottom layer (represented by NIR), and observe relatively larger kernels in upper layers of 1.''03 {+-} 0.''14 and 1.''96 {+-} 0.''27, using the green continuum and G band, respectively. We then compare the source sizes with a simple magnetic geometry to derive the formation height of the white-light sources and magnetic pressure in different layers inside the flare loop.

  20. Method And Apparatus For Examining A Tissue Using The Spectral Wing Emission Therefrom Induced By Visible To Infrared Photoexcitation.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alfano, Robert R. (3777 Independence Ave., Bronx, NY 10463); Demos, Stavros G. (3550 Pacific Ave., Apt. 304, Livermore, CA 94550); Zhang, Gang (3 Rieder Rd., Edison, NJ 08817)

    2003-12-16

    Method and an apparatus for examining a tissue using the spectral wing emission therefrom induced by visible to infrared photoexcitation. In one aspect, the method is used to characterize the condition of a tissue sample and comprises the steps of (a) photoexciting the tissue sample with substantially monochromatic light having a wavelength of at least 600 nm; and (b) using the resultant far red and near infrared spectral wing emission (SW) emitted from the tissue sample to characterize the condition of the tissue sample. In one embodiment, the substantially monochromatic photoexciting light is a continuous beam of light, and the resultant steady-state far red and near infrared SW emission from the tissue sample is used to characterize the condition of the tissue sample. In another embodiment, the substantially monochromatic photoexciting light is a light pulse, and the resultant time-resolved far red and near infrared SW emission emitted from the tissue sample is used to characterize the condition of the tissue sample. In still another embodiment, the substantially monochromatic photoexciting light is a polarized light pulse, and the parallel and perpendicular components of the resultant polarized time-resolved SW emission emitted from the tissue sample are used to characterize the condition of the tissue sample.

  1. Dispersion properties and low infrared optical losses in epitaxial AlN on sapphire substrate in the visible and infrared range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soltani, A. Stolz, A.; Gerbedoen, J.-C.; Rousseau, M.; Bourzgui, N.; De Jaeger, J.-C.; Charrier, J.; Mattalah, M.; Barkad, H. A.; Mortet, V.

    2014-04-28

    Optical waveguiding properties of a thick wurtzite aluminum nitride highly [002]-textured hetero-epitaxial film on (001) basal plane of sapphire substrate are studied. The physical properties of the film are determined by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, microRaman, and photocurrent spectroscopy. The refractive index and the thermo-optic coefficients are determined by m-lines spectroscopy using the classical prism coupling technique. The optical losses of this planar waveguide are also measured in the spectral range of 450–1553?nm. The lower value of optical losses is equal to 0.7 dB/cm at 1553?nm. The optical losses due to the surface scattering are simulated showing that the contribution is the most significant at near infrared wavelength range, whereas the optical losses are due to volume scattering and material absorption in the visible range. The good physical properties and the low optical losses obtained from this planar waveguide are encouraging to achieve a wide bandgap optical guiding platform from these aluminum nitride thin films.

  2. A new class of photo-catalytic materials and a novel principle for efficient water splitting under infrared and visible light - MgB2 as unexpected example

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kravets, V G

    2015-01-01

    Water splitting is unanimously recognized as environment friendly, potentially low cost and renewable energy solution based on the future hydrogen economy. Especially appealing is photo-catalytic water splitting whereby a suitably chosen catalyst dramatically improves efficiency of the hydrogen production driven by direct sunlight and allows it to happen even at zero driving potential. Here, we suggest a new class of stable photo-catalysts and the corresponding principle for catalytic water splitting in which infrared and visible light play the main role in producing the photocurrent and hydrogen. The new class of catalysts based on ionic binary metals with layered graphite-like structures which effectively absorb visible and infrared light facilitating the reaction of water splitting, suppress the inverse reaction of ion recombination by separating ions due to internal electric fields existing near alternating layers, provide the sites for ion trapping of both polarities, and finally deliver the electrons an...

  3. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  4. Mid-infrared second-order susceptibility of -quartz and its application to visible-infrared surface sum-frequency spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    the infrared beam polarization. To circumvent this problem, many systems make use of periscopes that change the polarization of the infrared beam by reflection. Since a separate periscope must be installed for s or p periscopes to have exactly the same path length, resulting in small but significant differences in f

  5. Spectral behavior of the optical constants in the visible/near infrared of GeSbSe chalcogenide thin films grown at glancing angle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin-Palma, R. J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Pantano, C. G.

    2007-04-23

    GeSbSe chalcogenide thin films were deposited using glancing angle deposition onto transparent glass substrates for the determination of the spectral behavior of the optical constants (index of refraction n and extinction coefficient k) in the visible and near infrared ranges (400-2500 nm) as a function of the deposition angle. Computational simulations based on the matrix method were employed to determine the values of the optical constants of the different films from the experimental reflectance and transmittance spectra. A significant dependence of the overall optical behavior on the deposition angle is found. Furthermore, the band gap of the GeSbSe thin films was calculated. The accurate determination of the optical constants of films grown at glancing angle will enable the development of sculptured thin film fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors.

  6. Air-bridged photonic crystal slabs at visible and near-infrared wavelengths K. B. Crozier,1 Virginie Lousse,2,3 Onur Kilic,3 Sora Kim,3 Shanhui Fan,3 and Olav Solgaard3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air-bridged photonic crystal slabs at visible and near-infrared wavelengths K. B. Crozier,1 manuscript received 15 February 2006; published 30 March 2006 Air-bridged photonic crystal slabs of the transmission spectra of air-bridged photonic crystal slabs with free space illumination using collimated

  7. ZnO/a-Si Distributed Bragg Reflectors for Light Trapping in Thin Film Solar Cells from Visible to Infrared Range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Aqing; Zhu, Kaigui

    2015-01-01

    Distributed bragg reflectors (DBRs) consisting of ZnO and amorphous silicon (a-Si) were prepared by magnetron sputtering method for selective light trapping. The quarter-wavelength ZnO/a-Si DBRs with only 6 periods exhibit a peak reflectance of above 99% and have a full width at half maximum that is greater than 347 nm in the range of visible to infrared. The 6-pair reversed quarter-wavelength ZnO/a-Si DBRs also have a peak reflectance of 98%. Combination of the two ZnO/a-Si DBRs leads to a broader stopband from 686 nm to 1354 nm. Using the ZnO/a-Si DBRs as the rear reflector of a-Si thin film solar cells significantly increases the photocurrent in the spectrum range of 400 nm to 1000 nm, in comparison with that of the cells with Al reflector. The obtained results suggest that ZnO/a-Si DBRs are promising reflectors of a-Si thin-film solar cells for light trapping.

  8. Fabrication and testing of diamond-machined gratings in ZnSe, GaP, and bismuth germanate for the near infrared and visible

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmenko, P J; Little, S L; Ikeda, Y; Kobayashi, N

    2008-06-22

    High quality immersion gratings for infrared applications have been demonstrated in silicon and germanium. To extend this technology to shorter wavelengths other materials must be investigated. We selected three materials, zinc selenide, gallium phosphide and bismuth germanate (Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}), based on high refractive index, good visible transmission and commercial availability in useful sizes. Crystal samples were diamond turned on an ultra-precision lathe to identify preferred cutting directions. Using this information we diamond-flycut test gratings over a range of feed rates to determine the optimal cutting conditions. For both ZnSe and GaP good surface quality was achieved at feed rates up to 1.0 cm/minute using a special compound angle diamond tool with negative rake angles on both cutting surfaces. The surface roughness of the groove facets was about 4 nm. A Zygo interferometer measured grating wavefront errors in reflection. For the ZnSe the RMS error was < {lambda}/20 at 633nm. More extensive testing was performed with a HeNe laser source and a cooled CCD camera. These measurements demonstrated high relative diffraction efficiency (> 80%), low random groove error (2.0 nm rms), and Rowland ghost intensities at < 0.1%. Preliminary tests on bismuth germanate show high tool wear.

  9. The Use of Infrared Technology To Detect Heat Loss 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faulkner, K.

    1979-01-01

    Infrared refers to electro magnetic energy with a wave length longer than those of visible light. Researchers developed methods to quantify, focus and form real-time images to infrared energy. This spawned the development of infrared Thenrography...

  10. Cropland Field Monitoring: MMV Page 1 Montana Cropland Enrolled Farm Fields Carbon Sequestration Field Sampling, Measurement, Monitoring, and Verification: Application of Visible-Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (VNIR) and Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Spangler; Ross Bricklemyer; David Brown

    2012-03-15

    There is growing need for rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods to measure, and verify soil organic carbon (SOC) change for national greenhouse gas accounting and the development of a soil carbon trading market. Laboratory based soil characterization typically requires significant soil processing, which is time and resource intensive. This severely limits application for large-region soil characterization. Thus, development of rapid and accurate methods for characterizing soils are needed to map soil properties for precision agriculture applications, improve regional and global soil carbon (C) stock and flux estimates and efficiently map sub-surface metal contamination, among others. The greatest gains for efficient soil characterization will come from collecting soil data in situ, thus minimizing soil sample transportation, processing, and lab-based measurement costs. Visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are two complementary, yet fundamentally different spectroscopic techniques that have the potential to meet this need. These sensors have the potential to be mounted on a soil penetrometer and deployed for rapid soil profile characterization at field and landscape scales. Details of sensor interaction, efficient data management, and appropriate statistical analysis techniques for model calibrations are first needed. In situ or on-the-go VisNIR spectroscopy has been proposed as a rapid and inexpensive tool for intensively mapping soil texture and organic carbon (SOC). While lab-based VisNIR has been established as a viable technique for estimating various soil properties, few experiments have compared the predictive accuracy of on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Eight north central Montana wheat fields were intensively interrogated using on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Lab-based spectral data consistently provided more accurate predictions than on-the-go data. However, neither in situ nor lab-based spectroscopy yielded even semi-quantitative SOC predictions. There was little SOC variability to explain across the eight fields, and on-the-go VisNIR was not able to capture the subtle SOC variability in these Montana soils. With more variation in soil clay content compared to SOC, both lab and on-the-go VisNIR showed better explanatory power. There are several potential explanations for poor on-the-go predictive accuracy: soil heterogeneity, field moisture, consistent sample presentation, and a difference between the spatial support of on-the-go measurements and soil samples collected for laboratory analyses. Though the current configuration of a commercially available on-the-go VisNIR system allows for rapid field scanning, on-the-go soil processing (i.e. drying, crushing, and sieving) could improve soil carbon predictions. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging elemental analysis technology with the potential to provide rapid, accurate and precise analysis of soil constituents, such as carbon, in situ across landscapes. The research team evaluated the accuracy of LIBS for measuring soil profile carbon in field-moist, intact soil cores simulating conditions that might be encountered by a probe-mounted LIBS instrument measuring soil profile carbon in situ. Over the course of three experiments, more than120 intact soil cores from eight north central Montana wheat fields and the Washington State University (WSU) Cook Agronomy Farm near Pullman, WA were interrogated with LIBS for rapid total carbon (TC), inorganic carbon (IC), and SOC determination. Partial least squares regression models were derived and independently validated at field- and regional scales. Researchers obtained the best LIBS validation predictions for IC followed by TC and SOC. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is fundamentally an elemental analysis technique, yet LIBS PLS2 models appeared to discriminate IC from TC. Regression coefficients from initial models suggested a reliance upon stoichiometric relationships between carbon (247.8 nm) and other elements

  11. Fringe visibility estimators for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer M. M. Colavita

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fringe visibility estimators for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer M. M. Colavita Jet Propulsion ABSTRACT The Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) is a long­baseline infrared interferometer located at Palomar Observatory, California. One operational mode of PTI is single­ baseline visibility measurement

  12. Fringe visibility estimators for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer M. M. Colavita

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fringe visibility estimators for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer M. M. Colavita Jet Propulsion ABSTRACT The Palomar Testbed Interferometer PTI is a long-baseline infrared interferometer located at Palomar Observatory, California. One operational mode of PTI is single- baseline visibility measurement

  13. THE INFRARED COLORS OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casagrande, L.; Asplund, M.; Ramirez, I.; Melendez, J.

    2012-12-10

    Solar infrared colors provide powerful constraints on the stellar effective temperature scale, but they must be measured with both accuracy and precision in order to do so. We fulfill this requirement by using line-depth ratios to derive in a model-independent way the infrared colors of the Sun, and we use the latter to test the zero point of the Casagrande et al. effective temperature scale, confirming its accuracy. Solar colors in the widely used Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) JHK{sub s} and WISE W1-4 systems are provided: (V - J){sub Sun} = 1.198, (V - H){sub Sun} = 1.484, (V - K{sub s} ){sub Sun} = 1.560, (J - H){sub Sun} = 0.286, (J - K{sub s} ){sub Sun} = 0.362, (H - K{sub s} ){sub Sun} = 0.076, (V - W1){sub Sun} = 1.608, (V - W2){sub Sun} = 1.563, (V - W3){sub Sun} = 1.552, and (V - W4){sub Sun} = 1.604. A cross-check of the effective temperatures derived implementing 2MASS or WISE magnitudes in the infrared flux method confirms that the absolute calibration of the two systems agrees within the errors, possibly suggesting a 1% offset between the two, thus validating extant near- and mid-infrared absolute calibrations. While 2MASS magnitudes are usually well suited to derive T{sub eff}, we find that a number of bright, solar-like stars exhibit anomalous WISE colors. In most cases, this effect is spurious and can be attributed to lower-quality measurements, although for a couple of objects (3% {+-} 2% of the total sample) it might be real, and may hint at the presence of warm/hot debris disks.

  14. Transparent, near-infrared organic photovoltaic solar cells for window and energy-scavenging applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunt, Richard R.

    We fabricate near-infrared absorbing organic photovoltaics that are highly transparent to visible light. By optimizing near-infrared optical-interference, we demonstrate power efficiencies of 1.3±0.1% with simultaneous ...

  15. ARM - Measurement - Visibility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Homepolarization ARMtotalgovMeasurementsVisibility ARM Data

  16. Infrared thermography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, C.C. Jr.

    1982-12-01

    Infrared thermography is a useful tool for the diagnosis of problems in building systems. In instances where a building owner has several large buildings, an investment in a typical $30,000 infrared system may be cost effective. In most instances, however, the rental of an infrared system or the hiring of an infrared consulting service is a cost effective alternative. As can be seen from the several applications presented here, any mechanical problem manifesting itself in an atypical temperature pattern can usually be detected. The two primary savings generated from infrared analysis of building systems are maintenance and energy.

  17. Visible and near infrared reflectances measured from laboratory ice clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    ,aswellasuncertaintiesin data, validation by means of the independent in situ airborne and ground-based measurements that are co. Liou Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles the measured ice particle morphology. We demonstrate that laboratory scat- tering and reflectance data for thin

  18. Silicon-based visible and near-infrared optoelectric devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazur, Eric (Concord, MA); Carey, III, James E. (Newton, MA)

    2011-02-08

    In one aspect, the present invention provides a silicon photodetector having a surface layer that is doped with sulfur inclusions with an average concentration in a range of about 0.5 atom percent to about 1.5 atom percent. The surface layer forms a diode junction with an underlying portion of the substrate. A plurality of electrical contacts allow application of a reverse bias voltage to the junction in order to facilitate generation of an electrical signal, e.g., a photocurrent, in response to irradiation of the surface layer. The photodetector exhibits a responsivity greater than about 1 A/W for incident wavelengths in a range of about 250 nm to about 1050 nm, and a responsivity greater than about 0.1 A/W for longer wavelengths, e.g., up to about 3.5 microns.

  19. Silicon-based visible and near-infrared optoelectric devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazur, Eric (Concord, MA); Carey, III, James E. (Newton, MA)

    2010-08-24

    In one aspect, the present invention provides a silicon photodetector having a surface layer that is doped with sulfur inclusions with an average concentration in a range of about 0.5 atom percent to about 1.5 atom percent. The surface layer forms a diode junction with an underlying portion of the substrate. A plurality of electrical contacts allow application of a reverse bias voltage to the junction in order to facilitate generation of an electrical signal, e.g., a photocurrent, in response to irradiation of the surface layer. The photodetector exhibits a responsivity greater than about 1 A/W for incident wavelengths in a range of about 250 nm to about 1050 nm, and a responsivity greater than about 0.1 A/W for longer wavelengths, e.g., up to about 3.5 microns.

  20. Silicon-based visible and near-infrared optoelectric devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, III, James Edward (Newton, MA); Mazur, Eric (Concord, MA)

    2011-12-20

    In one aspect, the present invention provides a silicon photodetector having a surface layer that is doped with sulfur inclusions with an average concentration in a range of about 0.5 atom percent to about 1.5 atom percent. The surface layer forms a diode junction with an underlying portion of the substrate. A plurality of electrical contacts allow application of a reverse bias voltage to the junction in order to facilitate generation of an electrical signal, e.g., a photocurrent, in response to irradiation of the surface layer. The photodetector exhibits a responsivity greater than about 1 A/W for incident wavelengths in a range of about 250 nm to about 1050 nm, and a responsivity greater than about 0.1 A/W for longer wavelengths, e.g., up to about 3.5 microns.

  1. Silicon-based visible and near-infrared optoelectric devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazur, Eric; Carey, James Edward

    2013-12-10

    In one aspect, the present invention provides a silicon photodetector having a surface layer that is doped with sulfur inclusions with an average concentration in a range of about 0.5 atom percent to about 1.5 atom percent. The surface layer forms a diode junction with an underlying portion of the substrate. A plurality of electrical contacts allow application of a reverse bias voltage to the junction in order to facilitate generation of an electrical signal, e.g., a photocurrent, in response to irradiation of the surface layer. The photodetector exhibits a responsivity great than about 1 A/W for incident wavelengths in a range of about 250 nm to about 1050 nm, and a responsivity greater than about 0.1 A/W for longer wavelenths, e.g., up to about 3.5 microns.

  2. Silicon-based visible and near-infrared optoelectric devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, III, James Edward; Mazur, Eric

    2006-06-06

    In one aspect, the present invention provides a silicon photodetector having a surface layer that is doped with sulfur inclusions with an average concentration in a range of about 0.5 atom percent to about 1.5 atom percent. The surface layer forms a diode junction with an underlying portion of the substrate. A plurality of electrical contacts allow application of a reverse bias voltage to the junction in order to facilitate generation of an electrical signal, e.g., a photocurrent, in response to irradiation of the surface layer. The photodetector exhibits a responsivity greater than about 1 A/W for incident wavelengths in a range of about 250 nm to about 1050 nm, and a responsivity greater than about 0.1 A/W for longer wavelengths, e.g., up to about 3.5 microns.

  3. Silicon-based visible and near-infrared optoelectric devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazur, Eric (Concord, MA); Carey, III, James Edward (Newton, MA)

    2009-03-17

    In one aspect, the present invention provides a silicon photodetector having a surface layer that is doped with sulfur inclusions with an average concentration in a range of about 0.5 atom percent to about 1.5 atom percent. The surface layer forms a diode junction with an underlying portion of the substrate. A plurality of electrical contacts allow application of a reverse bias voltage to the junction in order to facilitate generation of an electrical signal, e.g., a photocurrent, in response to irradiation of the surface layer. The photodetector exhibits a responsivity greater than about 1 A/W for incident wavelengths in a range of about 250 nm to about 1050 nm, and a responsivity greater than about 0.1 A/W for longer wavelengths, e.g., up to about 3.5 microns.

  4. ARM - Evaluation Product - Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? WeDatastreamstps DocumentationAtlanticENA Contacts ENA Related Links(AVIRIS) ProductsAirborne

  5. Geothermal Exploration with Visible through Long Wave Infrared Imaging

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View New Pages Recent Changes AllGunneryData | Open Energy

  6. A Femtosecond Visible/Visible and Visible/Mid-Infrared Transient Absorption Study of the Light Harvesting Complex II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Stokkum, Ivo

    in the thylakoid membrane of higher plants and green algae. LHCII acts to collect solar radiation, transferring, using a broad variety of experimental techniques (3­6). LHCII acts to collect solar radiation is a trimer of three identical monomers, each with a mass of ~25 kDa. From the crystallo- graphic data

  7. Resonant Visible Light Modulation with Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Renwen; de Abajo, F Javier Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Fast modulation and switching of light at visible and near-infrared (vis-NIR) frequencies is of utmost importance for optical signal processing and sensing technologies. No fundamental limit appears to prevent us from designing wavelength-sized devices capable of controlling the light phase and intensity at gigaherts (and even terahertz) speeds in those spectral ranges. However, this problem remains largely unsolved, despite recent advances in the use of quantum wells and phase-change materials for that purpose. Here, we explore an alternative solution based upon the remarkable electro-optical properties of graphene. In particular, we predict unity-order changes in the transmission and absorption of vis-NIR light produced upon electrical doping of graphene sheets coupled to realistically engineered optical cavities. The light intensity is enhanced at the graphene plane, and so is its absorption, which can be switched and modulated via Pauli blocking through varying the level of doping. Specifically, we explor...

  8. A Thermal Infrared Video Benchmark for Visual Analysis The Mathworks Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zheng

    for a comprehensive benchmark for a now popular non-visible range sensor, the thermal infrared camera. This passive sensor captures the infrared radiation emitted from the scene and its objects. Thermal imaging quantitative evaluations and comparisons of detection and tracking algorithms. A few of thermal infrared

  9. Global visibility of naked singularities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Giambo'

    2006-03-29

    Global visibility of naked singularities is analyzed here for a class of spherically symmetric spacetimes, extending previous studies - limited to inhomogeneous dust cloud collapse - to more physical valid situations in which pressures are non-vanishing. Existence of nonradial geodesics escaping from the singularity is shown, and the observability of the singularity from far-away observers is discussed.

  10. Infrared retina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishna, Sanjay (Albuquerque, NM); Hayat, Majeed M. (Albuquerque, NM); Tyo, J. Scott (Tucson, AZ); Jang, Woo-Yong (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-12-06

    Exemplary embodiments provide an infrared (IR) retinal system and method for making and using the IR retinal system. The IR retinal system can include adaptive sensor elements, whose properties including, e.g., spectral response, signal-to-noise ratio, polarization, or amplitude can be tailored at pixel level by changing the applied bias voltage across the detector. "Color" imagery can be obtained from the IR retinal system by using a single focal plane array. The IR sensor elements can be spectrally, spatially and temporally adaptive using quantum-confined transitions in nanoscale quantum dots. The IR sensor elements can be used as building blocks of an infrared retina, similar to cones of human retina, and can be designed to work in the long-wave infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from about 8 .mu.m to about 12 .mu.m as well as the mid-wave portion ranging from about 3 .mu.m to about 5 .mu.m.

  11. Evaluation of the Teledyne SIDECAR ASIC at cryogenic temperature using a visible hybrid H2RG focal plane array in 32 channel readout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liske, Jochen

    Evaluation of the Teledyne SIDECAR ASIC at cryogenic temperature using a visible hybrid H2RG focal, Hilo, HI 96720, USA ABSTRACT Teledyne Imaging Sensors (TIS) has developed a new CMOS device known of FPA drive electronics to operate visible and infrared imaging detectors with a fully digital interface

  12. In A Different Light: An Examination of Artifacts Using Affordable Digital Infrared Imaging 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuellar, Samuel Marshall

    2015-04-29

    the use of various filters in front of the camera sensor, allowing only light within the ‘visible’ range to pass. However, by replacing the IR and UV filters with one designed to block light in the visible spectrum, a camera capable of photographing... relying on infrared- sensitive films, the electronic sensors of digital cameras retain sensitivity into ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) areas of the EM spectrum. Manufacturers limit these extended EM spectrum ranges from affecting photographs through...

  13. Visibility of a spacetime singularity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Pankaj S.

    2007-02-15

    We investigate here the causal structure of spacetime in the vicinity of a spacetime singularity. The particle and energy emission from such ultradense regions forming in gravitational collapse of a massive matter cloud is governed by the nature of nonspacelike paths near the same. These trajectories are examined to show that if a null geodesic comes out from the singularity, then there exist families of future-directed nonspacelike curves which also necessarily escape from the same. The existence of such families is crucial to the physical visibility of the singularity. We do not assume any underlying symmetries for the spacetime, and earlier considerations on the nature of causal trajectories emerging from a naked singularity are generalized and clarified.

  14. Thermal to Visible Face Recognition Jonghyun Choi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daume III, Hal

    Thermal to Visible Face Recognition Jonghyun Choi , Shuowen Hu , S. Susan Young and Larry S. Davis surveillance, thermal imaging is commonly used because of the intrinsic emissivity of thermal radiation from the human body. However, matching thermal images of faces acquired at nighttime to the predominantly visible

  15. Infrared Surveys for AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, H E

    2002-01-01

    From the earliest extragalactic infrared studies AGN have shown themselves to be strong infrared sources and IR surveys have revealed new populations of AGN. I briefly review current motivations for AGN surveys in the infrared and results from previous IR surveys. The Luminous Infrared Galaxies, which in some cases house dust-enshrouded AGN, submillimeter surveys, and recent studies of the cosmic x-ray and infrared backgrounds suggest that there is a population of highly-obscured AGN at high redshift. ISO Surveys have begun to resolve the infrared background and may have detected this obscured AGN population. New infrared surveys, particularly the SIRTF Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey (SWIRE), will detect this population and provide a platform for understanding the evolution of AGN, Starbursts and passively evolving galaxies in the context of large-scale structure and environment.

  16. Infrared Surveys for AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harding E. Smith

    2002-03-06

    From the earliest extragalactic infrared studies AGN have shown themselves to be strong infrared sources and IR surveys have revealed new populations of AGN. I briefly review current motivations for AGN surveys in the infrared and results from previous IR surveys. The Luminous Infrared Galaxies, which in some cases house dust-enshrouded AGN, submillimeter surveys, and recent studies of the cosmic x-ray and infrared backgrounds suggest that there is a population of highly-obscured AGN at high redshift. ISO Surveys have begun to resolve the infrared background and may have detected this obscured AGN population. New infrared surveys, particularly the SIRTF Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey (SWIRE), will detect this population and provide a platform for understanding the evolution of AGN, Starbursts and passively evolving galaxies in the context of large-scale structure and environment.

  17. Infrared Inspection Techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, A. B.; Bevers, D. V.

    1979-01-01

    Infrared scanning equipment has been used at Amoco's Texas City refinery since 1971 as an inspection tool. A camera scans the field of view and focuses the infrared radiation on a detector which converts the infrared signal to an electrical signal...

  18. Emission of Visible Light by Hot Dense Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    More, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    HIFAN 1761 EMISSION OF VISIBLE LIGHT BY HOT DENSE METALS ByDE-AC52-07NA27344. HI FAN Emission of Visible Light by HotABSTRACT We consider the emission of visible light by hot

  19. Energy Department Announces Funding to Provide Better Visibility...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Provide Better Visibility into the Health of the Nation's Electric Grid Energy Department Announces Funding to Provide Better Visibility into the Health of the Nation's Electric...

  20. Higgs Portal to Visible Supersymmetry Breaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. -I. Izawa; Yuichiro Nakai; Takashi Shimomura

    2011-02-28

    We propose a supersymmetric extension of the standard model whose Higgs sector induces a spontaneous supersymmetry breaking by itself. Unlike the minimal extension, the current Higgs mass bound can be evaded even at the tree-level without the help of the soft breaking terms due to the usual hidden sector, as is reminiscent of the next to minimal case. We also have a possibly light pseudo-goldstino in our visible sector in addition to extra Higgs particles, both of which stem from supersymmetry breaking dynamics. In such a setup of visible supersymmetry breaking, we may see a part of supersymmetry breaking dynamics rather directly in future experiments.

  1. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

  2. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  3. The Observer Algorithm for Visibility Approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doherty, Patrick

    , with dif- ferent view ranges and grid cell sizes. By changing the size of the grid cells that the algorithm or more sentries while moving to a goal position. Algorithms for finding a covert paths in the presence of stationary and moving sentries has been devised by [5] [6]. An approximate visibility algorithm was devised

  4. Approximate Solutions to Several Visibility Optimization Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Thomas S.

    on the route. These problems are similar to the art gallery and watchman route problems, respectively. We propose a greedy iterative algorithm, formulated in the level set framework as the solution to the art that divides a domain () pop- ulated with occluders into visible and invisible regions as observed from

  5. Supplemental Discussion Infrared spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael E.

    Supplemental Discussion Infrared spectroscopy We obtained near infrared reflectance spectra of 26 /~160 (see Supplemental Figure 1). The region between 1.81 and 1.89 µm has residual contamination the 50 Myr time period (see Supplemental Figure 2). doi: 10.1038/nature05619 SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION

  6. Visible-wavelength semiconductor lasers and arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneider, Jr., Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Crawford, Mary H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A visible semiconductor laser. The visible semiconductor laser includes an InAlGaP active region surrounded by one or more AlGaAs layers on each side, with carbon as the sole p-type dopant. Embodiments of the invention are provided as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and as edge-emitting lasers (EELs). One or more transition layers comprised of a substantially indium-free semiconductor alloy such as AlAsP, AlGaAsP, or the like may be provided between the InAlGaP active region and the AlGaAS DBR mirrors or confinement layers to improve carrier injection and device efficiency by reducing any band offsets. Visible VCSEL devices fabricated according to the invention with a one-wavelength-thick (1.lambda.) optical cavity operate continuous-wave (cw) with lasing output powers up to 8 mW, and a peak power conversion efficiency of up to 11%.

  7. Seeing solar on campus : a visible photovoltaic installation on campus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guarda, Daniel Jair Alves

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for selecting a site on the MIT campus for a visible solar photovoltaic installation. Visibility, solar exposure, advertising potential, aesthetics, interactivity and direct or important ...

  8. Detecting Drizzle in Marine Warm Clouds Using Visible, Infrared, and Microwave Satellite Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent BondingMeeting |Design CompetitionsFuelof 12 DetailedDrizzle in

  9. Comprehensive Pyrometry of Incandescent Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in the Visible and Near Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Scott

    2012-01-01

    chip’s membrane backlit by lightbulb using 500 nm ?lter. Inconnection. A small lightbulb is placed in the backside ofchip’s membrane backlit by lightbulb using 500 nm ?lter. In

  10. Face recognition by fusing thermal infrared and visible imagery George Bebis a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bebis, George

    an optimum fusion strategy. We have evaluated our approaches through extensive experiments using the Equinox

  11. Comprehensive Pyrometry of Incandescent Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in the Visible and Near Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Systems Nanofabrication Cleanroom (ISNC) in the Californiawafer. Place the wafer on cleanroom paper and, using a Q-lifto?, place the wafer on a cleanroom paper towel and use a

  12. Radiometric characterization of a high temperature blackbody in the visible and near infrared

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taubert, R. D.; Hollandt, J.

    2013-09-11

    At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt the radiance temperature in the range from 962 °C to 3000 °C is disseminated by applying a high temperature blackbody (HTBB) with a directly heated pyrolytic graphite cavity. The thermodynamic radiance temperature of the HTBB was measured in the temperature range from 1000 °C to 3000 °C by applying almost simultaneously absolutely calibrated silicon photodiode based filter radiometers with centre wavelengths at 476 nm, 676 nm, 800 nm, 900 nm and 1000 nm and InGaAs photodiode based filter radiometers with centre wavelengths at 1300 nm, 1550 nm and 1595 nm. The results demonstrate that, expressed in terms of irradiance, within an uncertainty of 0.1 % (k=1) in a broad wavelength range the thermodynamic radiance temperature of the HTBB is wavelength independent in the investigated temperature interval.

  13. Comprehensive Pyrometry of Incandescent Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in the Visible and Near Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Graphene As graphene is a zero-gap semiconductor, transportsemiconductor technology. The performance of grapheneGraphene, an atomically thin sheet of sp 2 bonded carbon, is a zero-bandgap semiconductor

  14. Journal of Luminescence 102103 (2003) 737743 Infrared to visible up-conversion in thulium and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Douglas S.

    2003-01-01

    and holmium doped lutetium aluminum garnet Ki-Soo Lima, *, P. Babua,1 , Sun-Kyun Leea , Van-Thai Phama , D on the up-converted emissions at 367, 458 and 483 nm in thulium doped lutetium aluminum garnet (LuAG) under; Ho:LuAG; Up-conversion; Energy transfer 1. Introduction Rare earth ion doped lutetium garnets, Lu3Al5

  15. Ralph: A Visible/Infrared Imager for the New Horizons Pluto/Kuiper Belt Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stern, S. Alan

    , Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), 1050 Walnut St., Suite 400, Boulder CO, 80302 3 SwRI, 6220 Culebra Rd, MS 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 7 Dept. of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute (Sw for atmospheric studies and to map the surface temperature. It is a compact, low-mass (10.5 kg) power efficient (7

  16. Tunable Transmittance of Near-infrared and Visible Light in Reconstruc...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govern the macroscopic electrochromic properties - from the atomic scale (bonding and crystal structure) to the mesoscale (crystallite sizes, interface densities and...

  17. In situ characterization of soil properties using visible near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waiser, Travis Heath

    2007-09-17

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a rapid proximal-sensing method that is being used more and more in laboratory settings to measure soil properties. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy research that has been completed in laboratories shows...

  18. Cloud Properties Derived from Visible and Near-infrared Reflectance in the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D BGene NetworkNuclearDNP 20082 P r o j eCommittee of thePresence of

  19. Tunable Transmittance of Near-infrared and Visible Light in Reconstructed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPP UPDATE: April 15, 2014 Truck fireContact UsTunable

  20. DeMeo taxonomy : categorization of asteroids in the near-infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMeo, Francesca E

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the DeMeo taxonomy, an asteroid taxonomy with 24 classes based on Principal Component Analysis of spectral data over the visible and near-infrared wavelengths, specifically the 0.45 to 2.45 micron range. ...

  1. Path-dependent human identification using a pyroelectric infrared sensor and Fresnel lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitsianis, Nikos P.

    Path-dependent human identification using a pyroelectric infrared sensor and Fresnel lens arrays) sensor whose visibility is modulated by a Fresnel lens array. The optimal element number of the lens," Proc. of IEEE. Signals, Systems and Computers 1, 843-838 (2001). 11. Fresnel Technologies Inc., http

  2. Indoor positioning algorithm using light-emitting diode visible light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavehrad, Mohsen

    Indoor positioning algorithm using light- emitting diode visible light communications Zhou Zhou of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms #12;Indoor positioning algorithm using light-emitting diode visible light. This paper proposes a novel indoor positioning algorithm using visible light communications (VLC

  3. Magnetorefractive effect in manganites with a colossal magnetoresistance in the visible spectral region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukhorukov, Yu. P., E-mail: suhorukov@imp.uran.ru; Telegin, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Granovsky, A. B., E-mail: granov@magn.ru; Gan'shina, E. A. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Zhukov, A.; Gonzalez, J. [Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV)/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (EHU), Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica (Spain); Herranz, G. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB)-CSIC (Spain); Caicedo, J. M. [Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV)/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (EHU), Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica (Spain); Yurasov, A. N. [Moscow State Institute of Radio-Engineering, Electronics, and Automation (Technical University) (Russian Federation); Bessonov, V. D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Kaul', A. R.; Gorbenko, O. Yu.; Korsakov, I. E. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-15

    The magnetotransmission, magnetoreflection, and magnetoresistance of the La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.9}Ag{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} epitaxial films have been investigated. It has been found that the films exhibit a significant magnetorefractive effect in the case of reflection and transmission of light in the fundamental absorption region both in the vicinity of the Curie temperature and at low temperatures. It has been shown that the magnetorefractive effect in the infrared spectral region of the manganites is determined by a high-frequency response to magnetoresistance, whereas the magnetorefractive effect in the visible spectral region of these materials is associated with a change in the electronic structure in response to a magnetic field, which, in turn, leads to a change in the electron density of states, the probability of interband optical transitions, and the shift of light absorption bands. The obtained values of the magnetotransmittance and magnetoreflectance in the visible spectral region are less than those observed in the infrared region of the spectrum, but they are several times greater than the linear magneto-optical effects. As a result, the magnetorefractive effect, which is a nongyrotropic phenomenon, makes it possible to avoid the use of light analyzers and polarizers in optical circuits.

  4. More visible effects of the hidden sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murayama, Hitoshi; Murayama, Hitoshi; Nomura, Yasunori; Poland, David

    2007-09-06

    There is a growing appreciation that hidden sector dynamics may affect the supersymmetry breaking parameters in the visible sector (supersymmetric standard model), especially when the dynamics is strong and superconformal. We point out that there are effects that have not been previously discussed in the literature. For example, the gaugino masses are suppressed relative to the gravitino mass. We discuss their implications in the context of various mediation mechanisms. The issues discussed include anomaly mediation with singlets, the mu (B mu) problem in gauge and gaugino mediation, and distinct mass spectra for the superparticles that have not been previously considered.

  5. Infrared source test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ott, L.

    1994-11-15

    The purpose of the Infrared Source Test (IRST) is to demonstrate the ability to track a ground target with an infrared sensor from an airplane. The system is being developed within the Advance Technology Program`s Theater Missile Defense/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) section. The IRST payload consists of an Amber Radiance 1 infrared camera system, a computer, a gimbaled mirror, and a hard disk. The processor is a custom R3000 CPU board made by Risq Modular Systems, Inc. for LLNL. The board has ethernet, SCSI, parallel I/O, and serial ports, a DMA channel, a video (frame buffer) interface, and eight MBytes of main memory. The real-time operating system VxWorks has been ported to the processor. The application code is written in C on a host SUN 4 UNIX workstation. The IRST is the result of a combined effort by physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers, and computer scientists.

  6. A PHOTOMETRICALLY AND MORPHOLOGICALLY VARIABLE INFRARED NEBULA IN L483

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connelley, Michael S. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Hodapp, Klaus W. [University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy, 640 N. Aohoku Pl., Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Fuller, Gary A. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    We present narrow and broad K-band observations of the Class 0/I source IRAS 18148-0440 that span 17 years. The infrared nebula associated with this protostar in the L483 dark cloud is both morphologically and photometrically variable on a timescale of only a few months. This nebula appears to be an infrared analog to other well known optically visible variable nebulae associated with young stars, such as Hubble's Variable Nebula. Along with Cepheus A, this is one of the first large variable nebulae to be found that is only visible in the infrared. The variability of this nebula is most likely due to changing illumination of the cloud rather than any motion of the structure in the nebula. Both morphological and photometric changes are observed on a timescale only a few times longer than the light crossing time of the nebula, suggesting very rapid intrinsic changes in the illumination of the nebula. Our narrowband observations also found that H{sub 2} knots are found nearly twice as far to the east of the source as to its west, and that H{sub 2} emission extends farther east of the source than the previously known CO outflow.

  7. Visible light surface emitting semiconductor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olbright, Gregory R. (Boulder, CO); Jewell, Jack L. (Bridgewater, NJ)

    1993-01-01

    A vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser is disclosed comprising a laser cavity sandwiched between two distributed Bragg reflectors. The laser cavity comprises a pair of spacer layers surrounding one or more active, optically emitting quantum-well layers having a bandgap in the visible which serve as the active optically emitting material of the device. The thickness of the laser cavity is m .lambda./2n.sub.eff where m is an integer, .lambda. is the free-space wavelength of the laser radiation and n.sub.eff is the effective index of refraction of the cavity. Electrical pumping of the laser is achieved by heavily doping the bottom mirror and substrate to one conductivity-type and heavily doping regions of the upper mirror with the opposite conductivity type to form a diode structure and applying a suitable voltage to the diode structure. Specific embodiments of the invention for generating red, green, and blue radiation are described.

  8. Near infrared surfaceplasmonpolariton with hyperbolic metamaterials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Near infrared surfaceplasmonpolariton with hyperbolic metamaterials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Near infrared surfaceplasmonpolariton with hyperbolic metamaterials....

  9. Infrared floodlight assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wierzbicki, Julian J. (Peabody, MA); Chakrabarti, Kirti B. (Danvers, MA)

    1987-09-22

    An infrared floodlight assembly (10) including a cast aluminum outer housing (11) defining a central chamber (15) therein. A floodlight (14), having a tungsten halogen lamp as the light source, is spacedly positioned within a heat conducting member (43) within chamber (15) such that the floodlight is securedly positioned in an aligned manner relative to the assembly's filter (35) and lens (12) components. The invention also includes venting means (51) to allow air passage between the interior of the member (43) and the adjacent chamber (15), as well as engagement means (85) for engaging a rear surface of the floodlight (14) to retain it firmly against an internal flange of the member (43). A reflector (61), capable of being compressed to allow insertion or removal, is located within the heat conducting member's interior between the floodlight (14) and filter (35) to reflect infrared radiation toward the filter (35) and spaced lens (12).

  10. Guaranteed Occlusion and Visibility in Cluster Hierarchical Radiosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montréal, Université de

    â??epartement d'informatique et de recherche opâ??erationnelle Universitâ??e de Montrâ??eal Abstract. Visibility the quantity and quality of energy transfers between surfaces rather than individual polygons or self in the energy exchanges. We observed that full visibility and full occlusion can represent a significant

  11. Guaranteed Occlusion and Visibility in Cluster Hierarchical Radiosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montréal, Université de

    ´epartement d'informatique et de recherche op´erationnelle Universit´e de Montr´eal Abstract. Visibility the quantity and quality of energy transfers between surfaces rather than individual polygons or self in the energy exchanges. We observed that full visibility and full occlusion can represent a significant

  12. Fringe visibility estimators for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fringe visibility estimators for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer Draft: January 23, 1998 Abstract The Palomar Testbed Interferometer PTI is a long-baseline in- frared interferometer installed at Palomar Observatory, California. One operational mode of PTI is single-baseline visibility measure- ments

  13. Fringe visibility estimators for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fringe visibility estimators for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer Draft: February 18, 1998 Abstract The Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) is a long­baseline in­ frared interferometer installed at Palomar Observatory, California. One operational mode of PTI is single­baseline visibility measure­ ments

  14. Visibility Maximization with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Complex Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visibility Maximization with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Complex Environments by Kenneth Lee #12;2 #12;Visibility Maximization with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Complex Environments by Kenneth Lee of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics Abstract Unmanned aerial

  15. Dynamically Responsive Infrared Window Coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dynamically Responsive Infrared Window Coatings 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Dr. Kyle J. Alvine, kyle.alvine@pnnl.gov Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 21C...

  16. Discovery of a Boxy Peanut Shaped Bulge in the Near Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Quillen; L. E. Kuchinski; J. A. Frogel; D. L. DePoy

    1997-01-15

    We report on the discovery of a boxy/peanut shaped bulge in the highly inclined barred Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC~7582. The peanut shape is clearly evident in near infrared $JHK$ images but obscured by extinction from dust in visible $BVR$ images. This suggests that near infrared imaging surveys will discover a larger number of boxy/peanut morphologies than visible surveys, particularly in galaxies with heavy extinction such as NGC~7582. The bulge in NGC~7582 exhibits strong boxiness compared to other boxy/peanut shaped bulges. If the starburst was mediated by the bar, then it is likely that the bar formed in less than a few bar rotation periods or a few $\\times 10^8$ years ago. If the bar also caused the peanut, then the peanut would have formed quickly; on a timescale of a few bar rotation periods.

  17. VRCodes : embedding unobtrusive data for new devices in visible light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woo, Grace R

    2012-01-01

    This thesis envisions a public space populated with active visible surfaces which appear different to a camera than to the human eye. Thus, they can act as general digital interfaces that transmit machine-compatible data ...

  18. Calling all “Fiberhoods”: Google Fiber and the Politics of Visibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halegoua, Germaine R.

    2014-01-01

    and use, and experiment with new deployment models for large scale fiber optic infrastructure in the US. However, the author focuses on how the process of transformation rendered certain pre-existing digital divides and inequities more visible rather than...

  19. Visible spectroscopic imaging on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boswell, C. J. (Christopher James), 1974-

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation reports on the development of a diagnostic visible imaging system on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and the results from that system. The dissertation asserts the value of this system as a qualitative and ...

  20. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerwert, Klaus

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy Klaus Gerwert, Lehrstuhl fu¨r Biophysik, Ruhr, Germany Based in part on the previous version of this Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (ELS) article, Fourier Transform IR by Johannes Orphal. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is an experimental technique

  1. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Carroll, Malcolm S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  2. Heat Loss Measurement Using Infrared Imaging 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seeber, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    Infrared thermography has proven to be an important tool in numerous plant maintenance and energy conservation applications. Quantitative measurement, using infrared imaging instruments, is a powerful new dimension of infrared thermography...

  3. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DETECTION OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DETECTION OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ROTATIONAL EMISSION TOWARDS TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SPITZER INFRARED...

  4. Mid-infrared tunable metamaterials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brener, Igal; Miao, Xiaoyu; Shaner, Eric A; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Jun, Young Chul

    2015-04-28

    A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.

  5. Industrial Use of Infrared Inspections 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duch, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    Infrared is and has been an established technology in the military and aerospace fields. However, only relatively recently has this technology found a "use" in the industrial sector. Many reasons exist why the technology has not been used...

  6. The SNAP near infrared detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01

    it will detect Type Ia supernovæ between z = 1 and 1.7 andphotometry for all supernovæ. HgCdTe technology, with a cut-Keywords: Cosmology, Supernovae, Dark Energy, Near Infrared,

  7. Dark/visible parallel universes and Big Bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Frederico, T.; Fuqua, J.; Hussein, M. S.; Oliveira, O.; Paula, W. de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce, Commerce TX 75429 (United States); Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, DCTA 12.228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce, Commerce TX 75429 (United States); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05314-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, DCTA 12.228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil and Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, DCTA 12.228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-11-20

    We develop a model for visible matter-dark matter interaction based on the exchange of a massive gray boson called herein the Mulato. Our model hinges on the assumption that all known particles in the visible matter have their counterparts in the dark matter. We postulate six families of particles five of which are dark. This leads to the unavoidable postulation of six parallel worlds, the visible one and five invisible worlds. A close study of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), baryon asymmetries, cosmic microwave background (CMB) bounds, galaxy dynamics, together with the Standard Model assumptions, help us to set a limit on the mass and width of the new gauge boson. Modification of the statistics underlying the kinetic energy distribution of particles during the BBN is also discussed. The changes in reaction rates during the BBN due to a departure from the Debye-Hueckel electron screening model is also investigated.

  8. Algorithms for the Automatic Identification of MARFEs and UFOs in JET Database of Visible Camera Videos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Algorithms for the Automatic Identification of MARFEs and UFOs in JET Database of Visible Camera Videos

  9. Dust-Acoustic Waves: Visible Sound Waves Robert L. Merlino

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merlino, Robert L.

    Dust-Acoustic Waves: Visible Sound Waves Robert L. Merlino Department of Physics and Astronomy and experimental work on dust acoustic waves is given. The basic physics of the dust acoustic wave and some findings and outstanding problems are also presented. Keywords: dusty plasmas, dust acoustic waves PACS: 52

  10. Accepted Manuscript Visible Models for Interactive Pattern Recognition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, George

    in interactive visual classification. The visible model of an object to be recognized is an abstraction classification, faster than unaided human classification, and that both machine and human performance improve Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 USA. He is now with the National Library of Medicine, Bldg. 38A, Rm. 10S

  11. Making Sustainability Visible: Two Early Childhood Education Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Making Sustainability Visible: Two Early Childhood Education Centers Jenny Young, Anna Liu evaluation compares two early childhood education centers built in 2007 in two very different parts of rural-occupancy, sustainability, children INTRODUCTION: COMPARING TWO CENTERS FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION Redwood Early

  12. Resonator design for a visible wavelength free-electron laser (*)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhowmik, A.; Lordi, N. . Rocketdyne Div.); Ben-Zvi, I.; Gallardo, J. )

    1990-01-01

    Design requirements for a visible wavelength free-electron laser being developed at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented along with predictions of laser performance from 3-D numerical simulations. The design and construction of the optical resonator, its alignment and control systems are also described. 15 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Coated photocathodes for visible photon imaging with gaseous photomultipliers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coated photocathodes for visible photon imaging with gaseous photomultipliers E. Shefer*, A photocathodes, coated with thin CsI and CsBr protective "lms, for applications within gas avalanche., Jerusalem, Israel. achieved, though at the expense of some reduction in the quantum e$ciency, by coating

  14. ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Spring 2014 Particulate Mass and Visibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    -powered lawn mowers, paint, etc., react photochemically to produce more oxidized compounds that tendATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 ­ Spring 2014 Problem 18 Particulate Mass and Visibility In the polluted urban-phase mixing ratio of the precursor necessary to produce that amount of particulate. Recall that pollutants

  15. Electrically tunable infrared metamaterial devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brener, Igal; Jun, Young Chul

    2015-07-21

    A wavelength-tunable, depletion-type infrared metamaterial optical device is provided. The device includes a thin, highly doped epilayer whose electrical permittivity can become negative at some infrared wavelengths. This highly-doped buried layer optically couples with a metamaterial layer. Changes in the transmission spectrum of the device can be induced via the electrical control of this optical coupling. An embodiment includes a contact layer of semiconductor material that is sufficiently doped for operation as a contact layer and that is effectively transparent to an operating range of infrared wavelengths, a thin, highly doped buried layer of epitaxially grown semiconductor material that overlies the contact layer, and a metallized layer overlying the buried layer and patterned as a resonant metamaterial.

  16. Lattice Simulations and Infrared Conformality

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Appelquist, Thomas; Fleming, George T; Lin, Meifeng; Neil, Ethan T; Schaich, David A

    2011-09-01

    We examine several recent lattice-simulation data sets, asking whether they are consistent with infrared conformality. We observe, in particular, that for an SU(3) gauge theory with 12 Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation, recent simulation data can be described assuming infrared conformality. Lattice simulations include a fermion mass m which is then extrapolated to zero, and we note that this data can be fit by a small-m expansion, allowing a controlled extrapolation. We also note that the conformal hypothesis does not work well for two theories that are known or expected to be confining and chirally broken, and that itmore »does work well for another theory expected to be infrared conformal.« less

  17. Transmittance from visible to mid infra-red in AZO films grown by atomic layer deposition system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanner, David B.

    for solar cells, flat panel displays, LCD electrodes, touch panel transparent contacts and IR win- dows Westgate a , D.I. Koukis b , D.J. Arenas c , D.B. Tanner b a Center for Autonomous Solar Power, Binghamton found applications in thin film photovoltaics such as CdTe and CIGS based solar cells (Dhere et al

  18. Infrared and Visible Image Fusion for Face Recognition Saurabh Singha, Aglika Gyaourovaa, George Bebisa, and Ioannis Pavlidisb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bebis, George

    and compare the proposed fusion schemes, we have performed extensive recognition experiments using the Equinox

  19. Multi-Sensor Fusion of Electro-Optic and Infrared Signals for High Resolution Visible Images: Part II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of high resolution and low noise level, but they cannot reflect information about the temperature the properties of low resolution and high noise level, but IR images can reflect information about temperature variation of objects in the daytime via high-resolution EO images. The proposed novel framework

  20. PPPL-3301, Preprint: May 1998, UC-426 Design Study of a Visible/Infrared Periscope for Intense Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    including dimensional changes. Although radiation resistant refractive optics functioned well for the TFTR projected heating of the reflective optics themselves to several hundred degrees Celsius. Tests of beryllium. The periscope system is to be used for internal inspection of the vacuum vessel, imaging the plasma and divertor

  1. PPPL3301, Preprint: May 1998, UC426 Design Study of a Visible/Infrared Periscope for Intense Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    including dimensional changes. Although radiation resistant refractive optics functioned well for the TFTR projected heating of the reflective optics themselves to several hundred degrees Celsius. Tests of beryllium. The periscope system is to be used for internal inspection of the vacuum vessel, imaging the plasma and divertor

  2. Real time infrared aerosol analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL); Reedy, Gerald T. (Bourbonnais, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

  3. Near-infrared and Mid-infrared Spectroscopy with the Infrared Camera (IRC) for AKARI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Youichi Ohyama; Takashi Onaka; Hideo Matsuhara; Takehiko Wada; Woojung Kim; Naofumi Fujishiro; Kazunori Uemizu; Itsuki Sakon; Martin Cohen; Miho Ishigaki; Daisuke Ishihara; Yoshifusa Ita; Hirokazu Kataza; Toshio Matsumoto; Hiroshi Murakami; Shinki Oyabu; Toshihiko Tanabe; Toshinobu Takagi; Munetaka Ueno; Fumio Usui; Hidenori Watarai; Chris P. Pearson; Norihide Takeyama; Tomoyasu Yamamuro; Yuji Ikeda

    2007-08-31

    The Infrared Camera (IRC) is one of the two instruments on board the AKARI satellite. In addition to deep imaging from 1.8-26.5um for the pointed observation mode of the AKARI, it has a spectroscopic capability in its spectral range. By replacing the imaging filters by transmission-type dispersers on the filter wheels, it provides low-resolution (lambda/d_lambda ~ 20-120) spectroscopy with slits or in a wide imaging field-of-view (approximately 10'X10'). The IRC spectroscopic mode is unique in space infrared missions in that it has the capability to perform sensitive wide-field spectroscopic surveys in the near- and mid-infrared wavelength ranges. This paper describes specifications of the IRC spectrograph and its in-orbit performance.

  4. Visibility bound caused by a distinguishable noise particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miroslav Gavenda; Lucie Celechovska; Jan Soubusta; Miloslav Dusek; Radim Filip

    2011-03-11

    We investigate how distinguishability of a "noise" particle degrades interference of the "signal" particle. The signal, represented by an equatorial state of a photonic qubit, is mixed with noise, represented by another photonic qubit, via linear coupling on the beam splitter. We report on the degradation of the "signal" photon interference depending on the degree of indistinguishability between "signal" and "noise" photon. When the photons are principally completely distinguishable but technically indistinguishable the visibility drops to the value 1/sqrt(2). As the photons become more indistinguishable the maximal visibility increases and reaches the unit value for completely indistinguishable photons. We have examined this effect experimentally using setup with fiber optics two-photon Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

  5. Thermo Tracer Infrared Thermal Imager

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    -range area G Environment monitoring Volcano, ecology, vegetation, global warming, pollution G R&D Evaluation is a fixed installation type infrared thermal imaging camera to monitor important facilities Production line monitoring Quality anomalies in production processes G Facility monitoring Anomalies

  6. Visible Light Photoreduction of CO{sub 2} Using CdSe/Pt/TiO{sub 2} Heterostructured Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Congjun; Thompson, Robert L.; Baltrus, John; Matranga, Christopher

    2010-08-01

    A series of CdSe quantum dot (QD)-sensitized TiO{sub 2} heterostructures have been synthesized, characterized, and tested for the photocatalytic reduction of CO{sub 2} in the presence of H{sub 2}O. Our results show that these heterostructured materials are capable of catalyzing the photoreduction of CO{sub 2} using visible light illumination (? > 420 nm) only. The effect of removing surfactant caps from the CdSe QDs by annealing and using a hydrazine chemical treatment have also been investigated. The photocatalytic reduction process is followed using infrared spectroscopy to probe the gas-phase reactants and gas chromatography to detect the products. Gas chromatographic analysis shows that the primary reaction product is CH{sub 4}, with CH{sub 3}OH, H{sub 2}, and CO observed as secondary products. Typical yields of the gas-phase products after visible light illumination (?>420 nm) were 48 ppm g{sup -1} h{sup -1} of CH{sub 4}, 3.3 ppm g{sup -1} h{sup -1} of CH{sub 3}OH (vapor), and trace amounts of CO and H{sub 2}.

  7. Reflection beamshifts of visible light due to graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hermosa, N

    2015-01-01

    I present theoretical calculations of reflection beamshifts, Goos-H\\"anchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts, due to the presence of a monolayer graphene on a dielectric media when using a beam with wavelength in the visible range. Specifically, I look at beamshifts for different polarization states (p, s, $45^0$, $\\sigma^+$). The Goos-H\\"anchen shifts I calculated are in good agreement with results of a recent experiment. I will discuss other possible experimental routes to determine beamshifts in graphene.

  8. DESIGN OF VISIBLE DIAGNOSTIC BEAMLINE FOR NSLS2 STORAGE RING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, W.; Fernandes, H.; Hseuh, H.; Kosciuk, B.; Krinsky, S.; Singh, O.

    2011-03-28

    A visible synchrotron light monitor (SLM) beam line has been designed at the NSLS2 storage ring, using the bending magnet radiation. A retractable thin absorber will be placed in front of the first mirror to block the central x-rays. The first mirror will reflect the visible light through a vacuum window. The light is guided by three 6-inch diameter mirrors into the experiment hutch. In this paper, we will describe design work on various optical components in the beamline. The ultra high brightness NSLS-II storage ring is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It will have 3GeV, 500mA electron beam circulating in the 792m ring, with very low emittance (0.9nm.rad horizontal and 8pm.rad vertical). The ring is composed of 30 DBA cells with 15 fold symmetry. Three damping wigglers will be installed in long straight sections 8, 18 and 28 to lower the emittance. While electrons pass through the bending magnet, synchrotron radiation will be generated covering a wide spectrum. There are other insertion devices in the storage ring which will generate shorter wavelength radiation as well. Synchrotron radiation has been widely used as diagnostic tool to measure the transverse and longitudinal profile. Three synchrotron light beam lines dedicated for diagnostics are under design and construction for the NSLS-II storage ring: two x-ray beam lines (pinhole and CRL) with the source points from Cell 22 BM{_}A (first bending in the DBA cell) and Cell22 three-pole wiggler; the third beam line is using visible part of radiation from Cell 30 BM{_}B (second bending magnet from the cell). Our paper focuses on the design of the visible beam line - SLM.

  9. Electrically injected visible vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneider, R.P.; Lott, J.A.

    1994-09-27

    Visible laser light output from an electrically injected vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VSCEL) diode is enabled by the addition of phase-matching spacer layers on either side of the active region to form the optical cavity. The spacer layers comprise InAlP which act as charge carrier confinement means. Distributed Bragg reflector layers are formed on either side of the optical cavity to act as mirrors. 5 figs.

  10. Infrared Dry-peeling Technology for Tomatoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This research will use infrared heating technology for peeling tomatoes. Infrared dry peeling, a device District: 8 Senate District: 5 Application: Nationwide Amount: $324,250 Term: November 1, 2010

  11. Drones, Infrared Imagery, and Body Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parks, L

    2015-01-01

    afar: The politics of drones and liminal security-scapes.of Communication 8 (2014) Drones, Infrared Imagery, and Body2521 1932–8036/2014FEA0002 Drones, Infrared Imagery, and

  12. The Swift-UVOT ultraviolet and visible grism calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuin, N P M; Breeveld, A A; Page, M J; James, C; Lamoureux, H; Mehdipour, M; Still, M; Yershov, V; Brown, P J; Carter, M; Mason, K O; Kennedy, T; Marshall, F; Roming, P W A; Siegel, M; Oates, S; Smith, P J; De Pasquale, M

    2015-01-01

    We present the calibration of the Swift UVOT grisms, of which there are two, providing low-resolution field spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and optical bands respectively. The UV grism covers the range 1700-5000 Angstrom with a spectral resolution of 75 at 2600 Angstrom for source magnitudes of u=10-16 mag, while the visible grism covers the range 2850-6600 Angstrom with a spectral resolution of 100 at 4000 Angstrom for source magnitudes of b=12-17 mag. This calibration extends over all detector positions, for all modes used during operations. The wavelength accuracy (1-sigma) is 9 Angstrom in the UV grism clocked mode, 17 Angstrom in the UV grism nominal mode and 22 Angstrom in the visible grism. The range below 2740 Angstrom in the UV grism and 5200 Angstrom in the visible grism never suffers from overlapping by higher spectral orders. The flux calibration of the grisms includes a correction we developed for coincidence loss in the detector. The error in the coincidence loss correction is less than 20%. The...

  13. Infrared Upconversion for Astronomy Robert W. Boyd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Robert W.

    which collects the infrared radiation is designed so as to map each point in the field of view. Infrared radiation of frequency Figure 1. Schematic description of the upconversion process. Infrared radiation of frequency vIR is mixed with an intense laser beam of fre- quency vL in a nonlinear crystal

  14. Integrating radar stratigraphy with high resolution visible stratigraphy of the north polar layered deposits, Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrne, Shane

    Integrating radar stratigraphy with high resolution visible stratigraphy of the north polar layered that radar reflectors can be used as geometric prox- ies for visible stratigraphy. Furthermore in the stratigraphy of the pola

  15. Enhancement of near-infrared absorption in graphene with metal gratings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, B.; Zhang, Z. M., E-mail: zhuomin.zhang@me.gatech.edu [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Zhao, J. M. [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2014-07-21

    Graphene has been demonstrated as a good candidate for ultrafast optoelectronic devices. However, graphene is essentially transparent in the visible and near infrared with an absorptivity of 2.3%, which has largely limited its application in photon detection. This Letter demonstrates that the absorptance in a monatomic graphene layer can be greatly enhanced to nearly 70%, thanks to the localized strong electric field resulting from magnetic resonances in deep metal gratings. Furthermore, the resonance frequency is essentially not affected by the additional graphene layer. The method presented here may benefit the design of next-generation graphene-based optical and optoelectronic devices.

  16. Approximating the Visible Region of a Point on a Terrain Boaz Ben-Moshe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Moshe, Boaz

    enough; that is, whenever the difference between the sets of visible segments along the cross sections computes the (projections of the) visible por- tions of the cross section of T in this direc§ Abstract Given a terrain T and a point p on or above it, we wish to compute the region Rp that is visible

  17. An adaptive scaling and biasing scheme for OFDM-based visible light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Sheng

    An adaptive scaling and biasing scheme for OFDM-based visible light communication systems Zhaocheng. Haruyama, and M. Nakagawa, "Adaptive equalization system for visible light wireless communication utilizing-division multiplexing (OFDM) has been widely used in visible light communication systems to achieve high-rate data

  18. Wave initiation in the ferroin-catalysed BelousovZhabotinsky reaction with visible light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wave initiation in the ferroin-catalysed Belousov­Zhabotinsky reaction with visible light Rita, Accepted 7th January 2000 The initiation of chemical reaction­diusion waves by visible light of wavelength observations are in contrast to the inhibitory eect of visible light in the light-sensitive Ru-catalysed BZ

  19. Minisuperspace models as infrared contributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bojowald, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A direct correspondence of quantum mechanics as a minisuperspace model for a self-interacting scalar quantum-field theory is established by computing, in several models, the infrared contributions to 1-loop effective potentials of Coleman--Weinberg type. A minisuperspace approximation rather than truncation is thereby obtained. By this approximation, the spatial averaging scale of minisuperspace models is identified with an infrared scale (but not a regulator or cut-off) delimiting the modes included in the minisuperspace model. Some versions of the models studied here have discrete space or modifications of the Hamiltonian expected from proposals of loop quantum gravity. They shed light on the question of how minisuperspace models of quantum cosmology can capture features of full quantum gravity. While it is shown that modifications of the Hamiltonian can well be described by minisuperspace truncations, some related phenomena such as signature change, confirmed and clarified here for modified scalar field th...

  20. Multi-channel infrared thermometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ulrickson, Michael A. (East Windsor, NJ)

    1986-01-01

    A device for measuring the two-dimensional temperature profile of a surface comprises imaging optics for generating an image of the light radiating from the surface; an infrared detector array having a plurality of detectors; and a light pipe array positioned between the imaging optics and the detector array for sampling, transmitting, and distributing the image over the detector surfaces. The light pipe array includes one light pipe for each detector in the detector array.

  1. Ferroelectric infrared detector and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lashley, Jason Charles (Sante Fe, NM); Opeil, Cyril P. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Smith, James Lawrence (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-03-30

    An apparatus and method are provided for sensing infrared radiation. The apparatus includes a sensor element that is positioned in a magnetic field during operation to ensure a .lamda. shaped relationship between specific heat and temperature adjacent the Curie temperature of the ferroelectric material comprising the sensor element. The apparatus is operated by inducing a magnetic field on the ferroelectric material to reduce surface charge on the element during its operation.

  2. Mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide and its high-temperature coefficient of resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Haifeng, E-mail: hfliang2004@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Optical Measurement and Thin Film of Shaanxi Province, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an 710032 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Much effort has been made to study the formation mechanisms of photocurrents in graphene and reduced graphene oxide films under visible and near-infrared light irradiation. A built-in field and photo-thermal electrons have been applied to explain the experiments. However, much less attention has been paid to clarifying the mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide films at room temperature. Thus, mid-infrared photoresponse and annealing temperature-dependent resistance experiments were carried out on reduced graphene oxide films. A maximum photocurrent of 75 ?A was observed at room temperature, which was dominated by the bolometer effect, where the resistance of the films decreased as the temperature increased after they had absorbed light. The electrons localized in the defect states and the residual oxygen groups were thermally excited into the conduction band, forming a photocurrent. In addition, a temperature increase of 2 °C for the films after light irradiation for 2 minutes was observed using absorption power calculations. This work details a way to use reduced graphene oxide films that contain appropriate defects and residual oxygen groups as bolometer-sensitive materials in the mid-infrared range.

  3. Main-belt asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared albedos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; Sonnett, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 183-601, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T., E-mail: Joseph.Masiero@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: cnugent@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: James.Bauer@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: Rachel.A.Stevenson@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: sarah.sonnett@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: tgrav@psi.edu [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2014-08-20

    We present revised near-infrared albedo fits of 2835 main-belt asteroids observed by WISE/NEOWISE over the course of its fully cryogenic survey in 2010. These fits are derived from reflected-light near-infrared images taken simultaneously with thermal emission measurements, allowing for more accurate measurements of the near-infrared albedos than is possible for visible albedo measurements. Because our sample requires reflected light measurements, it undersamples small, low-albedo asteroids, as well as those with blue spectral slopes across the wavelengths investigated. We find that the main belt separates into three distinct groups of 6%, 16%, and 40% reflectance at 3.4 ?m. Conversely, the 4.6 ?m albedo distribution spans the full range of possible values with no clear grouping. Asteroid families show a narrow distribution of 3.4 ?m albedos within each family that map to one of the three observed groupings, with the (221) Eos family being the sole family associated with the 16% reflectance 3.4 ?m albedo group. We show that near-infrared albedos derived from simultaneous thermal emission and reflected light measurements are important indicators of asteroid taxonomy and can identify interesting targets for spectroscopic follow-up.

  4. Visible light emitting vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryan, R.P.; Olbright, G.R.; Lott, J.A.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.

    1995-06-27

    A vertical cavity surface emitting laser that emits visible radiation is built upon a substrate, then having mirrors, the first mirror on top of the substrate; both sets of mirrors being a distributed Bragg reflector of either dielectrics or other materials which affect the resistivity or of semiconductors, such that the structure within the mirror comprises a plurality of sets, each having a thickness of {lambda}/2n where n is the index of refraction of each of the sets; each of the mirrors adjacent to spacers which are on either side of an optically active bulk or quantum well layer; and the spacers and the optically active layer are from one of the following material systems: In{sub z}(Al{sub y}Ga{sub 1{minus}y}){sub 1{minus}z}P, InAlGaAs, AlGaAs, InGaAs, or AlGaP/GaP, wherein the optically active region having a length equal to m {lambda}/2n{sub eff} where m is an integer and n{sub eff} is the effective index of refraction of the laser cavity, and the spacer layer and one of the mirrors being transmissive to radiation having a wavelength of {lambda}/n, typically within the green to red portion of the visible spectrum. 10 figs.

  5. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karr, Thomas J. (Alamo, CA)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile.

  6. Infrared Observations of Galaxy Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Elbaz

    1997-11-28

    This short paper reviews some of the results obtained from ISO observations (ISOCAM and ISOPHOT) on galaxy clusters: Chap.1: "Intracluster dust": new evidence for the presence of dust outside galaxies. Chap.2:"Mid-Infrared Emission of Galaxies" origin of the mid-IR emission. Chap.3:"Star Formation in Nearby Clusters" correlation of the 7 and 15 microns fluxes with the SFR. Chap.4:"Star Formation in z=0.2 Galaxy clusters" Study of the mid-IR emission of A1732 and A1689. Chap.5:"Star Formation in z>0.4 Galaxy clusters" Preliminary.

  7. Infra-red signature neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Zane William (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-13

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material that includes a photoluminescent material that generates infrared radiation and generation a by-product of a nuclear reaction due to the activator impinging the receptor material. The method further includes generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect, wherein the light activates the photoluminescent material so as to generate the infrared radiation. Identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the infrared radiation.

  8. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of California and the ALS has succeeded in probing the intrinsic electronic properties of the charge carriers in organic FETs using infrared spectromicroscopy. The...

  9. Dynamically Responsive Infrared Window Coatings | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Window Coatings Dynamically Responsive Infrared Window Coatings 1 of 5 An oxygen plasma etcher is used to clean test substrates for window coatings. Image: Pacific Northwest...

  10. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Print A pathway to more effective and efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other flow-reactor chemical products has been...

  11. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was mapped in high resolution from start to finish. The formation of different chemical products during the reactions was analyzed in situ using infrared...

  12. Uncooled infrared imaging using bimaterial microcantilever arrays...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    main figures of merit of the IR imager were found to be comparable to those of uncooled MEMS infrared detectors with substantially higher degree of fabrication complexity. In...

  13. Navajo Generating Station and Air Visibility Regulations: Alternatives and Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Brinkman, G.; Funk, K.; Gelman, R.; Lantz, E.; Larney, C.; Peterson, D.; Worley, C.; Liebsch, E.

    2012-01-01

    Pursuant to the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in 2009 its intent to issue rules for controlling emissions from Navajo Generating Station that could affect visibility at the Grand Canyon and at several other national parks and wilderness areas. The final rule will conform to what EPA determines is the best available retrofit technology (BART) for the control of haze-causing air pollutants, especially nitrogen oxides. While EPA is ultimately responsible for setting Navajo Generating Station's BART standards in its final rule, it will be the U.S. Department of the Interior's responsibility to manage compliance and the related impacts. This study aims to assist both Interior and EPA by providing an objective assessment of issues relating to the power sector.

  14. INFRARED MOLECULAR STARBURST FINGERPRINTS IN DEEPLY OBSCURED (ULTRA)LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY NUCLEI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spoon, Henrik

    INFRARED MOLECULAR STARBURST FINGERPRINTS IN DEEPLY OBSCURED (ULTRA)LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY NUCLEI: molecules 1. INTRODUCTION One of the holy grails in the study of luminous and ultra- luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) is to elucidate the true nature of the central energy source. (U)LIRGs emit

  15. ARM: Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, VISible channel, low-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Albert Mendoza; Yan Shi; Connor Flynn

    Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, VISible channel, low-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

  16. ARM: Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, VISible channel, high-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Albert Mendoza; Yan Shi; Connor Flynn

    Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, VISible channel, high-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

  17. ARM: Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, VISible channel, high-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Mendoza; Yan Shi; Connor Flynn

    2011-03-22

    Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, VISible channel, high-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

  18. ARM: Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, VISible channel, low-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Albert Mendoza; Yan Shi; Connor Flynn

    1990-01-01

    Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric, VISible channel, low-sun angles [a0 data is uncalibrated

  19. Ultrafast Infrared Studies of Bond Activation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Charles B.

    a few. Predominate in the field are UV-pump visible-probe techniques, a fact which derives largely from industry. Si-H bond activation by certain transition-metal-containing com- pounds was discovered by Jetz

  20. FY 2005 Infrared Photonics Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Allen, Paul J.; Ho, Nicolas; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Johnson, Bradley R.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Bradley M.; Martinez, James E.; Qiao, Hong; Schultz, John F.

    2005-12-01

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications by exploiting the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass. PNNL has developed thin-film deposition capabilities, direct laser writing techniques, infrared photonic device demonstration, holographic optical element design and fabrication, photonic device modeling, and advanced optical metrology—all specific to chalcogenide glass. Chalcogenide infrared photonics provides a pathway to quantum cascade laser (QCL) transmitter miniaturization. QCLs provide a viable infrared laser source for a new class of laser transmitters capable of meeting the performance requirements for a variety of national security sensing applications. The high output power, small size, and superb stability and modulation characteristics of QCLs make them amenable for integration as transmitters into ultra-sensitive, ultra-selective point sampling and remote short-range chemical sensors that are particularly useful for nuclear nonproliferation missions. During FY 2005, PNNL’s Infrared Photonics research team made measurable progress exploiting the extraordinary optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to develop miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. We investigated sulfur purification methods that will eventually lead to routine production of optical quality chalcogenide glass. We also discovered a glass degradation phenomenon and our investigation uncovered the underlying surface chemistry mechanism and developed mitigation actions. Key research was performed to understand and control the photomodification properties. This research was then used to demonstrate several essential infrared photonic devices, including LWIR single-mode waveguide devices and waveguide couplers. Optical metrology tools were also developed to characterize optical waveguide structures and LWIR optical components.

  1. Infrared photoconductive PbTe film processing and oxygen sensitization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klingshim, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) thermal detectors and photodetectors have significant applications including thermal imaging, infrared spectroscopy and chemical and biological sensing. In this work we focus on photodetectors, which typically ...

  2. Polymer-Ceramic MEMS Bimorphs as Thermal Infrared Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Clinton Gregory

    2010-01-01

    the fabrication of the MEMS sensors from the readout system,mechanical infrared sensors based on MEMS polymer-ceramicmechanical infrared sensors based on MEMS polymer-ceramic

  3. Polymer-Ceramic MEMS Bimorphs as Thermal Infrared Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Clinton Gregory

    2010-01-01

    C. Vieider, and H. Jakobsen. MEMS-based uncooled infraredin uncooled infrared imaging: A MEMS perspective. Bell Labsstudies of an uncooled MEMS capacitive infrared detector for

  4. An Infrared Imaging Study of the Bipolar Proto-Planetary Nebula IRAS 16594-4656

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin Volk; Bruce J. Hrivnak; Kate Y. L. Su; Sun Kwok

    2006-07-20

    High-resolution mid-infrared images have been obtained in N-band and Q-band for the proto-planetary nebula IRAS 16594-4656. A bright equatorial torus and a pair of bipolar lobes can clearly be seen in the infrared images. The torus appears thinner at the center than at the edges, suggesting that it is viewed nearly edge-on. The infrared lobes correspond to the brightest lobes of the reflection nebula seen in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical image, but with no sign of the point-symmetric structure seen in the visible image. The lobe structure shows a close correspondence with a molecular hydrogen map obtained with HST, suggesting that the dust emission in the lobes traces the distribution of the shocked gas. The shape of the bipolar lobes shows clearly that the fast outflow is still confined by the remnant circumstellar envelope of the progenitor asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star. However, the non-detection of the dust outside of the lobes suggests that the temperature of the dust in the AGB envelope is too low for it to be detected at 20 microns.

  5. Saturn's aurora observed by the Cassini camera at visible wavelengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyudina, Ulyana A; Ewald, Shawn P; Wellington, Danika

    2015-01-01

    The first observations of Saturn's visible-wavelength aurora were made by the Cassini camera. The aurora was observed between 2006 and 2013 in the northern and southern hemispheres. The color of the aurora changes from pink at a few hundred km above the horizon to purple at 1000-1500 km above the horizon. The spectrum observed in 9 filters spanning wavelengths from 250 nm to 1000 nm has a prominent H-alpha line and roughly agrees with laboratory simulated auroras. Auroras in both hemispheres vary dramatically with longitude. Auroras form bright arcs between 70 and 80 degree latitude north and between 65 and 80 degree latitude south, which sometimes spiral around the pole, and sometimes form double arcs. A large 10,000-km-scale longitudinal brightness structure persists for more than 100 hours. This structure rotates approximately together with Saturn. On top of the large steady structure, the auroras brighten suddenly on the timescales of a few minutes. These brightenings repeat with a period of about 1 hour....

  6. Increased Climate Variability Is More Visible Than Global Warming: A General

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Increased Climate Variability Is More Visible Than Global Warming: A General System@utep.edu Abstract While global warming is a statistically confirmed long-term phenomenon, its most visible than the global warming itself. 1 Formulation of the Problem What is global warming. The term "global

  7. IEEE Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems 1999. Visibility Based Probabilistic Roadmaps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortés, Juan

    IEEE Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems 1999. Visibility Based Probabilistic Roadmaps C fnissoux,nic,jplg@laas.fr Abstract This paper presents a variant of probabilistic roadmap algorithms of the configuration space into visibility domains in order to produce small roadmaps. The algorithm has been

  8. Copper(II) imidazolate frameworks as highly efficient photocatalysts for reduction of CO{sub 2} into methanol under visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jingtian; Luo, Deliang; Yang, Chengju; He, Shiman; Chen, Shangchao; Lin, Jiawei; Zhu, Li; Li, Xin, E-mail: xinliscau@yahoo.com

    2013-07-15

    Three copper(II) imidazolate frameworks were synthesized by a hydrothermal (or precipitation) reaction. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG). Meanwhile, the photocatalytic activities of the samples for reduction of CO{sub 2} into methanol and degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation were also investigated. The results show that the as-prepared samples exhibit better photocatalytic activities for the reduction of carbon dioxide into methanol with water and degradation of MB under visible light irradiation. The orthorhombic copper(II) imidazolate frameworks with a band gap of 2.49 eV and green (G) color has the best photocatalytic activity for reduction of CO{sub 2} into methanol, 1712.7 ?mol/g over 5 h, which is about three times as large as that of monoclinic copper(II) imidazolate frameworks with a band gap 2.70 eV and blue (J) color. The degradation kinetics of MB over three photocatalysts fitted well to the apparent first-order rate equation and the apparent rate constants for the degradation of MB over G, J and P (with pink color) are 0.0038, 0.0013 and 0.0016 min{sup ?1}, respectively. The synergistic effects of smallest band gap and orthorhombic crystal phase structure are the critical factors for the better photocatalytic activities of G. Moreover, three frameworks can also be stable up to 250 °C. The investigation of Cu-based zeolitic imidazolate frameworks maybe provide a design strategy for a new class of photocatalysts applied in degradation of contaminations, reduction of CO{sub 2}, and even water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen under visible light. - Graphical abstract: Carbon dioxide was reduced into methanol with water over copper(II) imidazolate frameworks under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • Three copper(II) imidazolate frameworks were first applied in the photo-reduction of CO{sub 2}. • The photocatalytic activities of the frameworks depend on their band gap and phase structures. • The photocatalytic activity of orthorhombic frameworks is 3 times that of monoclinic frameworks. • The degradation kinetics of MB over three photocatalysts followed the first-order rate equation. • The largest yield for reduction of CO{sub 2} into methanol on green framworks was 1712.7 ?mol/g over 5 h.

  9. Infrared-optical spectroscopy of transparent conducting perovskite (La,Ba)SnO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Dongmin; Yu, Kwangnam; Jun Chang, Young; Choi, E. J.; Sohn, Egon; Hoon Kim, Kee

    2014-01-13

    We have performed optical transmission, reflection, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and Hall effect measurements on the electron-doped La{sub x}Ba{sub 1–x}SnO{sub 3} (x?=?0.04) transparent thin films. From the infrared Drude response and plasma frequency analysis we determine the effective mass of the conducting electron m*?=?0.35m{sub 0}. In the visible-UV region the optical band gap shifts to high energy in (La,Ba)SnO{sub 3} by 0.18?eV compared with undoped BaSnO{sub 3} which, in the context of the Burstein-Moss analysis, is consistent with the infrared-m*. m* of BaSnO{sub 3} is compared with other existing transparent conducting oxides (TCO), and implication on search for high-mobility TCO compounds is discussed.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope Near-Infrared Snapshot Survey of 3CR radio source counterparts at low redshift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juan P. Madrid; Marco Chiaberge; David Floyd; William B. Sparks; Duccio Macchetto; George K. Miley; David Axon; Alessandro Capetti; Christopher P. O'Dea; Stefi Baum; Eric Perlman; Alice Quillen

    2006-03-09

    We present newly acquired images of the near-infrared counterpart of 3CR radio sources. All the sources were selected to have a redshift of less than 0.3 to allow us to obtain the highest spatial resolution. The observations were carried out as a snapshot program using the Near-Infrared Camera and Multiobject Spectrograph (NICMOS) on-board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). In this paper we describe 69 radio galaxies observed for the first time with NICMOS during HST cycle 13. All the objects presented here are elliptical galaxies. However, each of them has unique characteristics such as close companions, dust lanes, unresolved nuclei, arc-like features, globular clusters and jets clearly visible from the images or with basic galaxy subtraction.

  11. Deuteration in infrared dark clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lackington, Matias; Pineda, Jaime E; Garay, Guido; Peretto, Nicolas; Traficante, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Much of the dense gas in molecular clouds has a filamentary structure but the detailed structure and evolution of this gas is poorly known. We have observed 54 cores in infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) using N$_2$H$^+$ (1-0) and (3-2) to determine the kinematics of the densest material, where stars will form. We also observed N$_2$D$^+$ (3-2) towards 29 of the brightest peaks to analyse the level of deuteration which is an excellent probe of the quiescent of the early stages of star formation. There were 13 detections of N$_2$D$^+$ (3-2). This is one of the largest samples of IRDCs yet observed in these species. The deuteration ratio in these sources ranges between 0.003 and 0.14. For most of the sources the material traced by N$_2$D$^+$ and N$_2$H$^+$ (3-2) still has significant turbulent motions, however three objects show subthermal N$_2$D$^+$ velocity dispersion. Surprisingly the presence or absence of an embedded 70 $\\mu$m source shows no correlation with the detection of N$_2$D$^+$ (3-2), nor does it correl...

  12. Molecular Hydrogen in Infrared Cirrus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kristen Gillmon; J. Michael Shull

    2005-07-25

    We combine data from our recent FUSE survey of interstellar molecular hydrogen absorption toward 50 high-latitude AGN with COBE-corrected IRAS 100 micron emission maps to study the correlation of infrared cirrus with H2. A plot of the H2 column density vs. IR cirrus intensity shows the same transition in molecular fraction, f_H2, as seen with total hydrogen column density, N_H. This transition is usually attributed to H2 self-shielding, and it suggests that many diffuse cirrus clouds contain H2 in significant fractions, f_H2 = 1-30%. These clouds cover approximately 50% of the northern sky at latitudes b > 30 degrees, at temperature-corrected 100 micron intensities D_100 > 1.5 MJy/sr. The sheetlike cirrus clouds, with hydrogen densities n_H > 30 cm^-3, may be compressed by dynamical processes at the disk-halo interface, and they are conducive to H2 formation on grain surfaces. Exploiting the correlation between N(H2) and 100 micron intensity, we estimate that cirrus clouds at b > 30 contain approximately 3000 M_sun in H2. Extrapolated over the inner Milky Way, the cirrus may contain 10^7 M_sun of H2 and 10^8 M_sun in total gas mass. If elevated to 100 pc, their gravitational potential energy is ~10^53 erg.

  13. Science and applications of infrared semiconductor nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geyer, Scott Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    In this work we study several applications of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with infrared band gaps. In the first half, we explore the physics of two systems with applications in NC based photovoltaics. The physics of ...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of infrared quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Daniel Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the development of synthetic methods to create application ready quantum dots (QDs) in the infrared for biological imaging and optoelectronic devices. I concentrated primarily on controlling the size ...

  15. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  16. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Blue, Craig A.; Ohriner, Evan Keith

    2003-12-23

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  17. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  18. Quantitative nondestructive testing using Infrared Thermography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manohar, Arun

    2012-01-01

    Wind Turbine Blade In- spection Tests at UCSD”, Sensors andWind Turbine Blades and Defect Depth Estimation using Infrared Thermography”, SensorsScalea. Wind turbine inspection tests at ucsd. Sensors and

  19. Carbon nanotubes as near infrared laser susceptors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Amir

    2011-01-11

    The coupling efficiency of carbon nanotubes with near infrared laser radiation at 940nm wavelength was investigated. Nanotubes treated with different post processing methods were irradiated at different laser power intensities as dry samples...

  20. Seeing red in M32: Constraints on the stellar content from near- and mid-infrared observations and applications for studies of more distant galaxies {sup ,} {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidge, T. J. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2014-08-10

    The properties of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Local Group galaxy M32 are investigated using ground- and space-based observations that span the 1-8 ?m wavelength interval, with the goal of demonstrating the utility of infrared observations as probes of stellar content. Comparisons with isochrones indicate that the brightest resolved stars in M32 have ages of a few gigayears and are younger on average than AGB stars with the same intrinsic brightness in the outer disk of M31. Accounting for stellar variability is shown to be essential for modeling AGB luminosity functions (LFs). Model LFs that assume the star-forming history measured by Monachesi et al. and the variability properties of Galactic AGB stars match both the K and [5.8] LFs of M32. Models also suggest that the slope of the [5.8] LF between M{sub [5.8]} = –8.5 and –10.0 is sensitive to the mix of stellar ages, and a sizeable fraction of the stars in M32 must have an age older than 7 Gyr in order to match the [5.8] LF. The structural properties of M32 in the infrared are also investigated. The effective radii that are computed from near-infrared and mid-infrared isophotes are similar to those measured at visible wavelengths, suggesting that the stellar content of M32 is well mixed. However, isophotes at radii >16'' (>60 pc) in the near- and mid-infrared are flatter than those at visible wavelengths. The coefficient of the fourth-order cosine term in the Fourier expansion of isophotes changes from 'boxy' values at r < 16'' to 'disky' values at r > 48''in [3.6] and [4.5]. The mid-infrared colors near the center of M32 do not vary systematically with radius, providing evidence of a well mixed stellar content in this part of the galaxy.

  1. The gas-rich circumbinary disk of HR 4049. I. A detailed study of the mid-infrared spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malek, S. E.; Cami, J., E-mail: sarahemalek@gmail.com, E-mail: jcami@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the mid-infrared spectrum of the peculiar evolved object HR 4049. The full Spitzer-IRS high-resolution spectrum shows a wealth of emission with prominent features from CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O and possible contributions from HCN and OH. We model the molecular emission and find that it originates from a massive (M ? 8 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ?}), warm (T {sub ex} ? 500 K) and radially extended gas disk that is optically thick at infrared wavelengths. We also report less enrichment in {sup 17}O and {sup 18}O than previously found and a comparison of the Spitzer observations to earlier data obtained by the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on board the Infrared Space Observatory reveals that the CO{sub 2} flux has more than doubled in 10 yr time, indicating active and ongoing chemical evolution in the circumbinary disk. If the gas originates from interaction between the stellar wind and the dust, this suggests that the dust could be oxygen-rich in nature. The molecular gas plays a crucial role in the thermal properties of the circumbinary disk by allowing visible light to heat the dust and then trapping the infrared photons emitted by the dust. This results in higher temperatures and a more homogeneous temperature structure in the disk.

  2. Assessing the potential visibility benefits of Clean Air Act Title IV emission reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trexler, E.C. Jr. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Shannon, J.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Assessments are made of the benefits of the 1990 Clean Air Act Title IV (COVE), Phase 2, SO2 and NOX reduction provisions, to the visibility in typical eastern and western Class 1 areas. Probable bands of visibility impairment distribution curves are developed for Shenandoah National Park, Smoky Mountain National Park and the Grand Canyon National Park, based on the existing emissions, ``Base Case``, and for the COVE emission reductions, ``CAAA Case``. Emission projections for 2010 are developed with improved versions of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program emission projection models. Source-receptor transfer matrices created with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model are used with existing emission inventories and with the emission projections to calculate atmospheric concentrations of sulfate and nitrate at the receptors of interest for existing and projected emission scenarios. The Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM) is then used to develop distributions of visibility impairment. VASM combines statistics of observed concentrations of particulate species and relative humidity with ASTRAP calculations of the relative changes in atmospheric sulfate and nitrate particulate concentrations in a Monte Carlo approach to produce expected distributions of hourly particulate concentrations and RH. Light extinction relationships developed in theoretical and field studies are then used to calculate the resulting distribution of visibility impairment. Successive Monte Carlo studies are carried out to develop sets of visibility impairment distributions with and without the COVE emission reductions to gain insight into the detectability of expected visibility improvements.

  3. INFRARED STUDIES OF EPSILON AURIGAE IN ECLIPSE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stencel, Robert E.; Kloppenborg, Brian K.; Wall, Randall E.; Hopkins, Jeffrey L.; Howell, Steve B.; Hoard, D. W.; Rayner, John; Bus, Schelte; Tokunaga, Alan; Sitko, Michael L.; Bradford, Suellen; Russell, Ray W.; Lynch, David K.; Hammel, Heidi; Whitney, Barbara; Orton, Glenn; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma; Hora, Joseph L.; Hinz, Philip; Hoffmann, William; and others

    2011-11-15

    We report here on a series of medium resolution spectro-photometric observations of the enigmatic long period eclipsing binary epsilon Aurigae, during its eclipse interval of 2009-2011, using near-infrared spectra obtained with SpeX on the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), mid-infrared spectra obtained with BASS on AOES and IRTF, MIRSI on IRTF, and MIRAC4 on the MMT, along with mid-infrared photometry using MIRSI on IRTF and MIRAC4 on the MMT, plus 1995-2000 timeframe published photometry and data obtained with Denver's TNTCAM2 at WIRO. The goals of these observations included: (1) comparing eclipse depths with prior eclipse data, (2) confirming the re-appearance of CO absorption bands at and after mid-eclipse, associated with sublimation in the disk, (3) seeking evidence for any mid-infrared solid state spectral features from particles in the disk, and (4) providing evidence that the externally irradiated disk has azimuthal temperature differences. IR eclipse depths appear similar to those observed during the most recent (1983) eclipse, although evidence for post-mid-eclipse disk temperature increase is present, due to F star heated portions of the disk coming into view. Molecular CO absorption returned 57 days after nominal mid-eclipse, but was not detected at mid-eclipse plus 34 days, narrowing the association with differentially heated sub-regions in the disk. Transient He I 10830A absorption was detected at mid-eclipse, persisting for at least 90 days thereafter, providing a diagnostic for the hot central region. The lack of solid-state features in Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph, BASS, and MIRAC spectra to date suggests the dominance of large particles (micron-sized) in the disk. Based on these observations, mid-infrared studies out of eclipse can directly monitor and map the disk thermal changes, and better constrain disk opacity and thermal conductivity.

  4. Giantically blue-shifted visible light in femtosecond mid-IR filament in fluorides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dormidonov, A E; Chekalin, S V; Kandidov, V P

    2015-01-01

    A giant blue shift of an isolated visible band of supercontinuum was discovered and studied in the single filament regime of Mid-IR femtosecond laser pulse at powers slightly exceeding critical power for self-focusing in fluorides.

  5. Creating supply chain visibility : a case study on extending Intel's Unit Level Traceability to customers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Annie

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to enable supply chain visibility for Intel products, the Customer Unit Level Traceability (ULT) Program was formed to help extend Intel's ULT capability to the customer level. Increased traceability of Intel ...

  6. Infrared curing simulations of liquid composites molding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakouzi, S.; Pancrace, J.; Schmidt, F. M.; Le Maoult, Y.; Berthet, F. [Universite de Toulouse (France); INSA, UPS, Mines Albi, ISAE, ICA - Institut Clement Ader, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi cedex 09 (France); Ecole des Mines Albi, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi (France)

    2011-05-04

    Infrared radiation is an effective energy source to cure thermosetting polymers. Its usage is expected to reduce curing time in comparison with thermal heating and mold thermally regulated. In addition, because of the polymerization mechanism and instant on-off control of this power, an improvement in the final properties of the material is also expected. In this paper, we studied the infrared interaction with carbon (or glass) fibers reinforced epoxy matrix, where Liquid resin infusion (LRI) is used to manufacture the composite. Temperature of the composite is a key parameter that affects its mechanical properties and is controlled by the infrared emitters and the exothermic heat released from the polymerization. Radiative heat flux is computed using the in-lab developed software RAYHEAT. Then, the heat flux (or absorbed energy for glass fibers) is exported to the finite element based program COMSOLMULTIPHYSICS where heat balance equation is solved. This equation is coupled with the exothermic heat released during the curing process in order to predict the composite temperature versus time and degree of cure. Numerical simulations will be performed on planar parts (sheet shape) as well as curvilinear shapes. Experimental validations of the infrared curing carbon (glass)-epoxy composite system are presented in this paper Sheet surface temperature distribution are measured thanks to infrared camera. Kinetic parameters were estimated from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experimental data.

  7. Infrared light sources with semimetal electron injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM); Biefeld, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    An infrared light source is disclosed that comprises a layered semiconductor active region having a semimetal region and at least one quantum-well layer. The semimetal region, formed at an interface between a GaAsSb or GalnSb layer and an InAsSb layer, provides electrons and holes to the quantum-well layer to generate infrared light at a predetermined wavelength in the range of 2-6 .mu.m. Embodiments of the invention can be formed as electrically-activated light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or lasers, and as optically-pumped lasers. Since the active region is unipolar, multiple active regions can be stacked to form a broadband or multiple-wavelength infrared light source.

  8. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THEVorticesInformation| U.S.InfraredInfrared

  9. The Effect of Lunar-like Satellites on the Orbital Infrared Light Curves of Earth-analog Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas A. Moskovitz; Eric Gaidos; Darren Williams

    2008-10-17

    We investigate the influence of lunar-like satellites on the infrared orbital light curves of Earth-analog extra-solar planets. Such light curves will be obtained by NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA's Darwin missions as a consequence of repeat observations to confirm the companion status of a putative planet. We use an energy balance model to calculate disk-averaged infrared (bolometric) fluxes from planet-satellite systems over a full orbital period (one year). The satellites are assumed to lack an atmosphere, have a low thermal inertia like that of the Moon and span a range of plausible radii. The planets are assumed to have thermal and orbital properties that mimic those of the Earth while their obliquities and orbital longitudes of inferior conjunction remain free parameters. Even if the gross thermal properties of the planet can be independently constrained (e.g. via spectroscopy or visible-wavelength detection of specular glint from a surface ocean) only the largest (approximately Mars-size) lunar-like satellites can be detected by light curve data from a TPF-like instrument (i.e. one that achieves a photometric signal-to-noise of 10-20 at infrared wavelengths). Non-detection of a lunar-like satellite can obfuscate the interpretation of a given system's infrared light curve so that it may resemble a single planet with high obliquity, different orbital longitude of vernal equinox relative to inferior conjunction and in some cases drastically different thermal characteristics. If the thermal properties of the planet are not independently established then the presence of a lunar-like satellite cannot be inferred from infrared data, thus demonstrating that photometric light curves alone can only be used for preliminary study of extra-solar Earth-like planets.

  10. Photosensitivity of the Ni-A state of [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F with visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osuka, Hisao; Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5, Takayama-cho, Ikoma-shi, Nara 630-0192 ; Shomura, Yasuhito; Komori, Hirofumi; Shibata, Naoki; Nagao, Satoshi; Higuchi, Yoshiki; CREST, JST, Gobancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0076 ; Hirota, Shun; CREST, JST, Gobancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0076

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-A state of [NiFe] hydrogenase showed light sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New FT-IR bands were observed with light irradiation of the Ni-A state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPR g-values of the Ni-A state shifted upon light irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The light-induced state converted back to the Ni-A state under the dark condition. -- Abstract: [NiFe] hydrogenase catalyzes reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen. Its active site is constructed of a hetero dinuclear Ni-Fe complex, and the oxidation state of the Ni ion changes according to the redox state of the enzyme. We found that the Ni-A state (an inactive unready, oxidized state) of [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F (DvMF) is light sensitive and forms a new state (Ni-AL) with irradiation of visible light. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) bands at 1956, 2084 and 2094 cm{sup -1} of the Ni-A state shifted to 1971, 2086 and 2098 cm{sup -1} in the Ni-AL state. The g-values of g{sub x} = 2.30, g{sub y} = 2.23 and g{sub z} = 2.01 for the signals in the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of the Ni-A state at room temperature varied for -0.009, +0.012 and +0.010, respectively, upon light irradiation. The light-induced Ni-AL state converted back immediately to the Ni-A state under dark condition at room temperature. These results show that the coordination structure of the Fe site of the Ni-A state of [NiFe] hydrogenase is perturbed significantly by light irradiation with relatively small coordination change at the Ni site.

  11. RESEARCH ARTICLE Infrared thermography investigations in transitional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuccher, Simone

    investigation. The additional advantage of no need for special apparatus, except for the infrared camera, makes IRT well suited for both wind-tunnel and in-flight testing. Practical problems and limitations downstream are responsi- ble for energy losses. In subsonic and transonic flight this type of drag

  12. Matching of Infrared Emitters with Textiles For Improved Energy Utilization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carr, W. W.; Williamson, V. A.; Johnson, M. R.; Do, B. T.

    1994-01-01

    The successful utilization of infrared radiation is dependent on the spectral characteristics of the material being processed and on how well the spectral output of the infrared source matches those of the material being heated. Very little bas been...

  13. Infrared Brightness Temperature of Mars, 1983-2103

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. L. Wright

    2007-03-25

    The predicted infrared brightness temperature of Mars using the 1976 model of Wright is tabulated here for the period 1983 to 2103. This model was developed for far-infrared calibration, and is still being used for JCMT calibration.

  14. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Wednesday, 29 October 2008 00:00 Graphene-a single layer...

  15. Monolithically integrated near-infrared and mid-infrared detector array for spectral imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perera, A. G. Unil

    detector test results ensure the high quality of material suitable for near-infrared/QWIP dual-band focal. A CTIS records spatial and spectral information by imaging a scene through an optical relay system

  16. Transmissive infrared frequency selective surfaces and infrared antennas : final report for LDRD 105749.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Hadley, G. Ronald; Samora, Sally; Loui, Hung; Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro Augusto; Davids, Paul; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Johnson, William Arthur; Peters, David William

    2009-09-01

    Plasmonic structures open up new opportunities in photonic devices, sometimes offering an alternate method to perform a function and sometimes offering capabilities not possible with standard optics. In this LDRD we successfully demonstrated metal coatings on optical surfaces that do not adversely affect the transmission of those surfaces at the design frequency. This technology could be applied as an RF noise blocking layer across an optical aperture or as a method to apply an electric field to an active electro-optic device without affecting optical performance. We also demonstrated thin optical absorbers using similar patterned surfaces. These infrared optical antennas show promise as a method to improve performance in mercury cadmium telluride detectors. Furthermore, these structures could be coupled with other components to lead to direct rectification of infrared radiation. This possibility leads to a new method for infrared detection and energy harvesting of infrared radiation.

  17. Application of Infrared Thermography in Building Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Y.; Chen, H.; Xu, Q.; I, D.; Wang, Z.; Fang, X.

    2006-01-01

    of infrared detector according to infrared radiation law. 4TE ??= ?? (1) Where E ? radiometric force, W/m2 ? ? emissivity ? ? the constant of radiation =5.67×10-8 , W/ ? m2?K4? T ? the absolute temperature of the surface , K... OF INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY According to the Planck?s radiation law (equation 1), radiometric force of common object has the biquadratic direct proportion with the absolute temperature of its surface. Infrared ray belongs to the electromagnetic wave, which...

  18. Mode visibilities in radial velocity and photometric Sun-as-a-star helioseismic observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salabert, David; Garcia, Rafael A

    2011-01-01

    We analyze more than 5000 days of high-quality Sun-as-a-star, radial velocity GOLF and photometric VIRGO/SPM helioseismic observations to extract precise estimates of the visibilities of the low-degree p modes and the m-height ratios of the l=2 and 3 multiplets in the solar acoustic spectrum. The mode visibilities are shown to be larger during the GOLF red-wing configuration than during the blue-wing configuration, and to decrease as the wavelength of the VIRGO/SPM channels increases. We also show that the mode visibilities are independent of the solar activity cycle and remain constant overall with time, but that nevertheless they follow short-term fluctuations on a time scale of a few months. The l=1 mode visibility also increases significantly toward the end of the year 1999. Comparisons with theoretical predictions are provided. Even though there is qualitative agreement, some significant discrepancies appear, especially for the l=3 modes. The limb darkening alone cannot explain the relative visibilities ...

  19. Real Time Pedestrian Tracking using Thermal Infrared Imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Moral , Pierre

    Real Time Pedestrian Tracking using Thermal Infrared Imagery Jianfu Li 1. Key Laboratory@cqu.edu.cn Abstract--In the study, a real time pedestrian tracking algortithm is presented using thermal infrared imagery. It makes use of the characteristics of pedestrian body regions in infrared images, which is based

  20. Efficient, Stable Infrared Photovoltaics Based on Solution-Cast Colloidal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    multijunction solar cells offer the prospect of exceeding 40% efficiency7 through the inclusion of infrared and optimized to this purpose. Organic solar cells have already achieved 6.5% solar conversion efficien- cies.6-bandgap materials. In this context, infrared single-junction solar cells should be optimized for infrared power

  1. Efficient, Stable Infrared Photovoltaics Based on Solution-Cast Colloidal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    conversion ef- ficiency rather than solar power conversion efficiency. For double- and triple-junction solar-bandgap materials. In this context, infrared single-junction solar cells should be optimized for infrared power in the infrared. As a result, the optimal bandgaps for solar cells in both the single-junction and even the tandem

  2. Near-Infrared Adaptive Optics Imaging of the Central Regions of Nearby Sc Galaxies: I. M33

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. J. Davidge

    1999-10-18

    Near-infrared images obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Adaptive Optics Bonnette (AOB) are used to investigate the stellar content within 18 arcsec of the center of the Local Group spiral galaxy M33. AGB stars with near-infrared spectral-energy distributions similar to those of giants in the solar neighborhood and Baade's Window are detected over most of the field. The bolometric luminosity function (LF) of these stars has a discontinuity near M_{bol} = -5.25, and comparisons with evolutionary tracks suggest that most of the AGB stars formed in a burst of star formation 1 - 3 Gyr in the past. The images are also used to investigate the integrated near-infrared photometric properties of the nucleus and the central light concentration. The nucleus is bluer than the central light concentration, in agreement with previous studies at visible wavelengths. The CO index of the central light concentration 0.5 arcsec from the galaxy center is 0.05, which corresponds to [Fe/H] = -1.2 for simple stellar systems. Hence, the central light concentration could not have formed from the chemically-enriched material that dominates the present-day inner disk of M33.

  3. Optical Temperature Sensor Using Infrared-to-Visible-Frequency Upconversion in Er This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    , WANG Zhu()1 , ZHANG Rui()1 , ZHANG Zhi-Guo()1 , CAO Wen-Wu()1,3 1 Center for Condensed Matter Science+ /Yb3+ -Codoped Bi3TiNbO9 Ceramics * CHEN Heng-Zhi()1 , YANG Bin()1** , SUN Yan()1 , ZHANG Ming-Fu()2

  4. Use of a region of the visible and near infrared spectrum to predict mechanical properties of wet wood and standing trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meglen, Robert R. (Boulder, CO); Kelley, Stephen S. (Evergreen, CO)

    2003-01-01

    In a method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood, the improvement comprising: (a) illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with a reduced range of wavelengths in the VIS-NIR spectra 400 to 1150 nm, said wood having a green moisture content; (b) analyzing the surface of the wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of a reduced range of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra; and (c) using a multivariate analysis technique to predict the mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of a reduced range of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral being correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from the reference wood when dried and a having a dry moisture content.

  5. Visible and dark matter from a first-order phase transition in a baryon-symmetric universe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Petraki, Kalliopi; Trodden, Mark; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2012-02-28

    The similar cosmological abundances observed for visible and dark matter suggest a common origin for both. By viewing the dark matter density as a dark-sector asymmetry, mirroring the situation in the visible sector, we show that the visible and dark matter asymmetries may have arisen simultaneously through a first-order phase transition in the early universe. The additional scalar particles in the theory can mix with the standard Higgs boson and provide other striking signatures.

  6. Mid-Infrared Plasmonic Biosensing with Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigo, Daniel; Janner, Davide; Etezadi, Dordaneh; de Abajo, F Javier García; Pruneri, Valerio; Altug, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is the technique of choice for chemical identification of biomolecules through their vibrational fingerprints. However, infrared light interacts poorly with nanometric size molecules. Here, we exploit the unique electro-optical properties of graphene to demonstrate a high-sensitivity tunable plasmonic biosensor for chemically-specific label-free detection of protein monolayers. The plasmon resonance of nanostructured graphene is dynamically tuned to selectively probe the protein at different frequencies and extract its complex refractive index. Additionally, the extreme spatial light confinement in graphene, up to two orders of magnitude higher than in metals, produces an unprecedentedly high overlap with nanometric biomolecules, enabling superior sensitivity in the detection of their refractive index and vibrational fingerprints. The combination of tunable spectral selectivity and enhanced sensitivity of graphene opens exciting prospects for biosensing.

  7. Application of infrared imaging in ferrocyanide tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, K.L.; Mailhot, R.B. Jr.; McLaren, J.M.; Morris, K.L.

    1994-09-28

    This report analyzes the feasibility of using infrared imaging techniques and scanning equipment to detect potential hot spots within ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. A hot spot is defined as a volumetric region within a waste tank with an excessively warm temperature that is generated by radioactive isotopes. The thermal image of a hot spot was modeled by computer. this model determined the image an IR system must detect. Laboratory and field tests of the imaging system are described, and conclusions based on laboratory and field data are presented. The report shows that infrared imaging is capable of detecting hot spots in ferrocyanide waste tanks with depths of up to 3.94 m (155 in.). The infrared imaging system is a useful technology for initial evaluation and assessment of hot spots in the majority of ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The system will not allow an exact hot spot and temperature determination, but it will provide the necessary information to determine the worst-case hot spot detected in temperature patterns. Ferrocyanide tanks are one type of storage tank on the Watch List. These tanks are identified as priority 1 Hanford Site Tank farm Safety Issues.

  8. PPPL-3464 PPPL-3464 Visible Imaging of Edge Turbulence in NSTX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Calendar Year 2000. The home page for PPPL Reports and Publications is: http://www.pppl.gov/pub_report/ DOE have shown that the visible light emission from the plasma edge as measured on a microsecond timescale-10 cm). These light fluctuations are thought to be due to the rapid excitation of the neutral atoms

  9. Status Quo and Motivation The effects of the climate change are a visible,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roe, Paul

    Status Quo and Motivation The effects of the climate change are a visible, exacerbating trend monitors is not engaging and understandable enough. Individual motivations and preferences are not taken for explaining energy use and motivating energy conservation ­ the concept of comparison. Comparison explains

  10. Enhanced visibility of hydrogen atoms by neutron crystallography on fully deuterated myoglobin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramakrishnan, Venki

    determined by x-ray crystallography except at very high resolution. The scattering of neutrons by hydrogenEnhanced visibility of hydrogen atoms by neutron crystallography on fully deuterated myoglobin Fong and structurally, direct visu- alization of them by using crystallography is difficult. Neutron crys- tallography

  11. Classboxes: Controlling Visibility of Class Alexandre Bergel, Stephane Ducasse, Oscar Nierstrasz, Roel Wuyts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ducasse, Stéphane

    Classboxes: Controlling Visibility of Class Extensions Alexandre Bergel, St´ephane Ducasse, Oscar-04-003 November 5, 2004 #12;Abstract A class extension is a method that is defined in a module, but whose class is defined elsewhere. Class extensions offer a convenient way to incrementally modify

  12. The Energy Dashboard: Improving the Visibility of Energy Consumption at a Campus-Wide Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rajesh

    energy use. Our detailed observations identify the primary components of the baseline energy useThe Energy Dashboard: Improving the Visibility of Energy Consumption at a Campus-Wide Scale Yuvraj- tation and implementation of energy use policies, the Univer- sity of California at San Diego provides

  13. Fabrication and properties of visible-light subwavelength amorphous silicon transmission gratings*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -incidence light the transmission for the TE wave the electric vector parallel to the grating fingers should be alFabrication and properties of visible-light subwavelength amorphous silicon transmission gratings* Wenyong Deng and Stephen Y. Chou Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Minnesota

  14. UVA-visible photo-excitation of guanine radical cations produces sugar radicals in DNA and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Jack

    UVA-visible photo-excitation of guanine radical cations produces sugar radicals in DNA and model, 2005; Revised and Accepted September 6, 2005 ABSTRACT This work presents evidence that photo- nucleosides and deoxyribonucleotides. In dsDNA at low temperatures, formation of C10 is observed from photo

  15. Thermal decomposition and flammability of fire-resistant, UV/visible-sensitive polyarylates, copolymers and blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland Received 22 April 2002; accepted 27 June 2002 Abstract of engineering thermo- plastics with enhanced long-term resistance to elevated temperature in advanced of all existing thermo- plastics. Recently, UV/visible-sensitive polyarylates with improved thermal

  16. Header for SPIE use Visible Threads: A Smart VR Interface to Digital Libraries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Börner, Katy

    ABSTRACT The importance of information as a resource for economic growth and education is steadilyHeader for SPIE use Visible Threads: A Smart VR Interface to Digital Libraries Katy Börner* Indiana University, School of Library and Information Science 10th Street & Jordan Avenue, Bloomington, IN 47405

  17. The Role of Visibility in the Cops-Robber Game and Robotic Pursuit / Evasion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pralat, Pawel

    The Role of Visibility in the Cops-Robber Game and Robotic Pursuit / Evasion Athanasios Kehagias robotics as a discretized model of pursuit/evasion problems. The "classical" CR version is a perfect relevant to robotics are versions where one (or both) player is invisible. In this paper we study

  18. Gallium phosphide photonic crystal nanocavities in the visible Kelley Rivoire,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuckovic, Jelena

    for devices requiring very high brightness because of its in- direct band gap, incorporating InP quantum dots,7 fluorescent molecules,8 and visible colloidal quantum dots.9 To date, most photonic crystal devices operating or quantum wells,18 or colloidal quantum dots should greatly increase the quantum efficiency. Additionally

  19. What visibility conceals. Re-embedding Refugee Migration from Iraq Graldine Chatelard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    What visibility conceals. Re-embedding Refugee Migration from Iraq Géraldine Chatelard Research: This chapter aims at reconnecting the mass refugee migration from Iraq that has followed the fall of the regime and social anthropology. Focusing on the case of refugee migration from Iraq to Jordan between 1990 and 2008

  20. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature12622 Perovskite oxides for visible-light-absorbing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rappe, Andrew M.

    LETTER doi:10.1038/nature12622 Perovskite oxides for visible-light-absorbing ferroelectric perovskites (with ABO3 composition) is due to the fundamental characteristics of the metal­ oxygen A­O and B cations enable the perovskite oxide to exhibitferroelectricity12 . Owing to a large difference

  1. Temporary Housing Mission Overview Temporary Housing is a highly visible mission.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Temporary Housing Mission Overview · Temporary Housing is a highly visible mission. · Success requires teamwork (FEMA/COE/State/Local) and advanced planning. · FEMA's steps to providing housing relief assistance (home repair limits, rental limits, self-help Manufactured Housing Units (MHU) on private sites

  2. MRI-Visible Micellar Nanomedicine for Targeted Drug Delivery to Lung Cancer Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jinming

    MRI-Visible Micellar Nanomedicine for Targeted Drug Delivery to Lung Cancer Cells Jagadeesh Setti micelle (MFM) system that is encoded with a lung cancer-targeting peptide (LCP), and encapsulated. The LCP-encoded MFM showed significantly increased Rv 6-dependent cell targeting in H2009 lung cancer

  3. Single-component reflecting objective for low-temperature spectroscopy in the entire visible region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    properties at all visible wavelengths. The performance of the objective immersed in superfluid helium optical signals, it is essential to collect photons using a large solid angle of detection. In low numerical aperture NA in a liquid-helium cryostat in the vicinity of a sample.1 In addition to achieving

  4. Indigenous Tweets, Visible Voices, and Technology Panel discussion at SouthbySouthwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scannell, Kevin Patrick

    Indigenous Tweets, Visible Voices, and Technology Panel discussion at SouthbySouthwest March 9 and minority language speakers are writing blogs, they're tweeting, creating podcasts, youtube videos, etc. all in their native language. Let's see some examples! Here's a blog by my friend and collaborator

  5. Visible Light Emissions during Gas Tungsten Arc Welding and Its Application to Weld

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    \\ Visible Light Emissions during Gas Tungsten· Arc Welding and Its Application to Weld Image. EAGAR ABSTRACT. An experimental study was carried out to map the light emissions from a gas tungsten arc. The emissions were found to be dramat- ically different with different shielding gases, welding current and base

  6. Notes on Visibility Roadmaps and Path Planning J.P. Laumond, LAASCNRS, Toulouse, France

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortés, Juan

    Notes on Visibility Roadmaps and Path Planning J.­P. Laumond, LAAS­CNRS, Toulouse, France T. Sim'eon, LAAS­CNRS, Toulouse, France Abstract This paper overviews the probabilistic roadmap ap­ proaches. Topology induces the combinatorial complexity of the roadmaps tending to capture both coverage and con

  7. Invited Article: An integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kühne, P., E-mail: kuehne@huskers.unl.edu; Schubert, M., E-mail: schubert@engr.unl.edu; Hofmann, T., E-mail: thofmann@engr.unl.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Center for Nanohybrid Functional Materials, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Herzinger, C. M., E-mail: cherzinger@jawoollam.com; Woollam, J. A., E-mail: jwoollam@jawoollam.com [J. A. Woollam Co., Inc., 645 M Street, Suite 102, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508-2243 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    We report on the development of the first integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument, covering an ultra wide spectral range from 3 cm{sup ?1} to 7000 cm{sup ?1} (0.1–210 THz or 0.4–870 meV). The instrument comprises four sub-systems, where the magneto-cryostat-transfer sub-system enables the usage of the magneto-cryostat sub-system with the mid-infrared ellipsometer sub-system, and the far-infrared/terahertz ellipsometer sub-system. Both ellipsometer sub-systems can be used as variable angle-of-incidence spectroscopic ellipsometers in reflection or transmission mode, and are equipped with multiple light sources and detectors. The ellipsometer sub-systems are operated in polarizer-sample-rotating-analyzer configuration granting access to the upper left 3 × 3 block of the normalized 4 × 4 Mueller matrix. The closed cycle magneto-cryostat sub-system provides sample temperatures between room temperature and 1.4 K and magnetic fields up to 8 T, enabling the detection of transverse and longitudinal magnetic field-induced birefringence. We discuss theoretical background and practical realization of the integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument, as well as acquisition of optical Hall effect data and the corresponding model analysis procedures. Exemplarily, epitaxial graphene grown on 6H-SiC, a tellurium doped bulk GaAs sample and an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structure are investigated. The selected experimental datasets display the full spectral, magnetic field and temperature range of the instrument and demonstrate data analysis strategies. Effects from free charge carriers in two dimensional confinement and in a volume material, as well as quantum mechanical effects (inter-Landau-level transitions) are observed and discussed exemplarily.

  8. Visible Light Digital Camera --Up to 2.3MP resolution with LED lamps provides sharp images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    · Visible Light Digital Camera -- Up to 2.3MP resolution with LED lamps provides sharp images regardless of lighting conditions · Fusion Picture in Picture (PIP) -- Displays thermal image super case FLIR i40 Additional Features · 0.6MP Visible Light Camera resolution · Picture in Picture (PIP

  9. Estimation of light penetration, and horizontal and vertical visibility in oceanic and coastal waters from surface reflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babin, Marcel

    Estimation of light penetration, and horizontal and vertical visibility in oceanic and coastal penetration, and horizontal and vertical visibility in oceanic and coastal waters from surface reflectance, J. The algorithms are found to be valid both in coastal and oceanic waters, and largely insensitive to regional

  10. Dye Surface Coating Enables Visible Light Activation of TiO2 Nanoparticles Leading to Degradation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Eric

    Dye Surface Coating Enables Visible Light Activation of TiO2 Nanoparticles Leading to Degradation that an alizarin red S ~ARS! dye coating on TiO2 nanoparticles enables visible light activation of reactive oxygen species. Successful coating of nanoparti- cles with dye is demonstrated through

  11. Uncooled Micro-Cantilever Infrared Imager Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panagiotis, Datskos G. [ORNL

    2008-02-05

    We report on the development, fabrication and characterization of microcantilever based uncooled focal plane array (FPA) for infrared imaging. By combining a streamlined design of microcantilever thermal transducers with a highly efficient optical readout, we minimized the fabrication complexity while achieving a competitive level of imaging performance. The microcantilever FPAs were fabricated using a straightforward fabrication process that involved only three photolithographic steps (i.e. three masks). A designed and constructed prototype of an IR imager employed a simple optical readout based on a noncoherent low-power light source. The main figures of merit of the IR imager were found to be comparable to those of uncooled MEMS infrared detectors with substantially higher degree of fabrication complexity. In particular, the NETD and the response time of the implemented MEMS IR detector were measured to be as low as 0.5K and 6 ms, respectively. The potential of the implemented designs can also be concluded from the fact that the constructed prototype enabled IR imaging of close to room temperature objects without the use of any advanced data processing. The most unique and practically valuable feature of the implemented FPAs, however, is their scalability to high resolution formats, such as 2000 x 2000, without progressively growing device complexity and cost. The overall technical objective of the proposed work was to develop uncooled infrared arrays based on micromechanical sensors. Currently used miniature sensors use a number of different readout techniques to accomplish the sensing. The use of optical readout techniques sensing require the deposition of thin coatings on the surface of micromechanical thermal detectors. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is uniquely qualified to perform the required research and development (R&D) services that will assist our ongoing activities. Over the past decade ORNL has developed a number of unique methods and techniques that led to improved sensors using a number of different approaches.

  12. Resonator-quantum well infrared photodetectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K. K. Sun, J.; Olver, K.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Waczynski, A.

    2013-11-11

    We applied a recent electromagnetic model to design the resonator-quantum well infrared photodetector (R-QWIP). In this design, we used an array of rings as diffractive elements to diffract normal incident light into parallel propagation and used the pixel volume as a resonator to intensify the diffracted light. With a proper pixel size, the detector resonates at certain optical wavelengths and thus yields a high quantum efficiency (QE). To test this detector concept, we fabricated a number of R-QWIPs with different quantum well materials and detector geometries. The experimental result agrees satisfactorily with the prediction, and the highest QE achieved is 71%.

  13. Defining the infrared systems for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichle, R.; Andrew, P.; Drevon, J.-M.; Encheva, A.; Janeschitz, G.; Levesy, B.; Martin, A.; Pitcher, C. S.; Pitts, R.; Thomas, D.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.; Counsell, G.; Johnson, D.; Kusama, Y.

    2010-10-15

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor will have wide angle viewing systems and a divertor thermography diagnostic, which shall provide infrared coverage of the divertor and large parts of the first wall surfaces with spatial and temporal resolution adequate for operational purposes and higher resolved details of the divertor and other areas for physics investigations. We propose specifications for each system such that they jointly respond to the requirements. Risk analysis driven priorities for future work concern mirror degradation, interfaces with other diagnostics, radiation damage to refractive optics, reflections, and the development of calibration and measurement methods for varying optical and thermal target properties.

  14. Long-Wave Infrared | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWindsCompressedListguided wavesLone StarEnergyInfrared

  15. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THEVorticesInformation| U.S.Infrared Mapping

  16. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THEVorticesInformation| U.S.Infrared

  17. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy,ImpactScientificInfluence ofMedia onInfrared Mapping Helps

  18. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy,ImpactScientificInfluence ofMedia onInfrared Mapping

  19. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy,ImpactScientificInfluence ofMedia onInfrared

  20. Doped carbon nanostructure field emitter arrays for infrared imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korsah, Kofi (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Baylor, Larry R (Farragut, TN) [Farragut, TN; Caughman, John B (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger A (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Rack, Philip D (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Ivanov, Ilia N (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2009-10-27

    An infrared imaging device and method for making infrared detector(s) having at least one anode, at least one cathode with a substrate electrically connected to a plurality of doped carbon nanostructures; and bias circuitry for applying an electric field between the anode and the cathode such that when infrared photons are adsorbed by the nanostructures the emitted field current is modulated. The detectors can be doped with cesium to lower the work function.

  1. AEGIS: Infrared Spectroscopy of an Infrared-luminous Lyman Break Galaxy at z = 3.01

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, J.-S.; Rigopoulou, D.; Papovich, C.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Ivison, R.; Laird, E. S.; Webb, T.; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Barmby, P.; Chapman, S.; Conselice, C. J.; McLeod, B.; Shu, C. G.; Smith, H. A.; Le Floc'h, E.; Egami, E.; Willmer, C. A. N.; Fazio, G. G.

    2007-05-01

    We report the detection of rest-frame 6.2 and 7.7 ?m emission features arising from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Spitzer IRS spectrum of an infrared-luminous Lyman break galaxy at z = 3.01. This is currently ...

  2. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Yellowstone Region (Hellman ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Yellowstone Region (Hellman & Ramsey, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or Near...

  3. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    therefore can provide some of the most interesting information about the electronic properties of a material. In this work, the researchers employed infrared synchrotron radiation...

  4. Infrared Freezing of Euclidean QCD observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul M. Brooks; C. J. Maxwell

    2006-08-22

    We consider the leading one-chain term in a skeleton expansion for QCD observables and show that for energies Q^2>\\Lambda^2, where Q^2=\\Lambda^2 is the Landau pole in the coupling, the skeleton expansion result is equivalent to the standard Borel integral representation, with ambiguities related to infrared (IR) renormalons. For Q^2freezing behaviour, vanishing at Q^2=0. Finiteness at Q^2=\\Lambda^2 implies specific relations between the residues of IR and UV renormalons in the Borel plane. These relations, only one of which has previously been noted (though it remained unexplained) are shown to follow from the continuity of the characteristic function in the skeleton expansion. By considering the compensation of non-perturbative and perturbative ambiguities we are led to a result for the Q^2 dependence of these observables at all Q^2, in which there is a single undetermined non-perturbative parameter, and which involves the skeleton expansion characteristic function. The observables freeze to zero in the infrared. We briefly consider the freezing behaviour of the Minkowskian R_{e+e-} ratio.

  5. SKA Engineering Change Proposal: Gridded Visibilities to Enable Precision Cosmology with Radio Weak Lensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This document was submitted as supporting material to an Engineering Change Proposal (ECP) for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). This ECP requests gridded visibilities as an extra imaging data product from the SKA, in order to enable bespoke analysis techniques to measure source morphologies to the accuracy necessary for precision cosmology with radio weak lensing. We also discuss the properties of an SKA weak lensing data set and potential overlaps with other cosmology science goals.

  6. Volume-scalable high-brightness three-dimensional visible light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramania, Ganapathi; Fischer, Arthur J; Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2014-02-18

    A volume-scalable, high-brightness, electrically driven visible light source comprises a three-dimensional photonic crystal (3DPC) comprising one or more direct bandgap semiconductors. The improved light emission performance of the invention is achieved based on the enhancement of radiative emission of light emitters placed inside a 3DPC due to the strong modification of the photonic density-of-states engendered by the 3DPC.

  7. Naked eye star visibility and limiting magnitude mapped from DMSP-OLS satellite data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Cinzano; F. Falchi; C. D. Elvidge

    2000-11-16

    We extend the method introduced by Cinzano et al. (2000a) to map the artificial sky brightness in large territories from DMSP satellite data, in order to map the naked eye star visibility and telescopic limiting magnitudes. For these purposes we take into account the altitude of each land area from GTOPO30 world elevation data, the natural sky brightness in the chosen sky direction, based on Garstang modelling, the eye capability with naked eye or a telescope, based on the Schaefer (1990) and Garstang (2000b) approach, and the stellar extinction in the visual photometric band. For near zenith sky directions we also take into account screening by terrain elevation. Maps of naked eye star visibility and telescopic limiting magnitudes are useful to quantify the capability of the population to perceive our Universe, to evaluate the future evolution, to make cross correlations with statistical parameters and to recognize areas where astronomical observations or popularisation can still acceptably be made. We present, as an application, maps of naked eye star visibility and total sky brightness in V band in Europe at the zenith with a resolution of approximately 1 km.

  8. Visible-light-induced instability in amorphous metal-oxide based TFTs for transparent electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ha, Tae-Jun

    2014-10-15

    We investigate the origin of visible-light-induced instability in amorphous metal-oxide based thin film transistors (oxide-TFTs) for transparent electronics by exploring the shift in threshold voltage (V{sub th}). A large hysteresis window in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs possessing large optical band-gap (?3 eV) was observed in a visible-light illuminated condition whereas no hysteresis window was shown in a dark measuring condition. We also report the instability caused by photo irradiation and prolonged gate bias stress in oxide-TFTs. Larger V{sub th} shift was observed after photo-induced stress combined with a negative gate bias than the sum of that after only illumination stress and only negative gate bias stress. Such results can be explained by trapped charges at the interface of semiconductor/dielectric and/or in the gate dielectric which play a role in a screen effect on the electric field applied by gate voltage, for which we propose that the localized-states-assisted transitions by visible-light absorption can be responsible.

  9. Graphene oxide modified TiO2 nanotube arrays?enhanced visible light photoelectrochemical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Peng; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Mingxun; Cui, Xiao-Li; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-03-01

    Novel nanocomposite films based on graphene oxide (GO) and TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were synthesized by assembling GO on the surface of self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays through a simple assembling method. The composite films were characterized with field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Photoelectrochemical properties of the composite nanotube arrays were investigated under visible light illumination. Remarkably enhanced visible light photoelectrochemical response was observed for the GO decorated TiO{sub 2} nanotube composite electrode compared with pristine TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays. Sensitizing effect of GO on the photoelectrochemical response of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays was demonstrated and about 15 times enhanced maximum photoconversion efficiency was obtained with the presence of GO. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays towards degradation of methyl blue was also demonstrated after modification of GO. The results presented here demonstrate GO to be efficient for the improvement of utilization of visible light for TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays.

  10. Indium oxide thin film as potential photoanodes for corrosion protection of stainless steel under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yan; Yu, Jianqiang; Sun, Kai; Zhu, Yukun; Bu, Yuyu; Chen, Zhuoyuan

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: If the conduction band potential of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} is more negative than the corrosion potential of stainless steel, photo-induced electrons will be transferred from In{sub 2}O{sub 3} to the steel, thus shifting the potential of the steel into a corrosion immunity region and preventing the steel from the corrosion. - Highlights: • Indium oxide performed novel application under visible light. • Indium oxide by sol–gel method behaved better photoelectrochemical properties. • Electrons were transferred to stainless steel from indium oxide once light on. - Abstract: This paper reports the photoelectrochemical cathodic protection of 304 stainless steel by In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin-film under visible-light. The films were fabricated with In{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders, synthesized by both sol–gel (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg) and solid-state (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ss) processes. The photo-induced open circuit potential and the photo-to-current efficiency measurements suggested that In{sub 2}O{sub 3} could be a promising candidate material for photoelectrochemical cathodic protection of metallic alloys under visible light. Moreover, the polarization curve experimental results indicated that In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg thin-film can mitigate the corrosion potential of 304 stainless steel to much more negative values with a higher photocurrent density than the In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ss film under visible-light illumination. All the results demonstrated that the In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg thin-film provides a better photoelectrochemical cathodic protection for 304 stainless steel than In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ss thin-film under visible-light illumination. The higher photoelectrochemical efficiency is possibly due to the uniform thin films produced with the smaller particle size of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg, which facilitates the transfer of the photo-induced electrons from bulk to the surface and suppresses the charge recombination of the electrons and holes.

  11. Visible light activated photocatalytic behaviour of rare earth modified commercial TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobaldi, D.M.; Seabra, M.P.; Labrincha, J.A.

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • RE gave more surface hydroxyl groups attached to the photocatalyst's surface. • RE gave the modified and fired samples a high specific surface area. • Photocatalytic activity was assessed in gas–solid phase under visible-light exposure. • Thermal treated RE-TiO{sub 2}s showed a superior visible-light photocatalytic activity. • La-TiO{sub 2} was the best performing photocatalyst. - Abstract: A commercial TiO{sub 2} nanopowder, Degussa P25, was modified with several rare earth (RE) elements in order to extend its photocatalytic activity into the visible range. The mixtures were prepared via solid-state reaction of the precursor oxides, and thermally treated at high temperature (900 and 1000 °C), with the aim of investigating the photocatalytic activity of the thermally treated samples. This thermal treatment was chosen for a prospective application as a surface layer in materials that need to be processed at high temperatures. The photocatalytic activity (PCA) of the samples was assessed in gas–solid phase – monitoring the degradation of isopropanol (IPA) – under visible-light irradiation. Results showed that the addition of the REs lanthanum, europium and yttrium to TiO{sub 2} greatly improved its photocatalytic activity, despite the thermal treatment, because of the presence of more surface hydroxyl groups attached to the photocatalyst's surface, together with a higher specific surface area (SSA) of the modified and thermally treated samples, with regard to the unmodified and thermally treated Degussa P25. The samples doped with La, Eu and Y all had excellent PCA under visible-light irradiation, even higher than the untreated Degussa P25 reference sample, despite their thermal treatment at 900 °C, with lanthanum producing the best results (i.e. the La-, Eu- and Y-TiO{sub 2} samples, thermally treated at 900 °C, had, respectively, a PCA equal to 26, 27 and 18 ppm h{sup ?1} – in terms of acetone formation – versus 15 ppm h{sup ?1} for the 900 °C thermally treated Degussa P25). On the other hand, Ce–TiO{sub 2}s had no significant photocatalytic activity.

  12. OIL SPILL SENSOR USING MULTISPECTRAL INFRARED IMAGING VIA 1 MINIMIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Wotao

    OIL SPILL SENSOR USING MULTISPECTRAL INFRARED IMAGING VIA 1 MINIMIZATION Yingying Li , Wei Computational and Applied Mathematics, Rice University ABSTRACT Early detection of oil spill events is the key in detecting the early onset of a small-scale oil spill event. Based on an infrared oil-water contrast model

  13. Pressure Calibration by the Infrared Absorption Spectrum of Mineral Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Pressure Calibration by the Infrared Absorption Spectrum of Mineral Oil H. Child, Kenyon College effect is seen in the infrared absorption spectrum of mineral oil. The frequency of two peaks increases as pressure is applied to the mineral oil. At a pressure of about 1 kbar (100 MPa), both peaks are distinct

  14. Fast-Response Infrared Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Phase Modulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Fast-Response Infrared Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Phase Modulators Ju-Hyun Lee Yung-Hsun Wu Shin (about 2.3p at k ¼ 1.55 lm under E ¼ 2.5 V=lm) and fast response time ( at an infrared wavelength, say k ¼ 1.55 mm. On the contrary, ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) show very fast

  15. Multivariate classification of infrared spectra of cell and tissue samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, David M. (Albuquerque, NM); Jones, Howland D. T. (Albuquerque, NM); Thomas, Edward V. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    Multivariate classification techniques are applied to spectra from cell and tissue samples irradiated with infrared radiation to determine if the samples are normal or abnormal (cancerous). Mid and near infrared radiation can be used for in vivo and in vitro classifications using at least different wavelengths.

  16. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demos; Stavros (Livermore, CA), Staggs; Michael C. (Tracy, CA)

    2006-03-21

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  17. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demos, Stavros (Livermore, CA); Staggs, Michael C. (Tracy, CA)

    2006-12-12

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  18. Measurement of Paint Layer Thickness with Photothermal Infrared Radiometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louis, Alfred K.

    Measurement of Paint Layer Thickness with Photothermal Infrared Radiometry P. Dorr, A. K. Louis-physical, optical and geometrical properties of multi-layered samples of paint on a metalic substrate. A special infrared radiometry, paint-#12;lm-thickness is measured using lock-in ampli#12;ers. The phase-di#11;erence

  19. Using Near-Infrared Light To Detect Breast Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fantini, Sergio

    Using Near-Infrared Light To Detect Breast Cancer Using Near-Infrared Light To Detect Breast Cancer News 25 T he idea of using light to non- invasively detect breast cancer has been revisited in the past of selectively labeling breast tumors may open new opportunities in the optical detection of breast cancer

  20. Relative Infrared (IR) and Terahertz (THz) Signatures of Common Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharpe, Steven W.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Sheen, David M.; Atkinson, David A.

    2006-11-13

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has recently recorded the infrared (IR) and far-infrared (sometimes called the terahertz, THz) spectral signatures of four common explosives, in the condensed phase. The signatures of RDX, PETN, TNT and Tetryl were recorded both in the infrared and the THz domains, using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Samples consisted of thin films and were made by depositing and subsequent evaporation of an acetone-explosive mixture. The complete spectrum spanned the range from 4,000 to 8 cm-1 at 2.0 cm-1 spectral resolution. Preliminary results in the infrared agree with those of previous workers, while the THz signatures are one order of magnitude weaker than the strongest IR bands.

  1. Infrared non-destructive evaluation method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baleine, Erwan; Erwan, James F; Lee, Ching-Pang; Stinelli, Stephanie

    2014-10-21

    A method of nondestructive evaluation and related system. The method includes arranging a test piece (14) having an internal passage (18) and an external surface (15) and a thermal calibrator (12) within a field of view (42) of an infrared sensor (44); generating a flow (16) of fluid characterized by a fluid temperature; exposing the test piece internal passage (18) and the thermal calibrator (12) to fluid from the flow (16); capturing infrared emission information of the test piece external surface (15) and of the thermal calibrator (12) simultaneously using the infrared sensor (44), wherein the test piece infrared emission information includes emission intensity information, and wherein the thermal calibrator infrared emission information includes a reference emission intensity associated with the fluid temperature; and normalizing the test piece emission intensity information against the reference emission intensity.

  2. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  3. Infrared microcalorimetric spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morales Rodriguez, Marissa E [ORNL; Senesac, Larry R [ORNL; Rajic, Slobodan [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL; Datskos, Panos G [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated an infrared (IR) microcalorimetric spectroscopy technique that can be used to detect the presence of trace amounts of target molecules. The chemical detection is accomplished by obtaining the IR photothermal spectra of molecules absorbed on the surface of uncooled thermal micromechanical detectors. IR microcalorimetric spectroscopy requires no chemical specific coatings and the chemical specificity of the presented method is a consequence of the wavelength-specific absorption of IR photons from tunable quantum cascade lasers due to vibrational spectral bands of the analyte. We have obtained IR photothermal spectra for trace concentrations of RDX and a monolayer of 2-mercaptoethanol, over the wavelength region from 6 to 10 m. We found that in this wavelength region both chemicals exhibit a number of photothermal absorption features that are in good agreement with their respective IR spectra.

  4. Mid-Infrared Spectra of Be Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Rinehart; J. R. Houck; J. D. Smith

    1999-10-11

    We present the first medium-resolution ($R\\sim 600$) mid-infrared (8-13.3\\micron) spectra of 11 Be stars. A large number of lines are observed and identified in these spectra, including, as an example, 39 hydrogen recombination lines in the spectrum of $\\gamma$ Cas. In the majority of our spectra, all of the observed lines are attributable to hydrogen recombination. Two of the sources, $\\beta$ Lyr and MWC 349 also show emission from other species. Both of these objects show evidence of [Ne II] emission, and $\\beta$ Lyr also shows evidence of He I emission. We tabulate the effective line strength and line widths for the observed lines, and briefly discuss the physical implications of the observed line series. We also use a simple model of free-free emission to characterize the disks around these sources.

  5. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  6. Tunable infrared source employing Raman mixing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byer, Robert L. (Stanford, CA); Herbst, Richard L. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A tunable source of infrared radiation is obtained by irradiating an assemblage of Raman active gaseous atoms or molecules with a high intensity pumping beam of coherent radiation at a pump frequency .omega..sub.p to stimulate the generation of Stokes wave energy at a Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s and to stimulate the Raman resonant mode at the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R within the irradiated assemblage where the pump frequency .omega..sub.p minus the Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s is equal to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R. The stimulated assemblage is irradiated with a tunable source of coherent radiation at a frequency .omega..sub.i to generate the output infrared radiation of the frequency .omega..sub.0 which is related to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R and the input wave .omega..sub.i by the relation .omega..sub.0 =.omega..sub.i .+-..omega..sub.R. In one embodiment the interaction between the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i is collinear and the ratio of the phase velocity mismatch factor .DELTA.k to the electric field exponential gain coefficient T is within the range of 0.1 to 5. In another embodiment the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i have velocity vectors k.sub.p and k.sub.i which cross at an angle to each other to compensate for phase velocity mismatches in the medium. In another embodiment, the Stokes wave energy .omega..sub.s is generated by pump energy .omega..sub.p in a first Raman cell and .omega..sub.s, .omega..sub.i and .omega..sub.p are combined in a second Raman mixing cell to produce the output at .omega..sub.i.

  7. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grills, David C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Farrington, Jaime A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Layne, Bobby H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Preses, Jack M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bernstein, Herbert J. [Dowling College, Shirley, NY (United States); Wishart, James F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-04-01

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of a unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330-1051 cm?¹. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ?40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ?100 µOD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. This new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.

  8. The gas-rich disk of HR 4049: A study of the infrared spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malek, Sarah E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Cami, Jan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 Canada and SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94034 (United States)

    2014-05-02

    Here, we present a summary of our analyses of the mid-and near-infrared spectrum of the unusual evolved binary HR 4049. We f nd that the disk is massive (M > 8 × 10{sup ?3} M{sub ?}), warm and radially extended. We also report some enrichment in {sup 17}O and {sup 18}O and a comparison of observations from Spitzer-IRS to those obtained by ISO-SWS 10 years earlier reveals that the CO{sub 2} f ux has more than doubled in this time, indicating active and ongoing chemical evolution in the circumbinary disk. Given the high column densities of the gas in the disk, we expect that the molecular gas plays a crucial role in the thermal properties of the circumbinary disk by allowing visible light to heat the dust and then trapping the IR photons emitted by the dust. This will result in higher temperatures and a more homogeneous temperature structure in the disk. Finally, we estimate a mass for the primary in HR 4049 which is too low for the star to have experienced a typical evolutionary path.

  9. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grills, David C.; Farrington, Jaime A.; Layne, Bobby H.; Preses, Jack M.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Wishart, James F.

    2015-04-27

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of amore »unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330-1051 cm?¹. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ~40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ~100 µOD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. As a result, this new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.« less

  10. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grills, David C.; Farrington, Jaime A.; Layne, Bobby H.; Preses, Jack M.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Wishart, James F.

    2015-04-27

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of a unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330-1051 cm?¹. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ~40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ~100 µOD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. As a result, this new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.

  11. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 135, 104303 (2011) The visible spectrum of zirconium dioxide, ZrO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 135, 104303 (2011) The visible spectrum of zirconium dioxide, ZrO2; published online 8 September 2011) The electronic spectrum of a cold molecular beam of zirconium dioxide, Zr

  12. Germanium blocked impurity band infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossington, C.S.; Haller, E.E.

    1988-08-01

    Germanium blocked impurity band (BIB) photoconductors have been fabricated and characterized for responsivity, dark current, and noise equivalent power. BIB photoconductors theoretically provide an extension of the spectral response, a reduction in sensitivity to cosmic radiation and a reduction in noise characteristics compared with conventional photoconductors. Silicon BIB detectors have been successfully developed by researchers at Rockwell International, which do indeed meet their theoretical potential. In the proper configuration, these same Si BIB detectors are capable of continuous detection of individual photons in the wavelength range from 0.4 to 28 ..mu..m. Until the BIB concept was developed, detection of individual photons was only possible with photomultiplier tubes which detected visible light. Due to the successes of the Si BIB detectors, it seemed natural to extend this concept to Ge detectors, which would then allow an extension of the spectral response over conventional Ge detectors from /approximately/100 ..mu..m to /approximately/200 ..mu..m. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity for TiO2 Nanotube Array Films by Codoping with Tungsten and Nitrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Min; Lu, DanDan; Yang, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    A series of W, N codoped TiO2 nanotube arrays with different dopant contents were fabricated by anodizing in association with hydrothermal treatment. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible light diffuse reflection spectroscopy. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of W and N codoped TiO2 nanotube arrays was evaluated by degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation.

  14. The VVV Templates Project. Towards an Automated Classification of VVV Light-Curves. I. Building a database of stellar variability in the near-infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angeloni, R; Catelan, M; Dékány, I; Gran, F; Alonso-García, J; Hempel, M; Navarrete, C; Andrews, H; Aparicio, A; Beamín, J C; Berger, C; Borissova, J; Peña, C Contreras; Cunial, A; de Grijs, R; Espinoza, N; Eyheramendy, S; Lopes, C E Ferreira; Fiaschi, M; Hajdu, G; Han, J; He?miniak, K G; Hempel, A; Hidalgo, S L; Ita, Y; Jeon, Y -B; Jordán, A; Kwon, J; Lee, J T; Martín, E L; Masetti, N; Matsunaga, N; Milone, A P; Minniti, D; Morelli, L; Murgas, F; Nagayama, T; Navarro, C; Ochner, P; Pérez, P; Pichara, K; Rojas-Arriagada, A; Roquette, J; Saito, R K; Siviero, A; Sohn, J; Sung, H -I; Tamura, M; Tata, R; Tomasella, L; Townsend, B; Whitelock, P

    2014-01-01

    Context. The Vista Variables in the V\\'ia L\\'actea (VVV) ESO Public Survey is a variability survey of the Milky Way bulge and an adjacent section of the disk carried out from 2010 on ESO Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA). VVV will eventually deliver a deep near-IR atlas with photometry and positions in five passbands (ZYJHK_S) and a catalogue of 1-10 million variable point sources - mostly unknown - which require classifications. Aims. The main goal of the VVV Templates Project, that we introduce in this work, is to develop and test the machine-learning algorithms for the automated classification of the VVV light-curves. As VVV is the first massive, multi-epoch survey of stellar variability in the near-infrared, the template light-curves that are required for training the classification algorithms are not available. In the first paper of the series we describe the construction of this comprehensive database of infrared stellar variability. Methods. First we performed a systematic sea...

  15. Mid-infrared ultra-short mode-locked fiber laser utilizing topological insulator Bi2Te3 nano-sheets as the saturable absorber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Ke; Zheng, Xin; Yu, Hao; Cheng, Xiangai; Hou, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The newly-emergent two-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) have shown their unique electronic and optical properties, such as good thermal management, high nonlinear refraction index and ultrafast relaxation time. Their narrow energy band gaps predict their optical absorption ability further into the mid-infrared region and their possibility to be very broadband light modulators ranging from the visible to the mid-infrared region. In this paper, a mid-infrared mode-locked fluoride fiber laser with TI Bi2Te3 nano-sheets as the saturable absorber is presented. Continuous wave lasing, Q-switched and continuous-wave mode-locking (CW-ML) operations of the laser are observed sequentially by increasing the pump power. The observed CW-ML pulse train has a pulse repetition rate of 10.4 MHz, a pulse width of ~6 ps, and a center wavelength of 2830 nm. The maximum achievable pulse energy is 8.6 nJ with average power up to 90 mW. This work forcefully demonstrates the promising applications of two-dimensional TIs for ...

  16. Status of the visible Free-Electron Laser at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Fernow, R.C.; Fisher, A.S.; Friedman, A.; Gallardo, J.; Ingold, G.; Kirk, H.; Kramer, S.; Lin, L.; Rogers, J.T.; Sheehan, J.F.; van Steenbergen, A.; Woodle, M.; Xie, J.; Yu, L.H.; Zhang, R. ); Bhowmik, A. . Rocketdyne Div.)

    1991-01-01

    The 500 nm Free-Electron Laser (ATF) of the Brookhaven National Laboratory is reviewed. We present an overview of the ATF, a high-brightness, 50-MeV, electron accelerator and laser complex which is a users' facility for accelerator and beam physics. A number of laser acceleration and FEL experiments are under construction at the ATF. The visible FEL experiment is based on a novel superferric 8.8 mm period undulator. The electron beam parameters, the undulator, the optical resonator, optical and electron beam diagnostics are discussed. The operational status of the experiment is presented. 22 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Kinetics of visible light photo-oxidation of Ge nanocrystals:Theory and in situ measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, I.D.; Xu, Q.; Yuan, C.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Ager III, J.W.; Chrzan, D.C.; Haller, E.E.

    2006-11-14

    Photo-oxidation of Ge nanocrystals illuminated with visible laser light under ambient conditions was investigated. The photo-oxidation kinetics were monitored by in situ measurement of the crystalline Ge volume fraction by Raman spectroscopy. The effects of laser power and energy on the extent of oxidation were measured using both in situ and ex situ Raman scattering techniques. A mechanistic model in which the tunneling of photo-excited carriers to the oxide surface for electron activated molecular oxygen dissociation is proposed. This quantitative model successfully describes all experimental photo-oxidation observations using physical parameters.

  18. Proposal for direct measurement of concurrence via visibility in a cavity QED system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sang Min; Ji, Se-Wan; Lee, Hai-Woong; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2008-01-01

    Proposal for direct measurement of concurrence via visibility in a cavity QED system Sang Min Lee,1 Se-Wan Ji,1 Hai-Woong Lee,1 and M. Suhail Zubairy2,3 1Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305...-701, Korea 2Department of Physics and Institute for Quantum Studies, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242, USA 3Texas A&M University at Qatar, Education City, P.O. Box 23874, Doha, Qatar #1;Received 24 January 2008; published 22 April...

  19. Visible Light Photocatalysis via CdS/TiO2Nanocomposite Materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Wade, Jeremy; Stefanakos, Elias K.

    2006-01-01

    Nanostructured colloidal semiconductors with heterogeneous photocatalytic behavior have drawn considerable attention over the past few years. This is due to their large surface area, high redox potential of the photogenerated charge carriers, and selective reduction/oxidation of different classes of organic compounds. In the present paper, we have carried out a systematic synthesis of nanostructured CdS-TiO2via reverse micelle process. The structural and microstructural characterizations of the as-prepared CdS-TiO2nanocomposites are determined using XRD and SEM-EDS techniques. The visible light assisted photocatalytic performance is monitored by means of degradation of phenol in water suspension.

  20. Is it effective to harvest visible light by decreasing the band gap of photocatalytic materials?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu Ning; Tang Xinhu; Li Dongyang [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G6 (Canada)

    2012-02-27

    In situ variations in the electron work function and photo-current of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes demonstrate that long-wavelength illumination only has a minor effect on the excitation of electrons in the nanotubes after being exposed to short-wavelength light or when the short-wavelength light coexisted, indicating that the solar spectrum may not be utilized as efficiently as expected by extending the absorption spectrum of the photocatalytic material to visible light range with decreased band gaps.

  1. Measurement of radiation coherence by means of interference visibility in the reflected light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tikhonov, E A

    2015-01-01

    Proposed, justified and tested measuring of beam spatial coherence, based on the detection of an interference visibility of the equal to intensity of beam replicas emerging under reflection from the rotated plane-parallel plate. The method consists in measuring the interference contrast at the simultaneous change of the longitudinal path difference and transverse shift of named replicas. Accurate measurement of the angle of rotated plate and the amplitude distribution of interferential minimaxes allows to determine the width of the beam spatial coherence. Spatial coherence of some types of multimode lasers has been measured by the method. Keywords: coherence measurements, interference in 2 move apart beam, rotable interferometer

  2. Radiant energy required for infrared neural stimulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tan, Xiaodong; Rajguru, Suhrud; Young, Hunter; Xia, Nan; Stock, Stuart R.; Xiao, Xianghui; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-08-25

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been proposed as an alternative method to electrical stimulation because of its spatial selective stimulation. Independent of the mechanism for INS, to translate the method into a device it is important to determine the energy for stimulation required at the target structure. Custom-designed, flat and angle polished fibers, were used to deliver the photons. By rotating the angle polished fibers, the orientation of the radiation beam in the cochlea could be changed. INS-evoked compound action potentials and single unit responses in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) were recorded. X-ray computed tomography wasmore »used to determine the orientation of the optical fiber. Maximum responses were observed when the radiation beam was directed towards the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), whereas little responses were seen when the beam was directed towards the basilar membrane. The radiant exposure required at the SGNs to evoke compound action potentials (CAPs) or ICC responses was on average 18.9 ± 12.2 or 10.3 ± 4.9 mJ/cm2, respectively. For cochlear INS it has been debated whether the radiation directly stimulates the SGNs or evokes a photoacoustic effect. The results support the view that a direct interaction between neurons and radiation dominates the response to INS.« less

  3. Infrared Transmission Spectra for Extrasolar Giant Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Tinetti; M. C. Liang; A. Vidal-Madjar; D. Ehrenreich; A. Lecavelier des Etangs; Y. Yung

    2006-11-06

    Among the hot Jupiters that transit their parent stars known to date, the two best candidates to be observed with transmission spectroscopy in the mid-infrared (MIR) are HD189733b and HD209458b, due to their combined characteristics of planetary density, orbital parameters and parent star distance and brightness. Here we simulate transmission spectra of these two planets during their primary eclipse in the MIR, and we present sensitivity studies of the spectra to the changes of atmospheric thermal properties, molecular abundances and C/O ratios. Our model predicts that the dominant species absorbing in the MIR on hot Jupiters are water vapor and carbon monoxide, and their relative abundances are determined by the C/O ratio. Since the temperature profile plays a secondary role in the transmission spectra of hot Jupiters compared to molecular abundances, future primary eclipse observations in the MIR of those objects might give an insight on EGP atmospheric chemistry. We find here that the absorption features caused by water vapor and carbon monoxide in a cloud-free atmosphere, are deep enough to be observable by the present and future generation of space-based observatories, such as Spitzer Space Telescope and James Webb Space Telescope. We discuss our results in light of the capabilities of these telescopes.

  4. Infrared Thermographic Study of Laser Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohler, Jonathan H.; Chow, Charles T. S.

    1986-07-01

    Pyrotechnic ignition has been studied in the past by making a limited number of discrete temperature-time observations during ignition. Present-day infrared scanning techniques make it possible to record thermal profiles, during ignition, with high spacial and temporal resolution. Data thus obtained can be used with existing theory to characterize pyrotechnic materials and to develop more precise kinetic models of the ignition process. Ignition has been studied theoretically and experimentally using various thermal methods. It has been shown that the whole process can, ideally, be divided into two stages. In the first stage, the sample pellet behaves like an inert body heated by an external heat source. The second stage is governed by the chemical reaction in the heated volume produced during the first stage. High speed thermographic recording of the temperature distribution in the test sample during laser ignition makes it possible to calculate the heat content at any instant. Thus, one can actually observe laser heating and the onset of self-sustained combustion in the pellet. The experimental apparatus used to make these observations is described. The temperature distributions recorded are shown to be in good agreement with those predicted by heat transfer theory. Heat content values calculated from the observed temperature distributions are used to calculate thermal and kinetic parameters for several samples. These values are found to be in reasonable agreement with theory.

  5. Infrared thermographic study of laser ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohler, J.H.; Chow, C.T.S.

    1986-07-21

    Pyrotechnic ignition has been studied in the past by making a limited number of discrete temperature-time observations during ignition. Present-day infrared scanning techniques make it possible to record thermal profiles, during ignition, with high spacial and temporal resolution. Data thus obtained can be used with existing theory to characterize pyrotechnic materials and to develop more precise kinetic models of the ignition process. Ignition has been studied theoretically and experimentally using various thermal methods. It has been shown that the whole process can, ideally, be divided into two stages. In the first stage, the sample pellet behaves like an inert body heated by an external heat source. The second stage is governed by the chemical reaction in the heated volume produced during the first stage. High speed thermographic recording of the temperature distribution in the test sample during laser ignition makes it possible to calculate the heat content at any instant. Thus, one can actually observe laser heating and the onset of self-sustained combustion in the pellet.

  6. Infrared spectral properties of M giants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, G C; Ramirez, R M; Kraemer, K E; Engelke, C W

    2015-01-01

    We observed a sample of 20 M giants with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Most show absorption structure at 6.6-6.8 um which we identify as water vapor, and in some cases, the absorption extends from 6.4 um into the SiO band at 7.5 um. Variable stars show stronger H2O absorption. While the strength of the SiO fundamental at 8 um increases monotonically from spectral class K0 to K5, the dependence on spectral class weakens in the M giants. As with previously studied samples, the M giants show considerable scatter in SiO band strength within a given spectral class. All of the stars in our sample also show OH band absorption, most noticeably in the 14-17 um region. The OH bands behave much like the SiO bands, increasing in strength in the K giants but showing weaker dependence on spectral class in the M giants, and with considerable scatter. An examination of the photometric properties reveals that the V-K color may be a better indicator of molecular band strength than the spectral class...

  7. Can a many-nucleon structure be visible in bremsstrahlung emission during $?$ decay?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergei P. Maydanyuk; Peng-Ming Zhang; Li-Ping Zou

    2015-05-04

    We analyze if the nucleon structure of the $\\alpha$ decaying nucleus can be visible in the experimental bremsstrahlung spectra of the emitted photons which accompany such a decay. We develop a new formalism of the bremsstrahlung model taking into account distribution of nucleons in the $\\alpha$ decaying nuclear system. We conclude the following: (1) After inclusion of the nucleon structure into the model the calculated bremsstrahlung spectrum is changed very slowly for a majority of the $\\alpha$ decaying nuclei. However, we have observed that visible changes really exist for the $^{106}{\\rm Te}$ nucleus ($Q_{\\alpha}=4.29$ MeV, $T_{1/2}$=70 mks) even for the energy of the emitted photons up to 1 MeV. This nucleus is a good candidate for future experimental study of this task. (2) Inclusion of the nucleon structure into the model increases the bremsstrahlung probability of the emitted photons. (3) We find the following tendencies for obtaining the nuclei, which have bremsstrahlung spectra more sensitive to the nucleon structure: (a) direction to nuclei with smaller $Z$, (b) direction to nuclei with larger $Q_{\\alpha}$-values.

  8. Sweetspot: Near-infrared observations of 13 type Ia supernovae...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of 13 type Ia supernovae from a new NOAO survey probing the nearby smooth Hubble flow Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sweetspot: Near-infrared observations of 13...

  9. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared emission spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA); Jones, Roger W. (Ames, IA)

    1991-12-24

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a solid material (16, 42) by applying energy from an energy source (20, 70) top a surface region of the solid material sufficient to cause transient heating in a thin surface layer portion of the solid material (16, 42) so as to enable transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion, and by detecting with a spectrometer/detector (28, 58) substantially only the transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion of the solid material. The detected transient thermal emission of infrared radiation is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the solid material of emitted infrared radiation, so as to be indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the solid material.

  10. Characterization of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burghoff, David Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Quantum cascade lasers provide some of the highest output powers available for light in the mid-infrared range (from 3 to 8 m). As many of their applications require portability, designs that have a high wall-plug efficiency ...

  11. Infrared thermometry study of nanofluid pool boiling phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerardi, Craig

    Abstract Infrared thermometry was used to obtain first-of-a-kind, time- and space-resolved data for pool boiling phenomena in water-based nanofluids with diamond and silica nanoparticles at low concentration (<0.1 vol.%). ...

  12. Infra-Red Process for Colour Fixation on Fabrics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biau, D.; Raymond, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Infra-red radiations find wide application in industrial processes as heating, drying, stoving and forming. The results are often far better than those from the other techniques: convection oven, gas IR etc . They come from the electric IR specific...

  13. Application Of High-Resolution Thermal Infrared Sensors For Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Application Of High-Resolution Thermal Infrared Sensors For Geothermal Exploration At The Salton Sea, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  14. Seeing the invisible : single molecule microscopy in the shortwave infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Correa, Raoul Emile

    2013-01-01

    Infrared-active nanostructures play an increasingly important role in the nanoscience toolbox, yet little is known about their optical properties at the single nanoparticle level. In this thesis, we detail efforts to extend ...

  15. Engineering adenylate cyclases regulated by near-infrared window light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryu, Min-Hyung

    Bacteriophytochromes sense light in the near-infrared window, the spectral region where absorption by mammalian tissues is minimal, and their chromophore, biliverdin IX?, is naturally present in animal cells. These properties ...

  16. Polymer-Ceramic MEMS Bimorphs as Thermal Infrared Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Clinton Gregory

    2010-01-01

    et al. , Trilayered Ceramic-Metal-Polymer MicrocantileversPolymer-Ceramic MEMS Bimorphs as Thermal Infrared Sensors byLin Spring 2010 Polymer-Ceramic MEMS Bimorphs as Thermal

  17. Design of novel dyes towards the near-infrared 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loudet, Aurore

    2009-05-15

    A series of seven functionalized near-infrared aza-BODIPY dyes have been synthesized and their spectroscopic properties measured. Their fluorescence emissions could be tuned by altering the electronic substituents on the aryl-groups. A through...

  18. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned...

  19. Infrared Optical Imaging Techniques for Gas Visualization and Measurement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Safitri, Anisa

    2012-07-16

    imaging techniques for gas detection and visualization. The infrared camera fundamentals and the camera detectors? algorithm to measure the thermal radiation emitted by a target object is described in Section 2. A semi-quantification approach... for detection is the contrast in transmitted radiation between the target and background, which generates a detector output voltage. The infrared camera can see certain gases, mostly hydrocarbons, because the camera?s detector is equipped with a filter which...

  20. On the performance of infrared sensors in earth observations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Luther Franklin

    1972-01-01

    systems is depen- dent upon the radiative properties of targets in addition to constraints imposed by system components . The unclas- sified state-of-the-art of infrared system performance figures is reviewed to indicate the relevance to system... of unclassified infrared literature reveals in- frared systems applications in industry, medicine, and science. Indeed, any detection application is possible if a measurable variation in radiation is caused by the tar- get property of interest. Hudson [10] has...

  1. Accurate, practical simulation of satellite infrared radiometer spectral data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1982-09-01

    This study's purpose is to determine whether a relatively simple random band model formulation of atmospheric radiation transfer in the infrared region can provide valid simulations of narrow interval satellite-borne infrared sounder system data. Detailed ozonesondes provide the pertinent atmospheric information and sets of calibrated satellite measurements provide the validation. High resolution line-by-line model calculations are included to complete the evaluation.

  2. Cosmogenic Neutrinos from Cosmic Ray Interactions with Extragalactic Infrared Photons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel De Marco; Todor Stanev; F. W. Stecker

    2005-12-19

    We discuss the production of cosmogenic neutrinos on extragalactic infrared photons in a model of its cosmological evolution. The relative importance of these infrared photons as a target for proton interactions is significant, especially in the case of steep injection spectra of the ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. For an E$^{-2.5}$ cosmic ray injection spectrum, for example, the event rate of neutrinos of energy above 1 PeV is more than doubled.

  3. Evaluating undeveloped urban forest resources using color infrared imagery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snelgrove, Robert Todd

    2002-01-01

    EVALUATING UNDEVELOPED URBAN FOREST RESOURCES USING COLOR INFRARED IMAGERY A Thesis by ROBERT TODD SNELGROVE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2002 Major Subject: Forestry EVALUATING UNDEVELOPED URBAN FOREST RESOURCES USING COLOR INFRARED IMAGERY A Thesis by ROBERT TODD SNELGROVE Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  4. Femtosecond measurements of near-infrared pulse induced mid-infrared transmission modulation of quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Hong; Liu, Sheng; Lalanne, Elaine; Guo, Dingkai; Chen, Xing; Choa, Fow-Sen; Wang, Xiaojun; Johnson, Anthony M.

    2014-05-26

    We temporally resolved the ultrafast mid-infrared transmission modulation of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) using a near-infrared pump/mid-infrared probe technique at room temperature. Two different femtosecond wavelength pumps were used with photon energy above and below the quantum well (QW) bandgap. The shorter wavelength pump modulates the mid-infrared probe transmission through interband transition assisted mechanisms, resulting in a high transmission modulation depth and several nanoseconds recovery lifetime. In contrast, pumping with a photon energy below the QW bandgap induces a smaller transmission modulation depth but much faster (several picoseconds) recovery lifetime, attributed to intersubband transition assisted mechanisms. The latter ultrafast modulation (>60?GHz) could provide a potential way to realize fast QCL based free space optical communication.

  5. Far-infrared surface emissivity and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Pincus, Robert; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong

    2014-11-03

    Presently, there are no global measurement constraints on the surface emissivity at wavelengths longer than 15 ?m, even though this surface property in this far-IR region has a direct impact on the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and infrared cooling rates where the column precipitable water vapor (PWV) is less than 1 mm. Such dry conditions are common for high-altitude and high-latitude locations, with the potential for modeled climate to be impacted by uncertain surface characteristics. This paper explores the sensitivity of instantaneous OLR and cooling rates to changes in far-IR surface emissivity and how this unconstrained property impacts climate model projections. At high latitudes and altitudes, a 0.05 change in emissivity due to mineralogy and snow grain size can cause a 1.8–2.0 W m?² difference in the instantaneous clear-sky OLR. A variety of radiative transfer techniques have been used to model the far-IR spectral emissivities of surface types defined by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Incorporating these far-IR surface emissivities into the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario of the Community Earth System Model leads to discernible changes in the spatial patterns of surface temperature, OLR, and frozen surface extent. The model results differ at high latitudes by as much as 2°K, 10 W m?², and 15%, respectively, after only 25 y of integration. The calculated difference in far-IR emissivity between ocean and sea ice of between 0.1 and 0.2, suggests the potential for a far-IR positive feedback for polar climate change.

  6. Far-infrared surface emissivity and climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Pincus, Robert; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong

    2014-11-03

    Presently, there are no global measurement constraints on the surface emissivity at wavelengths longer than 15 ?m, even though this surface property in this far-IR region has a direct impact on the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and infrared cooling rates where the column precipitable water vapor (PWV) is less than 1 mm. Such dry conditions are common for high-altitude and high-latitude locations, with the potential for modeled climate to be impacted by uncertain surface characteristics. This paper explores the sensitivity of instantaneous OLR and cooling rates to changes in far-IR surface emissivity and how this unconstrained property impacts climate modelmore »projections. At high latitudes and altitudes, a 0.05 change in emissivity due to mineralogy and snow grain size can cause a 1.8–2.0 W m?² difference in the instantaneous clear-sky OLR. A variety of radiative transfer techniques have been used to model the far-IR spectral emissivities of surface types defined by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Incorporating these far-IR surface emissivities into the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario of the Community Earth System Model leads to discernible changes in the spatial patterns of surface temperature, OLR, and frozen surface extent. The model results differ at high latitudes by as much as 2°K, 10 W m?², and 15%, respectively, after only 25 y of integration. The calculated difference in far-IR emissivity between ocean and sea ice of between 0.1 and 0.2, suggests the potential for a far-IR positive feedback for polar climate change.« less

  7. Category:Oblique Aerial & Ground Visible Band & Thermographic Imaging |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to: navigation,GroundNear Infrared SurveysNumericalOpen

  8. Feedback-Driven Evolution of the Far-Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukanya Chakrabarti; T. J. Cox; Lars Hernquist; Philip F. Hopkins; Brant Robertson; Tiziana Di Matteo

    2007-01-22

    We calculate infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from simulations of major galaxy mergers and study the effect of AGN and starburst driven feedback on the evolution of the SED as a function of time. We use a self-consistent three-dimensional radiative equilibrium code to calculate the emergent SEDs and to make images. To facilitate a simple description of our findings, we describe our results in reference to an approximate analytic solution for the far-IR SED. We focus mainly on the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) and ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) phases of evolution. We contrast the SEDs of simulations performed with AGN feedback to simulations performed with starburst driven wind feedback. We find that the feedback processes critically determine the evolution of the SED. Changing the source of illumination (whether stellar or AGN) has virtually no impact on the reprocessed far-infrared SED. We find that AGN feedback is particularly effective at dispersing gas and rapidly injecting energy into the ISM. The observational signature of such powerful feedback is a warm SED. In general, simulations performed with starburst driven winds have colder spectra and reprocess more of their emission into the infrared, resulting in higher infrared to bolometric luminosities compared to (otherwise equivalent) simulations performed with AGN feedback. We depict our results in IRAS bands, as well as in Spitzer's MIPS bands, and in Herschel's PACS bands.

  9. NEAR-INFRARED THERMAL EMISSION DETECTIONS OF A NUMBER OF HOT JUPITERS AND THE SYSTEMATICS OF GROUND-BASED NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albert, Loic

    We present detections of the near-infrared thermal emission of three hot Jupiters and one brown dwarf using the Wide-field Infrared Camera (WIRCam) on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). These include Ks-band secondary ...

  10. Enhancement of the visibility of objects located below the surface of a scattering medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demos, Stavros

    2013-11-19

    Techniques are provided for enhancing the visibility of objects located below the surface of a scattering medium such as tissue, water and smoke. Examples of such an object include a vein located below the skin, a mine located below the surface of the sea and a human in a location covered by smoke. The enhancement of the image contrast of a subsurface structure is based on the utilization of structured illumination. In the specific application of this invention to image the veins in the arm or other part of the body, the issue of how to control the intensity of the image of a metal object (such as a needle) that must be inserted into the vein is also addressed.

  11. Design of metallic nanoparticles gratings for filtering properties in the visible spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brûlé, Y; Fehrembach, A -L; Gralak, B; Popov, E; Tayeb, G; Grangier, M; Barat, D; Bertin, H; Gogol, P; Dagens, B

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic resonances in metallic nanoparticles are exploited to create efficient optical filtering functions. A Finite Element Method is used to model metallic nanoparticles gratings. The accuracy of this method is shown by comparing numerical results with measurements on a two-dimensional grating of gold nanocylinders with elliptic cross section. Then a parametric analysis is performed in order to design efficient filters with polarization dependent properties together with high transparency over the visible range. The behavior of nanoparticle gratings is also modelled using the Maxwell-Garnett homogenization theory and analyzed by comparison with the diffraction by a single nanoparticle. The proposed structures are intended to be included in optical systems which could find innovative applications.

  12. Ultrathin metal-semiconductor-metal resonator for angle invariant visible band transmission filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kyu-Tae; Seo, Sungyong; Yong Lee, Jae; Jay Guo, L.

    2014-06-09

    We present transmission visible wavelength filters based on strong interference behaviors in an ultrathin semiconductor material between two metal layers. The proposed devices were fabricated on 2?cm?×?2?cm glass substrate, and the transmission characteristics show good agreement with the design. Due to a significantly reduced light propagation phase change associated with the ultrathin semiconductor layer and the compensation in phase shift of light reflecting from the metal surface, the filters show an angle insensitive performance up to ±70°, thus, addressing one of the key challenges facing the previously reported photonic and plasmonic color filters. This principle, described in this paper, can have potential for diverse applications ranging from color display devices to the image sensors.

  13. Scintillating fiber tracking at high luminosities using Visible Light Photon counter readout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atac, M.

    1995-11-01

    This paper reviews the research work on the Visible Light Photon Counters (VLPC) that have been developed for the scintillating fiber tracking at high luminosity colliders and high rate fixed target experiments. The devices originated from the joint work between UCLA and Rockwell International Science Center. The VLPCs are capable of counting photons very efficiently down to a single photon level with high avalanche gain, producing pulses at very high rates with very short rise times. Due to small gain dispersions they can be used in counting photons with high quantum efficiencies, therefore they are excellent devices for charged particle tracking using small diameter scintillating plastic fibers. In this paper, fiber tracking for the CDF and D0 upgrades and a possible usage of the VLPC readout for the experiment E803 at Fermilab will be discussed.

  14. A holographic bound on the total number of computations in the visible Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maurice H. P. M. van Putten

    2015-03-26

    Information $I$ in holographic imaging of massive particles by star-like screens is shown to represent the probability of detection based on their propagator. Results are derived for screens in the shape of a plane, cube and sphere from unitarity in the exponentially small transition probability for a detection outside. We derive $I=2\\pi \\Delta\\varphi$ in $\\log2$ bits for the imaging of a particle by a spherical screen at a relative de Broglie phase $\\Delta\\varphi$. Encoding mass, charge, angular momentum or radiation requires at minimum four bits. Minimal screens at maximal information density hereby recover Reissner-Nordstr\\"om and extremal Kerr black holes. Applied to the visible Universe, the Hubble flow of galaxies through the cosmological event horizon leaves $10^{121}$ computations in the future.

  15. Solvothermal synthesis of designed nonstoichiometric strontium titanate for efficient visible-light photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulaeman, Uyi; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2010-09-06

    SrTiO{sub 3} powders with various Sr/Ti atomic ratios were synthesized by microwave-assisted solvothermal reactions of SrCl{sub 2} and Ti(OC{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 4} in KOH aqueous solutions. The nanoparticles of perovskite type SrTiO{sub 3} structure with the particle size of 30-40 nm were synthesized. The photocatalytic activity was determined by deNO{sub x} ability using light emitting diode lamps of various wavelengths such as 627 nm (red), 530 nm (green), 445 nm (blue), and 390 nm (UV). The photocatalytic activity significantly changed depending on the Sr/Ti atomic ratio, i.e., the strontium rich sample (Sr/Ti atomic ratio>1) showed excellent visible light responsive photocatalytic activity for the oxidative destruction of NO.

  16. Broadband visible light source based on AllnGaN light emitting diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Mary H.; Nelson, Jeffrey S.

    2003-12-16

    A visible light source device is described based on a light emitting diode and a nanocluster-based film. The light emitting diode utilizes a semiconductor quantum well structure between n-type and p-type semiconductor materials on the top surface a substrate such as sapphire. The nanocluster-based film is deposited on the bottom surface of the substrate and can be derived from a solution of MoS.sub.2, MoSe.sub.2, WS.sub.2, and WSe.sub.2 particles of size greater than approximately 2 nm in diameter and less than approximately 15 nm in diameter, having an absorption wavelength greater than approximately 300 nm and less than approximately 650 nm.

  17. Laser-ablated active doping technique for visible spectroscopy measurements on Z.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, Matthew Robert

    2013-09-01

    Visible spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic, allowing plasma parameters ranging from temperature and density to electric and magnetic fields to be measured. Spectroscopic dopants are commonly introduced to make these measurements. On Z, dopants are introduced passively (i.e. a salt deposited on a current-carrying surface); however, in some cases, passive doping can limit the times and locations at which measurements can be made. Active doping utilizes an auxiliary energy source to disperse the dopant independently from the rest of the experiment. The objective of this LDRD project was to explore laser ablation as a method of actively introducing spectroscopic dopants. Ideally, the laser energy would be delivered to the dopant via fiber optic, which would eliminate the need for time-intensive laser alignments in the Z chamber. Experiments conducted in a light lab to assess the feasibility of fibercoupled and open-beam laser-ablated doping are discussed.

  18. Limits of survivability and damage for optical components used in a high repetition rate visible laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, J.R.; Stolz, C.J.; Sarginson, T.G.

    1991-10-01

    An effort is being made to understand the limits of survivability and damage for optical components exposed to a visible laser operating continuously at a high repetition rate over 4 kHz. Results of this work are reported and related to the materials and manufacturing conditions for coatings and substrates as well as defects seen at the surface under laser illumination. These results were obtained for a variety of optical coatings and conditions using lasers from the Laser Demonstration Facility, part of the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at LLNL. Better understanding of the reliability of optical components in this environment could lead to improvements in design and manufacture that would result in reduced size for the laser optical system and correspondingly lower costs for the facilities that can use this technology.

  19. Fluorescence Efficiency and Visible Re-emission Spectrum of Tetraphenyl Butadiene Films at Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gehman, V M; Rielage, K; Hime, A; Sun, Y; Mei, D -M; Maassen, J; Moore, D

    2011-01-01

    A large number of current and future experiments in neutrino and dark matter detection use the scintillation light from noble elements as a mechanism for measuring energy deposition. The scintillation light from these elements is produced in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) range, from 60 - 200 nm. Currently, the most practical technique for observing light at these wavelengths is to surround the scintillation volume with a thin film of Tetraphenyl Butadiene (TPB) to act as a fluor. The TPB film absorbs EUV photons and reemits visible photons, detectable with a variety of commercial photosensors. Here we present a measurement of the re-emission spectrum of TPB films when illuminated with 128, 160, 175, and 250 nm light. We also measure the fluorescence efficiency as a function of incident wavelength from 120 to 250 nm.

  20. Fluorescence Efficiency and Visible Re-emission Spectrum of Tetraphenyl Butadiene Films at Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. M. Gehman; S. R. Seibert; K. Rielage; A. Hime; Y. Sun; D. -M. Mei; J. Maassen; D. Moore

    2011-09-22

    A large number of current and future experiments in neutrino and dark matter detection use the scintillation light from noble elements as a mechanism for measuring energy deposition. The scintillation light from these elements is produced in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) range, from 60 - 200 nm. Currently, the most practical technique for observing light at these wavelengths is to surround the scintillation volume with a thin film of Tetraphenyl Butadiene (TPB) to act as a fluor. The TPB film absorbs EUV photons and reemits visible photons, detectable with a variety of commercial photosensors. Here we present a measurement of the re-emission spectrum of TPB films when illuminated with 128, 160, 175, and 250 nm light. We also measure the fluorescence efficiency as a function of incident wavelength from 120 to 250 nm.

  1. A new list of thorium and argon spectral lines in the visible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Lovis; F. Pepe

    2007-03-15

    Aims. We present a new list of thorium and argon emission lines in the visible obtained by analyzing high-resolution (R=110,000) spectra of a ThAr hollow cathode lamp. The aim of this new line list is to allow significant improvements in the quality of wavelength calibration for medium- to high-resolution astronomical spectrographs. Methods. We use a series of ThAr lamp exposures obtained with the HARPS instrument (High Accuracy Radial-velocity Planet Searcher) to detect previously unknown lines, perform a systematic search for blended lines and correct individual wavelengths by determining the systematic offset of each line relative to the average wavelength solution. Results. We give updated wavelengths for more than 8400 lines over the spectral range 3785-6915 A. The typical internal uncertainty on the line positions is estimated to be ~10 m/s (3.3 parts in 10^8 or 0.18 mA), which is a factor of 2-10 better than the widely used Los Alamos Atlas of the Thorium Spectrum (Palmer & Engleman 1983). The absolute accuracy of the global wavelength scale is the same as in the Los Alamos Atlas. Using this new line list on HARPS ThAr spectra, we are able to obtain a global wavelength calibration which is precise at the 20 cm/s level (6.7 parts in 10^10 or 0.0037 mA). Conclusions. Several research fields in astronomy requiring high-precision wavelength calibration in the visible (e.g. radial velocity planet searches, variability of fundamental constants) should benefit from using the new line list.

  2. MWCNT/WO{sub 3} nanocomposite photoanode for visible light induced water splitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yousefzadeh, Samira; Reyhani, Ali; Naseri, Naimeh; Moshfegh, Alireza Z.

    2013-08-15

    The Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/WO{sub 3} nanocomposite thin films with different MWCNT’s weight percentages were prepared by sol–gel method as visible light induced photoanode in water splitting reaction. Weight percentage of MWCNT in the all nanocomposite thin films was confirmed by TGA/DSC analysis. According to XPS analysis, oxygenated groups at the surface of the MWCNT and stoichiometric formation of WO{sub 3} thin films were determined, while the crystalline structure of the nanocomposite samples was studied by XRD indicating (0 0 2) peak of MWCNT in the monoclinic phase of WO{sub 3}. The influence of different weight percentage (wt%) of MWCNT on WO{sub 3} photoactivity showed that the electron conductivity, charge transfer and electron life time had improved as compared with the pure WO{sub 3}. Based on linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements, the (1 wt%) MWCNT/WO{sub 3} nanocomposite thin films photoanode has a maximum photocurrent density of ?4.5 A/m{sup 2} and electron life time of about 57 s. - Graphical abstract: Photocurrent density versus time at constant potential (0.7 V) for the WO{sub 3} films containing different MWCNT weight percentages annealed at 400 °C under 1000 Wm{sup ?2} visible photo-illumination. Display Omitted - Highlights: • MWCNT/ WO{sub 3} nanocomposite thin films were synthesized using sol–gel derived method. • TGA/DSC confirmed the weight percentage of MWCNT in the all nanocomposite thin films. • XPS analysis revealed that WO{sub 3} was attached on the oxygenated group of MWCNT surface. • The Highest Photoelectrochemical activity is achieved for (1 wt%)MWCNT/WO{sub 3} thin film.

  3. Visible light photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol using vanadium and nitrogen co-doped TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaiswal, R.; Kothari, D. C.; Patel, N.; Miotello, A.

    2013-02-05

    Vanadium and Nitrogen were codoped in TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst by Sol-gel method to utilize visible light more efficiently for photocatalytic reactions. A noticeable shift of absorption edge to visible light region was obtained for the singly-doped namely V-TiO{sub 2}, N-TiO{sub 2} and codoped V-N-TiO{sub 2} samples in comparison with undoped TiO{sub 2}, with smallest band gap obtained with codoped-TiO{sub 2}. The photocatalytic activities for all TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were tested by 4-chlorophenol (organic pollutant) degradation under visible light irradiation. It was found that codoped TiO{sub 2} exhibits the best photocatalytic activity, which could be attributed to the synergistic effect produced by V and N dopants.

  4. Ag@AgHPW as a plasmonic catalyst for visible-light photocatalytic degradation of environmentally harmful organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Wenhui; Cao, Minhua, E-mail: caomh@bit.edu.cn; Li, Na; Su, Shuangyue; Zhao, Xinyu; Wang, Jiangqiang; Li, Xianghua; Hu, Changwen

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Ag@Ag{sub x}H{sub 3?x}PW12O40 (Ag@AgHPW) nanoparticles (NPs), a new visible-light driven plasmonic photocatalyst, are prepared by a green photoreduction strategy without the addition of any surfactant, which show a high activity and stability for the degradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • A new visible-light driven photocatalyst Ag@Ag{sub x}H{sub 3?x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} was designed. • The photocatalyst shows a high activity for the degradation of methyl blue. • The high activity can be ascribed to the synergy of photoexcited AgHPW and Ag. - Abstract: Ag@Ag{sub x}H{sub 3?x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} (Ag@AgHPW) nanoparticles (NPs), a new visible-light driven plasmonic photocatalyst, are prepared by a green photoreduction strategy without the addition of any surfactant. They show strong absorption in the visible region because of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Ag NPs. This plasmonic photocatalyst shows a high activity and stability for the degradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible light irradiation, which could be attributed to the highly synergy of photoexcited Ag{sub x}H{sub 3?x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} (AgHPW) and plasmon-excited Ag NPs and the confinement effects at interfaces between polyoxometalates (POMs) and silver. POM anions have redox ability and high photocatalytic activity, whereas Ag NPs could effectively accelerate the separation of electrons and holes, both of which contribute to their high activity.

  5. Collision-induced infrared spectra of H2-He pairs at temperatures from 18 to 7000 K. II. Overtone and hot bands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borysow, A.; Frommhold, L.; Texas Univ., Austin )

    1989-06-01

    The three lowest spectral moments of the collision induced absorption (CIA) spectra of H2-He pairs have been computed from first principles for temperatures T from 18 to 7000 K for a number of hydrogen overtone and hot bands involving vibrational quantum numbers nu = 0, 1, 2, 3 yields nu-prime = 0, 1, 2, 3. The data are given in a form suitable for the computation of CIA spectra of H2-He as function of frequency and temperature, using simple computer codes and model line shapes. The work is of interest for the spectroscopy of the atmospheres of the outer planets and of stars that contain neutral molecular hydrogen and helium (late stars, white dwarfs, and Population II stars) in the infrared and visible region of the spectrum. 13 refs.

  6. Multivariate calibration techniques applied to NIRA (near infrared reflectance analysis) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, C.L.

    1991-02-01

    Multivariate calibration techniques can reduce the time required for routine testing and can provide new methods of analysis. Multivariate calibration is commonly used with near infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Two feasibility studies were performed to determine the capability of NIRA, using multivariate calibration techniques, to perform analyses on the types of samples that are routinely analyzed at this laboratory. The first study performed included a variety of samples and indicated that NIRA would be well-suited to perform analyses on selected materials properties such as water content and hydroxyl number on polyol samples, epoxy content on epoxy resins, water content of desiccants, and the amine values of various amine cure agents. A second study was performed to assess the capability of NIRA to perform quantitative analysis of hydroxyl numbers and water contents of hydroxyl-containing materials. Hydroxyl number and water content were selected for determination because these tests are frequently run on polyol materials and the hydroxyl number determination is time consuming. This study pointed out the necessity of obtaining calibration standards identical to the samples being analyzed for each type of polyol or other material being analyzed. Multivariate calibration techniques are frequently used with FTIR data to determine the composition of a large variety of complex mixtures. A literature search indicated many applications of multivariate calibration to FTIR data. Areas identified where quantitation by FTIR would provide a new capability are quantitation of components in epoxy and silicone resins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in oils, and additives to polymers. 19 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Galaxy Evolution, Deep Galaxy Counts and the Near-IR Cosmic Infrared Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Jimenez; A. Kashlinsky

    1998-09-15

    Accurate synthetic models of stellar populations are constructed and used in evolutionary models of stellar populations in forming galaxies. Following their formation, the late type galaxies are assumed to follow the Schmidt law for star formation, while early type galaxies are normalized to the present-day fundamental plane relations assumed to mimic the metallicity variations along their luminosity sequence. We then compute predictions of these models for the observational data at early epochs for various cosmological parameters $\\Omega, \\Omega_\\Lambda$ and $H_0$. We find good match to the metallicity data from the damped $L_\\alpha$ systems and the evolution of the luminosity density out to $z\\simeq 1$. Likewise, our models provide good fits for low values of $\\Omega$ to the deep number counts of galaxies in all bands where data is available; this is done without assuming existence of extra populations of galaxies at high $z$. Our models also match the data on the redshift distribution of galaxy counts in $B$ and $K$ bands. We compute the predicted mean levels and angular distribution of the cosmic infrared background produced from the early evolution of galaxies. The predicted fluxes and fluctuations are still below the current observational limits, but not by a large factor. Finally, we find that the recent detection of the diffuse extragalactic light in the visible bands requires for our models high redshift of galaxy formation, $z_f \\geq$(3-4); otherwise the produced flux of the extragalactic light at optical bands exceeds the current observational limits.

  8. Blocked impurity band hybrid infrared focal plane arrays for astronomy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, D.B.; Seib, D.H.; Stetson, S.B.; Herter, T.; Rowlands, N.; Schoenwald, J.

    1989-02-01

    High-performance infrared hybrid focal plane arrays using 10 x 50 element Si:As Blocked-Impurity-Band (BIB) detectors (cut-off wavelength = 28 ..mu..m) and matching switched MOSFET multiplexers have been developed and characterized for space astronomy. Use of impurity band conduction technology provides detectors which are nuclear radiation hard and free of the many anomalies associated with conventional silicon photoconductive detectors. Emphasis in this paper is on recent advances in detector material quality which have led to significantly improved detector and hybrid characteristics. Results demonstrating increase quantum efficiency (particular at short wavelength infrared), obtained by varying the Blocked-Impurity-Band detector properties (infrared active layer thickness and arsenic doping profile), are summarized. Read noise and dark current for different temperatures have been measured and are also described. The hybrid array performance achieved clearly demonstrates that BIB detectors are well suited for use in astronomical instrumentation.

  9. A Young White Dwarf with an Infrared Excess

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, S; Pantoja, B; Klein, B; Zuckerman, B; Su, K Y L; Meng, H Y A

    2015-01-01

    Using observations of Spitzer/IRAC, we report the serendipitous discovery of excess infrared emission from a single white dwarf PG 0010+280. At a temperature of 27,220 K and a cooling age of 16 Myr, it is the hottest and youngest white dwarf to display an excess at 3-8 $\\mu$m. The infrared excess can be fit by either an opaque dust disk within the tidal radius of the white dwarf or a 1300 K blackbody, possibly from an irradiated substellar object or a re-heated giant planet. PG 0010+280 has two unique properties that are different from white dwarfs with a dust disk: (i) relatively low emission at 8 $\\mu$m and (ii) non-detection of heavy elements in its atmosphere from high-resolution spectroscopic observations with Keck/HIRES. The origin of the infrared excess remains unclear.

  10. Noise Reduction Efforts for the ALS Infrared Beamlines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarvie, Tom; Andresen, Nord; Baptiste, Ken; Byrd, John; Chin, Mike; Martin, Michael; McKinney, Wayne; Steier, Christoph

    2004-05-12

    The quality of infrared microscopy and spectroscopy data collected at synchrotron based sources is strongly dependent on signal-to-noise. We have successfully identified and suppressed several noise sources affecting Beamlines 1.4.2, 1.4.3, and 1.4.4 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), resulting in a significant increase in the quality of FTIR spectra obtained. In this paper, we present our methods of noise source analysis, the negative effect of noise on the infrared beam quality, and the techniques used to reduce the noise. These include reducing the phase noise in the storage ring radio-frequency (RF) system, installing an active mirror feedback system, analyzing and changing physical mounts to better isolate portions of the beamline optics from low-frequency environmental noise, and modifying the input signals to the main ALS RF system. We also discuss the relationship between electron beam energy oscillations at a point of dispersion and infrared beamline noise.

  11. Apparatus for generating coherent infrared energy of selected wavelength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, Charles G. (Danville, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A tunable source (11) of coherent infrared energy includes a heat pipe (12) having an intermediate region (24) at which cesium (22) is heated to vaporizing temperature and end regions (27, 28) at which the vapor is condensed and returned to the intermediate region (24) for reheating and recirculation. Optical pumping light (43) is directed along the axis of the heat pipe (12) through a first end window (17) to stimulate emission of coherent infrared energy which is transmitted out through an opposite end window (18). A porous walled tubulation (44) extends along the axis of the heat pipe (12) and defines a region (46) in which cesium vapor is further heated to a temperature sufficient to dissociate cesium dimers which would decrease efficiency by absorbing pump light (43). Efficient generation of any desired infrared wavelength is realized by varying the wavelength of the pump light (43).

  12. High speed infrared radiation thermometer, system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markham, James R. (Middlefield, CT)

    2002-01-01

    The high-speed radiation thermometer has an infrared measurement wavelength band that is matched to the infrared wavelength band of near-blackbody emittance of ceramic components and ceramic thermal barrier coatings used in turbine engines. It is comprised of a long wavelength infrared detector, a signal amplifier, an analog-to-digital converter, an optical system to collect radiation from the target, an optical filter, and an integral reference signal to maintain a calibrated response. A megahertz range electronic data acquisition system is connected to the radiation detector to operate on raw data obtained. Because the thermometer operates optimally at 8 to 12 .mu.m, where emittance is near-blackbody for ceramics, interferences to measurements performed in turbine engines are minimized. The method and apparatus are optimized to enable mapping of surface temperatures on fast moving ceramic elements, and the thermometer can provide microsecond response, with inherent self-diagnostic and calibration-correction features.

  13. Hard, infrared black coating with very low outgassing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmenko, P J; Behne, D M; Casserly, T; Boardman, W; Upadhyaya, D; Boinapally, K; Gupta, M; Cao, Y

    2008-06-02

    Infrared astronomical instruments require absorptive coatings on internal surfaces to trap scattered and stray photons. This is typically accomplished with any one of a number of black paints. Although inexpensive and simple to apply, paint has several disadvantages. Painted surfaces can be fragile, prone to shedding particles, and difficult to clean. Most importantly, the vacuum performance is poor. Recently a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process was developed to apply thick (30 {micro}m) diamond-like carbon (DLC) based protective coatings to the interior of oil pipelines. These DLC coatings show much promise as an infrared black for an ultra high vacuum environment. The coatings are very robust with excellent cryogenic adhesion. Their total infrared reflectivity of < 10% at normal incidence approaches that of black paints. We measured outgas rates of <10{sup -12} Torr liter/sec cm{sup 2}, comparable to bare stainless steel.

  14. Optical Wireless based on High Brightness Visible LEDs Grantham Pang, Thomas Kwan, Hugh Liu, Chi-Ho Chan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pang, Grantham

    tolerance to humidity, low power consumption and minimal heat generation. Light-emitting diodes (LEDsOptical Wireless based on High Brightness Visible LEDs Grantham Pang, Thomas Kwan, Hugh Liu, Chi use of lighting or signaling devices constructed by light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The idea

  15. Modulating unpolarized current in quantum spintronics: Visibility of spin-interference effects in multichannel Aharonov-Casher mesoscopic rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolic, Branislav K.

    Modulating unpolarized current in quantum spintronics: Visibility of spin-interference effects. INTRODUCTION Recent attempts in spintronics1 to harness electron spin for classical and quantum information spintronic device, the Datta-Das spin-field-effect transistor4 (spin-FET) where current passing through a two

  16. Company Overview: Founded in 2000, Visible World is the leading provider of targeted television advertising services. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    advertising services. The company's suite of suite of applications and services enables advertisers, agencies, and media companies to deliver more targeted, measurable ads. Visible World empowers advertisers to deliver, advertising analytics, and algorithm development. This role will work very closely with engineering, database

  17. Visibility: A New Metric For Protocol Design Megan Wachs, Jung Il Choi, Jung Woo Lee, Kannan Srinivasan,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levis, Philip

    - bility metric to evaluate and compare protocols, where visi- bility is defined as the energy cost, to increase its visibility and efficiency. 1 Introduction Traditional metrics for sensornet protocol design in network protocols, in order to isolate the causes of failure and address them. If we could trace all

  18. Development and application of procedures to evaluate air quality and visibility impacts of low-altitude flying operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liebsch, E.J.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the development and application of procedures to evaluate the effects of low-altitude aircraft flights on air quality and visibility. The work summarized in this report was undertaken as part of the larger task of assessing the various potential environmental impacts associated with low-altitude military airspaces. Accomplishing the air quality/visibility analysis for the GEIS included (1) development and application of an integrated air quality model and aircraft emissions database specifically for Military Training Route (MTR) or similar flight operations, (2) selection and application of an existing air quality model to analyze the more widespread and less concentrated aircraft emissions from military Operations Areas (MOAs) and Restricted Areas (RAs), and (3) development and application of procedures to assess impacts of aircraft emissions on visibility. Existing air quality models were considered to be inadequate for predicting ground-level concentrations of pollutants emitted by aircraft along MTRs; therefore, the Single-Aircraft Instantaneous Line Source (SAILS) and Multiple-Aircraft Instantaneous Line Source (MAILS) models were developed to estimate potential impacts along MTRs. Furthermore, a protocol was developed and then applied in the field to determine the degree of visibility impairment caused by aircraft engine exhaust plumes. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote 2013. [1] Penetration of solar radiation in the ocean is determined by the attenuation coefficient (Kd indicated that the penetration of the blue-green radiation for most oceanic waters is $30­40% deeper than

  20. DMBC: SEO (Search Engine Optimization) Search Engine Optimization is the practice of increasing the visibility of a website within

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stowell, Michael

    platforms and websites · For brands, create a Linkedin Business page with company info, contact resources of increasing the visibility of a website within search engines in a natural, non-promoted or advertised way descriptions · Commonly link to you main page in general posts · Complete your About and Info Pages · Add links

  1. Improved Visible Light Harvesting of WO3 by Incorporation of Sulfur or Iodine: A Tale of Two Impurities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jung-Fu "Afu"

    Improved Visible Light Harvesting of WO3 by Incorporation of Sulfur or Iodine: A Tale of Two report the incorporation of sulfur or iodine into monoclinic tungsten trioxide (S:WO3 or I:WO3 pyrolysis with either ammonium sulfide or iodide added to the aqueous WO3 precursor solutions. Red shifts

  2. Infrared absorption spectroscopy and chemical kinetics of free radicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curl, R.F.; Glass, G.P. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is directed at the detection, monitoring, and study of chemical kinetic behavior by infrared absorption spectroscopy of small free radical species thought to be important intermediates in combustion. During the last year, infrared kinetic spectroscopy using excimer laser flash photolysis and color-center laser probing has been employed to study the high resolution spectrum of HCCN, the rate constant of the reaction between ethynyl (C{sub 2}H) radical and H{sub 2} in the temperature region between 295 and 875 K, and the recombination rate of propargyl (CH{sub 2}CCH) at room temperature.

  3. Transit and secondary eclipse photometry in the near-infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ignas Snellen

    2007-05-02

    Near-infrared photometry of transiting extrasolar planets can be of great scientific value. It is however not straightforward to reach the necessary millimagnitude precision. Here we report on our attempts to observe transits and secondary eclipses of several extrasolar planets at 2.2 micron. Best results have been obtained on OGLE-TR-113b using the SOFI near-infrared camera on ESO's New Technology Telescope. Its K-band transit shows a remarkably flat bottom indicating low stellar limb darkening. Secondary eclipse photometry has resulted in a formal 3 sigma detection, but residual systematic effects make this detection rather uncertain.

  4. Antenna-coupled microcavities for enhanced infrared photo-detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nga Chen, Yuk; Todorov, Yanko Askenazi, Benjamin; Vasanelli, Angela; Sirtori, Carlo; Biasiol, Giorgio; Colombelli, Raffaele

    2014-01-20

    We demonstrate mid-infrared detectors embedded into an array of double-metal nano-antennas. The antennas act as microcavities that squeeze the electric field into thin semiconductor layers, thus enhancing the detector responsivity. Furthermore, thanks to the ability of the antennas to gather photons from an area larger than the device's physical dimensions, the dark current is reduced without hindering the photo-generation rate. In these devices, the background-limited performance is improved with a consequent increase of the operating temperature. Our results illustrate how the antenna-coupled microcavity concept can be applied to enhance the performances of infrared opto-electronic devices.

  5. Improving the Infra-red of Holographic Descriptions of QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nick Evans; Andrew Tedder; Tom Waterson

    2007-01-03

    A surprisingly good holographic description of QCD can be obtained from naive five dimensional gauge theory on a truncated AdS space. We seek to improve the infra-red description of QCD in such models by using a more sophisticated metric and an action derived from string theory duals of chiral symmetry breaking. Our metric is smooth into the infra-red and the chiral condensate is a prediction of the dynamics. The theory reproduces QCD meson data at the 10% level.

  6. High Spatial Resolution KAO Far-Infrared Observations of the Central Regions of Infrared-Bright Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverly J. Smith; P. M. Harvey

    1996-05-06

    We present new high spatial resolution Kuiper Airborne Observatory 50 micron and/or 100 micron data for 11 infrared-bright galaxies. We also tabulate previously published KAO data for 11 other galaxies, along with the IRAS data for the bulges of M 31 and M 81. We find that L(FIR)/L(B) and L(FIR)/L(H) correlate with CO (1 - 0) intensity and tau(100). Galaxies with optical or near-infrared signatures of OB stars in their central regions have higher values of I(CO) and tau(100), as well as higher far-infrared surface brightnesses and L(FIR)/L(B) and L(FIR)/L(H) ratios. L(FIR)/L(H(alpha)) does not correlate strongly with CO and tau(100). These results support a scenario in which OB stars dominate dust heating in the more active galaxies and older stars are important in quiescent bulges.

  7. Visible ozone injury on mature black cherry in two Class I wilderness areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chappelka, A. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). School of Forestry; Skelly, J.; Hildebrand, E. [Pennsylvania Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Plant Pathology; Renfro, J. [USDI-NPS, Gatlinburg, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    During the summer of 1991--1993, the incidence and severity of foliar symptoms due to ambient ozone exposures were documented on mature black cherry (Prunus serotina) in two Class 1 areas in the Appalachian mountains of the eastern US: Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) and Shenandoah National Park (SHEN). Three plots in each park containing 30 trees each (Big Meadows in SHEN had 60 trees evaluated each year) with 90 and 120 trees evaluated per GRSM and SHEN, respectively. Plots were established adjacent to ozone monitoring stations at different elevations. Samples of foliage from trees were collected by tree climbers and three exposed branches from the upper crown and three branches form the mid-to-lower crown were evaluated for symptoms of foliar injury due to ozone. Incidence was the greatest in 1991 at both locations; 45% and 60% for SHEN and GRSM, respectively. In 1992 and 1993, incidence was very similar in both parks, with approximately 33% of the trees affected. Black cherry at the highest elevations exhibited the greatest amount of symptoms in both parks all three years of investigation. These sites also exhibited the highest levels of ozone. The results indicate that visible injury due to ambient ozone is prevalent in Class 1 areas in the eastern US, indicative of the nature of this regional phytotoxicant.

  8. THE WIRED SURVEY. III. AN INFRARED EXCESS AROUND THE ECLIPSING POST-COMMON ENVELOPE BINARY SDSS J030308.35+005443.7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debes, John H.; Hoard, D. W.; Farihi, Jay; Wachter, Stefanie; Leisawitz, David T.; Cohen, Martin

    2012-11-01

    We present the discovery with WISE of a significant infrared excess associated with the eclipsing post-common envelope binary SDSS J030308.35+005443.7, the first excess discovered around a non-interacting white dwarf+main-sequence M dwarf binary. The spectral energy distribution of the white dwarf+M dwarf companion shows significant excess longward of 3 {mu}m. A T {sub eff} of 8940 K for the white dwarf is consistent with a cooling age >2 Gyr, implying that the excess may be due to a recently formed circumbinary dust disk of material that extends from the tidal truncation radius of the binary at 1.96 R {sub Sun} out to <0.8 AU, with a total mass of {approx}10{sup 20} g. We also construct WISE and follow-up ground-based near-infrared light curves of the system and find variability in the K band that appears to be in phase with ellipsoidal variations observed in the visible. The presence of dust might be due to (1) material being generated by the destruction of small rocky bodies that are being perturbed by an unseen planetary system or (2) dust condensing from the companion's wind. The high inclination of this system and the presence of dust make it an attractive target for M dwarf transit surveys and long-term photometric monitoring.

  9. The WIRED Survey III: An Infrared Excess around the Eclipsing Post-Common Envelope Binary SDSS J030308.35+005443.7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debes, John H; Farihi, Jay; Wachter, Stefanie; Leisawitz, David T; Cohen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery with WISE of a significant infrared excess associated with the eclipsing post-common envelope binary SDSSJ 030308.35+005443.7, the first excess discovered around a non-interacting white dwarf+main sequence M dwarf binary. The spectral energy distribution of the white dwarf+M dwarf companion shows significant excess longwards of 3-microns. A T_eff of 8940K for the white dwarf is consistent with a cooling age >2 Gyr, implying that the excess may be due to a recently formed circumbinary dust disk of material that extends from the tidal truncation radius of the binary at 1.96 Rsun out to <0.8 AU, with a total mass of ~10^20 g. We also construct WISE and follow-up ground-based near-infrared light curves of the system, and find variability in the K-band that appears to be in phase with ellipsoidal variations observed in the visible. The presence of dust might be due to a) material being generated by the destruction of small rocky bodies that are being perturbed by an unseen planetary sys...

  10. Synthesis, crystal structure, and vibrational spectroscopic and UV-visible studies of Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaoua, Saida; Krimi, Saida; Pechev, Stanislav; Gravereau, Pierre; Chaminade, Jean-Pierre; Couzi, Michel; El Jazouli, Abdelaziz

    2013-02-15

    A new member of the A{sub 2}MP{sub 2}O{sub 7} diphosphate family, Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The crystal structure was determined by single crystal X-Ray diffraction. Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7} crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Pnma ( Music-Sharp-Sign 62), with the unit cell parameters a=16.3398(3), b=5.3872(1), c=9.8872(2) A, Z=4 and V=870.33(3) A{sup 3}. The structure parameters were refined to a final R{sub 1}/wR{sub 2}=0.0194/0.0441 for 1650 observed reflections. The 2D framework of Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7} structure consists of P{sub 2}O{sub 7} and MnO{sub 5} units. The corner-shared MnO{sub 5} and P{sub 2}O{sub 7} units are alternately arranged along the b axis to form [(MnO)P{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sub {infinity}} chains. These chains are interconnected by an oxygen atom to form sheets parallel to the (b, c) plane. The cesium atoms are located between the sheets in 9- and 10-fold coordinated sites. The infrared and Raman vibrational spectra have been investigated. A factor group analysis leads to the determination of internal modes of (P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) groups. UV-visible spectrum consists of weak bands, between 340 and 700 nm, assigned to the forbidden d-d transitions of Mn{sup 2+} ion, and of a strong band around 250 nm, attributed to the O--Mn charge transfer. - Graphical abstract: Structure of Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}: The 2D structure of Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7} is built from P{sub 2}O{sub 7} diphosphate groups and MnO{sub 5} square pyramids which share corners and form [(MnO)P{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sub {infinity}} chains along b axis. These chains are interconnected by an oxygen atom to form wavy (MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sup 2-} sheets parallel to the (b, c) plane. The cesium ions are located between these sheets in the inter-layers space, in zigzag positions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new diphosphate, Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, has been synthesized and structurally characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure consists of a 2D framework built up from (MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}) sheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sheets consist of [(MnO)P{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sub {infinity}} chains formed by P{sub 2}O{sub 7} units and MnO{sub 5} square pyramids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A factor group analysis leads to the determination of internal modes of (P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-visible spectrum consists bands assigned to d-d transitions of Mn{sup 2+} ion and to O--Mn CT.

  11. Zn1-xCdxS Solid Solutions with Controlled Bandgap and Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic H2Production Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Jian Ru

    . KEYWORDS: Zn1-xCdxS solid solution, thermolysis, theory calculation, visible light, hydrogen production 1Zn1-xCdxS Solid Solutions with Controlled Bandgap and Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic H2, * State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University

  12. The Partial Solar Eclipse of Friday 20th March 2015 The largest partial solar eclipse visible from Northern Ireland since 29 June 1927, when

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Partial Solar Eclipse of Friday 20th March 2015 The largest partial solar eclipse visible from:26 and 10:38 on the morning of Friday 20th March 2015. Even the famous solar eclipse of 11 August 1999 Belfast. The 20 March 2015 eclipse is the first partial solar eclipse visible from Northern Ireland since

  13. Tantalum(V) Nitride Inverse Opals as Photonic Structures for Visible Wavelengths Alessandro Rugge, Jin-Seong Park, Roy G. Gordon,*, and Sarah H. Tolbert*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tantalum(V) Nitride Inverse Opals as Photonic Structures for Visible Wavelengths Alessandro Rugge nanoscale waveguides. In this work we move toward that goal with the synthesis of an inverse opal thin film. Colloidal crystals, akin to the naturally occurring gem opal, diffract light at visible wave- lengths

  14. USE OF INFRARED RADIATION IN THE STUDY OF FISH BEHAVIOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 000° K. (high -temperature tungsten lamp) . Relative emission from sun. #12;#12;The Eye of experimental facilities - ·^ Figure 4. Distribution of fingerling Pacific salmon (O^. kisutch) under ordinary room lighting 9 Figure 5. Distribution of fingerling Pacific salmon (O. kisutch) with infrared

  15. Restoration of chopped and nodded images in infrared astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boccacci, Patrizia

    Restoration of chopped and nodded images in infrared astronomy M Berteroy, P Boccacciz, F Di, the so­called chopped and nodded images, present large negative values and provide reliable of the problem of restoring the original image from its chopped and nodded version and we investigate

  16. Measurement of directional thermal infrared emissivity of vegetation and soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, J.M. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Soil Science; Balick, L.K. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring directional thermal emissivity as a function of view angle for plant canopies and soils using two infrared thermometers each sensitive to a different wavelength band. By calibrating the two infrared thermometers to 0.1C consistency, canopy directional emissivity can be estimated with typical errors less than 0.005 in the 8--14 um wavelength band, depending on clarity of the sky and corrections for CO{sub 2} absorption by the atmosphere. A theoretical justification for the method is developed along with an error analysis. Laboratory measurements were used to develop corrections for CO{sub 2}, absorption and a field calibration method is used to obtain the necessary 0.1C consistency for relatively low cost infrared thermometers. The emissivity of alfalfa (LAI=2.5) and corn (LAI=3.2) was near 0.995 and independent of view angle. Individual corn leaves had an emissivity of 0.97. A wheat (LAI=3.0) canopy had an emissivity of 0.985 at nadir and 0.975 at 75 degree view angle. The canopy emissivity values tend to be higher than values in the literature, and are useful for converting infrared thermometer measurements to kinetic temperature and interpreting satellite thermal observations.

  17. Dielectric function of diluted magnetic semiconductors in the infrared regime 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguado, R.; Lopez-Sancho, MP; Sinova, Jairo; Brey, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a study of the dielectric function of metallic (III,Mn)V diluted magnetic semiconductors in the infrared regime. Our theoretical approach is based on the kinetic exchange model for carrier induced (III,Mn)V ferromagnetism. The dielectric...

  18. COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE ) Explanatory Supplement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siebenmorgen, Ralf

    COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE ) Explanatory Supplement edited by M. G. Hauser Supplement that describes the DIRBE data products, most of Chapter 4 (Data Processing and Instrument Characterization) was omitted from the present version. The complete Explanatory Supplement will be released

  19. Measuring absolute infrared spectral radiance with correlated photons: new arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Migdall, Alan

    metrologia Measuring absolute infrared spectral radiance with correlated photons: new arrangements radiance using correlated photons are presented. The method has the remarkable feature that it allows be measured using correlated photons [1-4]. That work outlined some of the useful features of the method. One

  20. Infrared Spectroscopy of Explosives Residues: Measurement Techniques and Spectral Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2015-03-11

    Infrared laser spectroscopy of explosives is a promising technique for standoff and non-contact detection applications. However, the interpretation of spectra obtained in typical standoff measurement configurations presents numerous challenges. Understanding the variability in observed spectra from explosives residues and particles is crucial for design and implementation of detection algorithms with high detection confidence and low false alarm probability. We discuss a series of infrared spectroscopic techniques applied toward measuring and interpreting the reflectance spectra obtained from explosives particles and residues. These techniques utilize the high spectral radiance, broad tuning range, rapid wavelength tuning, high scan reproducibility, and low noise of an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) system developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The ECQCL source permits measurements in configurations which would be either impractical or overly time-consuming with broadband, incoherent infrared sources, and enables a combination of rapid measurement speed and high detection sensitivity. The spectroscopic methods employed include standoff hyperspectral reflectance imaging, quantitative measurements of diffuse reflectance spectra, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, microscopic imaging and spectroscopy, and nano-scale imaging and spectroscopy. Measurements of explosives particles and residues reveal important factors affecting observed reflectance spectra, including measurement geometry, substrate on which the explosives are deposited, and morphological effects such as particle shape, size, orientation, and crystal structure.

  1. Physical retrieval of surface emissivity spectrum from hyperspectral infrared radiances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    Physical retrieval of surface emissivity spectrum from hyperspectral infrared radiances Jun Li,1 emissivity. Using constant or inaccurate surface emissivities typically results in large temperature and moisture profile errors, particularly over semi-arid or arid areas where the variation in emissivity

  2. Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Grande, Nancy K. (San Leandro, CA); Durbin, Philip F. (Livermore, CA); Dolan, Kenneth W. (Livermore, CA); Perkins, Dwight E. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features.

  3. Thermal infrared emission spectroscopy of the pyroxene mineral series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Victoria E.

    Thermal infrared emission spectroscopy of the pyroxene mineral series Victoria E. Hamilton within the two structural groups, as well as minerals within solid solution series. The exact number of reststrahlen features observed and their positions are dependent on mineral structure and cation occupancy

  4. LAND MINE DETECTION IN BARE SOILS USING THERMAL INFRARED SENSORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borchers, Brian

    LAND MINE DETECTION IN BARE SOILS USING THERMAL INFRARED SENSORS Sung-ho Hong, Timothy W. Miller, The Netherlands. lensen@fel.tno.nl ABSTRACT Soil surface temperatures not only exhibit daily and annual cycles of soil surface temperatures, it will be difficult to determine what times of day are most suitable

  5. Infrared photothermal radiometry of deep subsurface defects in semiconductor materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Infrared photothermal radiometry of deep subsurface defects in semiconductor materials M. E. Rodri sensitivity to the electronic transport properties of the laser photoexcited material.3 Using two information. INTRODUCTION The nondestructive, nonintrusive evaluation of semicon- ductor materials has been of common

  6. Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime Qiming Zhang1,2 *, Xiangping Li1. Graphene has been identified as an emerging horizon for a nanoscale photonic platform because the Fermi level of intrinsic graphene can be engineered to support surface plasmons (SPs). The current solid back

  7. Infrared radiometry-based background-compensated thermometric instrument for noncontact temperature and friction measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Infrared radiometry-based background-compensated thermometric instrument for noncontact temperature and performance of a novel thermometric instrument featuring thermal- emission-intensity harmonic modulation, noncontact infrared radiometric detection, and stray background suppression is described. The instrumental

  8. The rapid differentiation of Streptomyces isolates using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, Gareth

    putative Streptomyces spp. isolated from soil were selected to be analysed using Fourier transform infrared-organism fingerprint- ing techniques such as Curie-point pyrolysis mass spectrometry [2], Fourier transform infrared

  9. The Design of Novel Microwave-Heated Reaction Cells for Infrared Spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silverwood, Ian P

    Two novel microreactor cells for the investigation of catalysts by in-situ infrared spectroscopy under microwave and conventional heating are presented. A transmission infrared microreactor cell is demonstrated which ...

  10. The discovery of y dwarfs using data from the wide-field infrared survey explorer (WISE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cushing, Michael C.

    We present the discovery of seven ultracool brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals deep absorption bands of H[subscript 2]O and CH[subscript 4] that ...

  11. Pressure-sensitive blackbody point radiation induced by infrared diode laser irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    Pressure-sensitive blackbody point radiation induced by infrared diode laser irradiation Feng Qin,1, by irradiation of well-matched infrared (IR) lasers upon the Yb3þ ions, ultrabroadband luminescence can

  12. Near Infrared Surface Plasmon Resonance Phase Imaging and Nanoparticle-Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance Phase Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    utilized a near-infrared 860 nm light emitting diode (LED) light source and a wedge depolarizer to create

  13. Whole House Thermal Performance of Asphalt Shingles Exploiting Special Infrared Reflective Pigments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, L.; Miller, W.; Desjarlais, A.; Jacobs, J.; Youngquist, A.

    2006-01-01

    Industrial Mineral Products St. Paul, Minnesota Adam Youngquist Graduate Student Mechanical Engineering University of Tennessee Knoxville, Tennessee ABSTRACT New “cool pigmented” colors that appear as dark colors in the visible spectrum... of background foliage in the visible and NIR spectra. The chlorophyll in plants strongly absorbs in the non-green parts of the visible spectrum, giving the leaf a dark green color with high reflectance elsewhere in the solar spectrum 1 (Kipling 1970...

  14. Noise reduction for the infrared beamline at the Advanced Light Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noise reduction for the infrared beamline at the Advanced Light Source J. M. Byrd, M. Chin, M, California 94720 ABSTRACT Significant reductions in the noise of the infrared light have been made at Beamline 1.4.3 infrared source at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). The primary source of vibrational noise

  15. Quantitative analysis of infrared contrast enhancement algorithms Seth Weith-Glushko1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    , and quantitatively evaluate infrared contrast enhancement algorithms for use in a real-time long-wave infrared imageQuantitative analysis of infrared contrast enhancement algorithms Seth Weith-Glushko1 and Carl range imagery output from current sensors are compressed in a pleasing way for display on lower dynamic

  16. Arduino Remote Infrared Network Adapter Rene Neff, Thomas Trimborn and Matthias Wubbeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clausen, Michael

    ARINA: Arduino Remote Infrared Network Adapter Ren´e Neff, Thomas Trimborn and Matthias W}@cs.uni-bonn.de Abstract In this paper we present ARINA, a light-weight Arduino based system for forwarding infrared signals via Ethernet. Short introductions on infrared communication and Arduino as a development platform

  17. Synthesis and magnetic characterization of magnetite obtained by monowavelength visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yulong [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Taiyuan 030001 (China) [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050017 (China); Wei, Yu, E-mail: weiyu@mail.hebtu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Sun, Yuhan, E-mail: yhsun@sxicc.ac.cn [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Taiyuan 030001 (China)] [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Wang, Jing [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050017 (China)] [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050017 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetite was synthesized under monowavelength LED irradiation at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different wavelength irradiations led to distinctive characteristics of magnetite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particle sizes of magnetite were controlled by different irradiation wavelengths. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wavelength affects the magnetic characteristics of magnetite. -- Abstract: Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles were controllably synthesized by aerial oxidation Fe{sup II}EDTA solution under different monowavelength light-emitting diode (LED) lamps irradiation at room temperature. The results of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra show the formation of magnetite nanoparticle further confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and the difference in crystallinity of as-prepared samples. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles are nearly spherical in shape based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Average crystallite sizes of magnetite can be controlled by different irradiation light wavelengths from XRD and TEM: 50.1, 41.2, and 20.3 nm for red, green, and blue light irradiation, respectively. The magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} samples were investigated. Saturation magnetization values of magnetic nanoparticles were 70.1 (sample M-625), 65.3 (sample M-525), and 58.2 (sample M-460) emu/g, respectively.

  18. Optical near-field induced visible response photoelectrochemical water splitting on nanorod TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thu Hac Huong Le; Mawatari, Kazuma; Pihosh, Yuriy; Kitamori, Takehiko [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Kawazoe, Tadashi; Yatsui, Takashi; Ohtsu, Motoichi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tosa, Masahiro [Micro-Nano Component Materials Group, Materials Engineering Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2011-11-21

    Here we report a way to induce the visible response of non-doped TiO{sub 2} in the photocatalytic electrochemical water splitting, which is achieved by utilizing the optical near-field (ONF) generated on nanorod TiO{sub 2}. The visible response is attributed to the ONF-induced phonon-assisted excitation process, in which TiO{sub 2} is excited by sub-bandgap photons via phonon energy. Our approach directly gets involved in the excitation process without chemical modification of materials; accordingly it is expected to have few drawbacks on the photocatalytic performance. This study may offer another perspective on the development of solar harvesting materials.

  19. Final LDRD report : enhanced spontaneous emission rate in visible III-nitride LEDs using 3D photonic crystal cavities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Arthur Joseph; Subramania, Ganapathi S.; Coley, Anthony J.; Lee, Yun-Ju; Li, Qiming; Wang, George T.; Luk, Ting Shan; Koleske, Daniel David; Fullmer, Kristine Wanta

    2009-09-01

    The fundamental spontaneous emission rate for a photon source can be modified by placing the emitter inside a periodic dielectric structure allowing the emission to be dramatically enhanced or suppressed depending on the intended application. We have investigated the relatively unexplored realm of interaction between semiconductor emitters and three dimensional photonic crystals in the visible spectrum. Although this interaction has been investigated at longer wavelengths, very little work has been done in the visible spectrum. During the course of this LDRD, we have fabricated TiO{sub 2} logpile photonic crystal structures with the shortest wavelength band gap ever demonstrated. A variety of different emitters with emission between 365 nm and 700 nm were incorporated into photonic crystal structures. Time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements were performed to measure changes to the spontaneous emission rate. Both enhanced and suppressed emission were demonstrated and attributed to changes to the photonic density of states.

  20. Approximating the Visible Region of a Point on a Terrain Boaz BenMoshe # Paz Carmi + Matthew J. Katz #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Matthew "Matya"

    supporting ray shooting queries from p, due to Cole and Sharir [5], and its running time is O(n log 2 n. Katz # Abstract Given a terrain and a point p on or above it, we wish to compute the region R p that is visible from p. We present a generic radar­like algorithm for computing an approxima­ tion of R p

  1. Graphitic carbon nitride/Cu{sub 2}O heterojunctions: Preparation, characterization, and enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Yanlong; Chang, Binbin; Fu, Jie; Zhou, Baocheng; Liu, Jiyang; Xi, Fengna; Dong, Xiaoping, E-mail: xpdong@zstu.edu.cn

    2014-04-01

    As a metal-free semiconductor material, graphitic carbon nitride (C{sub 3}N{sub 4}), the high recombination rate of photogenerated charges and insufficient sunlight absorption limit its solar-based photocatalytic activity. Here, we reported the heterojunctions of C{sub 3}N{sub 4}–Cu{sub 2}O with a p–n junction structure, which was synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The HR-TEM result revealed an intimate interface between C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}O in the heterojunction, and UV–vis diffuse reflection spectra showed their extended spectral response in the visible region compared with pure C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. These excellent structural and spectral properties, as well as p–n junction structures, endowed the C{sub 3}N{sub 4}–Cu{sub 2}O heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalytic activities. The possible photocatalytic mechanism that photogenerated holes as the mainly oxidant species in photocatalysis was proposed base on the trapping experiments. - Highlights: • A hydrothermal method was used to prepare C3N{sub 4}–Cu{sub 2}O heterojunction. • The resulting heterojunction possesses broader absorption in the visible region. • The material owns a high visible light activity and stability for dye degradation.

  2. Remote Optical Imagery of Obscured Objects in Low-Visibility Environments Using Parametric Amplification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asher, R.B.; Bliss, D.E.; Cameron, S.M.; Hamil, R.A.

    1998-10-14

    The development of unconventional active optical sensors to remotely detect and spatially resolve suspected threats obscured by low-visibility observation conditions (adverse weather, clouds, dust, smoke, precipitation, etc.) is fundamental to maintaining tactical supremacy in the battlespace. In this report, the authors describe an innovative frequency-agile image intensifier technology based on time-gated optical parametic amplification (OPA) for enhanced light-based remote sensing through pervasive scattering and/or turbulent environments. Improved dynamic range characteristics derived from the amplified passband of the OPA receiver combined with temporal discrimination in the image capture process will offset radiant power extinction losses, while defeating the deugradative effects & multipath dispersion and ,diffuse backscatter noise along the line-of-sight on resultant image contrast and range resolution. Our approach extends the operational utility of the detection channel in existing laser radar systems by increasing sensitivity to low-level target reffectivities, adding ballistic rejection of scatter and clutter in the range coordinate, and introducing multispectral and polarization discrimination capability in a wavelen~h-tunable, high gain nonlinear optical component with strong potential for source miniaturization. A key advantage of integrating amplification and tlequency up-conversion functions within a phasematched three-wave mixing parametric device is the ability to petiorm background-free imaging with eye-safe or longer inilared illumination wavelengths (idler) less susceptible to scatter without sacrificing quantum efficiency in the detection process at the corresponding signal wavelength. We report benchmark laboratory experiments in which the OPA gating process has been successfidly demonstrated in both transillumination and reflection test geometries with extended pathlengths representative of realistic coastal sea water and cumulus cloud scenarios. In these experiments, undistorted range-gated optica[ images tiom specular and diffuse reflectance targets were acquired through scattering attenuations exceeding ten orders cf magnitude which would be undetectable with traditional optical methods. The broadcast and gating pulses were derived ilom both millijoules 10 Hz picosecond (50-100 ps) and 250 KHz microjoule femtosecond (-150 fs) laser configurations to assess signal-to-noise and spatiaI resolution considerations as a fimction of scattering, integration time, and repetition rate. In addition, the technique was combined with a self-referencing Shack-Hartrnann wavetiont sensor to dia=~ose underlying phase signatures of weak refictive index gradients (OPD-M1 00) or persistent convective wakes (exhaust plumes, bubbles), and to perform adaptive optical compensation in visual fields exhibiting both turbulence and turbidity (OD=4). Comparative system anaiysis results relating image quaiity, optimal gate width, detectable range, and broadcast laser size versus operative atmospheric scattering conditions and search/dwell probability of detection criteria will also be presented.

  3. Infrared freezing of Euclidean observables and analyticity in perturbative QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irinel Caprini; Jan Fischer

    2006-12-21

    The renormalization-group improved finite order expansions of the QCD observables have an unphysical singularity in the Euclidean region, due to the Landau pole of the running coupling. Recently it was claimed that, by using a modified Borel representation, the leading one-chain term in a skeleton expansion of the Euclidean QCD observables is finite and continuous across the Landau pole, and then exhibits an infrared freezing behaviour, vanishing at $Q^2=0$. In the present paper we show, using for illustration the Adler-${\\cal D}$ function, that the above Borel prescription violates the causality properties expressed by energy-plane analyticity: the function ${\\cal D}(Q^2)$ thus defined is the boundary value of a piecewise analytic function in the complex plane, instead of being a standard analytic function. So, the price to be paid for the infrared freezing of Euclidean QCD observables is the loss of a fundamental property of local quantum field theory.

  4. Factors affecting thermal infrared images at selected field sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisson, J.B.; Ferguson, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    A thermal infrared (TIR) survey was conducted to locate surface ordnance in and around the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area, and a thermal anomaly was found. This report documents studies conducted to identify the position of cause of the thermal anomaly. Also included are results of a long path Fourier transform infrared survey, soil sampling activities, soil gas surveys, and buried heater studies. The results of these studies indicated that the thermal anomaly was caused by a gravel pad, which had thermal properties different than those of the surrounding soil. Results from this investigation suggest that TIR is useful for locating surface objects having a high thermal inertia compared to the surrounding terrain, but TIR is of very limited use for characterizing buried waste or other similar buried objects at the INEL.

  5. Near-infrared photodetector with reduced dark current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klem, John F; Kim, Jin K

    2012-10-30

    A photodetector is disclosed for the detection of near-infrared light with a wavelength in the range of about 0.9-1.7 microns. The photodetector, which can be formed as either an nBp device or a pBn device on an InP substrate, includes an InGaAs light-absorbing layer, an InAlGaAs graded layer, an InAlAs or InP barrier layer, and an InGaAs contact layer. The photodetector can detect near-infrared light with or without the use of an applied reverse-bias voltage and is useful as an individual photodetector, or to form a focal plane array.

  6. Perturbative study of Yang-Mills theory in the infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siringo, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Pure Yang-Mills SU(N) theory is studied in four dimensional space and Landau gauge by a double perturbative expansion based on a massive free-particle propagator. By dimensional regularization, all diverging mass terms cancel exactly in the double expansion, without the need to include mass counterterms that would spoil the symmetry of the original Lagrangian. The emerging perturbation theory is safe in the infrared and shares the same behaviour of the standard perturbation theory in the UV. At one-loop, Gluon and ghost propagators are found in excellent agreement with the data of lattice simulations and an infrared-safe running coupling is derived. A natural scale m=0.5-0.6 GeV is extracted from the data for N=3.

  7. Non-destructive component separation using infrared radiant energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F. (Knoxville, TN); Russell, Steven W. (Knoxville, TN); Holt, Jerrid S. (Knoxville, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN)

    2011-03-01

    A method for separating a first component and a second component from one another at an adhesive bond interface between the first component and second component. Typically the method involves irradiating the first component with infrared radiation from a source that radiates substantially only short wavelengths until the adhesive bond is destabilized, and then separating the first component and the second component from one another. In some embodiments an assembly of components to be debonded is placed inside an enclosure and the assembly is illuminated from an IR source that is external to the enclosure. In some embodiments an assembly of components to be debonded is simultaneously irradiated by a multi-planar array of IR sources. Often the IR radiation is unidirectional. In some embodiments the IR radiation is narrow-band short wavelength infrared radiation.

  8. Convective rainfall estimation from digital GOES-1 infrared data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sickler, Gary L

    1979-01-01

    scheme was adapted for this study and used with the digital geostationary satellite data. The concept of enhancement curves with respect to rainfall approxima- tion is discussed. Raingage rainfall analyses and satellite-derived rainfall estimation... digital geostationary infrared satellite data is feasible. A CKNOWLE DG EMENT S The author's graduate program was sponsored and financed by the Air Force Institute of Technology, United States Air Force. I would like to express my appreciation...

  9. THE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J. E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov

    2013-10-10

    The mid-infrared spectra of neutral homogeneous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) clusters have been computed using density functional theory including an empirical correction for dispersion. The C-H out-of-plane bending modes are redshifted for all the clusters considered in this work. The magnitude of the redshift and the peak broadening are dependent on PAH size, shape, and on the PAH arrangement in the cluster.

  10. Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Dolan, K.W.; Perkins, D.E.

    1995-08-22

    A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation is disclosed. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features. 1 fig.

  11. An Infrared Renormalization Group Limit Cycle in QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Braaten; H. -W. Hammer

    2003-09-22

    We conjecture that QCD can be tuned to an infrared limit cycle in the three-nucleon system by adjusting the up and down quark masses to critical values at which the binding energies of the deuteron and its spin-singlet partner are tuned to zero. At the critical point, the triton would have infinitely many arbitrarily-shallow excited states with the ratio of the binding energies of successive states approaching a universal constant close to 515.

  12. Sensitized near infrared emission from lanthanide-exchanged zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monguzzi, A.; Macchi, G.; Meinardi, F.; Tubino, R.; Burger, M.; Calzaferri, G.

    2008-03-24

    In this work, we present an alternative approach to sensitize the near infrared emission of Er{sup 3+} ions (used in telecom applications) by exploiting the geometrical confinement occurring in porous zeolites structures. The sensitization of the Ln ion is obtained by energy transfer between a suitable organic molecule acting as an antenna and the emitting ion arranged in closed proximity, thus, avoiding the limits imposed by the coordination chemistry.

  13. Ultraluminous infrared galaxies in the AKARI all-sky survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilerci Eser, E., E-mail: ecekilerci@dark-cosmology.dk [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Goto, T. [National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Doi, Y., E-mail: tomo@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: doi@ea.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The University of Tokyo, Komaba 3-8-1, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2014-12-10

    We present a new catalog of 118 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and one hyperluminous infrared galaxy (HLIRG) by cross-matching the AKARI all-sky survey with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS DR10) and the final data release of the Two-Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey. Forty of the ULIRGs and one HLIRG are new identifications. We find that ULIRGs are interacting pair galaxies or ongoing or postmergers. This is consistent with the widely accepted view: ULIRGs are major mergers of disk galaxies. We confirm the previously known positive trend between the active galactic nucleus fraction and infrared luminosity. We show that ULIRGs have a large offset from the main sequence up to z ? 1; their offset from the z ? 2 'main sequence' is relatively smaller. We find a result consistent with the previous studies showing that, compared to local star-forming SDSS galaxies of similar mass, local ULIRGs have lower oxygen abundances. We demonstrate for the first time that ULIRGs follow the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR). The scatter of ULIRGs around the FMR (0.09 dex-0.5 dex) is comparable to the scatter of z ? 2-3 galaxies. We provide the largest local (0.050

  14. Quantitative infrared absorption cross sections of isoprene for atmospheric measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brauer, C. S.; Blake, T. A.; Guenther, A. B.; Sharpe, S. W.; Sams, R. L.; Johnson, T. J.

    2014-11-19

    Isoprene (C5H8, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is a volatile organic compound (VOC) and is one of the primary contributors to annual global VOC emissions. Isoprene is produced primarily by vegetation as well as anthropogenic sources, and its OH- and O3-initiated oxidations are a major source of atmospheric oxygenated organics. Few quantitative infrared studies have been reported for isoprene, limiting the ability to quantify isoprene emissions via remote or in situ infrared detection. We thus report absorption cross sections and integrated band intensities for isoprene in the 600–6500 cm-1 region. The pressure-broadened (1 atmosphere N2) spectra were recorded at 278, 298, and 323 Kmore »in a 19.94 cm path-length cell at 0.112 cm-1 resolution, using a Bruker IFS 66v/S Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Composite spectra are derived from a minimum of seven isoprene sample pressures, each at one of three temperatures, and the number densities are normalized to 296 K and 1 atm.« less

  15. Vibrational spectroscopy of polyatomic materials: Semiempirical calculations of anharmonic couplings and infrared and Raman linewidths in naphthalene and PETN crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tretiak, Sergei

    couplings and infrared and Raman linewidths in naphthalene and PETN crystals Andrei Piryatinski,* Sergei

  16. Design and implementation of a rapid-mixer flow-cell for time-resolved infrared microspectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Syun-Ru

    -resolved infrared microspectroscopy Nebojsa S. Marinkovic,a) Aleksandar R. Adzic, and Michael Sullivan Center

  17. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS THAT METHANOL MASER RINGS TRACE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS: HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-INFRARED AND MID-INFRARED IMAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Buizer, James M. [Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS N232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Bartkiewicz, Anna; Szymczak, Marian, E-mail: jdebuizer@sofia.usra.edu [Torun Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 11, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2012-08-01

    Milliarcsecond very long baseline interferometry maps of regions containing 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission have lead to the recent discovery of ring-like distributions of maser spots and the plausible hypothesis that they may be tracing circumstellar disks around forming high-mass stars. We aimed to test this hypothesis by imaging these regions in the near- and mid-infrared at high spatial resolution and compare the observed emission to the expected infrared morphologies as inferred from the geometries of the maser rings. In the near-infrared we used the Gemini North adaptive optics system of ALTAIR/NIRI, while in the mid-infrared we used the combination of the Gemini South instrument T-ReCS and super-resolution techniques. Resultant images had a resolution of {approx}150 mas in both the near-infrared and mid-infrared. We discuss the expected distribution of circumstellar material around young and massive accreting (proto)stars and what infrared emission geometries would be expected for the different maser ring orientations under the assumption that the masers are coming from within circumstellar disks. Based upon the observed infrared emission geometries for the four targets in our sample and the results of spectral energy distribution modeling of the massive young stellar objects associated with the maser rings, we do not find compelling evidence in support of the hypothesis that methanol masers rings reside in circumstellar disks.

  18. Wide-Field InfrarRed Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets WFIRST-AFTA 2015 Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spergel, D; Baltay, C; Bennett, D; Breckinridge, J; Donahue, M; Dressler, A; Gaudi, B S; Greene, T; Guyon, O; Hirata, C; Kalirai, J; Kasdin, N J; Macintosh, B; Moos, W; Perlmutter, S; Postman, M; Rauscher, B; Rhodes, J; Wang, Y; Weinberg, D; Benford, D; Hudson, M; Jeong, W -S; Mellier, Y; Traub, W; Yamada, T; Capak, P; Colbert, J; Masters, D; Penny, M; Savransky, D; Sterns, D; Zimmerman, N; Barry, R; Bartusek, L; Carpenter, K; Cheng, E; Content, D; Dekens, F; Demers, R; Grady, K; Jackson, C; Kuan, G; Kruk, J; Melton, M; Nemati, B; Parvin, B; Poberezhskiy, I; Peddie, C; Ruffa, J; Wallace, J K; Whipple, A; Wollack, E; Zhao, F

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the 2014 study by the Science Definition Team (SDT) of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission. It is a space observatory that will addresses the most compelling scientific problems in dark energy, exoplanets and general astrophysics using a 2.4m telescope with a wide-field infrared instrument and an optical coronagraph. The Astro2010 Decadal Survey recommended a Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope as its top priority for a new large space mission. As conceived by the decadal survey, WFIRST would carry out a dark energy science program, a microlensing program to determine the demographics of exoplanets, and a general observing program utilizing its ultra wide field. In October 2012, NASA chartered a Science Definition Team (SDT) to produce, in collaboration with the WFIRST Study Office at GSFC and the Program Office at JPL, a Design Reference Mission (DRM) for an implementation of WFIRST using one of the 2.4-m, Hubble-quality telescope assemblies recently made availabl...

  19. Controlled synthesis of T-shaped BiVO{sub 4} and enhanced visible light responsive photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Shuying; Yu, Chongfei; Li, Yukun; Li, Yihui; Sun, Jianhui; Geng, Xiaofei

    2014-03-15

    A novel T-shaped BiVO{sub 4} microcrystal photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method with the aid of a structure-directing surfactant SDBS in the present study. Having received well characterization with the aid of various techniques and the results showed that the SDBS greatly changed the microstructure of BiVO{sub 4}, which had a unique T shape and belonged to the monoclinic family. The fast exchange dynamics between the surfactants bound to the Bi{sup 3+} seed surface and the free VO{sub 3}{sup ?} in the solution significantly increase the rate of heterogeneous nucleation. In addition, the photocatalytic activity of the prepared T-shaped BiVO{sub 4} was evaluated by the degradation of Methylene Blue solution under visible light irradiation, 17% and 47% higher decolorization rates than the commercial P25 and BiVO{sub 4} synthesized without SDBS, respectively. Meanwhile, it has been found that the degradation kinetics of MB fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetics and the T-shaped BiVO{sub 4} also displayed high photocatalytic performance for metronidazole degradation. -- Graphical abstract: H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecules function as electron trapping reagent to react with e{sup ?} to enhance the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of MB in the BiVO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system under visible light irradiation. Highlights: • T-shaped BiVO{sub 4} was synthesized using SDBS as a structure-directing surfactant. • SDBS greatly changed the microstructure of BiVO{sub 4}. • The T-shaped BiVO{sub 4} had a better visible-light photocatalytic activity. • Degradation kinetics of MB by BiVO{sub 4} fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetics.

  20. A distributed Approach for Access and Visibility Task under Ergonomic Constraints with a Manikin in a Virtual Reality Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bidault, Florence; Chedmail, Patrick; Pino, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new method, based on a multi-agent system and on digital mock-up technology, to assess an efficient path planner for a manikin for access and visibility task under ergonomic constraints. In order to solve this problem, the human operator is integrated in the process optimization to contribute to a global perception of the environment. This operator cooperates, in real-time, with several automatic local elementary agents. The result of this work validates solutions brought by digital mock-up and that can be applied to simulate maintenance task.

  1. Use Remote Sensing Data (selected visible and infrared spectrums) to locate high temperature ground anomalies in Colorado. Confirm heat flow potential with on-site surveys to drill deep resource wells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Technologies Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project Objectives: A cost effective three (3) Phased Program to locate and confirm up to Five (5) commercial geothermal resources in Colorado. The heat resources to be prioritized will be those able to support a minimum electrical generation capacity of 10 MW by location.

  2. Spectral calibration in the mid-infrared: Challenges and solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloan, G. C. [Cornell University, Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Herter, T. L.; Houck, J. R. [Cornell University, Astronomy Department, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and ITCP, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece); Sheth, K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Burgdorf, M., E-mail: sloan@isc.astro.cornell.edu [HE Space Operations, Flughafenallee 24, D-28199 Bremen (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    We present spectra obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope of 33 K giants and 20 A dwarfs to assess their suitability as spectrophotometric standard stars. The K giants confirm previous findings that the strength of the SiO absorption band at 8 ?m increases for both later optical spectral classes and redder (B–V){sub 0} colors, but with considerable scatter. For K giants, the synthetic spectra underpredict the strengths of the molecular bands from SiO and OH. For these reasons, the assumed true spectra for K giants should be based on the assumption that molecular band strengths in the infrared can be predicted accurately from neither optical spectral class or color nor synthetric spectra. The OH bands in K giants grow stronger with cooler stellar temperatures, and they are stronger than predicted by synthetic spectra. As a group, A dwarfs are better behaved and more predictable than the K giants, but they are more likely to show red excesses from debris disks. No suitable A dwarfs were located in parts of the sky continuously observable from Spitzer, and with previous means of estimating the true spectra of K giants ruled out, it was necessary to use models of A dwarfs to calibrate spectra of K giants from observed spectral ratios of the two groups and then use the calibrated K giants as standards for the full database of infrared spectra from Spitzer. We also describe a lingering artifact that affects the spectra of faint blue sources at 24 ?m.

  3. QUANTIFYING UNCERTAINTY IN CLOUD FRACTION OBSERVATIONS OVER THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - the Solar Infrared Radiation Station) and the two different satellite-based cloud fraction products: ISCCP in the measurement methods and/or retrieval algorithms. Observational data examined in this study include the three cloud fraction estimates from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) programs' Climate Modeling

  4. Chiral-Scale Perturbation Theory About an Infrared Fixed Point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. Crewther; Lewis C. Tunstall

    2014-01-31

    We review the failure of lowest order chiral $SU(3)_L \\times SU(3)_R$ perturbation theory $\\chi$PT$_3$ to account for amplitudes involving the $f_0(500)$ resonance and $O(m_K)$ extrapolations in momenta. We summarize our proposal to replace $\\chi$PT$_3$ with a new effective theory $\\chi$PT$_\\sigma$ based on a low-energy expansion about an infrared fixed point in 3-flavour QCD. At the fixed point, the quark condensate $\\langle\\bar{q}q\\rangle_\\mathrm{vac}\

  5. Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation with infrared double optical gating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lan Pengfei; Takahashi, Eiji J.; Midorikawa, Katsumi [Extreme Photonics Research Group, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    We propose and theoretically demonstrate an infrared two-color polarization gating scheme for generating an intense isolated attosecond pulse (IAP) in the multicycle regime. Our simulations show that an IAP can be produced using a multicycle two-color driving pulse with a duration up to 60 fs. Moreover, the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of the driving laser is not required to be stabilized, although the IAP intensity changes with the CEP slip. Such a gating scheme significantly relaxes the requirements for driving lasers and opens the door to easily create intense IAPs with a high-power conventional multicycle laser pulse.

  6. Mid Infrared Spectra of Radio Galaxies and Quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Ogle; R. R. J. Antonucci; D. Whysong

    2006-12-15

    Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of 3C radio galaxies and quasars shed new light on the nature of the central engines of AGN. Emission from silicate dust obscuring the central engine can be used to estimate the bolometric luminosity of an AGN. Emission lines from ions such as O IV and Ne V give another indication of the presence or lack of a hidden source of far-UV photons in the nucleus. Radio-loud AGN with relative-to-Eddington luminosity ratios of L/L_Edd jet shocks in the interstellar medium.

  7. Category:Near Infrared Surveys | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to: navigation,GroundNear Infrared Surveys Jump to:

  8. Development of an infrared absorption spectroscope based on linear variable filters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nogueira, Felipe Guimaraes

    2009-05-15

    ).....................................15 7 Schematic of an LVF based detector..............................................................18 8 Diagram of the infrared radiation path in a dispersive infrared spectrometer. Adapted from ("FT-IR vs. Dispersive Infrared " 2002... radiation path as it passes through the LVF and reaches a detector array. Bottom-left: a display of the linear wavelength output characteristic of the LVF. Bottom-right: rendering of the LVF?s physical aspects (JDSU, 2006...

  9. Photoreactivity of ZnO nanoparticles in visible light: Effect of surface states on electron transfer reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baruah, Sunandan; Dutta, Joydeep; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Ghosh, Barnali; Pal, Samir Kumar; Raychaudhuri, A. K.

    2009-04-01

    Wide band gap metal oxide semiconductors such as zinc oxide (ZnO) show visible band photolysis that has been employed, among others, to degrade harmful organic contaminants into harmless mineral acids. Metal oxides show enhanced photocatalytic activity with the increase in electronic defects in the crystallites. By introducing defects into the crystal lattice of ZnO nanoparticles, we observe a redshift in the optical absorption shifting from the ultraviolet region to the visible region (400-700 nm), which is due to the creation of intermediate defect states that inhibit the electron hole recombination process. The defects were introduced by fast nucleation and growth of the nanoparticles by rapid heating using microwave irradiation and subsequent quenching during the precipitation reaction. To elucidate the nature of the photodegradation process, picosecond resolved time correlated single photon count (TCSPC) spectroscopy was carried out to record the electronic transitions resulting from the de-excitation of the electrons to their stable states. Photodegradation and TCSPC studies showed that defect engineered ZnO nanoparticles obtained through fast crystallization during growth lead to a faster initial degradation rate of methylene blue as compared to the conventionally synthesized nanoparticles.

  10. Visible light stimulating dual-wavelength emission and O vacancy involved energy transfer behavior in luminescence for coaxial nanocable arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Lei, E-mail: nanoyang@qq.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Hunan Province Key Laboratory for Spray Deposition Technology and Application, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Dong, Jiazhang; Jiang, Zhongcheng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Pan, Anlian; Zhuang, Xiujuan [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Physics and Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2014-06-14

    We report a strategy to investigate O vacancy (V{sub O}) involved energy transfer and dual-wavelength yellow emission in coaxial nanocable. By electric field deposition and subsequent sol-gel template approach, ZnO:Tb/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu coaxial nanocable arrays are synthesized. After visible light excitation, system is promoted to O vacancy charge transfer state of V{sub O}(0/+). In the following cross relaxation, energy transfer from V{sub O} to the excitation energy level of Tb{sup 3+} in ZnO:Tb core area. While in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu shell area, energy transfer to the excitation energy level of Eu{sup 3+}. Subsequently, dual-wavelength emission is observed. By constructing nanocable with dual-wavelength emission, yellow luminescence is obtained. Adjust doping concentration of Eu{sup 3+} or Tb{sup 3+} in the range of 0.01–0.05, chromaticity coordinates of ZnO:Tb/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu nanocable stably stays at yellow region in color space except ZnO:Tb{sub 0.01}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sub 0.01}. As Vo states act as media in energy transfer process in nanocablers, visible light can stimulate dual-wavelength emissions. Yellow luminescent nanocable arrays will have great applications in light-emitting diode luminescence.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis of Mn vanadate nanosheets and visible-light photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methyl blue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pei, L.Z. Xie, Y.K.; Pei, Y.Q.; Jiang, Y.X.; Yu, H.Y.; Cai, Z.Y.

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mn vanadate nanosheets have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. • The formation of Mn vanadate nanosheets can be controlled by growth conditions. • Mn vanadate nanosheets exhibit good photocatalytic activities for methyl blue. - Abstract: Mn vanadate nanosheets have been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route using ammonium metavanadate and Mn acetate as the raw materials, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as the surfactant. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the Mn vanadate nanosheets are composed of monoclinic MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation indicates that the nanosheets have the average thickness of about 50 nm, length of 2–10 ?m and width of 800 nm to 2 ?m. The growth process of the Mn vanadate nanosheets has also been discussed based on the analysis of the roles of the growth conditions on the formation of the Mn vanadate nanosheets. The nanosheets show good photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. About 72.96% MB can be degraded after visible light irradiation for 1 h over 10 mg Mn vanadate nanosheets in 10 mL MB solution with the concentration of 10 mg L{sup ?1}.

  12. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Akutan Fumaroles Area (Kienholz...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Akutan Fumaroles Area (Kienholz, Et Al., 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or...

  13. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Socorro Mountain Area (Owens...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Socorro Mountain Area (Owens, Et Al., 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or Near...

  14. Three-dimensional molecular imaging by infrared laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

    2012-10-30

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  15. Three-dimensional molecular imaging by infrared laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

    2013-07-16

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  16. Near-infrared surface plasmon polariton dispersion control with hyperbolic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    density of states using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. B 100(for near-infrared metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of

  17. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Fish Lake Valley Area (Deymonaz...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Fish Lake Valley Area (Deymonaz, Et Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or...

  18. Three-dimensional molecular imaging by infrared laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos (Reston, VA); Nemes, Peter (Silver Spring, MD)

    2011-06-21

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  19. Observations of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope II: The IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Armus; V. Charmandaris; J. Bernard-Salas; H. W. W. Spoon; J. A. Marshall; S. J. U Higdon; V. Desai; H. I. Teplitz; L. Hao; D. Devost; B. R. Brandl; Y. Wu; G. C. Sloan; B. T. Soifer; J. R. Houck; T. L. Herter

    2006-10-06

    We present spectra taken with the Infrared Spectrograph on Spitzer covering the 5-38 micron region of the ten Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) found in the IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample. Among the BGS ULIRGs, we find a factor of 50 spread in the rest-frame mid to far-infrared spectral slope. The 9.7 micron silicate optical depths range from less than 0.4 more than 4.2, implying line of sight extinctions of A(V) ~ 8 - 78 mag. There is evidence for water ice and hydrocarbon absorption and C2H2 and HCN absorption features in four and possibly six of the 10 BGS ULIRGs, indicating shielded molecular clouds and a warm, dense ISM. We have detected [NeV] emission in three of the ten BGS ULIRGs, at flux levels of 5-18E-14 erg/cm^2/sec and [NeV] 14.3/[NeII] 12.8 line flux ratios of 0.12-0.85. The remaining BGS ULIRGs have limits on their [NeV]/[NeII] line flux ratios which range from less than 0.15 to less than 0.01. Among the BGS ULIRGs, the AGN fractions implied by either the [NeV]/[NeII] or [OIV]/[NeII] line flux ratios (or their upper limits) are significantly lower than implied by the MIR slope or EQW of the 6.2 micron PAH feature. Fitting the SEDs, we see evidence for hot (T > 300K) dust in five of the BGS ULIRGs, with the fraction of hot dust to total dust luminosity ranging from ~1-23%, before correcting for extinction. When integrated over the IRAC-8, IRS blue peakup, and MIPS-24 filter bandpasses, the IRS spectra imply very blue colors for some ULIRGs at z ~ 1.3. This is most extreme for sources with significant amounts of warm dust and deep silicate absorption.

  20. A 600 minute near-infrared lightcurve of Sagittarius A*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Meyer; T. Do; A. Ghez; M. R. Morris; G. Witzel; A. Eckart; G. Belanger; R. Schoedel

    2008-09-15

    We present the longest, by a factor of two, near-infrared lightcurve from Sgr A* - the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center. Achieved by combining Keck and VLT data from one common night, which fortuitously had simultaneous Chandra and SMA data, this lightcurve is used to address two outstanding problems. First, a putative quasi-periodicity of ~20 min reported by groups using ESO's VLT is not confirmed by Keck observations. Second, while the infrared and mm-regimes are thought to be related based on reported time lags between lightcurves from the two wavelength domains, the reported time lag of 20 min inferred using the Keck data of this common VLT/Keck night only is at odds with the lag of ~100 min reported earlier. With our long lightcurve, we find that (i) the simultaneous 1.3 millimeter observations are in fact consistent with a ~100 min time lag, (ii) the different methods of NIR photometry used by the VLT and Keck groups lead to consistent results, (iii) the Lomb-Scargle periodogram of the whole NIR lightcurve is featureless and follows a power-law with slope -1.6, and (iv) scanning the lightcurve with a sliding window to look for a transient QPO phenomenon reveals for a certain part of the lightcurve a 25 min peak in the periodogram. Using Monte Carlo simulations and taking the number of trials into account, we find it to be insignificant.

  1. Thermal infrared survey of Sunlight Basin, Park County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vice, D.H.; Crowley, J.P.; Vice, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    Thermal infrared surveys were flown over the Sunlight mining region and Sulphur Camp area of the Sunlight Basin to substantiate whether reported fumaroles are indicative of contemporary geothermal activity in the area. Thermal infrared imagery shows areas of warm ground along and warm water discharge into Sunlight Creek and Sulphur Lake. Sulphur deposits are found on north- and south-facing hill slopes associated with a second warm ground anomaly adjacent to Gas Creek. Warming is also manifested in the thermal characteristics of vegetation, and several fumaroles are identifiable. Aeromagnetic data show a 200 gamma low at Sulphur Camp which cannot be explained topographically. Major northeast-trending lineaments provide potential conduits for thermal fluids from the magma plume in Yellowstone National Park, 50 km (30 mi) to the southwest. The floor of the Yellowstone caldera is topographically higher and could provide the necessary hydraulic head to move the fluids outward. Other geothermal resources may exhibit the same characteristics. This example suggests that geothermal resources may occur at considerable distances from a heat source.

  2. A Near Infrared Polarized Bipolar Cone in the CIRCINUS Galaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ruiz; D. M. Alexander; S. Young; J. Hough; S. L. Lumsden; C. A. Heisler

    2000-02-10

    We present near-infrared broad-band polarization images of the nuclear regions of the Circinus galaxy in the J, H and K bands. For the first time the south-eastern reflection cone is detected in polarized light, which is obscured at optical wavelengths behind the galactic disk. This biconical structure is clearly observed in J and H band polarized flux whilst in the K band a more compact structure is detected. Total flux J-K and H-K colour maps reveal a complex colour gradient toward the south-east direction (where the Circinus galactic disk is nearer to us). We find enhanced extinction in an arc shaped structure, at about 200pc from the nucleus, probably part of the star-formation ring. We model the polarized flux images with the scattering and torus model of Young etal, with the same basic input parameters as used by Alexander etal in the spectropolarimetry modelling of Circinus. The best fit to the polarized flux is achieved with a torus radius of ~16pc, and a visual extinction Av, through the torus, to the near-infrared emission regions of >66 mags.

  3. Predictions for surveys with the SPICA Mid-infrared Instrument

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonato, M; Cai, Z -Y; De Zotti, G; Bressan, A; Wada, T; Kohno, K; Maiolino, R; Gruppioni, C; Pozzi, F; Lapi, A

    2015-01-01

    We present predictions for number counts and redshift distributions of galaxies detectable in continuum and in emission lines with the Mid-infrared (MIR) Instrument (SMI) proposed for the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA). We have considered 24 MIR fine-structure lines, four Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) bands (at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.3$\\mu$m) and two silicate bands (in emission and in absorption) at 9.7$\\mu$m and 18.0$\\mu$m. Six of these lines are primarily associated with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), the others with star formation. A survey with the SMI spectrometers of 1 hour integration per field-of-view (FoV) over an area of $1\\,\\hbox{deg}^2$ will yield $5\\,\\sigma$ detections of $\\simeq 140$ AGN lines and of $\\simeq 5.2\\times10^{4}$ star-forming galaxies, $\\simeq 1.6\\times10^{4}$ of which will be detected in at least two lines. The combination of a shallow ($20.0\\,\\hbox{deg}^{2}$, $1.4\\times10^{-1}$ h integration per FoV) and a deep survey ($6.9\\times10^{-3}\\,\\hbox...

  4. THE INFRARED TELESCOPE FACILITY (IRTF) SPECTRAL LIBRARY: COOL STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, John T.; Cushing, Michael C.; Vacca, William D. E-mail: michael.cushing@gmail.com

    2009-12-01

    We present a 0.8-5 {mu}m spectral library of 210 cool stars observed at a resolving power of R {identical_to} {lambda}/{delta}{lambda} {approx} 2000 with the medium-resolution infrared spectrograph, SpeX, at the 3.0 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The stars have well-established MK spectral classifications and are mostly restricted to near-solar metallicities. The sample not only contains the F, G, K, and M spectral types with luminosity classes between I and V, but also includes some AGB, carbon, and S stars. In contrast to some other spectral libraries, the continuum shape of the spectra is measured and preserved in the data reduction process. The spectra are absolutely flux calibrated using the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry. Potential uses of the library include studying the physics of cool stars, classifying and studying embedded young clusters and optically obscured regions of the Galaxy, evolutionary population synthesis to study unresolved stellar populations in optically obscured regions of galaxies and synthetic photometry. The library is available in digital form from the IRTF Web site.

  5. Tunable ultrasonic phononic crystal controlled by infrared radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Ezekiel; Neogi, Arup, E-mail: zhmwang@gmail.com, E-mail: arup@unt.edu [Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); University of North Texas, Department of Physics, Denton, Texas 76201 (United States); Reyes, Delfino [University of North Texas, Department of Physics, Denton, Texas 76201 (United States); Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca 50120 (Mexico); Rojas, Miguel Mayorga [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca 50120 (Mexico); Krokhin, Arkadii [University of North Texas, Department of Physics, Denton, Texas 76201 (United States); Wang, Zhiming, E-mail: zhmwang@gmail.com, E-mail: arup@unt.edu [Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-10-06

    A tunable phononic crystal based ultrasonic filter was designed by stimulating the phase of the polymeric material embedded in a periodic structure using infrared radiation. The acoustic filter can be tuned remotely using thermal stimulation induced by the infrared radiation. The filter is composed of steel cylinder scatterers arranged periodically in a background of bulk poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) polymer hydrogel. The lattice structure creates forbidden bands for certain sets of mechanical waves that cause it to behave as an ultrasonic filter. Since the bandstructure is determined by not only the arrangement of the scatterers but also the physical properties of the materials composing the scatterers and background, modulating either the arrangement or physical properties will alter the effect of the crystal on propagating mechanical waves. Here, the physical properties of the filter are varied by inducing changes in the polymer hydrogel using an electromagnetic thermal stimulus. With particular focus on the k{sub 00}-wave, the transmission of ultrasonic wave changes by as much as 20 dBm, and band widths by 22% for select bands.

  6. Near-infrared free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker-Finch, Simeon C.; McIntosh, Keith R.; Yan, Di; Fong, Kean Chern; Kho, Teng C.

    2014-08-14

    Free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon can have a significant impact on devices operating in the infrared. In the near infrared, the free carrier absorption process can compete with band to band absorption processes, thereby reducing the number of available photons to optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. In this work, we fabricate 18 heavily doped regions by phosphorus and boron diffusion into planar polished silicon wafers; the simple sample structure facilitates accurate and precise measurement of the free carrier absorptance. We measure and model reflectance and transmittance dispersion to arrive at a parameterisation for the free carrier absorption coefficient that applies in the wavelength range between 1000 and 1500?nm, and the range of dopant densities between ?10{sup 18} and 3?×?10{sup 20}?cm{sup ?3}. Our measurements indicate that previously published parameterisations underestimate the free carrier absorptance in phosphorus diffusions. On the other hand, published parameterisations are generally consistent with our measurements and model for boron diffusions. Our new model is the first to be assigned uncertainty and is well-suited to routine device analysis.

  7. NEAR-INFRARED CIRCULAR POLARIZATION IMAGES OF NGC 6334-V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide; Hashimoto, Jun; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kandori, Ryo; Lucas, Phil W.; Hough, James H.; Nakajima, Yasushi; Nagayama, Takahiro; Nagata, Tetsuya

    2013-03-01

    We present results from deep imaging linear and circular polarimetry of the massive star-forming region NGC 6334-V. These observations show high degrees of circular polarization (CP), as much as 22% in the K{sub s} band, in the infrared nebula associated with the outflow. The CP has an asymmetric positive/negative pattern and is very extended ({approx}80'' or 0.65 pc). Both the high CP and its extended size are larger than those seen in the Orion CP region. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo light-scattering models are used to show that the high CP may be produced by scattering from the infrared nebula followed by dichroic extinction by an optically thick foreground cloud containing aligned dust grains. Our results show not only the magnetic field orientation of around young stellar objects, but also the structure of circumstellar matter such as outflow regions and their parent molecular cloud along the line of sight. The detection of the large and extended CP in this source and the Orion nebula may imply the CP origin of the biological homochirality on Earth.

  8. Enhancement of methanol electrocatalytic oxidation on platinized WO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite electrode under visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Caiqin [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Jiang, Fengxing [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Zhou, Rong [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Du, Yukou, E-mail: duyk@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Yang, Ping [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wang, Chuanyi, E-mail: cywang@ms.xjb.ac.cn [Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Electronic Information Materials and Devices, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Xu, Jingkun, E-mail: xujingkun@tsinghua.org.cn [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ? A ternary composite catalyst of Pt–WO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} has been synthesized. ? The introduction of WO{sub 3} extends its absorption edge to visible light region. ? The electrode displays high electrocatalytic activity. ? With visible light irradiation, its electrocatalytic activity increases 70%. - Abstract: A ternary composite catalyst of Pt–WO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} has been successfully prepared by a chemical method. The prepared composite was systematically characterized by UV–vis diffuse reflectance absorption spectra (DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrocatalytic properties of Pt–WO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} for methanol oxidation in an alkaline medium were evaluated by the cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) with or without visible light irradiation. Compared with the pure TiO{sub 2}, the introduction of WO{sub 3} extends its absorption edge to visible light region. Under visible light illumination, the Pt–WO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite catalyst exhibits higher electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation in comparison with its counterpart, the pure Pt–TiO{sub 2} catalyst.

  9. THE GALACTIC CENTER IN THE FAR-INFRARED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etxaluze, M.; Smith, Howard A.; Tolls, V.; Stark, A. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gonzalez-Alfonso, E., E-mail: metxaluz@cfa.harvard.edu [CfA and Universidad de Alcala, Alcala de Henares 28801 (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    We analyze the far-infrared dust emission from the Galactic center region, including the circumnuclear disk (CND) and other structures, using Herschel PACS and SPIRE photometric observations. These Herschel data are complemented by unpublished observations by the Infrared Space Observatory Long Wavelength Spectrometer (ISO-LWS), which used parallel mode scans to obtain photometric images of the region with a larger beam than Herschel but with a complementary wavelength coverage and more frequent sampling with 10 detectors observing at 10 different wavelengths in the range from 46 {mu}m to 180 {mu}m, where the emission peaks. We also include data from the Midcourse Space Experiment at 21.3 {mu}m for completeness. We model the combined ISO-LWS continuum plus Herschel PACS and SPIRE photometric data toward the central 2 pc in Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), a region that includes the CND. We find that the far-infrared spectral energy distribution is best represented by a continuum that is the sum of three gray body curves from dust at temperatures of 90, 44.5, and 23 K. We obtain temperature and molecular hydrogen column density maps of the region. We estimate the mass of the inner part of the CND to be {approx}5.0 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun}, with luminosities: L{sub cavity} {approx} 2.2 x 10{sup 6} L{sub sun} and L{sub CND} {approx} 1.5 x 10{sup 6} L{sub sun} in the central 2 pc radius around Sgr A*. We find from the Herschel and ISO data that the cold component of the dust dominates the total dust mass, with a contribution of {approx}3.2 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun}; this important cold material had escaped the notice of earlier studies that relied on shorter wavelength observations. The hotter component disagrees with some earlier estimates, but is consistent with measured gas temperatures and with models that imply shock heating or turbulent effects are at work. We find that the dust grain sizes apparently change widely across the region, perhaps in response to the temperature variations, and we map that distribution.

  10. Deep NearInfrared Imaging with the Keck Matthew A. Bershady 12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bershady, Matthew A.

    Deep Near­Infrared Imaging with the Keck Telescope Matthew A. Bershady 12 1 Penn State University of faint field galaxies in deep J and K band images from the Keck Telescope in several fields at high step in probing the galaxy distribution at high redshift. Deep near­infrared images offer a special

  11. A Scaled, Performance Driven Evaluation of the Layered Sensing Framework Utilizing Polarimetric Infrared Imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krim, Hamid

    sensing, distributed sensing, polarimetric, infrared, tracking, feature-aided, fusion, multi- sensor 1A Scaled, Performance Driven Evaluation of the Layered Sensing Framework Utilizing Polarimetric Infrared Imagery Hamilton Scott Clousea and Hamid Krima and Olga Mendoza-Schrockb aNorth Carolina State

  12. THREE-DIMENSIONAL LONGWAVE INFRARED (LWIR) SYNTHETIC IMAGE GENERATION INCORPORATING ANGULAR EMJSSWITY EFFECTS USING RAY-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    . These routines require a sequence of images to evaluate tracking algorithms. The evaluation of sensor performanceTHREE-DIMENSIONAL LONGWAVE INFRARED (LWIR) SYNTHETIC IMAGE GENERATION INCORPORATING ANGULAR Memorial Drive Rochester, New York 14623-0887 ABSTRAO A technique for longwave infrared (LWIR) synthetic

  13. Laser infrared photothermal radiometric depth profilometry of steels and its potential in rail track evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    -scattering or in the transmission mode using a variety of sensor probes. In this work we used the infrared (IR) photothermal radioLaser infrared photothermal radiometric depth profilometry of steels and its potential in rail track evaluation A. Mandelis*, M. Munidasa, L. Nicolaides Photothermal and Optoelectronic Diagnostics

  14. ORIGINAL PAPER Calculation of infrared and Raman vibration modes of magnesite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattin, Rodolphe

    ORIGINAL PAPER Calculation of infrared and Raman vibration modes of magnesite at high pressure) are used to obtain infrared (IR) and Raman magnesite vibration modes as they vary with pressure up to 50 approaches of vibrations in crystals based on empirical models suffer several drawbacks lead- ing

  15. ON THE AGE AND METALLICITY ESTIMATION OF SPIRAL GALAXIES USING OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hyun-chul

    ON THE AGE AND METALLICITY ESTIMATION OF SPIRAL GALAXIES USING OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY-infrared photometry show surprisingly orthogonal grids as age and metallicity are varied, and they are coming headinggs: galaxies: abundances -- galaxies: evolution -- galaxies: photometry -- galaxies: spiral

  16. Invited Paper Interferometry at Mid-Infrared Wavelengths: The ISI System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Invited Paper Interferometry at Mid-Infrared Wavelengths: The ISI System C.H. Townes and E.H. Wishnow University of California at Berkeley The ISI (Infrared Spatial Interferometer) involves three . In the microwave region this is not a dominant source of noise. But at the ISI wavelengths near 11 µm, this noise

  17. Use of Mie theory to analyze experimental data to identify infrared properties of fused quartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    Use of Mie theory to analyze experimental data to identify infrared properties of fused quartz containing bubbles is suggested. The identification procedure is based on a combi- nation of directional of possible impurity of the medium. This procedure is used to obtain new data on near-infrared properties

  18. Photovoltaic quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector A. V. Barve and S. Krishna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishna, Sanjay

    Photovoltaic quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector A. V. Barve and S. Krishna Citation subject to AIP license or copyright; see http://apl.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Photovoltaic) Design and characterization of a quantum dot quantum cascade detector for photovoltaic midwave infrared

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW MID-INFRARED ULTRAFAST LASER SOURCES FOR COMPACT COHERENT X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling Backus

    2012-05-14

    In this project, we proposed to develop laser based mid-infrared lasers as a potentially robust and reliable source of ultrafast pulses in the mid-infrared region of the spectrum, and to apply this light source to generating bright, coherent, femtosecond-to-attosecond x-ray beams.

  20. Sensitivity of satellite microwave and infrared observations to soil moisture at a global scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aires, Filipe

    Sensitivity of satellite microwave and infrared observations to soil moisture at a global scale observations include passive microwave emissivities, active microwave scatterometer data, and infrared. For example, we show that the passive microwave polarization differences at 19 GHz and above are essentially

  1. High-Speed Non-Directional Infrared Communication for Wireless Local-Area Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carruthers, Jeffrey

    terminals and a base station, allowing construction of in-building wireless local-area networks. We discuss.0 Introduction Non-directional infrared radiation [1-4] is an attrac- tive transmission medium for wireless characterized free-space infrared channels in a variety of indoor environments [6] using a swept

  2. Thermal infrared emission spectroscopy of titanium-enriched V. E. Hamilton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Victoria E.

    Thermal infrared emission spectroscopy of titanium-enriched pyroxenes V. E. Hamilton Hawai through the use of spectroscopic analysis. Studies of the thermal infrared (vibrational) spectra of many. These spectral variations can be used to identify the approximate composition(s) of pyroxenes in the thermal

  3. Planar Array Infrared Emission Spectroscopy Christian Pellerin,*, Isabelle Pelletier,, John F. Rabolt, and D. Bruce Chase|

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    Planar Array Infrared Emission Spectroscopy Christian Pellerin,*, Isabelle Pelletier,, John F-IR) is shown to be a powerful new approach to infrared emission spec- troscopy (IRES). A proof-of-concept study of selected polymers indicates that PA-IRES allows acquisition of emission spectra with a high signal

  4. Temperature-dependent vibrational relaxation in polyatomic liquids: Picosecond infrared pump-probe experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Temperature-dependent vibrational relaxation in polyatomic liquids: Picosecond infrared pump points. Picosecond infrared pump-probe experiments were performed at the absorption maxima of the T,, CO pump-probe experi- ments. These systems were first studied by Heilweil and co-workers5 at room

  5. Space charge spectroscopy of integrated quantum well infrared photodetectorlight emitting diode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perera, A. G. Unil

    Space charge spectroscopy of integrated quantum well infrared photodetector±light emitting diode M ± light emitting diode (QWIP-LED). Quasistatic capacitance±voltage (C±V ) characteristics under reverse.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Quantum-well infrared photodetector; Light-emitting diode; Space charge

  6. Demonstration of Si homojunction far-infrared detectors A. G. U. Pereraa)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perera, A. G. Unil

    Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council, Ottawa K1A 0R6, Canada M. O. Tanner and K applications, such as NASA's Space Infrared Telescope Facility SIRTF program.1 Present far-infrared FIR, the work function is the energy gap between the impurity band and the conduction valence band

  7. Effect of pulse intensity distributions on fragment internal energy in the infrared multiphoton dissociation of vinyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effect of pulse intensity distributions on fragment internal energy in the infrared multiphoton the rovibra- tional energy distributions of fragmentsl formed in the infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD energies of the frag- ment can be well characterized in terms of a Boltzmann distribution with a single

  8. Infrared emission spectroscopy of CO2 at high temperature. Part I: Experimental setup and source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Infrared emission spectroscopy of CO2 at high temperature. Part I: Experimental setup and source measurement, tube effects, CO2 infrared radiation 1. Introduction The knowledge of very high temperature for instance that the IR emission of the CO2 molecule remains predominant at temperatures as high as 4000 K [1

  9. Pedestrian detection and tracking in infrared imagery using shape and appearance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xin

    Pedestrian detection and tracking in infrared imagery using shape and appearance Congxia Dai an approach toward pedestrian detection and tracking from infrared imagery using joint shape and appear- ance regardless of camera panning. In the two-pass scheme of detecting pedestrians from the foreground layer

  10. GaSb/GaAs type II quantum dot solar cells for enhanced infrared spectral response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jalali. Bahram

    into existing multijunction cells either as a means to increase the current or efficiency by using low band gapGaSb/GaAs type II quantum dot solar cells for enhanced infrared spectral response R. B infrared spectral response of GaAs-based solar cells that incorporate type II GaSb quantum dots QDs formed

  11. Journal of the European Ceramic Society 26 (2006) 28612865 Correlation between infrared, THz and microwave dielectric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KuÂ?el, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Journal of the European Ceramic Society 26 (2006) 2861­2865 Correlation between infrared, THz and infrared (IR) reflectivity spectra of orthorhombic microwave (MW) ceramics Bi(Nb1-xVx)O4 (0.002 ) frequency region in the last decade. This tech- nique uses ceramic dielectric resonators and filters

  12. Infrared lock-in carrierography ,,photocarrier radiometric imaging... of Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    , Center for Advanced Diffusion-Wave Technologies (CADIFT), University of Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada a near-infrared NIR InGaAs camera and a spread superband gap laser beam as an optoelectronic source electric fields applied to solar cells through their electrical contacts to infrared radia- tion emitted

  13. A DEDICATED INFRARED SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCE AT W. Barry, A. Biocca, J. M. Byrd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A DEDICATED INFRARED SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCE AT THE ALS * W. Barry, A. Biocca, J. M. Byrd , W ring dedicated to and optimized for the production of synchrotron radiation over the infrared]. This paper describes ideas for the design of a storage ring dedicated to and optimized for the production

  14. CdSe self-assembled quantum dots with ZnCdMgSe barriers emitting throughout the visible spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Paz, M. Noemi; Zhou Xuecong; Munoz, Martin; Lu Hong; Sohel, Mohammad; Tamargo, Maria C.; Jean-Mary, Fleumingue; Akins, Daniel L.

    2004-12-27

    Self-assembled quantum dots of CdSe with ZnCdMgSe barriers have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP substrates. The optical and microstructural properties were investigated using photoluminescence (PL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. Control and reproducibility of the quantum dot (QD) size leading to light emission throughout the entire visible spectrum range has been obtained by varying the CdSe deposition time. Longer CdSe deposition times result in a redshift of the PL peaks as a consequence of an increase of QD size. AFM studies demonstrate the presence of QDs in uncapped structures. A comparison of this QD system with CdSe/ZnSe shows that not only the strain but also the chemical properties of the system play an important role in QD formation.

  15. Study of new states in visible light active W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} photo catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sajjad, Ahmed Khan Leghari; Shamaila, Sajjad; Zhang, Jinlong

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ? Visible light efficient W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} photo catalysts are prepared by sol–gel. ? Oxygen vacancies are detected in the form of new linkages as N-Ti-O, N-W-O, Ti-O-N and W-O-N. ? W, N co-doped titania has new energy states which narrows the band gap effectively. ? Oxygen vacancies are proved to be the cause for high photo catalytic activity. ? W and N co-doping plays the major role to make the composite thermally stable. -- Abstract: The visible light efficient W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} photo catalysts are prepared by sol–gel method. New linkages of N, W and O are formed as N-Ti-O, N-W-O, Ti-O-N and W-O-N. Electron paramagnetic resonance illustrates the presence of oxygen vacancies in W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} acting as trapping agencies for electrons to produce active species. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of new energy states. New linkages and oxygen vacancies are proved to be the main cause for the improved photo catalytic performances. W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} has new energy states which narrow the band gap effectively. W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} is thermally stable and retains its anatase phase up to 900 °C. 4.5% W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} showed superior activity for the degradation of Rhodamine B and 2,4-dichlorophenol as compared to pure titania, Degussa P-25, traditional N-doped TiO{sub 2} and pure WO{sub 3}.

  16. Solvothermal synthesis of graphene-Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} composite and the degradation activity under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Wenguang; Chang, Jiuli; Wu, Dapeng; Gao, Zhiyong; Duan, Xiaoli; Xu, Fang; Engineering Technology Research Center of Motive Power and Key Materials, Henan, 453007 ; Jiang, Kai; Engineering Technology Research Center of Motive Power and Key Materials, Henan, 453007

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Graphene-Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} composites were synthesized through a facile solvothermal method. ? Hydroxyl radicals are the main species responsible for the photodegradation activity. ? Graphene-Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} demonstrated dramatically improved visible light degradation activity. -- Abstract: Novel graphene-Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} (G-Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) composites were synthesized via a facile solvothermal method with graphene oxide (GO), SbCl{sub 3} and thiourea as the reactants. GO played an important role in controlling the size and the distribution of the formed Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles on the graphene sheets with different density. Due to the negative surface charge, smaller Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} particles size and efficient electrons transfer from Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} to graphene, the composites demonstrated improved photodegradation activity on rhodamine B (RhB). Among these composites, the product G-Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} 0.1, which was synthesized with the GO concentration of 0.1 mg/mL, exhibited the highest photodegradation activity owing to the considerable density of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles onto graphene sheet free of aggregation. Hydroxyl radicals (·OH) derived from conduction band (CB) electrons of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} is suggested to be responsible for the photodegradation of RhB. The high visible light degradation activity and the satisfactory cycling stability made the as-prepared G-Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} 0.1 an applicable photocatalyst.

  17. Injection seeded tunable mid-infrared pulses by difference frequency mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Masuda, Takahiko; Sasao, Noboru; Uetake, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We report on generation of nanosecond mid-infrared pulses having frequency tunability, narrow linewidth and high intensity. They are obtained by frequency mixing between injection seeded near-infrared pulses in potassium titanyl arsenate crystals. A continuous-wave external cavity laser diode or a Ti:Sapphire ring laser are used as a tunable seeding source for the near-infrared pulses. Typical energy and pulse duration of the generated mid-infrared pulses is 0.4 mJ/pulse and 2 ns, respectively. Narrow linewidth of about 1 GHz and good frequency reproducibility of the mid-infrared pulses are confirmed by observing a ro-vibrational absorption line of gaseous carbon monoxide.

  18. Extensive near-infrared (H-band) photometry in Coma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Andreon; R. Pello; E. Davoust; R. Dominguez; P. Poulain

    1999-10-14

    We present extensive and accurate photometry in the near-infrared H band of a complete sample of objects in an area of about 400 arcmin2 toward the Coma cluster of galaxies. The sample, including about 300 objects, is complete down to H~17 mag, the exact value depending on the type of magnitude (isophotal, aperture, Kron) and the particular region studied. This is six magnitudes below the characteristic magnitude of galaxies, well into the dwarfs' regime at the distance of the Coma cluster. For each object (star or galaxy) we provide aperture magnitudes computed within five different apertures, the magnitude within the 22 mag arcsec2 isophote, the Kron magnitude and radius, magnitude errors, as well as the coordinates, the isophotal area, and a stellarity index. Photometric errors are 0.2 mag at the completness limit. This sample is meant to be the zero-redshift reference for evolutionary studies of galaxies.

  19. Scattering of infrared light by dielectric core-shell particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thiessen, E; Heinisch, R L; Fehske, H

    2015-01-01

    We study the scattering of infrared light by small dielectric core-shell particles taking a sapphire sphere with a CaO core as an example. The extinction efficiency of such a particle shows two intense series of resonances attached, respectively, to in-phase and out-of-phase multipolar polarization-induced surface charges build-up, respectively, at the core-shell and the shell-vacuum interface. Both series, the character of the former may be labelled bonding and the character of the latter antibonding, give rise to anomalous scattering. For a given particle radius and filling factor the Poynting vector field shows therefore around two wave numbers the complex topology of this type of light scattering. Inside the particle the topology depends on the character of the resonance. The dissipation of energy inside the particle also reflects the core-shell structure. It depends on the resonance and shows strong spatial variations.

  20. Near Infrared observations of Soft X-ray selected AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Grupe; H. -C Thomas

    2002-02-21

    We report the results of near infrared observations of 19 soft X-ray selected AGN. The goal of the observations was to search for strong, narrow Paschen-alpha or Brackett-gamma emission lines, as a sign of nuclear starbursts. We found Pa-alpha emission in the spectra of 11 sources and Br-gamma in at least five. Strong NIR emission has been found in two sources, CBS 126 and Mkn 766, both objects with strong [OIII]5007 emission, weak FeII emission and wavelength dependent degree of polarization in the optical. Classical Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies do not show exceptionally strong NIR emission lines. We present the results of our study and discuss how our findings fit into an evolutionary scheme of AGN.

  1. Comment on "Infrared freezing of Euclidean QCD observables"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irinel Caprini; Jan Fischer

    2007-06-20

    Recently, P. M. Brooks and C.J. Maxwell [Phys. Rev. D{\\bf 74} 065012 (2006)] claimed that the Landau pole of the one-loop coupling at $Q^2=\\Lambda^2$ is absent from the leading one-chain term in a skeleton expansion of the Euclidean Adler ${\\cal D}$ function. Moreover, in this approximation one has continuity along the Euclidean axis and a smooth infrared freezing, properties known to be satisfied by the "true" Adler function. We show that crucial in the derivation of these results is the use of a modified Borel summation, which leads simultaneously to the loss of another fundamental property of the true Adler function: the analyticity implied by the K\\"allen-Lehmann representation.

  2. What are the galaxies contributing to the Cosmic Infrared Background ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Guiderdoni

    1997-12-29

    Recent optical observations have led to a significant progress in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. However, our view on the deep universe is currently limited to the starlight which directly escapes from high-redshift galaxies, since we so far ignore the fraction of luminosity absorbed by dust and released in the IR/submm wavelength range. A new constraint is set by the possible detection of the Cosmic Infrared Background. We briefly review the observations and use a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and evolution to predict number counts consistent with the level of the background. It turns out that the predictions fairly accomodate preliminary data at 175 and 850 microns. This suggests that a significant fraction of star/galaxy formation at high z is hidden by dust.

  3. Infrared Spectroscopy of Charge Transfer Complexes of Purines and Pyrimidines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathod, Pravinsinh I.; Oza, A. T. [Department Of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, 388120 (India)

    2011-10-20

    The FTIR spectra of charge transfer complexes of purines and pyrimidines with organic acceptors such as TCNQ, TCNE, DDQ, chloranil and iodine are obtained and studied in the present work. Adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine and uracil are the purines and pyrimidines which are found as constituent of DNA and RNA. Charge transfer induced hydrogen bonding is concluded on the basis of indirect transitions observed in the infrared range in these CTCs. Some CTCs show gaussian bands revealing delocalization of charge carriers. The CTCs show interband transition in three-dimensions rather than two-dimensions unlike CTCs of amino acids. There is no extended hydrogen bonded network spanning the whole crystal. This leads to indirect transition due to locally deformed lattice furnishing a phonon-assisted transition.

  4. Strain-compensated infrared photodetector and photodetector array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin K; Hawkins, Samuel D; Klem, John F; Cich, Michael J

    2013-05-28

    A photodetector is disclosed for the detection of infrared light with a long cutoff wavelength in the range of about 4.5-10 microns. The photodetector, which can be formed on a semiconductor substrate as an nBn device, has a light absorbing region which includes InAsSb light-absorbing layers and tensile-strained layers interspersed between the InAsSb light-absorbing layers. The tensile-strained layers can be formed from GaAs, InAs, InGaAs or a combination of these III-V compound semiconductor materials. A barrier layer in the photodetector can be formed from AlAsSb or AlGaAsSb; and a contact layer in the photodetector can be formed from InAs, GaSb or InAsSb. The photodetector is useful as an individual device, or to form a focal plane array.

  5. Modeling the Infrared Emission from the Epsilon Eridani Disk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, A; Bendo, G J; Li, Aigen

    2003-01-01

    We model the infrared (IR) emission from the ring-like dust disk around the main-sequence (MS) star Epsilon Eridani, a young analog to our solar system, in terms of a porous dust model previously developed for the extended wedge-shaped disk around the MS star $\\beta$ Pictoris and the sharply truncated ring-like disks around the Herbig Ae/Be stars HR 4796A and HD 141569A. It is shown that the porous dust model with a porosity of $\\simali$90% is also successful in reproducing the IR to submillimeter dust emission spectral energy distribution as well as the 850$\\mum$ flux radial profile of the dust ring around the more evolved MS star Epsilon Eridani. Predictions are made for future {\\it SIRTF} observations which may allow a direct test of the porous dust model.

  6. Active Control of Nitride Plasmonic Dispersion in the Far Infrared.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaner, Eric A.; Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Seng, William Francis; Bethke, Donald Thomas; Grine, Albert Dario,; Baca, Albert G.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate plasmonic structures in nitride-based materials for far-infrared (IR) applications. The two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the GaN/AlGaN material system, much like metal- dielectric structures, is a patternable plasmonic medium. However, it also permits for direct tunability via an applied voltage. While there have been proof-of-principle demonstrations of plasma excitations in nitride 2DEGs, exploration of the potential of this material system has thus far been limited. We recently demonstrated coherent phenomena such as the formation of plasmonic crystals, strong coupling of tunable crystal defects to a plasmonic crystal, and electromagnetically induced transparency in GaAs/AlGaAs 2DEGs at sub-THz frequencies. In this project, we explore whether these effects can be realized in nitride 2DEG materials above 1 THz and at temperatures exceeding 77 K.

  7. An Infrared Renormalization Group Limit Cycle in QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Braaten; H. -W. Hammer

    2003-03-17

    Small increases in the up and down quark masses of QCD would tune the theory to the critical renormalization group trajectory for an infrared limit cycle in the three-nucleon system. At critical values of the quark masses, the deuteron binding energy goes to zero and the triton has infinitely many excited states with an accumulation point at the 3-nucleon threshold. The ratio of the binding energies of successive states approaches a universal constant that is close to 515. The proximity of physical QCD to the critical trajectory for this limit cycle explains the success of an effective field theory of nucleons with contact interactions only in describing the low-energy 3-nucleon system.

  8. Infrared singularities of scattering amplitudes in perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becher, Thomas; Neubert, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    An exact formula is derived for the infrared singularities of dimensionally regularized scattering amplitudes in massless QCD with an arbitrary number of legs, valid at any number of loops. It is based on the conjecture that the anomalous-dimension matrix of n-jet operators in soft-collinear effective theory contains only a single non-trivial color structure, whose coefficient is the cusp anomalous dimension of Wilson loops with light-like segments. Its color-diagonal part is characterized by two anomalous dimensions, which are extracted to three-loop order from known perturbative results for the quark and gluon form factors. This allows us to predict the three-loop coefficients of all 1/epsilon^k poles for an arbitrary n-parton scattering amplitudes, generalizing existing two-loop results.

  9. Three-dimensional infrared metamaterial with asymmetric transmission

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kenanakis, George; Xomalis, Aggelos; Selimis, Alexandros; Vamvakaki, Maria; Farsari, Maria; Kafesaki, Maria; Soukoulis, Costas M.; Economou, Eleftherios N.

    2015-01-14

    A novel three-dimensional (3D) metallic metamaterial structure with asymmetric transmission for linear polarization is demonstrated in the infrared spectral region. The structure was fabricated by direct laser writing and selective electroless silver coating, a straightforward, novel technique producing mechanically and chemically stable 3D photonic structures. The structure unit cell is composed of a pair of conductively coupled magnetic resonators, and the asymmetric transmission response results from interplay of electric and magnetic responses; this equips the structure with almost total opaqueness along one propagation direction versus satisfying transparency along the opposite one. It also offers easily adjustable impedance, 90° one-way puremore »optical activity and backward propagation possibility, resulting thus in unique capabilities in polarization control and isolation applications. We show also that scaling down the structure can make it capable of exhibiting its asymmetric transmission and its polarization capabilities in the optical region.« less

  10. Smart Infrared Inspection System Field Operational Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    The Smart InfraRed Inspection System (SIRIS) is a tool designed to assist inspectors in determining which vehicles passing through the SIRIS system are in need of further inspection by measuring the thermal data from the wheel components. As a vehicle enters the system, infrared cameras on the road measure temperatures of the brakes, tires, and wheel bearings on both wheel ends of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in motion. This thermal data is then presented to enforcement personal inside of the inspection station on a user friendly interface. Vehicles that are suspected to have a violation are automatically alerted to the enforcement staff. The main goal of the SIRIS field operational test (FOT) was to collect data to evaluate the performance of the prototype system and determine the viability of such a system being used for commercial motor vehicle enforcement. From March 2010 to September 2010, ORNL facilitated the SIRIS FOT at the Greene County Inspection Station (IS) in Greeneville, Tennessee. During the course of the FOT, 413 CMVs were given a North American Standard (NAS) Level-1 inspection. Of those 413 CMVs, 384 were subjected to a SIRIS screening. A total of 36 (9.38%) of the vehicles were flagged by SIRIS as having one or more thermal issues; with brakes issues making up 33 (91.67%) of those. Of the 36 vehicles flagged as having thermal issues, 31 (86.11%) were found to have a violation and 30 (83.33%) of those vehicles were placed out-of-service (OOS). Overall the enforcement personnel who have used SIRIS for screening purposes have had positive feedback on the potential of SIRIS. With improvements in detection algorithms and stability, the system will be beneficial to the CMV enforcement community and increase overall trooper productivity by accurately identifying a higher percentage of CMVs to be placed OOS with minimal error. No future evaluation of SIRIS has been deemed necessary and specifications for a production system will soon be drafted.

  11. The Infrared Camera (IRC) for AKARI - Design and Imaging Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Onaka; H. Matsuhara; T. Wada; N. Fujishiro; H. Fujiwara; M. Ishigaki; D. Ishihara; Y. Ita; H. Kataza; W. Kim; T. Matsumoto; H. Murakami; Y. Ohyama; S. Oyabu; I. Sakon; T. Tanabe; T. Takagi; K. Uemizu; M. Ueno; F. Usui; H. Watarai; M. Cohen; K. Enya; T. Ootsubo; C. P. Pearson; N. Takeyama; T. Yamamuro; Y. Ikeda

    2007-05-29

    The Infrared Camera (IRC) is one of two focal-plane instruments on the AKARI satellite. It is designed for wide-field deep imaging and low-resolution spectroscopy in the near- to mid-infrared (1.8--26.5um) in the pointed observation mode of AKARI. IRC is also operated in the survey mode to make an all-sky survey at 9 and 18um. It comprises three channels. The NIR channel (1.8--5.5um) employs a 512 x 412 InSb array, whereas both the MIR-S (4.6--13.4um) and MIR-L (12.6--26.5um) channels use 256 x 256 Si:As impurity band conduction arrays. Each of the three channels has a field-of-view of about 10' x 10' and are operated simultaneously. The NIR and MIR-S share the same field-of-view by virtue of a beam splitter. The MIR-L observes the sky about $25' away from the NIR/MIR-S field-of-view. IRC gives us deep insights into the formation and evolution of galaxies, the evolution of planetary disks, the process of star-formation, the properties of interstellar matter under various physical conditions, and the nature and evolution of solar system objects. The in-flight performance of IRC has been confirmed to be in agreement with the pre-flight expectation. This paper summarizes the design and the in-flight operation and imaging performance of IRC.

  12. THE MAGNETIC FIELD IN TAURUS PROBED BY INFRARED POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, Nicholas L.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Pineda, Jorge L.; Li Di [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 301-429, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Clemens, D. P. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Krco, Marko, E-mail: nchapman@u.northwestern.edu [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2011-11-01

    We present maps of the plane-of-sky magnetic field within two regions of the Taurus molecular cloud: one in the dense core L1495/B213 filament and the other in a diffuse region to the west. The field is measured from the polarization of background starlight seen through the cloud. In total, we measured 287 high-quality near-infrared polarization vectors in these regions. In L1495/B213, the percent polarization increases with column density up to A{sub V} {approx} 9 mag, the limits of our data. The radiative torques model for grain alignment can explain this behavior, but models that invoke turbulence are inconsistent with the data. We also combine our data with published optical and near-infrared polarization measurements in Taurus. Using this large sample, we estimate the strength of the plane-of-sky component of the magnetic field in nine subregions. This estimation is done with two different techniques that use the observed dispersion in polarization angles. Our values range from 5 to 82 {mu}G and tend to be higher in denser regions. In all subregions, the critical index of the mass-to-magnetic flux ratio is sub-unity, implying that Taurus is magnetically supported on large scales ({approx}2 pc). Within the region observed, the B213 filament takes a sharp turn to the north and the direction of the magnetic field also takes a sharp turn, switching from being perpendicular to the filament to becoming parallel. This behavior can be understood if we are observing the rim of a bubble. We argue that it has resulted from a supernova remnant associated with a recently discovered nearby gamma-ray pulsar.

  13. Coherent Raman and Infrared Studies of Sulfur Trioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrysostom, Engelene; Vulpanovici, Nicolae; Masiello, Anthony; Barber, Jeffrey B.; Nibler, Joseph W.; Weber, Alfons; Maki, Arthur; Blake, Thomas A.

    2001-07-02

    High resolution (0.001 cm-1) coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) was used to observe the Q-branch structure of the IR-inactive n1 symmetric stretching mode of 32S 16O3 and its various 18O isotopomers. The v1 spectrum of 32S 16O3 reveals two intense Q-branch regions in the 1065-1067 cm-1 region, with surprisingly complex vibrational-rotational structure not resolved in earlier studies. Efforts to simulate this with a simple Fermi-resonance model involving v1 and 2v4 do not reproduce the spectral detail nor yield reasonable spectroscopic parameters. A more subtle combination of Fermi resonance and indirect Coriolis interactions with nearby states; 2v4 (l = 0, ? 2), v2+v4 (l = ? 1), 2v2 (l =0) is suspected and a determination of the location of these coupled states by high resolution infrared measurements is underway. At medium resolution (0.125 cm-1), the infrared spectra reveal Q-branch features from which approximate band origins are estimated for the v2, v3, v4 fundamental modes of 32S 18O3, 32S 18O2 16O and 32S 18O 16O2. These and literature data for 32S 16O3 are used to calculate force constants for SO3 and a comparison is made with similar values for SO2 and SO. The frequencies and force constants are in excellent agreement with a recent ab initio calculation by Martin. *In memory of Dr. Nicolae Vulpanovici (1968-2001)

  14. Ozone Profile Retrieval from an Advanced Infrared Sounder: Experiments with Tropopause-Based Climatology and Optimal Estimation Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Laura

    Ozone Profile Retrieval from an Advanced Infrared Sounder: Experiments with Tropopause for retrieving atmospheric ozone profile information from advanced satellite infrared sounders, this study investigates various methods to optimize ozone retrievals. A set of retrieval experiments has been performed

  15. A CO-rich merger shaping a powerful and hyper-luminous infrared radio galaxy at z=2: the Dragonfly Galaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emonts, B H C; Stroe, A; Pentericci, L; Villar-Martin, M; Norris, R P; Miley, G; De Breuck, C; van Moorsel, G A; Lehnert, M D; Carilli, C L; Rottgering, H J A; Seymour, N; Sadler, E M; Ekers, R D; Drouart, G; Feain, I; Colina, L; Stevens, J; Holt, J

    2015-01-01

    In the low-redshift Universe, the most powerful radio sources are often associated with gas-rich galaxy mergers or interactions. We here present evidence for an advanced, gas-rich (`wet') merger associated with a powerful radio galaxy at a redshift of z~2. This radio galaxy, MRC 0152-209, is the most infrared-luminous high-redshift radio galaxy known in the southern hemisphere. Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we obtained high-resolution CO(1-0) data of cold molecular gas, which we complement with HST/WFPC2 imaging and WHT long-slit spectroscopy. We find that, while roughly M(H2) ~ 2 x 10$^{10}$ M$_{\\odot}$ of molecular gas coincides with the central host galaxy, another M(H2) ~ 3 x 10$^{10}$ M$_{\\odot}$ is spread across a total extent of ~60 kpc. Most of this widespread CO(1-0) appears to follow prominent tidal features visible in the rest-frame near-UV HST/WFPC2 imaging. Ly$\\alpha$ emission shows an excess over HeII, but a deficiency over L(IR), which is likely the result of photo-ionisation by ...

  16. Permanent polarization and charge distribution in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs): Insights from near-infrared charge-modulation spectroscopy of an operating OLED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchetti, Alfred P.; Haskins, Terri L.; Young, Ralph H.; Rothberg, Lewis J.

    2014-03-21

    Vapor-deposited Alq{sub 3} layers typically possess a strong permanent electrical polarization, whereas NPB layers do not. (Alq{sub 3} is tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum(III); NPB is 4,4?-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino]biphenyl.) The cause is a net orientation of the Alq{sub 3} molecules with their large dipole moments. Here we report on consequences for an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with an NPB hole-transport layer and Alq{sub 3} electron-transport layer. The discontinuous polarization at the NPB|Alq{sub 3} interface has the same effect as a sheet of immobile negative charge there. It is more than compensated by a large concentration of injected holes (NPB{sup +}) when the OLED is running. We discuss the implications and consequences for the quantum efficiency and the drive voltage of this OLED and others. We also speculate on possible consequences of permanent polarization in organic photovoltaic devices. The concentration of NPB{sup +} was measured by charge-modulation spectroscopy (CMS) in the near infrared, where the NPB{sup +} has a strong absorption band, supplemented by differential-capacitance and current-voltage measurements. Unlike CMS in the visible, this method avoids complications from modulation of the electroluminescence and electroabsorption.

  17. Reflectivity Measurements for Copper and Aluminumin the Far Infrared and the Resistive Wall Impedance in the LCLS Undulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bane, K L F; Tu, J J

    2006-01-01

    Reflectivity Measurements for Copper and Aluminumin the Far Infrared and the Resistive Wall Impedance in the LCLS Undulator

  18. Standard test method for carbon (total) in uranium oxide powders and pellets by direct combustion-infrared detection method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    Standard test method for carbon (total) in uranium oxide powders and pellets by direct combustion-infrared detection method

  19. Re-evaluation of SO2 release of the 15 June 1991 Pinatubo eruption using ultraviolet and infrared satellite sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, William I.

    Re-evaluation of SO2 release of the 15 June 1991 Pinatubo eruption using ultraviolet and infrared Infrared Radiation Sounder/2) sensor, whose data sets have a higher temporal resolution, are also analyzed ultraviolet and infrared satellite sensors, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 5, Q04001, doi:10.1029/ 2003GC000654

  20. Computational and experimental research on infrared trace by human being contact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong Zonglong; Yang Kuntao; Ding Wenxiu; Zhang Nanyangsheng; Zheng Wenheng

    2010-06-20

    The indoor detection of the human body's thermal trace plays an important role in the fields of infrared detecting, scouting, infrared camouflage, and infrared rescuing and tracking. Currently, quantitative description and analysis for this technology are lacking due to the absence of human infrared radiation analysis. To solve this problem, we study the heating and cooling process by observing body contact and removal on an object, respectively. Through finite-element simulation and carefully designed experiments, an analytical model of the infrared trace of body contact is developed based on infrared physics and heat transfer theory. Using this model, the impact of body temperature on material thermal parameters is investigated. The sensitivity of material thermal parameters, the thermal distribution, and the changes of the thermograph's contrast are then found and analyzed. Excellent matching results achieved between the simulation and the experiments demonstrate the strong impact of temperature on material thermal parameters. Conclusively, the new model, simulation, and experimental results are beneficial to the future development and implementation of infrared trace technology.

  1. Modelling the Spectral Energy Distribution of Compact Luminous Infrared Galaxies: Constraints from High Frequency Radio Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. R. Prouton; A. Bressan; M. Clemens; A. Franceschini; G. L. Granato; L. Silva

    2004-03-24

    We have performed 23 GHz VLA observations of 7 compact, luminous infrared galaxies, selected to have evidence of starburst activity. New and published multi-frequency data are combined to obtain the spectral energy distributions of all 7 galaxies from the near-infrared to the radio (at 1.4 GHz). These SEDs are compared with new models, for dust enshrouded galaxies, which account for both starburst and AGN components. In all 7 galaxies the starburst provides the dominant contribution to the infrared luminosity; in 4 sources no contribution from an AGN is required. Although AGN may contribute up to 50 percent of the total far--infrared emission, the starbursts always dominate in the radio. The SEDs of most of our sources are best fit with a very high optical depth of (>=50) at 1 micron. The scatter in the far-infrared/radio correlation, found among luminous IRAS sources, is due mainly to the different evolutionary status of their starburst components. The short time-scale of the star formation process amplifies the delay between the far-infrared and radio emission. This becomes more evident at low radio frequencies (below about 1 GHz) where synchrotron radiation is the dominant process. In the far-infrared (at wavelengths shorter than 100 micron) an additional source of scatter is provided by AGN, where present. AGN may be detected in the near-infrared by the absence of the knee, typical of stellar photospheres. However, near-infrared data alone cannot constrain the level at which AGN contribute because the interpretation of their observed properties, in this wave-band, depends strongly on model parameters.

  2. Design and implementation of a rapid-mixer flow cell for time-resolved infrared microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinkovic, Nebojsa S.; Adzic, Aleksandar R.; Sullivan, Michael; Kovacs, Kevin; Miller, Lisa M.; Rousseau, Denis L.; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Chance, Mark R.

    2000-11-01

    A rapid mixer for the analysis of reactions in the millisecond and submillisecond time domains by Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy has been constructed. The cell was tested by examination of cytochrome-c folding kinetics. The device allows collection of full infrared spectral data on millisecond and faster time scales subsequent to chemical jump reaction initiation. The data quality is sufficiently good such that spectral fitting techniques could be applied to analysis of the data. Thus, this method provides an advantage over kinetic measurements at single wavelengths using infrared laser or diode sources, particularly where band overlap exists.

  3. Skill of a Ceiling and Visibility Local Ensemble Prediction System (LEPS) according to Fog-Type Prediction at Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skill of a Ceiling and Visibility Local Ensemble Prediction System (LEPS) according to Fog reveals that stratus base lowering, advection, and radiation fogs make up for 78% of the LVP cases, the prediction of advection fogs is as skillful as the prediction of radiation fog events and stratus base

  4. BiVO4 as a Visible-Light Photocatalyst Prepared by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Scott S. Dunkle, Richard J. Helmich, and Kenneth S. Suslick*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    BiVO4 as a Visible-Light Photocatalyst Prepared by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Scott S. Dunkle spray pyrolysis (USP). Gases created from the evaporation of solvent and the decomposition of precursor to complete the overall water splitting reaction.28,29 Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP)30-32 is a powerful

  5. In situ UV-Visible Spectroscopic Measurements of Kinetic Parameters and Active Sites for Catalytic Oxidation of Alkanes on Vanadium Oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Engineering, UniVersity of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1462 ReceiVed: March 30, 2004 In situ and oxidation during propane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) on VOx/-Al2O3. Transients in UV-visible intensity the dynamics of redox cycles for catalytically active centers involved in propane ODH on alumina

  6. TopoftheCity-37miles/byReidPriedhorsky(reid@reidster.net) 00.00 -down hill to Clarence & Seymour 00.09 Right -Seymour Ave. -short visibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priedhorsky, Reid

    TopoftheCity-37miles/byReidPriedhorsky(reid@reidster.net) 00.00 - down hill to Clarence & Seymour 00.09 Right - Seymour Ave. - short visibility 00.44 Right - Franklin Ave. - rough pavement 00.69 Left Ave. 36.58 Left - Seymour Ave. 36.93 Left - trail 37.04 - end at water tower #12;

  7. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under a cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. Astronomy: The Visible and Invisible Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groppi, Christopher

    under a cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. Astronomy: The Visible and Invisible Universe #12;The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under a cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. A light wave is a light wave

  8. Mid-Infrared Ethane Emission on Neptune and Uranus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. B. Hammel; D. K. Lynch; R. W. Russell; M. L. Sitko; L. S. Bernstein; T. Hewagama

    2006-02-24

    We report 8- to 13-micron spectral observations of Neptune and Uranus from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility spanning more than a decade. The spectroscopic data indicate a steady increase in Neptune's mean atmospheric 12-micron ethane emission from 1985 to 2003, followed by a slight decrease in 2004. The simplest explanation for the intensity variation is an increase in stratospheric effective temperature from 155 +/- 3 K in 1985 to 176 +/- 3 K in 2003 (an average rate of 1.2 K/year), and subsequent decrease to 165 +/- 3 K in 2004. We also detected variation of the overall spectral structure of the ethane band, specifically an apparent absorption structure in the central portion of the band; this structure arises from coarse spectral sampling coupled with a non-uniform response function within the detector elements. We also report a probable direct detection of ethane emission on Uranus. The deduced peak mole fraction is approximately an order of magnitude higher than previous upper limits for Uranus. The model fit suggests an effective temperature of 114 +/- 3 K for the globally-averaged stratosphere of Uranus, which is consistent with recent measurements indicative of seasonal variation.

  9. Design, manufacture, and calibration of infrared radiometric blackbody sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrd, D.A.; Michaud, F.D.; Bender, S.C.

    1996-04-01

    A Radiometric Calibration Station (RCS) is being assembled at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) which will allow for calibration of sensors with detector arrays having spectral capability from about 0.4-15 {mu}m. The configuration of the LANL RCS. Two blackbody sources have been designed to cover the spectral range from about 3-15 {mu}m, operating at temperatures ranging from about 180-350 K within a vacuum environment. The sources are designed to present a uniform spectral radiance over a large area to the sensor unit under test. The thermal uniformity requirement of the blackbody cavities has been one of the key factors of the design, requiring less than 50 mK variation over the entire blackbody surface to attain effective emissivity values of about 0.999. Once the two units are built and verified to the level of about 100 mK at LANL, they will be sent to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where at least a factor of two improvement will be calibrated into the blackbody control system. The physical size of these assemblies will require modifications of the existing NIST Low Background Infrared (LBIR) Facility. LANL has constructed a bolt-on addition to the LBIR facility that will allow calibration of our large aperture sources. Methodology for attaining the two blackbody sources at calibrated levels of performance equivalent to present state of the art will be explained in the following.

  10. Infrared Extraction Change for the NSLS-II Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blednykh,A.; Carr, L.; Coburn, D.; Krinsky, S.

    2009-05-04

    The short- and long-range wakepotentials have been studied for the design of the infrared (IR) extraction chamber with large full aperture: 67mm vertical and 134mm horizontal. The IR-chamber will be installed within a 2.6m long wide-gap bending magnet with 25m bend radius. Due to the large bend radius it is difficult to separate the light from the electron trajectory. The required parameters of the collected IR radiation at the extraction mirror are {approx}50mrad horizontal and {approx}25mrad vertical (full radiation opening angles). If the extraction mirror is seen by the beam, resonant modes are generated in the chamber. In this paper, we present the detailed calculated impedance for the design of the far-IR chamber, and show that placing the extraction mirror in the proper position eliminates the resonances. In this case, the impedance reduces to that of a simple tapered structure, which is acceptable in regard to its impact on the electron beam.

  11. Near-infrared Study of the Carina Nebula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchawala, Kaushar; Ojha, Devendra; Ghosh, Swarna Kanti; Nakajima, Yasushi; Tamura, Motohide; Baba, Daisuke; Sato, Shuji; Tsujimoto, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out near-infrared (NIR) imaging observations of the Carina Nebula for an area of ~400 sq. arcmin. including the star clusters Trumpler 14 (Tr 14) and Trumpler 16 (Tr 16). With 10 sigma limiting magnitudes of J ~ 18.5, H ~ 17.5 and K_s ~ 16.5, we identified 544 Class II and 11 Class I young star candidates. We find some 40 previously unknown very red sources with H-K_s > 2, most of which remain undetected at the J band. The red NIR sources are found to be concentrated to the south-east of Tr 16, along the `V' shaped dust lane, where the next generation of stars seems to be forming. In addition, we find indications of ongoing star formation near the three MSX point sources, G287.51-0.49, G287.47-0.54, and G287.63-0.72. A handful of red NIR sources are seen to populate around each of these MSX sources. Apart from this, we identified two hard Chandra X-ray sources near G287.47-0.54, one of which does not have an NIR counterpart and may be associated with a Class I/Class 0 object. The majority of t...

  12. The Phoenix Deep Survey: Optical and near infrared imaging catalogs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark Sullivan; Andrew Hopkins; Jose Afonso; Antonis Georgakakis; Ben Chan; Lawrence Cram; Bahram Mobasher; Cesario Almeida

    2004-11-19

    The Phoenix Deep Survey is a multi-wavelength galaxy survey based on deep 1.4 GHz radio imaging (Hopkins et al., 2003). The primary goal of this survey is to investigate the properties of star formation in galaxies and to trace the evolution in those properties to a redshift z=1, covering a significant fraction of the age of the Universe. By compiling a sample of star-forming galaxies based on selection at radio wavelengths we eliminate possible biases due to dust obscuration, a significant issue when selecting objects at optical and ultraviolet wavelengths. In this paper, we present the catalogs and results of deep optical (UBVRI) and near-infrared (Ks) imaging of the deepest region of the existing decimetric radio imaging. The observations and data-processing are summarised and the construction of the optical source catalogs described, together with the details of the identification of candidate optical counterparts to the radio catalogs. Based on our UBVRIKs imaging, photometric redshift estimates for the optical counterparts to the radio detections are explored.

  13. Facile preparation of sphere-like copper ferrite nanostructures and their enhanced visible-light-induced photocatalytic conversion of benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yu; Wu, Yanbo; Xu, Hongfeng; Fu, Jie; Li, Xinyong; Zhao, Qidong; Hou, Yang

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Spinel CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres were successfully synthesized via a facile method. • CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres showed high photocatalytic activity toward benzene. • Ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde were the intermediate products. - Abstract: Spinel copper ferrite nanospheres with diameters of about 116 nm were synthesized in high yield via a facile solvothermal route. The prepared nanospheres had cubic spinel structure and exhibited good size uniformity and regularity. The band-gap energy of CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres was calculated to be about 1.69 eV, indicating their potential visible-light-induced photocatalytic activity. The dramatically enhanced photocatalytic activity of the CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres was evaluated via the photocatalytic conversion of benzene under Xe lamp irradiation. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO{sub 2} was produced as the final product during the reaction process. This study provided new insight into the design and preparation of functional nanomaterials with sphere structure in high yield, and the as-grown architectures demonstrated an excellent ability to remove organic pollutants in the atmosphere.

  14. Fundamental Studies and Development of III-N Visible LEDs for High-Power Solid-State Lighting Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dupuis, Russell

    2012-02-29

    The goal of this program is to understand in a fundamental way the impact of strain, defects, polarization, and Stokes loss in relation to unique device structures upon the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and efficiency droop (ED) of III-nitride (III-N) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and to employ this understanding in the design and growth of high-efficiency LEDs capable of highly-reliable, high-current, high-power operation. This knowledge will be the basis for our advanced device epitaxial designs that lead to improved device performance. The primary approach we will employ is to exploit new scientific and engineering knowledge generated through the application of a set of unique advanced growth and characterization tools to develop new concepts in strain-, polarization-, and carrier dynamics-engineered and low-defect materials and device designs having reduced dislocations and improved carrier collection followed by efficient photon generation. We studied the effects of crystalline defect, polarizations, hole transport, electron-spillover, electron blocking layer, underlying layer below the multiplequantum- well active region, and developed high-efficiency and efficiency-droop-mitigated blue LEDs with a new LED epitaxial structures. We believe new LEDs developed in this program will make a breakthrough in the development of high-efficiency high-power visible III-N LEDs from violet to green spectral region.

  15. Band alignment in visible-light photo-active CoO/SrTiO{sub 3} (001) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Hosung; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2014-12-28

    Epitaxial oxide heterostructures are of fundamental interest in a number of problems ranging from oxide electronics to model catalysts. The epitaxial CoO/SrTiO{sub 3} (001) heterostructure on Si(001) has been recently studied as a model oxide catalyst for water splitting under visible light irradiation (Ngo et al., J. Appl. Phys. 114, 084901 (2013)). We use density functional theory to investigate the valence band offset at the CoO/SrTiO{sub 3} (001) interface. We examine the mechanism of charge transfer and dielectric screening at the interface and demonstrate that charge transfer is mediated by the metal-induced gap states in SrTiO{sub 3}, while the dielectric screening at the interface is largely governed by the ionic polarization of under-coordinated oxygen. Based on this finding, we argue that strain relaxation in CoO plays a critical role in determining the band offset. We find that the offsets of 1.36–1.10?eV, calculated in the Schottky-limit are in excellent agreement with the experimental value of 1.20?eV. In addition, we investigate the effect of the Hubbard correction, applied on the Co 3d states, on the dipole layer and potential shift at the interface.

  16. Characterization and visible light photocatalytic mechanism of size-controlled BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Jian; Guo, Renqing; Fang, Liang; Dong, Wen; Zheng, Fengang; Shen, Mingrong

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles showed the size-dependent photocatalytic properties, and the corresponding photocatalytic mechanism for the pollutant degradation was proposed. - Highlights: • Size-controlled BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles were prepared by sol–gel method. • The hydroxyl radicals were the main reactive species responsible for the pollutant degradation. • BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles showed the size-dependent photocatalytic properties. - Abstract: BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles with controlled particle size were synthesized via sol–gel method. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscope, Raman spectra, nitrogen adsorption technique and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra. Photocatalytic activity of BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles was further examined by monitoring the degradation of Rhodamine B dye in an aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. Through the calculation of band position and a number of diagnostic experiments, the photocatalytic mechanism of BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles was proposed in this study. It was found that the hydroxyl radicals originated from the photogenerated electrons were the main reactive species responsible for the pollutant degradation. Moreover, with the variations of annealing temperature and time, the average crystallite size, specific surface area and crystallinity of BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles could be changed, which thus affected the photocatalytic activity of the corresponding samples.

  17. Optically Visible Post-AGB Stars, Post-RGB Stars and Young Stellar Objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamath, Devika; Van Winckel, Hans

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out a search for optically visible post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). First, we selected candidates with a mid-IR excess and then obtained their optical spectra. We disentangled contaminants with unique spectra such as M-stars, C-stars, planetary nebulae, quasi-stellar objects and background galaxies. Subsequently, we performed a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the remaining candidates to estimate their stellar parameters such as effective temperature, surface gravity (log g), metallicity ([Fe/H]), reddening and their luminosities. This resulted in a sample of 35 likely post-AGB candidates with late-G to late-A spectral types, low log g, and [Fe/H] < -0.5. Furthermore, our study confirmed the existence of the dusty post-Red Giant Branch (post-RGB) stars, discovered previously in our SMC survey, by revealing 119 such objects in the LMC. These objects have mid-IR excesses and stellar parameters (Teff, log g, [Fe/H]) similar to those of post-A...

  18. Tuning the plasmon band number of aluminum nanorod within the ultraviolet-visible region by gold coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jian E-mail: nanoptzhao@163.com; Li, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Jun-Wu E-mail: nanoptzhao@163.com

    2014-11-15

    The localized surface plasmon (LSP) properties of Al nanorod with Au coating have been investigated by using the quasi-static calculation. Because of the anisotropic plasmon splitting and the plasmon coupling between the Al and Au surfaces, the band number of LSP in the Al-Au core-shell nanorod could be tuned from 2 to 4 continuously in the ultraviolet-visible region. Due to the non-spherical symmetry and the dielectric polarization-induced plasmon energy fading, the Au coating-dependent plasmon shift and split are further affected by the aspect ratio and the dielectric surrounding. When the aspect ratio or the surrounding dielectric constant has a small value, the band number of LSP could only be tuned from 2 to 3. However, the band number of LSP could only be tuned from 3 to 4 when the aspect ratio or the surrounding dielectric constant has a large value. This tunable band number of LSP in the Au-coated Al nanorod provides potential application for multichannel plasmonic nanosensors.

  19. Mid-Infrared Single-Photon Detection Using Superconducting Nanowires Integrated with Nano-Antennae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berggren, Karl K.

    We present some major challenges of mid-infrared superconducting nanowire single-photon detector technology and our device design with nano-antenna integration to address these challenges.

  20. Plasmonic Photothermal Heating of Intraperitoneal Tumors through the Use of an Implanted Near-Infrared Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bagley, Alexander F.

    Plasmonic nanomaterials including gold nanorods are effective agents for inducing heating in tumors. Because near-infrared (NIR) light has traditionally been delivered using extracorporeal sources, most applications of ...